WorldWideScience

Sample records for gross construction period

  1. Construction of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we construct the noncommutative Grosse-Wulkenhaar model on 2-dimensional Moyal plane with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  2. Constructive Renormalization of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we briefly report the recent work on the construction of the 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar model with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  3. Bounds on the tight-binding approximation for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a periodic potential

    CERN Document Server

    Pelinovsky, Dmitry

    2007-01-01

    We justify the validity of the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation for the tight-binding approximation in the context of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a periodic potential. Our construction of the periodic potential and the associated Wannier functions is based on the previous work, while our analysis involving energy estimates and Gronwall's inequality addresses time-dependent localized solutions on large but finite time intervals.

  4. Envelope Periodic Solutions to One-Dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii Equation in Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-Kuo; GAO Bin; FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Da

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, applying the dependent and independent variables transformations as well as the Jacobi elliptic function expansion method, the envelope periodic solutions to one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation in Bose-Einstein condensates are obtained.

  5. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  6. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142) for...

  7. Seasonal Forecasting of Agriculture Gross Domestic Production in Iran: Application of Periodic Autoregressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghahremanzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture as one of the major economic sectors of Iran, has an important role in Gross Domestic Production by providing about 14% of GDP. This study attempts to forecast the value of the agriculture GDP using Periodic Autoregressive model (PAR, as the new seasonal time series techniques. To address this aim, the quarterly data were collected from March 1988 to July 1989. The collected data was firstly analyzed using periodic unit root test Franses & Paap (2004. The analysis found non-periodic unit root in the seasonal data. Second, periodic seasonal behavior (Boswijk & Franses, 1996 was examined. The results showed that periodic autoregressive model fits agriculture GDP well. This makes an accurate forecast of agriculture GDP possible. Using the estimated model, the future value of quarter agricultural GDP from March 2011 to July 2012was forecasted. With consideration to the fair fit of this model with agricultural GDP, It is recommended to use periodic autoregressive model for the future studies.

  8. 46 CFR 308.402 - Insurance during vessel construction period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.402 Insurance during vessel construction period... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance during vessel construction period. 308.402... inclusion as part of the vessel becomes at risk at the shipyard of the builder to the date and time...

  9. 47 CFR 74.788 - Digital construction period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.788 Digital construction period. (a) Each original construction... the Commission. (c) Authority delegated. (1) Authority is delegated to the Chief, Media Bureau...

  10. Indexation of the Expenditure Budget during the LHC Construction Period

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This document contains information relating to price escalation of the LHC project and a proposal concerning a procedure for indexation for the period 2003 to the end of the construction period. The procedure would be reviewed as from 2007-2008, unless economic conditions affecting the LHC project change considerably before that date. The Finance Committee is invited to recommend the Council to approve the proposals set out in section 5 of this document, in connection with the expenditure part of the budget.

  11. Indexation of the Expenditure Budget during the LHC Construction Period

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This document contains information relating to price escalation of the LHC project and a proposal concerning a procedure for indexation for the period 2003 to the end of the construction period. The procedure would be reviewed as from 2007-2008, unless economic conditions affecting the LHC project change considerably before that date. This document is presented to the Finance Committee for discussion at its meeting of 6 November 2002. A final proposal will be presented to the Council and its Committees in December 2002 for approval.

  12. Hotspots of gross emissions from the land use sector: patterns, uncertainties, and leading emission sources for the period 2000-2005 in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Cuesta, Rosa Maria; Rufino, Mariana C.; Herold, Martin; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Rosenstock, Todd S.; Herrero, Mario; Ogle, Stephen; Li, Changsheng; Poulter, Benjamin; Verchot, Louis; Martius, Christopher; Stuiver, John; de Bruin, Sytze

    2016-07-01

    According to the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), emissions must be cut by 41-72 % below 2010 levels by 2050 for a likely chance of containing the global mean temperature increase to 2 °C. The AFOLU sector (Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use) contributes roughly a quarter ( ˜ 10-12 Pg CO2e yr-1) of the net anthropogenic GHG emissions mainly from deforestation, fire, wood harvesting, and agricultural emissions including croplands, paddy rice, and livestock. In spite of the importance of this sector, it is unclear where the regions with hotspots of AFOLU emissions are and how uncertain these emissions are. Here we present a novel, spatially comparable dataset containing annual mean estimates of gross AFOLU emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O), associated uncertainties, and leading emission sources, in a spatially disaggregated manner (0.5°) for the tropics for the period 2000-2005. Our data highlight the following: (i) the existence of AFOLU emissions hotspots on all continents, with particular importance of evergreen rainforest deforestation in Central and South America, fire in dry forests in Africa, and both peatland emissions and agriculture in Asia; (ii) a predominant contribution of forests and CO2 to the total AFOLU emissions (69 %) and to their uncertainties (98 %); (iii) higher gross fluxes from forests, which coincide with higher uncertainties, making agricultural hotspots appealing for effective mitigation action; and (iv) a lower contribution of non-CO2 agricultural emissions to the total gross emissions (ca. 25 %), with livestock (15.5 %) and rice (7 %) leading the emissions. Gross AFOLU tropical emissions of 8.0 (5.5-12.2) were in the range of other databases (8.4 and 8.0 Pg CO2e yr-1 in FAOSTAT and the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) respectively), but we offer a spatially detailed benchmark for monitoring progress in reducing emissions from the land sector in the tropics. The location of

  13. LULA VS ALCKMIN: DISCURSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS OF THE VEJA PERIODIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicília de Sousa Frazão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is carried out an analysis of the cover of the 1980 edition of the magazine Veja, published on November 01, 2006, in the election campaign of 2006 – second round, focusing on the image of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Geraldo Alckmin. Try to understand the imagetic and verbal speech expressed in covers and its constraints on social and discursive formation, through the investigations of the mechanisms of construction of the iconic and verbal text and reveal the effects of meaning constructed in covers. Based on a theoretical support, to seek to understand of how the effect depends on the codes produced by a culture and how they are mobilized by the media to construct or deconstruct a politician´s image facing society

  14. Construction of Large Period Symplectic Maps by Interpolative Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnock, Robert; Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC; Ellison, James A.; /New Mexico U.

    2009-12-17

    The goal is to construct a symplectic evolution map for a large section of an accelerator, say a full turn of a large ring or a long wiggler. We start with an accurate tracking algorithm for single particles, which is allowed to be slightly non-symplectic. By tracking many particles for a distance S one acquires sufficient data to construct the mixed-variable generator of a symplectic map for evolution over S, given in terms of interpolatory functions. Two ways to find the generator are considered: (1) Find its gradient from tracking data, then the generator itself as a line integral. (2) Compute the action integral on many orbits. A test of method (1) has been made in a difficult example: a full turn map for an electron ring with strong nonlinearity near the dynamic aperture. The method succeeds at fairly large amplitudes, but there are technical difficulties near the dynamic aperture due to oddly shaped interpolation domains. For a generally applicable algorithm we propose method (2), realized with meshless interpolation methods.

  15. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  16. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  17. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  18. Periodization and Its Discontents: The Social Construction of Crime and Criminality in Modern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Buffington, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of four phases in the social construction of crime and criminality in Mexico since the Independence era. It argues that these phases follow a pattern in which a criminal justice paradigm is gradually consolidated and eventually superseded. It then examines some of the problems with a paradigm-driven periodization.

  19. Experimental study on stability of sunken large diameter cylindrical structure on sandy seabed during construction period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦崇仁; 庞红犁; 李世森; 张伟

    2002-01-01

    A systematic experimental research work is done for the stability of sunken large diameter cylinder during construction period. It is the first research that gives the method for assessing the stability of the larger diameter cylindrical structure, a set of values is derived also for the critical stability indices of the large diameter cylinder sunken to the sandy seabed.

  20. Between destiny and reality: Prophetic and messianic ideological constructions in Serbian literature during the Ottoman period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziadul Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with prophetic and messianic ideological constructions found in Serbian literature of the Ottoman period. Prophetic accounts developed in two connected directions among the Serbs in this period. On the one hand, old Byzantine-Slavonic prophetic narratives (for example the Revelation of Pseudo-Methodius, the apocryphal Visions of Daniel, the Oracles of Leo the Wise were copied and actualized according to the politico- historical context. On the other, new anti-Ottoman and anti-Islamic prophetic accounts were created. Serbian and South-Slavonic prophetic notions were mostly concentrated on the impending doom of the Ottoman Empire and the legendary emperor of the “last times”, who was supposed to vanquish the Ottomans. Moreover, the Serbs tried to understand the new historical context of the Ottoman period and perceive it through the theological prism. Therefore they started creating a suitable messianic perspective of their destiny with the help of old, well-known ideas from the Nemanjić period (for example the idea of “new Israel”. Both prophetic and messianic ideological constructions seemed to be consoling ideas, which were created to highlight the memory of the magnificent past in the dramatic period of the Ottoman conquest and domination.

  1. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  2. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  3. Prospective survey of indoor fungal contamination in hospital during a period of building construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautour, M; Sixt, N; Dalle, F; L'ollivier, C; Calinon, C; Fourquenet, V; Thibaut, C; Jury, H; Lafon, I; Aho, S; Couillault, G; Vagner, O; Cuisenier, B; Besancenot, J-P; Caillot, D; Bonnin, A

    2007-12-01

    An 18-month survey of indoor fungal contamination was conducted in one haematology unit during a period of construction work. Air was sampled with a portable Air System Impactor and surfaces with contact Sabouraud plates. During this survey the mean concentration of viable fungi in air was 4.2 cfu/m(3) and that for surfaces was 1.7 cfu/plate. At the beginning of construction work, there were increases in airborne fungal spores (from 3.0 to 9.8 cfu/m(3)) in the unit, but concentrations did not exceed 10 cfu/m(3) during the 18-month period. The most frequently recovered airborne fungi were Penicillium spp. (27-38%), Aspergillus spp. (25%) and Bjerkandera adusta, a basidiomycete identified with molecular tools (7-12%). Blastomycetes accounted for more than 50% of the fungal flora on surfaces. Investigating the impact of a new air-treatment system (mobile Plasmair units), there were significant reductions in fungal contamination for the Plasmer -treated rooms, and in these rooms we observed the same level of fungal load whether construction work was in progress or not.

  4. EVALUATION OF PRODUCTION IN SEASONALITY PERIODS: ANALYSIS OF THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos William Kaspchak Machado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work has as an objective to evaluate the impacts of production seasonality in seasonality periods in the Brazilian construction industry. The adopted methodology was based on the qualitative and quantitative approaches of the aspects inherent to the seasonality factors in the construction industry and its possible causes. Besides that, literature data were collected in year report books and devices provided by institutions of the sector. The results demonstrated the importance of production management mechanisms to optimize the use of productive factors through cost analysis, which are fundamental to understand the operational flux of resources used in the operational media. Obtaining this information, connected to market indicators helped in the decision making process related to the development of prospective scenarios which will give support to the decision making strategy aiming to stabilize the production levels.

  5. Time-periodic solutions of massive scalar fields in AdS background: perturbative constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Nakwoo

    2014-01-01

    We consider scalar fields which are coupled to Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant, and construct periodic solutions perturbatively. In particular, we study tachyonic scalar fields whose mass is at or above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound in four, five, and seven spacetime dimensions. The critical amplitude of the leading order perturbation, for which the perturbative expansion breaks down, increases as we consider less massive fields. We present various examples including a model with a self-interacting scalar field which is derived from a consistent truncation of IIB supergravity.

  6. Institutional Innovation and systematic construction of teacher education in the transformational period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Anbang

    2006-01-01

    Teacher education in China has entered an important period of transformation which requires institutional innovation and systematic construction.Teacher education institutions should be gradually reshaped to meet the needs of elementary and secondary schools that are run on an autonomous basis.A system of teaching qualification certification and teacher education institution accreditation should be established.Further,a system of curriculum appraisal of teacher education as well as the performance assessment of teacher education institutions should also be set up.In the meantime,making corresponding policies is necessary to accommodate the reform and development of teacher education.

  7. Three-dimensional mathematical model of river bed erosion by float open caisson in construction period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方红卫

    1995-01-01

    The basic governing equations and boundary conditions are deduced in general curve coordination system from natural variable-density turbulence which is two-phase flow with sediment. A new 27-point three-dimensional finite analytic discretization scheme and competent velocity formula for non-uniform bed material are applied to the calculation of the float open caisson in construction period. It is shown that good accuracy and adaptation are obtained in the calculation of two-phase flow with sediment and variable-density as well as complex boundary.

  8. Time-periodic solutions of massive scalar fields in dynamical AdS background: Perturbative constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nakwoo, E-mail: nkim@khu.ac.kr

    2015-03-06

    We consider scalar fields which are coupled to Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant, and construct periodic solutions perturbatively. In particular, we study tachyonic scalar fields whose mass is at or above the Breitenlohner–Freedman bound in four, five, and seven spacetime dimensions. The critical amplitude of the leading order perturbation, for which the perturbative expansion breaks down, increases as we consider less massive fields. We present various examples including a model with a self-interacting scalar field which is derived from a consistent truncation of IIB supergravity.

  9. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  10. Constructive feedback for the growth of laser-induced periodic surface structures

    CERN Document Server

    Déziel, Jean-Luc; Gagnon, Denis; Dubé, Louis J; Messaddeq, Sandra H; Messaddeq, Younès

    2015-01-01

    We study the formation and growth of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. We use a recently proposed inter-pulse feedback method to account for the evolution of the surface morphology between each laser pulse sent to the surface of the processed material. This method has been used with an ablation-like mechanism, by removing material exposed to a light intensity higher than a given threshold. We propose an inverse mechanism, an expansion-like mechanism, able to grow structures that the ablation-like process cannot. This allows us to introduce the notions of constructive and destructive feedback and explains a strong contradiction between the standard Sipe-Drude theory and the experimental observations, i. e. the formation on metals of structures usually linked to wide band gap dielectrics.

  11. Final construction of the C.R.E.O.L. 8 millimeter period hybrid undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesch, P.; Gallagher, J.; Elias, L. [Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The construction of an 8 millimeter period hybrid undulator for the C.R.E.O.L. high power far-infared free electron laser has just been completed. This FEL is expected to come on-line in the fall of 1995 and produce close to a kilowatt of continuous power at wavelengths of 225 - 800 microns. The undulator has extremely precise mechanical tolerances and high field uniformity allowing for high electron beam recovery rates. Almost complete beam recovery is required for DC operation at high currents. A novel method for measuring the magnetic properties of individual magnets and sorting the magnets to reduce magnetic field errors will be reported. The peak field and phase errors of the undulator without the pole pieces are reduced through a magnet ordering procedure. These errors are further reduced by inserting and tuning adjustable pole pieces. The reduction of field errors through these two techniques will be presented. An analysis of the final undulator errors and the results of measurements of the mechanical tolerances will be presented.

  12. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  13. The construction of periodic unfolding operators on some compact Riemannian manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobberschütz, Sören; Böhm, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The notion of periodic unfolding has become a standard tool in the theory of periodic homogenization. However, all the results obtained so far are only applicable to the "flat" Euclidean space R n. In this paper, we present a generalization of the method of periodic unfolding applicable to struct...

  14. [Research on the hospital construction and structure in Daehan empire and colonial modern period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong Gwan; Ryu, Chang Ug; Ko, Sang Kyun; Jung, Jae Kook; Moon, Jong Youn; Park, Yoon Hyung

    2011-12-31

    It was the late Chosun Dynasty and Daehan Empire era that Western Medicine has firstly been introduced to Korea, previously operating on a basis of Korean traditional medicine. Western Medicine has been introduced by American missionary and Japanese Imperialism. An introduction of Western Medicine made it feasible to proceed new type medical care including operation, leading to require a new form of medical facilities. In the beginning, new facilities were constructed by Japanese Imperialism. Other hand many of facilities including Severance Hospital were established by missionaries. First of all, Daehan Empire established and managed a modern type of medical facility named "Jejoongwon" in 1885 as a government institution hospital. The Red Cross Hospital built in 1889. Afterwards, Jejoongwon and the Red Cross Hospital were taken over to missionary hospital and Japanese Imperialism, respectively. Japanese Imperialists firstly have protected their nationals residing in Chosun but have proceeded care a few Chosun people to exploit medical treatment as a mean to advertise superiority of the Empire of Japan. The facility that has firstly been established and managed was Jeseang Hospital in Busan in 1877, leading to establish in Wonju, Wonsan, and Mokpo. Afterwards, Japan has organized "Donginhoi" as a civil invasion organization, leading for "Donginhoi" to established "Dongin Hospital" in Pyeongyang, Daegu, and Seoul. Since 1909, governmental leading medical facility named Jahye Hospital was established according to an imperial order, leading to establish 32 hospitals all over the nation. American missionaries have established and managed 28 hospitals started from Severance Hospital built in 1904. However, Chosun doctors started to having educated and opening up their own hospital since 1920, leading for many of medical facilities to be established, but most of them have taken different roles followed by 6.25 War and economic development period. However, some of them

  15. Construction training process of highly skilled players in mini-football for competition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasiuk I.I.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed the structure and content of the competition period in mini-football. It was determined that the structure of the competition period consists of 4 competitive mesocycles. In each mesocycle includes various types of micro-cycles (competitive, cross-game and rehabilitation. Reflects the ratio of specific and non-specific (general preparations means training work. So in the competitive period for competitive mesocycles general preparations exercises ranged from 38.3 to 42.4%, special-preparation - from 29.9 to 32.6%, competitive - from 20.9 to 23.3%. The intensity of the training load in intergame microcycles less than competitive. This corresponds to the strategy of building the training process in the competitive period. During the competition period the ratio of the training load was: aerobic focus - 49.2%, mixed - 46.1%, anaerobic alactate - 2.4%, anaerobic glycolytic - 2.3%. Defines the scope and focus of the training load: longer the aerobic work, then - mixed, anaerobic- alactate and anaerobic-glycolytic. The comparative characteristics of the intensity of the training load in competitive and intergame microcycles.

  16. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  17. A LARGE CLASS OF BINARY ZCZ SEQUENCE FAMILIES CONSTRUCTED BY PERIOD DOUBLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jinsong; Qi Wenfeng

    2007-01-01

    In an Approximately Synchronized Code Division Multiple Access(AS-CDMA)communication svstem,a family with large number of Zero Correlation Zone(ZCZ)sequences is desired,which can satisfy the rapid increase of users.This paper presents a method to generate a(2L,2M,Z'cz)-ZCZ sequence family from an original(L,M,Zcz)-ZCZ sequence family,where Z'cz=Zcz if Zcz is even and Z'cz=Zcz-1 if Zcz is odd.This method can also recursively act on a ZCZ sequence family to construct a series of ZCZ sequence families with large sequence nutuber and zero correlation zone length identical to or one less than that of original ZCZ sequences.

  18. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  19. Idea and goals of environmental protection and ecological construction in the 11th five-year plan period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yuanqing; Su Yang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the executive situation of the 10th Five- Year Plan in the field of environmental protection and ecological construction is reviewed, and the characteristics of economic growth and its environmental impact on the 11 th Five- Year Plan period is forecasted and analyzed. A principal idea of environmental protection and ecological construction is put forward for the 11 th Five-Year Plan period: strengthen the point treatment in key areas and set the main targets based on the idea. The relating countermeasures in national level are proposed as follows: set up appropriate ideas for official achievements by launching resources and environmental cost accounting; adjust the industrial structure actively by industrial policies and strenuous work; develop circular economy, change the mode of environmental protection from end treatment to headstream and process control; strengthen the market mechanism in the process of pollution treatment, set up the system of" who treats who benefits"; perfect interrelated laws and standards, strengthen the ability of environmental management; lay extra emphasis on two key targets: water pollution treatment in key river basins and management of the reserves; and combine the ecological construction and poverty alleviation in higher level.

  20. 3D Bioprinting of Carboxymethylated-Periodate Oxidized Nanocellulose Constructs for Wound Dressing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Adam; Powell, Lydia C; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Gethin, David T; Syverud, Kristin; Hill, Katja E; Thomas, David W

    2015-01-01

    Nanocellulose has a variety of advantages, which make the material most suitable for use in biomedical devices such as wound dressings. The material is strong, allows for production of transparent films, provides a moist wound healing environment, and can form elastic gels with bioresponsive characteristics. In this study, we explore the application of nanocellulose as a bioink for modifying film surfaces by a bioprinting process. Two different nanocelluloses were used, prepared with TEMPO mediated oxidation and a combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation. The combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation produced a homogeneous material with short nanofibrils, having widths <20 nm and lengths <200 nm. The small dimensions of the nanofibrils reduced the viscosity of the nanocellulose, thus yielding a material with good rheological properties for use as a bioink. The nanocellulose bioink was thus used for printing 3D porous structures, which is exemplified in this study. We also demonstrated that both nanocelluloses did not support bacterial growth, which is an interesting property of these novel materials.

  1. 3D Bioprinting of Carboxymethylated-Periodate Oxidized Nanocellulose Constructs for Wound Dressing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Rees

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose has a variety of advantages, which make the material most suitable for use in biomedical devices such as wound dressings. The material is strong, allows for production of transparent films, provides a moist wound healing environment, and can form elastic gels with bioresponsive characteristics. In this study, we explore the application of nanocellulose as a bioink for modifying film surfaces by a bioprinting process. Two different nanocelluloses were used, prepared with TEMPO mediated oxidation and a combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation. The combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation produced a homogeneous material with short nanofibrils, having widths <20 nm and lengths <200 nm. The small dimensions of the nanofibrils reduced the viscosity of the nanocellulose, thus yielding a material with good rheological properties for use as a bioink. The nanocellulose bioink was thus used for printing 3D porous structures, which is exemplified in this study. We also demonstrated that both nanocelluloses did not support bacterial growth, which is an interesting property of these novel materials.

  2. Prediction of Soil Erosion on Different Underlaying Surface in Construction Period of Xichang to Panzhihua Expressway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tingfang; GUI Peng; CHEN Xingchang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior of soil erosion on the slope of the different underlaying surface during construction, the experiment with natural rainfall on Xichang-Panzhihua highway was conducted, to quantify the runoff and soil loss. The results show that: ①the main type of soil erosion is gully erosion, the amount of soil erosion caused by gully erosion is higher than that by surface erosion. ②The principal factor causing soil erosion on the slope of the embankment is individual amount of precipitation, the width of the embankment and rain intensity. ③ The principal factor causing soil erosion on the cutting slope is individual amount of precipitation, the width of the cutting slope and rain intensity. ④ The principal factor causing soil erosion on the slope of the dumped soil area is individual amount of precipitation, the width of the flat roof and rain intensity. There are well linear relationships between the amount of soil erosion and the principal factor, and their correlation coefficient are 0.935 7-0.999 8.

  3. Construction and properties of a topological index for periodically driven time-reversal invariant 2D crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carpentier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present mathematical details of the construction of a topological invariant for periodically driven two-dimensional lattice systems with time-reversal symmetry and quasienergy gaps, which was proposed recently by some of us. The invariant is represented by a gap-dependent Z2-valued index that is simply related to the Kane–Mele invariants of quasienergy bands but contains an extra information. As a byproduct, we prove new expressions for the two-dimensional Kane–Mele invariant relating the latter to Wess–Zumino amplitudes and the boundary gauge anomaly.

  4. 100 nm period gratings produced by lithographically induced self-construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xinya; Wu, Lin; Deshpande, Paru; Yu, Zhaoning; Wu, Wei; Ge, Haixiong; Chou, Stephen Y.

    2003-07-01

    In this paper we report a technique that allows a fast replication of sub-100 nm scale patterns in a thin polymer film on a substrate from a patterned mask. Using the new pattern transfer technique, we fabricated 100 nm period polymer gratings with a 50 nm linewidth above a Si substrate as an example to demonstrate its capability of producing sub-100 nm nanostructures with direct industrial applications. In our technique, a mask with protruding patterns is used to induce similar pattern formation in the molten polymer film through an electrohydrodynamic instability process. A solid positive replica of the mask is obtained by cooling the polymer below its glass transition temperature. The mask is removed afterwards for the next fabrication procedure. The polymer structures formed can be used either directly as functional devices or as etching masks for further lithography processes. The mechanism that leads to the instability and subsequent pattern formation in the polymer layer is explained. Several important physical parameters that control the whole instability process are also identified. Our theory and experiments show that the pattern transfer technique developed here is well suited for the fabrication of sub-100 nm surface patterns in thin polymer films.

  5. Penalty model for delay of bidding section construction period in South-to-North Water Diversion Eastern Route Project from perspective of programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-chun FENG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the multi-project and program management theory, this paper analyzes the program generation principle and establishes a program based on progress goals. On the basis of the present situation of calculation of penalty for delay of the bidding section construction period with the critical path method, we studied the effects of contractor-induced delay of the bidding section construction period in detail, including the effects on the construction period of the bidding section itself, the earliest start times of the next bidding section and other subsequent bidding sections, and the construction period of the program, and then constructed a penalty model for delay of the bidding section construction period from the perspective of programs. Using the penalty model, we conducted a practical analysis of penalty for delay of the construction period of the Baoying station program in the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. The model can help determine the amount of penalty for delay of the construction period in bidding sections scientifically and reasonably.

  6. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  7. Construction of rational solutions of the real modified Korteweg-de Vries equation from its periodic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Qiuxia; Wang, Lihong; Mihalache, Dumitru; Porsezian, Kuppuswamy; He, Jingsong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we consider the real modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation and construct a special kind of breather solution, which can be obtained by taking the limit λj → λ1 of the Lax pair eigenvalues used in the n-fold Darboux transformation that generates the order-n periodic solution from a constant seed solution. Further, this special kind of breather solution of order n can be used to generate the order-n rational solution by taking the limit λ1 → λ0, where λ0 is a special eigenvalue associated with the eigenfunction ϕ of the Lax pair of the mKdV equation. This eigenvalue λ0, for which ϕ(λ0)=0, corresponds to the limit of infinite period of the periodic solution. Our analytical and numerical results show the effective mechanism of generation of higher-order rational solutions of the mKdV equation from the double eigenvalue degeneration process of multi-periodic solutions.

  8. Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts

  9. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Revised Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at non-zero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of baryonic matter in the Gross-Neveu model is an Overhauser type instability with gap formation at the Fermi surface.

  11. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  12. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  13. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  14. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  15. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  16. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  17. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  18. The Impact of Investments and Gross Value Added upon Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa APARASCHIVEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to capture the impact of investments and gross value added, but also the impact of the employment on the average wage. The analysis refers to the period 1998- 2008 and we are using data on the activities of the Romanian economy. The results of this study confirm the negative influence of the employment, being consistent with the theory. Also, the impact of investments and that of gross value added came out to be positive and significant.

  19. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  20. On the construction of Tesla transformers. Period of oscillation and self-inductance of the coil. (Zur construction von Teslatransformatoren. Schwingungsdauer und Selbstinduction von Drahtspulen)

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, David W

    2016-01-01

    English Translation of Paul Drude's 1902 investigation into the factors affecting the self-resonance of single-layer solenoid coils. The ratio of the self-resonant half-wavelength to the conductor length is is found to be principally dependent on the height-to diameter ratio of the coil and the dielectric constants of any insulating materials involved in the construction.

  1. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  2. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  3. Aluminum Alloy Conductors to Be Widely Applied in Power Grid Construction in the 12th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>2011 is the first year of the 12th Five-Year Plan, but electric power supply has become a bottleneck of China’s economic development. Therefore, it is urgent to carry out power grid construction. From the beginning of 2011 till now, China has made a huge investment to build state-level smart power grid, and new aluminum alloy transmission conductors or smart power grid will play an active role in the construction boom.

  4. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  5. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  6. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  7. Silent period to transcranial magnetic stimulation: construction and properties of stimulus-response curves in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiskidis, V K; Papagiannopoulos, S; Sotirakoglou, K; Kazis, D A; Kazis, A; Mills, K R

    2005-05-01

    Silent period (SP) is widely used in transcranial magnetic stimulation studies. Methodologically, SP is usually elicited at stimulus intensities corresponding to a certain percentage of corticomotor threshold. Because this approach might lead to factitious SP changes, the present study was designed to develop, in a stepwise manner, a method for investigating SP independently of corticomotor threshold. First, stimulus-response (S-R) curves of SP against stimulus intensity (SI) were constructed and quantitatively described in healthy volunteers. Second, various methodological issues such as the optimum model for describing the relationship between SP duration and SI and the importance of the type of stimulating coil were addressed. Finally, the proposed method and a commonly used method (eliciting SPs at 130% MT SI) were directly compared for a group of epileptic patients for whom administration of oxcarbazepine resulted in significant corticomotor threshold elevation. Twenty-one subjects (eleven females, median age, 38 years) were studied. SPs were obtained with a figure-of-eight coil using a standardized procedure (recording, FDI). Pilot experiments indicated that at least four trials were required, at each intensity level, to estimate the mean SP duration within 10% of the true mean. Therefore, SPs were determined from the average of four trials with 5% increments from 5 to 100% maximum SI. In a second set of experiments, SPs were obtained for fifteen subjects using a circular coil. In a third set of experiments, eight epileptic patients were studied before and after administration of oxcarbazepine (mean dose 1553 mg, range 900-1800 mg). The S-R curves were fitted to a Boltzman function and to first-order to fourth-order polynomial and sigmoid functions. The Boltzman function described the data accurately (R2=0.947-0.990). In addition, direct comparison of the six models with an F-test proved the superiority of the first. The best-fit parameters of the reference

  8. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  9. Loss of plant biodiversity over a seven-year period in two constructed wetlands in Central New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Miranda A; Fickbohm, Scott; Zhu, Weixing

    2013-05-01

    Since wetland construction projects are becoming more commonplace, meaningful follow-up studies are needed to evaluate how these systems change over time. To that end, the objective of our study was to examine the temporal changes in plant community composition and water chemistry in two constructed wetlands. We investigated two wetland sites that were constructed in 2003 in northern Otsego County, NY, a county that is largely dominated by agriculture. Site 1 was previously an active cow pasture and site 2 was previously a wet meadow surrounded by agricultural fields. No active plant introduction was made during the construction; however, both sites were located in areas with many remnant wetlands and were connected to through-flowing streams. In 2004 (Year 1) and 2010 (Year 7), the plant community composition and nitrogen retention were assessed. We found that both sites experienced site-wide declines in plant species richness, including the loss of upland and facultative upland species and the unanticipated loss of facultative wetland and some obligate species. We propose that high water levels, which, at their maximum depth were >1.5 m deeper than in Year 1, maintained by landowners in the years after the initial survey, may have been responsible for the unexpected loss of wetland species. We also found that site 1 exhibited considerable nitrogen retention in both Year 1 and Year 7; however, N concentrations were low at site 2 in both years.

  10. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  11. A Sample of Compulsory Work i n t he Last Periods of Ottoman Empire: Compulsory Work in Road Construction (1861 - 1908

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah ÇETİN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, several coun tries made it compulsory for their citizens to do some kind of public services. It’s also possible to see these kind of samples in Ottoman Empire. Compulsory works are generally encountered in agriculture, mining, construction works and military industry. Among these, the first sample of compulsory work in road construction category is seen in legislative regulation in 1861. According to this regulation, all the men who are between 18 - 60 and who don’t have any injuries or illnesses are obliged to work in ro ad construction for 20 days in a year. However, some are exempt from compulsory road construction works such as public officers, imams, teachers, priests and rabbis. Besides, due to a change made in 1890, an exemption procedure in return to pecuniary cons ideration is brought as alternative to compulsory work in road construction. Ones who are obliged, either work for 4 days a year or pay 12 kurus as tax to be exempted. Finally, it can be seen in “Umûr - i Nâfia Regulation” dated 1908 that the importance of pecuniary consideration surpasses physically compulsory work. In this study, it is aimed to put forward a sample of compulsory work implementations by examining regulations about compulsory works in road construction during the last periods of Ottoman Emp ire.

  12. Analytical and numerical construction of vertical periodic orbits about triangular libration points based on polynomial expansion relations among directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ying-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Zhai, Guan-Qiao; Zhang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Innovated by the nonlinear modes concept in the vibrational dynamics, the vertical periodic orbits around the triangular libration points are revisited for the Circular Restricted Three-body Problem. The ζ -component motion is treated as the dominant motion and the ξ and η -component motions are treated as the slave motions. The slave motions are in nature related to the dominant motion through the approximate nonlinear polynomial expansions with respect to the ζ -position and ζ -velocity during the one of the periodic orbital motions. By employing the relations among the three directions, the three-dimensional system can be transferred into one-dimensional problem. Then the approximate three-dimensional vertical periodic solution can be analytically obtained by solving the dominant motion only on ζ -direction. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, an accuracy study was carried out to validate the polynomial expansion (PE) method. As one of the applications, the invariant nonlinear relations in polynomial expansion form are used as constraints to obtain numerical solutions by differential correction. The nonlinear relations among the directions provide an alternative point of view to explore the overall dynamics of periodic orbits around libration points with general rules.

  13. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  14. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  15. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  16. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  17. College Teachers’ Construction in New Period%新时期高校师资队伍建设初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽

    2012-01-01

    The university is the cradle of talent training and the source of knowledge innovation, and it's also the base of secience and culture's development. Having a rational structure, excellent quality and rigorous scholarship's teaching staff, and a lot of good teaching backbone and academic backbone is the foundation of the school's survival and development. And the quality of personnel training, in the final analysis depends on the quality of the "people gathering", namely teacher team's construction condition. Therefore, teacher team's construction is the key of the development of the college.%高校是人才培养的摇篮,是知识创新的源泉,也是科技和文化发展的基地.拥有一支结构合理、素质优良、严谨治学的师资队伍,有一批优秀的教学骨干和学术骨干,是高校生存和发展的基础.而人才培养的质量,归根结底取决于“人才汇聚”的质量,即师资队伍建设的状况.因此,师资队伍建设是高校发展的重中之重.

