WorldWideScience

Sample records for gross community production

  1. Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method

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    H. Claustre

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The very clear waters of the South Pacific Gyre likely constitute an end-member of oligotrophic conditions which remain essentially unknown with respect to its impact on carbon fixation and exportation. We describe a non-intrusive bio-optical method to quantify the various terms of a production budget (Gross community production, community losses, net community production in this area. This method is based on the analysis of the diel cycle in Particulate Organic Carbon (POC, derived from high frequency measurements of the particle attenuation coefficient cp. We report very high integrated rates of Gross Community Production within the euphotic layer (average of 846±484 mg C m−2 d−1 for 17 stations that are far above any rates determined using incubation techniques for such areas. Furthermore we show that the daily production of POC is essentially balanced by the losses so that the system cannot be considered as net heterotrophic. Our results thus agree well with geochemical methods, but not with incubation studies based on oxygen methods. We stress to the important role of deep layers, below the euphotic layer, in contributing to carbon fixation when incident irradiance at the ocean surface is high (absence of cloud coverage. These deep layers, not considered up to know, might fuel part of the heterotrophic processes in the upper layer, including through dissolved organic carbon. We further demonstrate that, in these extremely clear and stratified waters, integrated gross community production is proportional to the POC content and surface irradiance via an efficiency index ψ GCP*, the water column cross section for Gross Community Production. We finally discuss our results in the context of the role of oligotrophic gyre in the global carbon budget and of the possibility of using optical proxies from space for the development of growth community rather than primary production

  2. 2,4-D and Glyphosate affect aquatic biofilm accrual, gross primary production, and community respiration

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    Lawton E. Shaw

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and glyphosate are widely used agricultural herbicides commonly found in surface waters near cultivated land. Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of 2,4-D and glyphosate on biofilms in a pond next to agricultural land in Athabasca, Alberta. Contaminant-exposure substrates (CES consisted of GF/C glass fiber or a cellulose filter paper substrates placed on specimen jars filled with agar that contained low levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, and different concentrations (15, 9.0, 1.5 mM of either 2,4-D or glyphosate. Nutrients and herbicide diffused freely through the agar to the substrate surface. CES arrays were deployed 15 cm below the water surface for 22 days, after which biofilms were collected and biomass (chlorophyll a, autotroph gross primary production (GPP, and heterotroph community respiration (CR were measured. 2,4-D (15 mM caused significant decreases in rates of biomass accrual (−22%, GPP (−34%, and CR(−63%. Glyphosate (15 mM also caused significant decreases in rates of biomass accrual (−50%, GPP (−67%, and CR (−47%. For the contaminant concentrations used, mean flux rates are estimated to be between 50–700 ng cm−2 min−1.

  3. Stimulation of gross dimethylsulfide (DMS) production by solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galí, Martí; Saló, Violeta; Almeda, Rodrigo; Calbet, Albert; Simó, Rafel

    2011-08-01

    Oceanic gross DMS production (GP) exerts a fundamental control on the concentration and the sea-air flux of this climatically-active trace gas. However, it is a poorly constrained process, owing to the complexity of the microbial food web processes involved and their interplay with physical forcing, particularly with solar radiation. The “inhibitor method”, using dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) or other compounds to inhibit bacterial DMS consumption, has been frequently used to determine GP in dark incubations. In the work presented here, DMDS addition was optimized for its use in light incubations. By comparing simultaneous dark and light measurements of GP in meso- to ultraoligotrophic waters, we found a significant enhancement of GP in natural sunlight in 7 out of 10 experiments. Such stimulation, which was generally between 30 and 80% on a daily basis, occurred throughout contrasting microbial communities and oceanographic settings.

  4. Sectoral contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... This study analyzed sectoral contributions to Gross Domestic Product by Agriculture, Industry and services ... KEYWORDS: Granger causality, Unit root, VAR model and sectoral contribution ...

  5. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  6. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr−1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0 scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem. During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m−2 (11 %. The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr−1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  7. Gross municipal product: the design procedure and application

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    Dmitry Vasilevich Kolechkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem to find the adequate methods to assess the economic performance of municipalities conditioned by their growing independence and role in the development of regional economy. Nowadays many researchers are working on the practical application and testing of various approaches to assessing theterritory economicresults based on thecalculation of gross municipal product (GМP. However, the development of methodological reasonable calculation tools is still at an early stage. In this article presents a simplified method of calculating the gross municipal product, an analysis of the dynamics and territorialindustrial structure GМP, implemented in terms of grouping areas GМP methods hierarchical cluster analysis of the economic characteristics of the obtained clustersbased on systematic occurring in the economic literature, methodological developments in the calculation of gross municipal product, determination of strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches

  8. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

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    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  9. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    -dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... to distribute photons evenly between the photosynthetic tissues. As scattering and attenuation in the water column increase, the effect of thallus structure on production declines and thin transparent macrophytes are more efficient at utilizing light than thick opaque macrophytes. The results confirm...... combined a simple mechanistic model and empirical measurements on artificially structured macroalgal communities (Ulva lactuca) with varying thallus absorptance and community density. Predicted and measured values corresponded closely and revealed that gross production in high-light environments...

  10. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ika Prastyadewi; Agus Suman; Devanto Shasta Pratomo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and ...

  11. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  12. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    Many terrestrial plant canopies regulate spatial patterns in leaf density and leaf inclination to distribute light evenly between the photosynthetic tissue and to optimize light utilization efficiency. Sessile aquatic macrophytes, however, cannot maintain the same well-defined three......-dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... was markedly enhanced by a vertical orientation of thalli when absorptance and community density were both high. This result implies that aquatic macrophytes of high thallus absorptance and community density exposed to high light are limited in attaining high gross production rates because of their inability...

  13. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  14. Specific features of measuring the ecologically adjusted gross regional product

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    Douginets Ganna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article formulates a necessity of deepening and improvement of ecological and economic indicators and considers the existing indices and indicators of sustainable development. It conducts a comparative analysis of existing norms of calculation of the ecological tax and fees for environmental pollution. It marks main problems of nature management in Ukraine and their consequences, namely, negative impact on health of the population. It offers methods of measurement of the ecologically adjusted gross regional product (EGRP on the basis of improvement of the cost method. It analyses dependence of the regional welfare on the state of environment with the help of measuring the EGRP of Ukrainian regions. It studies the pressure on Ukrainian regions by components: pollution of aquatic environment, atmospheric air, land resources and rates of waste formation. It conducts grouping of regions by EGRP per capita with specification of positive and negative dynamics of the indicator.

  15. World distribution of gross domestic product per-capita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2015-05-01

    It is shown that the world distribution of gross domestic products per capita (GDPpc) is well described by a trade-investment model that combines yard-sale (YS) exchange and random multiplicative noise (RMN). We first derive analytically the typical value w(r, t) of the ranked wealths for a system evolving under YS exchange and RMN. The resulting analytical expressions are fitted to data for the GDPpc of up to 200 countries, in the period 1960-2013. Our model fits the data significantly better than previously proposed approaches that consider either Noise or Trade alone. Analysis of the resulting values for the fitting parameters, and of their time dependence, suggests that: (a) International trade conditions have (from 1960 to 2008) a statistical bias towards favoring richer countries. (b) Biased international commerce is the main cause for the observed divergence of GDPpc values from 1960 to 2008. (c) After 2008, the distribution of GDPpc starts to converge, and the world product per capita stops growing.

  16. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-01

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP)—the amount of carbon dioxide that is ‘fixed’ into organic material through the photosynthesis of land plants—may provide a negative feedback for climate change. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent biogeochemical processes can suppress global GPP growth. As a consequence, modelling estimates of terrestrial carbon storage, and of feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate, remain poorly constrained. Here we present a global, measurement-based estimate of GPP growth during the twentieth century that is based on long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records, derived from ice-core, firn and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that simulates changes in COS concentration according to changes in its sources and sinks—including a large sink that is related to GPP. We find that the observation-based COS record is most consistent with simulations of climate and the carbon cycle that assume large GPP growth during the twentieth century (31% ± 5% growth; mean ± 95% confidence interval). Although this COS analysis does not directly constrain models of future GPP growth, it does provide a global-scale benchmark for historical carbon-cycle simulations.

  17. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  18. Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents

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    J. Zscheischler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented. Here we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive (increase in uptake and negative extremes (decrease in uptake on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Most extremes in GPP start in early summer. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role than durations or maximal GPP anomaly when it comes to the overall impact of GPP extremes. An analysis of possible causes implies that across continents most extremes in GPP can best be explained by water scarcity rather than by extreme temperatures. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we identify also fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

  19. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at...

  20. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla;

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot......The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show...... that potato cropping practices varies signifi-cantly between these countries with major differences in yields and costs. Italy and Denmark are the two regions with highest gross margins due to high yields and reve-nues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries ex...

  1. COST OF PRODUCTION, GROSS RETURN AND NET PROFIT IN COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION

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    M. Farooq, Zahoor-ul-Haq1, M.A. Mian, F.R. Durrani and M. Syed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Chakwal, Pakistan by collecting data from randomly selected 109 flocks to investigate cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer. Majority of the buildings in the study area were rented therefore, rent per layer was added to the total cost of production instead of depreciation on building and equipments. Overall total cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer was Rs. 393.88 ± 5.36, 432.14 ± 8.01 and 38.26 ± 6.66, respectively. Rate of return over the invested capital was 27%. Mean feed cost per layer was Rs. 302.23 ± 5.01, including Rs. 10.27 ± 0.24, 29.19 ± 0.42 and 262.77 ± 5.08 for starter, grower and layer ration, respectively. Feed cost was the major component contributing 76.73% to the total cost of production. Average cost of labor, day-old chick, building rent, vaccination, therapy, miscellaneous item, electricity, bedding material and transportation was Rs. 19.90 ± 0.45, 19.75 ± 0.05, 16.25 ± 0.26, 12.80 ± 0.10, 10.90 ± 2.32, 4.35 ± 0.09, 3.15 ± 0.07, 2.65 ± 0.09 and 1.90 ± 0.08, respectively, contributing 5.05, 5.01, 4.13, 3.25, 2.77, 1.10, 0.80, 0.67 and 0.48 % to the total cost of production. Gross return from the sale of marketable eggs, culled eggs, spent/culled bird, empty bags and manure was Rs. 388.84 ± 7.91, 3.85 ± 0.01, 35.80 ± 0.23, 2.20 ± 0.04 and 1.45 ± 0.01, respectively, contributing 89.98, 0.89, 8.28, 0.51 and 0.34% to the total return. Determining the effect of different parameters on the cost of production and net profit, large flocks, Hisex strain, brood-grow and lay system of rearing, good hygienic conditions of the farm, normal stocking rate and cage system of housing wee found to give maximum gross return as well as net profit.

  2. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

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    Sanmang Wu

    Full Text Available Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  3. energy use and gross margin analysis for sesame production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    As the negative impacts of energy by-products affect the climate, the knowledge and efficient use of ... Diesel and labour energy inputs dominated the total energy inputs for the two systems. .... such as output of sesame, quantity and type of.

  4. DETERMINATE NONPERIODIC VARIATION OF THE GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT

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    L. А. Korshunov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The classical problem of product supply and demand, which was first defined by А. Marshall, is reduced to Lorentz model in a nonlinear statement and it describes sustainable circular processes of commodity market, including price range increment in the context of crisis forthcoming (inflation; destabilization due to nonmanufacturing costs; the main stages of crisis development, including a stage of chaotic behavior of residence time at each attractor (equilibrium point; possibility of surmounting the crisis by means of modification of certain parameters. The given approach is used for the purpose of construction of a qualitative model of commodity price readjustment during precrisis and crisis periods, and finding reliable prognostication time.

  5. Macroeconomic Models used in the Structural Analysis of the Gross Domestic Product

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    Constantin Anghelache

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a use case for macro economical models, the objective being the structural analysis of the Gross Domestic Product. The authors offer a snapshot on GDP evolution, the econometric models proposed for analysis are designed with the help of EViews software. Its performances are determined through the optics of the statistical tests.

  6. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biot

  7. G7 country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) time correlations. A graph network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mi'skiewicz, J

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between G7 countries has been analysed on the basis of Gross Domestic Product using different distance functions i.e. discrete, linear correlation and distribution distance. The distance matrics is analysed by various graph methods and the percolation threshold is calculated. The globalization process understood as increas of correlation has been observed. The applications of different distance function discussed.

  8. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.; Niu, S.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I.A.; Chen, J.; Ammann, C.; Arain, A.; Blanken, P.D.; Cescatti, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate–carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of

  9. Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maeirsperger; Stith T. Gower; Al A. Kirschbaum; Steve W. Runnings; Maosheng Zhaos; Steven C. Wofsy; Allison L. Dunn; Beverly E. Law; John L. Campbell; Walter C. Oechel; Hyo Jung Kwon; Tilden P. Meyers; Eric E. Small; Shirley A. Kurc; John A. Gamon

    2005-01-01

    Operational monitoring of global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) is now underway using imagery from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Evaluation of MODIS GPP and NPP products will require site-level studies across a range of biomes, with close attention to numerous scaling...

  10. Production of table potatoes in Europe – a multinational gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, J.; Dalla Costa, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines different cropping practies, cost structures and gross margins for conventional table potato cropping in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that potato cropping practies...... varies significantly between the various countries with major differences in yield and costs. Italy and Denmark are two regions with highest gross margins due to hight yields and revenues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries. The production is primarily based...

  11. Net primary production of forests: a constant fraction of gross primary production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, R. H.; Landsberg, J. J.; Williams, M.

    1998-02-01

    Considerable progress has been made in our ability to model and measure annual gross primary production (GPP) by terrestrial vegetation. But challenges remain in estimating maintenance respiration (R(m)) and net primary production (NPP). To search for possible common relationships, we assembled annual carbon budgets from six evergreen and one deciduous forest in Oregon, USA, three pine plantations in New South Wales, Australia, a deciduous forest in Massachusetts, USA, and a Nothofagus forest on the South Island of New Zealand. At all 12 sites, a standard procedure was followed to estimate annual NPP of foliage, branches, stems, and roots, the carbon expended in synthesis of these organs (R(g)), their R(m), and that of previously produced foliage and sapwood in boles, branches, and large roots. In the survey, total NPP ranged from 120 to 1660 g C m(-2) year(-1), whereas the calculated fraction allocated to roots varied from 0.22 to 0.63. Comparative analysis indicated that the total NPP/GPP ratio was conservative (0.47 +/- 0.04 SD). This finding supports the possibility of greatly simplifying forest growth models. The constancy of the NPP/GPP ratio also provides an incentive to renew efforts to understand the environmental factors affecting partitioning of NPP above and belowground.

  12. Using Wavelets to Understand the Relationship between Mortgages and Gross Domestic Product in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. González-Concepción

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use wavelet multiresolution decomposition and cross-wavelet analysis to reveal certain properties in financial data related to mortgages to households and gross domestic product data in Spain. Wavelet techniques possess many desirable properties, some of which are useful as a vehicle for analysing economic and financial data. In our case, wavelets are useful for drawing conclusions both in the time and frequency domains and for obtaining information on the different phases through which the study variables progress.

  13. MODIS/TERRA MOD17A2 Gross Primary Productivity 8-Day L4 Global 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) products are a cumulative composite of GPP values based on the radiation...

  14. The use of the stable isotope, oxygen-18, as a tracer to measure gross primary production in coastal and oligotrophic waters and in monoclonal cultures of marine phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    A new technique was developed to measure the in vitro rates of gross oxygen production in planktonic communities, in which water is enriched with the stable isotope {sup 18}O, and photosynthetic evolution of {sup 18}O{sup 16}O is measured. In order to calculate gross oxygen production, they correct for the {sup 18}O fractionation due to respiration. The standard technique for measuring production in the oceans, {sup 14}C-bicarbonate uptake, has recently been questioned due to discrepancies with other estimates of water column production and suspected intrinsic problems with the {sup 14}C technique. They compared rates of {sup 18}O gross production and {sup 14}C production in oligotrophic and coastal sites. Samples were generally incubated under natural lighting with neutral density screening. Some oligotrophic bottles were incubated in situ at the depth of collection. Rates of {sup 14}C production were 60-100% of {sup 18}O gross production in both coastal and oceanic communities. Assuming a PQ of 1.0 to 1.5, these comparisons suggest that {sup 14}C production rates are not seriously underestimating actual in vitro rates of production. They also measured rates of light respiration in cultures and natural populations by the {sup 18}O technique. The rates of light respiration in algal cultures were generally greater than dark rates by a factor of two to ten. The increased respiration in the light could be due to increased rates of mitochondrial respiration, photorespiration or Mehler respiration. They measured the enhanced {sup 14}C production under reduced (O{sub 2}) conditions (the Warburg effect), as an estimate of the rate of photorespiration. In three clones, rates of photorespiration were a significant fraction of light respiration. In five other clones examined, photorespiration was not implicated as a source of light respiration.

  15. Efficiency of chlorophyll in gross primary productivity: A proof of concept and application in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Anatoly A; Peng, Yi; Viña, Andrés; Arkebauer, Timothy; Schepers, James S

    2016-08-20

    One of the main factors affecting vegetation productivity is absorbed light, which is largely governed by chlorophyll. In this paper, we introduce the concept of chlorophyll efficiency, representing the amount of gross primary production per unit of canopy chlorophyll content (Chl) and incident PAR. We analyzed chlorophyll efficiency in two contrasting crops (soybean and maize). Given that they have different photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4), leaf structures (dicot vs. monocot) and canopy architectures (a heliotrophic leaf angle distribution vs. a spherical leaf angle distribution), they cover a large spectrum of biophysical conditions. Our results show that chlorophyll efficiency in primary productivity is highly variable and responds to various physiological and phenological conditions, and water availability. Since Chl is accessible through non-destructive, remotely sensed techniques, the use of chlorophyll efficiency for modeling and monitoring plant optimization patterns is practical at different scales (e.g., leaf, canopy) and under widely-varying environmental conditions. Through this analysis, we directly related a functional characteristic, gross primary production with a structural characteristic, canopy chlorophyll content. Understanding the efficiency of the structural characteristic is of great interest as it allows explaining functional components of the plant system.

  16. Leaf chlorophyll constraint on model simulated gross primary productivity in agricultural systems

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-05-05

    Leaf chlorophyll content (Chll) may serve as an observational proxy for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vmax), which describes leaf photosynthetic capacity and represents the single most important control on modeled leaf photosynthesis within most Terrestrial Biosphere Models (TBMs). The parameterization of Vmax is associated with great uncertainty as it can vary significantly between plants and in response to changes in leaf nitrogen (N) availability, plant phenology and environmental conditions. Houborg et al. (2013) outlined a semi-mechanistic relationship between V max 25 (Vmax normalized to 25 °C) and Chll based on inter-linkages between V max 25 , Rubisco enzyme kinetics, N and Chll. Here, these relationships are parameterized for a wider range of important agricultural crops and embedded within the leaf photosynthesis-conductance scheme of the Community Land Model (CLM), bypassing the questionable use of temporally invariant and broadly defined plant functional type (PFT) specific V max 25 values. In this study, the new Chll constrained version of CLM is refined with an updated parameterization scheme for specific application to soybean and maize. The benefit of using in-situ measured and satellite retrieved Chll for constraining model simulations of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) is evaluated over fields in central Nebraska, U.S.A between 2001 and 2005. Landsat-based Chll time-series records derived from the Regularized Canopy Reflectance model (REGFLEC) are used as forcing to the CLM. Validation of simulated GPP against 15 site-years of flux tower observations demonstrate the utility of Chll as a model constraint, with the coefficient of efficiency increasing from 0.91 to 0.94 and from 0.87 to 0.91 for maize and soybean, respectively. Model performances particularly improve during the late reproductive and senescence stage, where the largest temporal variations in Chll (averaging 35–55 μg cm−2 for maize and 20–35 μg cm−2 for soybean) are

  17. Leaf chlorophyll constraint on model simulated gross primary productivity in agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houborg, Rasmus; F. McCabe, Matthew; Cescatti, Alessandro; A. Gitelson, Anatoly

    2015-12-01

    Leaf chlorophyll content (Chll) may serve as an observational proxy for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vmax), which describes leaf photosynthetic capacity and represents the single most important control on modeled leaf photosynthesis within most Terrestrial Biosphere Models (TBMs). The parameterization of Vmax is associated with great uncertainty as it can vary significantly between plants and in response to changes in leaf nitrogen (N) availability, plant phenology and environmental conditions. Houborg et al. (2013) outlined a semi-mechanistic relationship between Vmax25 (Vmax normalized to 25 °C) and Chll based on inter-linkages between Vmax25, Rubisco enzyme kinetics, N and Chll. Here, these relationships are parameterized for a wider range of important agricultural crops and embedded within the leaf photosynthesis-conductance scheme of the Community Land Model (CLM), bypassing the questionable use of temporally invariant and broadly defined plant functional type (PFT) specific Vmax25 values. In this study, the new Chll constrained version of CLM is refined with an updated parameterization scheme for specific application to soybean and maize. The benefit of using in-situ measured and satellite retrieved Chll for constraining model simulations of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) is evaluated over fields in central Nebraska, U.S.A between 2001 and 2005. Landsat-based Chll time-series records derived from the Regularized Canopy Reflectance model (REGFLEC) are used as forcing to the CLM. Validation of simulated GPP against 15 site-years of flux tower observations demonstrate the utility of Chll as a model constraint, with the coefficient of efficiency increasing from 0.91 to 0.94 and from 0.87 to 0.91 for maize and soybean, respectively. Model performances particularly improve during the late reproductive and senescence stage, where the largest temporal variations in Chll (averaging 35-55 μg cm-2 for maize and 20-35 μg cm-2 for soybean) are observed. While

  18. Analysis of the Evolution of the Gross Domestic Product by Means of Cyclic Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Angelo Ioan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will carry out an analysis on the regularity of the Gross Domestic Product of a country, in our case the United States. The method of analysis is based on a new method of analysis – the cyclic regressions based on the Fourier series of a function. Another point of view is that of considering instead the growth rate of GDP the speed of variation of this rate, computed as a numerical derivative. The obtained results show a cycle for this indicator for 71 years, the mean square error being 0.93%. The method described allows an prognosis on short-term trends in GDP.