  18. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2 π , and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  19. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  20. 恒山隧道施工涌水量计算及分析%Calculating and Analyzing Hengshan Tunnel's Water Inflow Quantity in Construction Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军伟

    2011-01-01

    It is a difficult problem continuously at home and abroad to accurately predict tunnel's water inflow quantity in construction period.There is no mature metod up to now.According to the topographical and geological conditions along the line of Hengshan tunnel,the sectionalized geological assessments of tunnel are carried out,and using different methods,the tunnel's water inflow quantitys in construction period are calculated and analyzed.These computed results provide geological basis for engineering design and construction of tunnel.%准确预测隧道施工涌水量一直是国内外隧道建设的难点,目前尚无成熟的方法。文中根据恒山隧道沿线的地形和地质条件,对其进行了分段评价,并采用不同方法对隧道施工涌水量进行了计算分析,为隧洞设计及施工提供了地质依据。

  1. Construction and Skilled Trades (CAST) Test Preparation, Final Report for period 10/1/2016 - 03/31/2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Charles [CW Consulting Group LLC, Towson, MD (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Within the energy and utilities sectors, the most significant barrier for consideration and submittal of diverse applicants for skilled labor opportunities is their inability to successfully pass the industry’s Construction And Skilled Trades (CAST) examination. The exam is collectively accepted as the benchmark for prospective candidates and assess if they have the baseline skills and knowledge to apply for skilled positions within those industries. It is an exam that was created by the Edison Electric Institute. Students were taught for a full 40-hr week M-F. We conducted one class in each of the following locations: Philadelphia, Chicago and Washington, DC. The students learned and practiced curriculum prepared by the utility industry for increased success for the examination. They were also taught how to successfully navigate the final barrier of employment opportunity: behavior-based interviewing. They were then directed to the website in order to apply for the positions they desired, and then scheduled to take the exam. We were targeting at least 70% of those who sit for the exam to pass the first time. If they were unsuccessful, candidates could re-test within 3 months. We then sent their resumes directly to the hiring recruiters and managers so that they received prime consideration. Our target number of applicants who were successful in being invited for interviews was 15 candidates.

  2. Research.on Information Construction of Personnel Files in the New Period%新时期人事档案管理信息化建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔娜

    2011-01-01

    人事档案是经济社会发展的重要基础性战略资源,加强人事档案信息化建设是新时期社会发展的要求,是人力资源管理所面临的一项长期建设任务,储备人才和管理人才,是人事管理现代化的重要内容.%The personnel files are important basic strategic resources of economic and social development. Strengthening information construction of personnel files is not only the demand of social development in the new period, also a long-term construction tasks that human resource management faces. The important contents of modern personnel management are the reserve and management of talents.

  3. Abnormal arrangement of a collagen/apatite extracellular matrix orthogonal to osteoblast alignment is constructed by a nanoscale periodic surface structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugaki, Aira; Aramoto, Gento; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Sawada, Hiroshi; Hata, Satoshi; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Morphological and directional alteration of cells is essential for structurally appropriate construction of tissues and organs. In particular, osteoblast alignment is crucial for the realization of anisotropic bone tissue microstructure. In this article, the orientation of a collagen/apatite extracellular matrix (ECM) was established by controlling osteoblast alignment using a surface geometry with nanometer-sized periodicity induced by laser ablation. Laser irradiation induced self-organized periodic structures (laser-induced periodic surface structures; LIPSS) with a spatial period equal to the wavelength of the incident laser on the surface of biomedical alloys of Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo. Osteoblast orientation was successfully induced parallel to the grating structure. Notably, both the fibrous orientation of the secreted collagen matrix and the c-axis of the produced apatite crystals were orientated orthogonal to the cell direction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that bone tissue anisotropy is controllable, including the characteristic organization of a collagen/apatite composite orthogonal to the osteoblast orientation, by controlling the cell alignment using periodic surface geometry.

  4. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  5. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  6. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  7. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  8. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Deleplanque, M A; Pashkevich, V V; Chu, S Y; Unzhakova, A

    2004-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effects and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  9. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ika Prastyadewi; Agus Suman; Devanto Shasta Pratomo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and ...

  10. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-10-07

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  11. 论新媒体时代少儿期刊品牌的建设%On the Construction of Children's Periodical Brands in the New Media Era/

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超

    2015-01-01

    在深化文化体制改革,加强社会主义核心价值体系建设的社会背景下,少儿期刊逐渐兀显其价值,受到越来越多人的重视."少儿期刊"看似简单,然而要想创建精品并非易事."深入浅出"是行文上的需要;"吸引眼球"是版式上的要求;"新鲜活泼"是素材的首要标准.文章试在内容、定位、设计等方面阐述对少儿期刊品牌建设的理解,拟为繁荣少儿出版事业献绵薄之力.%Under the background of the deepening of cultural system reform and the strengthening of core socialist values sys-tem construction, the value of children's periodicals has been gradually highlighted and attached to more and more importance."Children's periodicals"seem simple, but it is difficult to create excellent ones. "Explaining profound theories in simple lan-guage" is a textual need; "attracting children's attention" is the need of page layout;"novelty and vividness"is the top standard for materials. This paper attempts to elaborate the understanding of the construction of children's periodical brands from content, orientation and design, hoping to make a contribution to the pros-perity of publishing for children.

  12. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  13. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  14. Gross changes in reconstructions of historic land cover/use for Europe between 1900 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Herold, Martin; Verburg, Peter H; Clevers, Jan G P W; Eberle, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Historic land-cover/use change is important for studies on climate change, soil carbon, and biodiversity assessments. Available reconstructions focus on the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). This leads to a serious underestimation of land-cover/use dynamics with impacts on the biogeochemical and environmental assessments based on these reconstructions. In this study, we quantified to what extent land-cover/use reconstructions underestimate land-cover/use changes in Europe for the 1900-2010 period by accounting for net changes only. We empirically analyzed available historic land-change data, quantified their uncertainty, corrected for spatial-temporal effects and identified underlying processes causing differences between gross and net changes. Gross changes varied for different land classes (largest for forest and grassland) and led to two to four times the amount of net changes. We applied the empirical results of gross change quantities in a spatially explicit reconstruction of historic land change to reconstruct gross changes for the EU27 plus Switzerland at 1 km spatial resolution between 1950 and 2010. In addition, the reconstruction was extended back to 1900 to explore the effects of accounting for gross changes on longer time scales. We created a land-change reconstruction that only accounted for net changes for comparison. Our two model outputs were compared with five commonly used global reconstructions for the same period and area. In our reconstruction, gross changes led in total to a 56% area change (ca. 0.5% yr(-1)) between 1900 and 2010 and cover twice the area of net changes. All global reconstructions used for comparison estimated fewer changes than our gross change reconstruction. Main land-change processes were cropland/grassland dynamics and afforestation, and also deforestation and urbanization. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    woodland clearings in the River Aare Valley and around the Lake Neuchâtel. The development of several dune belts in the study area are attributed to various periods since the Lateglacial, e.g. the turn of the Holocene, the lake level drop in the Mid-Holocene, and the beginning of the Little Ice Age, and can thus be related to surprisingly varied environmental conditions. Despite the eventful past of the Grosses Moos, a Holocene Luvisol has preserved until recently on top of the oldest dune belt called Isleren Dune.

  16. 26 CFR 41.4482(b)-1 - Definition of taxable gross weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... oilfield machinery, etc.) mounted on the vehicle for use on construction jobs, in oilfield operations, etc...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(b)-1 Definition of taxable gross weight. (a) Actual unloaded weight—(1)...

  17. Tracking the monthly changes of dissolved organic matter composition in a newly constructed reservoir and its tributaries during the initial impounding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilian; He, Wei; Choi, Ilhwan; Hur, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the roles of inland reservoirs becomes increasingly important with respect to global carbon cycling as well as water resource management due to the unprecedented demand for construction in recent decades. In this study, the dissolved organic matter (DOM) quantity and quality in a newly constructed dam reservoir and its tributaries were monitored monthly during the initial impounding period (July to November 2014) using a size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with online organic carbon detector (OCD). The highest values were observed in the month of August with the highest precipitation for the bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC), specific UV absorbance (SUVA), and most of the assigned size fractions (except for biopolymers) in the tributaries, indicating that allochthonous sources of DOM were dominant in the feeding stream waters of the reservoir. The bulk DOC and high molecular weight humic substance fraction (∼1 kDa) were generally co-varied with the monthly precipitation in the tributaries, while building blocks (350-500 Da), and low molecular weight (LMW) acids and neutrals showed different trends. In a dam site, the smaller molecular fractions became more abundant during the dry season (September to November), presumably due to the in-reservoir processes such as photo- and bio-degradation. Our results also revealed that storms mobilized a large amount of highly aromatic soil-derived DOM to the reservoir. A depth profile at the dam site showed the water is well mixed up to a depth of ∼20 m. The SEC-OCD data coupled with non-metric multidimensional scaling provided a clear visualization of the spatiotemporal variations in DOM composition, which shed new light on the DOM composition formed in a newly constructed dam reservoir and also on the strategies for future water treatment options.

  18. Constructing Periodic Phase Space Orbits from ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Trajectories to Analyze Vibrational Spectra: Case Study of the Zundel (H5O2(+)) Cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrick, Scott M; Iyengar, Srinivasan S

    2012-12-11

    A method of analysis is introduced to probe the spectral features obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Here, the instantaneous mass-weighted velocities are projected onto irreducible representations constructed from discrete time translation groups comprising operations that invoke the time-domain symmetries (or periodic phase space orbits) reflected in the spectra. The projected velocities are decomposed using singular value decomposition (SVD) to construct a set of "modes" pertaining to a given frequency domain. These modes now include all anharmonicities, as sampled during the dynamics simulations. In this approach, the underlying motions are probed in a manner invariant with respect to coordinate transformations, operations being performed along the time axis rather than coordinate axes, making the analysis independent of choice of reference frame. The method is used to probe the underlying motions responsible for the doublet at ∼1000 cm(-1) in the vibrational spectrum of the H5O2(+), Zundel cation. The associated analysis results are confirmed by projecting the Fourier transformed velocities onto the harmonic normal mode coordinates and a set of mass-weighted, symmetrized Jacobi coordinates. It is found that the two peaks of the doublet are described and differentiated by their respective contributions from the proton transfer, water-water stretch, and water wag coordinates, as these are defined. Temperature dependent effects are also briefly noted.

  19. 新时期高校师德建设新思路%New Idea of the Construction of Teachers' Ethics in New Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏梅花

    2012-01-01

    As the development of market economy, variety of social benefits and lifestyle, construction of teachers' ethics in college is somehow affected. The paper discusses the necessity of strengthening teachers' ethics in college in the condition of a new period, puts forwards the ways and methods of constructing teachers' ethics in system man- agement. Setting up the right value is also important for the teachers in college.%在市场经济进一步发展,社会利益和生活方式多样化的时代背景下,高校师德建设受到了一定的冲击。文中回顾、论述了在新的时代条件下加强师德建设的必要性,提出了在制度管理上加强师德建设的途径和方法,并认为必须从教师个体出发,树立正确的价值观,提高师德建设的质量。

  20. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  1. Quantitative Study of Operational Risk During the Construction Period of Chemical Plant%化工厂建设期作业风险定量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯全; 刘华月

    2012-01-01

    为了有效地管理和控制化工厂建设期风险,分析了化工厂建设期的风险特征,针对施工作业在时间、空间的不断变化、相互叠加现象,以作业条件危险评价法模型为基础,建立了动态作业风险模型和叠加作业风险模型,运用该模型计算了示例化工厂建设期典型时段各单元前后期静态和动态风险值,确定了风险叠加的区域并计算了该时段各区域叠加风险值,绘制了叠加风险分布图,据此确定了该时段风险管理和控制重点部位,提出了重点风险部位的控制措施.依据该模型设计的基于GIS的风险管理系统,提高了预防各类事故的能力和施工安全管理的水平.%In order to manage and control the risk during the construction period in the chemical plant, the risk characteristics have been analyzed, in view of mutual accumulation of construction operational risk in time and space, establishing a dynamic and accumulative operational risk model based on the LEC model. The model is applied to calculate the static and dynamic risk score of each unit in a chemical plant during the typical construction period, and determine the risk accumulation area and score simultaneously. The accumulative risk distribution map was drawn, which can be an effective tool in view of the risk control and management of main parts. According to the model the risk management system was design on GIS, so that the ability of preventing the accidents and safety management ware get further improved.

  2. The University Culture Construction in the Xibaipo Period%西柏坡时期的大学文化建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凤勇; 康小莉

    2015-01-01

    西柏坡时期,中国共产党在革命即将胜利的新形势下,组建创办了马列学院、华北军政大学和华北大学等三所大学,三所大学为解放战争的胜利和新中国建设培养了政治理论强、专业水平高的各类人才;其办学实践实现了西柏坡精神与大学环境文化、行为文化、制度文化和精神文化等建设的有机融合,形成了西柏坡时期独具特色的大学文化,引领了新中国新文化的新风尚,从而为社会主义大学的文化建设提供了丰厚的文化滋养,为中国特色高等教育发展提供了广博的精神财富.%In the Xibaipo period, under the new situation of the revolution about to winning, the communist party of China formed the Marxist-Leninist institute, North China military and political university and North China university, etc three universities, which cultivate all kinds of talented persons with strong political theory and high professional level for the victory of liberation war and new China's construction. Its school-running practice achieved the organic integration among the Xibaipo spirit and the university environment culture, behavior culture, system culture and spiritual culture construction, formed a unique university culture in the Xibaipo period, led the new fashion of the People's Republic of China culture, which provided rich culture nourished for the cultural construction of socialist university, and provided a wide range of spiritual wealth for the higher education development with Chinese characteristics.

  3. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  4. Codes in the codons: construction of a codon/amino acid periodic table and a study of the nature of specific nucleic acid-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyo, B; Biro, J C; Benyo, Z

    2004-01-01

    The theory of "codon-amino acid coevolution" was first proposed by Woese in 1967. It suggests that there is a stereochemical matching - that is, affinity - between amino acids and certain of the base triplet sequences that code for those amino acids. We have constructed a common periodic table of codons and amino acids, where the nucleic acid table showed perfect axial symmetry for codons and the corresponding amino acid table also displayed periodicity regarding the biochemical properties (charge and hydrophobicity) of the 20 amino acids and the position of the stop signals. The table indicates that the middle (2/sup nd/) amino acid in the codon has a prominent role in determining some of the structural features of the amino acids. The possibility that physical contact between codons and amino acids might exist was tested on restriction enzymes. Many recognition site-like sequences were found in the coding sequences of these enzymes and as many as 73 examples of codon-amino acid co-location were observed in the 7 known 3D structures (December 2003) of endonuclease-nucleic acid complexes. These results indicate that the smallest possible units of specific nucleic acid-protein interaction are indeed the stereochemically compatible codons and amino acids.

  5. No First-Order Phase Transition in the Gross-Neveu Model?

    CERN Document Server

    Brzoska, A; Brzoska, Andrej; Thies, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Within a variational calculation we investigate the role of baryons for the structure of dense matter in the Gross-Neveu model. We construct a trial ground state at finite baryon density which breaks translational invariance. Its scalar potential interpolates between widely spaced kinks and antikinks at low density and the value zero at infinite density. Its energy is lower than the one of the standard Fermi gas at all densities considered. This suggests that the discrete gamma_5 symmetry of the Gross-Neveu model does not get restored in a first order phase transition at finite density, at variance with common wisdom.

  6. GROSS CAPITAL FORMATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH DURING EARLY 2000’S IN EU-MEMBER AND CANDIDATES STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Marius PAVELESCU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to reveal the correlation between the gross capital formation and the gross domestic product in countries of the European Union in 2007, during the period 1999-2006. The evaluation is made both on demand side and on supply side. On the demand side we take into account the gross capital formation dynamics and structure and the gross domestic product dynamics. On the supply side calculate the capital accumulation efficiency, through modification of the formulae resulted from Domar’s economic growth model in order to emphasise the impact of domestic demand and net export changes. In the end we present some conclusions and proposals for gross capital formation contribution to economic growth methodology improvement.

  7. Influence of high organic loads during the summer period on the performance of hybrid constructed wetlands (VSSF + HSSF) treating domestic wastewater in the Alps region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, P; Ortigara, A R C; Ruaben, J; Andreottola, G

    2012-01-01

    One of the limits for the application of constructed wetlands (CWs) in mountain regions (such as the Alps) is associated with the considerable land area requirements. In some mountain areas, the treatment of domestic wastewater at popular tourist destinations is particularly difficult during the summer, when the presence of visitors increases hydraulic and organic loads. This paper aims to evaluate whether a hybrid CW plant designed on the basis of the resident population only, can treat also the additional load produced by the floating population during the tourist period (summer, when temperatures are favourable for biological treatment), without a drastic decrease of efficiency and without clogging problems. The research was carried out by considering two operational periods: the first one was based on literature indications (3.2 m(2)/PE in the VSSF unit) and the second one assumed higher hydraulic and organic loads (1.3 m(2)/PE in the VSSF unit). The removal efficiency in the hybrid CW system decreased slightly from 94 to 88% for COD removal and from 78 to 75% for total N removal, even after applying a double hydraulic (from 55 to 123 L m(-2) d(-1)) and organic load (from 37 to 87 g COD m(-2) d(-1) and from 4.4 to 10.3 g TKN m(-2) d(-1)). The results showed that in the summer period the application of high loads did not affect the efficiency of the hybrid CW plant significantly, suggesting that it is possible to refer the CW design to the resident population only, with subsequent considerable savings in superficial area.

  8. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo, Elyonara M.; Gonçalves, Rejane V.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object) and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time) of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r) movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (p<0.001), the time of manipulation (p<0.001) and gross motor function (p<0.001) over time, as well as associations between reaching and gross motor function (R2=0.84; p<0.001) and manipulation and gross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02) from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development. PMID:25714437

  9. Integrable Gross-Neveu models with fermion-fermion and fermion-antifermion pairing

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The massless Gross-Neveu and chiral Gross-Neveu models are well known examples of integrable quantum field theories in 1+1 dimensions. We address the question whether integrability is preserved if one either replaces the four-fermion interaction in fermion-antifermion channels by a dual interaction in fermion-fermion channels, or if one adds such a dual interaction to an existing integrable model. The relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach is adequate to deal with the large N limit of such models. In this way, we construct and solve three integrable models with Cooper pairing. We also identify a candidate for a fourth integrable model with maximal kinematic symmetry, the "perfect" Gross-Neveu model. This type of field theories can serve as exactly solvable toy models for color superconductivity in quantum chromodynamics.

  10. Financial Variables Effect on the U.S. Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) 1959-2001

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Byron E

    2007-01-01

    I studied what role the US stock markets and money markets have possibly played in the Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) of the United States from the year 1959 to the year 2001, Gross Private Domestic Investment refers to the total amount of investment spending by businesses and firms located within the borders of a nation. It includes both the values of the purchases of non-residential fixed investment, which include capital goods used for production, and the values of the purchases of residential fixed investment, which include construction spending for factories or offices. And I created a Multiple Linear Regression Model of the GDPI. To see if companies and private citizens use the stock market and money markets as a way of financing capital projects (business ventures, buying commercial and noncommercial property, etc). Keywords: Gross Private Domestic Investment, Pearson Correlation, SP 500, TB3

  11. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  12. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  13. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  14. 工程项目工期延误风险因素模型研究%The Delay Risk Model of Project Construction Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪刘菲; 谢振安; 王向前; 李慧宗

    2016-01-01

    围绕工程项目工期延误的事故致因,结合多米诺骨牌理论,运用定量分析和文献分析,识别工程项目工期延误风险,包含项目自身风险、合同风险、业主方风险、承包方风险、设计方风险、监理方风险、材料供应方风险、自然环境风险以及社会环境风险9个潜变量。通过采集样本数据,运用 AMOS7.0以及 STATA12.0,构建了工程项目工期延误风险结构模型,揭示了模型各路径的作用机理。根据构建模型及其作用机理,为降低工程项目工期延误风险提出了相关策略借鉴。%Based on the accident cause of project delays,combining the theory of dominoes and using quantitative analysis and literature analysis,it identified nine latent variables which lead to project delays including property risk,contractor risk,the designer risk,supervision party risk,material supplier risk, project risk,contract risk,the natural environment and social environment risk in this paper.Through col-lecting sample data,using AMOS7.0 and STATA12.0,it built the delay risk structure model of project construction period and revealed the mechanism of different kinds of path.According to the model and the mechanism of the model,it put forward some relevant strategies to reduce the delay risk of project con-struction period.

  15. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  16. ASSETS ADMITTED TO COVER GROSS TECHNICAL RESERVES CASE STUDY: INSURANCE – REINSURANCE COMPANY ASTRA SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINELA – CONSTANTINA BADEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the asset structure and the coverage of gross technical reserves of the Insurance – Reinsurance Company Astra SA, for the period 2003 – 2014. Insurance companies are required to constitute technical reserves, in order to cope with the payment obligations to policyholders. These reserves may only be covered on account of certain assets, admitted by law. In Romania, Orders No. 8 and 9/2011, issued by the Insurance Supervisory Commission, contain Rules regarding the assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves, the dispersion of assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves and the liquidity coefficient. Order No. 9/2011, relating to general insurance, has been amended by Rule No. 22/2014. In this paper, we have analyzed the main elements of Astra’s assets, their share in total assets and we have calculated the coverage of gross technical reserves by total assets and liquid assets. In 2013 and 2014, the value of total assets was below the value of gross tehnical reserves, which demonstrated Astra’s financial instability, through negative capital and the inability to meet the obligations to policyholders. Failure to comply with the prudential indicators has been one of the main causes of Astra`s bankruptcy.

  17. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  18. Phase structure of the massive chiral Gross-Neveu model from Hartree-Fock

    CERN Document Server

    Boehmer, Christian; Kraus, Sebastian; Thies, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The phase diagram of the massive chiral Gross-Neveu model (the massive Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in 1+1 dimensions) is constructed. In the large N limit, the Hartree-Fock approach can be used. We find numerically a chiral crystal phase separated from a massive Fermi gas phase by a 1st order transition. Using perturbation theory, we also construct the critical sheet where the homogeneous phase becomes unstable in a 2nd order transition. A tricritical curve is located. The phase diagram is mapped out as a function of fermion mass, chemical potential and temperature and compared with the one of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model. As a by-product, we illustrate the crystal structure of matter at zero temperature for various densities and fermion masses.

  19. Zamolodchikov's c-function for the Chiral Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Cabra, D C

    1993-01-01

    We construct the Zamolodchikov's c-function for the Chiral Gross-Neveu Model up to two loops. We show that the c-function interpolates between the two known critical points of the theory, it is stationary at them and it decreases with the running coupling constant. In particular one can infer the non-existence of additional critical points in the region under investigation.

  20. From non-degenerate conducting polymers to dense matter in the massive Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Using results from the theory of non-degenerate conducting polymers like cis-polyacetylene, we generalize our previous work on baryonic matter in the massless Gross-Neveu model to finite bare fermion mass. In the large N limit, the exact ground state is constructed analytically, in close analogy to the bipolaron lattice in polymers. These findings are contrasted to the standard scenario with a first order phase transition as a function of density.

  1. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  2. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  3. EFFECT OF SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY ON GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Shamsoddini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe primary problem in children with cerebral palsy (CP, frequently referred for occupational therapy, is gross motor dysfunction. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of sensory integration therapy (SIT on gross motor skills in CP patients.Materials & MethodsTwenty-four children with diplegic spastic CP were randomly divided into two groups: First group (n=14,6 girls, 8 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.9 years; the second or control group (n=10, 5 girls, 5 boys, age range 2 to 6 years, mean age 3.4 years. SIT training was given to the first group and only the home program was given for the second group. All children were evaluated with gross motor function measurement (GMFM 88 for rolling, sitting, crawling, standing and walking position before and after intervention. Treatment duration for both groups was 1 hour, 5 days per week for a period of 12 weeks.ResultsGross motor function in children of the case group improved significantly better that in the control group, after intervention in sitting (P=0.02, crawling (P=0.001 and standing (P=0.03 positions; however no significant difference was seen in rolling (P=0.65 and walking (P=0.69 ability assessment.ConclusionThis study showed the beneficial effects of the SIT training program for children with CP; the SIT intervention had a significantly positive effect on gross motor function in the children with diplegic spastic CP. Moreover the results of the present study showed that sensory integration and vestibular stimulation were effective in children with cerebral palsy.Keywords:Cerebral palsy, Children, Gross motor, Occupational therapy, Sensory integration

  4. An Analysis of Scientific Approach to Anti-corruption Construction in New Period%新时期反腐倡廉建设科学化探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓文; 田志闯

    2012-01-01

    Anit-corruption construction as an important part of CPC construction must meet fundamental requirements of scientific approach to Party construction.Promoting scientific approach to anti-corruption construction is of great significance for improving the ability of party construction,is beneficial to the implementation of scientific outlook of development and help solve the difficulty of anti-corruption construction as well.As forms and methods of corruption in China tend to be more collectivized,complicated,intelligent and optional,we must firmly persist in the guidance of scientific outlook of development and follow the scientific principles of anti-corruption construction.We should strengthen the institutional construction of our party in order to improve the scientific system of punishment and prevention of corruption,and adopt the modern method of science and technology to advance the scientific level of anti-corruption construction in China.Besides,we should also initiate the institutional construction of clean governance as a cornerstone to guarantee a scientific implementation of anti-corruption construction and finally to enhance the scientific level of our anti-corruption construction substantially.%反腐倡廉建设作为中国共产党建设的重要组成部分,必须适应党的建设科学化的根本要求。推进反腐倡廉建设科学化有利于提高党的建设科学化水平,有利于贯彻与落实科学发展观,有利于破解当前反腐倡廉建设的实际难题。针对当前腐败群体集团化、腐败方式变异化、腐败手段智能化、腐败行为期权化等新趋势,必须以科学发展观为根本指导,尊重反腐倡廉建设的科学规律;以加强党的制度建设为切入点,完善惩治与预防腐败的科学体系;以现代科学技术作为有效手段,提升反腐倡廉建设的科学程度;以创新廉政制度建设为重要基石,加强反腐倡廉建设的科学保障,切实提高我国反腐倡廉建设的科学化水平。

  5. Method of Multi-dimensional Gross Errors Snooping of GPS Velocity Estimation in Airborne Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Kai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Precision velocity plays an important role in airborne gravimetry. Since the aircraft in a state of stable flight, we could establish a strict state equation with constant acceleration model for it, then obtained predicted velocity which was used for constructing a priori residual Q to detect the gross errors. Theoretical research showed that Q was influenced by the accuracy of predicted velocity and the measurement errors. According to the statistical features of Q combined with IGG Ⅲ principle, we could lower the contribution of the observation that contained the gross errors. Static testing was used for analyzing the characteristic of measurement errors as well as the accuracy of predicted velocity under the simulated ideal flight environment where the acceleration was approximate to a constant, the results also showed the relationship between the sampling rate and the ability of detecting gross errors. Both the static and kinematic tests demonstrate that new method can well detect the gross error smaller than 1 cycle.

  6. 论新时期安徽省文化人才队伍建设%The Theory of Cultural Talent Team Construction in Anhui Province in The New Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏婷

    2015-01-01

    to explore the significance of cultural talent team construction in anhui province in the new period,and analyses the basic requirement of cultural talent team construction in anhui province in the new period and the current status of cultural talent team construction,to suggest how to build the culture of the high quality talent team.%探讨新时期安徽省文化人才队伍建设的重要意义,分析新时期安徽省文化人才队伍建设的基本要求与当前文化人才队伍建设现状,对如何建设高质量的文化人才队伍提出建议。

  7. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  8. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr−1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0 scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem. During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m−2 (11 %. The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr−1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  9. 浅谈水电站工程建设期间的人力资源管理%Discussion on manpower resources management of hydropower project in construction period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德松

    2014-01-01

    水电站建设期间业主部门的人力资源管理具有特殊性,既要安排建设管理人员,又需要考虑后期工程完工电站运行对管理人才的需要。应及时安排人员进行培训,为保证电站建设目标的实现和效益最大化提供可靠的人力资源支撑。根据多年水电站建设人才管理的经验,从人员配置、培训、绩效管理3个方面分别论述了水电站不同建设期人力资源的管理要点、管理方法、培训模式以及绩效考核指标体系的建立和运用等问题,以期为企业打造一支结构合理、素质优良的员工队伍。%The manpower resources management of owner in hydropower construction has some particularities, not only the construction management personnel should be allocated in construction period, but also the operation and management personnel of hydropower station in future should be trained timely to realize the construction goals of hydropower station construction and a-chieve the maximum benefit. According to years of working experience of manpower management of hydropower construction, the author presents the key management points, management method, training mode of manpower resources in different periods of hy-dropower project construction as well as the establishment and utilization of performance appraisal system from the aspects of per-sonnel allocation, training and performance management for constructing a team with reasonable structure and well-trained staff.

  10. Stability and Decline in Gross Motor Function among Children and Youth with Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 21 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven E.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Palisano, Robert J.; Walter, Stephen D.; Avery, Lisa; Russell, Dianne J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the construction of gross motor development curves for children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to assess whether function is lost during adolescence. We followed children previously enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study for an additional 4 years, as they entered adolescence and young adulthood. The…

  11. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  12. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  13. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  14. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  15. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  16. Analysis on the Construction of Rural Culture Hall in the New Period%新时期农村文化礼堂建设工作探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊; 华东杰

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the overall conditions of the construction of rural cultural hall in Chayuan Town,Ninghai County,Ningbo City,analyzes some problems existing in the construction of the rural cultural hall,and puts forward some corresponding suggestions and countermeasures for how to better construct the rural cultural hall.%介绍了宁波市宁海县茶院乡农村文化礼堂建设总体情况,分析了农村文化礼堂建设中存在的问题,并就新时期如何更好地建设农村文化礼堂提出了相应的建议与对策.

  17. Inside CERN : Grosse Maschinen fur kleinste teilchen

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Public Information Office

    1974-01-01

    A service station with a difference. Presentation of what goes on at CERN. Animation of protons going around a ring, then sent to a target and detectors look at them. SC. PS. ISR. Interesting animation: a red light is superimposed on the accelerator to indicate the beam path. (PS and ISR) BEBC. Scanning, with a nice moment of the tracks arriving. Omega. Tracks. Map showing where SPS will be. The Robbins. Other aspects of SPS construction: magnets, RF cavaties, vacuum tube.Comments : Calm, well constructed presentation without much film imagination, aside from the red light/beam animation.

  18. World distribution of gross domestic product per-capita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2015-05-01

    It is shown that the world distribution of gross domestic products per capita (GDPpc) is well described by a trade-investment model that combines yard-sale (YS) exchange and random multiplicative noise (RMN). We first derive analytically the typical value w(r, t) of the ranked wealths for a system evolving under YS exchange and RMN. The resulting analytical expressions are fitted to data for the GDPpc of up to 200 countries, in the period 1960-2013. Our model fits the data significantly better than previously proposed approaches that consider either Noise or Trade alone. Analysis of the resulting values for the fitting parameters, and of their time dependence, suggests that: (a) International trade conditions have (from 1960 to 2008) a statistical bias towards favoring richer countries. (b) Biased international commerce is the main cause for the observed divergence of GDPpc values from 1960 to 2008. (c) After 2008, the distribution of GDPpc starts to converge, and the world product per capita stops growing.

  19. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  20. Assessing the influence of historic net and gross land changes on the carbon fluxes of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Schulp, Catharina J E; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Verburg, Peter H; Clevers, Jan G P W; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Herold, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Legacy effects of land cover/use on carbon fluxes require considering both present and past land cover/use change dynamics. To assess past land use dynamics, model-based reconstructions of historic land cover/use are needed. Most historic reconstructions consider only the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). Studies about the impact of gross and net land change accounting methods on the carbon balance are still lacking. In this study, we assessed historic changes in carbon in soils for five land cover/use types and of carbon in above-ground biomass of forests. The assessment focused on Europe for the period 1950 to 2010 with decadal time steps at 1-km spatial resolution using a bookkeeping approach. To assess the implications of gross land change data, we also used net land changes for comparison. Main contributors to carbon sequestration between 1950 and 2010 were afforestation and cropland abandonment leading to 14.6 PgC sequestered carbon (of which 7.6 PgC was in forest biomass). Sequestration was highest for old-growth forest areas. A sequestration dip was reached during the 1970s due to changes in forest management practices. Main contributors to carbon emissions were deforestation (1.7 PgC) and stable cropland areas on peaty soils (0.8 PgC). In total, net fluxes summed up to 203 TgC yr(-1) (98 TgC yr(-1) in forest biomass and 105 TgC yr(-1) in soils). For areas that were subject to land changes in both reconstructions (35% of total area), the differences in carbon fluxes were about 68%. Overall for Europe the difference between accounting for either gross or net land changes led to 7% difference (up to 11% per decade) in carbon fluxes with systematically higher fluxes for gross land change data.

  1. Association of therapeutic occasion, gross motor function grading and developmental level with gross motor functional recovery in children with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The abnormal posture and motor pattern have not stabilized in children with cerebral palsy at early period, thus timely treatment can establish normal postural reflex and motor pattern, and prevent complications of muscle contracture, ankylosis, skeletal deformity, etc. The clinical factors affecting the rehabilitative efficacy of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy should be observed.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of therapeutic occasion, grading of gross motor function and developmental level on the rehabilitative efficacy in children with cerebral palsy.DESIGN: A case-controlled analysis.SETTING: Qilu Children's Hospital of Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 138 children with cerebral palsy, who were hospitalized for 12 months in the Rehabilitation Center of Qilu Children's Hospital, Shandong University, were selected from April 2004 to September 2006, and all the children were diagnosed to be accorded with the standard set by the national seminar on cerebral palsy in 2004. There were 97 males and 41 females, including 55 cases of 0 - 2 years old,47 cases of 2 - 4 years and 36 cases of 4 - 6 years. Informed contents were obtained from relatives of all the children.METHODS: ① Comprehensive rehabilitation treatment: Vojta method was to induce the children to turn over the body and crawl by stimulating reflective turn over and crawling on belly. Bobath method including trainings of head control, turning over body, keeping sitting position, keeping balance, crawling, keeping standing position, and walking, etc.; The children were massaged by using the maneuvers of push, press, rub,pull, wave, etc. according to the sites and types of palsy. Acupuncture was performed mainly at bilateral motor areas, the needle was retained for 1 hour per time, 6 days continuously every week, and followed by a 1-day interval. ② Prognosis assessment: The gross motor functional grading of the children with cerebral palsy at admission was

  2. Sectoral contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... This study analyzed sectoral contributions to Gross Domestic Product by Agriculture, Industry and services ... KEYWORDS: Granger causality, Unit root, VAR model and sectoral contribution ...

  3. 新时期大学生党建工作路径%The Paths of College Students’Party Construction Work in the New Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷; 吴雄祥

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Our country pays high attention to the work of developing party members, the team of party mem-bers in the college students is growing continually. The colleges and universities play an important role in training socialist builders and successors, so it is of great significance to strengthen college students’party construction work. The paper ana-lyzes the existing problems in the party construction work in colleges and universities in the new situation, and explores effec-tive paths to strengthen the work.%  近年来,国家高度重视党员发展工作,高校大学生党员队伍不断壮大。高校担负着培养社会主义建设者和接班人的历史重任,加强高校大学生党建工作具有重大意义,文章从新时期高校党建工作存在的问题展开分析,探索加强高校大学生党建工作的有效途径。

  4. Analysis of Risks in Overall Process during the Construction Period of Metro Shield Tunnel Construction%地铁隧道盾构法施工全过程风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张姣; 贾敏才; 张建

    2013-01-01

    Because a large number of risk factors existed in the reconnaissance,design and construction of metro shield tunneling as well as their uncertainties and the complexities complicate the difficulties of risk analysis,common methods of analyzing risks cannot serve the assessment of metro shield tunnel construction better.The paper puts forward the method to assess metro shield tunnel construction based on the Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation.It,in the basis of initially collected data of quality safety of metro shield tunnel construction and researches conducted by experts,firstly,builds the risk lists of metro shield tunnel construction;secondly,conducts quantitative analysis of risk events with the concept of fuzzy logarithm probability and fuzzy logarithm loss rate;thirdly,seeks value-at-risk of risk events and risk level membership;finally,determines the risk level of each risk event and the overall risk level of metro shield tunnel construction.The result,making use of the method,is consistent with the risk level of Shanghai metro shield tunnel,which provides scientific proof for further risk prevention and control.%由于地铁隧道盾构法施工工程中勘察、设计、施工等方面存在大量的风险因素,其不确定性、复杂性都增加了风险分析的难度,一般的风险分析方法不能较好地评估地铁隧道盾构法施工工程风险.本文提出了基于模糊综合分析的地铁隧道盾构施工风险评估方法,以初步统计的地铁隧道盾构法工程质量安全事故数据和专家调研数据为基础,首先构建地铁隧道盾构法施工的风险清单,然后采用模糊对数概率和模糊对数损失率的概念对风险事件进行定量分析,再求出风险事件的风险值及风险等级隶属度,最后确定地铁隧道盾构法施工工程的总体和每个风险事件的风险等级,该方法的结果与上海市地铁隧道盾构法施工风险水平现状相一致评,其结果可为下一步风险预防和控制提供科学依据.

  5. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  6. The impact of gross anatomy laboratory on first year medical students' interest in a surgical career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Marisa E; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Kumar, Anagha

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to determine the impact of gross anatomy laboratory (GA) on first year medical students' (M1) interest in a surgical career. Secondary objectives included identifying other influences in M1s' career decision making. This prospective study included surveys before and after GA. All M1s enrolled in GA were invited to participate. Sixty students completed both the pre- and post-test surveys. A 5-point Likert-type scale surveyed participants' interests, specific personality traits, experience during the course of GA, and likelihood of pursuing a surgical career. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and (Polychotomous) Ordinal Logistic Regression Model. Students' desire to work with their hands increased (50 vs. 33.3%) and enjoyment working with instruments and tools similarly increased (50 vs. 41.7%). Likelihood of pursuing a surgical career after gross anatomy increased in 31.7% of students, decreased in 16.7%, and was unchanged in 51.7%. Over 75% of students with a prior interest in surgery and 21% of those who previously felt neutral agreed that they were likely to pursue a career in surgery at the conclusion of the laboratory. Students with a surgeon family member were 0.1976 times as likely to exhibit a positive change in interest (P values 0.024). Gross anatomy may influence up to a third of the class to consider a surgical career, especially those with a prior interest in surgery and those previously feeling ambivalent. Students with a surgeon family member became less likely to enter a surgical career after gross anatomy. Clin. Anat. 29:691-695, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Literature Review on the Economic Construction in the Period of Struggle in Jinggangshan%井冈山斗争时期经济建设研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友良

    2014-01-01

    目前,关于井冈山斗争时期经济建设的研究,研究者主要从井冈山斗争时期毛泽东经济思想的形成、发展、主要内容及其特点,井冈山斗争时期的土地革命、农业生产、工商业政策、金融财税等经济建设各项举措,以及井冈山斗争时期经济建设整体情况及其历史经验等方面进行论述。总体而言,目前已有的研究论文数量不算很多,仍值得我们今后继续加强研究;研究范围虽较广,但角度、思路还可以进一步创新。%At present,about the research of the economic construction in the period of struggle in Jinggangshan, most researchers probe into the forming,development,main contents and characteristics of Mao Zedong’s eco-nomic thought in the period of struggle in Jinggangshan,the measures of economic construction,such as agrarian revolution,agricultural production,industrial & commercial policies,and finance & taxation,taken in the period of struggle in Jinggangshan,and the overall situation and historical experiences of economic construction in the period of struggle in Jinggangshan. Generally speaking,the existing literature is not too much,and this issue needs further research;and the perspectives of research might be further broadened.

  8. Riccati generalization of self-similar solutions of nonautonomous Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, P. K.; Gupta, Rama; Goyal, Amit; Kumar, C. N.

    2013-07-01

    We present a systematic analytical approach to construct a family of self-similar waves, related through a free parameter, in quasi one-dimension Gross-Pitaevskii equation with time-varying parameters. This approach enables us to control the dynamics of dark and bright similaritons, and first- and second- order self-similar rogue waves in Bose-Einstein condensate through the modulation of time dependent trapping potential. The analysis is done for the sech2- type time-varying quadratic trapping potential for two different choices of linear potential.

  9. EuroMInd-D: A Density Estimate of Monthly Gross Domestic Product for the Euro Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Marczak, Martyna; Mazzi, Gianluigi

    EuroMInd-D is a density estimate of monthly gross domestic product (GDP) constructed according to a bottom–up approach, pooling the density estimates of eleven GDP components, by output and expenditure type. The components density estimates are obtained from a medium-size dynamic factor model...... parameters, and conditional simulation filters for simulating from the predictive distribution of GDP. Both algorithms process sequentially the data as they become available in real time. The GDP density estimates for the output and expenditure approach are combined using alternative weighting schemes...

  10. THE CONSTRUCTION OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION PROGRAMS IN THE PREOPERATIVE PERIOD FOR PATIENTS THAT WILL REMOVE OF INTERVERTEBRAL DISC’ PROLAPSE IN THE LUMBAR SPINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarieva E.B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ineffectiveness of conservative treatment will make the need for surgery in 4-5% of patients suffering from low back pain with hernias of the lumbar and sacral spine. Despite the surgical removal of the source of compressed roots, nerves and blood vessels, require a comprehensive system of rehabilitation therapy in order to eliminate manifestations of disease and relief of disease progression. The aim of the work is to substantiate the general approaches for the using of physical rehabilitation and diagnostics static component of the dynamic stereotype in the preoperative period in patients to remove intervertebral disc prolapse. The materials and methods. There was examined 96 with low back pain. Methods are applied in this research: analysis of a literature, observation methods. Results. In conjunction with the physician was determined "diagnosis for rehabilitation" and "prognosis of the rehabilitation". The formulation of the basis of the diagnosis for rehabilitation was performed through the examination during the rehabilitation (as a taking an anamnestic data, examination and palpation, studies of intact sensory and motor functions, the results of objective research tool. Conclusions. The identification of preserved anatomical and functional entities, the definition of the initial level of compensation for lost functions and forecast further recovery is a fundamental approach to program development in the preoperative period in patients with low back pain aimed at the removal of intervertebral disc herniations.

  11. The Impact of Construction Period of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Project on the Environment and Protection Measures%水利水电项目施工期对环境的影响及保护措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊森昌

    2012-01-01

    水利水电项目的建设,由于引起水沙情势的变化,对河道的阻隔,水库淹没和移民,对区域生态环境都将产生影响.文章通过水利水电项目施工期对环境的影响分析,探讨了相应的保护措施.%In the construction of water conservancy and hydropower project, because it changes the water and sediment situation, it will cause the river obstructing, reservoir submersion and immigration, so it will have an impact on regional ecological environment. This article discusses the appropriate protection measures through the analysis of the impacts of construction period of water conservancy and hydropower project on environment.

  12. On the Period of Social Transformation Socialist Ideological and Ethical construction%论我国社会转型时期社会主义思想道德建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋培

    2012-01-01

    China is facing a critical period of socialist transformation and building a moderately prosperous society,the reform and opening up more than 30 years,China has made tremendous achievements in economic construction,ideological and moral construction on the experience far from the achievements of economic constructionas great.The face of ideological and moral status quo of the current society,people,analysis of the reasons to come to socialist morality in economic construction maturing today will surely make a qualitative leap in the trend,how to build further research in the socialist transition period,enhance the people's ideological and moral the level of ideological and moral construction is getting more sophisticated.%我国正面临着社会主义转型和全面建设小康社会的关键时期,改革开放30多年来,我国取得了经济建设上的巨大成就,思想道德建设上的经验却远没有经济建设所取得的成就那样巨大。面对当前社会人们的思想道德现状,分析其原因,得出社会主义道德在经济建设日趋成熟的今天必将取得质的飞跃的趋势,研究在社会主义转型时期如何更进一步构建、提高全民思想道德水平,使思想道德建设日臻完善。

  13. Gross Pollutant Traps: Wet Load Assessment at Sungai Kerayong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shah, M. R.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Husni, M. M. Mohammad; Jajarmizadeh, Milad; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to carry out assessment on the effectiveness and performance of Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) stormwater quality control in the urban areas. The study aims to provide a management and planning tool for effective management of the gross pollutants in the urban areas specifically in River of Life (ROL) project. ROL project is a Malaysian Government initiative under the Economic Transformation Program. One of the program in the greater Klang Valley is to transform Klang River into a vibrant and livable waterfront by the year 2020. The main river in ROL catchment is Sungai Klang (upper catchment), with main tributaries Sungai Gombak, Sungai Batu, Sungai Jinjang, Sungai Keroh, Sungai Bunus, Sungai Ampang and Sungai Kerayong. This paper objective is to study the gross pollutant wet load at Sungai Kerayong 1 and Sungai Kerayong 2 which is located at the downstream location of the ROL project. The result shows that Sungai Kerayong 2 produced higher gross pollutant wet load (8025.33 kg/ha/yr) than Sungai Kerayong 1 (4695.12 kg/ha/yr). This could be due to high contributions amounts of gross pollutant traps from residential area, the degree of develop area, and also the location of the river itself related to climate and rainfall.

  14. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Van Soest, Arthur J; De Koning, Jos J

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e(gross)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if e(gross) is affected by stroke rate. A second aim was to determine whether internal power losses can be estimated by the negative power output during the stroke cycle (P(negative)). Seventeen well-trained female rowers participated in this study. They rowed three trials on a modified rowing ergometer on slides at a submaximal intensity, with a respiratory exchange ratio of 1 or close to 1. Stroke rates were 28, 34, and 40 strokes per minute. The trials were fully randomized. Power transfer to the flywheel was kept constant whereas e(gross) was determined during each trial. No significant differences in e(gross) were found between conditions. This finding suggests that in rowing internal power losses are not influenced by stroke rate. Furthermore, although P(negative) increased at increasing stroke rate (P measure to estimate internal power losses. This study shows that within the range of stroke rates applied in competitive rowing, internal power losses are unrelated to rowing cycle frequency.

  15. Health and Gross National Happiness: review of current status in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres CE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tashi Tobgay1, Ugen Dophu1, Cristina E Torres2, Kesara Na-Bangchang31Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kawajangsa, Bhutan; 2Forum for Ethical Review Committees in Asian and Western Pacific Region, Clinical Coordination and Training Center, 3Thailand Center of Excellence on Drug Discovery and Development (TCEDDD, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, ThailandAbstract: Worldwide, contemporary measures of the success of health development programs have been mostly in terms of the reduction of mortality and morbidity as well as increasing longevity. While these goals have yielded much-needed health improvements, the subjective outcomes of these improvements, as experienced by individuals and the communities, have not been considered. Bhutan, under the overarching policy of Gross National Happiness, has provided due consideration to these subjective indicators. Here, we report on the current status of health and happiness in Bhutan as revealed by conventional objective indicators and subjective Gross National Happiness indicators. The current literature on health in Bhutan in relation to the Gross National Happiness Survey conducted by the Centre of Bhutan Studies has been reviewed. Bhutan has made great strides within a short period of modernization, as shown by both objective and subjective indicators. Tremendous challenges lie ahead to achieve the ultimate goal of health and happiness, and how Bhutan articulates its path to modernization may be a lesson for the rest of the world.Keywords: Bhutan, happiness, health, indicators

  16. Economic sustainability of small construction enterprises of Ukraine: assessment, tendencies and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byelyenkova Olga Yu.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study of economic sustainability of small construction enterprises of Ukraine on the basis of financial and economic indicators, which characterise financial, production and investment activity of enterprises. Having assessed dynamics of the ratios (liquidity, financial independence, profitability, labour productivity, wages, relation of the level of wages of workers to the average wage by all branches of economy, wear and tear of fixed assets, increase of floating assets and receivables, re-investment ratios and the share of gross capital investments in assets the article identifies factors that negatively influence economic sustainability of both small construction enterprises and the whole construction industry. These factors are unprofitableness of analysed enterprises during a long period, significant reduction of sizes of own capital and fall of investment activity. Prospect of further studies in this direction is identification of macro-economic factors that influence economic sustainability of small construction enterprises.

  17. USAID Construction Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID construction assessment is a survey of the character, scope, value and management of construction activities supported by USAID during the period from...

  18. DETERMINATE NONPERIODIC VARIATION OF THE GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. А. Korshunov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The classical problem of product supply and demand, which was first defined by А. Marshall, is reduced to Lorentz model in a nonlinear statement and it describes sustainable circular processes of commodity market, including price range increment in the context of crisis forthcoming (inflation; destabilization due to nonmanufacturing costs; the main stages of crisis development, including a stage of chaotic behavior of residence time at each attractor (equilibrium point; possibility of surmounting the crisis by means of modification of certain parameters. The given approach is used for the purpose of construction of a qualitative model of commodity price readjustment during precrisis and crisis periods, and finding reliable prognostication time.

  19. 回归自然:文化危机化解的路径%The Construction of Cultural Space in the Turning Period(Symposium)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宣扬

    2012-01-01

    最近二十年间,全球各地频繁发生的政经纷争、环境污染、文化冲突、恐怖袭击、宗教对抗以及连续不断的各种危机,表明人类现代化的进程已达到一个新的转折点。但在历史转折关头,人们讨论较多的是与国家生存和个人生活命运直接相关的经济危机、金融危机和社会危机,只看到那些可以在社会上感受到以及在生活中直接体察到的有形的和可见的异常现象,%Zhan Furui thinks that people should have a clear understanding of Chinese culture. The essence of staged traditional culture, which was produced in the feudal era, served the rating domination, and suppressed individuality and democracy. Xu Jianping proposes that we should replace the idea of the heaven and man confrontation of the cosmology of heaven and man syncretism; we should accept advanced humanism with the great love character like the heaven and the earth; we should purify money worship with the spirit of favoring morality that is valuing loyalty. Lu Pinyue thinks that contemporary cultural transformation includes the transformation of the spiritual connotation of the human subject and material carrier. The latter involves the transformation of cultural products, the creativity transformation of the consumer goods culture in material life, the landscaping constructed transformation of social culture in the shared field. Gao Xuanyang believes that only a reflection and criticism on Western central theory and human center doctrine, and great importance to oriental peoples especially the natural harmony of Chinese culture, will people be possible to extricate themselves from the crisis.

  20. Gross municipal product: the design procedure and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasilevich Kolechkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem to find the adequate methods to assess the economic performance of municipalities conditioned by their growing independence and role in the development of regional economy. Nowadays many researchers are working on the practical application and testing of various approaches to assessing theterritory economicresults based on thecalculation of gross municipal product (GМP. However, the development of methodological reasonable calculation tools is still at an early stage. In this article presents a simplified method of calculating the gross municipal product, an analysis of the dynamics and territorialindustrial structure GМP, implemented in terms of grouping areas GМP methods hierarchical cluster analysis of the economic characteristics of the obtained clustersbased on systematic occurring in the economic literature, methodological developments in the calculation of gross municipal product, determination of strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches

  1. Anatomy of the Gross Intestine of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The anatomy of the gross intestine and its mesentery of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris have not been described completely. Approach: In the present study, eight adult capybaras were studied using gross dissection. Results: The cecum was the largest part of the intestine and was divided into base, body and apex. The cecocolic fold joined the cecum to the full extent of the proximal loop of ascending colon. The ascending colon was divided into two ansae, one proximal and one distal or spiral. The distal ansa had a spiral arrangement and was placed cranially to the right, covered ventrally by the apex of the cecum. This ansa had a centripetal gyrus to the left, a central flexure and a centrifugal gyrus turning to the right that was continuous with the transverse colon in the right colic flexure. Conclusion: The gross intestine of the capybara was different to other previously studied rodents.

  2. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla;

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot......The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show...... that potato cropping practices varies signifi-cantly between these countries with major differences in yields and costs. Italy and Denmark are the two regions with highest gross margins due to high yields and reve-nues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries ex...

  3. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  4. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical simulation for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin

    2017-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is proposed in this paper. Some numerical tests for one- and two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been conducted. The waves of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation are simulated. Numerical results show that the lattice Boltzmann method is an effective method for the wave of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  6. 29 CFR 779.259 - What is included in annual gross volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is included in annual gross volume. 779.259 Section... Coverage Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.259 What is included in annual gross volume. (a) The annual gross volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise consists of its...

  7. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  8. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard question. Hence Gross National Happiness can be measured by the average response to such questions in general populations surveys. Survey data on average self-report of happiness can be combined with est...

  9. Developments of regional gross domestic product and the unemployment rate in Romania during 2000 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schonauer (Sacală Corina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of territorial units can be characterized by measuring the ability of producing goods and services and by measuring labor force in the area. The capacity of producing goods and services is measured by calculating the gross domestic product indicator. This article presents a comparative analysis of the evolution of regional GDP and the ILO unemployment rate at the level of the eight regions in Romania for a period of 13 years. The presented data come from the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  10. 有关新时期建筑工程造价管理现状及完善措施的探讨%Discuss the Cost Management Situation and Improvement Measures of Construction Project in New Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊

    2013-01-01

    In the construction process, the project cost is extr-emely important part. In this essay, I participated in the project cost as the basis, and conducted in-depth discussions on the cost management of construction work in the new period, som-e of the specific and frequently asked questions, analyzed and summarized. With reference to the current construction cost and audit.%  在工程建设过程中,工程造价是极其重要的环节。本文以笔者参与的多个工程造价工作为依托,对新时期建筑工程造价管理工作中存在的一些具体和常见问题进行了深入的探讨、分析和总结。希望能对当前建筑工程造价和审计具有借鉴作用。

  11. Climate change amplifies gross nitrogen turnover in montane grasslands of Central Europe both in summer and winter seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, Changhui; Unteregelsbacher, Sebastian; Lu, Haiyan; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Gasche, Rainer; Kolar, Allison; Schloter, Michael; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dannenmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The carbon and nitrogen rich soils of montane grasslands are exposed to above average warming and to altered precipitation patterns as a result of global change. In order to investigate the consequences of climatic change for soil nitrogen turnover, we translocated intact plant-soil mesocosms along an elevational gradient. Following three years of equilibration, we monitored the dynamics of gross nitrogen turnover and ammonia oxidizing microbes over an entire year. Gross nitrogen turnover and gene levels of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) showed pronounced seasonal dynamics. While both summer and winter periods equally contributed to cumulative annual N turnover, the highest gross N turnover and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were observed in frozen soil of climate change sites due to physical liberation of organic substrates and their rapid turnover in the unfrozen soil water film. The control site never experienced soil freezing due to a significant insulating snowpack. Climate change conditions accelerated gross N mineralization by 250% on average. The AOB community benefited more from increased soil ammonium production under climate change conditions than the AOA community and thus accounted for a significant increase in gross nitrification rates. Climate change impacts were restricted to the 2-6 cm topsoil and rarely occurred at 12-16 cm depth, where generally much lower N turnover was observed. Mineralization pulses in a changing climate may result in soil organic matter loss with their associated negative impacts on key soil functions. In this context, N cycling processes in frozen soil can be a hot spot for gross N turnover and thus be of paramount importance for understanding seasonal patterns, annual sum of N turnover and possible climate change feedbacks.

  12. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and actinides activities in exhaust air released from the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States); Mulholland, G.P. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and beta activities is one of the simplest radioanalytical technique used as a method for screening samples of both high and low activities of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental and bioassay samples. Such measurements are of great interest from both a radiological, waste disposal viewpoint, and to establish a trend of radioactivity based on long term monitoring. At the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, unfiltered exhaust air from the underground repository is the most important effluent. As part of its monitoring program, the particulates from WIPP exhaust air are collected everyday at a location typically called the Fixed Air Sampler (FAS) site or Station A, this site is located at the release point for aerosol effluents from the underground to the environment. The measurements of gross alpha and beta activity on air filter samples were performed using an ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta}, from Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the gross alpha and beta instrument enables detection of low value activity from the air filters. In 2009, the values of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations ranged from Simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the particulates from WIPP exhaust air were performed. > Ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta} counter was used for the measurements. > Values of gross alpha activity concentrations ranged from Values of gross beta activity concentrations ranged from

  13. 26 CFR 1.555-2 - Additions to gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corporation sells 90percent of its stock in the Y Corporation and thus is a minority shareholder in the Y... on which the required United States group exists, and (2) Such foreign corporation is a shareholder... the gross income of its shareholders, whether United States shareholders or other foreign...

  14. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  15. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  16. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15 Net/Gross... pollutants in the Industrial User's intake water in accordance with this section. Any Industrial User wishing... of the Industrial User, the applicable Standard will be calculated on a “net” basis (i.e., adjusted...

  17. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  18. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  19. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  20. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  1. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the....regulations.gov . Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  2. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  3. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  4. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard

  5. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  6. Strategic improvements for gross anatomy web-based teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; Juluru, Krishna; Long, Chris; Magid, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year's digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points) and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points). Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  7. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  8. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  9. ɛ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O( N ) Gross-Neveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions. To do this, we extend the "cowpie contraction" algorithm of arXiv:1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  10. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  11. Samuel D. Gross: the nestor of American surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2006-01-01

    Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) represented the most notable surgeon of his generation and was honored with the title of "The Nestor of American Surgeon" by surgeon biographer Isaac Minis Hays. Of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, he was born on the family farm near Easton, Pennsylvania. He attended Wilkebarré Academy and Lawrenceville High School, noted private institutions of the day. He apprenticed under Doctor Joseph K. Swift of Easton and later with Professor George McClellan while in Philadelphia. In 1828, he graduated from Jefferson Medical College and remained for a short time in Philadelphia. Professor Gross focused his professional pursuits in the cities of Easton (1830-1833), Cincinnati (1833-1840), Louisville (1840-1856), and Philadelphia (1856-1882). He retired from Jefferson Medical College two years before his death in 1884. Samuel D. Gross' contributions to surgery were numerous and diverse. He was recognized as a prolific author of classic texts of pathology, surgery, and history, an educator, a leader, a surgical researcher, and a pioneer surgeon practitioner. His influence in national affairs was immense, and his recognition as a respected surgeon was unmatched. He remains the most distinguished surgeon of his times. History values him as a hard working, honest, highly competent, and committed individual. His capacity for work and his dedication to a single cause were unrivaled. Doctor Gross integrated the best that surgery could give to future generations of surgical professionals.

  12. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  13. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  14. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  15. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  16. 75 FR 15610 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as...

  17. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  18. Outcomes of a Rotational Dissection System in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, David W.; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z.; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to…

  19. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Marker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year’s digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points. Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  20. RESEARCH ON GROSS ERROR DETECTION BASED ON BIO-POLE METHOD%基于双极差的粗差探测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘陶胜; 黄声享; 李沛鸿

    2012-01-01

    粗差对数学期望值计算有偏态影响,并会传递到残差序列中,仅用3σ准则探测粗差,极易产生“去真”或“纳伪”的错误.通过分析观测序列极差、观测值改正数极差与粗差之间的关系,推导了粗差的判断条件,构造双极差判断矩阵进行粗差探测,同时比较了小样本和大样本序列探测的不同之处,通过实例分析,验证了该方法是一种有效的探测手段.%Gross errors make skewness influence on mathematical expectation of series, which will transfer to the residual sequence. The gross errors detection only with 3σ criterion may make a mistake of discarding the truth or accepting the wrong. The relationship between the poor of observations or error correction and gross errors was analyzed and the formulae to judge gross errors were deduced. The judgment condition matrix based on bio-poor for detecting gross errors was constructed and the difference of small sample with large sample in detecting gross errors was compared. This method is verified effective through example analyses.

  1. Period Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Too Tall or Too Short All About Puberty Period Cramps KidsHealth > For Kids > Period Cramps Print A ... re a girl who gets them. What Are Period Cramps? Lots of girls experience cramps before or ...

  2. Application of multi-parameter remote monitoring and forecasting system for cut slope during construction period%路堑边坡施工期多参数远程监测预警系统应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟佳迅; 庹先国; 张兆义; 王洪辉; 张贵宇

    2012-01-01

    山区高速公路路堑边坡在开挖过程中极可能发生坡体滑动、坍塌,甚至小规模崩塌现象,开发一种路堑边坡施工期多参数远程监测预警系统,保障工程施工期间施工方和当地群众的人身、财产安全显得极为重要.运用多种传感器技术实时地获取施工期间边坡倾斜度、位移和降雨量的变化情况,结合通用分组无线业务(GPRS)和手机短信服务(SMS)技术通过无线方式与上位机进行通信,建立被监测对象各类信息变化的数据库和网络发布平台,同时利用客户端管理软件对危险信息进行预警.通过在毕威高速公路的安装运行,系统成功地在施工期进行了监测预警,避免了不必要的人员伤亡和财产损失.%It is likely to occur slope sliding,caving in,and even small-scale collapse when the mountain highway cut slope in the excavation process. So it is extremely important to develop the multi-parameter remote monitoring and forecasting system for cut slope during the construction period to protect personal and property safety. A variety of sensor technology is used to access the tilt, displacement and rainfall of the slope in construction period, combined with GPRS and SMS technology to communicate with the host computer, and establishs platform of the monitored database and the web publishing. At the same time release the warning dangerous information. The monitoring and forecasting system has been successfully applied to Ri-Wei highway during the construction period, and avoided unnecessary personal and property losses.

  3. Time-saving and fail-safe dissection method for vestibulocochlear organs in gross anatomy classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryoji; Konno, Naoaki; Ishizawa, Akimitsu; Kanatsu, Yoshinori; Funakoshi, Kodai; Akashi, Hideo; Zhou, Ming; Abe, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Because the vestibulocochlear organs are tiny and complex, and are covered by the petrous part of the temporal bone, they are very difficult for medical students to dissect and visualize during gross anatomy classes. Here, we report a time-saving and fail-safe procedure we have devised, using a hand-held hobby router. Nine en bloc temporal bone samples from donated human cadavers were used as trial materials for devising an appropriate procedure for dissecting the vestibulocochlear organs. A hand-held hobby router was used to cut through the temporal bone. After trials, the most time-saving and fail-safe method was selected. The performance of the selected method was assessed by a survey of 242 sides of 121 cadavers during gross anatomy classes for vestibulocochlear dissection. The assessment was based on the observation ratio. The best procedure appeared to be removal of the external acoustic meatus roof and tympanic cavity roof together with removal of the internal acoustic meatus roof. The whole procedure was completed within two dissection classes, each lasting 4.5 hr. The ratio of surveillance for the chorda tympani and three semicircular canals by students was significantly improved during 2013 through 2016. In our dissection class, "removal of the external acoustic meatus roof and tympanic cavity roof together with removal of the internal acoustic meatus roof" was the best procedure for students in the limited time available. Clin. Anat. 30:703-710, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Analysis of the Problems and Countermeasures in Teacher Ethics Construction of Social Transformation Period%社会转型期高校师德师风建设问题与对策探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文中

    2014-01-01

    社会转型时期,多元化的价值观念冲击着高校校园,高校师德师风建设面临全新的挑战,高校师德出现学术功利化、缺乏奉献与合作创新精神等滑坡现象,文章通过对其现状和原因的分析认为可采取加强教师思想道德教育,构建公正合理的学术评价体系及具体量化的师德评价体系等三方面的对策来加强和改善。%Diversified values of social transformation period are sweeping the university campuses , posing new challenges to university teacher ethics construction . Through analysis of the causes to such problems in teacher ethics as academic utilitarianism , lack of dedication , and poor cooperation and innovation , this thesis holds that teacher ethics can be improved and consolidated from three aspects: strengthening ideological and moral education , establishing fair and reasonable academic evaluation system , and constructing specific and quantitive teacher ethics assessment system .

  5. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  6. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  7. PREDICTION OF GROSS FEED EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict gross feed efficiency of Italian Holstein Friesian bulls selected for production, functional and type traits. A total of 12,238 bulls, from the April 2015 genetic evaluation, were used. Predicted daily gross feed efficiency (pFE was obtained as ratio between milk yield (MY and predicted dry matter intake (pDMI. Phenotypic trend for MY, predicted body weight (pBW and pFE were calculated by the bull birth year. The results suggest that pFE can be successfully selected to increase profitability of dairy cattle using the current milk recording system. Direct measurements on DMI should be considered to confirm results of pFE obtained in the present study.

  8. Research of Hangzhou City Ditch Construction during Tang-Song Dynasties and Minguo Period%唐宋及民国时期杭州城市沟渠建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡勇军; 李霄

    2016-01-01

    The construction of canals in Hangzhou City has a long history. Their preliminary development is closely related with“well-canals”. During Tang and Song Dynasties, Li Mi and Su Dongpo built Liu Jing as diversion channel which drew water from the West Lake. During this period, the change of canals is mainly manifested in two aspects. One is the change of the materials of culvert pipes:from bamboo tubes, to tile tubes, o stone tubes. The second is the sewage facilities set up at the entrance of the ditches. In Minguo Period, People were aware of the importance of ditch construction in urban development. In order to solve the problems of ur-ban drainage, the government carried out a detailed investigation on the ditch equipment and drainage of streets in city, and then for-mulated and implemented the urban sewer construction plan.%杭州城内的沟渠建设由来已久,其最初发展和“井渠”密切相关。唐宋年间,李泌和苏东坡等人在城内开凿六井,将西湖水引入城内。这一时期沟渠的发展主要表现在两个方面:一是涵管的材质经历了竹筒—瓦筒—石筒的变化,二是在沟渠口设置了排污设施。民国时期,人们越来越意识到沟渠建设对城市发展的重要意义。为了解决城市排水问题,杭州市政府对城内街道的沟渠设备以及排泄情况做了详细调查,并统筹规划,制定和实施了城区下水道建设计划。

  9. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  10. Study on the Application of Investment Payback Period Index in BOT Construction Project%投资回收期指标在BOT项目中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明孝; 叶婉

    2015-01-01

    Application of investment payback period index in economic evaluation is limited. By analyzing its application features,this paper puts forward the idea of adjusting the construction project of net income and calculating the payback period and other related economic evalution index based on annual average net income. It carries on the empirical analysis to demonstrate the feasibility and its rationality.%投资回收期指标在经济评价中的应用受到一定限制.通过分析投资回收期指标的应用特征,提出了调整建设项目现金流量,按年平均净收益计算投资回收期等相关经济评价指标的方法,并重点探讨其在BOT项目中的应用,论证其合理性和可行性,有助于评估投资方案的风险.

  11. Strengthening construction and management of laboratory for talent training in new period%新时期人才培养需要加强实验室的建设与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春平; 唐建华; 陈世童

    2011-01-01

    The traditional method for talent cultivation is "emphasizing theory as well as looking down practice. " The laboratory role as an important link between theory and practice is often neglected. The result is that the theory departs from practice seriously. As the important base for talent training, teaching and research, the laboratory plays a vital role in cultivating talents and promoting technological progress in the new period. Aiming at the need of personnel cultivation in the new period, this paper expounds position and role of the laboratory in talent training, and discusses the way and methods for strengthening construction and management of the laboratory.%针对高校人才培养目标,阐述了实验室在培养新时期复合型人才中的地位和作用,探讨了加强实验室建设与管理的方法和途径,使实验室在培养新时期复合型人才、促进科技发展方面发挥更重要的作用.

  12. 核电项目建造阶段中的焊接工艺评定转移%Welding procedure qualification transference to different project of nuclear power item during the construction period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马新朝

    2011-01-01

    论述了核电站在建造阶段焊接工艺评定报告由已完成建造任务的核电项目至正在建设中的核电项目中的焊接工艺评定报告的转移情况,分析了工艺评定转移的可行性,转移后施工单位、监理单位、政府监督单位所应关注的重点,突出了质量保证及质量控制,更关注了政府监督单位(核安全局及地区核与辐射监督站)的监督职能.焊接工艺评定的有效转移,一方面节约了重复评定时的人力和物力投入,降低了建造成本;另一方面有力的推动了工程的顺利建设,促进焊接技术及经验的持续发展,从而提离了管理水平.%The paper shows us the Welding producer report transference to different project of nuclear power item during the construction period,analyses the practicability to the producer report transference. After transference,the paper discusses the focal point to welding in construction enterprises,surveillance management corporation as well as the responsible for supervision departments of the Government,give prominence to the Quality assurance and Quality control. The Nuclear Safety Bureau and the Area Departments Responsible for Supervision on radiation should give more attention to the surveillance on transference.The effective transfer of PQR can reduce expenses ,material and manpower in duplicate welding procedure qualification,reduce construction costs ;the other side,which can strongly promotes the project construction,accelerate the welding technology and experience continue development,and improve the management standards.