  19. Developments of regional gross domestic product and the unemployment rate in Romania during 2000 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schonauer (Sacală Corina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of territorial units can be characterized by measuring the ability of producing goods and services and by measuring labor force in the area. The capacity of producing goods and services is measured by calculating the gross domestic product indicator. This article presents a comparative analysis of the evolution of regional GDP and the ILO unemployment rate at the level of the eight regions in Romania for a period of 13 years. The presented data come from the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  20. EuroMInd-D: A Density Estimate of Monthly Gross Domestic Product for the Euro Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Marczak, Martyna; Mazzi, Gianluigi

    EuroMInd-D is a density estimate of monthly gross domestic product (GDP) constructed according to a bottom–up approach, pooling the density estimates of eleven GDP components, by output and expenditure type. The components density estimates are obtained from a medium-size dynamic factor model...... parameters, and conditional simulation filters for simulating from the predictive distribution of GDP. Both algorithms process sequentially the data as they become available in real time. The GDP density estimates for the output and expenditure approach are combined using alternative weighting schemes...

  1. Technical note: Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen triple isotope measurements can be used to calculate aquatic gross oxygen production rates. Past studies have emphasised the appropriate definition of the 17O excess and often used an approximation to derive production rates from the 17O excess. Here, I show that the calculation can be phrased more consistently and without any approximations using the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences (delta values directly. I call this the "dual delta method". The 17O excess is merely a mathematical construct and the derived production rate is independent of its definition, provided all calculations are performed with a consistent definition. I focus on the mixed layer, but also show how time series of triple isotope measurements below the mixed layer can be used to derive gross production.

    In the calculation of mixed layer productivity, I explicitly include isotopic fractionation during gas invasion and evasion, which requires the oxygen supersaturation s to be measured as well. I also suggest how bubble injection could be considered in the same mathematical framework. I distinguish between concentration steady state and isotopic steady state and show that only the latter needs to be assumed in the calculation. It is even possible to derive an estimate of the net production rate in the mixed layer that is independent of the assumption of concentration steady state.

    I review measurements of the parameters required for the calculation of gross production rates and show how their systematic uncertainties as well as the use of different published calculation methods can cause large variations in the production rates for the same underlying isotope ratios. In particular, the 17O excess of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with atmospheric O2 and the 17O excess of photosynthetic O2 need to

  2. Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen triple isotope measurements can be used to calculate aquatic gross oxygen production rates. Past studies have emphasised the appropriate definition of the 17O excess and often used an approximation to derive production rates from the 17O excess. Here, I show that the calculation can be phrased more consistently and without any approximations using the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences directly. The 17O excess is merely a mathematical construct and the derived production rate is independent of its definition, provided all calculations are performed with a consistent definition. I focus on the mixed layer, but also show how time series of triple oxygen measurements below the mixed layer can be used to derive gross production.

    In the calculation of mixed layer productivity, I explicitly include isotopic fractionation during gas invasion and evasion, which requires the oxygen supersaturation s to be measured as well. I also suggest how bubble injection could be considered in the same mathematical framework. I distinguish between concentration steady state and isotopic steady state and show that only the latter needs to be assumed in the calculation. It is even possible to derive an estimate of the net production rate in the mixed layer that is independent of the assumption of concentration steady state.

    I review measurements of the parameters required for the calculation of gross production rates and show how their systematic uncertainties as well as the use of different published calculation methods can cause large variations in the production rates for the same underlying isotope ratios. In particular, the 17O excess of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with atmospheric O2 and the 17O excess of photosynthetic O2 need to be re-measured. Because of these uncertainties, all

  3. Using Stochastic Ray Tracing to Simulate a Dense Time Series of Gross Primary Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin van Leeuwen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eddy-covariance carbon dioxide flux measurement is an established method to estimate primary productivity at the forest stand level (typically 10 ha. To validate eddy-covariance estimates, researchers rely on extensive time-series analysis and an assessment of flux contributions made by various ecosystem components at spatial scales much finer than the eddy-covariance footprint. Scaling these contributions to the stand level requires a consideration of the heterogeneity in the canopy radiation field. This paper presents a stochastic ray tracing approach to predict the probabilities of light absorption from over a thousand hemispherical directions by thousands of individual scene elements. Once a look-up table of absorption probabilities is computed, dynamic illumination conditions can be simulated in a computationally realistic time, from which stand-level gross primary productivity can be obtained by integrating photosynthetic assimilation over the scene. We demonstrate the method by inverting a leaf-level photosynthesis model with eddy-covariance and meteorological data. Optimized leaf photosynthesis parameters and canopy structure were able to explain 75% of variation in eddy-covariance gross primary productivity estimates, and commonly used parameters, including photosynthetic capacity and quantum yield, fell within reported ranges. Remaining challenges are discussed including the need to address the distribution of radiation within shoots and needles.

  4. Gross nitrous oxide production drives net nitrous oxide fluxes across a salt marsh landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wendy H; Silver, Whendee L

    2016-06-01

    Sea level rise will change inundation regimes in salt marshes, altering redox dynamics that control nitrification - a potential source of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2 O) - and denitrification, a major nitrogen (N) loss pathway in coastal ecosystems and both a source and sink of N2 O. Measurements of net N2 O fluxes alone yield little insight into the different effects of redox conditions on N2 O production and consumption. We used in situ measurements of gross N2 O fluxes across a salt marsh elevation gradient to determine how soil N2 O emissions in coastal ecosystems may respond to future sea level rise. Soil redox declined as marsh elevation decreased, with lower soil nitrate and higher ferrous iron in the low marsh compared to the mid and high marshes (P Net N2 O fluxes differed significantly among marsh zones (P = 0.009), averaging 9.8 ± 5.4 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , -2.2 ± 0.9 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , and 0.67 ± 0.57 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) in the low, mid, and high marshes, respectively. Both net N2 O release and uptake were observed in the low and high marshes, but the mid-marsh was consistently a net N2 O sink. Gross N2 O production was highest in the low marsh and lowest in the mid-marsh (P = 0.02), whereas gross N2 O consumption did not differ among marsh zones. Thus, variability in gross N2 O production rates drove the differences in net N2 O flux among marsh zones. Our results suggest that future studies should focus on elucidating controls on the processes producing, rather than consuming, N2 O in salt marshes to improve our predictions of changes in net N2 O fluxes caused by future sea level rise.

  5. Non-ideal feedforward torque control of wind turbines: Impacts on annual energy production & gross earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Christoph; Schechner, Korbinian

    2016-09-01

    We discuss non-ideal torque control in wind turbine systems. Most high-level controllers generate a reference torque which is then send to the underlying electrical drive system (generator+inverter) of the wind turbine system to steer the turbine/generator to its optimal operation point (depending on the wind speed). The energy production heavily depends on the mechanical power (i.e. the product of rotational speed and generator torque). However, since torque sensors in the MW range are not available or extremely expensive, the underlying torque control system is implemented as feedforward control and, therefore, is inherently sensitive to parameter variations/uncertainties. Based on real wind data and a wind turbine system model, we discuss causes and impacts of non-ideal feedforward torque control on the energy production and the annual gross earnings.

  6. Spatial extrapolation of light use efficiency model parameters to predict gross primary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Schulz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture the spatial and temporal variability of the gross primary production as a key component of the global carbon cycle, the light use efficiency modeling approach in combination with remote sensing data has shown to be well suited. Typically, the model parameters, such as the maximum light use efficiency, are either set to a universal constant or to land class dependent values stored in look-up tables. In this study, we employ the machine learning technique support vector regression to explicitly relate the model parameters of a light use efficiency model calibrated at several FLUXNET sites to site-specific characteristics obtained by meteorological measurements, ecological estimations and remote sensing data. A feature selection algorithm extracts the relevant site characteristics in a cross-validation, and leads to an individual set of characteristic attributes for each parameter. With this set of attributes, the model parameters can be estimated at sites where a parameter calibration is not possible due to the absence of eddy covariance flux measurement data. This will finally allow a spatially continuous model application. The performance of the spatial extrapolation scheme is evaluated with a cross-validation approach, which shows the methodology to be well suited to recapture the variability of gross primary production across the study sites.

  7. A multi-sites analysis on the ozone effects on Gross Primary Production of European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proietti, C. [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anav, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter (United Kingdom); De Marco, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Sicard, P. [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard BP234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis-cedex (France); Vitale, M., E-mail: marcello.vitale@uniroma1.it [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O{sub 3} can impair CO{sub 2} assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000–2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O{sub 3} monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O{sub 3} measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O{sub 3} on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O{sub 3} ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O{sub 3} impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration. - Highlights: • Assessment of the surface O{sub 3

  8. Econometric Analysis of the Nexus of Exchange Rate Deregulation and Agricultural Share of Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oyinbo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between exchange rate deregulation and the agricultural share of gross domestic product in Nigeria from an econometric perspective using time series data. The data were analysed using augmented dickey fuller unit root test, unrestricted vector autoregression and pairwise granger causality. The results of the data analysis revealed the existence of unidirectional causality from exchange rate to agricultural share of gross domestic production in Nigeria and this implies that market driven exchange rate policy has been significant in influencing the trend in agricultural share of gross domestic production in Nigeria. However, it is recommended that the monetary authority of Nigeria should closely monitor the movement of the market driven exchange rate so that exchange rate deregulation does not become counterproductive through unhealthy price distortions on agricultural production, international trade and foreign direct investment in the agricultural sector of Nigeria’s economy.

  9. High sensitivity of gross primary production in the Rocky Mountains to summer rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, M.; Stefanescu, I.C.; Joiner, J.; Anderson, Lesleigh

    2017-01-01

    In the catchments of the Rocky Mountains, peak snowpack is declining in response to warmer spring temperatures. To understand how this will influence terrestrial gross primary production (GPP), we compared precipitation data across the intermountain west with satellite retrievals of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF), a proxy for GPP. Annual precipitation patterns explained most of the spatial and temporal variability of SIF, but the slope of the response was dependent on site to site differences in the proportion of snowpack to summer rain. We separated the response of SIF to different seasonal precipitation amounts and found that SIF was approximately twice as sensitive to variations in summer rain than snowpack. The response of peak GPP to a secular decline in snowpack will likely be subtle, whereas a change in summer rain amount will have precipitous effects on GPP. The study suggests that the rain use efficiency of Rocky Mountain ecosystems is strongly dependent on precipitation form and timing.

  10. The Correlation Between Gross Domestic Product and Unemployment in Romania Starting with 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavia - Maria Gibescu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that until the late 1980s, in Romania, the term “unemployed” was practically unused, the centralized economy having as major goal the complete occupancy. Starting with 1990, this phenomenon was manifested itself in our country as well, as a result of the imbalance of the labor market. To understand and represent the macroeconomic phenomena better, the paper presents the analysis of the relationship between the Gross domestic product and the unemployment, as well as the current influences. The conclusions show the fact that beginning with 1995, their dynamics included a relationship, broken by the effects of the world economic crisis present in our country as well.

  11. Global gross primary productivity and water use efficiency changes under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen; Wang, Jingxin; Liu, Shirong; Rentch, James S.; Sun, Pengsen; Lu, Chaoqun

    2017-01-01

    Drought can affect the structure, composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet drought impacts and post-drought recovery potentials of different land cover types have not been extensively studied at a global scale. We evaluated drought impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of different global terrestrial ecosystems, as well as the drought-resilience of each ecosystem type during the period of 2000 to 2011. Using GPP as biome vitality indicator against drought stress, we developed a model to examine ecosystem resilience represented by the length of recovery days (LRD). LRD presented an evident gradient of high (>60 days) in mid-latitude region and low (stress induced responses or data uncertainties, which require further investigation.

  12. Seasonal Forecasting of Agriculture Gross Domestic Production in Iran: Application of Periodic Autoregressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghahremanzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture as one of the major economic sectors of Iran, has an important role in Gross Domestic Production by providing about 14% of GDP. This study attempts to forecast the value of the agriculture GDP using Periodic Autoregressive model (PAR, as the new seasonal time series techniques. To address this aim, the quarterly data were collected from March 1988 to July 1989. The collected data was firstly analyzed using periodic unit root test Franses & Paap (2004. The analysis found non-periodic unit root in the seasonal data. Second, periodic seasonal behavior (Boswijk & Franses, 1996 was examined. The results showed that periodic autoregressive model fits agriculture GDP well. This makes an accurate forecast of agriculture GDP possible. Using the estimated model, the future value of quarter agricultural GDP from March 2011 to July 2012was forecasted. With consideration to the fair fit of this model with agricultural GDP, It is recommended to use periodic autoregressive model for the future studies.

  13. The long run relationship between foreign direct investments, exports, and gross domestic product: panel data implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERYİĞİT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI is defined as establishing a new company or branch of a foreign company by foreign investor or share acquisitions of a company established in host country (any percentage of shares acquired outside the stock exchange or 10 percent or more of the shares or voting power of a company acquired through the stock exchange (UNCTAD, 2012. This study investigated the long-term relationship between FDI and export volume, FDI and Gross Domestic Products (GDP, and export volume and GDP through cointegration tests. It is conducted the panel data analysis using data for the period of 2000-2010 from 15 countries making direct investment in Turkey regularly since year 2000. Panel unit-root tests showed that variables are stationary for the first difference level. Residual based and error correction based cointegration tests revealed that there is long-term relationship between FDI and export volume, FDI and GDP, and export volume and GDP.

  14. Global Dental Research Productivity and Its Association With Human Development, Gross National Income, and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Rampa, Sankeerth; Nalliah, Romesh P; Elangovan, Satheesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the associations between country level factors (such as human development, economic productivity, and political stability) and their dental research productivity. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of bibliometric data from Scopus search engine. Human Development Index (HDI), Gross National Income per capita (GNI), and Failed State Index measures were the independent variables. Outcomes were "Total number of publications (articles or articles in press) in the field of dentistry" and "Total number of publications in the field of dentistry per million population." Non-parametric tests were used to examine the association between the independent and outcome variables. During the year 2013, a total of 11,952 dental research articles were published across the world. The top 5 publishing countries were United States, Brazil, India, Japan, and United Kingdom. "Very High" HDI countries had significantly higher number of total dental research articles and dental research articles per million population when compared to the "High HDI," "Medium HDI," and "Low HDI" countries (p human development and economic development of a country are linearly correlated with dental research productivity. Dental research productivity also increases with increasing political stability of a country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Annual Gross Primary Production from Vegetation Indices: A Theoretically Sound Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Gilabert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A linear relationship between the annual gross primary production (GPP and a PAR-weighted vegetation index is theoretically derived from the Monteith equation. A semi-empirical model is then proposed to estimate the annual GPP from commonly available vegetation indices images and a representative PAR, which does not require actual meteorological data. A cross validation procedure is used to calibrate and validate the model predictions against reference data. As the calibration/validation process depends on the reference GPP product, the higher the quality of the reference GPP, the better the performance of the semi-empirical model. The annual GPP has been estimated at 1-km scale from MODIS NDVI and EVI images for eight years. Two reference data sets have been used: an optimized GPP product for the study area previously obtained and the MOD17A3 product. Different statistics show a good agreement between the estimates and the reference GPP data, with correlation coefficient around 0.9 and relative RMSE around 20%. The annual GPP is overestimated in semiarid areas and slightly underestimated in dense forest areas. With the above limitations, the model provides an excellent compromise between simplicity and accuracy for the calculation of long time series of annual GPP.

  16. Multifunctionality of forestry as basis for creating gross innovational forestry product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Mikhailovich Bolshakov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and methodological issues of defining the essence, role and place of multifunctional forest economy (MFFE from the perspective of the scientific rationale of the state forest policy, which contributes to transference of the forest sector to the innovative basis with the emphasis on the regeneration issues. The system-regeneration approach is used as a methodological tool, which is the combination of principles and analysis of the forest sector as a complicated social-economical system based on the methodology of the regeneration process. On the basis of objective economic laws and regulations, a political-economic analysis is carried out to find out the system interrelation of the quality of forest resource use and productivity of social labour in the forest sector. Common features in the circulation of the functions of forestry capable of creating a special form of an innovation, gross innovational forestry product are identified. A model of a multifunctional forestry providing an opportunity to predict the characteristics of innovational products in complex systems is suggested. This model makes the basis for research of the innovative changes potentional for modernization of the innovative forest product.

  17. Effects of canopy photosynthesis saturation on the estimation of gross primary productivity from MODIS data in a tropical forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propastin, P.; Ibrom, Andreas; Knohl, A.;

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) gross primary production (GPP) product (GPPMOD17A2) was evaluated against GPP from the eddy covariance flux measurements (GPPm) at a CO2 flux tower test site in a tropical rainforest in Sulawesi, Indonesia. The dynamics of 8-day GPPMOD17A2...

  18. Statistical Analysis of the Correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela OPAIT

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects the architecture of the methodology for to achieve the statistical modeling of the trend concerning the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013. with the help of the „Least Squares Method”. Also, this paper reflects the manner in which we can to measure the intensity of the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013 with the h...

  19. Statistical Analysis of the Correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela OPAIT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects the architecture of the methodology for to achieve the statistical modeling of the trend concerning the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013. with the help of the „Least Squares Method”. Also, this paper reflects the manner in which we can to measure the intensity of the correlation between the Happy Planet Index and the Gross Domestic Product per capita in Romania, between 2006-2013 with the help of the Correlation Raport.

  20. Estimation of gross primary production of the Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest by remote sensing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Caldas Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross primary production (GPP of ecosystems is an important variable in the study of global climate change. Generally, the GPP has been estimated by micrometeorological techniques. However, these techniques have a high cost of implantation and maintenance, making the use of orbital sensor data an option to be evaluated. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD17A2 product and the vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM to predict the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest. The GPP predicted by MOD17A2 (GPP MODIS and VPM (GPP VPM were validated with the GPP estimated by eddy covariance (GPP EC. The GPP MODIS, GPP VPM and GPP EC have similar seasonality, with higher values in the wet season and lower in the dry season. However, the VPM performed was better than the MOD17A2 to estimate the GPP, due to use local climatic data for predict the light use efficiency, while the MOD17A2 use a global circulation model and the lookup table of each vegetation type to estimate the light use efficiency.

  1. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianyang; Niu, Shuli; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A; Chen, Jiquan; Ammann, Christof; Arain, Altaf; Blanken, Peter D; Cescatti, Alessandro; Bonal, Damien; Buchmann, Nina; Curtis, Peter S; Chen, Shiping; Dong, Jinwei; Flanagan, Lawrence B; Frankenberg, Christian; Georgiadis, Teodoro; Gough, Christopher M; Hui, Dafeng; Kiely, Gerard; Li, Jianwei; Lund, Magnus; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Marcolla, Barbara; Merbold, Lutz; Montagnani, Leonardo; Moors, Eddy J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Piao, Shilong; Raschi, Antonio; Roupsard, Olivier; Suyker, Andrew E; Urbaniak, Marek; Vaccari, Francesco P; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo; Wilkinson, Matthew; Weng, Ensheng; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Yan, Liming; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-03-03

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) varies greatly over time and space. A better understanding of this variability is necessary for more accurate predictions of the future climate-carbon cycle feedback. Recent studies have suggested that variability in GPP is driven by a broad range of biotic and abiotic factors operating mainly through changes in vegetation phenology and physiological processes. However, it is still unclear how plant phenology and physiology can be integrated to explain the spatiotemporal variability of terrestrial GPP. Based on analyses of eddy-covariance and satellite-derived data, we decomposed annual terrestrial GPP into the length of the CO2 uptake period (CUP) and the seasonal maximal capacity of CO2 uptake (GPPmax). The product of CUP and GPPmax explained >90% of the temporal GPP variability in most areas of North America during 2000-2010 and the spatial GPP variation among globally distributed eddy flux tower sites. It also explained GPP response to the European heatwave in 2003 (r(2) = 0.90) and GPP recovery after a fire disturbance in South Dakota (r(2) = 0.88). Additional analysis of the eddy-covariance flux data shows that the interbiome variation in annual GPP is better explained by that in GPPmax than CUP. These findings indicate that terrestrial GPP is jointly controlled by ecosystem-level plant phenology and photosynthetic capacity, and greater understanding of GPPmax and CUP responses to environmental and biological variations will, thus, improve predictions of GPP over time and space.

  2. Dominant role of plant physiology in trend and variability of gross primary productivity in North America

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    Zhou, Sha; Zhang, Yao; Ciais, Philippe; Xiao, Xiangming; Luo, Yiqi; Caylor, Kelly K.; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian

    2017-02-01

    Annual gross primary productivity (GPP) varies considerably due to climate-induced changes in plant phenology and physiology. However, the relative importance of plant phenology and physiology on annual GPP variation is not clear. In this study, a Statistical Model of Integrated Phenology and Physiology (SMIPP) was used to evaluate the relative contributions of maximum daily GPP (GPPmax) and the start and end of growing season (GSstart and GSend) to annual GPP variability, using a regional GPP product in North America during 2000–2014 and GPP data from 24 AmeriFlux sites. Climatic sensitivity of the three indicators was assessed to investigate the climate impacts on plant phenology and physiology. The SMIPP can explain 98% of inter-annual variability of GPP over mid- and high latitudes in North America. The long-term trend and inter-annual variability of GPP are dominated by GPPmax both at the ecosystem and regional scales. During warmer spring and autumn, GSstart is advanced and GSend delayed, respectively. GPPmax responds positively to summer temperature over high latitudes (40–80°N), but negatively in mid-latitudes (25–40°N). This study demonstrates that plant physiology, rather than phenology, plays a dominant role in annual GPP variability, indicating more attention should be paid to physiological change under futher climate change.

  3. Interplay of drought and tropical cyclone activity in SE U.S. gross primary productivity

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    Lowman, Lauren E. L.; Barros, Ana P.

    2016-06-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs), often associated with massive flooding and landslides in the Southeast U.S. (SE U.S.), provide a significant input of freshwater to the hydrologic system, and their timing and trajectory significantly impact drought severity and persistence. This manuscript investigates the sensitivity of gross primary productivity (GPP) in the SE U.S. to TC activity using the 1-D column implementation of the Duke Coupled Hydrology Model with Vegetation (DCHM-V) including coupled water and energy cycles and a biochemical representation of photosynthesis. Decadal-scale simulations of water, energy, and carbon fluxes were conducted at high temporal (30 min) and spatial (4 km) resolution over the period 2002-2012. At local scales, model results without calibration compare well against AmeriFlux tower data. At regional scales, differences between the DCHM-V estimates and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer GPP product reflect the spatial organization of soil hydraulic properties and soil moisture dynamics by physiographic region, highlighting the links between the water and carbon cycles. To isolate the contribution of TC precipitation to SE U.S. productivity, control forcing simulations are contrasted with simulations where periods of TC activity in the atmospheric forcing data were replaced with climatology. During wet years, TC activity impacts productivity in 40-50% of the SE U.S. domain and explains a regional GPP increase of 3-5 Mg C/m2 that is 9% of the warm season total. In dry years, 23-34% of the domain exhibits a smaller positive response that corresponds to 4-8% of the seasonal carbon uptake, depending on TC timing and trajectory.