  13. Highlights of China's offshore engineering projects during the 12th Five-Year Plan period%十二五期间中国海工工程的主要看点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ According to the Program for the Development of Marine Engineering Equipment During the 12th Five-Year Plan Period,it is expected that China will invest 250 to 300billion yuan in marine engineering projects,thus leading to a new round of marine engineering investment fever.In 2009,the gross production value of China's marine engineering projects already accounted for 1 0%of the gross national domestic production value,and this percentage will hopefully rise to 15% during the 12th five-year plan period. In the entire industrial chain of marine engineering and in connection with mechanic equipment such as the equipment and components for drilling and prospecting of oil,marine engineering equipment and construction of oil wells,the most-favored one will be the high-end marine engineering equipment,including mainly drilling platforms,float production systems,engineering ships,underwater engineering equipment.

  14. Non-Abelian twisted kinks in chiral Gross-Neveu model with isospin

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional, massless Gross-Neveu model with Nc colors and SU(2) isospin is studied analytically in the large Nc limit. The chiral SU(2)L X SU(2)R symmetry is broken spontaneously in the vacuum. Twisted kinks connecting two arbitrary points on the vacuum manifold S3 are constructed, and their properties are explored. The phase diagram as a function of temperature, baryon- and isospin chemical potential is discussed, with special emphasis on inhomogeneous phases. The preferred form of the condensate is a product of the real kink crystal and the chiral spiral. Kink-kink scattering is solved, using the general solution of the multicomponent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation recently presented by Takahashi.

  15. A modified lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model for convection heat transfer in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liang; Guo, Zhaoli

    2015-01-01

    The lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) model has become the most popular one in the lattice Boltzmann method for simulating the convection heat transfer in porous media. However, the LBGK model generally suffers from numerical instability at low fluid viscosities and effective thermal diffusivities. In this paper, a modified LBGK model is developed for incompressible thermal flows in porous media at the representative elementary volume scale, in which the shear rate and temperature gradient are incorporated into the equilibrium distribution functions. With two additional parameters, the relaxation times in the collision process can be fixed at a proper value invariable to the viscosity and the effective thermal diffusivity. In addition, by constructing a modified equilibrium distribution function and a source term in the evolution equation of temperature field, the present model can recover the macroscopic equations correctly through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, which is another key point different from pre...

  16. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  17. Influence of the environment on performance of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatudimu, Margaret Bukola

    2012-01-01

    Assessment and physiotherapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) are conventionally carried out in the hospital or clinic setting. However, the daily lives of these children include a variety of environmental settings in addition to the clinical setting. The objective of this study was therefore to explore the possible influence of the environment on motor function in children with CP. Purposively selected children with CP (n=107), ages 1 and 6 years with mean age of 2.1 years (SD 1.10 yrs), were involved in this study. The motor function of each child was assessed in the hospital and at their homes within a one-week interval, using the gross motor function measure (GMFM); this was done at the baseline and on a monthly basis for eight consecutive months. The paired t-test rank was computed to compare the overall GMFM score and each of the sub-domain scores measured in the clinic and at home. GMFM scores measured at home were significantly higher than those measured in the clinic and this pattern was also obtained for the sub-domains throughout the study period, suggesting that children performed gross motor functions better at their homes than in the clinic.

  18. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Alesi,1 Giuseppe Battaglia,2 Michele Roccella,1 Davide Testa,1 Antonio Palma,2 Annamaria Pepi1 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Law, Social and Sport Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Background: This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods: The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years. Results: Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion: There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. Keywords: disability, Down syndrome, gross motor abilities, cognitive abilities, physical activity

  19. 26 CFR 1.927(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; Definition of gross...(b)-1T Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 927(b.... The FSC's gross receipts for purposes of computing its profit under the administrative pricing...

  20. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  1. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  2. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  3. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  4. 26 CFR 20.2031-1 - Definition of gross estate; valuation of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that if the executor elects the alternate valuation method under section 2032, it is the fair... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross estate; valuation of... § 20.2031-1 Definition of gross estate; valuation of property. (a) Definition of gross estate. Except...

  5. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in...

  6. Discussion on Construction Process of Water Facilities in Wuchang during Period of Republican China%民国时期武昌自来水事业兴办历程述论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向明亮

    2014-01-01

    The city utility of water is an important public facility relating to the livelihood of every family and directly affecting the health and life quality of urban residents .In the period of Republican China ,Wuchang water facilities had undergone many ups and downs .From the initial idea to the project completion , the scale of water plant shrank constantly and eventually a very limited scale temporary water plant was completed . This case revealed that the backward wuchang municipal construction , the insufficient funds , lack of talents , together with the changeable municipal establishment should take the responsibility for the difficulty in the municipal construction .%城市公用自来水事业是一项事关千家万户的市政设施,它直接影响到城市居民的健康和生活质量。民国时期,武昌自来水事业兴办过程历经艰难曲折,从最初设想到工程完工,水厂规模不断缩减,最终仅完成一座规模十分有限的武昌临时水厂。此个案揭示了武昌市政建设的落后,资金不足、人才难求,加之更张多变的建制是造成了这一时期市政建设困难的主要原因。

  7. 中央苏区时期的作风建设及其历史借鉴%The Style Construction of the Central Soviet Area Period and Its Historical Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡硕兵

    2014-01-01

    苏区干部好作风是我们党的宝贵精神财富。研究党在中央苏区时期的作风建设,阐释作风的内涵无疑是重点,但是,仅仅对苏区干部好作风这个建设成果做一般性的解释工作,还不足以发挥苏区作风的时代价值。要深入挖掘苏区作风的历史和现实意义,还需拓展研究思路,把研究的重点由内涵的解读转移到形成过程的追溯上来,只有把中央苏区时期的作风建设过程研究清楚,才能够对苏区干部好作风不仅做到“知其然”还做到“知其所以然”,进而加深其理解,弘扬其精神。%The good style of cadres in the soviet area is a valuable spiritual treasure of our Party. To interpret the connotation of style is undoubtedly a key point of studying the Party’s style construction in the Central Soviet Area period. However,if we merely make general explanations of the good style of cadres in soviet area,it is in-sufficient for carrying forward the times value of the soviet area style. To deeply explore the historical and actual meaning of the soviet area style,we must expand our vision field and transform the focus of research from inter-pretation of connotation to the tracing of the forming process. Unless we clearly find out the construction process of the style of the Central Soviet Area period,we cannot understand not only what the soviet area style is,but also how it is formed. Only by doing so,we can deepen our understanding of the soviet area style and carry forward its spirit.

  8. The effect of aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Lidija; Aleksandrović, Marko; Madić, Dejan; Okičić, Tomislav; Radovanović, Dragan; Daly, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-nine children with CP, aged 5 to 14, were recruited. Fourteen children completed an aquatic intervention (EG), and 13 children served as controls (CG). Two participants dropped out due to events (illness) unrelated to the intervention. The aquatic intervention lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions per week at 55 minutes per session) with a follow-up period of 3 weeks. The outcome measures were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) for motor function and the Water Orientation Test Alyn 2 (WOTA 2) for aquatic skills assessment. A significant improvement was observed in the secondary assessment of GMFM and WOTA 2. In contrast to the aquatic skills improvement, the GMFM change was not maintained at follow-up. Our results indicate that children with CP can improve gross motor function on dry land and aquatic skills with a 6-week water intervention. The intervention period was too short for sustainable improvement in dry-land motor skills after intervention (follow-up), but time was sufficient to achieve sustainable improvements in aquatic skills.

  9. Assessment of leaching loss estimates and gross load of nitrogen from arable land in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Markus (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences)

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on calculating N leaching loss estimates and gross loads of nitrogen. Calculations were done at two different scales, from field resolution in a small catchment to calculations at a large scale for the south and central part of Sweden. The latter study was initiated by Swedish commitments to international agreements concerning a decrease in N emissions to the Baltic Sea. Three of the papers deal with leaching of nitrogen in different periods: as it may have been in the 19[sup th] century, the current situation, and suggestions for a decrease with different countermeasures. The tools used in making these estimations were the SOIL/SOILN models. Calculations indicate that average N leaching was about the same in the 19[sup th] century as it is today at the end of the 20[sup th] century. The main reasons for high losses in the 19[sup th] century were high mineralisation rates in newly ploughed grassland, crop stress due to unfavourable conditions caused poor utilisation of N by crops, and large areas of bare fallow. N leaching was at its lowest in the 1930's due to larger N utilisation, a general termination of enhanced mineralisation and a large acreage of ley. Since then leaching has increased by on average about 60%, and more in the south of Sweden. Results also indicate that the draining of lakes has considerably decreased the retention capacity and is, along with the increase in gross load, one of the main causes of increased net load to the sea. A decrease in N leaching was estimated for the period 1985-1994. The decrease was mostly due to a smaller total area of arable land and an increase in the acreage of ley at the expense of cereals. The increase in the percentage of ley in the ten-year period (1985-1994) was the largest occurring in such a short time in the last 130 years in Sweden. Scenario calculations indicate that there is a potential for a decrease in the gross load of approximately 10 ktonnes from the current level of

  10. Facilitating appreciation of anatomical variation and development of teamwork skills in the gross anatomy laboratory using a cadaver reassignment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunger, Leslie K

    2008-01-01

    Developing a mental map of the body in three dimensions incorporating normal anatomical variations is a challenge for students of gross anatomy. Acquisition of this ability is facilitated by frequently reassigning students to work on different specimens in gross anatomy laboratories, a significant departure from traditional teaching strategies. This article analyzes student and faculty experiences with a reassignment system over a six-year period, including effects on early professional development and students' attitudes toward the cadavers. Students were strongly supportive of the method, noting that specimen reassignments facilitated learning, encouraged dissection skill building, and fostered collaborative interactions. Students' perception of the value of the contribution of each cadaver to their education was preserved and, for many, enhanced. Frequent specimen reassignments offer an opportunity to model public accountability for work and some aspects of the relationships between multiple health care teams caring for a patient.

  11. Periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    Periodic paralyses are rare diseases characterized by severe episodes of muscle weakness concomitant to variations in blood potassium levels. It is thus usual to differentiate hypokalemic, normokalemic, and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Except for thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis and periodic paralyses secondary to permanent changes of blood potassium levels, all of these diseases are of genetic origin, transmitted with an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance. Periodic paralyses are channelopathies, that is, diseases caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels. The culprit genes encode for potassium, calcium, and sodium channels. Mutations of the potassium and calcium channel genes cause periodic paralysis of the same type (Andersen-Tawil syndrome or hypokalemic periodic paralysis). In contrast, distinct mutations in the muscle sodium channel gene are responsible for all different types of periodic paralyses (hyper-, normo-, and hypokalemic). The physiological consequences of the mutations have been studied by patch-clamp techniques and electromyography (EMG). Globally speaking, ion channel mutations modify the cycle of muscle membrane excitability which results in a loss of function (paralysis). Clinical physiological studies using EMG have shown a good correlation between symptoms and EMG parameters, enabling the description of patterns that greatly enhance molecular diagnosis accuracy. The understanding of the genetics and pathophysiology of periodic paralysis has contributed to refine and rationalize therapeutic intervention and will be without doubts the basis of further advances.

  12. 土木工程施工课程半自助式三阶段教学方法%Semi-self-help Three Period Teaching Method of Civil Engineering Construction Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王尧鸿; 侯永利; 吴安利

    2016-01-01

    针对土木工程施工课程的特点,提出半自助式三阶段教学方法。该方法以学生半自助学习为主线,将每个授课内容单元分为3个阶段完成,重视实践环节,突出自主学习,注重培养学生的创新意识,教师由原来在讲台上单纯传道授业解惑的“演员”转变为教学活动的“导演”和学生身边的“教练”,而学生则由原来讲台下被动接受的“观众”转变为教学活动中积极主动的参与者,从而显著提高教学效果。%aiming at the characteristics of civil engineering construction course, this paper put forward semi-self-help three period teaching method. This teaching method takes the semi-self-help study of students as the main line and divides every teaching content unit into three period. The method pays great attention to the practice link, highlights autonomous learning and cultivates creative consciousness of students. The role of teacher is changed from the"actor"on the podium to the"director"of teaching activities and the"coach"around students. Meanwhile the role of students is changed from the passive"audiences"under platform to active participants in teaching activities. So this teaching method can signiifcantly improve the teaching effect.

  13. 论探索建设时期中国共产党执政包容性思想%The Inclusion Thought of the CPC in Exercising State Power in the Period of Exploration of Socialist Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪萍

    2012-01-01

    In the period of exploration of socialist construction,The Chinese Communist Party already became a governing party leading the people to hold the nationwide regime.In this period,The Chinese Communist Party had done hard work in exporing and practicing the inclusion thought in exercising state power,with experiences of success and even lessons from failures.Through the summary and review of this stage,we are enlignted that we must grasp scientifically the mainline of the development and integration of the social interests,must adhere to the basic principle and methods of the inclusion thought,must take firmly the way of unifying body and function in practices.This is to bring practical influence on the CPC's constucting and developing the inclusion thought in exercising state power.%社会主义探索建设时期,我党已是取得全国政权的执政党。在这一时期,中国共产党在执政包容性思想方面进行了艰辛地探索实践,有成功的经验,更有失败的教训。回顾总结这段历史,由此得出的必须科学把握发展和整合社会利益的主线、始终坚持固本包容的基本原则和坚定地走"体用统一"的实践路径等几点启示,对于我党执政包容性思想的建设与发展有很强的现实意义。

  14. The relationship between macroeconomic and industry-specific business cycle indicators and workrelated injuries among Danish construction workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Lander, F.; Lauritsen, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study examines and compares the relationship between both macroeconomic and industry-specific business cycle indicators, and work-related injuries among construction workers in Denmark using emergency department (ED) injury data and also officially reported injuries...... to the Danish Working Environment Authority (WEA). Methods The correlations between ED and WEA injury data from the catchment area of Odense University Hospital during the period 1984–2010 were tested separately for variability and trend with two general macroeconomic indicators (gross domestic product...

  15. The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per

    2014-05-01

    Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon

  16. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, B.

    2007-04-18

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  17. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  18. Complex saddles in the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Gabriel; Medina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We give an exhaustive characterization of the complex saddle point configurations of the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model in the large-N limit. In particular, we characterize the cases in which the saddles accumulate in one, two, or three arcs, in terms of the values of the coupling constant and of the fraction of the total unit density that is supported in one of the arcs, and derive an explicit condition for gap closing associated to nonvacuum saddles. By applying the idea of large-N instanton we also give direct analytic derivations of the weak-coupling and strong-coupling instanton actions.

  19. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  20. Four loop renormalization of the Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A; Schroder, Y

    2016-01-01

    We renormalize the SU(N) Gross-Neveu model in the modified minimal subtraction (MSbar) scheme at four loops and determine the beta-function at this order. The theory ceases to be multiplicatively renormalizable when dimensionally regularized due to the generation of evanescent 4-fermi operators. The first of these appears at three loops and we correctly take their effect into account in deriving the renormalization group functions. We use the results to provide estimates of critical exponents relevant to phase transitions in graphene.

  1. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  2. Global gross primary productivity and water use efficiency changes under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen; Wang, Jingxin; Liu, Shirong; Rentch, James S.; Sun, Pengsen; Lu, Chaoqun

    2017-01-01

    Drought can affect the structure, composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet drought impacts and post-drought recovery potentials of different land cover types have not been extensively studied at a global scale. We evaluated drought impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of different global terrestrial ecosystems, as well as the drought-resilience of each ecosystem type during the period of 2000 to 2011. Using GPP as biome vitality indicator against drought stress, we developed a model to examine ecosystem resilience represented by the length of recovery days (LRD). LRD presented an evident gradient of high (>60 days) in mid-latitude region and low (stress induced responses or data uncertainties, which require further investigation.

  3. Incidence of gross reproductive abnormalities in small east African zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assey, R J; Kessy, B M; Matovelo, J A; Minga, U

    1998-12-01

    Reproductive organs from mature Small East African zebu (SEAZ) heifers and cows slaughtered at the Morogoro abattoir were collected twice a month and evaluated over a period of 12 months. Out of the 402 animals from which reproductive organs were taken, 54% were pregnant, 24% were actively cycling and 22% were non-cycling. Various gross abnormalities were observed in the reproductive organs of about 16% of the cattle, and the major reproductive abnormality in both total and the non-cycling animals was various degrees of fibrous adhesion between the ovary and the infundibulum and mesosalpinx. It is concluded that, contrary to common belief, a majority of the female SEAZ cattle that are slaughtered are fertile.

  4. Propagating and annihilating vortex dipoles in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    CERN Document Server

    Rorai, Cecilia; Fisher, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Quantum vortex dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates or superfluid helium can be informatively described by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. Various approximate analytical formulae for a single stationary vortex are recalled and their shortcomings demonstrated. Significantly more accurate two-point [2/2] and [3/3] Pade' approximants for stationary vortex profiles are presented. Two straight, singly quantized, antiparallel vortices, located at a distance d apart, form a vortex dipole, which, in the GP model, can either annihilate or propagate indefinitely as a `solitary wave'. We show, through calculations performed in a periodic domain, that the details and types of behavior displayed by vortex dipoles depend strongly on the initial conditions rather than only on the separation distance (as has been previously claimed). It is found, indeed, that the choice of the initial two-vortex profile (i.e., the modulus of the `effective wave function'), strongly affects the vortex trajectories and the time scale of t...

  5. Redistribution and modulation of Gross murine leukemia virus antigens induced by specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioachim, H L; Sabbath, M

    1979-01-01

    Gross murine leukemia virus (G-MuLV)-induced rat leukemia cells in tissue culture replicate G-MuLV, express strong virus-associated membrane antigenicity, and are consistently killed by specific antibodies and complement in cytotoxicity tests. To explore the effect of specific antibodies, rat anti-G-MuLV antisera were added to the cultures of leukemia cells for variable periods of time. Redistribution of virus particles as well as of membrane virus antigens in the form of polar patches and caps was observed by electron microscopy, indirect immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy. Substantial decreases in cytotoxicity indexes accompanied these changes. The antigen modulation induced by anti-G-MuLV antibodies in vitro paralleled similar changes obtained in vivo by transplanttion of leukemia cells in rats with high anti-G-MuLV antibody titers. The importance of antigen modulation in this system resides in its direct relationship with the malignant potential of the leukemia cells.

  6. The long run relationship between foreign direct investments, exports, and gross domestic product: panel data implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERYİĞİT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI is defined as establishing a new company or branch of a foreign company by foreign investor or share acquisitions of a company established in host country (any percentage of shares acquired outside the stock exchange or 10 percent or more of the shares or voting power of a company acquired through the stock exchange (UNCTAD, 2012. This study investigated the long-term relationship between FDI and export volume, FDI and Gross Domestic Products (GDP, and export volume and GDP through cointegration tests. It is conducted the panel data analysis using data for the period of 2000-2010 from 15 countries making direct investment in Turkey regularly since year 2000. Panel unit-root tests showed that variables are stationary for the first difference level. Residual based and error correction based cointegration tests revealed that there is long-term relationship between FDI and export volume, FDI and GDP, and export volume and GDP.

  7. A Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic model with velocity-dependent collision frequency and corrected relaxation of moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Alexander; Euler, Craig

    2016-05-01

    We propose a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) kinetic model in which the collision frequency is a linear combination of polynomials in the velocity variable. The coefficients of the linear combination are determined so as to enforce proper relaxation rates for a selected group of moments. The relaxation rates are obtained by a direct numerical evaluation of the full Boltzmann collision operator. The model is conservative by construction. Simulations of the problem of spatially homogeneous relaxation of hard spheres gas show improvement in accuracy of controlled moments as compared to solutions obtained by the classical BGK, ellipsoidal-statistical BGK and the Shakhov models in cases of strong deviations from continuum.

  8. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  9. HOLISTIC APPROACH OF TEACHING OF GROSS PATHOLOGICAL SPECIMEN FOR 2ND PROFESSIONAL MBBS STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Study of pathological specimen is necessary for the students towards their practical (including viva as well as theoretical examinations. Past experiences show that most of the students of 2nd Professional MBBS cannot answer properly the questions related to the pathological specimen, especially the histopathological portion when asked by the examiners. This is due to the conventional method of teaching where students are given only didactic lectures on histopathological features, which is not convenient for students to understand the histopathology and related questions. AIMS To assess the impact of new teaching method of gross pathological specimen using visual aids (PowerPoint to show histopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total 41 students present in 2nd Prof. MBBS were divided into 4 groups under the leadership of class assistants or demonstrators. 20 practical classes were arranged for 4 months of study period. In the first one hour, each group was shown power-point presentation of histopathological features, related questions and answers of the gross specimen to be studied. All the aspects were discussed simultaneously. In the next one hour, there was a joint teaching session consisting of all four groups, moderated by the concerned professor with PowerPoint projection. Assessment was done by three mock tests comprising of Viva, Multiple Choice Questions and Short Assay type Questions and a routine internal assessment in the last week of the study period. Then a comparison was made with regards to presence of students and results of successive three mock tests. Result of internal assessment was compared with that of previous two batches in which students were taught with only routine lectures on the same gross pathological specimen. RESULTS The use of new method increased the average attendance of students significantly. The percentage of passing students in the mock tests was very good. There was notable increase of passing

  10. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  11. 世博建设期上海市旅游住宿产业空间格局演化%Spatial Pattern Evolution of Shanghai Tourist Lodging Industry during the World Expo Construction Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝辉; 陆林; 方婷; 夏巧云

    2012-01-01

    Taking the lodging industry as an example, the paper integrates qualitative and quantitative methods and the spatial analysis method of GIS to study the space pattern evolution characteristics of the lodging industry and explores the formation and the evolution mechanism of the lodging industry in the metropolitan city. The results are shown as follows. (1) During the early period of the World Expo construction, Shanghai's lodging industry presented an initial pattern of "two-center agglomeration, along the axis of the distribution to a gradient" while a general pattern of "multicenter agglomeration, many axes gradient distribution" when the Expo was being held. (2) During the Expo construction period, the overall space layout of the lodging industry spread gradually from the inner ring road to the outer ring road, and the main cluster center evolved from two centers to multiple centers with three prominent evolutionary directions in space, namely, the northwest of the city, Pudong direction and the development direction from the central area to the peripheral area along both sides of the Huangpu River. (3) During the Expo construction period, Shanghai's lodging industry developed quickly and presented an overall agglomeration layout, the star hotels are characterized by high concentration-high concentration development, and the economy hotels are featured by low concentration-high concentration development. (4) The 2010 World Expo exerted a distinct influence on Shanghai's lodging industry and formed an intensive industrial cluster center and concentrated distribution site centering on Expo garden. Comparatively, the influence of the Expo on economy hotels was stronger than on star hotels. (5) In general, the spatial pattern of formation and evolution of the lodging industry corresponded with the urban spatial development pattern and the urban function structure evolution. Various elements, such as the politics, economy, mega events, the development environment

  12. Irregular Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood become too low or too high. Some women have irregular periods because their bodies produce too much androgen, which is a hormone that causes increased muscle mass, facial hair, and deepening of the voice in males and ...

  13. Period Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  14. Technical note: Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen triple isotope measurements can be used to calculate aquatic gross oxygen production rates. Past studies have emphasised the appropriate definition of the 17O excess and often used an approximation to derive production rates from the 17O excess. Here, I show that the calculation can be phrased more consistently and without any approximations using the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences (delta values directly. I call this the "dual delta method". The 17O excess is merely a mathematical construct and the derived production rate is independent of its definition, provided all calculations are performed with a consistent definition. I focus on the mixed layer, but also show how time series of triple isotope measurements below the mixed layer can be used to derive gross production.

    In the calculation of mixed layer productivity, I explicitly include isotopic fractionation during gas invasion and evasion, which requires the oxygen supersaturation s to be measured as well. I also suggest how bubble injection could be considered in the same mathematical framework. I distinguish between concentration steady state and isotopic steady state and show that only the latter needs to be assumed in the calculation. It is even possible to derive an estimate of the net production rate in the mixed layer that is independent of the assumption of concentration steady state.

    I review measurements of the parameters required for the calculation of gross production rates and show how their systematic uncertainties as well as the use of different published calculation methods can cause large variations in the production rates for the same underlying isotope ratios. In particular, the 17O excess of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with atmospheric O2 and the 17O excess of photosynthetic O2 need to

  15. Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen triple isotope measurements can be used to calculate aquatic gross oxygen production rates. Past studies have emphasised the appropriate definition of the 17O excess and often used an approximation to derive production rates from the 17O excess. Here, I show that the calculation can be phrased more consistently and without any approximations using the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences directly. The 17O excess is merely a mathematical construct and the derived production rate is independent of its definition, provided all calculations are performed with a consistent definition. I focus on the mixed layer, but also show how time series of triple oxygen measurements below the mixed layer can be used to derive gross production.

    In the calculation of mixed layer productivity, I explicitly include isotopic fractionation during gas invasion and evasion, which requires the oxygen supersaturation s to be measured as well. I also suggest how bubble injection could be considered in the same mathematical framework. I distinguish between concentration steady state and isotopic steady state and show that only the latter needs to be assumed in the calculation. It is even possible to derive an estimate of the net production rate in the mixed layer that is independent of the assumption of concentration steady state.

    I review measurements of the parameters required for the calculation of gross production rates and show how their systematic uncertainties as well as the use of different published calculation methods can cause large variations in the production rates for the same underlying isotope ratios. In particular, the 17O excess of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with atmospheric O2 and the 17O excess of photosynthetic O2 need to be re-measured. Because of these uncertainties, all

  16. Results and Flaws of Security Market Supervision and Managing System Construction in the Earlier Period of Republic of China%民国前期证券市场监管制度建设的成效与缺陷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建华

    2011-01-01

    The construction of China security market supervising and managing system had made the remarkable progress in the earlier period of the Republic of China, but the security market unrest frequently broke out in this period , it showed the effects of security market supervising and managing were unsatisfactory. The historical experiences tells the common people, guarding the eruption of security market unrest needs to stabilize the current political and economic situation, improve the credit of government and non - government, weaken the speculative psychology of the dealers;maintain the national sovereignty and the centralization system, perfect and effectively implement security market supervising and managing system, avoid security market supervising and managing to become a mere formality; In this situation of credit order being not good as well as security spot market growing insufficiently mature, demand carefully to create such derivation finance tools as security futures and so on, may consider transforming the organization system of the security exchange, choose the organization system of company, strengthen the autonomy and the supervising and managing function of the security exchange so as to make up the insufficiency of government supervising and managing.%民国前期,我国证券市场监管制度建设取得了显著的进展,但证券市场风潮的频发说明此时证券市场监管的效果不尽人意。历史经验告诉世人,防范证券市场风潮的爆发,需要稳定政经时势,改良政府和民间信用,淡化市场主体的投机心理;还要维护国家主权及中央集权制度,完善并有效实施证券市场监管制度,避免证券市场监管流于形式;在信用秩序不佳以及证券现货市场发育不够成熟的情况下,要谨慎推出证券期货等衍生金融工具,还可以考虑交易所组织制度的变革,选择公司组织,强化交易所的自律和监管功能以弥补政府监管的不足。

  17. Human Resource Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"

  18. Construction of pain management program during rehabilitation period for adult burn patients%成年烧伤病人康复期疼痛管理方案的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙颖; 王光毅; 冯苹; 纪世召; 张玲娟

    2016-01-01

    [目的]构建成年烧伤病人康复期疼痛管理方案,促进临床烧伤疼痛管理护理实践科学、统一和规范。[方法]检索 OVID JBI,Cochrane Library,BEST PRACTICE,RNAO,EBSCO 循证护理学数据库,PubMed 以及中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM),检索从创建到2014年12月31日公开发表的关于烧伤病人康复期疼痛管理方法的临床实践指南、证据总结、系统评价、集束化措施,由3位评价者单独进行文献的筛除、质量评价、数据提取并交叉核对形成方案初稿,通过专家会议法和专家咨询对方案进行调整,最终构建成年烧伤病人康复期疼痛管理方案。[结果]本研究共纳入9篇文献,其中6篇指南、3篇系统评价,构建的疼痛管理方案包括疼痛评估流程和疼痛护理干预方案。[结论]以循证护理为研究方法,构建的疼痛管理方案对我国烧伤疼痛护理的实践具有一定的指导作用。%Objective:In order to construct the management plan of pain management for burn patients in rehabil-itation period,and to promote the scientific,unified and standardized clinical burn pain management nursing practice.Methods:It retrieved Cochrane,Library OVID JBI,PRACTICE BEST,RNAO,EBSCO evidence based nursing database,PubMed,and the Chinese biomedical literature database (CBM).It searched clinical practice guidelines,evidence summary,system evaluation,and cluster based measures for pain management in burn patients from search database creation to December 31,2014.3 reviewers separately screened literature, quality evaluation,data extraction and cross check the formation of the first draft.Through the expert meeting method and expert consultation to adj ust the program,and constructed the pain management plan for burn pa-tients in rehabilitation period.Results:The study included 9 papers,6 guide and 3 systematic review.The pain management programs included pain assessment procedures and pain nursing intervention program

  19. Floating Offshore Wind in California: Gross Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Construction of the first offshore wind farm in the United States began in 2015, using fixed platform structures that are appropriate for shallow seafloors, like those located off of the East Coast and mid-Atlantic. However, floating platforms, which have yet to be deployed commercially, will likely need to anchor to the deeper seafloor if deployed off of the West Coast. To analyze the employment and economic potential for floating offshore wind along the West Coast, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze two hypothetical, large-scale deployment scenarios for California: 16 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario A) and 10 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario B). The results of this analysis can be used to better understand the general scales of economic opportunities that could result from offshore wind development. Results show total state gross domestic product (GDP) impacts of $16.2 billion in Scenario B or $39.7 billion in Scenario A for construction; and $3.5 billion in Scenario B or $7.9 billion in Scenario A for the operations phases.

  20. 学术期刊在学风建设中的把关作用探析%On the Monitoring Function of Academic Periodicals in the Construction of Study Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禤展图

    2015-01-01

    本文所论及的学风主要是指学术界的学术研究风气。目前,学术道德失范,价值观念趋向功利化,学风浮躁,低水平重复现象严重。可从以下途径来发挥学术期刊在学风建设中的把关作用:切实发挥学术期刊的学术评价功能;引导学风健康发展;规范稿件处理程序,杜绝学术不端行为;提高编辑、审稿人的学术评判能力,识破变相抄袭;学术期刊编辑部定期或不定期举办学风建设培训班;编辑要以良好的学术道德规范和学术规范影响作者。%The study atmosphere in this paper means the academic research atmosphere. At present, the aca-demic moral is in a state of anomie;values tend to utilitarianism;study atmosphere is of impetuous passion;and low-level publications are redundant. Academic periodicals should give full play to the academic monitoring function with such measures as playing the assessment function, guiding the healthy development of study atmo-sphere, formalizing editorial process of contributed papers, eliminating academic misconduct, improving editor and reviewer's ability of academic judgment and plagiarism detection, holding related training classes of study at-mosphere construction, and emphasizing the model function of editor’s good academic morality and academic norm.

  1. Analysis of rural basic level to organize construction problems and the reasons in the new period%新时期农村基层组织建设的问题及其原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐

    2014-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, China's rural grassroots organizations in the innovation process has made great theoretical breakthrough and great practice,enhance the cohesion and combat effectiveness, which play the role of Party organizations. In our country, the village Party branch and village committee is undoubtedly the two most important, the most basic organization, are the two most important rights organization carrier of the rural political arena. In the new period of rural grassroots combination to adapt to changes in economic and social development, innovation organization and management mode, to provide a strong political guarantee and organization guarantee for the construction of new countryside.%改革开放以来,我国农村基层组织在不断创新的进程中取得了较大的理论突破和长足的实践推进,增强了凝聚力和战斗力,保证了党组织的作用的发挥。对我国农村而言,村党支部和村民委员会无疑是两个最重要、最基本的组织,是农村的政治舞台上的两个最主要的权利组织载体。在新的时期农村基层组合适应经济社会的发展变化,不断创新组织设置和管理方式,为新农村建设提供了强有力的政治保障和组织保障。

  2. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2(nd) edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Optimal Bilinear Control of Gross--Pitaevskii Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hintermüller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical framework for optimal bilinear control of nonlinear Schrödinger equations of Gross--Pitaevskii type arising in the description of Bose--Einstein condensates is presented. The obtained results generalize earlier efforts found in the literature in several aspects. In particular, the cost induced by the physical workload over the control process is taken into account rather than the often used L^2- or H^1-norms for the cost of the control action. Well-posedness of the problem and existence of an optimal control are proved. In addition, the first order optimality system is rigorously derived. Also a numerical solution method is proposed, which is based on a Newton-type iteration, and used to solve several coherent quantum control problems.

  4. Gross National Happiness: Ideology versus practices in Bhutanese Seconday Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh; Giri, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced......, the influence of the concept of GNH in school life generally and specifically and the effects on teachers and students of mindfull training in the class, how does it work? The investigation is based on empirical data from eight selected secondary schools spread all over Bhutan. Principals, teachers, students...... and parents were interviewed in 2012/2013 individually and in groups. Further more classroom observations took place. Finally the investigation is based on literature review and readings of documents, which describe and analyse policies, principles, strategies and philosophies related to the implementation...