  4. Linear extension rates and gross carbonate production of Acropora cervicornis at Coral Gardens, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, E.; Greer, L.; Lescinsky, H.; Humston, R.; Wirth, K. R.; Baums, I. B.; Curran, A.

    2014-12-01

    Branching Acropora coral species have fast growth and carbonate production rates, and thus have functioned as important reef-building species throughout the Pleistocene and Holocene. Recently, net carbonate production (kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1) has been recognized as an important measure of reef health, especially when monitoring endangered species, such as Acropora cervicornis. This study examines carbonate production in a thriving population of A. cervicornis at the Coral Gardens reef in Belize. Photographic surveys were conducted along five transects of A. cervicornis-dominated reefs from 2011-2014. Matching photographs from 2013 and 2014 were scaled to 1 m2 and compared to calculate 84 individual A. cervicornis linear extension rates across the reef. Linear extension rates averaged 12.4 cm/yr and were as high as 17 cm/yr in some areas of the reef. Carbonate production was calculated two ways. The first followed the standard procedure of multiplying percent live coral cover, by the linear extension rate and skeletal density. The second used the number of live coral tips per square meter in place of percent live coral multiplied by the average cross-sectional area of the branches. The standard method yielded a carbonate production rate of 113 kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1 for the reef, and the tip method yielded a rate of 6 kg m-2 year-1. We suggest that the tip method is a more accurate measure of production, because A. cervicornis grows primarily from the live tips, with only limited radial growth and resheeting over dead skeleton. While this method omits the contributions of radial growth and resheeting, and is therefore somewhat of an underestimate, our future work will quantify these aspects of growth in a more complete carbonate budget. Still, our estimate suggests a carbonate production rate per unit area of A. cervicornis that is on par with other Caribbean coral species, rather than two orders of magnitude higher as reported by Perry et al (2013). Although gross coral

  5. Remote sensing of sun-induced fluorescence to improve modeling of diurnal courses of gross primary production (GPP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, A.; Elbers, J.A.; Erler, A.; Giolis, B.; Hamdi, K.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Kosvancova, M.; Meroni, M.; Migliettas, F.; Moersch, A.; Moreno, J.; Schickling, A.; Sonnenschein, R.; Udelhoven, T.; Linden, van der S.; Hostert, P.; Rascher, U.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is an important parameter to explore and quantify carbon fixation by plant ecosystems at various scales. Remote sensing (RS) offers a unique possibility to investigate GPP in a spatially explicit fashion; however, budgeting of terrestrial carbon cycles base

  6. Remote sensing of annual terrestrial gross primary productivity from MODIS: an assessment using the FLUXNET La Thuile data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, M.; Friedl, M.A.; Richardson, A.D.; Kiely, G.; Cescatti, A.; Law, B.E.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Gielen, G.; Roupsard, O.; Moors, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest and most variable component of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Repeatable and accurate monitoring of terrestrial GPP is therefore critical for quantifying dynamics in regional-to-global carbon budgets. Remote sensing provides high frequency

  7. Remote sensing of annual terrestrial gross primary productivity from MODIS: an assessment using the FLUXNET La Thuile data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, M.; Friedl, M.A.; Richardson, A.D.; Kiely, G.; Cescatti, A.; Law, B.E.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Gielen, G.; Roupsard, O.; Moors, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest and most variable component of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Repeatable and accurate monitoring of terrestrial GPP is therefore critical for quantifying dynamics in regional-to-global carbon budgets. Remote sensing provides high frequency observ

  8. Improved assessment of gross and net primary productivity of Canada's landmass

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    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M.; Price, David T.; Kurz, Werner A.; Liu, Jane; Boisvenue, Céline; Hember, Robbie A.; Wu, Chaoyang; Chang, Kuo-Hsien

    2013-12-01

    assess Canada's gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) using boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) at 250 m spatial resolution with improved input parameter and driver fields and phenology and nutrient release parameterization schemes. BEPS is a process-based two-leaf enzyme kinetic terrestrial ecosystem model designed to simulate energy, water, and carbon (C) fluxes using spatial data sets of meteorology, remotely sensed land surface variables, soil properties, and photosynthesis and respiration rate parameters. Two improved key land surface variables, leaf area index (LAI) and land cover type, are derived at 250 m from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor. For diagnostic error assessment, we use nine forest flux tower sites where all measured C flux, meteorology, and ancillary data sets are available. The errors due to input drivers and parameters are then independently corrected for Canada-wide GPP and NPP simulations. The optimized LAI use, for example, reduced the absolute bias in GPP from 20.7% to 1.1% for hourly BEPS simulations. Following the error diagnostics and corrections, daily GPP and NPP are simulated over Canada at 250 m spatial resolution, the highest resolution simulation yet for the country or any other comparable region. Total NPP (GPP) for Canada's land area was 1.27 (2.68) Pg C for 2008, with forests contributing 1.02 (2.2) Pg C. The annual comparisons between measured and simulated GPP show that the mean differences are not statistically significant (p > 0.05, paired t test). The main BEPS simulation error sources are from the driver fields.

  9. An Evaluation of the MOD17 Gross Primary Production Algorithm in a Mangrove Forest

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    Wells, H.; Najjar, R.; Herrmann, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ruiz-Plancarte, J.

    2015-12-01

    Though coastal wetlands occupy a small fraction of the Earth's surface, they are extremely active ecosystems and play a significant role in the global carbon budget. However, coastal wetlands are still poorly understood, especially when compared to open-ocean and terrestrial ecosystems. This is partly due to the limited in situ observations in these areas. One of the ways around the limited in situ data is to use remote sensing products. Here we present the first evaluation of the MOD17 remote sensing algorithm of gross primary productivity (GPP) in a mangrove forest using data from a flux tower in the Florida Everglades. MOD17 utilizes remote sensing products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and meteorological fields from the NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2. MOD17 is found to capture the long-term mean and seasonal amplitude of GPP but has significant errors describing the interannual variability, intramonthly variability, and the phasing of the annual cycle in GPP. Regarding the latter, MOD17 overestimates GPP when salinity is high and underestimates it when it is low, consistent with the fact that MOD17 ignores salinity and salinity tends to decrease GPP. Including salinity in the algorithm would then most likely improve its accuracy. MOD17 also assumes that GPP is linear with respect to PAR (photosynthetically active radiation), which does not hold true in the mangroves. Finally, the estimated PAR and air temperature inputs to MOD17 were found to be significantly lower than observed. In summary, while MOD17 captures some aspects of GPP variability at this mangrove site, it appears to be doing so for the wrong reasons.

  10. Multiscale analyses of solar-induced florescence and gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey D.; Griffis, Timothy J.; Baker, John M.; Frankenberg, Christian; Verma, Manish; Yuen, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) has shown great promise for probing spatiotemporal variations in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP), the largest component flux of the global carbon cycle. However, scale mismatches between SIF and ground-based GPP have posed challenges toward fully exploiting these data. We used SIF obtained at high spatial sampling rates and resolution by NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 satellite to elucidate GPP-SIF relationships across space and time in the U.S. Corn Belt. Strong linear scaling functions (R2 ≥ 0.79) that were consistent across instantaneous to monthly time scales were obtained for corn ecosystems and for a heterogeneous landscape based on tall tower observations. Although the slope of the corn function was 56% higher than for the landscape, SIF was similar for corn (C4) and soybean (C3). Taken together, there is strong observational evidence showing robust linear GPP-SIF scaling that is sensitive to plant physiology but insensitive to the spatial or temporal scale.

  11. Gross domestic product, science interest, and science achievement: a person × nation interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Cheung, Amanda K; Briley, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    Maximizing science achievement is a critical target of educational policy and has important implications for national and international economic and technological competitiveness. Previous research has identified both science interest and socioeconomic status (SES) as robust predictors of science achievement, but little research has examined their joint effects. In a data set drawn from approximately 400,000 high school students from 57 countries, we documented large Science Interest × SES and Science Interest × Per Capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) interactions in the prediction of science achievement. Student interest in science is a substantially stronger predictor of science achievement in higher socioeconomic contexts and in higher-GDP nations. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that in higher-opportunity contexts, motivational factors play larger roles in learning and achievement. They add to the growing body of evidence indicating that substantial cross-national differences in psychological effect sizes are not simply a logical possibility but, in many cases, an empirical reality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Impact of disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product in the WHO African Region

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    Aldis William

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African Region. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP. The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. Methods The impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the Region. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. Results The coefficients for capital (K, educational enrolment (EN, life expectancy (LE and exports (X had a positive sign; while imports (M and disaster mortality (DS were found to impact negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. Conclusions We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns.

  13. Happiness and age in European adults: The moderating role of gross domestic product per capita.

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    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver; Thompson, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    Studies of happiness levels across the life span have found support for two rival hypotheses. The positivity effect states that as people get older, they increasingly attend to positive information, which implies that happiness remains stable or increases with age, whereas the U-shaped hypothesis posits a curvilinear shape resulting from a dip during midlife. Both have been presented as potentially universal hypotheses that relate to cognitive and/or biological causes. The current study examined the happiness-age relationship across 29 European nations (N = 46,301) to explore whether it is moderated by national wealth, as indexed by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. It was found that eudaimonic and hedonic happiness remained relatively stable across the life span only in the most affluent nations; in poorer nations, there was either a fluctuating or steady age-associated decline. These findings challenge the cultural universality of the happiness-age relationship and suggest that models of how age relates to happiness should include the socioeconomic level of analysis. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. A multifactor approach to forecasting Romanian gross domestic product (GDP) in the short run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeanu, Daniel; Lache, Leonard; Panait, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the application of a generalized dynamic factor model (GDFM) based on dynamic principal components analysis to forecasting short-term economic growth in Romania. We have used a generalized principal components approach to estimate a dynamic model based on a dataset comprising 86 economic and non-economic variables that are linked to economic output. The model exploits the dynamic correlations between these variables and uses three common components that account for roughly 72% of the information contained in the original space. We show that it is possible to generate reliable forecasts of quarterly real gross domestic product (GDP) using just the common components while also assessing the contribution of the individual variables to the dynamics of real GDP. In order to assess the relative performance of the GDFM to standard models based on principal components analysis, we have also estimated two Stock-Watson (SW) models that were used to perform the same out-of-sample forecasts as the GDFM. The results indicate significantly better performance of the GDFM compared with the competing SW models, which empirically confirms our expectations that the GDFM produces more accurate forecasts when dealing with large datasets. PMID:28742100

  15. The Potential of Carbonyl Sulfide as a Tracer for Gross Primary Productivity at Flux Tower Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonquist, J.; Montzka, S. A.; Yakir, D.; Desai, A. R.; Dragoni, D.; Griffis, T. J.; Monson, R. K.; Munger, J. W.; Scott, R. L.; Bowling, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Regional/continental scale studies of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) seasonal dynamics and leaf level studies of plant OCS uptake have shown a close relationship to CO2 dynamics and uptake, suggesting potential for OCS as a tracer for gross primary productivity (GPP). Canopy CO2 and OCS differences (mole fraction within canopy minus that above canopy) at a temperate deciduous forest (Harvard Forest AmeriFlux site) were analyzed relative to net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and GPP, respectively. Canopy CO2 and OCS vertical gradients (CO2 and OCS differences divided by within and above canopy measurement height differences) were used to calculate ecosystem relative uptake (ERU; relative canopy OCS gradient divided by relative canopy CO2 gradient, where relative gradients are gradients normalized by above canopy mole fractions), from which GPP was estimated using an equation that assumes OCS follows the same physical pathway as CO2 into plant leaves and where GPP / NEE was proportional to OCS gradient / CO2 gradient. Additionally, canopy CO2 differences from five other AmeriFlux sites were analyzed, and OCS differences were projected from these differences (via an assumed ERU) to further evaluate OCS as a potential GPP tracer. At Harvard Forest, canopy CO2 differences were related to NEE (y = 0.041x + 0.046, r2 = 0.14, P ERU is potentially measurable with current grab-sample-based OCS measurement capabilities and may provide an alternative means of estimating GPP at flux tower sites.

  16. Recent Changes in Terrestrial Gross Primary Productivity in Asia from 1982 to 2011

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    Kazuhito Ichii

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Past changes in gross primary productivity (GPP were assessed using historical satellite observations based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA satellite series and four terrestrial biosphere models to identify the trends and driving mechanisms related to GPP and NDVI in Asia. A satellite-based time-series data analysis showed that approximately 40% of the area has experienced a significant increase in the NDVI, while only a few areas have experienced a significant decreasing trend over the last 30 years. The increases in the NDVI are dominant in the sub-continental regions of Siberia, East Asia, and India. Simulations using the terrestrial biosphere models also showed significant increases in GPP, similar to the results for the NDVI, in boreal and temperate regions. A modeled sensitivity analysis showed that the increases in GPP are explained by increased temperature and precipitation in Siberia. Precipitation, solar radiation and CO2 fertilization are important factors in the tropical regions. However, the relative contributions of each factor to GPP changes are different among the models.

  17. Modeling the Philippines' real gross domestic product: A normal estimation equation for multiple linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Jackie D.; Tampis, Razzcelle L.; Mercado, Joseph; Baygan, Aaron Vito M.; Baccay, Edcon B.

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this research is to formulate a mathematical model for the Philippines' Real Gross Domestic Product (Real GDP). The following factors are considered: Consumers' Spending (x1), Government's Spending (x2), Capital Formation (x3) and Imports (x4) as the Independent Variables that can actually influence in the Real GDP in the Philippines (y). The researchers used a Normal Estimation Equation using Matrices to create the model for Real GDP and used α = 0.01.The researchers analyzed quarterly data from 1990 to 2013. The data were acquired from the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) resulting to a total of 96 observations for each variable. The data have undergone a logarithmic transformation particularly the Dependent Variable (y) to satisfy all the assumptions of the Multiple Linear Regression Analysis. The mathematical model for Real GDP was formulated using Matrices through MATLAB. Based on the results, only three of the Independent Variables are significant to the Dependent Variable namely: Consumers' Spending (x1), Capital Formation (x3) and Imports (x4), hence, can actually predict Real GDP (y). The regression analysis displays that 98.7% (coefficient of determination) of the Independent Variables can actually predict the Dependent Variable. With 97.6% of the result in Paired T-Test, the Predicted Values obtained from the model showed no significant difference from the Actual Values of Real GDP. This research will be essential in appraising the forthcoming changes to aid the Government in implementing policies for the development of the economy.

  18. Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Janet J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Rivas, David; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Hernandez-Ayon, J. Martin; Lara-Lara, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could

  19. Effects of foliage clumping on the estimation of global terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing M.; Mo, Gang; Pisek, Jan; Liu, Jane; Deng, Feng; Ishizawa, Misa; Chan, Douglas

    2012-03-01

    Sunlit and shaded leaf separation proposed by Norman (1982) is an effective way to upscale from leaf to canopy in modeling vegetation photosynthesis. The Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) makes use of this methodology, and has been shown to be reliable in modeling the gross primary productivity (GPP) derived from CO2flux and tree ring measurements. In this study, we use BEPS to investigate the effect of canopy architecture on the global distribution of GPP. For this purpose, we use not only leaf area index (LAI) but also the first ever global map of the foliage clumping index derived from the multiangle satellite sensor POLDER at 6 km resolution. The clumping index, which characterizes the degree of the deviation of 3-dimensional leaf spatial distributions from the random case, is used to separate sunlit and shaded LAI values for a given LAI. Our model results show that global GPP in 2003 was 132 ± 22 Pg C. Relative to this baseline case, our results also show: (1) global GPP is overestimated by 12% when accurate LAI is available but clumping is ignored, and (2) global GPP is underestimated by 9% when the effective LAI is available and clumping is ignored. The clumping effects in both cases are statistically significant (p < 0.001). The effective LAI is often derived from remote sensing by inverting the measured canopy gap fraction to LAI without considering the clumping. Global GPP would therefore be generally underestimated when remotely sensed LAI (actually effective LAI by our definition) is used. This is due to the underestimation of the shaded LAI and therefore the contribution of shaded leaves to GPP. We found that shaded leaves contribute 50%, 38%, 37%, 39%, 26%, 29% and 21% to the total GPP for broadleaf evergreen forest, broadleaf deciduous forest, evergreen conifer forest, deciduous conifer forest, shrub, C4 vegetation, and other vegetation, respectively. The global average of this ratio is 35%.

  20. Optimal utilization of modern reproductive technologies to maximize the gross margin of milk production.

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    Heikkilä, A-M; Peippo, J

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a linear programming model was developed to maximize the gross margin of milk production by determining the optimal use of different reproductive technologies in a dairy herd. The model has the potential to vary the use of conventional artificial insemination, insemination with X-sorted sperm, and the use of unselected or sex-selected embryo recovery and transfer. Data from Finnish dairy herd recording systems were used to parameterize the model. This paper presents the results of 6 scenarios for a herd size of 60 dairy cows. In the basic scenario, the optimum economic combination for Finnish conditions was to inseminate 10 heifers and 22 cows with unsorted semen, 8 heifers with X-sorted sperm, and to use 20 cows as embryo donors which was the upper constraint for this technique. The embryo donors were inseminated with conventional semen for both embryo production and their subsequent pregnancy. Without restriction on embryo recovery, the optimum combination was to use all heifers as donors of sex-selected embryos and all cows as donors of unselected embryos. It was more profitable to produce female embryos with X-sorted sperm than by sorting embryos. Embryo recipients were not economically justified in any scenario. In practice, the optimal strategy is herd-specific depending on the input costs, output values and the technical success of each reproductive technology in that herd. This single-year linear programming model adequately differentiates between breeding technologies within a herd, but further research is needed to develop dynamic models to consider genetic improvement and herd expansion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Uncertainty analysis of gross primary production partitioned from net ecosystem exchange measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP, separated from flux tower measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE of CO2, is used increasingly to validate process-based simulators and remote sensing-derived estimates of simulated GPP at various time steps. Proper validation should include the uncertainty associated with this separation at different time steps. This can be achieved by using a Bayesian framework. In this study, we estimated the uncertainty in GPP at half hourly time steps. We used a non-rectangular hyperbola (NRH model to separate GPP from flux tower measurements of NEE at the Speulderbos forest site, The Netherlands. The NRH model included the variables that influence GPP, in particular radiation, and temperature. In addition, the NRH model provided a robust empirical relationship between radiation and GPP by including the degree of curvature of the light response curve. Parameters of the NRH model were fitted to the measured NEE data for every 10-day period during the growing season (April to October in 2009. Adopting a Bayesian approach, we defined the prior distribution of each NRH parameter. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulation was used to update the prior distribution of each NRH parameter. This allowed us to estimate the uncertainty in the separated GPP at half-hourly time steps. This yielded the posterior distribution of GPP at each half hour and allowed the quantification of uncertainty. The time series of posterior distributions thus obtained allowed us to estimate the uncertainty at daily time steps. We compared the informative with non-informative prior distributions of the NRH parameters. The results showed that both choices of prior produced similar posterior distributions GPP. This will provide relevant and important information for the validation of process-based simulators in the future. Furthermore, the obtained posterior distributions of NEE and the NRH parameters are of interest for a range of applications.

  2. Constraining Ecosystem Gross Primary Production and Transpiration with Measurements of Photosynthetic 13CO2 Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonquist, J. M.; Wingate, L.; Ogeé, J.; Bowling, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 (δ13Ca) can provide useful information on water use efficiency (WUE) dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems and potentially constrain models of CO2 and water fluxes at the land surface. This is due to the leaf-level relationship between photosynthetic 13CO2 discrimination (Δ), which influences δ13Ca, and the ratio of leaf intercellular to atmospheric CO2 mole fractions (Ci / Ca), which is related to WUE and is determined by the balance between C assimilation (CO2 demand) and stomatal conductance (CO2 supply). We used branch-scale Δ derived from tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurements collected in a Maritime pine forest to estimate Ci / Ca variations over an entire growing season. We combined Ci / Ca estimates with rates of gross primary production (GPP) derived from eddy covariance (EC) to estimate canopy-scale stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration (T). Estimates of T were highly correlated to T estimates derived from sapflow data (y = 1.22x + 0.08; r2 = 0.61; slope P MuSICA) (y = 0.88x - 0.05; r2 = 0.64; slope P MuSICA (y = 1.10 + 0.42; r2 = 0.50; slope P < 0.001). Results demonstrate that the leaf-level relationship between Δ and Ci / Ca can be extended to the canopy-scale and that Δ measurements have utility for partitioning ecosystem-scale CO2 and water fluxes.

  3. A geostatistical synthesis study of factors affecting gross primary productivity in various ecosystems of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yadav

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A coupled Bayesian model selection and geostatistical regression modeling approach is adopted for empirical analysis of gross primary productivity (GPP at six AmeriFlux sites, including the Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak, Vaira Ranch, Tonzi Ranch, Blodgett Forest, Morgan Monroe State Forest, and Harvard Forest sites. The analysis is performed at a continuum of temporal scales ranging from daily to monthly, for a period of seven years. A total of 10 covariates representing environmental stimuli and indices of plant physiology are considered in explaining variations in GPP. Similar to other statistical methods, the proposed approach estimates regression coefficients and uncertainties associated with the covariates in a selected regression model. However, unlike traditional regression methods, the presented approach also estimates the uncertainty associated with the selection of a single "best" model of GPP. In addition, the approach provides an enhanced understanding of how the importance of specific covariates changes with temporal resolutions. An examination of trends in the importance of specific covariates reveals scaling thresholds above or below which covariates become significant in explaining GPP. Results indicate that most sites (especially those with a stronger seasonal cycle exhibit at least one prominent scaling threshold between daily to 20-day temporal scale. This demonstrates that environmental variables that explain GPP at synoptic scales are different from those that capture its seasonality. At shorter time scales, radiation, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit exert most significant influence on GPP at most examined sites. However, at coarser time scales, the importance of these covariates in explaining GPP declines. Overall, unique best models are identified at most sites at the daily scale, whereas multiple competing models are identified at larger time scales. In addition, the selected models are able to explain a larger

  4. A geostatistical synthesis study of factors affecting gross primary productivity in various ecosystems of North America

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    V. Yadav

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A coupled Bayesian model selection and geostatistical regression modeling approach is adopted for empirical analysis of gross primary productivity (GPP at six AmeriFlux sites, including the Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak, Vaira Ranch, Tonzi Ranch, Blodgett Forest, Morgan Monroe State Forest, and Harvard Forest sites. The analysis is performed at a continuum of temporal scales ranging from daily to monthly, for a period of seven years. A total of 10 covariates representing environmental stimuli and indices of plant physiology are considered in explaining variations in GPP. Similarly to other statistical methods, the presented approach estimates regression coefficients and uncertainties associated with the covariates in a selected regression model. Unlike traditional regression methods, however, the approach also estimates the uncertainty associated with the selection of a single "best" model of GPP. In addition, the approach provides an enhanced understanding of how the importance of specific covariates changes with the examined timescale (i.e. temporal resolution. An examination of changes in the importance of specific covariates across timescales reveals thresholds above or below which covariates become important in explaining GPP. Results indicate that most sites (especially those with a stronger seasonal cycle exhibit at least one prominent scaling threshold between the daily and 20-day temporal scales. This demonstrates that environmental variables that explain GPP at synoptic scales are different from those that capture its seasonality. At shorter time scales, radiation, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit exert the most significant influence on GPP at most examined sites. At coarser time scales, however, the importance of these covariates in explaining GPP declines. Overall, unique best models are identified at most sites at the daily scale, whereas multiple competing models are identified at longer time scales.

  5. Consistency Between Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Gross Primary Production of Vegetation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Jin, Cui; Dong, Jinwei; Zhou, Sha; Wagle, Pradeep; Joiner, Joanna; Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhang , Geli; Qin, Yuanwei; Wang, Jie; Moore, Berrien, III

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the gross primary production (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is vital for a better understanding of the spatial-temporal patterns of the global carbon cycle. In this study,we estimate GPP in North America (NA) using the satellite-based Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) images at 8-day temporal and 500 meter spatial resolutions, and NCEP-NARR (National Center for Environmental Prediction-North America Regional Reanalysis) climate data. The simulated GPP (GPP (sub VPM)) agrees well with the flux tower derived GPP (GPPEC) at 39 AmeriFlux sites (155 site-years). The GPP (sub VPM) in 2010 is spatially aggregated to 0.5 by 0.5-degree grid cells and then compared with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data from Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2), which is directly related to vegetation photosynthesis. Spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics of GPP (sub VPM) and GOME-2 SIF show good consistency. At the biome scale, GPP (sub VPM) and SIF shows strong linear relationships (R (sup 2) is greater than 0.95) and small variations in regression slopes ((4.60-5.55 grams Carbon per square meter per day) divided by (milliwatts per square meter per nanometer per square radian)). The total annual GPP (sub VPM) in NA in 2010 is approximately 13.53 petagrams Carbon per year, which accounts for approximately 11.0 percent of the global terrestrial GPP and is within the range of annual GPP estimates from six other process-based and data-driven models (11.35-22.23 petagrams Carbon per year). Among the seven models, some models did not capture the spatial pattern of GOME-2 SIF data at annual scale, especially in Midwest cropland region. The results from this study demonstrate the reliable performance of VPM at the continental scale, and the potential of SIF data being used as a benchmark to compare with GPP models.

  6. Structural Uncertainty in Model-Simulated Trends of Global Gross Primary Production

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    Zaichun Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Projected changes in the frequency and severity of droughts as a result of increase in greenhouse gases have a significant impact on the role of vegetation in regulating the global carbon cycle. Drought effect on vegetation Gross Primary Production (GPP is usually modeled as a function of Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD and/or soil moisture. Climate projections suggest a strong likelihood of increasing trend in VPD, while regional changes in precipitation are less certain. This difference in projections between VPD and precipitation can cause considerable discrepancies in the predictions of vegetation behavior depending on how ecosystem models represent the drought effect. In this study, we scrutinized the model responses to drought using the 30-year record of Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS 3g Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset. A diagnostic ecosystem model, Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS, was used to estimate global GPP from 1982 to 2009 under nine different experimental simulations. The control run of global GPP increased until 2000, but stayed constant after 2000. Among the simulations with single climate constraint (temperature, VPD, rainfall and solar radiation, only the VPD-driven simulation showed a decrease in 2000s, while the other scenarios simulated an increase in GPP. The diverging responses in 2000s can be attributed to the difference in the representation of the impact of water stress on vegetation in models, i.e., using VPD and/or precipitation. Spatial map of trend in simulated GPP using GIMMS 3g data is consistent with the GPP driven by soil moisture than the GPP driven by VPD, confirming the need for a soil moisture constraint in modeling global GPP.

  7. Improving North American gross primary production (GPP) estimates using atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide (COS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huilin; Montzka, Steve; Andrews, Arlyn; Sweeney, Colm; Jacobson, Andy; Miller, Ben; Masarie, Ken; Jung, Martin; Gerbig, Christoph; Campbell, Elliott; Abu-Naser, Mohammad; Berry, Joe; Baker, Ian; Tans, Pieter

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the responses of gross primary production (GPP) to climate change is essential for improving our prediction of climate change. To this end, it is important to accurately partition net ecosystem exchange of carbon into GPP and respiration. Recent studies suggest that carbonyl sulfide is a useful tracer to provide a constraint on GPP, based on the fact that both COS and CO2 are simultaneously taken up by plants and the quantitative correlation between GPP and COS plant uptake. We will present an assessment of North American GPP estimates from the Simple Biosphere (SiB) model, the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model, and the MPI-BGC model through atmospheric transport simulations of COS in a receptor oriented framework. The newly upgraded Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) will be employed to compute the influence functions, i.e. footprints, to link the surface fluxes to the concentration changes at the receptor observations. The HYSPLIT is driven by the 3-hourly archived NAM 12km meteorological data from NOAA NCEP. The background concentrations are calculated using empirical curtains along the west coast of North America that have been created by interpolating in time and space the observations at the NOAA/ESRL marine boundary layer stations and from aircraft vertical profiles. The plant uptake of COS is derived from GPP estimates of biospheric models. The soil uptake and anthropogenic emissions are from Kettle et al. 2002. In addition, we have developed a new soil flux map of COS based on observations of molecular hydrogen (H2), which shares a common soil uptake term but lacks a vegetative sink. We will also improve the GPP estimates by assimilating atmospheric observations of COS in the receptor oriented framework, and then present the assessment of the improved GPP estimates against variations of climate variables such as temperature and precipitation.

  8. Gross Domestic Product (GDP and productivity of schizophrenia trials: an ecological study

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    Fenton Mark

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizophrenia trials. Methods Ecological study – investigating the relationship between four economic/demographic variables and number of schizophrenia RCTs per country. The variable with closest correlation was used to predict the expected number of studies. Results GDP closely correlated with schizophrenia trial output, with 76% of the total variation about the Y explained by the regression line (r = 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, r2 = 0.76. Many countries have a strong tradition of schizophrenia trials, exceeding their predicted output. All nations with no identified trial output had GDPs that predicted zero trial activity. Several nations with relatively small GDPs are, nevertheless, highly productive of trials. Some wealthy countries seem either not to have produced the expected number of randomised trials or not to have disseminated them to the English-speaking world. Conclusions This hypothesis-generating study could not investigate causal relationships, but suggests, that for those seeking all relevant studies, expending effort searching the scientific literature of Germany, Italy, France, Brazil and Japan may be a good investment.

  9. Marginal Lands Gross Primary Production Dominate Atmospheric CO2 Interannual Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, A.; Raupach, M. R.; Schurgers, G.; Arneth, A.; Jung, M.; Reichstein, M.; Smith, B.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 1960s terrestrial ecosystems have acted as a substantial sink for atmospheric CO2, sequestering about one quarter of anthropogenic emissions in an average year. Variations in this land carbon sink are also responsible for most of the large interannual variability in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. While most evidence places the majority of the sink in highly productive forests and at high latitudes experiencing warmer and longer growing seasons, the location and the processes governing the interannual variations are still not well characterised. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that the long-term trend and the variability in the land CO2 sink are respectively dominated by geographically distinct regions: the sink by highly productive lands, mainly forests, and the variability by semi-arid or "marginal" lands where vegetation activity is strongly limited by water and therefore responds strongly to climate variability. Using novel analysis methods and data from both upscaled flux-tower measurements and a dynamic global vegetation model, we show that (1) the interannual variability in the terrestrial CO2 sink arises mainly from variability in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP); (2) most of the interannual variability in GPP arises in tropical and subtropical marginal lands, where negative anomalies are driven mainly by warm, dry conditions and positive anomalies by cool, wet conditions; (3) the variability in the GPP of high-latitude marginal lands (tundra and shrublands) is instead controlled by temperature and light, with warm bright conditions resulting in positive anomalies. The influence of ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) on the growth rate of atmospheric CO2 concentrations is mediated primarily through climatic effects on GPP in marginal lands, with opposite signs in subtropical and higher-latitude regions. Our results show that the land sink of CO2 (dominated by forests) and its interannual variability (dominated by marginal lands) are

  10. Comment on: "Technical note: Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements" by Kaiser (2011

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    D. P. Nicholson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaiser (2011 has introduced an improved method for calculating gross productivity from the triple isotopic composition of dissolved oxygen in aquatic systems. His equation avoids approximations of previous methodologies, and also accounts for additional physical processes such as kinetic fractionation during invasion and evasion at the air-sea interface. However, when comparing his new approach to previous methods, Kaiser inconsistently defines the biological end-member with the result of overestimating the degree to which the various approaches of previous studies diverge. In particular, for his base case, Kaiser assigns a 17O excess to the product of photosynthesis (17δP that is too low, resulting in his result being ~30 % too high when compared to previous equations. When this is corrected, I find that Kaiser's equations are consistent with all previous study methodologies within about ±20 % for realistic conditions of metabolic balance (f and gross productivity (g. A methodological bias of ±20 % is of similar magnitude to current uncertainty in the wind-speed dependence of the air-sea gas transfer velocity, k, which directly impacts calculated gross productivity rates as well. While previous results could and should be revisited and corrected using the proposed improved equations, the magnitude of such corrections may be much less than implied by Kaiser.

  11. Estimation of Crop Gross Primary Production (GPP). 2; Do Scaled (MODIS) Vegetation Indices Improve Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Suyker, Andrew; Verma, Shashi; Shuai, Yanmin; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing estimates of Gross Primary Production (GPP) have routinely been made using spectral Vegetation Indices (VIs) over the past two decades. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), the green band Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVIgreen), and the green band Chlorophyll Index (CIgreen) have been employed to estimate GPP under the assumption that GPP is proportional to the product of VI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (where VI is one of four VIs: NDVI, EVI, WDRVIgreen, or CIgreen). However, the empirical regressions between VI*PAR and GPP measured locally at flux towers do not pass through the origin (i.e., the zero X-Y value for regressions). Therefore they are somewhat difficult to interpret and apply. This study investigates (1) what are the scaling factors and offsets (i.e., regression slopes and intercepts) between the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll of a canopy (fAPARchl) and the VIs, and (2) whether the scaled VIs developed in (1) can eliminate the deficiency and improve the accuracy of GPP estimates. Three AmeriFlux maize and soybean fields were selected for this study, two of which are irrigated and one is rainfed. The four VIs and fAPARchl of the fields were computed with the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images. The GPP estimation performance for the scaled VIs was compared to results obtained with the original VIs and evaluated with standard statistics: the coefficient of determination (R2), the root mean square error (RMSE), and the coefficient of variation (CV). Overall, the scaled EVI obtained the best performance. The performance of the scaled NDVI, EVI and WDRVIgreen was improved across sites, crop types and soil/background wetness conditions. The scaled CIgreen did not improve results, compared to the original CIgreen. The scaled green band indices (WDRVIgreen, CIgreen) did not exhibit superior performance to either the

  12. A simplified gross primary production and evapotranspiration model for boreal coniferous forests - is a generic calibration sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minunno, F.; Peltoniemi, M.; Launiainen, S.; Aurela, M.; Lindroth, A.; Lohila, A.; Mammarella, I.; Minkkinen, K.; Mäkelä, A.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of model complexity has been lively debated in environmental sciences as well as in the forest modelling community. Simple models are less input demanding and their calibration involves a lower number of parameters, but they might be suitable only at local scale. In this work we calibrated a simplified ecosystem process model (PRELES) to data from multiple sites and we tested if PRELES can be used at regional scale to estimate the carbon and water fluxes of Boreal conifer forests. We compared a multi-site (M-S) with site-specific (S-S) calibrations. Model calibrations and evaluations were carried out by the means of the Bayesian method; Bayesian calibration (BC) and Bayesian model comparison (BMC) were used to quantify the uncertainty in model parameters and model structure. To evaluate model performances BMC results were combined with more classical analysis of model-data mismatch (M-DM). Evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary production (GPP) measurements collected in 10 sites of Finland and Sweden were used in the study. Calibration results showed that similar estimates were obtained for the parameters at which model outputs are most sensitive. No significant differences were encountered in the predictions of the multi-site and site-specific versions of PRELES with exception of a site with agricultural history (Alkkia). Although PRELES predicted GPP better than evapotranspiration, we concluded that the model can be reliably used at regional scale to simulate carbon and water fluxes of Boreal forests. Our analyses underlined also the importance of using long and carefully collected flux datasets in model calibration. In fact, even a single site can provide model calibrations that can be applied at a wider spatial scale, since it covers a wide range of variability in climatic conditions.

  13. Reply to Nicholson's comment on "Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements" by Kaiser (2011

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    J. Kaiser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The comment by Nicholson (2011a questions the "consistency" of the "definition" of the "biological end-member" used by Kaiser (2011a in the calculation of oxygen gross production. "Biological end-member" refers to the relative oxygen isotope ratio difference between photosynthetic oxygen and Air-O2 (abbreviated 17δP and 18δP for 17O/16O and 18O/16O, respectively.

    This comment has no merit for the following reasons: (a the isotopic composition of photosynthetic oxygen cannot be "defined", it can only be measured, modelled or calculated based on other data; (b the isotopic composition of photosynthetic oxygen was not "defined" in Kaiser (2011a, but derived from published measurements; (c the published measurements themselves were inconsistent and no single result could be identified as best; (d since no best value could be identified, a hypothetical base case was constructed in a way that was consistent with previous publications; (e the values of 17δP=−11.646‰ and 18δP=−22.835‰ assumed for the base case are compatible with the experimental evidence published before the paper of Kaiser (2011a; (f even if the "biological end-member" was based on a definition, there could be no argument about the "consistency" of this definition – as per its nature, a definition is arbitrary.

    The qualification of base case gross production values as being "30 % too high" must therefore also be rejected. Even though recently revised measurements of the relative 17O/16O isotope ratio difference between VSMOW and Air-O2, 17δVSMOW (Barkan and Luz, 2011, do support lower estimates of gross production, our own measurements disagree with these revised 17δVSMOW values. If scaled for differences in 18

  14. MODIS/TERRA MOD17A2H Gross Primary Productivity 8-Day L4 Global 500m SIN Grid Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The version 6 Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) product is a cumulative 8-day composite of values with 500 meter pixel size based on the radiation-use efficiency...

  15. MODIS/AQUA MYD17A2H Gross Primary Productivity 8-Day L4 Global 500m SIN Grid Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The version 6 Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) product is a cumulative 8-day composite of values with 500 meter pixel size based on the radiation-use efficiency...

  16. Global estimates of evapotranspiration and gross primary production based on MODIS and global meteorology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Chen, J.; Davis, K.; Desai, A.R.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Gianelle, D.; Rossi, F.; Suyker, A.E.; Verma, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales remains a major challenge for quantifying the global carbon cycle. We developed a light use efficiency model, called EC-LUE, driven by only four variables: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature, and the Bowen ratio of sensible to latent heat flux. The EC-LUE model may have the most potential to adequately address the spatial and temporal dynamics of GPP because its parameters (i.e., the potential light use efficiency and optimal plant growth temperature) are invariant across the various land cover types. However, the application of the previous EC-LUE model was hampered by poor prediction of Bowen ratio at the large spatial scale. In this study, we substituted the Bowen ratio with the ratio of evapotranspiration (ET) to net radiation, and revised the RS-PM (Remote Sensing-Penman Monteith) model for quantifying ET. Fifty-four eddy covariance towers, including various ecosystem types, were selected to calibrate and validate the revised RS-PM and EC-LUE models. The revised RS-PM model explained 82% and 68% of the observed variations of ET for all the calibration and validation sites, respectively. Using estimated ET as input, the EC-LUE model performed well in calibration and validation sites, explaining 75% and 61% of the observed GPP variation for calibration and validation sites respectively. Global patterns of ET and GPP at a spatial resolution of 0.5?? latitude by 0.6?? longitude during the years 2000-2003 were determined using the global MERRA dataset (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global estimates of ET and GPP agreed well with the other global models from the literature, with the highest ET and GPP over tropical forests and the lowest values in dry and high latitude areas. However, comparisons with observed GPP

  17. Laparoscopic ovum collection in sheep: gross and microscopic evaluation of the ovary and influence on ooctye production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, P P M; Padilha, L C; Oliveira, M E F; Motheo, T F; da Silva, A S L; Barros, F F P C; Coutinho, L N; Flôres, F N; Lopes, M C S; Bandarra, M B; Silva, M A M; Vasconcelos, R O; Rodrigues, L F S; Vicente, W R R

    2011-09-01

    Gross and microscopic evaluations of the ovaries of sheep subjected to successive ovum collection were performed with the objective of identifying if there was interference in oocyte production and morphology of gonads. Gross evaluation of the internal genital tract was also performed. Eighteen ewes of the Santa Inês breed were randomly distributed into three experimental groups of six animals each; G0, G1 and G9 with no, one and nine repetitions, respectively. Estrous synchronization was achieved with a short protocol using MAP followed by single dose stimulation with 80mg of FSHp and 300 IU of eCG (IM). Laparoscopic ovum pick-up was performed 36h later, with 7-day intervals. The number of visualized follicles, aspirated follicles and oocytes recovery was recorded. After the last intervention, ovariectomy was performed for evaluation of gross and microscopical appearance and existence of lesions caused by follicular puncture, which were classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3). The number of visualized follicles, aspirated follicles and oocytes recovery were 13.2±2.0, 11.3±3.0 and 5.8±2.3, respectively, with a recovery rate of 51.7%. No statistical difference was found between the nine sessions (P>0.05). Nine sessions of superovulation and ovum collection procedures did not cause ovarian lesions and did not interfere with the production of follicles in ewes of the Santa Inês breed.

  18. Integration of MODIS land and atmosphere products with a coupled-process model to estimate gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration from 1 km to global scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Youngryel; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Kobayashi, Hideki; van Ingen, Catharine; Li, Jie; Black, T. Andy; Beringer, Jason; van Gorsel, Eva; Knohl, Alexander; Law, Beverly E.; Roupsard, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    We propose the Breathing Earth System Simulator (BESS), an upscaling approach to quantify global gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration using MODIS with a spatial resolution of 1-5 km and a temporal resolution of 8 days. This effort is novel because it is the first system that harmonizes and utilizes MODIS Atmosphere and Land products on the same projection and spatial resolution over the global land. This enabled us to use the MODIS Atmosphere products to calculate atmospheric radiative transfer for visual and near infrared radiation wave bands. Then we coupled atmospheric and canopy radiative transfer processes, with models that computed leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration on the sunlit and shaded portions of the vegetation and soil. At the annual time step, the mass and energy fluxes derived from BESS showed strong linear relations with measurements of solar irradiance (r2 = 0.95, relative bias: 8%), gross primary productivity (r2 = 0.86, relative bias: 5%) and evapotranspiration (r2 = 0.86, relative bias: 15%) in data from 33 flux towers that cover seven plant functional types across arctic to tropical climatic zones. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration computed in BESS were most sensitive to leaf area index and solar irradiance, respectively. We quantified the mean global terrestrial estimates of gross primary productivity and evapotranpiration between 2001 and 2003 as 118 ± 26 PgC yr-1 and 500 ± 104 mm yr-1 (equivalent to 63,000 ± 13,100 km3 yr-1), respectively. BESS-derived gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration estimates were consistent with the estimates from independent machine-learning, data-driven products, but the process-oriented structure has the advantage of diagnosing sensitivity of mechanisms. The process-based BESS is able to offer gridded biophysical variables everywhere from local to the total global land scales with an 8-day interval over

  19. Remote sensing of annual terrestrial gross primary productivity from MODIS: an assessment using the FLUXNET La Thuile dataset

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    M. Verma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary productivity (GPP is the largest and most variable component of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Repeatable and accurate monitoring of terrestrial GPP is therefore critical for quantifying dynamics in regional-to-global carbon budgets. Remote sensing provides high frequency observations of terrestrial ecosystems and is widely used to monitor and model spatiotemporal variability in ecosystem properties and processes that affect terrestrial GPP. We used data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and FLUXNET to assess how well four metrics derived from remotely sensed vegetation indices (hereafter referred to as proxies and six remote sensing-based models capture spatial and temporal variations in annual GPP. Specifically, we used the FLUXNET "La Thuile" data set, which includes several times more sites (144 and site years (422 than previous efforts have used. Our results show that remotely sensed proxies and modeled GPP are able to capture statistically significant amounts of spatial variation in mean annual GPP in every biome except croplands, but that the total variance explained differed substantially across biomes (R2 ≈ 0.1−0.8. The ability of remotely sensed proxies and models to explain interannual variability GPP was even more limited. Remotely sensed proxies explained 40–60% of interannual variance in annual GPP in moisture-limited biomes including grasslands and shrublands. However, none of the models or remotely sensed proxies explained statistically significant amounts of interannual variation in GPP in croplands, evergreen needleleaf forests, and deciduous broadleaf forests. Because important factors that affect year-to-year variation in GPP are not explicitly captured or included in the remote sensing proxies and models we examined (e.g., interactions between biotic and abiotic conditions, and lagged ecosystems responses to environmental process, our results are not surprising

  20. Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland

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    M. Rossini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the performances in a terrestrial ecosystem of gross primary production (GPP estimation of a suite of spectral vegetation indexes (VIs that can be computed from currently orbiting platforms. Vegetation indexes were computed from near-surface field spectroscopy measurements collected using an automatic system designed for high temporal frequency acquisition of spectral measurements in the visible near-infrared region. Spectral observations were collected for two consecutive years in Italy in a subalpine grassland equipped with an Eddy Covariance (EC flux tower which provides continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2 exchange (NEE and the derived GPP.