  5. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  6. Specific features of measuring the ecologically adjusted gross regional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douginets Ganna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article formulates a necessity of deepening and improvement of ecological and economic indicators and considers the existing indices and indicators of sustainable development. It conducts a comparative analysis of existing norms of calculation of the ecological tax and fees for environmental pollution. It marks main problems of nature management in Ukraine and their consequences, namely, negative impact on health of the population. It offers methods of measurement of the ecologically adjusted gross regional product (EGRP on the basis of improvement of the cost method. It analyses dependence of the regional welfare on the state of environment with the help of measuring the EGRP of Ukrainian regions. It studies the pressure on Ukrainian regions by components: pollution of aquatic environment, atmospheric air, land resources and rates of waste formation. It conducts grouping of regions by EGRP per capita with specification of positive and negative dynamics of the indicator.

  7. Stimulation of gross dimethylsulfide (DMS) production by solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galí, Martí; Saló, Violeta; Almeda, Rodrigo; Calbet, Albert; Simó, Rafel

    2011-08-01

    Oceanic gross DMS production (GP) exerts a fundamental control on the concentration and the sea-air flux of this climatically-active trace gas. However, it is a poorly constrained process, owing to the complexity of the microbial food web processes involved and their interplay with physical forcing, particularly with solar radiation. The “inhibitor method”, using dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) or other compounds to inhibit bacterial DMS consumption, has been frequently used to determine GP in dark incubations. In the work presented here, DMDS addition was optimized for its use in light incubations. By comparing simultaneous dark and light measurements of GP in meso- to ultraoligotrophic waters, we found a significant enhancement of GP in natural sunlight in 7 out of 10 experiments. Such stimulation, which was generally between 30 and 80% on a daily basis, occurred throughout contrasting microbial communities and oceanographic settings.

  8. Full Phase Diagram of the Massive Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The scalar potential is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. It contains three parameters which are determined by transcendental equations. Self-consistency of the scalar potential is proved. The phase diagram for non-zero bare quark mass is found to contain a kink-antikink crystal phase as well as a massive fermion gas phase featuring a cross-over from light to heavy effective fermion mass. For zero bare quark mass we recover the three known phases kink-antikink crystal, massless fermion gas, and massive fermion gas. All phase transitions are shown to be of second order. Equations for the phase boundaries are given and solved numerically. Implications on condensed matter physics are indicated where our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.

  9. Reply to Nicholson's comment on "Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements" by Kaiser (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The comment by Nicholson (2011a questions the "consistency" of the "definition" of the "biological end-member" used by Kaiser (2011a in the calculation of oxygen gross production. "Biological end-member" refers to the relative oxygen isotope ratio difference between photosynthetic oxygen and Air-O2 (abbreviated 17δP and 18δP for 17O/16O and 18O/16O, respectively.

    This comment has no merit for the following reasons: (a the isotopic composition of photosynthetic oxygen cannot be "defined", it can only be measured, modelled or calculated based on other data; (b the isotopic composition of photosynthetic oxygen was not "defined" in Kaiser (2011a, but derived from published measurements; (c the published measurements themselves were inconsistent and no single result could be identified as best; (d since no best value could be identified, a hypothetical base case was constructed in a way that was consistent with previous publications; (e the values of 17δP=−11.646‰ and 18δP=−22.835‰ assumed for the base case are compatible with the experimental evidence published before the paper of Kaiser (2011a; (f even if the "biological end-member" was based on a definition, there could be no argument about the "consistency" of this definition – as per its nature, a definition is arbitrary.

    The qualification of base case gross production values as being "30 % too high" must therefore also be rejected. Even though recently revised measurements of the relative 17O/16O isotope ratio difference between VSMOW and Air-O2, 17δVSMOW (Barkan and Luz, 2011, do support lower estimates of gross production, our own measurements disagree with these revised 17δVSMOW values. If scaled for differences in 18

  10. 26 CFR 1.460-3 - Long-term construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification, square footage, or fair market value. (3) $10,000,000 gross receipts test—(i) In general. Except.../capitalized-cost method (PCCM) of accounting described in § 1.460-4(e). A residential construction contract is...

  11. Period Integrals and Tautological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lian, Bong H; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2011-01-01

    We study period integrals of CY hypersurfaces in a partial flag variety. We construct a holonomic system of differential equations which govern the period integrals. By means of representation theory, a set of generators of the system can be described explicitly. The results are also generalized to CY complete intersections. The construction of these new systems of differential equations have lead us to the notion of a tautological system.

  12. On semi-periods

    CERN Document Server

    Avram, A C; Jancic, D; Uni, H; Uni, Humboldt

    1995-01-01

    The periods of the three-form on a Calabi-Yau manifold are found as solutions of the Picard-Fuchs equations; however, the toric varietal method leads to a generalized hypergeometric system of equations which has more solutions than just the periods. This same extended set of equations can be derived from symmetry considerations. Semi-periods are solutions of this extended system. They are obtained by integration of the three-form over chains; these chains can be used to construct cycles which, when integrated over, give periods. In simple examples we are able to obtain the complete set of solutions for the extended system. We also conjecture that a certain modification of the method will generate the full space of solutions in general.

  13. A multi-sites analysis on the ozone effects on Gross Primary Production of European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proietti, C. [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anav, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter (United Kingdom); De Marco, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Sicard, P. [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard BP234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis-cedex (France); Vitale, M., E-mail: marcello.vitale@uniroma1.it [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O{sub 3} can impair CO{sub 2} assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000–2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O{sub 3} monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O{sub 3} measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O{sub 3} on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O{sub 3} ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O{sub 3} impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration. - Highlights: • Assessment of the surface O{sub 3

  14. Periodic behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Napp, Diego; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R^n. These properties - in particular the Nullstellensatz describing the Willems closure - are closely related to integral and rational points on affine algebraic varieties.

  15. PERIODIC BEHAVIORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the Nullste

  16. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients...

  17. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  18. Single Epoch GPS Deformation Signals Extraction and Gross Error Detection Technique Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jingxiang; XU Changhui

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet theory is efficient as an adequate tool for analyzing single epoch GPS deformation signal. Wavelet analysis technique on gross error detection and recovery is advanced. Criteria of wavelet function choosing and Mallat decomposition levels decision are discussed. An effective deformation signal extracting method is proposed, that is wavelet noise reduction technique considering gross error recovery, which combines wavelet multi-resolution gross error detection results. Time position recognizing of gross errors and their repairing performance are realized. In the experiment, compactly supported orthogonal wavelet with short support block is more efficient than the longer one when discerning gross errors, which can obtain more finely analyses. And the shape of discerned gross error of short support wavelet is simpler than that of the longer one. Meanwhile, the time scale is easier to identify.

  19. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa GAJEWSKA*

    2014-04-01

    2013;111:183-95.Sellier E, Uldall P, Calado E, Sigurdardottir S, Torrioli MG, Platt MJ, et al. Epilepsy and cerebral palsy: characteristics and trends in children born in 1976-1998. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2012;16(1:48-55.Wallace SJ. Epilepsy in cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurology 2001;43(10:713-7.Bax MCO. Cerebral palsy. In: Aicardi J, editor. Disease of the nervous system in childhood. 2nd ed. London: Mc Keith Press; 1998. p. 210-39.Reid A, Imrie H, Brouwer E, Clutton S, Evans J, Russell D, et al. “If I knew then what I know now”: parents’ reflections on raising a child with cerebral palsy. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr 2011;31(2:169-83.Rosenbaum P, Paneth N, Leviton A, Goldstein M, Bax M, Damiano D, et al. A report: the definition and classification of cerebral palsy April 2006. Dev Med Child Neurology 2007;109:8-14.Palisano R, Rosenbaum P, Bartlett D, Livingston M. Content validity of the expanded and revised Gross Motor Function Classification System. Dev Med Child Neurology 2008;50(10:744-50.Öhrvall AM, Eliasson AC. Parents and therapists perceptions about the content and construct of Manual Ability Classification System, MACS. Scand J Occup Ther 2010;17(3:209-16.Marszał E.Występowanie, diagnostyka i leczenie padaczki u dzieci z mózgowym porażeniem dziecięcym. Neurologia dziecięca;2006:15, 30:65-8.Blair E, Watson L. Epidemiology of cerebral palsy. Semin Fetal Neonatal Medicine 2006;11(2:117-25.Meberg A, Broch H. Etiology of cerebral palsy. J Perinat Med 2004;32(5:434-9.Blair E. Epidemiology of the cerebral palsies. Orthop Clin North Am 2010;41(4:441-55.Hellbrűge T, Fritz L, Menara D, Schamberger R, Rautenstrauch T. Monachijska Funkcjonalna Diagnostyka Rozwojowa. Kraków: Antykwa; 1994. p. 80-130.Arnould C, Penta M, Renders A, Thonnard JL. Abilhand-Kids: a measure of manual ability in children with cerebral palsy. Neurology 2004;63(6:1045-52.Carnahan KD, Arner M, Hägglund G. Association between gross motor function (GMFCS and manual ability (MACS in

  20. Low-dimensional chiral physics. Gross-Neveu universality and magnetic catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Daniel David

    2012-09-27

    In this thesis, we investigate the 3-dimensional, chirally symmetric Gross-Neveu model with functional renormalization group methods. This low-dimensional quantum field theory describes the continuum limit of the low-energy sector in certain lattice systems. The functional renormalization group allows to study in a nonperturbative way the physical properties of many-body systems and quantum field theories. The starting point is a formally exact flow equation with 1-loop structure for the generating functional of 1-particle irreducible vertices. Within a gradient expansion - tailor-made for extracting the infrared asymptotics of the momentum and frequency dependent vertices of the theory - we study the strong-coupling fixed point of the Gross-Neveu model even beyond the formal limit of infinite flavor number. This fixed point controls a 2nd order quantum phase transition from a massless phase to a phase with massive Dirac fermions. After a first analysis of the purely fermionic theory, a Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation is used to partially bosonize the theory. Within this bosonized description, we find universal critical exponents that are in excellent quantitative agreement with available results from 1/N{sub f}-expansions and Monte Carlo simulations and are expected to improve upon earlier results. The renormalization group flow allows us to gain insights into the global and local structure of the critical manifold within given truncations and better understanding of the relevant directions in the space of couplings, which in general do not coincide with the Gaussian classification. Within the framework of the so-called ''asymptotic safety''-scenario relevant for the construction of proper field theories, the fixed-point theory could be determined exactly in the limit of infinite flavor number. Here, the Gross-Neveu model yields a simple and intuitive example for how to define a nonperturbatively renormalizable quantum field theory. Going

  1. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  2. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  3. Temperature crack prediction in the construction period of a concrete outer tank for LNG storage%大型液化天然气储罐混凝土外罐施工期间温度裂缝预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟希梅; 王恒; 周庆生; 范峰

    2013-01-01

    以160000 m3大型预应力液化天然气(LNG)全容罐混凝土外罐为研究对象,在利用ANSYS软件建立精细化LNG储罐混凝土外罐有限元模型的基础上,按实际结构施工顺序与时间,模拟了LNG储罐混凝土外罐全部混凝土浇筑过程,获得了在变温条件下,由水化热作用产生的混凝土外罐早期温度场分布;在考虑混凝土收缩和徐变的条件下,采用增量法计算了混凝土外罐的早期温度应力,确定了随时间及配筋率变化的混凝土早期抗拉强度,进而对LNG储罐混凝土外罐施工阶段的裂缝发育特征及分布规律进行了预测.结果表明,混凝土收缩对温度应力影响显著,在150 d的模拟时间段内结构温度应力呈现持续增长状态;第1浇筑段的LNG外罐温度应力明显大于其他浇筑段的温度应力,且该浇筑段的罐壁在模拟期内将产生竖向裂缝,扶壁柱处将产生局部环向裂缝.该结论可为同类工程施工建造开展相应的抗裂措施提供依据.%A fine finite element model for a 160000 m3 LNG concrete tank with reasonable element types and mesh dimension was established using the finite element software (ANSYS) to simulate the actual construction process of the concrete tank.The temperature field distribution under the load of hydration heat was determined in thermal variation conditions.Considering the influence of concrete shrinkage and creep,the early thermal stress under temperature load was figured out with an incremental method,and the early tensile strength of concrete along with the reinforcement ratio and time was determined.Moreover,concrete crack growth characters and distributional rules of the LNG concrete tank were predicted by comparing thermal stress with the early tensile strength.The results showed that the concrete shrinkage has a significant effect on thermal stress,and the thermal stress of structures continues increasing during a 150-days simulation period.The thermal stress of

  4. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  5. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  6. 浅谈新时期工程造价管理立法的重要性%The Importance of Legislation on Construction Cost Management in a New Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱训应

    2009-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the status quo and existing problems in construction cost management, the paper stresses the importance of legislation on construction coat management.%文章通过对我国工程造价立法现状和存在问题的分析,从加强造价监管的层面,提出了新时期工程造价管理立法的重要性.

  7. Gross congenital malformation at birth in a government hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine proportion of gross congenital malformation (GCMF occurring at intramural births. Rate of GCMF was found to be 16.4/1000 consecutive singleton births (>28 weeks with three leading malformation as anencephaly (44.68%, talipes equinovarus (17.02% and meningomyelocele (10.63%. Higher risk of malformed births were noticed amongst un-booked (2.07% in-comparison to booked (1.01% mothers; women with low level of education (up to 8 years [2.14%] vs. at least 9 years of schooling [0.82%]; gravida status of at least 3 (2.69% followed by 1 (1.43% and 2 (1.0% respectively; pre-term (5.13% vs. term (0.66%; cesarean section (4.36% versus vaginal delivery (0.62%. Mortality was significantly higher among congenitally malformed (17.35% than normal (0.34% newborns. With-in study limitation, emergence of neural tube defect as the single largest category of congenital malformation indicates maternal malnutrition (especially folic acid that needs appropriate attention and management.

  8. Progestogen-related gross and microscopic changes in female Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L W; Kelly, W A

    1976-01-01

    Long-term studies of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate in 100 female dogs are in progress. Doses of zero, one, 10 and 25 times the expected human dose of megestrol acetate and 25 times the expected human dose of chlormadinone acetate (on a milligram per kilogram body weight basis) are being given daily. During the first 4 years, eight dogs from each of the five groups were killed. The principal gross findings included enlarged uteri with mucoid material in the lumina, mammary development in dogs given middle and high doses of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate, and thickened gallbladder walls in dogs given high doses of each. Histologic evaluation showed inhibition of ovulation for progestogen-treated dogs and suppression of ovarian follicular development with the high doses. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia was slight in the low-dose dogs and moderate to severe in most of the high-dose dogs; a few also had ulcerative endometritis and pyometra. The mammary glands of dogs given the middle and high doses produced lobules, acini, and secretion exceeding natural metestrus. Slight to marked cystic mucinous hyperplasia occurred in the gallbladders of most dogs given the high doses. Tow high-dose megestrol dogs had clinical signs and microscopic pancreatic, renal, and ocular changes indicative of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Horava-Lifshitz-like Gross-Neveu model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. M.; Mariz, T.; Martinez, R.; Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Ribeiro, R. F.

    2017-03-01

    We describe a Horava-Lifshitz-like reformulated four-fermion Gross-Neveu model describing the dynamics of two-component spinors in (2 +1 )-dimensional space-time. Within our study, we introduce the Lagrange multiplier, study the gap equation (including the finite temperature case) which turns out to display essentially distinct behaviors for even and odd values of the critical exponent z , and show that the dynamical parity breaking occurs only for the odd z . We demonstrate that for any odd z , there exists a critical temperature at which the dynamical parity breaking disappears. Besides of this, we obtain the effective propagator and show that the resulting effective theory is renormalizable within the framework of the 1/N expansion for all values of z . As one more application of the dynamical parity breaking, we consider coupling of the vector field to the fermions in the case of a simplified spinor-vector coupling and discuss the generation of the Chern-Simons term.

  10. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-01

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP)—the amount of carbon dioxide that is ‘fixed’ into organic material through the photosynthesis of land plants—may provide a negative feedback for climate change. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent biogeochemical processes can suppress global GPP growth. As a consequence, modelling estimates of terrestrial carbon storage, and of feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate, remain poorly constrained. Here we present a global, measurement-based estimate of GPP growth during the twentieth century that is based on long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records, derived from ice-core, firn and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that simulates changes in COS concentration according to changes in its sources and sinks—including a large sink that is related to GPP. We find that the observation-based COS record is most consistent with simulations of climate and the carbon cycle that assume large GPP growth during the twentieth century (31% ± 5% growth; mean ± 95% confidence interval). Although this COS analysis does not directly constrain models of future GPP growth, it does provide a global-scale benchmark for historical carbon-cycle simulations.

  11. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  12. A boy with fever, cough and gross haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Giorgio; Maschio, Massimo; Poillucci, Gabriele; Pennesi, Marco; Barbi, Egidio

    2017-08-28

    A 5 year-old boy presented with 2-days of fever and cough. On examination, he had mild dyspnoea and chest pain, with crackles and hypoventilation at the right lung base. Blood tests showed: WBC 39.1×10(9)/L; N 28.9×10(9)/L; Hb 11.3gr/dL; PLT 375×10(9)/L; CRP 28.7mg/dL; ESR 41mm/h. Chest x-ray confirmed a pulmonary consolidation in the right lower lobe (figure 1), with an associated pleural effusion. Bacterial pneumonia was diagnosed and intravenous ceftriaxone 100mg/kg/die was started. The following day, he developed palpebral oedema and his urine became tea coloured. His blood pressure was 126/82mmHg (>99th percentile).(1) Serum creatinine rose from 0.45mg/dl to 1.09mg/dl (39.8µmol/L - 93.4µmol/L) and C3 was 9mg/dl (n.r. 90-180mg/dl). Urinalysis revealed gross hematuria and 3+ proteinuria, with microscopicy showing dysmorphic red blood cells with casts. Ultrasounds showed enlarged kidneys with increased echogenicity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Peer-Assisted Learning in a Gross Anatomy Dissection Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Nam, Kwang-Il

    2015-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning encourages students to participate more actively in the dissection process and promotes thoughtful dissection. We implemented peer-assisted dissection in 2012 and compared its effects on students' self-assessments of learning and their academic achievement with those of faculty-led dissection. All subjects performed dissections after a lecture about upper-limb gross anatomy. Experimental group (n = 134) dissected a cadaver while guided by peer tutors who had prepared for the dissection in advance, and control group (n = 71) dissected a cadaver after the introduction by a faculty via prosection. Self-assessment scores regarding the learning objectives related to upper limbs were significantly higher in experimental group than in control group. Additionally, experimental group received significantly higher academic scores than did control group. The students in peer-assisted learning perceived themselves as having a better understanding of course content and achieved better academic results compared with those who participated in faculty-led dissection. Peer-assisted dissection contributed to self-perception and to the ability to retain and explain anatomical knowledge.

  14. 20 CFR 418.1115 - What are the modified adjusted gross income ranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gross income range amounts by any percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index rounded to the nearest...) of this section. We will use your modified adjusted gross income amount together with your tax filing... from his/her spouse for the entire tax year for the year we use to make our income-related...

  15. Balloon-occluded percutaneous transheptic obliteration of isolated vesical varices causing gross hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Chul Sung [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Gross hematuria secondary to vesical varices is an unusual presentation. We report such a case recurrent gross hematuria in a male patient who had a history of bladder substitution with ileal segments that had been treated by balloon-occluded percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of vesical varices.

  16. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the GMF

  17. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of t

  18. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  19. Fixed Point of Generalized Eventual Cyclic Gross in Fuzzy Norm Spaces for Contractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. Mohsenialhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We define generalized eventual cyclic gross contractive mapping in fuzzy norm spaces, which is a generalization of the eventual cyclic gross contractions. Also we prove the existence of a fixed point for this type of contractive mapping on fuzzy norm spaces.

  20. 46 CFR 129.315 - Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 129.315 Section 129.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.315 Power sources for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) The...

  1. Combined climate factors alleviate changes in gross soil nitrogen dynamics in heathlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorsne, Anna-Karin; Rutting, Tobias; Ambus, Per

    2014-01-01

    of exposure to three climate change factors, i.e. warming, elevated CO2 (eCO(2)) and summer drought, applied both in isolation and in combination. By conducting laboratory N-15 tracing experiments we show that warming increased both gross N mineralization and nitrification rates. In contrast, gross...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries. 1.1332-1 Section 1.1332-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of...

  3. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  4. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  5. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  6. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  7. 26 CFR 1.61-3 - Gross income derived from business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income derived from business. 1.61-3 Section 1.61-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... Taxable Income § 1.61-3 Gross income derived from business. (a) In general. In a...

  8. 26 CFR 1.804-3 - Gross investment income of a life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... law) shall be excluded from the gross investment income of a life insurance company. However, section... company. 1.804-3 Section 1.804-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... insurance company. (a) Gross investment income defined. For purposes of part I, subchapter L, chapter 1 of...

  9. 17 CFR 1.58 - Gross collection of exchange-set margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross collection of exchange-set margins. 1.58 Section 1.58 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.58 Gross collection of exchange-set...

  10. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  11. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  13. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status.

  14. Test of gross motor development-2 for Filipino children with intellectual disability: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M; Eguia, Kathlynne F; Simons, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine aspects of validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in Filipino children with intellectual disability. Content and construct validity were verified, as well as inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Two paediatric physiotherapists tested 81 children with intellectual disability (mean age = 9.29 ± 2.71 years) on locomotor and object control skills. Analysis of covariance, confirmatory factor analysis and analysis of variance were used to test validity, while Cronbach's alpha, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine reliability. Age was a significant predictor of locomotor and object control scores (P = 0.004). The data fit the hypothesised two-factor model with fit indices as follows: χ(2) = 33.525, DF = 34, P = 0.491, χ(2)/DF = 0.986. As hypothesised, gender was a significant predictor for object control skills (P = 0.038). Participants' mean scores were significantly below mastery (locomotor, P children with intellectual disability.

  15. Can Clinical Assessment of Locomotive Body Function Explain Gross Motor Environmental Performance in Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Mengibar, Jose Manuel; Santonja-Medina, Fernando; Sanchez-de-Muniain, Paloma; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System has discriminative purposes but does not assess short-term therapy goals. Locomotion Stages (LS) classify postural body functions and independent activity components. Assessing the relation between Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Locomotion Stages will make us understand if clinical assessment can explain and predict motor environmental performance in cerebral palsy. A total of 462 children were assessed with both scales. High reliability and strong negative correlation (-0.908) for Gross Motor Function Classification System and Locomotion Stages at any age was found. Sensitivity was 83%, and specificity and positive predictive value were 100% within the same age range. Regression analysis showed detailed probabilities for the realization of the Gross Motor Function Classification System depending on the Locomotion Stages and the age group. Postural body function measure with Locomotion Stages is reliable, sensitive, and specific for gross motor function and able to predict environmental performance.

  16. The effects of training on gross efficiency in cycling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, J; Passfield, L; Coleman, D; Jobson, S; Edwards, L; Carter, H

    2009-12-01

    There has been much debate in the recent scientific literature regarding the possible ability to increase gross efficiency in cycling via training. Using cross-sectional study designs, researchers have demonstrated no significant differences in gross efficiency between trained and untrained cyclists. Reviewing this literature provides evidence to suggest that methodological inadequacies may have played a crucial role in the conclusions drawn from the majority of these studies. We present an overview of these studies and their relative shortcomings and conclude that in well-controlled and rigorously designed studies, training has a positive influence upon gross efficiency. Putative mechanisms for the increase in gross efficiency as a result of training include, muscle fibre type transformation, changes to muscle fibre shortening velocities and changes within the mitochondria. However, the specific mechanisms by which training improves gross efficiency and their impact on cycling performance remain to be determined.

  17. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affecte...

  18. Dual Construction of "Construction of both Nation and Family" and Women's Gender Role——Nation and Women in China's "Planned Economy" Period%“家国同构”与妇女性别角色的双重建构——计划经济时期中国社会的国家与妇女

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋永萍

    2012-01-01

    从历史情境的视角对社会转型期中国城市女性的性别建构进行透视,不仅有利于正确判断计划体制时期性别平等与妇女发展政策的得失成败,而且对于正确认识30年改革对两性平等的影响,建立更加完善的有利于人民的社会主义市场经济体制和国家治理模式具有重要的意义。"家国同构"及其对新中国政府治理产生了深刻的影响;"家国同构"下性别建构的特征就是作为国家人和家庭人的双重建构;"家国同构"下性别建构的途径是单位制;"家国同构"下性别角色建构的模式为:两性同样是国家人前提下的"男人以社会为主,女人以家庭为主";对于谁是计划经济体制受益者可以展开进一步讨论。%An investigation of Chinese urban women's gender construction in transformation period from the historical perspective is helpful to judge the success and failure of gender equality and women developing policy in "planned economy" period,and is also significant to evaluate 30 years' reform on equality between men and women and set up a more favorable socialist marketing ecomonic system and national management system which is advantageous to people." Construction of both nation and family " exerts deep influence on government's management;gender construction under "construction of both nation and family" is the dual construction of a person's dual roles;the access to gender construction in this dual construction is unit system;the gender construction pattern is that both men and women are people in nation and people in "men dominated society,women dominated family";and we can also carry out discussion on the issue that who is the benefitor of planned economy.

  19. Can a six-week exercise intervention improve gross motor function for non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy? A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth; Pountney, Terry; Williams, Heather; Edelman, Natalie

    2013-02-01

    To determine the effect of a six-week exercise intervention on gross motor function for non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy. A parallel arm randomized controlled trial. Four special schools. Thirty-five children aged 8-17 with bilateral cerebral palsy; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV-V. Participants were randomly allocated to a static bike group, a treadmill group or control group. Participants in the bike and treadmill groups received exercise training sessions, three times weekly for six weeks. The control group received their usual care. Blinded assessments were performed at baseline and six weeks and followed up at 12 and 18 weeks. Gross Motor Function Measures GMFM-66, GMFM-88D and GMFM-88E. At six weeks significant differences were found in GMFM-88D scores between the bike group and the control group, and the treadmill group and the control group (P exercise groups. The improvements observed declined during the follow-up period. This study provides preliminary evidence that exercising on a bike or treadmill may provide short-term improvements in gross motor function for non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy. This needs to be tested in a large-scale randomized trial.

  20. An Analysis of the Co-integration and Causality Relationship between Electricity Consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP in the Developing Countries: An Empirical Study of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Kapusuzoglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, long term relationship and causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product in Turkey for the period 1975-2006 were investigated. As a result of the co-integration analysis made firstly in this study, the long term relationship between the electricity consumption and gross domestic product was found. According to the result of Granger causality analysis made in accordance with vector error correction model, it was determined that there was unidirectional causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product. According to the findings, it can be said that in the process of economic growth in Turkey, gross domestic product amount was an important variable which affected the electricity consumption positively in the long term and therefore it can be said that it is important to provide the primary energy sources used in electricity energy production and electricity energy in the long term and in time without any interaction for preventing the failures which may arise during the process of economic growth and for the stability of the economic production and consumption process

  1. Electrochemical construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  2. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianbiao; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1) d(-1) in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5) t N yr(-1), and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  3. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbiao Lin

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1 d(-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5 t N yr(-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  4. GROSS ANATOMY AND BLOOD SUPPLY OF SMALL INTESTINE IN FOETUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Unisa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF STUDY: To develop charts of length and width of small intestine, origin, length and branching pattern of celiac trunk and Superior mesenteric artery. This will help us to know any congenital anomaly in the small intestine, and abnormal origin, length, variation i n the branching pattern. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The material used for the present study of 100 foetuses of different stages of gestation collected from Government maternity Hospital, Hanamkonda, ChandaKantha Memorial Hospital Warangal and private nursing h omes of Warangal D istrict of Andhra Pradesh within 10 hours of death. The dead foetuses were preserved in the hospital in 10% formalin. The foetuses were embalmed by injecting with 20 cc to 100 cc 10% formalin in to the cranial cavity and trunk depending o n the stage of gestation. Foetuses were dissected to expose small intestine and the blood vessels which supply it systematically in the following manner. OBSERVATIONS: The present study conducted has shown that length, width of small intestine was found to be increasing with foetal age. The length of celiac trunk, the length of superior mesenteric artery was found to increase proportionality with the foetal age. The causes of death in foetuses related to small intestine are intussusceptions intestional malr otation such as ladd’s bands, volvulus, cystic fibrosis, intestional infections and necrotizing enterocolitis. Knowledge related to gross anatomy and blood supply of small intestine is important because of these causes which may lead to death in foetus e s. In the present study no anomalies related to small intestine are found.

  5. Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zscheischler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented. Here we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive (increase in uptake and negative extremes (decrease in uptake on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Most extremes in GPP start in early summer. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role than durations or maximal GPP anomaly when it comes to the overall impact of GPP extremes. An analysis of possible causes implies that across continents most extremes in GPP can best be explained by water scarcity rather than by extreme temperatures. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we identify also fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

  6. Gross and Histomorphological Studies of Femoral Head Resurfacing in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sharifi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The foetal skull bone as a biological graft was investigated. This study was conducted on Fifteen adult mixed - breed normal dogs 12 to 24 months with weighing 21.4=3.6 Kg .Dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5 animals each. The foetal skull bone of 45 days old was collected from one pregnant bitch via cesarean method. The right femoral head cartilage was removed completely in all dogs of 3 groups.. Group I acted as control one, whereas in II group, resurfacing was done by using foetal skull bone which was fixed by using 0.8 mm cerclage wire in criss-cross fashion, but in III group, it was done similar to II group and the hip joint additionally was fixed by using 2 mm steinmenn pin.The clinical observations was made accordingly for 60 days in all groups. The gross changes of femoral head in group I & II were quite smooth and slippy, but in III group were uneven and rough due to secondary changes and ankylosis, but on micropscopic interpertation there was a remarkable compatibility of the graft with femoral head.The reconstruction of articular cartilage was faster in group II and even group III animals than group I animals. There was single row of chondrocyte in scatter area of samples in group . The complete and uniform hyaline cartilage in group II and fibro - cartilage and mixture of connective tissues in group III animals were observed. The results indicated that the foetal skull bone due to its pleuripotent calvarium easily can orient itself into the chondrocytes and cartilagenous tissues in articular surface of the hip joint, if there is suitable enviroment before complete ossification,so that normal joint motion could expect.

  7. A vortex filament tracking method for the Gross-Pitaevskii model of a superfluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villois, Alberto; Krstulovic, Giorgio; Proment, Davide; Salman, Hayder

    2016-10-01

    We present an accurate and robust numerical method to track quantised vortex lines in a superfluid described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. By utilising the pseudo-vorticity field of the associated complex scalar order parameter of the superfluid, we are able to track the topological defects of the superfluid and reconstruct the vortex lines which correspond to zeros of the field. Throughout, we assume our field is periodic to allow us to make extensive use of the Fourier representation of the field and its derivatives in order to retain spectral accuracy. We present several case studies to test the precision of the method which include the evaluation of the curvature and torsion of a torus vortex knot, and the measurement of the Kelvin wave spectrum of a vortex line and a vortex ring. The method we present makes no a priori assumptions on the geometry of the vortices and is therefore applicable to a wide range of systems such as a superfluid in a turbulent state that is characterised by many vortex rings coexisting with sound waves. This allows us to track the positions of the vortex filaments in a dense turbulent vortex tangle and extract statistical information about the distribution of the size of the vortex rings and the inter-vortex separations. In principle, the method can be extended to track similar topological defects arising in other physical systems.

  8. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianyang; Niu, Shuli; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A; Chen, Jiquan; Ammann, Christof; Arain, Altaf; Blanken, Peter D; Cescatti, Alessandro; Bonal, Damien; Buchmann, Nina; Curtis, Peter S; Chen, Shiping; Dong, Jinwei; Flanagan, Lawrence B; Frankenberg, Christian; Georgiadis, Teodoro; Gough, Christopher M; Hui, Dafeng; Kiely, Gerard; Li, Jianwei; Lund, Magnus; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Marcolla, Barbara; Merbold, Lutz; Montagnani, Leonardo; Moors, Eddy J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Piao, Shilong; Raschi, Antonio; Roupsard, Olivier; Suyker, Andrew E; Urbaniak, Marek; Vaccari, Francesco P; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo; Wilkinson, Matthew; Weng, Ensheng; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Yan, Liming; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-03-03

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate-carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biotic and abiotic factors operating mainly through changes in vegetation phenology and physiological processes. However, it is still unclear how plant phenology and physiology can be integrated to explain the spatiotemporal variability of terrestrial GPP. Based on analyses of eddy-covariance and satellite-derived data, we decomposed annual terrestrial GPP into the length of the CO2 uptake period (CUP) and the seasonal maximal capacity of CO2 uptake (GPPmax). The product of CUP and GPPmax explained >90% of the temporal GPP variability in most areas of North America during 2000-2010 and the spatial GPP variation among globally distributed eddy flux tower sites. It also explained GPP response to the European heatwave in 2003 (r(2) = 0.90) and GPP recovery after a fire disturbance in South Dakota (r(2) = 0.88). Additional analysis of the eddy-covariance flux data shows that the interbiome variation in annual GPP is better explained by that in GPPmax than CUP. These findings indicate that terrestrial GPP is jointly controlled by ecosystem-level plant phenology and photosynthetic capacity, and greater understanding of GPPmax and CUP responses to environmental and biological variations will, thus, improve predictions of GPP over time and space.

  9. GROSS AND MICRO - ANATOMICAL OBSERVATIONS ON Fulani Zebu PLACENTOME AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SOME FOETAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor C Lilian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the gross and micro -anatomy of the placentome of Fulani zebu (Bosindicus and its relationship with some foetal parameters over the gestation period. Eighteen pregnant uteri of the Fulani zebu cow were collected from slaughtered pregnant cows. The foetal age was estimated using Richardson’s formula. Other foetal param eters such as the foetal sex, location in the uteri, foetal weight, placentome weight, total number of placentomes and placentome size were taken. The Placentome counts showed a great deal of variability from 51 to 128. The distribution of pregnancies was (66.6% in the right horn and 33.3% in the left horn. Regression analysis was used to establish the relationship between the estimated age and other foetal parameters. The regression analysis yielded a statistically significant relationship (r 2 = 0.4549; p0.01 with the number of placentome. In conclusion, this study has shown that the Fulani zebu placenta is synepitheliochorial with convex Placentomes. The placentome size increases with gestation age in response to greater nutrient/metabolic requirement of the foetus, as the pregnancy progresses

  10. Nonlinear quasimodes near elliptic periodic geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Albin, Pierre; Marzuola, Jeremy L; Thomann, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation on a compact manifold near an elliptic periodic geodesic. Using a geometric optics construction, we construct quasimodes to a nonlinear stationary problem which are highly localized near the periodic geodesic. We show the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger evolution of such a quasimode remains localized near the geodesic, at least for short times.