    Different VIs were calculated based on ESA-MERIS and NASA-MODIS spectral bands and correlated with biophysical (Leaf Area Index, LAI; fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by green vegetation, fIPARg, biochemical (chlorophyll concentration and ecophysiological (green light-use efficiency, LUEg canopy variables. In this study, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI showed better correlations with LAI and fPARg (r = 0.90 and 0.95, respectively, the MERIS terrestrial chlorophyll index (MTCI with leaf chlorophyll content (r = 0.91 and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI551, computed as (R531R551/(R531+R551 with LUEg (r = 0.64.

    Subsequently, these VIs were used to estimate GPP using different modelling solutions based on the light-use efficiency model describing the GPP as driven by the photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (APARg and by the efficiency (ε with which plants use the absorbed radiation to fix carbon via photosynthesis. Results show that GPP can be successfully modelled with a

  1. Remote sensing-based estimation of gross primary production in a subalpine grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rossini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the performances in a terrestrial ecosystem of gross primary production (GPP estimation of a suite of spectral vegetation indexes (VIs that can be computed from currently orbiting platforms. Vegetation indexes were computed from near-surface field spectroscopy measurements collected using an automatic system designed for high temporal frequency acquisition of spectral measurements in the visible near-infrared region. Spectral observations were collected for two consecutive years in Italy in a subalpine grassland equipped with an eddy covariance (EC flux tower that provides continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2 exchange (NEE and the derived GPP.

    Different VIs were calculated based on ESA-MERIS and NASA-MODIS spectral bands and correlated with biophysical (Leaf area index, LAI; fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by green vegetation, fIPARg, biochemical (chlorophyll concentration and ecophysiological (green light-use efficiency, LUEg canopy variables. In this study, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was the index best correlated with LAI and fIPARg (r = 0.90 and 0.95, respectively, the MERIS terrestrial chlorophyll index (MTCI with leaf chlorophyll content (r = 0.91 and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI551, computed as (R531-R551/(R531+R551 with LUEg (r = 0.64.

    Subsequently, these VIs were used to estimate GPP using different modelling solutions based on Monteith's light-use efficiency model describing the GPP as driven by the photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (APARg and by the efficiency (ε with which plants use the absorbed radiation to fix carbon via photosynthesis. Results show that GPP can be successfully modelled

  2. A continuous hyperspatial monitoring system of evapotranspiration and gross primary productivity from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Bandini, Filippo; Jakobsen, Jakob; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo J.; Köppl, Christian Josef; Haugård Olesen, Daniel; Ibrom, Andreas; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Garcia, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can collect optical and thermal hyperspatial (signatures of the land surface, closely linked with the vegetation structure and functioning, are already part of models to predict Evapotranspiration (ET) and Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) from satellites. However, there remain challenges for an operational monitoring using UAS compared to satellites: the payload capacity of most commercial UAS is less than 2 kg, but miniaturized sensors have low signal to noise ratios and small field of view requires mosaicking hundreds of images and accurate orthorectification. In addition, wind gusts and lower platform stability require appropriate geometric and radiometric corrections. Finally, modeling fluxes on days without images is still an issue for both satellite and UAS applications. This study focuses on designing an operational UAS-based monitoring system including payload design, sensor calibration, based on routine collection of optical and thermal images in a Danish willow field to perform a joint monitoring of ET and GPP dynamics over continuous time at daily time steps. The payload (digital camera (Sony RX-100) used to retrieve accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) for multispectral and thermal image orthorectification, and a standard GNSS single frequency receiver (UBlox) or a real time kinematic double frequency system (Novatel Inc. flexpack6+OEM628). Geometric calibration of the digital and multispectral cameras was conducted to recover intrinsic camera parameters. After geometric calibration, accurate DEMs with vertical errors about 10cm could be retrieved. Radiometric calibration for the multispectral camera was conducted with an integrating sphere (Labsphere CSTM-USS-2000C) and the laboratory calibration showed that the camera measured radiance had a bias within ±4.8%. The thermal camera was calibrated using a black body at varying target and ambient temperatures and resulted in laboratory accuracy with RMSE of 0.95 K. A

  3. Multitude: production of community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Ratajczak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to reconstruct the notion of multitude which appears in the work of Antonio Negri, Michael Hardt and Paolo Virno. Multitude refers to the emergence of a new social subject, substantially different from the known historical formulations (nation, people, class. The notion is analyzed both in the context of the classical political philosophy and the changes in the modes of production occuring in the western societies - transition from the material to immaterial labor, which consists of producing relations between social singularities. The genealogical perspective will be therefore supplemented by the analysis of the biopolitical constituion of the multitude and both perspectives will show the exigency to deconstruct numerous notions of the traditional philosophy.

  4. Upwelling increases net primary production of corals and reef-wide gross primary production along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eStuhldreier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic production is a key ecosystem service provided by tropical coral reefs, but knowledge about the contribution of corals and other reef-associated organisms and the controlling environmental factors is scarce. Locations with occurrence of upwelling events can serve as in-situ laboratories to investigate the impact of environmental variability on production rates of reef-associated organisms. This study investigated individual and reef-wide net (Pn and gross primary production (Pg for the dominant autotrophic benthic organisms (hard corals Pocillopora spp., crustose coralline algae (CCA, turf algae, and the macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides associated with a coral reef along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Oxygen fluxes by these organisms were measured at a weekly to monthly resolution over one year (May 2013 - April 2014 via in-situ chamber incubations. The influence of simultaneously measured environmental parameters (temperature, light, inorganic nutrient concentrations, dissolved and particulate organic matter concentrations on Pn of the different taxa were tested via linear model fitting. Turf algae showed highest individual Pn and Pg rates per organism surface area (35 and 49 mmol O2 m-² h-1, followed by Pocillopora spp. (16 and 25 mmol O2 m-² h-1, CCA (9 and 15 mmol O2 m-² h-1 and C. sertularioides (8 and 11 mmol O2 m-² h-1. Under upwelling conditions (February – April 2014, Pn rates of all algal taxa remained relatively uniform despite high nutrient availability, Pn of corals increased by 70 %. On an ecosystem level, corals on average contributed 60 % of total Pn and Pg per reef area (73 and 98 mmol O2 m-² h-1, respectively due to high benthic coverage, followed by turf algae (25 %. Under upwelling conditions, reef-wide Pg increased by >40 %, indicating acclimatization of local reef communities to upwelling conditions.

  5. DYNAMICS OF THE SHARE OF EDUCATION EXPENDITURES WITHIN ROMANIA’S GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT - ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN MĂCRIŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper fundamentally starts from a generally accepted truth, namely the one stating that education is the basic foundation of social, cultural, and economic development, the guarantee of building a future when young generations are going to benefit from new abilities, knowledge, and ideals; its financing represents a key issue in accomplishing its long term mission in society. The hereby approach deals with an analysis of the evolution of education expenditures within Romania’s gross domestic product which mainly determine the basic economic and social effects.

  6. DIMETHYLSULFIDE PRODUCTION BY PLANKTON COMMUNITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KWINT, RLJ; KRAMER, KJM

    1995-01-01

    The trends of dimethylsulphide (DMS) production by plankton communities in mesocosm systems were studied under various conditions. The results show that the DMS concentration in the water column can be highly variable over time, even within days, and under apparently identical conditions. DMS releas

  7. Attributing regional trends of evapotranspiration and gross primary productivity with remote sensing: a case study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xingguo; Chen, Xuejuan; Hu, Shi; Liu, Suxia; Xia, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Attributing changes in evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP) is crucial for impact and adaptation assessment of the agro-ecosystems to climate change. Simulations with the VIP model revealed that annual ET and GPP slightly increased from 1981 to 2013 over the North China Plain. The tendencies of both ET and GPP were upward in the spring season, while they were weak and downward in the summer season. A complete factor analysis illustrated that the relative contributions of climatic change, CO2 fertilization, and management to the ET (GPP) trend were 56 (-32) %, -28 (25) %, and 68 (108) %, respectively. The decline of global radiation resulted from deteriorated aerosol and air pollution was the principal cause of GPP decline in summer, while air warming intensified the water cycle and advanced the plant productivity in the spring season. Generally, agronomic improvements were the principal drivers of crop productivity enhancement.

  8. Camera derived vegetation greenness index as proxy for gross primary production in a low Arctic wetland area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Hansen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    of these changes. This study investigates the ability to use automatic digital camera images (DCIs) as proxy data for gross primary production (GPP) in a complex low Arctic wetland site. Vegetation greenness computed from DCIs was found to correlate significantly (R2 = 0.62, p ... vegetation index (NDVI) product derived from the WorldView-2 satellite. An object-based classification based on a bi-temporal image composite was used to classify the study area into heath, copse, fen, and bedrock. Temporal evolution of vegetation greenness was evaluated and modeled with double sigmoid...... and GPP (R2 = 0.85, p cameras may be used as a cost-effective proxy for potential GPP in remote Arctic regions....

  9. Validation and improvement of MODIS Gross Primary Productivity in typical forest ecosystems of East Asia based on eddy covariance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; He, M.; Ju, W.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle plays an important role in global climate change. As a key component of terrestrial carbon cycle, gross primary productivity (GPP) is a major determinant of carbon exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. Because of the large spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of ecosystems, it is a challenge to estimate GPP at global or regional scales. 8-day MODIS GPP product provides a real time estimate of global GPP. However, many previous studies indicated that MODIS GPP has large uncertainties, which was partly caused by biases in maximum light use efficiency and meteorological data inputs, including VPD, air temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). In this study, MODIS GPP of six typical forest ecosystems in East Asia was validated using GPP derived from the eddy covariance flux measurements. The validation indicated that MODIS GPP was significantly underestimated in the forest ecosystems of East Asia. The underestimation is generally more serious in growing seasons than in non-growing seasons and becomes more obvious from the south to the north. By using observed meteorological data, smoothed fPAR and optimized maximum light use efficiency (ɛmax), predicted GPP with MOD17 algorithm consistently matched well with measured GPP. Smoothed fPAR definitely reduced underestimation of annual GPP, and the optimized ɛmax improved annual GPP more significantly, indicating that the errors in MODIS GPP of forest ecosystems in East Asia can be mainly attributed to the uncertainties of ɛmax. Optimized ɛmax are generally higher than that used for producing MODIS GPP product. The optimized ɛmax changes significantly with forest types. It even exhibits distinct seasonal variations for a specific forest. Key words: Gross Primary Productivity, MODIS, Maximum light use efficiency, East Asia, Forest ecosystem Correspondence author:Weimin Ju Email:juweimin@nju.edu.cn

  10. Analysis of The Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P) of Nigeria:1960-2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Abstract. In this work, data on Nigerian Goss Domestic Product was collected online from the portal ... are the Value Added (or Production) approach and the Income (or By .... process that vary as time passes. Observation.

  11. Reply to Nicholson's comment on "Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements" by Kaiser (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The comment by Nicholson (2011a questions the "consistency" of the "definition" of the "biological end-member" used by Kaiser (2011a in the calculation of oxygen gross production. "Biological end-member" refers to the relative oxygen isotope ratio difference between photosynthetic oxygen and Air-O2 (abbreviated 17δP and 18δP for 17O/16O and 18O/16O, respectively. The comment claims that this leads to an overestimate of the discrepancy between previous studies and that the resulting gross production rates are "30% too high". Nicholson recognises the improved accuracy of Kaiser's direct calculation ("dual-delta" method compared to previous approximate approaches based on 17O excess (17Δ and its simplicity compared to previous iterative calculation methods. Although he correctly points out that differences in the normalised gross production rate (g are largely due to different input parameters used in Kaiser's "base case" and previous studies, he does not acknowledge Kaiser's observation that iterative and dual-delta calculation methods give exactly the same g for the same input parameters (disregarding kinetic isotope fractionation during air-sea exchange. The comment is based on misunderstandings with respect to the "base case" 17δP and 18δP values. Since direct measurements of 17δP and 18δPdo not exist or have been lost, Kaiser constructed the "base case" in a way that was consistent and compatible with literature data. Nicholson showed that an alternative reconstruction of 17δP gives g values closer to previous studies. However, unlike Nicholson, we refrain from interpreting either reconstruction as a benchmark for the accuracy of g. A number of publications over the last 12 months

  12. Evaluation of satellite based indices for gross primary production estimates in a sparse savanna in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sjöström

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the more frequently applied methods for integrating controls on primary production through satellite data is the Light Use Efficiency (LUE approach. Satellite indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and the Shortwave Infrared Water Stress Index (SIWSI have previously shown promise as predictors of primary production in several different environments. In this study, we evaluate NDVI, EVI and SIWSI derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite sensor against in-situ measurements from central Sudan in order to asses their applicability in LUE-based primary production modeling within a water limited environment. Results show a strong correlation between vegetation indices and gross primary production (GPP, demonstrating the significance of vegetation indices for deriving information on primary production with relatively high accuracy at similar areas. Evaluation of SIWSI however, reveal that the fraction of vegetation apparently is to low for the index to provide accurate information on canopy water content, indicating that the use of SIWSI as a predictor of water stress in satellite data-driven primary production modeling in similar semi-arid ecosystems is limited.

  13. Estimation and Forecasting the Gross Domestic Product´s Growth Rate in Ecuador: a Short-term Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadier Alberto Torres−Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the seventh largest economy in Latin America. From 2000 to 2012, the country has been expanding at an average rate of 1,15 % on a quarter over quarter basis, mostly due to a rise in exports. Ecuador´s economy is highly dependent on oil exports. In order to reach its full growth potential, the country needs to reduce its dependence on oil revenue; increase the tax base; achieve political stability and reduce the levels of poverty and inequality. The main objective of this research is specifically marked in estimate and forecast the Gross Domestic Product´s Growth Rate in Ecuador, applying for this Box – Jenkins´ Methodology for ARIMA models. It was obtained a forecast of 3,96 % approximately, that represents a logical result according with the time series.

  14. Investigating the usefulness of satellite derived fluorescence data in inferring gross primary productivity within the carbon cycle data assimilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the utility of satellite measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs in constraining gross primary productivity (GPP. We ingest Fs measurements into the Carbon-Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS which has been augmented by the fluorescence component of the Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes (SCOPE model. CCDAS simulates well the patterns of Fs suggesting the combined model is capable of ingesting these measurements. However simulated Fs is insensitive to the key parameter controlling GPP, the carboxylation capacity (Vcmax. Simulated Fs is sensitive to both the incoming absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (aPAR and leaf chlorophyll concentration both of which are treated as perfectly known in previous CCDAS versions. Proper use of Fs measurements therefore requires enhancement of CCDAS to include and expose these variables.

  15. Growth in US health spending remained slow in 2010; health share of gross domestic product was unchanged from 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne B; Lassman, David; Washington, Benjamin; Catlin, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Medical goods and services are generally viewed as necessities. Even so, the latest recession had a dramatic effect on their utilization. US health spending grew more slowly in 2009 and 2010-at rates of 3.8 percent and 3.9 percent, respectively-than in any other years during the fifty-one-year history of the National Health Expenditure Accounts. In 2010 extraordinarily slow growth in the use and intensity of services led to slower growth in spending for personal health care. The rates of growth in overall US gross domestic product (GDP) and in health spending began to converge in 2010. As a result, the health spending share of GDP stabilized at 17.9 percent.

  16. Disparities in rheumatoid arthritis disease activity according to gross domestic product in 25 countries in the QUEST-RA database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T; Kautiainen, H; Pincus, T

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse associations between the clinical status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the gross domestic product (GDP) of their resident country. METHODS: The Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (QUEST-RA) cohort includes clinical......-related variables were analysed according to GDP per capita, including 14 "high GDP" countries with GDP per capita greater than US$24,000 and 11 "low GDP" countries with GDP per capita less than US$11,000. RESULTS: Disease activity DAS28 ranged between 3.1 and 6.0 among the 25 countries and was significantly...... associated with GDP (r = -0.78, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.90, r(2) = 61%). Disease activity levels differed substantially between "high GDP" and "low GDP" countries at much greater levels than according to whether patients were currently taking or not taking methotrexate, prednisone and/or biological agents...

  17. A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State University; Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Baldocchi, D. D. [University of California, Berkeley; Ma, Siyan [University of California, Berkeley; Cook, David R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Oren, Ram [Duke University; Katul, G. G. [Duke University; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000 2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005 2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr 1 for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated by these

  18. Aspects Regarding the Gross Chemical Composition and Fatty Acids Content of Some By-Products Obtained from the Biofuel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Colibar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Samples of by-products, obtained from the production of biofuels were collected. These products were introduced in different proportions in feed rations of fattening lambs. Gross chemical composition of feed was analyzed and compared with mean reference values. Ash and cellulose content does not influence the results. The percentage of raw protein, specific for each feed, is correlated with the body weight gain. Fat quantity of rape meal is the closest to that of granulated feed and also the highest compared with the other groups, so that it can justify the higher productive performance achieved by group 1, who received rape meal in ratio. The concentration of fatty acids was determined from analyzed feed after oils extraction, their saponification and their reading with a HPLC. The data showed that the fatty acid level is relatively close to that specified in the literature. Euricic acid, that is responsible for the toxic potential of the rape, has been found in rape meal.

  19. Evaluating the role of land cover and climate uncertainties in computing gross primary production in Hawaiian Island ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Heather L.; Selmants, Paul; Moreno, Alvaro; Running Steve W,; Giardina, Christian P.

    2017-01-01

    Gross primary production (GPP) is the Earth’s largest carbon flux into the terrestrial biosphere and plays a critical role in regulating atmospheric chemistry and global climate. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)-MOD17 data product is a widely used remote sensing-based model that provides global estimates of spatiotemporal trends in GPP. When the MOD17 algorithm is applied to regional scale heterogeneous landscapes, input data from coarse resolution land cover and climate products may increase uncertainty in GPP estimates, especially in high productivity tropical ecosystems. We examined the influence of using locally specific land cover and high-resolution local climate input data on MOD17 estimates of GPP for the State of Hawaii, a heterogeneous and discontinuous tropical landscape. Replacing the global land cover data input product (MOD12Q1) with Hawaii-specific land cover data reduced statewide GPP estimates by ~8%, primarily because the Hawaii-specific land cover map had less vegetated land area compared to the global land cover product. Replacing coarse resolution GMAO climate data with Hawaii-specific high-resolution climate data also reduced statewide GPP estimates by ~8% because of the higher spatial variability of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the Hawaii-specific climate data. The combined use of both Hawaii-specific land cover and high-resolution Hawaii climate data inputs reduced statewide GPP by ~16%, suggesting equal and independent influence on MOD17 GPP estimates. Our sensitivity analyses within a heterogeneous tropical landscape suggest that refined global land cover and climate data sets may contribute to an enhanced MOD17 product at a variety of spatial scales.

  20. Evaluating the role of land cover and climate uncertainties in computing gross primary production in Hawaiian Island ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Heather L; Selmants, Paul C; Moreno, Alvaro; Running, Steve W; Giardina, Christian P

    2017-01-01

    Gross primary production (GPP) is the Earth's largest carbon flux into the terrestrial biosphere and plays a critical role in regulating atmospheric chemistry and global climate. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)-MOD17 data product is a widely used remote sensing-based model that provides global estimates of spatiotemporal trends in GPP. When the MOD17 algorithm is applied to regional scale heterogeneous landscapes, input data from coarse resolution land cover and climate products may increase uncertainty in GPP estimates, especially in high productivity tropical ecosystems. We examined the influence of using locally specific land cover and high-resolution local climate input data on MOD17 estimates of GPP for the State of Hawaii, a heterogeneous and discontinuous tropical landscape. Replacing the global land cover data input product (MOD12Q1) with Hawaii-specific land cover data reduced statewide GPP estimates by ~8%, primarily because the Hawaii-specific land cover map had less vegetated land area compared to the global land cover product. Replacing coarse resolution GMAO climate data with Hawaii-specific high-resolution climate data also reduced statewide GPP estimates by ~8% because of the higher spatial variability of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the Hawaii-specific climate data. The combined use of both Hawaii-specific land cover and high-resolution Hawaii climate data inputs reduced statewide GPP by ~16%, suggesting equal and independent influence on MOD17 GPP estimates. Our sensitivity analyses within a heterogeneous tropical landscape suggest that refined global land cover and climate data sets may contribute to an enhanced MOD17 product at a variety of spatial scales.

  1. How drought severity constrains gross primary production(GPP) and its partitioning among carbon pools in a Quercus ilex coppice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambal, S.; Lempereur, M.; Limousin, J. M.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, J.

    2014-12-01

    The partitioning of photosynthates toward biomass compartments plays a crucial role in the carbon (C) sink function of forests. Few studies have examined how carbon is allocated toward plant compartments in drought-prone forests. We analyzed the fate of gross primary production (GPP) in relation to yearly water deficit in an old evergreen Mediterranean Quercus ilex coppice severely affected by water limitations. Carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were measured with an eddy covariance flux tower running continuously since 2001. Discrete measurements of litterfall, stem growth and fAPAR allowed us to derive annual productions of leaves, wood, flowers and acorns, and an isometric relationship between stem and belowground biomass has been used to estimate perennial belowground growth. By combining eddy covariance fluxes with annual net primary productions (NPP), we managed to close a C budget and derive values of autotrophic, heterotrophic respirations and carbon-use efficiency (CUE; the ratio between NPP and GPP). Average values of yearly net ecosystem production (NEP), GPP and Reco were 282, 1259 and 977 g C m-2. The corresponding aboveground net primary production (ANPP) components were 142.5, 26.4 and 69.6 g C m-2 for leaves, reproductive effort (flowers and fruits) and stems, respectively. NEP, GPP and Reco were affected by annual water deficit. Partitioning to the different plant compartments was also impacted by drought, with a hierarchy of responses going from the most affected - the stem growth - to the least affected - the leaf production. The average CUE was 0.40, which is well in the range for Mediterranean-type forest ecosystems. CUE tended to decrease less drastically in response to drought than GPP and NPP did, probably due to drought acclimation of autotrophic respiration. Overall, our results provide a baseline for modeling the inter-annual variations of carbon fluxes and allocation in this widespread Mediterranean ecosystem, and

  2. Joint control of terrestrial gross primary productivity by plant phenology and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jianyang; Niu, Shuli; Ciais, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    –covariance and satellite-derived data, we decomposed annual terrestrial GPP into the length of the CO2 uptake period (CUP) and the seasonal maximal capacity of CO2 uptake (GPPmax). The product of CUP and GPPmax explained >90% of the temporal GPP variability in most areas of North America during 2000–2010 and the spatial...... GPP variation among globally distributed eddy flux tower sites. It also explained GPP response to the European heatwave in 2003 (r2 = 0.90) and GPP recovery after a fire disturbance in South Dakota (r2 = 0.88). Additional analysis of the eddy–covariance flux data shows that the interbiome variation...