  11. 从政治沟通看社会转型时期政治合法性建构%Political Legitimacy Construction in the Period of Social Transformation: A Political Communication Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹红菊

    2011-01-01

    Legitimacy is the footstone on which the contemporary political system maintains vitality to live,and political communication is an important research view in the legitimacy construction of political systems.It is of significant importance to analyze the factors of political legitimacy which affect the social transformation on the basis of the political communication theory,and propose construction from political communication perspective.%合法性是现代政治体系赖以生存并维持长久生命力的基石。以政治沟通理论为研究基点,从政治沟通的视角来研究政治体系合法性建构,对社会转型时期影响政治合法性的因素进行分析,并从政治沟通角度提出建构设想。

  12. Problems and Countermeasures of Financial Cost Management for Construction Enterprises in the New Period%新时期建筑施工企业财务成本管理存在的问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯茂珍

    2016-01-01

    当代社会经济发展愈演愈烈,各行各业都在不断的缩减成本扩大效益。建筑市场的竞争也在紧锣密鼓的展开,对于建筑施工企业来说,施工过程中浪费材料、资金不合理占用等状况时有发生,而很多企业到现在都无法解决这些问题。施工企业做好财务成本管理工作是很有必要的,它不仅可以帮助企业做好成本上的合理规划和控制,更加可以调整企业经营的整体效益,让企业可以以最低的成本获得最大的收益。%With the rapid economic development in modern society, all walks of life have been cutting costs and expending benefits. Construction market competition is intense. For construction enterprises, materials waste, unreasonable capital occupation and other problems occur frequently in the process of construction, but many enterprises are not able to solve these problems. To do a good job of financial cost management of construction enterprise is necessary, which can not only help enterprises to make reasonable planning and control, but also adjust the overall effectiveness of enterprises, thus making the enterprise obtain the biggest benefit at the lowest cost.

  13. Analysis and Design of Online Periodical Website Construction Based on ASP Technology%基于ASP技术的期刊网站建设分析与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斐然; 李总苛

    2016-01-01

    Taking the website construction of “Journal of Intelligence” as an example,this paper analyzes the architecture and functions of the website system in details against the background“Internet Plus”. The design and test have been done for the database and system functions of each page of website. The research can pro-vide not only technical reference on website construction for small-sized magazines and journals, but also some theoretical reference for website construction of newly-established firms in the future.%以《情报杂志》网站的建设为例,详细分析了在“互联网+”背景下《情报杂志》网站系统的体系结构和功能,对网站各个页面的数据库、系统的功能进行了设计及测试。该分析设计不仅为小型期刊杂志今后的网站建设提供了技术参考,而且给今后初创企业的网站建设提供了理论参考和借鉴。

  14. 桥梁施工期暂态结构安全可靠度分析研究%Safety Reliability Analysis of Beam-arch Association Bridge Transient Structure During Construction Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏

    2014-01-01

    Transient structure is involved in the process of bridge’s construction.From the perspective of supplementing the results of hazard identification,construction of reliability-based security risk analysis method for transient structure was proposed.Then,the model of transient structure was established to analyze the reliability of transient structure.Thus, identification and analysis method of security risk in the process of bridge’s construction was improved,which provides a new way of analytical control of transient structure.%针对桥梁施工过程中具有施工暂态结构这一特点,从补充危险源识别结果的角度出发,提出基于施工暂态结构可靠指标安全风险分析方法。对连续梁施工暂态结构进行了模型建立和可靠性分析,完善了施工过程安全风险分析方法,为施工暂态结构分析控制提出了一种新的思路。

  15. Ship construction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eyres, D.J; Bruce, G.J

    2012-01-01

    .... "Acting as both a professional reference on current approaches in shipyard practice and a comprehensive introduction for students in any marine discipline, Ship Construction covers the complete...

  16. Constructive Fun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanek, Donald E.

    1994-01-01

    Compares and reviews currently available brands of steel construction sets that are useful to physics teachers for building demonstrations, prototypes of mechanisms, robotics, and remote control devices. (ZWH)

  17. Gross nitrogen fluxes in intact beech-soil-microbe systems under experimentally simulated climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Javier; Bilela, Silvija; Gasche Gasche, Rainer; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Bimüller, Carolin; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Polle, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Rennenberg, Heinz; Dannenmann, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The vulnerability of beech forests of Central Europe to projected climate change conditions is a current matter of debate and concern. In order to investigate the response of N cycling in a typical beech forest to projected climate change conditions, we transplanted small lysimeters with intact beech-soil systems from a slope with N-exposure (representing present day climate conditions) to a slope with S exposure (serving as a warmer and drier model climate for future conditions). Lysimeters transfers within the N exposure served as control. After an equilibration period of 1 year, three isotope labeling/harvest cycles were performed: (1) comparison between N and S slopes under ambient conditions; (2) comparison between N and S slopes after intensified drought at S exposure; (3) rewetting after the drought period. Homogenous triple isotope labeling (15N/13C glutamine, 15NH4+, 15NO3-) in combination with 15N tracing and -pool dilution approaches as well as molecular analyses of nitrogen cycling genes and mycorrhiza morphotyping allowed to simultaneously quantify all N turnover processes in the intact beech-soil-microbe system. Nitrate was the major N source of beech seedlings with little importance of ammonium and no importance of glutamine. Experimental simulation of climate change resulted in significantly reduced gene copies of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in soil (AOB), a dramatic attenuation of microbial gross nitrate production from 252±83 mg N m-2 day-1 for the control treatment to 49±29 mg N m-2 day-1 for the climate change treatment and associated strong declines in soil nitrate concentrations as well as nitrate uptake by microorganisms and beech, which could not be compensated by uptake of ammonium or glutamine. Therefore, N content of beech seedlings was strongly reduced in the climate change treatment. Hence our data provide a microbial mechanism to explain nutritional limitations of beech under higher temperatures and drought and raise questions about

  18. Interplay of drought and tropical cyclone activity in SE U.S. gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Lauren E. L.; Barros, Ana P.

    2016-06-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs), often associated with massive flooding and landslides in the Southeast U.S. (SE U.S.), provide a significant input of freshwater to the hydrologic system, and their timing and trajectory significantly impact drought severity and persistence. This manuscript investigates the sensitivity of gross primary productivity (GPP) in the SE U.S. to TC activity using the 1-D column implementation of the Duke Coupled Hydrology Model with Vegetation (DCHM-V) including coupled water and energy cycles and a biochemical representation of photosynthesis. Decadal-scale simulations of water, energy, and carbon fluxes were conducted at high temporal (30 min) and spatial (4 km) resolution over the period 2002-2012. At local scales, model results without calibration compare well against AmeriFlux tower data. At regional scales, differences between the DCHM-V estimates and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer GPP product reflect the spatial organization of soil hydraulic properties and soil moisture dynamics by physiographic region, highlighting the links between the water and carbon cycles. To isolate the contribution of TC precipitation to SE U.S. productivity, control forcing simulations are contrasted with simulations where periods of TC activity in the atmospheric forcing data were replaced with climatology. During wet years, TC activity impacts productivity in 40-50% of the SE U.S. domain and explains a regional GPP increase of 3-5 Mg C/m2 that is 9% of the warm season total. In dry years, 23-34% of the domain exhibits a smaller positive response that corresponds to 4-8% of the seasonal carbon uptake, depending on TC timing and trajectory.

  19. Analisis Pengaruh Perdagangan Internasional dan Utang Luar Negeri Terhadap Gross Domestic Product Indonesia (Periode 1990 – 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Yani Fatmawati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the study were to determine: (1 the short term effect of export, import, and external debt to the GDP of Indonesia years 1990 -2010, (2 the most dominant variable which affect to GDP of Indonesia years 1990–2010. The present study is explanatory research. The data were collection of the study is secondary data. Besides, the secondary data source of the study is taken from ADB (Asian Development Bank. Meanwhile, the data were collected through documentation. Based on the ECM, it is known that export affects positively and significantly to the GDP either long term or short term, import affects negatively and significantly to the GDP either long term or short term and external debt affect insignificantly to the GDP in a short term yet in a long term it affects negatively and significantly to GDP.

  20. 5 CFR 890.1112 - Denial of continuation of coverage due to involuntary separation for gross misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. 890.1112 Section 890.1112 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. (a) Notice of denial. (1) When an employing office determines that the offense for which an employee is being removed constitutes gross misconduct for the purpose...

  1. Effects of land use change on soil gross nitrogen transformation rates in subtropical acid soils of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbo; Xu, Zhihong

    2015-07-01

    Land use change affects soil gross nitrogen (N) transformations, but such information is particularly lacking under subtropical conditions. A study was carried out to investigate the potential gross N transformation rates in forest and agricultural (converted from the forest) soils in subtropical China. The simultaneously occurring gross N transformations in soil were quantified by a (15)N tracing study under aerobic conditions. The results showed that change of land use types substantially altered most gross N transformation rates. The gross ammonification and nitrification rates were significantly higher in the agricultural soils than in the forest soils, while the reverse was true for the gross N immobilization rates. The higher total carbon (C) concentrations and C / N ratio in the forest soils relative to the agricultural soils were related to the greater gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils. The lower gross ammonification combined with negligible gross nitrification rates, but much higher gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils than in the agricultural soils suggest that this may be a mechanism to effectively conserve available mineral N in the forest soils through increasing microbial biomass N, the relatively labile organic N. The greater gross nitrification rates and lower gross N immobilization rates in the agricultural soils suggest that conversion of forests to agricultural soils may exert more negative effects on the environment by N loss through NO3 (-) leaching or denitrification (when conditions for denitrification exist).

  2. Construction period reward model of contract works for large and medium-sized projects from a viewpoint of program%项目群视角下大中型工程合同项目工期奖励模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰景春; 胡正人; 任亚芳; 王龙宝

    2012-01-01

    Progress goal control of program is one of the main tasks of program management, which is the key factor for program to play economic benefit and functional benefits, while progress goal of program is determined by progress goal of contract works. On the basis of analyzing construction period reward on contract works, from a viewpoint of program, critical path method (CPM) was used to study construction period of contract management. The impact of contract works construction period to program construc-tion period was focused studied, which include the impact on itself, the critical node and the program. Furthermore, program based construction period reward model of contract works was constructed, and the characteristic of the model was analyzed. With the combination of Baoyinzhan program in East Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, empirical analysis of this reward model was made. This research result could overcome the shortcomings of construction period reward model of contract works from a viewpoint of single works, and provide theoretical basis on how to make rules on construction period reward of contract works scientifically and reasonably.%项目群进度目标控制是项目群管理的主要任务之一,它是影响项目群能否如期发挥功能和经济效益的关键因素,项目群进度目标取决于合同项目进度目标.从项目群视角,通过分析合同项目工期奖励机理,利用关键路径法(critical path method,CPM)对合同项目工期进行研究,重点探讨了合同项目工期对项目群工期所产生的影响,包括对合同项目自身、项目群关键节点以及项目群等三个方面的影响,据此构建了项目群视角下合同项目工期的奖励模型,并分析了该奖励模型的特点.结合南水北调东线工程宝应站项目群,对合同项目工期奖励模型进行了实证分析.研究成果克服了单项目视角下现行合同项目工期奖励办法的不足,从而为科学、合

  3. Uncertainties in the land-use flux resulting from land-use change reconstructions and gross land transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Anita D.; Lindeskog, Mats; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Anthoni, Peter M.; Fuchs, Richard; Arneth, Almut

    2017-02-01

    Land-use and land-cover (LUC) changes are a key uncertainty when attributing changes in measured atmospheric CO2 concentration to its sinks and sources and must also be much better understood to determine the possibilities for land-based climate change mitigation, especially in the light of human demand on other land-based resources. On the spatial scale typically used in terrestrial ecosystem models (0.5 or 1°) changes in LUC over time periods of a few years or more can include bidirectional changes on the sub-grid level, such as the parallel expansion and abandonment of agricultural land (e.g. in shifting cultivation) or cropland-grassland conversion (and vice versa). These complex changes between classes within a grid cell have often been neglected in previous studies, and only net changes of land between natural vegetation cover, cropland and pastures accounted for, mainly because of a lack of reliable high-resolution historical information on gross land transitions, in combination with technical limitations within the models themselves. In the present study we applied a state-of-the-art dynamic global vegetation model with a detailed representation of croplands and carbon-nitrogen dynamics to quantify the uncertainty in terrestrial ecosystem carbon stocks and fluxes arising from the choice between net and gross representations of LUC. We used three frequently applied global, one recent global and one recent European LUC datasets, two of which resolve gross land transitions, either in Europe or in certain tropical regions. When considering only net changes, land-use-transition uncertainties (expressed as 1 standard deviation around decadal means of four models) in global carbon emissions from LUC (ELUC) are ±0.19, ±0.66 and ±0.47 Pg C a-1 in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, respectively, or between 14 and 39 % of mean ELUC. Carbon stocks at the end of the 20th century vary by ±11 Pg C for vegetation and ±37 Pg C for soil C due to the choice of LUC

  4. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations c

  5. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations cent

  6. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy;

    2015-01-01

    Aim Improvement of gross motor function and mobility are primary goals of physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between segmental control of the trunk and the corresponding gross motor function in children with CP....... Method This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on 92 consecutive referrals of children with CP in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to V, 39 females, 53 males (median age 4y [range 1–14y]), and 77, 12, and 3 with spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic CP respectively....... The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age...

  7. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  8. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; van Schie, P. E M; Schuengel, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M.; Roebroeck, M. E.; Tan, S. S.; Wiegerink, D. J H G; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; Verheijden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  9. Model test study on construction diversion and navigation condition in 3rd period of Changsha comprehensive junction%长沙综合枢纽三期施工导流及通航模型试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明锋; 李帆; 刘方舟; 乾东岳

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the third phase of construction diversion,the river flood capacity and navigation flow conditions were studied by integrated physical model with the scale of 1:100.By analyzing the rising value of upstream water level,the flow field characteristics near the cofferdam and the flow velocity,three kinds of optimized schemes were proposed to increase the overflow width and adjust the direction of longitudinal cofferdam and water flow.Based on the characteristics of the third phase of construction diversion and the comparison of rising value of upstream water level between different construction diversion schemes,the recommended proposal which was conducive to the river flood and construction layout was obtained.Finally,the flow field analysis shows that the flow condition of the recommended proposal meets the requirements of navigation safety.%针对三期施工导流期的特点,采用正态1:100整体物理模型,对该河段的行洪能力和通航水流条件进行试验研究.通过分析设计方案河段上游水位雍高值、围堰附近的流场特点和各泄水闸闸前行进流速,从增加溢流宽度和调整纵向围堰与水流方向两方面对其进行优化,共提出了3种优化方案.根据三期导流的特点并对比不同施工导流方案下的上游水位雍高值,得到有利于河段行洪及施工布置的推荐方案.最终通过流场分析表明,推荐方案的水流条件满足船舶安全通航要求.

  10. A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State University; Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Baldocchi, D. D. [University of California, Berkeley; Ma, Siyan [University of California, Berkeley; Cook, David R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Oren, Ram [Duke University; Katul, G. G. [Duke University; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000 2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005 2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr 1 for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated by these

  11. The Evolution of the Turnover From the Point of View of the Number of Employees, the Net Realized Investments and the Average Gross Salary in the Romanian Footwear Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimi Ofileanu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine an econometrical model between the turnover (dependentvariable and the number of employees, the net realized investment and the average gross salary(independent variables in the Romanian footwear industry in the period 2004-2013.

  12. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  13. Analysis of historical gross gamma logging data from BY tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS, D.A.

    1999-10-13

    Gross gamma ray logs, recorded from January 1975 through mid-year 1994 as part of the Single-Shell Tank Farm Dry Well Surveillance Program, have been reanalyzed for the BY tank farm to locate the presence of mobile radionuclides in the subsurface. This report presents the BY tank farm gross gamma ray data in such a way as to assist others in their study of vadose zone mechanisms.

  14. Current usage and future trends in gross digital photography in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher L; DeKoning, Lawrence; Klonowski, Paul; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current usage, utilization and future direction of digital photography of gross surgical specimens in pathology laboratories across Canada. An online survey consisting of 23 multiple choice and free-text questions regarding gross digital photography was sent out to via email to laboratory staff across Canada involved in gross dissection of surgical specimens. Sixty surveys were returned with representation from most of the provinces. Results showed that gross digital photography is utilized at most institutions (90.0%) and the primary users of the technology are Pathologists (88.0%), Pathologists' Assistants (54.0%) and Pathology residents (50.0%). Most respondents felt that there is a definite need for routine digital imaging of gross surgical specimens in their practice (80.0%). The top two applications for gross digital photography are for documentation of interesting/ complex cases (98.0%) and for teaching purposes (84.0%). The main limitations identified by the survey group are storage space (42.5%) and security issues (40.0%). Respondents indicated that future applications of gross digital photography mostly include teaching (96.6%), presentation at tumour boards/ clinical rounds (89.8%), medico-legal documentation (72.9%) and usage for consultation purposes (69.5%). The results of this survey indicate that pathology staff across Canada currently utilizes gross digital images for regular documentation and educational reasons. They also show that the technology will be needed for future applications in teaching, consultation and medico-legal purposes.

  15. Class numbers of cyclic 2-extensions and Gross conjecture over Q

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Gross conjecture over Q was first claimed by Aoki in 1991.However,the original proof contains too many mistakes and false claims to be considered as a serious proof.This paper is an attempt to find a sound proof of the Gross conjecture under the outline of Aoki.We reduce the conjecture to an elementary conjecture concerning the class numbers of cyclic 2-extensions of Q.

  16. 长周期涌浪地区碎石桩施工方法及装备%Construction method and equipment of stone column in long-period swell area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杰; 杨秀礼; 华晓涛; 许磊磊

    2015-01-01

    根据依托工程的软基需进行碎石桩处理的技术要求,对工程的特点和气象窗口进行分析总结。通过对不同碎石桩施工方法和装备的研究,结合工效分析,提出一种以自升式平台作为载体的新型碎石桩施工平台。%Based on the technical requirements of soft foundation which needs foundation treatment used on the stone column in the supporting project,we analyze the project features and weather windows.Studying different construction methods and equipment for the stone column,and combining with the ergonomics analysis,we put forward a new type of construction platform for the stone column using the jack-up platform as the carrier.

  17. 转型时期人民当家作主主体自觉性缺失与构建探讨%The Absence and Construction of the Subjective Consciousness of People Being in Power in the Transition Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董树; 张雪晴

    2014-01-01

    党的十八大强调夺取中国特色社会主义新胜利,必须坚持人民主体地位。笔者分析了我国转型时期主体自觉性缺失对人民当家作主的制约,提出了通过健全各项民主制度扩大人民当家作主的群众基础、加强法制宣传教育以增强人民依法维权自觉性、建设社会主义核心价值体系提供精神动力和思想保证等措施来构建人民当家作主的主体自觉性。%The Third Plenary Session of the Eighteen Party's Congress has stressed that if we want to seize the new victory of China's characteristic socialism, we must maintain the people's principal position. The author analyzes the constraints of the lack of China's body consciousness of people being in power in the transition, proposing that the subjective consciousness can be constructed by improving the democratic system, enlarging the masses base of people being in power, strengthening the legal publicity and education to enhance the people's law consciousness, constructing the socialist core value system to provide spiritual impetus and ideological guarantee and other measures.

  18. Risk Identification Study Based on the Grey Relation of Bridge Construction Period%基于灰色关联性的桥梁施工安全风险分析模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆虎; 罗最云

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of gray relation degree theory, the degree of association between the various sources of danger indicators is analyzed by using gray correlation, then relevance is sorted and the major dangerous source is found out. A major hazard identification model based on gray relative theory is established.on the basis that in the use of gray correlation to analyze the degree of association between risk source indicators, improved identification model of gray association major hazard of bridge construction safety risk is established. For further to study bridge construction risk identification provide reference.%在灰色关联度理论的基础上,利用灰色关联性分析各危险源指标之间的关联度,再进行关联度排序,找出重大危险源,建立了一套基于灰色关联度理论的重大危险源辨识模型.在利用灰色关联性分析各危险源指标之间关联度的基础上,建立了改进的桥梁施工安全风险灰色关联性重大危险源辨识模型.为进一步深入开展桥梁施工风险识别研究提供参考.

  19. Evaluating financial health of real estate & construction industry in India

    OpenAIRE

    Chetna Batra

    2015-01-01

    Real Estate & Construction sector plays an important role in the development of a country’s base. Understanding its performance would be crucial as, in India, it is one of the largest contributors to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and one of the largest generators of economic activity. Real estate & construction sector in general, is perceived to be financially more risky compared to other sectors of the economy. The current research extends and adds to the extant literature by investigatin...

  20. Evaluating financial health of real estate & construction industry in India

    OpenAIRE

    Chetna Batra

    2015-01-01

    Real Estate & Construction sector plays an important role in the development of a country’s base. Understanding its performance would be crucial as, in India, it is one of the largest contributors to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and one of the largest generators of economic activity. Real estate & construction sector in general, is perceived to be financially more risky compared to other sectors of the economy. The current research extends and adds to the extant literature by investigatin...

  1. The relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity has been considered as a major impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), but the relationship between this impairment and motor functions is still unclear, especially in the same group of patients with CP. The aim of this investigation is to determine the relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic CP. Seventy-one children (30 boys, 41 girls) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV (n=34) and V (n=37) were included in the study. The spasticity level in lower limbs was evaluated using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the gross motor function with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and the strength of the relationship. The results showed a moderate correlation between spasticity and gross motor skills (ρ=0.52 for the GMFCS level; ρ=0.57 for the GMFM-88), accounting for less than 30% of the explained variance. It seems that spasticity is just one factor among many others that could interfere with gross motor skills, even in children with severe forms of spastic CP. Knowledge of the impact of spasticity on motor skills may be useful in the setting of adequate rehabilitation strategies for nonambulatory children with spastic CP.

  2. Determination of respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in soil profile using BaPS system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-tao; HUANG Yao

    2006-01-01

    A facility of BaPS (Barometric Process Separation) was used to determine soil respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in a winter wheat field with depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. N2O production was determined by a gas chromatograph. Crop root mass and relevant soil parameters were measured. Results showed that soil respiration and gross nitrification decreased with the increase of soil depth, while denitrification did not change significantly. In comparison with no-plowing plot, soil respiration increased significantly in plowing plot, especially in the surface soil of 0-7 cm, while gross nitrification and denitrification rates were not affected by plowing. Cropping practice in previous season was found to affect soil gross nitrification in the following wheat-growing season. Higher gross nitrification rate occurred in the filed plot with preceding crop of rice compared with that of maize for all the three depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. A further investigation indicated that the nitrification for all the cases accounted for about 76% of the total nitrogen transformation processes of nitrification and denitrification and the N2O production correlated with nitrification significantly, suggesting that nitrification is a key process of soil N2O production in the wheat field. In addition, the variations of soil respiration and gross nitrification were exponentially dependent on root mass (P<0.001).

  3. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.

    1995-01-01

    Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K and228Ra appear to be the primary sources of beta activity in ground water, the sum of40K plus228Ra appears to be less than the measured gross-beta activity in most ground-water samples. The difference between the contribution from these radionuclides and gross-beta activity is most pronounced in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L, where these 2 radionuclides account for less than one-half the measured ross-beta activity. One exception is groundwater from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where40K plus228Ra generally contribute most of the gross-beta activity. In contrast,40K and228Ra generally contribute most of beta activity in ground water with gross-beta activities measure all beta activity in ground water. Although3H contributes beta activity to some ground water, it is driven from the sample before counting and therefore is not detected by gross-beta measurements. Beta-emitting radionuclides with half-lives shorter than a few days can decay to low values between sampling and counting. Although little is known about concentrations of most short-lived beta-emitting radionuclides in environmental ground water (water unaffected by direct releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests), their activities are expected to be low.Ingrowth of

  4. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuChengqian; ZhaoXiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP)is proposed .A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP)is also proposed .The relationship between PCSP and DFP,the properties and exising conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  5. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chengqian; Zhao Xiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP) is proposed. A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP) is also proposed.The relationship between PCSP and DFP, the properties and existing conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  6. Construction sector development: frames and governance responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Gottlieb, Stefan C.; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    2011-01-01

    The governance of construction sector development constitutes an important policy issue in many European countries due to the increasing impact that construction as well as the built environment have on gross domestic product and the environment. Previous studies have discussed how national...... activities may be governed. Based on a case study of the sector development activities in the Danish construction industry, this paper argues that governance strategies should not necessarily be designed to ensure the development of a single industrial conceptualization. First, drawing on concepts from...... construction industries have been framed as objects of development. However, less attention has been placed on exploring how an industry is recognized and framed as an object that can be subjected to organized development activities from the viewpoint of strategically motivated actors, and how such framing...

  7. Construction sector development: frames and governance responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Gottlieb, Stefan C.; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    2011-01-01

    construction industries have been framed as objects of development. However, less attention has been placed on exploring how an industry is recognized and framed as an object that can be subjected to organized development activities from the viewpoint of strategically motivated actors, and how such framing......The governance of construction sector development constitutes an important policy issue in many European countries due to the increasing impact that construction as well as the built environment have on gross domestic product and the environment. Previous studies have discussed how national...... activities may be governed. Based on a case study of the sector development activities in the Danish construction industry, this paper argues that governance strategies should not necessarily be designed to ensure the development of a single industrial conceptualization. First, drawing on concepts from...

  8. Construction aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  9. Responsible construction?

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Eric; Lee,Angela; WU, SONG; Mathison, Gill

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the construction industry to innovate in order to improve its practice has been widely debated over the years. As more and more organisations in other sectors, globally, are addressing 21st century consumer challenges: encompassing fair-trade, ethically sourced and more recycled products; and are reporting on their corporate responsibility performance (such as Marks and Spencer's Plan A, The Co-operative, The Body Shop etc), isn't it about time the construction industry followe...

  10. 47 CFR 73.7005 - Holding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Holding period. 73.7005 Section 73.7005... Applications for Noncommercial Educational Stations on Non-Reserved Channels § 73.7005 Holding period. (a... holding period. From the grant of the construction permit and continuing until the facility has achieved...

  11. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to gross domestic energy consumption in Italy in years 1992 and 1993; Censimento per il territorio italiano dei dati relativi alle fonti rinnovabili di energia ed al loro contributo al bilancio energetico per gli anni 1992 e 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menna, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche, Portici (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-11-01

    In 1992, the gross domestic energy consumption in Italy was 167.5 MTOE (including bunkers) while in 1993 it decreased to 165.9 MTOE. The overall electricity demand passed from 244.8 TWh in 1992 to 246.6 TWh in 1993. In the same period, the overall contribution from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) kept almost constant at 5.y consumption. The RES contribution represented a share larger than gross National production of energy in 1992.

  12. The Construction of Talents with Regard to the System of Land and Mineral Resources in Hunan Province in the New Period%新时期湖南省国土资源系统人才队伍建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文君

    2016-01-01

    人才建设是当前国土资源管理工作的重要内容,高层次专业人才、高素质复合人才、信息化技术人才、法治专门人才成为国土资源部门急需人才。湖南省国土资源系统人才队伍建设虽取得一定进展,但高素质人才不足,专业技术人才和综合性人才占比低,行政机关人员年龄偏大,人才队伍建设缺乏顶层设计。因此,未来应推进全省国土资源人才队伍顶层设计,制定人才发展战略,创新完善人才遴选引进、培育开发、考核激励和人才建设投入等人才工作体制机制,统筹推进人才梯队建设和国土资源人才法治化建设等。%Talent training constitutes important aspects of the management of land and resources. High-level professionals, high qualiifed personnel, information-based talent, and the rule of law talents are becoming urgently needed talents in the ifeld of land resources. Shortage of high quality talent, low proportion of professional and technical personnel and a comprehensive talent, older executive staff, lack of top-level design for building talent team have been the major problems that Hunan province face in land and resource talent construction. Therefore, in the future, top-level design for building talent team must be accelerated. Talent development strategy must be set up. Talent development mechanism in talent selection and introduction, cultivation and development, assessment and motivation, and investment in talent building should be innovated and improved. In addition, echelon construction and building the rule of law related talents should be balanced to be promoted.

  13. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  14. Uncertainty analysis of gross primary production partitioned from net ecosystem exchange measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP, separated from flux tower measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE of CO2, is used increasingly to validate process-based simulators and remote sensing-derived estimates of simulated GPP at various time steps. Proper validation should include the uncertainty associated with this separation at different time steps. This can be achieved by using a Bayesian framework. In this study, we estimated the uncertainty in GPP at half hourly time steps. We used a non-rectangular hyperbola (NRH model to separate GPP from flux tower measurements of NEE at the Speulderbos forest site, The Netherlands. The NRH model included the variables that influence GPP, in particular radiation, and temperature. In addition, the NRH model provided a robust empirical relationship between radiation and GPP by including the degree of curvature of the light response curve. Parameters of the NRH model were fitted to the measured NEE data for every 10-day period during the growing season (April to October in 2009. Adopting a Bayesian approach, we defined the prior distribution of each NRH parameter. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulation was used to update the prior distribution of each NRH parameter. This allowed us to estimate the uncertainty in the separated GPP at half-hourly time steps. This yielded the posterior distribution of GPP at each half hour and allowed the quantification of uncertainty. The time series of posterior distributions thus obtained allowed us to estimate the uncertainty at daily time steps. We compared the informative with non-informative prior distributions of the NRH parameters. The results showed that both choices of prior produced similar posterior distributions GPP. This will provide relevant and important information for the validation of process-based simulators in the future. Furthermore, the obtained posterior distributions of NEE and the NRH parameters are of interest for a range of applications.

  15. A geostatistical synthesis study of factors affecting gross primary productivity in various ecosystems of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yadav

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A coupled Bayesian model selection and geostatistical regression modeling approach is adopted for empirical analysis of gross primary productivity (GPP at six AmeriFlux sites, including the Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak, Vaira Ranch, Tonzi Ranch, Blodgett Forest, Morgan Monroe State Forest, and Harvard Forest sites. The analysis is performed at a continuum of temporal scales ranging from daily to monthly, for a period of seven years. A total of 10 covariates representing environmental stimuli and indices of plant physiology are considered in explaining variations in GPP. Similar to other statistical methods, the proposed approach estimates regression coefficients and uncertainties associated with the covariates in a selected regression model. However, unlike traditional regression methods, the presented approach also estimates the uncertainty associated with the selection of a single "best" model of GPP. In addition, the approach provides an enhanced understanding of how the importance of specific covariates changes with temporal resolutions. An examination of trends in the importance of specific covariates reveals scaling thresholds above or below which covariates become significant in explaining GPP. Results indicate that most sites (especially those with a stronger seasonal cycle exhibit at least one prominent scaling threshold between daily to 20-day temporal scale. This demonstrates that environmental variables that explain GPP at synoptic scales are different from those that capture its seasonality. At shorter time scales, radiation, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit exert most significant influence on GPP at most examined sites. However, at coarser time scales, the importance of these covariates in explaining GPP declines. Overall, unique best models are identified at most sites at the daily scale, whereas multiple competing models are identified at larger time scales. In addition, the selected models are able to explain a larger

  16. A geostatistical synthesis study of factors affecting gross primary productivity in various ecosystems of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yadav

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A coupled Bayesian model selection and geostatistical regression modeling approach is adopted for empirical analysis of gross primary productivity (GPP at six AmeriFlux sites, including the Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak, Vaira Ranch, Tonzi Ranch, Blodgett Forest, Morgan Monroe State Forest, and Harvard Forest sites. The analysis is performed at a continuum of temporal scales ranging from daily to monthly, for a period of seven years. A total of 10 covariates representing environmental stimuli and indices of plant physiology are considered in explaining variations in GPP. Similarly to other statistical methods, the presented approach estimates regression coefficients and uncertainties associated with the covariates in a selected regression model. Unlike traditional regression methods, however, the approach also estimates the uncertainty associated with the selection of a single "best" model of GPP. In addition, the approach provides an enhanced understanding of how the importance of specific covariates changes with the examined timescale (i.e. temporal resolution. An examination of changes in the importance of specific covariates across timescales reveals thresholds above or below which covariates become important in explaining GPP. Results indicate that most sites (especially those with a stronger seasonal cycle exhibit at least one prominent scaling threshold between the daily and 20-day temporal scales. This demonstrates that environmental variables that explain GPP at synoptic scales are different from those that capture its seasonality. At shorter time scales, radiation, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit exert the most significant influence on GPP at most examined sites. At coarser time scales, however, the importance of these covariates in explaining GPP declines. Overall, unique best models are identified at most sites at the daily scale, whereas multiple competing models are identified at longer time scales.