  3. An Analysis of the Co-integration and Causality Relationship between Electricity Consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP in the Developing Countries: An Empirical Study of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Kapusuzoglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, long term relationship and causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product in Turkey for the period 1975-2006 were investigated. As a result of the co-integration analysis made firstly in this study, the long term relationship between the electricity consumption and gross domestic product was found. According to the result of Granger causality analysis made in accordance with vector error correction model, it was determined that there was unidirectional causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product. According to the findings, it can be said that in the process of economic growth in Turkey, gross domestic product amount was an important variable which affected the electricity consumption positively in the long term and therefore it can be said that it is important to provide the primary energy sources used in electricity energy production and electricity energy in the long term and in time without any interaction for preventing the failures which may arise during the process of economic growth and for the stability of the economic production and consumption process

  4. Analysis of per capita income dynamics of the USA and Russia gross domestic product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor' Il'ich Pichurin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a judgment that the relator of per capita income of the countries is a rough indicator of the ratio of labor productivity in these countries. Accordingly, the analysis of the dynamics of per capita income in the United States and Russia for the period from 1861 to present time is made. The described statistical data shows that the ratio of per capita income in the U. S. and Russia has not changed from 1861 to 1913. Consequently, the nowadays widespread claim that capitalist development in Russia led the country into the category of rapidly developing countries for 50 years after the abolition of serfdom is not true. The gap in labor productivity in Russia compared to the United States, Germany, Britain and other developed countries remained unchanged. The sharp decline in per capita income was based on the country's industrialization and appropriate agricultural sphere mechanization. As a result, the gap has narrowed to the mid-sixties of the XX century up to two times, despite the fact those ten years of this period fell out from the normal development in connection with the Second World War and post-war reconstruction of the nationaleconomy. After thecollapse of thesocialisteconomy, this gap increased up to fivetimes in 2000, and now after the first decade of the XXI century it is about threetimes. Thereasons for these changes in respect to per capita income are analyzed in this paper.

  5. Gross world product and consumption in a global warming model with endogenous technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlagh, Reyer; Van der Zwaan, Bob [IVM/VU, Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2003-02-01

    This paper analyzes the macro-economic costs and effects on consumption and energy demand of limiting the global average atmospheric temperature increase to 2C. We use a macro-economic model in which there are two competing energy technologies (carbon and non-carbon, respectively), technological change is represented endogenously, and energy is aggregated through a CES function implying positive demand for the relatively expensive non-carbon technology. Technological change is represented through a learning curve describing decreasing energy production costs as a function of cumulative experience. We find that energy savings constitutes an important mechanism for decreasing abatement costs in the short- and medium-term, while the acquisition of additional learning experience substantially decreases abatement costs in the longer-term.

  6. Gross primary productivity of the true steppe in central Asia in relation to NDVI: scaling up CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Johnson, Douglas A.; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Akshalov, Kanat; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2004-01-01

    Compared to other characteristics of CO2 exchange, gross primary productivity (P g ) is most directly related to photosynthetic activity. Until recently, it was considered difficult to obtain measurement-based P g . The objective of our study was to evaluate if P g can be estimated from continuous CO2 flux measurements using nonlinear identification of the nonrectangular hyperbolic model of ecosystem-scale, light-response curves. Estimates of P g and ecosystem respiration (R e ) were obtained using Bowen ratio– energy-balance measurements of CO2 exchange in a true-steppe ecosystem in northern Kazakhstan during four growing seasons (1998–2001). The maximum mean weekly apparent quantum yield (αmax) was 0.0388 mol CO2 mol photons and the maximum mean weekly P g was 28 g CO2/m2/day in July 2000. The highest mean weekly R e max (20 g CO2m2/day) was observed in July of both 1999 and 2000. Nighttime respiration calculated from daily respiration corrected for length of the dark period and temperature (using Q 10 = 2) was closely associated with measured nighttime respiration (R 2 = 0.67 to 0.93). The 4-year average annual gross primary production (GPP) was 1617 g CO2/m2/ year (range = 1308–1957). Ten-day normalized difference vegetation index corrected for the start of the season (NDVIsos) was closely associated with 10-day average P g (R 2 = 0.66 to 0.83), which was higher than R 2 values for regressions of mean 10-day net daytime fluxes on NDVIsos (0.55–0.72). This demonstrates the advantage of usingP g in scaling up flux-tower measurements compared to other characteristics (net daytime flux or net 24-h flux).

  7. Comparison of Gross Primary Productivity Derived from GIMMS NDVI3g, GIMMS, and MODIS in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbang Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP plays an important role in the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. It is particularly important to monitor GPP in Southeast Asia because of increasing rates of tropical forest degradation and deforestation in the region in recent decades. The newly available, improved, third generation Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g from the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS group provides a long temporal dataset, from July 1981 to December 2011, for terrestrial carbon cycle and climate response research. However, GIMMS NDVI3g-based GPP estimates are not yet available. We applied the GLOPEM-CEVSA model, which integrates an ecosystem process model and a production efficiency model, to estimate GPP in Southeast Asia based on three independent results of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR from GIMMS NDVI3g (GPPNDVI3g, GIMMS NDVI1g (GPPNDVI1g, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS MOD15A2 FPAR product (GPPMOD15. The GPP results were validated using ground data from eddy flux towers located in different forest biomes, and comparisons were made among the three GPPs as well as the MOD17A2 GPP products (GPPMOD17. Based on validation with flux tower derived GPP estimates the results show that GPPNDVI3g is more accurate than GPPNDVI1g and is comparable in accuracy with GPPMOD15. In addition, GPPNDVI3g and GPPMOD15 have good spatial-temporal consistency. Our results indicate that GIMMS NDVI3g is an effective dataset for regional GPP simulation in Southeast Asia, capable of accurately tracking the variation and trends in long-term terrestrial ecosystem GPP dynamics.

  8. Testing the applicability of BIOME-BGC to simulate beech gross primary production in Europe using a new continental weather dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiesi, Marta; Chirici, Gherardo; Marchetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A daily 1-km Pan-European weather dataset can drive the BIOME-BGC model for the estimation of current and future beech gross primary production (GPP). Annual beech GPP is affected primarily by spring temperature and more irregularly by summer water stress.The spread of beech forests in Europe enh...

  9. Modeling gross primary production of a temperate grassland ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, China, using MODIS imagery and climate data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU WeiXing; WANG ShaoQiang; XIAO XiangMing; YU GuiRui; FU YuLing; HAO YanBin

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fluxes in temperate grassland ecosystems are characterized by large inter-annual variations due to fluctuations in precipitation and land water availability. Since an eddy flux tower has been in operation in the Xilin Gol grassland, which belongs to typical temperate grassland in North China, in this study, observed eddy covariance flux data were used to critically evaluate the biophysical performance of different remote sensing vegetation indices in relation to carbon fluxes. Furthermore,vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM) was introduced to estimate gross primary production (GPP+) of the grassland ecosystem for assessing its dependability. As defined by the input variables of VPM,Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradimeter (MODIS) and standard data product MOD09A1 were downloaded for calculating enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and land surface water index (LSWl).Measured air temperature (Ta) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) data were also included for model simulating. Field CO2 flux data, during the period from May, 2003 to September, 2005, were used to estimate the "observed" GPP (GPPobs) for validation. The seasonal dynamics of GPP predicted from VPM (GPPVPM) was compared quite well (R2=0.903, N=111, p<0.0001) with the observed GPP. The aggregate GPPVPM for the study period was 641.5 g C·m-2, representing a ~6% over-estimation, compared with GPPobs. Additionally, GPP predicted from other two typical production efficiency model (PEM)represents either higher overestimation or lower underestimation to GPPobs. Results of this study demonstrate that VPM has potential for estimating site-level or regional grassland GPP, and might be an effective tool for scaling-up carbon fluxes.

  10. New global observations of the terrestrial carbon cycle from GOSAT: Patterns of plant fluorescence with gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Christian; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Badgley, Grayson; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Lee, Jung-Eun; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Butz, André; Jung, Martin; Kuze, Akihiko; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2011-09-01

    Our ability to close the Earth's carbon budget and predict feedbacks in a warming climate depends critically on knowing where, when and how carbon dioxide is exchanged between the land and atmosphere. Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) constitutes the largest flux component in the global carbon budget, however significant uncertainties remain in GPP estimates and its seasonality. Empirically, we show that global spaceborne observations of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence - occurring during photosynthesis - exhibit a strong linear correlation with GPP. We found that the fluorescence emission even without any additional climatic or model information has the same or better predictive skill in estimating GPP as those derived from traditional remotely-sensed vegetation indices using ancillary data and model assumptions. In boreal summer the generally strong linear correlation between fluorescence and GPP models weakens, attributable to discrepancies in savannas/croplands (18-48% higher fluorescence-based GPP derived by simple linear scaling), and high-latitude needleleaf forests (28-32% lower fluorescence). Our results demonstrate that retrievals of chlorophyll fluorescence provide direct global observational constraints for GPP and open an entirely new viewpoint on the global carbon cycle. We anticipate that global fluorescence data in combination with consolidated plant physiological fluorescence models will be a step-change in carbon cycle research and enable an unprecedented robustness in the understanding of the current and future carbon cycle.

  11. Precipitation and Carbon-Water Coupling Jointly Control the Interannual Variability of Global Land Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Guanter, Luis; Zhou, Sha; Ciais, Philippe; Joiner, Joanna; Sitch, Stephen; Wu, Xiaocui; Nabel, Julian; Dong, Jinwei; Kato, Etsushi; Jain, Atul K.; Wiltshire, Andy; Stocker, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is increasing along with the rising of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Embedded in this trend, recent studies suggested that the interannual variability (IAV) of global carbon fluxes may be dominated by semi-arid ecosystems, but the underlying mechanisms of this high variability in these specific regions are not well known. Here we derive an ensemble of gross primary production (GPP) estimates using the average of three data-driven models and eleven process-based models. These models are weighted by their spatial representativeness of the satellite-based solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF). We then use this weighted GPP ensemble to investigate the GPP variability for different aridity regimes. We show that semi-arid regions contribute to 57% of the detrended IAV of global GPP. Moreover, in regions with higher GPP variability, GPP fluctuations are mostly controlled by precipitation and strongly coupled with evapotranspiration (ET). This higher GPP IAV in semi-arid regions is co-limited by supply (precipitation)-induced ET variability and GPP-ET coupling strength. Our results demonstrate the importance of semi-arid regions to the global terrestrial carbon cycle and posit that there will be larger GPP and ET variations in the future with changes in precipitation patterns and dryland expansion.

  12. Estimating of gross primary production in an Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest using MODIS and Landsat imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danelichen, Victor H M; Biudes, Marcelo S; Velasque, Maísa C S; Machado, Nadja G; Gomes, Raphael S R; Vourlitis, George L; Nogueira, José S

    2015-09-01

    The acceleration of the anthropogenic activity has increased the atmospheric carbon concentration, which causes changes in regional climate. The Gross Primary Production (GPP) is an important variable in the global carbon cycle studies, since it defines the atmospheric carbon extraction rate from terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) using local meteorological data and remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat 5 TM reflectance from 2005 to 2008. The GPP was estimated using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) calculated by MODIS and Landsat 5 TM images. The GPP estimates were compared with measurements in a flux tower by eddy covariance. The GPP measured in the tower was consistent with higher values during the wet season and there was a trend to increase from 2005 to 2008. The GPP estimated by VPM showed the same increasing trend observed in measured GPP and had high correlation and Willmott's coefficient and low error metrics in comparison to measured GPP. These results indicated high potential of the Landsat 5 TM images to estimate the GPP of Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by VPM.

  13. Precipitation and carbon-water coupling jointly control the interannual variability of global land gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Guanter, Luis; Zhou, Sha; Ciais, Philippe; Joiner, Joanna; Sitch, Stephen; Wu, Xiaocui; Nabel, Julia; Dong, Jinwei; Kato, Etsushi; Jain, Atul K.; Wiltshire, Andy; Stocker, Benjamin D.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is increasing along with the rising of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Embedded in this trend, recent studies suggested that the interannual variability (IAV) of global carbon fluxes may be dominated by semi-arid ecosystems, but the underlying mechanisms of this high variability in these specific regions are not well known. Here we derive an ensemble of gross primary production (GPP) estimates using the average of three data-driven models and eleven process-based models. These models are weighted by their spatial representativeness of the satellite-based solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF). We then use this weighted GPP ensemble to investigate the GPP variability for different aridity regimes. We show that semi-arid regions contribute to 57% of the detrended IAV of global GPP. Moreover, in regions with higher GPP variability, GPP fluctuations are mostly controlled by precipitation and strongly coupled with evapotranspiration (ET). This higher GPP IAV in semi-arid regions is co-limited by supply (precipitation)-induced ET variability and GPP-ET coupling strength. Our results demonstrate the importance of semi-arid regions to the global terrestrial carbon cycle and posit that there will be larger GPP and ET variations in the future with changes in precipitation patterns and dryland expansion.

  14. Looking for non-linear relation evidences between Brazilian gross domestic product (GDP) and fixed capital stock (K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, A.; Guerra, S. M. G.; Sauer, I. L.

    2004-02-01

    This paper deals with the epistemologic problem of searching for experimental evidences of a particular economic model theory. The difficulties of such tasks are well-known due to the peculiarities of the economic system, mainly related to the non-repetitiousness of experiments. Thus, indirect evidence and other related parameter correlations must be looked for. In the present case, a Brazilian macroeconomic historical data set is analysed and some particular phenomena relating correlation between gross domestic production (GDP), fixed capital stock and electricity consumption (EC) and their respectives elasticities are presented. Developed countries, in general, present different behaviour of these variables, compared to emerging economies, not only from the point of view of absolute value aspect, but also from the point of view internal dynamic interaction process. The celebrated correlation between EC and GDP, easily verified in the data of developed countries, becomes actually a myth for the emerging countries. However, this “bad” result could be an evidence of a model proposed by the authors.

  15. Multivariate time series analysis on the dynamic relationship between Class B notifiable diseases and gross domestic product (GDP) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Yin, Fei; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Xing-Yu; Li, Xiao-Song

    2016-12-23

    The surveillance of infectious diseases is of great importance for disease control and prevention, and more attention should be paid to the Class B notifiable diseases in China. Meanwhile, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the annual growth of Chinese gross domestic product (GDP) would decelerate below 7% after many years of soaring. Under such circumstances, this study aimed to answer what will happen to the incidence rates of infectious diseases in China if Chinese GDP growth remained below 7% in the next five years. Firstly, time plots and cross-correlation matrices were presented to illustrate the characteristics of data. Then, the multivariate time series (MTS) models were proposed to explore the dynamic relationship between incidence rates and GDP. Three kinds of MTS models, i.e., vector auto-regressive (VAR) model for original series, VAR model for differenced series and error-correction model (ECM), were considered in this study. The rank of error-correction term was taken as an indicator for model selection. Finally, our results suggested that four kinds of infectious diseases (epidemic hemorrhagic fever, pertussis, scarlet fever and syphilis) might need attention in China because their incidence rates have increased since the year 2010.

  16. Estimating of gross primary production in an Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest using MODIS and Landsat imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR H.M. DANELICHEN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration of the anthropogenic activity has increased the atmospheric carbon concentration, which causes changes in regional climate. The Gross Primary Production (GPP is an important variable in the global carbon cycle studies, since it defines the atmospheric carbon extraction rate from terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM using local meteorological data and remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat 5 TM reflectance from 2005 to 2008. The GPP was estimated using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI calculated by MODIS and Landsat 5 TM images. The GPP estimates were compared with measurements in a flux tower by eddy covariance. The GPP measured in the tower was consistent with higher values during the wet season and there was a trend to increase from 2005 to 2008. The GPP estimated by VPM showed the same increasing trend observed in measured GPP and had high correlation and Willmott's coefficient and low error metrics in comparison to measured GPP. These results indicated high potential of the Landsat 5 TM images to estimate the GPP of Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by VPM.

  17. Tree-grass phenology information improves light use efficiency modelling of gross primary productivity for an Australian tropical savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Caitlin E.; Beringer, Jason; Evans, Bradley; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Tapper, Nigel J.

    2017-01-01

    The coexistence of trees and grasses in savanna ecosystems results in marked phenological dynamics that vary spatially and temporally with climate. Australian savannas comprise a complex variety of life forms and phenologies, from evergreen trees to annual/perennial grasses, producing a boom-bust seasonal pattern of productivity that follows the wet-dry seasonal rainfall cycle. As the climate changes into the 21st century, modification to rainfall and temperature regimes in savannas is highly likely. There is a need to link phenology cycles of different species with productivity to understand how the tree-grass relationship may shift in response to climate change. This study investigated the relationship between productivity and phenology for trees and grasses in an Australian tropical savanna. Productivity, estimated from overstory (tree) and understory (grass) eddy covariance flux tower estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP), was compared against 2 years of repeat time-lapse digital photography (phenocams). We explored the phenology-productivity relationship at the ecosystem scale using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices and flux tower GPP. These data were obtained from the Howard Springs OzFlux/Fluxnet site (AU-How) in northern Australia. Two greenness indices were calculated from the phenocam images: the green chromatic coordinate (GCC) and excess green index (ExG). These indices captured the temporal dynamics of the understory (grass) and overstory (trees) phenology and were correlated well with tower GPP for understory (r2 = 0.65 to 0.72) but less so for the overstory (r2 = 0.14 to 0.23). The MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) correlated well with GPP at the ecosystem scale (r2 = 0.70). Lastly, we used GCC and EVI to parameterise a light use efficiency (LUE) model and found it to improve the estimates of GPP for the overstory, understory and ecosystem. We conclude that phenology is an important parameter to

  18. Effects of the partitioning of diffuse and direct solar radiation on satellite-based modeling of crop gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qinchuan; Gong, Peng; Suyker, Andrew E.; Si, Yali

    2016-08-01

    Modeling crop gross primary production (GPP) is critical to understanding the carbon dynamics of agro-ecosystems. Satellite-based studies have widely used production efficiency models (PEM) to estimate cropland GPP, wherein light use efficiency (LUE) is a key model parameter. One factor that has not been well considered in many PEMs is that canopy LUE could vary with illumination conditions. This study investigates how the partitioning of diffuse and direct solar radiation influences cropland GPP using both flux tower and satellite data. The field-measured hourly LUE under cloudy conditions was 1.50 and 1.70 times higher than that under near clear-sky conditions for irrigated corn and soybean, respectively. We applied a two-leaf model to simulate the canopy radiative transfer process, where modeled photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by canopy agreed with tower measurements (R2 = 0.959 and 0.914 for corn and soybean, respectively). Derived canopy LUE became similar after accounting for the impact of light saturation on leaf photosynthetic capacity under varied illumination conditions. The impacts of solar radiation partitioning on satellite-based modeling of crop GPP was examined using vegetation indices (VI) derived from MODIS data. Consistent with the field modeling results, the relationship between daily GPP and PAR × VI under varied illumination conditions showed different patterns in terms of regression slope and intercept. We proposed a function to correct the influences of direct and diffuse radiation partitioning and the explained variance of flux tower GPP increased in all experiments. Our results suggest that the non-linear response of leaf photosynthesis to light absorption contributes to higher canopy LUE on cloudy days than on clear days. We conclude that accounting for the impacts of solar radiation partitioning is necessary for modeling crop GPP on a daily or shorter basis.

  19. Analysis of El Niño-Southern Oscillation Phenomena's Effect on the Gross Domestic Product of Western Pacific Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M.; Lewis, A.; Mezzafonte, D.

    2014-12-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climatological phenomenon that occurs in the tropical Pacific Ocean which has a direct influence on the climate of western Pacific nations. This study evaluated the meteorological effects of ENSO on the economies of Indonesia and the Philippines. It was hypothesized that decreased precipitation in the western Tropical Pacific region during El Niño events causes decreases in agricultural production in the region resulting in a negative effect on a nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Furthermore, during La Niña events, when precipitation increases, an increase in the nation's agricultural GDP and overall GDP is expected. Annual GDP data were obtained from the World Bank and the Bank of Indonesia for 1960-2012. Sea surface temperatures (SST) data, in the Niño 3.4 region, were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climate Data Center. Data of the agricultural and total GDP of Indonesia and the Philippines had inconclusive correlations with ENSO signal data. By examining data between smaller time segments of the overall 1960-2012 timeframe, more conclusive results could not be discerned. Indonesia's quarterly non-oil GDP for 2000-2009 was independently correlated with ENSO providing better insight on the variables' relationship during discrete ENSO phenomena. The results provided strong correlation coefficients of 0.831 and 0.624 in support of the antithesis as well as -0.421 in support of the hypothesis. An economic anomaly known as the East Asian Financial Crisis may have been the cause of the unexpected correlations however more data is needed to be certain. Overall, the results demonstrated weak to moderate correlations between studied variables. However, more data is needed to reach substantial conclusions.

  20. Green light: gross primary production influences seasonal stream N export by controlling fine-scale temporal N dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, S.; Lupon, A.; Sabater, F.; Martí Roca, E.