  17. Considerations on the Construction of the Chinese Communist Youth League Organizations in Enterprises during the Period of Transition%关于转型期企业共青团建设的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晓玲

    2012-01-01

    The organizations of the Chinese Communist Youth League(the C.C.Y.L.) in enterprises should try to guide the youth to develop in a healthy way,which should be based on the youth's features as well as the practical situations of enterprises.The organizations of the C.C.Y.L.should play their roles in the following aspects such as guiding the youth in politics,helping the youth to develop,and evaluating the youth,and so on.The construction of the C.C.Y.L.organizations in enterprises should be conducted in the following aspects such as completing organization structure;interfering in enterprise culture,prompting organizational innovation,regulating organization activities,and conducting education on development for the youth.%企业团组织引导青年发展,应基于青年特点和企业的实际展开。企业团组织要发挥政治上引领青年、帮助青年成才、对青年的考核等方面的作用。企业团建工作要从健全组织机构、介入企业文化、推进组织创新、规范组织生活、开展青年养成教育等方面入手。

  18. Gross alpha determination in radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants using the track registration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, M.J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: he04@caminos.upm.es; Pujol, Ll. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Low and intermediate level nuclear wastes (ion-exchange resins and evaporator concentrates) essentially contain beta and gamma emitters, with very few alpha emitters. Several techniques may be used to determine gross alpha activity but, in this case, solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are a suitable technique for gross alpha determination because track detectors are not sensitive to beta and gamma emitters. Also, this technique is simple and inexpensive. In this paper, we studied the parameters (background, efficiency and self-absorption) that could affect the gross alpha determination using SSNTDs for both sample preparation methods, the 'dry method' with tensioactives and the 'wet method'. For the 'dry method', a self-absorption curve for {sup 241}Am standard was prepared using a set of varying thickness of sodium salt and for two different tensioactives: Tween{sup (R)}20 and Teg. The results showed that, below 1mg/cm{sup 2}, the self-absorption factor can be considered similar for both tensioactives and equal to unity. Several detectors for gross alpha determination were compared and we found that the most suitable techniques were ZnS(Ag) solid scintillator and track detectors. Both detectors were used to compare radioactive waste samples. Finally, the proposed methods ('dry method' with Teg tensioactive and 'wet method') using track detectors were tested by analysing the gross alpha activity of several radioactive wastes.

  19. Assessment of the effects of greywater reuse on gross solids movement in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2014-01-01

    Onsite greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WETs) reduce urban freshwater demand and thus enhance urban water use sustainability. Research on GWR and WETs has generally overlooked their potential effects on municipal sewer systems: GWR and WETs affect the flow regime in sewers, and consequently also influence gross solids transport. To asses these impacts, a gross solids transport model was developed. The model is based on approaches found in the literature. Hydrodynamic calculations of sewage flow were performed using the SIMBA6 simulator and then used for the gross solid movement models. Flow characteristics in the up- and downstream sections of the sewer network differ. Therefore different approaches were used to model solids movement in each of these two parts. Each model determines whether a solid moves as a result of a momentary sewage flow, and if it moves, calculation of its velocity is possible. The paper shows the adoption and implementation of two gross solids transport models using SIMBA6 and depicts the results of the effects of various GWR and WET scenarios on gross solids movement in sewers for a real case study in Israel.

  20. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmang Wu

    Full Text Available Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  1. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of natural radioactivity by gross alpha and beta measurements in ground water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Ozçitak, E; Taşkin, H; Varinlioğlu, A

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the gross α and β in ground water samples collected from the different drilled wells in Nevşehir province were measured to assess annual effective dose due to the ingestion of the water samples. Nevşehir province is one of the major cities of Cappadocia Region which is a popular tourist destination as it has many areas with unique geological, historic, and cultural features. Sampling and measurements were carried out in the autumn of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The values of the activity concentrations of the gross α and β measured in the water samples ranged from 80 to 380 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 192 mBq L(-1) and 120-3470 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 579 mBq L(-1) respectively. All values of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two ground water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). Therefore two water samples were the subject of further radioisotope-specific analysis. The obtained result indicated that the elevated activity concentrations of the gross β in these water samples are dominated by (40)K activity. Annual effective doses ranged from 0.04 to 0.20 mSv y(-1).

  3. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FINE AND GROSS MOTOR SKILLS OF NORMALLY DEVELOPING OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehmus ASLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. 18 girls and 28 boys with 12-18 age range, in totally 46 overweight and obese adolecents participated in the study. Body mass index of participants were calculated. Fine and gross motor skills of adolescents were assessed by Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF. There was no differences between girls and boys for BOT-2 SF total scores (p>0.05, but it was found differences in several items of BOT-2 SF. Scores of test items for fine motor scores in the girls were higher than the boys (p0.05. Gross motor skill tests including jumping in place, dribling a ball, sit-ups, one- legged stationary hop test scores were higher in the boys, while tapping feet and fingers test score was higher in the girls (p<0.05. Our results suggested that there is differences between girls’ and boys’ fine and gross motor skills in normally developing overweight and obese adolescents. Girls have better fine motor skill performance while boys have better gross motor skill performance in overweight and obese adolescents.

  4. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  5. Exploration on the present situation and strategies of college dormitory cultural construction in new period%新时期高校寝室文化建设现状及策略探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贵花; 高婷

    2013-01-01

      寝室是学生在校期间的主要驿站,是集知识性、引导性、教育性于一体的重要阵地。寝室文化作为校园文化的子文化,是学生“第一课堂”的有利补充。本文对当前高校寝室文化现状,以及建设高品质的寝室文化的措施和策略进行了探讨。%The bedroom is the main station during the period of school students, is the important position of the knowledge, guidance, education in one of the. As the campus culture of culture of dormitory culture, is a useful complement of students "first class". In this paper, the present status of the dormitory culture in Colleges and universities, and the measures and strategies for building high-quality dormitory culture are discussed.

  6. Leaf chlorophyll constraint on model simulated gross primary productivity in agricultural systems

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-05-05

    Leaf chlorophyll content (Chll) may serve as an observational proxy for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vmax), which describes leaf photosynthetic capacity and represents the single most important control on modeled leaf photosynthesis within most Terrestrial Biosphere Models (TBMs). The parameterization of Vmax is associated with great uncertainty as it can vary significantly between plants and in response to changes in leaf nitrogen (N) availability, plant phenology and environmental conditions. Houborg et al. (2013) outlined a semi-mechanistic relationship between V max 25 (Vmax normalized to 25 °C) and Chll based on inter-linkages between V max 25 , Rubisco enzyme kinetics, N and Chll. Here, these relationships are parameterized for a wider range of important agricultural crops and embedded within the leaf photosynthesis-conductance scheme of the Community Land Model (CLM), bypassing the questionable use of temporally invariant and broadly defined plant functional type (PFT) specific V max 25 values. In this study, the new Chll constrained version of CLM is refined with an updated parameterization scheme for specific application to soybean and maize. The benefit of using in-situ measured and satellite retrieved Chll for constraining model simulations of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) is evaluated over fields in central Nebraska, U.S.A between 2001 and 2005. Landsat-based Chll time-series records derived from the Regularized Canopy Reflectance model (REGFLEC) are used as forcing to the CLM. Validation of simulated GPP against 15 site-years of flux tower observations demonstrate the utility of Chll as a model constraint, with the coefficient of efficiency increasing from 0.91 to 0.94 and from 0.87 to 0.91 for maize and soybean, respectively. Model performances particularly improve during the late reproductive and senescence stage, where the largest temporal variations in Chll (averaging 35–55 μg cm−2 for maize and 20–35 μg cm−2 for soybean) are

  7. Leaf chlorophyll constraint on model simulated gross primary productivity in agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houborg, Rasmus; F. McCabe, Matthew; Cescatti, Alessandro; A. Gitelson, Anatoly

    2015-12-01

    Leaf chlorophyll content (Chll) may serve as an observational proxy for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vmax), which describes leaf photosynthetic capacity and represents the single most important control on modeled leaf photosynthesis within most Terrestrial Biosphere Models (TBMs). The parameterization of Vmax is associated with great uncertainty as it can vary significantly between plants and in response to changes in leaf nitrogen (N) availability, plant phenology and environmental conditions. Houborg et al. (2013) outlined a semi-mechanistic relationship between Vmax25 (Vmax normalized to 25 °C) and Chll based on inter-linkages between Vmax25, Rubisco enzyme kinetics, N and Chll. Here, these relationships are parameterized for a wider range of important agricultural crops and embedded within the leaf photosynthesis-conductance scheme of the Community Land Model (CLM), bypassing the questionable use of temporally invariant and broadly defined plant functional type (PFT) specific Vmax25 values. In this study, the new Chll constrained version of CLM is refined with an updated parameterization scheme for specific application to soybean and maize. The benefit of using in-situ measured and satellite retrieved Chll for constraining model simulations of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) is evaluated over fields in central Nebraska, U.S.A between 2001 and 2005. Landsat-based Chll time-series records derived from the Regularized Canopy Reflectance model (REGFLEC) are used as forcing to the CLM. Validation of simulated GPP against 15 site-years of flux tower observations demonstrate the utility of Chll as a model constraint, with the coefficient of efficiency increasing from 0.91 to 0.94 and from 0.87 to 0.91 for maize and soybean, respectively. Model performances particularly improve during the late reproductive and senescence stage, where the largest temporal variations in Chll (averaging 35-55 μg cm-2 for maize and 20-35 μg cm-2 for soybean) are observed. While

  8. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  9. Gross N transformation rates after application of household compost or domestic sewage sludge to agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Kure, L.K.; Jensen, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    Gross N mineralization and immobilization was examined in soil amended with compost and sewage sludge on seven occasions during a year using N-15 pool dilution and enrichment techniques. Gross N mineralization was initially stimulated with both wastes and accelerated through the first 112 days...... of incubation, peaking at 5 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) with compost compared with 4 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) in control and sludge-treated soil. The magnitudes of mineralization rates exceeded those of immobilization by on average 6.3 ( compost) and 11.4 ( sludge) times, leading to a persistent net N mineralization cumulating...... up to 160 mg N.kg(-1) soil(compost) and 54 mg N.kg(-1) soil (sludge) over the season from May to November. The numerical model FLUAZ comprehensively predicted rates of gross mineralization and immobilization. Sludge exhibited an early season N-release, whereas compost released only 10% of the N...

  10. Gross β activity level of fallout in the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; CHEN Bin; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the measurement results of gross β activities in fallout samples collected from the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) during 1993-2002. The gross β activity of 191 samples collected at five monitoring spots were (0.11~3.64) Bq · m-2 · d-1, with an average of (0.91 ±0.49) Bq · m-2 · d-1. This value was lower than (1.02±0.35) Bq·m-2·d-1 , the average of the samples collected at the reference spot in Hangzhou.It indicated that no obvious rise in the gross β activity level of fallout was observed in ambience of Qinshan NPP.

  11. Liberalism View of Woman during the May 4th Movement Period:Construction and Transcendence%五四时期自由主义妇女观:建构与超越

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍倩雯; 施钰

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the transplantation of liberalism into China,liberalism view of woman during the May 4th period,taking the concept of “man”as the logical starting point,called on Chinese woman to be a free person with independent personality.It is different from the western liberalism concept and has Chinese national characteris-tics,and plays an important part in accelerating modern Chinese women′s liberation movement.But due to the lim-itations of class nature and the times,and the difference of national conditions,it can′t solve the problem of China′s women′s liberation.In the end,it has finally been transcended by Marxism.%五四时期自由主义妇女观是自由主义移植到中国的结果。它以自由主义的“人”的概念为逻辑起点,呼吁中国女性做一个有独立人格的自由的人。五四时期自由主义妇女观具有别于西方自由主义妇女观的民族特点,对现代中国妇女解放运动起到了重要推动作用。但由于阶级和时代的局限以及国情的差异,它不可能解决中国的妇女解放问题,最终被马克思主义所超越。

  12. Spatiotemporal Variation of China’s State-Owned Construction Land Supply from 2003 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available State-owned construction land is the dominant legal land source for construction in China and its supply influences urban expansion, house prices, and economic development, among other factors. Surprisingly, limited attention has been directly devoted to the spatiotemporal variation in land supply or the driving factors. This paper applied a centroid model and hotspot analysis, and created a newly increased construction land dependence-degree index (NCD to present the spatiotemporal variations of China’s construction land supply magnitude and pattern from 2003 to 2014, using land supply data from 339 cities. A two-way fixed effect model was introduced to reveal the influence of the socio-economic driving factors. The results showed that China’s state-owned construction land supply area (CLSA and newly increased construction land supply area (NCSA both increased during the period from 2003 to 2014, the geographic centroid of CLSA and NCSA moved northwest. NCD showed an overall increasing trend, and hotspots with high NCD migrated from the east region to the west region and shifted from an “east hot and west cold” pattern in 2003 to an “east cold and west hot” pattern in 2014. The gross domestic product (GDP has a U-shape effect on CLSA and NCD. The population, average annual wage of workers, and investment in fixed assets (fiv have positive effects on CLSA, and fiv also has a positive effect on NCD. The increasing ratio of tertiary industry added value to secondary industry added value reduces CLSA and NCD, and the effects of state policies vary from year to year. Different land supply policies should be implemented for cities in different development stages.

  13. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...

  14. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  15. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...

  16. The contribution of cultivated land occupation by construction to China's economic growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ke; CHEN Baiming; DU Hongliang; TANG Xiumei

    2011-01-01

    The paper applies Cobb-Douglas Production Function and Solow-Swan Model to constructing the calculation model of the contribution rate of cultivated land occupation by construction (CLOC) to China's economic growth,and analyzes the contribution change of CLOC to China's economic growth qualitatively and quantitatively.The main conclusions are as follows:1) From 1989 to 2007,the contribution rates of capital,labor,and CLOC to China's economic growth were 45.76%,8.47%,and 6.19% respectively.2) From the period 1989-1996 to the period 1997-2007 the contribution rate of CLOC to China's economic growth increased from 5.40% to 5.87%.The degree of contribution was enhanced significantly.3) The contribution of CLOC to China's economic growth had a spatial distribution characteristic that the contribution rate of eastern coastal regions was the highest,that of central regions came second,and that of western regions the lowest.The paper indicates that in order to enhance the contribution of CLOC to China's economic growth,some relevant economic and administrative measures might be taken,and land might be used intensively and economically to increase land economic density.The cost of promoting gross domestic product (GDP) growth might be reduced as much as possible to achieve higher GDP growth and lower land resource consumption.

  17. Saturated salt solution: a further step to a formaldehyde-free embalming method for veterinary gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardero, M; Yllera, M M; Costa-E-Silva, A; Oliveira, M J; Ferreira, P G

    2017-08-01

    In the field of veterinary anatomy, most of the specimens used in practical sessions are perfused with fixatives. Thus, they can be used for a longer time, reducing the number of animals for educational purposes. Formalin is the most commonly used fixative, consisting of a 37% formaldehyde solution. However, formaldehyde is a powerful irritant of the eyes and airways and is considered carcinogenic, causing nasopharyngeal cancer in exposed workers and professionals. In the present study, we explored an alternative method to avoid the use of formaldehyde in specimens used for gross anatomy practical sessions. We propose an inexpensive, non-toxic fixative that is available worldwide, such as sea salt. This method consists of a continuous perfusion of saturated salt solution for a period of 6-8 h, enabling drainage of the solution to avoid a weight increase of the specimen, and allowing salt to be retained in the tissue. The method is based on recirculation of the saturated salt solution instead of maceration. Perfused specimens retained their natural consistency and joint mobility, with no blood, resembling a piece of meat from the slaughterhouse. They could be used immediately without a maceration period, or stored in the fridge until use and then kept in a bath of saturated salt solution for future conservation. In the case of the former, no refrigeration was needed. The specimens did not have an irritating or offensive smell, and could be used for long sessions (several hours per day) and stored for long periods. However, the blood vessels used for perfusion determine the results: a less invasive approach (through common carotid arteries) gave good preservation of the musculoskeletal system, whereas more invasive access to cannulate the abdominal aorta and vena cava caudalis was required to achieve better preservation of the viscera. In conclusion, we propose that perfusion followed by immersion in a saturated salt solution is a good alternative method for the

  18. Effect of cerebrolysin on gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Jafar; Safavifar, Faezeh

    2017-01-10

    Gross motor dysfunction is considered as the most challenging problem in cerebral palsy (CP). It is proven that improvement of gross motor function could reduce CP-related disabilities and provide better quality of life in this group of patients. Therefore, the aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of cerebrolysin (CBL) on gross motor function of children with CP who are undergoing treatment. In this clinical trial study, paediatric patients aged 18-75 months with spastic diplegic or quadriplegic cerebral palsy, who were under rehabilitation therapy, were selected and randomly allocated in control and CBL groups. Patients in CBL group underwent treatment with standard rehabilitation therapy plus CBL. The latter was administrated intramuscularly as a single daily dose of 0.1 cc/kg for 10 days and then continued weekly for 4 months. Gross motor function of participants in the two studied groups, before and after trial, was evaluated and compared using the validated Persian version of gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R). During this trial, 108 patients with CP were evaluated for eligibility. From these, 50 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated in the CBL and control groups. Four months after trial, the mean level of GMFCS decreased significantly in the two groups (P < 0.05). However, it was significantly lower in the CBL group than in the control group (2.1 vs. 3.16, P < 0.05). The results of this trial indicated that CBL could improve gross motor function in patients with CP. This finding is consistent with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of CBL, which have been reported in various clinical trials in other neurological disorders. Further studies are recommended to establish the value of continued neuroprotection and to determine the pharmacokinetics/dynamics of CBL in this group of patients.

  19. Study on Information Construction of File Management Work in Blood Sta-tion in the New Period%新时期血站档案管理工作信息化建设探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 闻武; 张军

    2016-01-01

    The business file management work in blood station is the foundation of various jobs in blood station, with the increasing development of non-remunerated blood donation, the file needed to be managed in blood station is more and more, and the traditional file management model is far from meeting the file management work demands in current blood station, and the issues such as lack of leader's attention to the blood collecting and supplying file management work, weak professional team and lack of unified standards are common in the file management work in blood station at present, in or-der to solve these problems, we should accelerate the digital transformation work of business file resources, enhance the cultivation of professionals, construct and improve the file management working standards in blood station, accelerate the blood station file management information process and improve the file utilization rate of blood station. All in all, we should constantly enhance and improve the blood station business file management level, improve the effective utilization of files and promote the development of non-remunerated blood donation relying on the advanced information management model.%血站业务档案管理工作是血站各项工作的基础。随着无偿献血事业日益发展,血站工作中需要管理的档案日益增多,以往传统的档案管理模式已远远不能满足当前血站档案管理工作的需求。导致目前血站普遍存在档案管理中的问题院领导对采供血档案管理工作缺乏重视,专业人才队伍薄弱,缺乏统一的规范标准等。针对目前状况,有以下对策院加快业务档案资源的数字化转化工作,加强专业人才培养,建立健全血站档案管理工作标准,加快血站档案管理信息化进程,提高血站档案利用率。总之,我们应当依靠先进的信息化管理模式来不断加强和提高血站业务档案管理水平,提高档案的有效利用

  20. Toward an Organic Chemist's Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H. K., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An analogy between electron transfer reactions of the elements and those of organic molecules is offered. Examples of organic electron transfer reactions are presented. The rationale of constructing an organic chemists' periodic table is also discussed. (HM)

  1. Toward an Organic Chemist's Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H. K., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An analogy between electron transfer reactions of the elements and those of organic molecules is offered. Examples of organic electron transfer reactions are presented. The rationale of constructing an organic chemists' periodic table is also discussed. (HM)

  2. Measured and modeled interactive effects of potassium deficiency and water deficit on gross primary productivity and light-use efficiency in Eucalyptus grandis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Mathias; Le Maire, Guerric; Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Nouvellon, Yann; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Jourdan, Christophe; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo; Laclau, Jean-Paul

    2015-05-01

    Global climate change is expected to increase the length of drought periods in many tropical regions. Although large amounts of potassium (K) are applied in tropical crops and planted forests, little is known about the interaction between K nutrition and water deficit on the physiological mechanisms governing plant growth. A process-based model (MAESPA) parameterized in a split-plot experiment in Brazil was used to gain insight into the combined effects of K deficiency and water deficit on absorbed radiation (aPAR), gross primary productivity (GPP), and light-use efficiency for carbon assimilation and stem biomass production (LUEC and LUEs ) in Eucalyptus grandis plantations. The main-plot factor was the water supply (undisturbed rainfall vs. 37% of throughfall excluded) and the subplot factor was the K supply (with or without 0.45 mol K m(-2 ) K addition). Mean GPP was 28% lower without K addition over the first 3 years after planting whether throughfall was partly excluded or not. K deficiency reduced aPAR by 20% and LUEC by 10% over the whole period of growth. With K addition, throughfall exclusion decreased GPP by 25%, resulting from a 21% decrease in LUEC at the end of the study period. The effect of the combination of K deficiency and water deficit was less severe than the sum of the effects of K deficiency and water deficit individually, leading to a reduction in stem biomass production, gross primary productivity and LUE similar to K deficiency on its own. The modeling approach showed that K nutrition and water deficit influenced absorbed radiation essentially through changes in leaf area index and tree height. The changes in gross primary productivity and light-use efficiency were, however, driven by a more complex set of tree parameters, especially those controlling water uptake by roots and leaf photosynthetic capacities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Reply to Nicholson's comment on "Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements" by Kaiser (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The comment by Nicholson (2011a questions the "consistency" of the "definition" of the "biological end-member" used by Kaiser (2011a in the calculation of oxygen gross production. "Biological end-member" refers to the relative oxygen isotope ratio difference between photosynthetic oxygen and Air-O2 (abbreviated 17δP and 18δP for 17O/16O and 18O/16O, respectively. The comment claims that this leads to an overestimate of the discrepancy between previous studies and that the resulting gross production rates are "30% too high". Nicholson recognises the improved accuracy of Kaiser's direct calculation ("dual-delta" method compared to previous approximate approaches based on 17O excess (17Δ and its simplicity compared to previous iterative calculation methods. Although he correctly points out that differences in the normalised gross production rate (g are largely due to different input parameters used in Kaiser's "base case" and previous studies, he does not acknowledge Kaiser's observation that iterative and dual-delta calculation methods give exactly the same g for the same input parameters (disregarding kinetic isotope fractionation during air-sea exchange. The comment is based on misunderstandings with respect to the "base case" 17δP and 18δP values. Since direct measurements of 17δP and 18δPdo not exist or have been lost, Kaiser constructed the "base case" in a way that was consistent and compatible with literature data. Nicholson showed that an alternative reconstruction of 17δP gives g values closer to previous studies. However, unlike Nicholson, we refrain from interpreting either reconstruction as a benchmark for the accuracy of g. A number of publications over the last 12 months

  4. Acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pathoom Sukkaromdee; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The sterile pyuria is an interesting problem in urology. Acute gross sterile pyuria is not a common clinical problem and is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Here, the authors reported a case of acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection. The patient developed problem after complete course of 7-day acute upper urinary tract treatment. The patient was observed with cloudy whitish urine that had never seen before. The urinalysis showed sterile pyuria. This case was treated by conservative method and the problem was resolved within 7 days.

  5. Btryoid Wilm's tumor in a child presenting with gross hematuria: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chae Jung; Im, Young Jae; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    We report a unique case of botryoid Wilms' tumor with its characteristic imaging findings in a 5-month-old boy presenting with gross hematuria. In our case, ultrasonography revealed lobulated hyperechoic lesions filling the pelvicalyceal system without parenchymal invasion, mimicking a blood clot. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the exact extent of the lesion with diffusion restriction and delayed enhancement suggestive of a tumor. Despite their rarity, botryoid Wilms' tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of lobulated renal pelvic lesions presenting as gross hematuria in children, and MRI can suggest the diagnosis.

  6. MODELING AND FORECASTING THE GROSS ENROLLMENT RATIO IN ROMANIAN PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINOIU CRISTIAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gross enrollment ratio in primary school is one of the basic indicators used in order to evaluate the proposed objectives of the educational system. Knowing its evolution allows a more rigorous substantiation of the strategies and of the human resources politics not only from the educational field but also from the economic one. In this paper we propose an econometric model in order to describe the gross enrollment ratio in Romanian primary school and we achieve its prediction for the next years, having as a guide the Box-Jenkins’s methodology. The obtained results indicate the continuous decrease of this rate for the next years.

  7. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  8. Production of table potatoes in Europe – a multinational gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, J.; Dalla Costa, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines different cropping practies, cost structures and gross margins for conventional table potato cropping in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that potato cropping practies...... varies significantly between the various countries with major differences in yield and costs. Italy and Denmark are two regions with highest gross margins due to hight yields and revenues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries. The production is primarily based...

  9. ANALISIS POTENSI PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI KABUPATEN BONE PERIODE 2006-2010

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    2012 This research focused to determine the leading sectors and potential sectors in the regional economy of Bone Regency as a study and recommendations in planning economic development. This research use secondary data such as time series of the Gross Domestic Regional Product of Bone Regency and South Sulawesi Province in the period 2006-2010. The analytical tools used in this research is Location Quotient analysis (LQ) and Shift Share analysis. Location Quotient analysis ...

  10. Bone tuberculosis in Roman Period Pannonia (western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Hajdu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse a skeleton (adult female, 25-30 years that presented evidence of tuberculous spondylitis. The skeleton, dated from the Roman Period (III-VI centuries, was excavated near the town of Győr, in western Hungary. The skeleton was examined by gross observation supplemented with mycolic acid and proteomic analyses using MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. The biomolecular analyses supported the morphological diagnosis.

  11. Sandwich construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A.

    A form of composites known as structural sandwich construction is presented in terms of materials used, design details for solving edging and attachment problems, and charts of design material analysis. Sandwich construction is used in nearly all commercial airliners and helicopters, and military air and space vehicles, and it is shown that this method can stiffen a structure without causing a weight increase. The facing material can be made of 2024 or 7075 aluminum alloy, titanium, or stainless steel, and the core material can be wood or foam. The properties of paper honeycomb and various aluminum alloy honeycombs are presented. Factors pertaining to adhesive materials are discussed, including products given off during cure, bonding pressure, and adaptability. Design requirements and manufacturing specifications are resolved using numerous suggestions.

  12. Fireplace construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billmeyer, T.F.; Faehling, F.L.

    1979-05-08

    A prebuilt fireplace construction for installation in a building structure, such as a mobile home, is presented. The construction includes a firebox having an open side and a combustion gas outlet adapted to be placed in fluid communication with a flue. A transparent door is provided for substantially sealing the open side and a housing at least partially surrounds the firebox in close proximity thereto to define an air space therebetween. The air space has a relatively low inlet and a relatively high outlet. A conduit isolated from the air space is provided and is adapted to be placed in fluid communication with a source of outside air. The conduit opens into the firebox to provide combustion air. A baffle is interposed between the opening of the conduit into the firebox and the combustion area thereof.

  13. Effectiveness of catch basins equipped with hoods in retaining gross solids and hydrocarbons in highway runoff, Southeast Expressway, Boston, Massachusetts, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater mobilizes litter and other debris along the roadway where it is transported to the highway drainage systems. Initial treatment for stormwater runoff typically is provided by catch basins in highway settings. Modification of catch basins to include hoods that cover the catch-basin outlet is intended to enhance catch-basin performance by retaining floatable debris and various hydrophobic organic compounds that tend to float on the water surface within the sump of the catch basin. The effectiveness of six deep-sump off-line catch basins equipped with hoods in reducing the mass of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter and concentrations of oil and grease (OG) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was examined along the Southeast Expressway, in Boston, Massachusetts. Two deep-sump catch basins were equipped with cast-iron hoods. Three were equipped with molded plastic hoods, known as an Eliminator, and a single catch basin was equipped with a fiberglass anti-siphoning hood, known as a Snout. Samples of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter, excluding gravel and metallic materials, were routinely collected for a 6-month period from a collection structure mounted at the end of each catch-basin outlet pipe. After about 6 months, all floatable, saturated low-density and high-density solids were removed from each catch basin. In addition to the collection of samples of gross solids, samples of sump water from five catch basins and flow-weighted composite samples of stormwater from the outlet of one catch basin were collected and analyzed for concentrations of OG and TPH. A mass balance approach was used to assess the effectiveness of each catch basin equipped with a hood in retaining gross solids. The effectiveness of the deep-sump catch basins fitted with one of three types of hoods in retaining gross solids ranged from 27 to 52 percent. From 45 to 90 percent of the gross solids collected from the catch-basin sumps were composed of

  14. 从麦金太尔的德性理论谈新时期我国体育职业道德建设%Enlightenment of sports professional ethics construction in the new period of China from MacIntyre's virtue theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊云庆; 曹景川

    2016-01-01

    德性的缺乏是导致新时期我国体育职业道德问题层出不穷的原因之一,而麦金太尔的德性论为解决体育职业道德问题提供了新的思路。从德性理论的概述出发,系统介绍了新时期我国体育职业道德建设的成就及职业道德缺失的现实问题,结合德性理论的实践、人生统一性与传统三大观点,探讨了德性理论对新时期我国体育职业道德建设的深刻启示,构建与我国现代社会经济条件相适应的职业道德体系。%In the new period,virtue deficiency is the fundamental reason leading to the increasingly serious sports moral issues in China,However,Macintyre's virtue theory offers a new idea to solve the sports professional ethic issues.Starting from an overview of virtue theory, this paper systematicly introduced the achievements of the sports professional ethics construction and the practical problems of virtue deficiency in the new period of China. With the combination of three viewpoints of the practice of virtue theory,lifetime unity and tradition,it discussed the profound enlightenment of virtue theory for the sports professional ethics construction in the new period of China,so as to establish a suitable professional ethic system fitting in the social and economic condition of China.

  15. Gross hepatomegaly due to ‘minimal change’ liver disease in a young female alcoholic

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Sisir K.; Shaw, G K; Aps, E. J.; Thomson, Allan D.; O Gorman, P.; Bugler, J.

    1982-01-01

    The case of a grossly enlarged liver due to alcohol excess in a woman of 21 is reported. This case further demonstrates that a chronic alcoholic can have gross hepatomegaly with normal histology and normal liver function tests. The possible pathogenetic basis of ethanol-induced hepatomegaly (‘minimal change’ liver disease) is discussed.

  16. 26 CFR 1.62-1T - Adjusted gross income (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 165 for losses incurred in any transaction entered into for profit though not connected with a... determining adjusted gross income, expenses must be those directly, and not those merely remotely, connected... research scientist, is employed by Corporation X. B gives a speech before members of Association Y,...

  17. Terrestrial gross carbon dioxide uptake: Global distribution and covariation with climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, C.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is the largest global CO2 flux driving several ecosystem functions. We provide an observation-based estimate of this flux at 123 ± 8 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year-1) using eddy covariance flux data and various diagnostic models. Tropical forests

  18. 7 CFR 1400.501 - Determination of average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... renewable energy; (4) The sale, including the sale of easements and development rights, of farm, ranch... renewable energy; (7) The feeding, rearing, or finishing of livestock; (8) The sale of land that has been..., and farm operations. (c) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, adjusted gross income means:...

  19. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2008-01-01

    The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) for cerebral palsy has been widely used internationally for clinical, research, and administrative purposes. This paper recounts the ideas and work behind the creation of the GMFCS, reports on the lessons learned, and identifies some philosophical challenges inherent in trying to develop an…

  20. The gross motor function measure is a valid and sensitive outcome measure for spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leslie; Owens, Hollis; Hynan, Linda S; Iannaccone, Susan T

    2006-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease of the anterior horn cell with high morbidity rate in childhood. Certain drugs may be of benefit and are in or under consideration for Phase II trials. Outcome measures that are age appropriate and representative of disease activity remain under study. Several have not yet been validated for spinal muscular atrophy. The Gross Motor Function Measure is a measure of motor function. We showed previously that the Gross Motor Function Measure is a reliable outcome measure to assess motor function in children with spinal muscular atrophy. By collating our data from 40 spinal muscular atrophy patients, ages 5 through 17 years, we now show the validity of the Gross Motor Function Measure when compared to Quantitative Muscle Testing and ambulatory status in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The median for Gross Motor Function Measure total scores for walkers was 237 (range: 197-261) and for non-walkers, 64 (range: 4-177; PGross Motor Function Measure is valid and sensitive as an outcome measure for clinical trials in pediatric spinal muscular atrophy.

  1. Stereoscopic Anatomy: Evaluation of a New Teaching System in Human Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ernest D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A stereoscopic slide-based autoinstructional program has been developed as a substitute for dissection in teaching gross anatomy. Evaluation data suggest that this program, while having minor limitations in terms of anatomical orientation, does provide a viable alternative to dissection. (Editor/LBH)

  2. Student performance on practical gross anatomy examinations is not affected by assessment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J; Innes, Stanley I; Stomski, Norman J; Armson, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional anatomy practical examinations; and (2) to examine if students' perceptions of the online or laboratory testing environments influenced their performance on the examinations. In phase one, 10 third-year students were interviewed to generate perception items to which five anatomy lecturers assigned content validity. In phase two, students' gross anatomical knowledge was assessed by examinations in two modes and their perceptions were examined using the devised survey instrument. Forty-five second-year chiropractic students voluntarily participated in Phase Two. The two randomly allocated groups completed the examinations in a sequential cross-over manner. Student performance on the gross anatomy examination was not different between traditional "steeplechase" (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 69 ± 11%) and online (68 ± 15%) modes. The majority of students (87%) agreed that they felt comfortable using computers for gross anatomy examinations. However, fewer students found it easy to orientate images of cadaver specimens online. The majority of students (85%) agreed that they felt comfortable working with cadavers but there was less agreement on the effect of moving around the laboratory during practical examinations. This data will allow anatomists to confidently implement online assessments without fear of jeopardizing academic rigor or student performance. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Macroeconomic Models used in the Structural Analysis of the Gross Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a use case for macro economical models, the objective being the structural analysis of the Gross Domestic Product. The authors offer a snapshot on GDP evolution, the econometric models proposed for analysis are designed with the help of EViews software. Its performances are determined through the optics of the statistical tests.

  4. Scattering and duality in the 2 dimensional OSp(2|2) gross neveu and sigma models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleur, H.; Pozsgay, B.

    2010-01-01

    We write the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz for the massive OSp(2|2) Gross Neveu and sigma models. We find evidence that the GN S matrix proposed by Bassi and Leclair [12] is the correct one. We determine features of the sigma model S matrix, which seem highly unconventional; we conjecture in particular

  5. Gross and microscopic pathology of hard and soft corals in New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Lasne, Gregory; Tribollet, Aline

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the reefs of Grande Terre, New Caledonia, for coral diseases in 2010 and 2013. Lesions encountered in hard and soft corals were systematically described at the gross and microscopic level. We sampled paired and normal tissues from 101 and 65 colonies in 2010 and 2013, respectively, comprising 51 species of corals from 27 genera. Tissue loss was the most common gross lesion sampled (40%) followed by discoloration (28%), growth anomalies (13%), bleaching (10%), and flatworm infestation (1%). When grouped by gross lesions, the diversity of microscopic lesions as measured by Shannon–Wiener index was highest for tissue loss, followed by discoloration, bleaching, and growth anomaly. Our findings document an extension of the range of certain diseases such as Porites trematodiasis and endolithic hypermycosis (dark spots) to the Western Pacific as well as the presence of a putative cnidarian endosymbiont. We also expand the range of species infected by cell-associated microbial aggregates, and confirm the trend that these aggregates predominate in dominant genera of corals in the Indo-Pacific. This study highlights the importance of including histopathology as an integral component of baseline coral disease surveys, because a given gross lesion might be associated with multiple potential causative agents.

  6. 48 CFR 29.401-4 - New Mexico gross receipts and compensating tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New Mexico gross receipts and compensating tax. 29.401-4 Section 29.401-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Contract Clauses 29.401-4 New Mexico...

  7. 20 CFR 10.712 - What amounts are included in the gross recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recovery? 10.712 Section 10.712 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF... gross recovery? (a) When a settlement or judgment is paid to, or for, one individual, the entire amount... recovery. If a settlement or judgment is paid to or for more than one individual or in more than...

  8. Gross genomic damage measured by DNA image cytometry independently predicts gastric cancer patient survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belien, J.A.M.; Buffart, T.E.; Gill, A.; Broeckaert, M.A.M.; Quirke, P.; Meijer, G.A.; Grabsch, H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: DNA aneuploidy reflects gross genomic changes. It can be measured by flow cytometry (FCM-DNA) or image cytometry (ICM-DNA). In gastric cancer, the prevalence of DNA aneuploidy has been reported to range from 27 to 100%, with conflicting associations with clinicopathological variables. Th

  9. Medical gross anatomy as a predictor of performance on the USMLE Step 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cathryn A; Tucker, Richard P

    2005-03-01

    Traditional predictors of medical school performance, such as Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores and grade point averages, are often used during the admissions process to help identify the prospective students who are most likely to complete the basic science portion of the curriculum successfully. Here we analyzed the admissions files and student records of 285 first-year medical students who matriculated at the University of California at Davis School of Medicine between 1999 and 2001 to determine if performance in medical gross anatomy is a similar, if not better, predictor of performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 than traditional predictors used by medical school admissions committees. Though MCAT scores and grade point averages were correlated with scores on the USMLE Step 1, only the score on the biological science section of the MCAT was significantly correlated with passing the licensing examination. In contrast, class rank in medical gross anatomy and the score on a gross anatomy comprehensive final examination were correlated both with scores on the USMLE Step 1 and passing the examination. Our results indicate that medical schools should consider performance in medical gross anatomy just as much, if not more, than traditional predictors of medical school performance when trying to identify students who may need more time or tutoring to pass the licensing examination.

  10. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstrea

  11. Assessment of Preschoolers' Gross Motor Proficiency: Revisiting Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2011-01-01

    Literature reveals that there are very few validated motor proficiency tests for young children. According to Gallahue and Ozmun, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency is a valid test. However, manipulative skills, which are classified as gross motor skills by most motor development specialists, are only tested in the Upper Limb…

  12. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  13. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  14. Medical Student Preferences for Self-Directed Study Resources in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L.; Low, Tze Feng; Patman, Phillip; Turner, Paul; Sinha, Sankar N.

    2016-01-01

    Gross anatomy instruction in medical curricula involve a range of resources and activities including dissection, prosected specimens, anatomical models, radiological images, surface anatomy, textbooks, atlases, and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These resources and activities are underpinned by the expectation that students will actively engage…

  15. Student Performance on Practical Gross Anatomy Examinations Is Not Affected by Assessment Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J.; Innes, Stanley I.; Stomski, Norman J.; Armson, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional…

  16. Effects of winter flooding on mass and gross energy of bottomland hardwood acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009–2010. Mass...

  17. Self-Pacing a Gross Motor Skills Course: Crawler Tractor Operator, MOS 62E20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mark F.; Taylor, John E.

    As part of the Army's emphasis on performance-oriented instruction in training centers, a study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using self-paced instruction in a gross motor skills course. The Crawler Tractor Operator Course, a seven-week heavy equipment course conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri was selected for the study…

  18. Gross Square Feet Per Student. IssueTrak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Art

    The Council of Educational Facility Planners International regularly provides the recommended number of gross square feet (gsf) per student figures. This report provides revised numbers based on responses from its Design Portfolio winners over the past 5 years. Average national averages of square footage space per student for Canada and the…

  19. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  20. Remarks on the Blow-Up Solutions for the Critical Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the blow-up solutions of the critical Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which models the Bose-Einstein condensate. The existence and qualitative properties of the minimal blow-up solutions are obtained.

  1. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from

  2. Hydrodynamical form for the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We establish a well-posedness result for the hydrodynamical form (HGP of the one dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GP via the classical form of this equation. The result established in this way proves that (HGP is locally well-posed since the solution of (GP can vanished at some $t\

  3. The effect of ambient temperature on gross-efficiency in cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, F.J.; Koning, J.J. de; Vrijer, A. de; Wüst, R.C.I.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Foster, C.

    2007-01-01

    Time-trial performance deteriorates in the heat. This might potentially be the result of a temperature-induced decrease in gross-efficiency (GE). The effect of high ambient temperature on GE during cycling will be studied, with the intent of determining if a heat-induced change in GE could account f

  4. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…

  5. Hand-rim Forces and Gross Mechanical Efficiency at Various Frequencies of Wheelchair Propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenton, J. P.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Fowler, N. E.; Nicholson, G.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of push frequency changes on force application, fraction of effective force (FEF) and gross efficiency (GE) during hand-rim propulsion. 8 male able-bodied participants performed five 4-min sub-maximal exercise bouts at 1.8 m.s(-1); the freely chosen frequency (FCF), followed

  6. 26 CFR 1.951-1 - Amounts included in gross income of United States shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders. Therefore, the redemption rights are not restrictions or other limitations within the meaning of... States shareholders. 1.951-1 Section 1.951-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... included in gross income of United States shareholders. (a) In general. If a foreign corporation is...

  7. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biot

  8. Spatial patterns for the three species Gross-Pitaevskii system in the plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Squassina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we highlight some particular spatial patterns of ground state solutions for the three species Gross-Pitaevskii system in the plane having physical coefficients with particular attention to the cases where the inter-species coefficients become large. The solutions models least energy stationary states of a mixture of three Bose-Einstein condensates.

  9. An Efficient Compact Finite Difference Method for the Solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongpei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    matrices. The CFDM-AIF method is implemented to investigate the ground and first excited state solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity, accuracy, and efficiency of the CFDM-AIF method.

  10. G7 country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) time correlations. A graph network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mi'skiewicz, J

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between G7 countries has been analysed on the basis of Gross Domestic Product using different distance functions i.e. discrete, linear correlation and distribution distance. The distance matrics is analysed by various graph methods and the percolation threshold is calculated. The globalization process understood as increas of correlation has been observed. The applications of different distance function discussed.

  11. Direct measurements of the light dependence of gross photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, B.; Park, J.; Brown, C. M.; Bidle, K. D.; Lee, S.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2016-02-01

    For decades, a lack of understanding of how respiration is influenced by light has been stymying our ability to quantitatively analyze how phytoplankton allocate carbon in situ and the biological mechanisms that participate to the fate of blooms. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), the light dependencies of gross photosynthesis and oxygen uptake rates were measured during the bloom demises of two prymnesiophytes, in two open ocean regions. In the North Atlantic, dominated by Emiliania huxleyi, respiration was independent of irradiance and was higher than the gross photosynthetic rate at all irradiances. In the Amundsen Sea (Antarctica), dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica, the situation was very different. Dark respiration was one order of magnitude lower than the maximal gross photosynthetic rate. ut the oxygen uptake rate increased by 10 fold at surface irradiances, where it becomes higher than gross photosynthesis. Our results suggest that the light dependence of oxygen uptake in P. antarctica has two sources: one is independent of photosynthesis, and is possibly associated with the photo-reduction of O2 mediated by dissolved organic matter; the second reflects the activity of an oxidase fueled in the light with photosynthetic electron flow. Interestingly, these dramatic light-dependent changes in oxygen uptake were not reproduced in nutrient-replete P. antarctica cultures, in the laboratory. Our measurements highlight the importance of improving our understanding of oxygen consuming reactions in the euphotic zone, which is critical to investigating the physiology of phytoplankton and tracing the fate of phytoplankton blooms.

  12. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  13. Effects of Aquatic Intervention on Gross Motor Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2016-12-14

    To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.

  14. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  15. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be installed in the pilothouse to indicate operation of the power units. (e) The auxiliary means... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. 130.130... VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.130 Steering on OSVs of...

  16. A note on a proof of F. Hahn concerning the gross substitutability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi, G

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this note is to investigate the assumptions and the proofs of some results by F. Hahn, which have been stated in several other classics of Economic Theory. The results deal with the relations between the gross substitutability and the weak axiom of revealed preference, in a pure exchange economy, ruled by the Walras law.

  17. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of

  18. Associations between gross motor and communicative development in at-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M

    2016-08-01

    Infants' advances in locomotion relate to advances in communicative development. However, little is known about these relations in infants at risk for delays in these domains and whether they may extend to earlier achievements in gross motor development in infancy. We examined whether advances in sitting and prone locomotion are related to communicative development in infants who have an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are at risk for motor and communication delays (heightened-risk; HR). We conducted a longitudinal study with 37 HR infants who did not receive an ASD diagnosis at 36 months. Infants were observed monthly between the ages of 5 and 14 months. We assessed gross motor development using the Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS) and recorded ages of onset of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors. Results indicated increased presence of early gross motor delay from 5 to 10 months. In addition, there were positive relations between sitting and gesture and babble onset and between prone development and gesture onset. Thus, links between gross motor development and communication extend to at-risk development and provide a starting point for future research on potential cascading consequences of motor advances on communication development.

  19. The phase diagram of the massive Gross-Neveu model, revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The phase diagram features a kink-antikink crystal phase which was missed in previous works. Translated into the framework of condensed matter physics our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.

  20. The Impact of Gross Anatomy on the Future Head and Neck Surgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, David J.; Carlson, Matthew L.

    2009-01-01

    Gross anatomy is not only a rite of passage for medical students as they enter the world of practicing medicine but may also be an unrecognized fork in the road in their pursuit of choosing a medical specialty. Otolaryngology: head and neck surgery tends to be poorly represented in medical school curriculum, often only offered as an elective…

  1. Building a Low-Cost Gross Anatomy Laboratory: A Big Step for a Small University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Evan

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates details of the planning, building, and improvement phases of a cost-efficient, full-dissection gross anatomy laboratory on a campus of an historically design-centric university. Special considerations were given throughout the project to the nature of hosting cadavers in a building shared amongst all undergraduate majors.…

  2. A "Second Life" for Gross Anatomy: Applications for Multiuser Virtual Environments in Teaching the Anatomical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Challman, Sandra D.; Morgenstein, Aaron M.; Brueckner, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the emerging role of educational multiuser virtual environments, specifically Second Life[TM], in anatomical sciences education. Virtual worlds promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, potentially making them applicable for teaching and learning gross anatomy. A short introduction to Second Life as an…

  3. The impact of unit cost reductions on gross profit: Increasing or decreasing returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Dahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that marketers actively participate in reducing unit costs during new product development, consistent with the theme of integrated marketing and manufacturing. Most marketing managers misjudge the impact on gross profit of reducing variable unit manufacturing costs, mistakenly believing that such cost reductions yield decreasing or linear returns while they actually generate increasing returns.

  4. Periodic Table Target: A Game that Introduces the Biological Significance of Chemical Element Periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, Richard S.; McGinty, Ragan L.; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    Periodic Table Target, a game for middle school or high school students, familiarizes students with the form of the periodic table and the biological significance of different elements. The Periodic Table Target game board is constructed as a class project, and the game is played to reinforce the content. Students are assigned several elements…

  5. Periodic Table Target: A Game that Introduces the Biological Significance of Chemical Element Periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, Richard S.; McGinty, Ragan L.; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    Periodic Table Target, a game for middle school or high school students, familiarizes students with the form of the periodic table and the biological significance of different elements. The Periodic Table Target game board is constructed as a class project, and the game is played to reinforce the content. Students are assigned several elements…

  6. Calculation of gross energy consumption[in a building]; Beregning af bruttoenergiforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, Kirsten; Aggerholm, Soeren

    2000-07-01

    This bulletin presents a method for calculating the gross energy consumption of a building. The net heat demand for space heating, ventilation and domestic hot water should be calculated. Next converted to gross energy consumption, i.e. the amount of energy that is required to supply, for instance, a gas furnace in order that it produces the calculated amount of heat. First the electricity consumption required for ventilation, appliances and lighting is calculated, taking into consideration the daylight utilisation in commercial buildings. The point of departure is the existing method for calculating the net heat demand of buildings. The method includes heat supply from persons, lighting and appliances. This calculating method was later extended to include a method for calculating the energy demand for domestic hot water and addition of non-utilised heat loss from pipes and heat producing installations. This loss is calculated on the basis of loss in hot water tanks, heat and hot water pipes. Heat supply from solar collectors is calculated and deducted from the heat demand. The calculated end result is called gross heat requirement. Next the gross energy consumption for heating, ventilation and domestic hot water is determined by means of annual efficiency for heating installations. An inventory of the environmental impact is calculated based on the energy consumption measured by the total CO{sub 2} production per m{sup 2} floor area. The CO{sub 2} emission is calculated on the basis of the calculated gross energy consumption of heating and electricity, and on standard values for CO{sub 2} contents in the fuels used and emissions from electricity production issued by the Danish Energy Agency. The gross energy consumption is calculated for three examples of buildings: a single-family house, an administration building and a multi-storey building. The examples show that it is feasible to do calculations for typical buildings. Heat consumption for space heating and

  7. Gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  8. Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W. P.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure 88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  9. Gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result

  10. Gross violation of human rights and inequality in city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotti, Caren; Freitas, Taís Viudes de; Almeida, Juliana Feliciano de; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho

    2009-06-01

    To analyze the profile of gross human rights violations, and the relationship between these violations and socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Cross-sectional ecological study of 96 census districts of the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil) in the year 2000. The data used came from the gross human rights violations database maintained by the Núcleo de Estudos de Violência (Center for the Study of Violence) at the Universidade de São Paulo. This database contains information on all the cases of summary executions, lynching and police violence reported on the written press. Socioeconomic and demographic data were obtained from the 2000 Census carried out by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). A descriptive analysis of the data was carried out, and the association between the dependent variable - gross human rights violations (number of police violence victims, lynching episodes and summary executions) -, and different socioeconomic and demographic variables was tested. In order to test this association the Spearman's correlation test was used. The correlations between gross human rights violations and the socioeconomic and demographic indicators were statistically significant, except for the urbanization rate and the hospital beds per 1000 inhabitants. The strongest correlations were found between the dependent variable and the following variables: size of the resident population (r=0,693), proportion of youths aged from 15 to 24 years (r=0,621), and proportion of household heads with no education or with up to three years of schooling (r=0,590). Gross human rights violations more markedly occur in the population with the worst living conditions. Therefore, in a scenario in which inequality in attaining social and economic rights is directly superposed to the violation of civil rights, the violence cycle is intensified and perpetuated.

  11. How the Integration of Pathology in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory Affects Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Guenevere; Cork, John R; Karpinski, Aryn C; McGoey, Robin; Swartz, William

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this project was to integrate pathologists into the gross anatomy laboratory setting to increase the exposure that early medical students receive to pathologists as clinicians. Pathologists visited the gross anatomy laboratory 3 times throughout the 15-week course to assist medical students in determining the cause of death of the cadaver being dissected. This intervention was implemented with 1st-semester medical students for 2 consecutive years (a total of 100 dissection teams consisting of 4 students in each team). A quantitative content analysis was performed on the students' end of the course assignments to determine whether the students learned a greater percentage of pathologic information by having interactions with pathologists in the gross lab and to identify trends in the way medical students diagnosed their "first patient" (i.e., the cadaver). The students who had interactions with pathologists in the laboratory had significantly more pathology in their narrative than the students who did not receive pathologist interaction. They were also more likely to conclude that the cadaver they dissected actually died from a cause other than the one listed on the death certificate (18.3%; n = 15) compared to the students who had no pathologist interaction (1.8%; n = 2). A postintervention survey indicated that 65% of students felt that interaction with pathologists helped them understand the clinical application of gross anatomy, more than 40% become more interested in pathology, and 74% would have liked to have had more pathologist interaction. This intervention demonstrated a way to increase pathologist interaction within the undergraduate medical curriculum and enhance the educational environment of the gross anatomy laboratory.

  12. Influence factors of thermal stress in the construction period of the concrete outer tank for 160 000 m3 LNG storage%160000 m3大型LNG储罐混凝土外罐施工全过程温度作用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟希梅; 王恒

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the cracking resistance and avoid the vertical and local circumferential cracks at the bottom of the concrete outer tank during the construction period due to hydration heat, concrete shrinkage and temperature changes for 160 000 m3 liquefied natural gas ( LNG ) tanks, using the finite element numerical simulation technology, the influence of shuttering material, construction quality, construction season and pouring temperature on cracks was figured out with an incremental method. The results show that concrete shrinkage leads to a sustaind growth of concrete tensile stress, the thermal stress fluctuates according to the changing of construction temperature and construction quality and construction season have a strong inference on cracks. Based on this basis, the thermal tress is dismantled according to the effect of each influencing factor, and the whole thermal stress is the superposition of the thermal stress under single influence of hydration heat, concrete shrinkage, construction season and pouring temperature. Some suggestions on anti⁃cracking measures are proposed, mainly by regulating the construction season, complementally by improving the quality of construction.%为了解160000 m3大型液化天然气( LNG)储罐混凝土外罐在施工期间的抗裂性能,避免由于水泥水化放热、混凝土收缩、外界气温变化而造成的外罐墙壁竖向开裂及扶壁柱局部环向裂缝现象,运用有限元数值模拟技术,采用增量法,分别探讨了施工模板材料、施工质量、施工季节及混凝土入模温度对混凝土外罐温度应力分布的影响及其规律。结果显示:模板对温度应力的影响作用较小,混凝土收缩导致混凝土拉应力持续增长,温度应力随着施工季节温度的变化而产生相应波动,施工质量及施工季节对温度应力的影响较大;在上述结论基础上,视温度应力结果为水化热、混凝土收缩、外界

  13. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  14. BIVARIATE REAL-VALUED ORTHOGONAL PERIODIC WAVELETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Li; Xuezhang Liang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we construct a kind of bivariate real-valued orthogonal periodic wavelets. The corresponding decomposition and reconstruction algorithms involve only 8 terms respectively which are very simple in practical computation. Moreover, the relation between periodic wavelets and Fourier series is also discussed.

  15. Periodic wrappings in coded aperture imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, Paul M. E.; Springham, Stuart V.; Talebitaher, Alireza

    2014-02-01

    We classify all coded masks onto which cyclic difference sets can be wrapped periodically using a generalization of the Finger and Prince construction. In particular, we establish simple numerical criteria which determine whether any given mask can be wrapped periodically in this way and, for each mask which can, we provide explicit constructions which will produce at least one such wrapping. We show that all periodic wrappings currently reported in the literature are special cases of our explicit constructions, and we often provide simpler alternatives. Using these constructions we show that all Singer cyclic difference sets of practical size and open fraction can be wrapped exactly onto masks which are very nearly as compact and symmetrical as hexagons, without the need for pixel padding.

  16. 26 CFR 1.132-1T - Exclusion from gross income of certain fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion from gross income of certain fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary). 1.132-1T Section 1.132-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... 1988 (temporary). (a) In general. Gross income does not include any fringe benefit which qualifies as...

  17. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  18. Use of Saliva for Assessment of Stress and Its Effect on the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, S. Reid; Brown, Jason R.; Aycock, Jeffrey E.; Grubbs, S. Lee; Johnson, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal effects of a series of stressful gross anatomy tests on the immune system. Thirty-six freshman occupational therapy students completed a written stress evaluation survey, and saliva samples were obtained at baseline and prior to each of three timed-practical gross anatomy tests.…

  19. The Natural History of Gross Motor Development in Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 1 to 15 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckung, E.; Carlsson, G.; Carlsdotter, S.; Uvebrant, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore motor development in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using developmental curves for CP, subtypes, and the five severity levels of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the GMFCS were applied to 317 children (145 females, 172 males) with CP, aged…

  20. Loosely-guided, self-directed learning versus strictly-guided, station-based learning in gross anatomy laboratory sessions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooloos, J.G.M.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Ruiter, D.J.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomy students studying dissected anatomical specimens were subjected to either a loosely-guided, self-directed learning environment or a strictly-guided, preformatted gross anatomy laboratory session. The current study's guiding questions were: (1) do strictly-guided gross anatomy laboratory sess

  1. Use of Saliva for Assessment of Stress and Its Effect on the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, S. Reid; Brown, Jason R.; Aycock, Jeffrey E.; Grubbs, S. Lee; Johnson, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal effects of a series of stressful gross anatomy tests on the immune system. Thirty-six freshman occupational therapy students completed a written stress evaluation survey, and saliva samples were obtained at baseline and prior to each of three timed-practical gross anatomy tests.…

  2. Reliability and validity of the test of gross motor development-II in Korean preschool children: applying AHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Il; Han, Dong-Wook; Park, Il-Hyeok

    2014-04-01

    The Test of Gross Motor Development-II (TGMD-II) is a frequently used assessment tool for measuring motor ability. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of TGMD-II's weighting scores (by comparing pre-weighted TGMD-II scores with post ones) as well as examine applicability of the TGMD-II on Korean preschool children. A total of 121 Korean children (three kindergartens) participated in this study. There were 65 preschoolers who were 5-years-old (37 boys and 28 girls) and 56 preschoolers who were 6-years-old (34 boys and 22 girls). For internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity, only one researcher evaluated all of the children using the TGMD-II in the following areas: running; galloping; sliding; hopping; leaping; horizontal jumping; overhand throwing; underhand rolling; striking a stationary ball; stationary dribbling; kicking; and catching. For concurrent validity, the evaluator measured physical fitness (strength, flexibility, power, agility, endurance, and balance). The key findings were as follows: first, the reliability coefficient and the validity coefficient between pre-weighted and post-weighted TGMD-II scores were quite similar. Second, the research showed adequate reliability and validity of the TGMD-II for Korean preschool children. The TGMD-II is a proper instrument to test Korean children's motor development. Yet, applying relative weighting on the TGMD-II should be a point of consideration.

  3. 47 CFR 73.3598 - Period of construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... natural disasters (e.g., floods, tornados, hurricanes, or earthquakes); (2) The grant of the permit is the... to Canada or Mexico on behalf of the station and no response from the country affected has...

  4. Periodicity, the Canon and Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Scanlon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.

  5. Inflation from periodic extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Higaki, Tetsutaro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a realization of a small field inflation based on string inspired supergravities. In theories accompanying extra dimensions, compactification of them with small radii is required for realistic situations. Since the extra dimension can have a periodicity, there will appear (quasi-)periodic functions under transformations of moduli of the extra dimensions in low energy scales. Such a periodic property can lead to a UV completion of so-called multi-natural inflation model where inflaton potential consists of a sum of multiple sinusoidal functions with a decay constant smaller than the Planck scale. As an illustration, we construct a SUSY breaking model, and then show that such an inflaton potential can be generated by a sum of world sheet instantons in intersecting brane models on extra dimensions containing $T^2/{\\mathbb Z}_2$ orbifold. We show also predictions of cosmic observables by numerical analyzes.

  6. Enlightenment of the Inner Party Education in the Early Period of People's Republic of China to the Party Construction Work in Universities Under the New Normality%建国初期党内教育活动对新常态下高校党建工作的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊

    2015-01-01

    Inner party education is an important measure to keep progressiveness of the Party. The Communist Party of China has attached great importance to the construction itself. From 1950 to 1954, the consolidating party and rectification is the first time mass educational activity in the party after the Chinese Communist Party became the ruling party. Now,Party construction work in colleges and universities is faced with the new normality,new tasks and new problems,and needs to learn from historical experience. Inner-party education in the early period of People's Republic of China enlighten us that in order to strengthen the party construction in colleges and universities under the new situation,we must enhance theoretical study to improve the party members' ideological awareness, perfect the organization and strengthen the construction of grass-root organizations,adhere to the standards for party members to purify the team,and strengthen leaders' style construction,stick to the party's disciplines and correct evil styles.%党内教育活动是保持党的先进性的重要举措,中国共产党历来重视自身建设,1950年到1954年的整党整风运动是中国共产党成为执政党后首次大规模的党内教育活动。当前高校党建工作面临着新常态、新任务和新问题,需要借鉴历史经验。建国初期党内教育活动启示我们,要加强新形势下高校党建工作,就必须加强理论学习,提高党员思想觉悟;健全组织生活,加强基层组织建设;坚持党员标准,纯洁党的队伍;加强领导干部作风建设,执行党的纪律和纠正不正之风。

  7. Fireplace construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billmeyer, T.F.

    1978-10-03

    A prebuilt fireplace construction for installation in a building structure includes a firebox having an open forward side and an outlet for combustion gases and a housing at least partially surrounding the firebox with the combustion gas outlet extending through the top of the housing. A rotatable damper is disposed within the housing and is controlled externally by a rotatable shaft extending forwardly through the housing which is engaged by an external actuator operable from the front of the fireplace. An inlet conduit for combustion air is built into the housing for the fireplace beneath the level of the firebox for supply of combustion air to the firebox in the event doors are later added to close off the firebox.

  8. Constructing Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Patricia

    2003-02-01

    Schools are expected to lay the foundation upon which knowledge can be built and equip students with the tools necessary to accomplish the construction. The role of the teacher in this building process is crucial to the type of structure the student can build. Whether you call it constructivism, discussion teaching, project-based learning, inquiry learning, or any of the other names given to the instructional strategies being suggested by education researchers, the key is getting students to become active participants in the process. While some students may be able to learn from eloquently delivered lectures and dynamic demonstrations, the majority of students cannot effectively retain and apply ideas communicated in this manner.

  9. Effect of Extending Hot Weather Periods on Approach to Floor Construction in Moderate Climate Residential Buildings / Wpływ Przedłużających Się Okresów Występowania Wysokich Temperatur Letnich Na Podejście Do Projektowania Podłogi Na Gruncie w Budynkach Mieszkalnych w Krajach Klimatu Umiarkowanego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszczuk, Anna; Kuczyński, Tadeusz

    2016-03-01

    The effects of changes in Global climate on the prolonging time and the frequency of the periods of very high outside air temperature at summer were shown in the paper with particular emphasis on European moderate climate countries. In these countries, residential buildings, are usually equipped neither in air conditioning equipment, nor in ordinary window blinds. As the most promising solution it is suggested to resign completely or partially from ground slab thermal insulation, directly utilizing ground heat storage capacity. The paper includes detailed simulations on potential effect of various kind of floor construction and actions preventing high indoor air temperatures in building approach on air temperature inside the one-storey, passive residential buildings during consecutive days of very high outdoor temperature and total energy used yearly for additional heating and air conditioning.

  10. Gross alpha and beta radioactivity concentration in water, soil and sediment of the Bendimahi River and Van Lake (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk Zorer, Ozlem; Ceylan, Hasan; Doğru, Mahmut

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of the natural radioactivity in water, soil and sediment samples collected from Bendimahi River which originates near the Tendürek Mountain (Van, Turkey), its tributaries and Van Lake (Turkey) were measured. The gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity concentrations were investigated in May and August in 2005. Determination of the gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity of river water, soil and sediment samples was obtained by using gas-flow proportional counter, PIC-MPC 9604-alpha/beta counter. In water samples, the obtained results show that in May; gross-alpha and gross-beta activity concentrations varied between 0.063-0.782 and 0.021-0.816 Bq l(-1) and in August the values were 0.009-0.037 and 0.081-3.116 Bq l(-1), respectively. The gross-alpha and gross-beta activity concentrations in soil samples ranged from 0.800 to 4.277 Bq g(-1) and 0.951 to 11.773 Bq g(-1) in May and 0.686 to 4.713 Bq g(-1) and 0.073 to 9.524 Bq g(-1) in August, respectively. Concentrations ranging from 0.782 to 4.596 Bq g(-1) and from 0.482 to 10.372 Bq g(-1) in May and from 0.580 to 5.824 Bq g(-1) and from 0.303 to 9.702 Bq g(-1) in August for gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity were observed in sediments, respectively.

  11. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    period of delay can potentially be attributed to several events falling within both parties' spheres of responsibility, commonly termed concurrent delay, is rarely regulated in construction contracts in spite of its common occurrence. This book analyses both the theoretical foundations and the practical......Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing...

  12. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing...... period of delay can potentially be attributed to several events falling within both parties' spheres of responsibility, commonly termed concurrent delay, is rarely regulated in construction contracts in spite of its common occurrence. This book analyses both the theoretical foundations and the practical...

  13. Infrequency of gross skin lesions among Panamanian forest mammals with cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrer, A; Christensen, H A

    1975-08-01

    Natural leishmanial infections among feral mammals in the Republic of Panama were studied in relation to gross skin alterations. Three dermatotropic species of Leishmania, L. braziliensis, L. mexicana and L. hertigi, isolated from 230 sylvatic animals of 5 mammalian orders were involved. In 205 (89%) of the cases there were no gross skin alterations. Cryptic infections of all three leishmanial species among wild animals were confirmed by culture and hamster inoculation. This type of infection was always present in the sloths, Choloepus hoffmanni and Bradypus infusatcus, infected with L. braziliensis and in the porcupine, Coendou rothschildi, infected with L. hertigi. Suggestive skin alterations were encountered in 10 (4%) of infected animals. Only 15 (7%) of infected animals exhibited typical leishmanial lesions. It was possible to correlate skin depigmentation with the course of leishmanial infection in one animal, a young kinkajou, Potos flavus.

  14. Cut-and-join description of generalized Brezin-Gross-Witten model

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the Brezin-Gross-Witten model, a tau-function of the KdV hierarchy, and its natural one-parameter deformation, the generalized Brezin-Gross-Witten tau-function. In particular, we derive the Virasoro constraints, which completely specify the partition function. We solve them in terms of the cut-and-join operator. The Virasoro constraints lead to the loop equations, which we solve in terms of the correlation functions. Explicit expressions for the coefficients of the tau-function and the free energy are derived, and a compact formula for the genus zero contribution is conjectured. A family of polynomial solutions of the KdV hierarchy, given by the Schur functions, is obtained for the half-integer values of the parameter. The quantum spectral curve and its classical limit are discussed.

  15. Ising and Gross-Neveu model in next-to-leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Knorr, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    We study scalar and chiral fermionic models in next-to-leading order with the help of the functional renormalisation group. Their critical behaviour is of special interest in condensed matter systems, in particular graphene. To derive the beta functions, we make extensive use of computer algebra. The resulting flow equations were solved with pseudo-spectral methods to guarantee high accuracy. New estimates on critical quantities for both the Ising and the Gross-Neveu model are provided. For the Ising model, the estimates agree with earlier renormalisation group studies of the same level of approximation. By contrast, the approximation for the Gross-Neveu model retains many more operators than all earlier studies. For two Dirac fermions, the results agree with both lattice and large-$N_f$ calculations, but for a single flavour, different methods disagree quantitatively, and further studies are necessary.

  16. Detection of gross errors using mixed integer optimization approach in process industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Cong-li; SU Hong-ye; CHU Jian

    2007-01-01

    A novel mixed integer linear programming (NMILP) model for detection of gross errors is presented in this paper.Yamamura et al.(1988) designed a model for detection of gross errors and data reconciliation based on Akaike information criterion (AIC). But much computational cost is needed due to its combinational nature. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP)approach was performed to reduce the computational cost and enhance the robustness. But it loses the super performance of maximum likelihood estimation. To reduce the computational cost and have the merit of maximum likelihood estimation, the simultaneous data reconciliation method in an MILP framework is decomposed and replaced by an NMILP subproblem and a quadratic programming (QP) or a least squares estimation (LSE) subproblem. Simulation result of an industrial case shows the high efficiency of the method.

  17. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  18. Clinical management and gross pathological findings of a severe anaplamosis in a dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Abba

    2016-06-01

    Results: The cow did not survive the infection as it eventually died of the disease. Post mortem examination showed gross evidence of splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, distended bile duct and generalized jaundice. Conclusion: Based on the consequence of this case report, preventive vector control, prompt and appropriate treatment and improved management practices are recommended in order to prevent clinical anaplasmosis cases among cattle. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 195-199

  19. Monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids by using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanato, L.; Cester, D.; Filippi, D.; Lunardon, M.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Viesti, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy ' Galileo Galilei' , University of Padova, (Italy); Badocco, D.; Pastore, P.; Romanini, F. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this work the possibility of monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids using EJ-444 was investigated. Specific tests were carried out to determine the change of the detector properties in water tests. Possible protecting coating is also proposed and tested. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in liquids is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  20. Kinetic Thomas-Fermi solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    OpenAIRE

    Ölschläger, M.; Wirth, G.; Smith, C. Morais; Hemmerich, A.

    2010-01-01

    Approximate solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation, obtained upon neglection of the kinetic energy, are well known as Thomas-Fermi solutions. They are characterized by the compensation of the local potential by the collisional energy. In this article we consider exact solutions of the GP-equation with this property and definite values of the kinetic energy, which suggests the term "kinetic Thomas-Fermi" (KTF) solutions. We point out that a large class of light-shift potentials gives ...