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of in-stream processes to nitrogen (N) exports remains unclear because stream water chemistry integrates biogeochemical processes occurring at different spatial and temporal scales within upland, riparian and aquatic ecosystems. Monitoring nutrient concentrations at fine-scale temporal resolution can provide insights on in-stream N processing. Yet, the mechanisms underlying fine-scale temporal nutrient dynamics and their implications for flux budgets at catchment scale are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated patterns and controls of diel variation in stream nitrate (NO3-) concentration and the influence of these on N fluxes along a stream continuum with increasing riparian area and channel width. We tested two alternative hypotheses: that diel variation in stream NO3- concentration is driven (a) by stream metabolism, or (b) by riparian groundwater inputs. Although productivity in this stream was extremely low, patterns of diel variation in stream NO3- concentration emerged in early-spring and they were highly correlated with the daily regime of irradiance and gross primary production (GPP). In addition, diel NO3- patterns agreed with those predicted from GPP and biofilm C:N ratios, but not with diel variations predicted from changes in riparian groundwater inputs. These results point at in-stream photoautotrophic N uptake as the most likely driver of diel fluctuations in stream NO3- concentration. From a network perspective, the occurrence of diel variations in stream NO3- concentration, and thus their influence on stream N fluxes, increased along the stream continuum likely because of increases in light inputs and water temperature. This study evidences that monitoring of nutrient concentrations at fine-scale temporal resolution can provide mechanistic explanations about the relevance of in-stream and terrestrial processes on regulating stream N dynamics and their contribution to N export at catchment scale.

  1. Exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS), a potential tracer of gross primary productivity, between grassland ecosystem components and the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, M.; Rhew, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, measurements of carbonyl sulfide (COS) exchange have been used as an independent constraint for estimates of gross primary productivity over terrestrial ecosystems and continents. CO2 is both taken up and released by plants, whereas COS is usually only consumed and at a predictable ratio to CO2. Most of the underlying theoretical assumptions of this method have been verified, however the problem of parsing leaf exchange from other terrestrial sources and sinks of COS is still under investigation. In ecosystems that experience distinct periods of growing and senescence, it is possible to assess COS fluxes in situ when no green plants are present and compare to measurements during the growing season. Taking advantage of this seasonal pattern, we have investigated COS exchange from March 2012 to March 2013 in a Mediterranean grassland outside of Santa Cruz, CA, U.S.A (37.0°N, 122°W). Through lab-based incubation experiments, we found that net COS uptake of grassland soil can be reduced by increased soil moisture. We evaluated this claim in the field with monthly field deployments of static flux chambers over the in-tact soil and plant system. In the dry summer, artificial rain amendments caused COS net uptake to decrease, sometimes leading to overall net production to the atmosphere, in agreement with lab experiments. During the wet growing season, water additions caused over 2x increase in COS uptake from the atmosphere. Contrary to what has been previously claimed, soil exchange of COS is not negligible in grassland ecosystems.

  2. Disparities in rheumatoid arthritis disease activity according to gross domestic product in 25 countries in the QUEST–RA database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokka, T; Kautiainen, H; Pincus, T; Toloza, S; da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, G; Lazovskis, J; Hetland, M L; Peets, T; Immonen, K; Maillefert, J F; Drosos, A A; Alten, R; Pohl, C; Rojkovich, B; Bresnihan, B; Minnock, P; Cazzato, M; Bombardieri, S; Rexhepi, S; Rexhepi, M; Andersone, D; Stropuviene, S; Huisman, M; Sierakowski, S; Karateev, D; Skakic, V; Naranjo, A; Baecklund, E; Henrohn, D; Gogus, F; Badsha, H; Mofti, A; Taylor, P; McClinton, C; Yazici, Y

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyse associations between the clinical status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the gross domestic product (GDP) of their resident country. Methods: The Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (QUEST–RA) cohort includes clinical and questionnaire data from 6004 patients who were seen in usual care at 70 rheumatology clinics in 25 countries as of April 2008, including 18 European countries. Demographic variables, clinical characteristics, RA disease activity measures, including the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28), and treatment-related variables were analysed according to GDP per capita, including 14 “high GDP” countries with GDP per capita greater than US$24 000 and 11 “low GDP” countries with GDP per capita less than US$11 000. Results: Disease activity DAS28 ranged between 3.1 and 6.0 among the 25 countries and was significantly associated with GDP (r  =  −0.78, 95% CI −0.56 to −0.90, r2  =  61%). Disease activity levels differed substantially between “high GDP” and “low GDP” countries at much greater levels than according to whether patients were currently taking or not taking methotrexate, prednisone and/or biological agents. Conclusions: The clinical status of patients with RA was correlated significantly with GDP among 25 mostly European countries according to all disease measures, associated only modestly with the current use of antirheumatic medications. The burden of arthritis appears substantially greater in “low GDP” than in “high GDP” countries. These findings may alert healthcare professionals and designers of health policy towards improving the clinical status of patients with RA in all countries. PMID:19643759

  3. Deriving a light use efficiency model from eddy covariance flux data for predicting daily gross primary production across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Liu, S.; Zhou, G.; Tieszen, L.L.; Baldocchi, D.; Bernhofer, C.; Gholz, H.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Goulden, M.L.; Hollinger, D.Y.; Hu, Y.; Law, B.E.; Stoy, Paul C.; Vesala, T.; Wofsy, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales has been a major challenge in quantifying the global carbon cycle. We developed a light use efficiency (LUE) daily GPP model from eddy covariance (EC) measurements. The model, called EC-LUE, is driven by only four variables: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature, and the Bowen ratio of sensible to latent heat flux (used to calculate moisture stress). The EC-LUE model relies on two assumptions: First, that the fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a linear function of NDVI; Second, that the realized light use efficiency, calculated from a biome-independent invariant potential LUE, is controlled by air temperature or soil moisture, whichever is most limiting. The EC-LUE model was calibrated and validated using 24,349 daily GPP estimates derived from 28 eddy covariance flux towers from the AmeriFlux and EuroFlux networks, covering a variety of forests, grasslands and savannas. The model explained 85% and 77% of the observed variations of daily GPP for all the calibration and validation sites, respectively. A comparison with GPP calculated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) indicated that the EC-LUE model predicted GPP that better matched tower data across these sites. The realized LUE was predominantly controlled by moisture conditions throughout the growing season, and controlled by temperature only at the beginning and end of the growing season. The EC-LUE model is an alternative approach that makes it possible to map daily GPP over large areas because (1) the potential LUE is invariant across various land cover types and (2) all driving forces of the model can be derived from remote sensing data or existing climate observation networks.

  4. Climate-driven uncertainties in modeling terrestrial gross primary production: a site level to global-scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Rahul; Jain, Atul K; Liang, Miaoling

    2014-05-01

    We used a land surface model to quantify the causes and extents of biases in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) due to the use of meteorological reanalysis datasets. We first calibrated the model using meteorology and eddy covariance data from 25 flux tower sites ranging from the tropics to the northern high latitudes and subsequently repeated the site simulations using two reanalysis datasets: NCEP/NCAR and CRUNCEP. The results show that at most sites, the reanalysis-driven GPP bias was significantly positive with respect to the observed meteorology-driven simulations. Notably, the absolute GPP bias was highest at the tropical evergreen tree sites, averaging up to ca. 0.45 kg C m(-2)  yr(-1) across sites (ca. 15% of site level GPP). At the northern mid-/high-latitude broadleaf deciduous and the needleleaf evergreen tree sites, the corresponding annual GPP biases were up to 20%. For the nontree sites, average annual biases of up to ca. 20-30% were simulated within savanna, grassland, and shrubland vegetation types. At the tree sites, the biases in short-wave radiation and humidity strongly influenced the GPP biases, while the nontree sites were more affected by biases in factors controlling water stress (precipitation, humidity, and air temperature). In this study, we also discuss the influence of seasonal patterns of meteorological biases on GPP. Finally, using model simulations for the global land surface, we discuss the potential impacts of site-level reanalysis-driven biases on the global estimates of GPP. In a broader context, our results can have important consequences on other terrestrial ecosystem fluxes (e.g., net primary production, net ecosystem production, energy/water fluxes) and reservoirs (e.g., soil carbon stocks). In a complementary study (Barman et al., ), we extend the present analysis for latent and sensible heat fluxes, thus consistently integrating the analysis of climate-driven uncertainties in carbon, energy, and water fluxes

  5. Diagnosing the Dynamics of Observed and Simulated Ecosystem Gross Primary Productivity with Time Causal Information Theory Quantifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Sebastian; Lange, Holger; Mahecha, Miguel D; Hauhs, Michael; Bodesheim, Paul; Kaminski, Thomas; Gans, Fabian; Rosso, Osvaldo A

    2016-01-01

    Data analysis and model-data comparisons in the environmental sciences require diagnostic measures that quantify time series dynamics and structure, and are robust to noise in observational data. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics of environmental time series using measures quantifying their information content and complexity. The measures are used to classify natural processes on one hand, and to compare models with observations on the other. The present analysis focuses on the global carbon cycle as an area of research in which model-data integration and comparisons are key to improving our understanding of natural phenomena. We investigate the dynamics of observed and simulated time series of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), a key variable in terrestrial ecosystems that quantifies ecosystem carbon uptake. However, the dynamics, patterns and magnitudes of GPP time series, both observed and simulated, vary substantially on different temporal and spatial scales. We demonstrate here that information content and complexity, or Information Theory Quantifiers (ITQ) for short, serve as robust and efficient data-analytical and model benchmarking tools for evaluating the temporal structure and dynamical properties of simulated or observed time series at various spatial scales. At continental scale, we compare GPP time series simulated with two models and an observations-based product. This analysis reveals qualitative differences between model evaluation based on ITQ compared to traditional model performance metrics, indicating that good model performance in terms of absolute or relative error does not imply that the dynamics of the observations is captured well. Furthermore, we show, using an ensemble of site-scale measurements obtained from the FLUXNET archive in the Mediterranean, that model-data or model-model mismatches as indicated by ITQ can be attributed to and interpreted as differences in the temporal structure of the respective ecological time

  6. Diagnosing the Dynamics of Observed and Simulated Ecosystem Gross Primary Productivity with Time Causal Information Theory Quantifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Sebastian; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Hauhs, Michael; Bodesheim, Paul; Kaminski, Thomas; Gans, Fabian; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2016-01-01

    Data analysis and model-data comparisons in the environmental sciences require diagnostic measures that quantify time series dynamics and structure, and are robust to noise in observational data. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics of environmental time series using measures quantifying their information content and complexity. The measures are used to classify natural processes on one hand, and to compare models with observations on the other. The present analysis focuses on the global carbon cycle as an area of research in which model-data integration and comparisons are key to improving our understanding of natural phenomena. We investigate the dynamics of observed and simulated time series of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), a key variable in terrestrial ecosystems that quantifies ecosystem carbon uptake. However, the dynamics, patterns and magnitudes of GPP time series, both observed and simulated, vary substantially on different temporal and spatial scales. We demonstrate here that information content and complexity, or Information Theory Quantifiers (ITQ) for short, serve as robust and efficient data-analytical and model benchmarking tools for evaluating the temporal structure and dynamical properties of simulated or observed time series at various spatial scales. At continental scale, we compare GPP time series simulated with two models and an observations-based product. This analysis reveals qualitative differences between model evaluation based on ITQ compared to traditional model performance metrics, indicating that good model performance in terms of absolute or relative error does not imply that the dynamics of the observations is captured well. Furthermore, we show, using an ensemble of site-scale measurements obtained from the FLUXNET archive in the Mediterranean, that model-data or model-model mismatches as indicated by ITQ can be attributed to and interpreted as differences in the temporal structure of the respective ecological time

  7. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  8. Gross primary production dynamics assessment of a mediterranean holm oak forest by remote sensing time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuéndez, Víctor; Huesca, Margarita; Rodriguez-Rastrero, Manuel; Litago, Javier; Recuero, Laura; Merino de Miguel, Silvia; Palacios Orueta, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    Agroforestry ecosystems have a significant social, economic and environmental impact on the development of many regions of the world. In the Iberian Peninsula the agroforestry oak forest called "Dehesa" or "Montado" is considered as the extreme case of transformation of a Mediterranean forest by the management of human to provide a wide range of natural resources. The high variability of the Mediterranean climate and the different extensive management practices which human realized on the Dehesa result in a high spatial and temporal dynamics of the ecosystem. This leads to a complex pattern in CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and the ecosystem, i.e. in ecosystem's production. Thus, it is essential to assess Dehesa's carbon cycle to reach maximum economic benefits ensuring environmental sustainability. In this sense, the availability of high frequency Remote Sensing (RS) time series allows the assessment of ecosystem evolution at different temporal and spatial scales. Extensive research has been conducted to estimate production from RS data in different ecosystems. However, there are few studies on the Dehesa type ecosystems, probably due to their complexity in terms of spatial arrangement and temporal dynamics. In this study our overall objective is to assess the Gross Primary Production (GPP) dynamics of a Dehesa ecosystem situated in Central Spain by analyzing time series (2004-2008) of two models: (1) GPP provided by Remote Sensing Images of sensor MODIS (MOD17A2 product) and (2) GPP estimated by the implementation of a Site Specific Light Use Efficiency model based as MODIS model on Monteith equation (1972), but taking into account local ecological and meteorological parameters. Both models have been compared with the Production provided by an Eddy Covariance (EC) flux Tower that is located in our study area. In addition, dynamic relationships between models of GPP with Precipitation and Soil Water Content have been investigated by means of cross

  9. Combining high-resolution gross domestic product data with home and personal care product market research data to generate a subnational emission inventory for Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Juliet Elizabeth Natasha; Vamshi, Raghu; Holmes, Christopher; Rowson, Matthew; Miah, Taqmina; Price, Oliver Richard

    2014-04-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is reliant on good estimates of product usage information and robust exposure models. Over the past 20 to 30 years, much progress has been made with the development of exposure models that simulate the transport and distribution of chemicals in the environment. However, little progress has been made in our ability to estimate chemical emissions of home and personal care (HPC) products. In this project, we have developed an approach to estimate subnational emission inventory of chemical ingredients used in HPC products for 12 Asian countries including Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam (Asia-12). To develop this inventory, we have coupled a 1 km grid of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) estimates with market research data of HPC product sales. We explore the necessity of accounting for a population's ability to purchase HPC products in determining their subnational distribution in regions where wealth is not uniform. The implications of using high resolution data on inter- and intracountry subnational emission estimates for a range of hypothetical and actual HPC product types were explored. It was demonstrated that for low value products (500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the implications on emissions being assigned to subnational regions can vary by several orders of magnitude. The implications of this on conducting national or regional level risk assessments may be significant. Further work is needed to explore the implications of this variability in HPC emissions to enable the HPC industry and/or governments to advance risk-based chemical management policies in emerging markets. © 2013 SETAC.

  10. Global evaluation of gross primary productivity in the JULES land surface model v3.4.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Slevin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the ability of the JULES land surface model (LSM to simulate gross primary productivity (GPP on regional and global scales for 2001–2010. Model simulations, performed at various spatial resolutions and driven with a variety of meteorological datasets (WFDEI-GPCC, WFDEI-CRU and PRINCETON, were compared to the MODIS GPP product, spatially gridded estimates of upscaled GPP from the FLUXNET network (FLUXNET-MTE and the CARDAMOM terrestrial carbon cycle analysis. Firstly, when JULES was driven with the WFDEI-GPCC dataset (at 0. 5° × 0. 5° spatial resolution, the annual average global GPP simulated by JULES for 2001–2010 was higher than the observation-based estimates (MODIS and FLUXNET-MTE, by 25 and 8 %, respectively, and CARDAMOM estimates by 23 %. JULES was able to simulate the standard deviation of monthly GPP fluxes compared to CARDAMOM and the observation-based estimates on global scales. Secondly, GPP simulated by JULES for various biomes (forests, grasslands and shrubs on global and regional scales were compared. Differences among JULES, MODIS, FLUXNET-MTE and CARDAMOM on global scales were due to differences in simulated GPP in the tropics. Thirdly, it was shown that spatial resolution (0. 5° × 0. 5°, 1° × 1° and 2° × 2° had little impact on simulated GPP on these large scales, with global GPP ranging from 140 to 142 PgC year−1. Finally, the sensitivity of JULES to meteorological driving data, a major source of model uncertainty, was examined. Estimates of annual average global GPP were higher when JULES was driven with the PRINCETON meteorological dataset than when driven with the WFDEI-GPCC dataset by 3 PgC year−1. On regional scales, differences between the two were observed, with the WFDEI-GPCC-driven model simulations estimating higher GPP in the tropics (5° N–5° S and the PRINCETON-driven model simulations estimating higher GPP in the extratropics (30

  11. Improvement of satellite-based gross primary production through incorporation of high resolution input data over east asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haemi; Im, Jungho; Kim, Miae

    2016-04-01

    Photosynthesis of plants is the main mechanism of carbon absorption from the atmosphere into the terrestrial ecosystem and it contributes to remove greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Annually, 120 Gt of C is supposed to be assimilated through photosynthetic activity of plants as the gross primary production (GPP) over global land area. In terms of climate change, GPP modelling is essential to understand carbon cycle and the balance of carbon budget over various ecosystems. One of the GPP modelling approaches uses light use efficiency that each vegetation type has a specific efficiency for consuming solar radiation related with temperature and humidity. Satellite data can be used to measure various meteorological and biophysical factors over vast areas, which can be used to quantify GPP. NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program provides Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived global GPP product, namely MOD17A2H, on a daily basis. However, significant underestimation of MOD17A2H has been reported in Eastern Asia due to its dense forest distribution and humid condition during monsoon rainy season in summer. The objective of this study was to improve underestimation of MODIS GPP (MOD17A2H) by incorporating meteorological data-temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation-of higher spatial resolution than data used in MOD17A2H. Landsat-based land cover maps of finer resolution observation and monitoring - global land cover (FROM-GLC) at 30m resolution were used for selection of light use efficiency (LUE). GPP (eq1. GPP = APAR×LUE) is computed by multiplication of APAR (IPAR×fPAR) and LUE (ɛ= ɛmax×T(°C)scalar×VPD(Pa)scalar, where, T is temperature, VPD is vapour pressure deficit) in this study. Meteorological data of Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55, 0.56° grid, 3hr) were used for calculation of GPP in East Asia, including Eastern part of China, Korean peninsula, and Japan. Results were validated using flux tower-observed GPP

  12. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  13. New global observations of the terrestrial carbon cycle from GOSAT: Patterns of vegetation fluorescence with gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, C.; Fisher, J. B.; Lee, J.; Guanter, L.; Van der Tol, C.; Toon, G. C.; kuze, A.; Yokota, T.; Badgley, G. M.; Butz, A.; Jung, M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Worden, J.

    2011-12-01

    Our ability to close the Earth's carbon budget and predict feedbacks in a warming climate depends critically on knowing where, when and how carbon dioxide is exchanged between the land and atmosphere. Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) constitutes the largest flux component in the global carbon budget, however significant uncertainties remain in GPP estimates and its seasonality. Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is a powerful proxy for assessing biomass photosynthetic activity since photosynthesis and fluorescence are directly coupled processes. This gives rise to re-emission of light between approximately 670 and 780 nm. Passive methods to quantify the fluorescence signal are mainly based on the filling-in of highly saturated O2 absorption structures. This method, however, was mostly applied in field-based measurements and is not directly applicable to space-borne retrievals. We show that variability of aerosols in the atmosphere load and surface pressure cannot be unequivocally disentangled from fluorescence since all these factor impact the absorption depths of O2 lines. This gives rise to biases in the retrieved scattering properties in typical multi-spectral XCO2 retrievals when using the O2 A band but not when focussing solely of solar Fraunhofer lines. We will a) present our retrieval method based on an iterative, non-linear least-squares fitting of Fraunhofer lines, b) discuss the potential impact on XCO2 retrievals and c) show recent fluorescence results from more than one year of GOSAT data. Empirically, we show that global spaceborne observations of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence exhibit a strong linear correlation with GPP. We found that the fluorescence emission even without any additional meteorological, vegetation type or model information has the same or better predictive skill in estimating GPP as those derived from traditional remotely-sensed vegetation indices using ancillary data and model assumptions. Our results

  14. Integrating Chlorophyll fapar and Nadir Photochemical Reflectance Index from EO-1/Hyperion to Predict Cornfield Daily Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Cook, Bruce D.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Kustas, William P.; Russ, Andrew L.; Prueger, John H.; Yao, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The concept of light use efficiency (Epsilon) and the concept of fraction of photosynthetically active ration (PAR) absorbed for vegetation photosynthesis (PSN), i.e., fAPAR (sub PSN), have been widely utilized to estimate vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP). It has been demonstrated that the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is empirically related to e. An experimental US Department of Agriculture (USDA) cornfield in Maryland was selected as our study field. We explored the potential of integrating fAPAR(sub chl) (defined as the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll) and nadir PRI (PRI(sub nadir)) to predict cornfield daily GPP. We acquired nadir or near-nadir EO-1/Hyperion satellite images that covered the cornfield and took nadir in-situ field spectral measurements. Those data were used to derive the PRI(sub nadir) and fAPAR (sub chl). The fAPAR (sub chl) is retrieved with the advanced radiative transfer model PROSAIL2 and the Metropolis approach, a type of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation procedure. We define chlorophyll light use efficiency Epsilon (sub chl) as the ratio of vegetation GPP as measured by eddy covariance techniques to PAR absorbed by chlorophyll (Epsilon(sub chl) = GPP/APAR (sub chl). Daily Epsilon (sub chl) retrieved with the EO-1 Hyperion images was regressed with a linear equation of PRI (sub nadir) Epsilon (sub chl) = Alpha × PRI (sub nadir) + Beta). The satellite Epsilon(sub chl- PRI (sub nadir) linear relationship for the cornfield was implemented to develop an integrated daily GPP model [GPP = (Alpha × PRI(sub nadir) + Beta) × fAPAR (sub chl) × PAR], which was evaluated with fAPAR (sub chl) and PRI (sub nadir) retrieved from field measurements. Daily GPP estimated with this fAPAR (sub chl-) PRI (nadir) integration model was strongly correlated with the observed tower in-situ daily GPP (R(sup 2) = 0.93); with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.71 g C mol-(sup -1) PPFD and coefficient of variation (CV) of 16

  15. Gross Primary Production of a Wheat Canopy Relates Stronger to Far Red Than to Red Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Goulas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF is a radiation flux emitted by chlorophyll molecules in the red (RSIF and far red region (FRSIF, and is considered as a potential indicator of the functional state of photosynthesis in remote sensing applications. Recently, ground studies and space observations have demonstrated a strong empirical linear relationship between FRSIF and carbon uptake through photosynthesis (GPP, gross primary production. In this study, we investigated the potential of RSIF and FRSIF to represent the functional status of photosynthesis at canopy level on a wheat crop. RSIF and FRSIF were continuously measured in the O2-B (SIF687 and O2-A bands (SIF760 at a high frequency rate from a nadir view at a height of 21 m, simultaneously with carbon uptake using eddy covariance (EC techniques. The relative fluorescence yield (Fyield and the photochemical yield were acquired at leaf level using active fluorescence measurements. SIF was normalized with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR to derive apparent spectral fluorescence yields (ASFY687, ASFY760. At the diurnal scale, we found limited variations of ASFY687 and ASFY760 during sunny days. We also did not find any link between Fyield and light use efficiency (LUE derived from EC, which would prevent SIF from indicating LUE changes. The coefficient of determination ( r 2 of the linear regression between SIF and GPP is found to be highly variable, depending on the emission wavelength, the time scale of observation, sky conditions, and the phenological stage. Despite its photosystem II (PSII origin, SIF687 correlates less than SIF760 with GPP in any cases. The strongest SIF–GPP relationship was found for SIF760 during canopy growth. When canopy is in a steady state, SIF687 and SIF760 are almost as effective as PAR in predicting GPP. Our results imply some constraints in the use of simple linear relationships to infer GPP from SIF, as they are expected to be better predictive

  16. Belowground productivity of two cool desert communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, M M; Camp, L B

    1974-06-01

    A new technique based upon the dilution of C (14) /C (12) ratios in structural carbon of root systems during the course of the growing season was used to evaluate belowground turnover or productivity of two cool desert communities in northern Utah, USA. This technique provides a measure of turnover of the root system of established perennial plant communities avoiding many of the disadvantages of other techniques. Adjacent communities dominated by Atriplex confertifolia and Ceratoides lanata both exhibited belowground productivity values exceeding aboveground production by three-fold. The greater belowground turnover of the Atriplex-dominated community may be a factor contributing to the maintenance of a greater quantity of aboveground biomass and prolonged periods of active photosynthesis during the driest portions of the year when Ceratoides becomes largely photosynthetically inactive.

  17. Seasonal net and gross biological oxygen production in a temperate shelf sea from oxygen-argon-ratio and oxygen triple isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguro, Isabel; Marca, Alina; Kaiser, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Temperate shelf seas are major carbon sink areas. Quantifying accurately primary production is therefore essential to understand the shelf sea carbon pump and its role in the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Here we use high-resolution dissolved oxygen-to-argon (O2/Ar) ratios and oxygen triple isotopes (16O, 17O and 18O) to derive estimates of net and gross biological oxygen production in the Celtic Sea during the most productive seasons (spring, summer and autumn) in 2014-2015. O2/Ar ratios were measured continuously using a shipboard membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS). Additional discrete water samples obtained from CTD hydrocasts were used to measure O2/Ar depth profiles and the δ(17O) and δ(18O) values of dissolved O2. Calculations of net (N(O2/Ar)) and gross (G(17O)) oxygen fluxes showed higher values during the spring bloom and lowest during the autumn bloom. Continuous N(O2/Ar) underway measurement was on average (58±38) mmol m-2 d-1 and discrete G(17O) measurements was average (170±161) mmol m-2 d-1 during the spring bloom. Results from the summer cruise showed a peak in production just below the mixed layer. These peaks are not detectable by high coverage ocean colour satellite systems, typically used to calculate total annual production. Our results show primary production values at unprecedentedly high resolution in the shelf sea.

  18. The effect of simple nitrogen fertilizer recommendation strategies on product carbon footprint and gross margin of wheat and maize production in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nan; Feike, Til; Back, Hans; Xiao, Haifeng; Bahrs, Enno

    2015-11-01

    Overuse of nitrogen (N) fertilizer constitutes the major issue of current crop production in China, exerting a substantial effect on global warming through massive emission of greenhouse gas (GHG). Despite the ongoing effort, which includes the promotion of technologically sophisticated N management schemes, farmers' N rates maintain at excessive rates. Therefore the current study tests three simple and easily to apply N fertilizer recommendation strategies, which could be implemented on large scale through the existing agricultural advisory system of China, at comparatively low cost. Building on a detailed crop production dataset of 65 winter wheat (WW) and summer maize (SM) producing farm households of the North China Plain, scenario analysis is applied. The effects of the three N strategies under constant and changing yield levels on product carbon footprint (PCF) and gross margin (GM) are determined for the production condition of every individual farm household. The N fixed rate strategy realized the highest improvement potential in PCF and GM in WW; while the N coefficient strategy performed best in SM. The analysis furthermore revealed that improved N management has a significant positive effect on PCF, but only a marginal and insignificant effect on GM. On the other side, a potential 10% yield loss would have only a marginal effect on PCF, but a detrimental effect on farmers' income. With farmers currently applying excessive N rates as "cheap insurance" against potential N limitation, it will be of vital importance to avoid any yield reductions (caused by N limitation) and respective severe financial losses, when promoting and implementing advanced fertilization strategies. To achieve this, it is furthermore recommended to increase the price of fertilizer, improve the agricultural extensions system, and recognize farmers' fertilizer related decision-making processes as key research areas.

  19. Measured and modeled interactive effects of potassium deficiency and water deficit on gross primary productivity and light-use efficiency in Eucalyptus grandis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Mathias; Le Maire, Guerric; Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Nouvellon, Yann; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Jourdan, Christophe; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo; Laclau, Jean-Paul

    2015-05-01

    Global climate change is expected to increase the length of drought periods in many tropical regions. Although large amounts of potassium (K) are applied in tropical crops and planted forests, little is known about the interaction between K nutrition and water deficit on the physiological mechanisms governing plant growth. A process-based model (MAESPA) parameterized in a split-plot experiment in Brazil was used to gain insight into the combined effects of K deficiency and water deficit on absorbed radiation (aPAR), gross primary productivity (GPP), and light-use efficiency for carbon assimilation and stem biomass production (LUEC and LUEs ) in Eucalyptus grandis plantations. The main-plot factor was the water supply (undisturbed rainfall vs. 37% of throughfall excluded) and the subplot factor was the K supply (with or without 0.45 mol K m(-2 ) K addition). Mean GPP was 28% lower without K addition over the first 3 years after planting whether throughfall was partly excluded or not. K deficiency reduced aPAR by 20% and LUEC by 10% over the whole period of growth. With K addition, throughfall exclusion decreased GPP by 25%, resulting from a 21% decrease in LUEC at the end of the study period. The effect of the combination of K deficiency and water deficit was less severe than the sum of the effects of K deficiency and water deficit individually, leading to a reduction in stem biomass production, gross primary productivity and LUE similar to K deficiency on its own. The modeling approach showed that K nutrition and water deficit influenced absorbed radiation essentially through changes in leaf area index and tree height. The changes in gross primary productivity and light-use efficiency were, however, driven by a more complex set of tree parameters, especially those controlling water uptake by roots and leaf photosynthetic capacities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Estimation of Crop Gross Primary Production (GPP): I. Impact of MODIS Observation Footprint and Impact of Vegetation BRDF Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Xiao, Xiangming; Suyker, Andrew; Verma, Shashi; Tan, Bin; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimation of gross primary production (GPP) is essential for carbon cycle and climate change studies. Three AmeriFlux crop sites of maize and soybean were selected for this study. Two of the sites were irrigated and the other one was rainfed. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), the green band chlorophyll index (CIgreen), and the green band wide dynamic range vegetation index (WDRVIgreen) were computed from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data. We examined the impacts of the MODIS observation footprint and the vegetation bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) on crop daily GPP estimation with the four spectral vegetation indices (VIs - NDVI, EVI, WDRVIgreen and CIgreen) where GPP was predicted with two linear models, with and without offset: GPP = a × VI × PAR and GPP = a × VI × PAR + b. Model performance was evaluated with coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient of variation (CV). The MODIS data were filtered into four categories and four experiments were conducted to assess the impacts. The first experiment included all observations. The second experiment only included observations with view zenith angle (VZA) = 35? to constrain growth of the footprint size,which achieved a better grid cell match with the agricultural fields. The third experiment included only forward scatter observations with VZA = 35?. The fourth experiment included only backscatter observations with VZA = 35?. Overall, the EVI yielded the most consistently strong relationships to daily GPP under all examined conditions. The model GPP = a × VI × PAR + b had better performance than the model GPP = a × VI × PAR, and the offset was significant for most cases. Better performance was obtained for the irrigated field than its counterpart rainfed field. Comparison of experiment 2 vs. experiment 1 was used to examine the observation

  1. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  2. The relationship between Gross Primary Productivity and Sun-Induced Fluorescence in a nutrient manipulated Mediterranean grassland is controlled primarily by canopy structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have shown how human induced N/P imbalances affect essential ecosystem processes, and might be particularly important in water-limited ecosystems. Hyperspectral information can be used to directly infer nutrient-induces variation in structural and functional changes of vegetation under different nutrient availability. Among those, sun-induced fluorescence in the far-red region provides a new non-invasive measurement approach that has the potential to quantify dynamic changes in light-use efficiency and photosynthetic carbon dioxide uptake (Gross Primary Production, GPP). However, the mechanistic link between GPP and sun-induced fluorescence under different environmental conditions is not completely understood. In this contribution we investigated the structural and functional factors controlling the emission of SIF at 760 nm in a Mediterranean grassland with different levels of nutrient availability (Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P), and Nitrogen and Phosphorous (NP)). We showed how nutrient-induced changes in canopy structure (i.e. changes in plant forms abundance that influence leaf inclination distribution function, LIDF) and functional traits (e.g. nitrogen content per dry mass of leaves, N%, Chlorophyll ab concentration - Cab, and maximum carboxylation capacity, Vcmax) affected the observed relationship between SIF and GPP. Simultaneous measurements of canopy scale GPP and SIF were conducted with transparent transient-state canopy chambers and narrow-band spectrometers, respectively. To disentangle the main drivers of the GPP-SIF relationship we performed a factorial modeling exercise with the Soil-Canopy Observation of Photosynthesis and Energy (SCOPE) model. We conclude that the addition of nutrients imposed a change in the abundance of different plant forms and biochemistry of the canopy. This lead to changes in canopy structure (leaf area index, leaf inclinaton distribution function LIDF parameters) and functional traits (N%, P%, Cab and Vcmax

  3. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  4. Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

  5. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  6. A Continuous Measure of Gross Primary Production for the Conterminous U.S. Derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Law, Beverly E.; Chen, Jiquan; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Cook, David R.; Oren, Ram; Richardson, Andrew D.; Wharton, Sonia; Ma, Siyan; Martin, Timothy A.; Verma, Shashi B.; Suyker, Andrew E.; Scott, Russell L.; Monson, Russell K.; Litvak, Marcy; Hollinger, David Y.; Sun, Ge; Davis, Kenneth J.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Falk, Matthias; Fischer, Marc L.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Munger, J. William; Noormets, Asko; Oechel, Walter C.; U, Kyaw Tha Paw; Schmid, Hans Peter; Starr, Gregory; Torn, Margaret S.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2009-01-28

    The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely-sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000-2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005-2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km x 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr{sup -1} for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated

  7. Modeling gross primary production of agro-forestry ecosystems by assimilation of satellite-derived information in a process-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Meroni, Michele; Busetto, Lorenzo; Colombo, Roberto; Zenone, Terenzio; Matteucci, Giorgio; Manca, Giovanni; Seufert, Guenther

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present results obtained in the framework of a regional-scale analysis of the carbon budget of poplar plantations in Northern Italy. We explored the ability of the process-based model BIOME-BGC to estimate the gross primary production (GPP) using an inverse modeling approach exploiting eddy covariance and satellite data. We firstly present a version of BIOME-BGC coupled with the radiative transfer models PROSPECT and SAILH (named PROSAILH-BGC) with the aims of i) improving the BIOME-BGC description of the radiative transfer regime within the canopy and ii) allowing the assimilation of remotely-sensed vegetation index time series, such as MODIS NDVI, into the model. Secondly, we present a two-step model inversion for optimization of model parameters. In the first step, some key ecophysiological parameters were optimized against data collected by an eddy covariance flux tower. In the second step, important information about phenological dates and about standing biomass were optimized against MODIS NDVI. Results obtained showed that the PROSAILH-BGC allowed simulation of MODIS NDVI with good accuracy and that we described better the canopy radiation regime. The inverse modeling approach was demonstrated to be useful for the optimization of ecophysiological model parameters, phenological dates and parameters related to the standing biomass, allowing good accuracy of daily and annual GPP predictions. In summary, this study showed that assimilation of eddy covariance and remote sensing data in a process model may provide important information for modeling gross primary production at regional scale.

  8. Evaluation of the impact of storm event inputs on levels of gross primary production and respiration in a drinking water reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, N. R.; Pierson, D. C.; Staehr, P. A.; Pradhanang, S. M.; Smith, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    Episodic inputs of dissolved and particulate material during storm events can have important effects on lake and reservoir ecosystem function and also impact reservoir drinking water quality. We evaluate the impacts of storm events using vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and chlorophyll automatically collected at 6 hour intervals in Ashokan Reservoir, which is a part of the New York City drinking water supply. Storm driven inputs to the reservoir periodically result in large input of suspended sediments that result in reservoir turbidity levels exceeding 25 NTU, and substantial reductions in the euphotic depth. Dissolved materials associated with these same storms would be expected to stimulate bacterial production. This study involves the use of a conceptual model to calculate depth specific estimates of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (R) using three years of data that included 777 events that increased reservoir turbidity levels to over 25 NTU. Using data from before, during and after storm events, we examine how the balance between GPP and R is influenced by storm related increases in turbidity and dissolved organic matter, which would in turn influence light attenuation and bacterial production. Key words: metabolism, primary production, GPP, respiration, euphotic depth, storm event, reservoir

  9. Estimation of crop gross primary production (GPP): fAPAR_chl versus MOD15A2 FPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within leaf chloroplasts chlorophylls absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for photosynthesis (PSN). The MOD15A2 FPAR (fraction of PAR absorbed by canopy, i.e., fAPARcanopy) product has been widely used to compute absorbed PAR for PSN (APARPSN). The MOD17A2 algorithm uses MOD15A2 FPAR i...

  10. Gross world product and consumption in a global warming model with endogenous technological change. A study with DEMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Zwaan, B.C.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Gerlagh, R. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-06-01

    This paper analyzes the macro-economic costs and effects on consumption and energy demand of limiting the global average atmospheric temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius. We use a macro-economic model (DEMETER: DE-carbonization Model with Endogenous Technologies for Emission Reduction) in which there are two competing energy technologies (carbon and non-carbon, respectively), technological change is represented endogenously, and energy is aggregated through a CES function implying positive demand for the relatively expensive non-carbon technology. Technological change is represented through a learning curve describing decreasing energy production costs as a function of cumulative experience. We compare scenarios that (1) allow for energy savings, versus scenarios that assume energy demand following an exogenous path, and scenarios that (2) allow for enhanced learning effects resulting from increased experience obtained with the carbon and non-carbon technologies, versus scenarios that assume production costs following an exogenous path. We find that energy savings constitutes an important mechanism for decreasing abatement costs in the short and medium term, while the acquisition of additional learning experience substantially decreases abatement costs in the longer term.

  11. Biological production, export efficiency, and phytoplankton communities across 8000 km of the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E. M.; Durkin, C. A.; Hennon, G. M. M.; Ribalet, F.; Stanley, R. H. R.

    2017-07-01

    In situ oxygen tracers (triple oxygen isotope and oxygen/argon ratios) were used to evaluate meridional trends in surface biological production and export efficiency across 8000 km of the tropical and subtropical South Atlantic in March-May 2013. We used observations of picophytoplankton, nanophytoplankton, and microphytoplankton to evaluate community structure and diversity and assessed the relationships of these characteristics with production, export efficiency, and particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes. Rates of productivity were relatively uniform along most of the transect with net community production (NCP) between 0 and 10 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, gross primary production (GPP) between 40 and 100 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, and NCP/GPP, a measure of export efficiency, ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 (0.05-0.1 in carbon units). However, notable exceptions to this basin-scale homogeneity included two locations with highly enhanced NCP and export efficiency compared to surrounding regions. Export of POC and particulate nitrogen, derived from sediment traps, correlated with GPP across the transect, over which the surface community was dominated numerically by picophytoplankton. NCP, however, did not correlate with POC flux; the mean difference between NCP and POC flux was similar to published estimates of dissolved organic carbon export from the surface ocean. The interrelated rates of production presented in this work contribute to the understanding, building on the framework of better-studied ocean basins, of how carbon is biologically transported between the atmosphere and the deep ocean.

  12. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  13. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  14. Estimates of vertical turbulent mixing used to determine a vertical gradient in net and gross oxygen production in the oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, W. Z.; Prokopenko, M. G.; Stanley, R. H. R.; Knapp, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    Mixed layer (ML) gross (GOP) and net (NOP) oxygen production rates based on in situ mass balances of triple oxygen isotopes (TOI) and O2/Ar are influenced by vertical transport from below, a term traditionally difficult to constrain. Here we present a new approach to estimate vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz) based on density gradients in the upper thermocline and wind speed-based rates of turbulent shear at the ML depth. As an example, we use this Kz, verified by an independent 7Be-based estimate, in an O2/TOI budget at a site in the oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre. NOP equaled 0.31 ± 0.16 mmol m-2 d-1 in the ML (~55-65 m depth) and 1.2 ± 0.4 mmol m-2 d-1 (80%) beneath the ML, while GOP equaled 74 ± 27 mmol m-2 d-1 (86%) in the ML and 12 ± 4 mmol m-2 d-1 (14%) below, revealing a vertical gradient in production rates unquantifiable without the Kz estimate.

  15. The Impact of Alternative Trait-Scaling Hypotheses for the Maximum Photosynthetic Carboxylation Rate (V (sub cmax)) on Global Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anthony P.; Quaife, Tristan; Van Bodegom, Peter M.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Keenan, Trevor F.; Joiner, Joanna; Lomas, Mark R.; MacBean, Natasha; Xu, Chongang; Yang, Xiaojuan; hide

    2017-01-01

    The maximum photosynthetic carboxylation rate (V (sub cmax)) is an influential plant trait that has multiple scaling hypotheses, which is a source of uncertainty in predictive understanding of global gross primary production (GPP). Four trait-scaling hypotheses (plant functional type, nutrient limitation, environmental filtering, and plant plasticity) with nine specific implementations were used to predict global V(sub cmax) distributions and their impact on global GPP in the Sheffield Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (SDGVM). Global GPP varied from 108.1 to 128.2 petagrams of Carbon (PgC) per year, 65 percent of the range of a recent model intercomparison of global GPP. The variation in GPP propagated through to a 27percent coefficient of variation in net biome productivity (NBP). All hypotheses produced global GPP that was highly correlated (r equals 0.85-0.91) with three proxies of global GPP. Plant functional type-based nutrient limitation, underpinned by a core SDGVM hypothesis that plant nitrogen (N) status is inversely related to increasing costs of N acquisition with increasing soil carbon, adequately reproduced global GPP distributions. Further improvement could be achieved with accurate representation of water sensitivity and agriculture in SDGVM. Mismatch between environmental filtering (the most data-driven hypothesis) and GPP suggested that greater effort is needed understand V(sub cmax) variation in the field, particularly in northern latitudes.

  16. Analysis of light use efficiency and gross primary productivity based on remote sensing data over a phragmites-dominated wetland in Zhangye, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqing; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Shaomin; Xu, Ziwei; Qiao, Chen

    2014-11-01

    Light use efficiency (LUE) is a critical parameter for estimating carbon exchange in many ecosystem models, especially those models based on remote sensing algorithms. Estimation and monitoring of LUE and gross primary productivity (GPP) over wetland is very important for the global carbon cycle research and modelling, since the wetland plays a vital role in the ecosystem balance. In this paper, carbon flux data observed with an eddy covariance tower over a reedsdominated wetland in Zhangye, northwest of China, was used to calculate LUE. Through the postprocessing of carbon flux data and estimation of ecosystem respiration, daily GPP was calculated firstly. Combining with fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) inversed from HJ-1 satellite, LUE was determined. The maximum value of LUE was 1.03 g C·MJ-1 occurred in summer. Furthermore, a regional vegetation productivity model based on meteorological data and remote sensing data was used to estimate the wetland GPP. The results show that the modeled GPP results were consistent with in situ data.

  17. Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN): a statistically based estimate of global surface turbulent fluxes and gross primary productivity using solar-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed Alemohammad, Seyed; Fang, Bin; Konings, Alexandra G.; Aires, Filipe; Green, Julia K.; Kolassa, Jana; Miralles, Diego; Prigent, Catherine; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    A new global estimate of surface turbulent fluxes, latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H), and gross primary production (GPP) is developed using a machine learning approach informed by novel remotely sensed solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) and other radiative and meteorological variables. This is the first study to jointly retrieve LE, H, and GPP using SIF observations. The approach uses an artificial neural network (ANN) with a target dataset generated from three independent data sources, weighted based on a triple collocation (TC) algorithm. The new retrieval, named Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN), provides estimates of LE, H, and GPP from 2007 to 2015 at 1° × 1° spatial resolution and at monthly time resolution. The quality of ANN training is assessed using the target data, and the WECANN retrievals are evaluated using eddy covariance tower estimates from the FLUXNET network across various climates and conditions. When compared to eddy covariance estimates, WECANN typically outperforms other products, particularly for sensible and latent heat fluxes. Analyzing WECANN retrievals across three extreme drought and heat wave events demonstrates the capability of the retrievals to capture the extent of these events. Uncertainty estimates of the retrievals are analyzed and the interannual variability in average global and regional fluxes shows the impact of distinct climatic events - such as the 2015 El Niño - on surface turbulent fluxes and GPP.

  18. Temperature acclimation of photosynthesis has only minor effects on gross primary productivity (GPP) in an Earth System Model (ESM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Daniel; Brovkin, Victor; Kattge, Jens; Zaehle, Soenke; Reick, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The productivity of terrestrial plants influences the dynamics of atmospheric CO2. It is therefore crucial to understand and quantify productivity and predict its future responses to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Recently, Booth et al. (2012) found that the temperature dependence of photosynthesis is the most important uncertainty of the climate-carbon cycle feedback in a comprehensive ESM. Using trait data, Kattge and Knorr (2007) found that photosynthesis, in particular the acclimation of the maximum carboxylation rate (Vmax) and electron transport rate (Jmax), acclimates to prevailing temperatures. As a first attempt to address temperature acclimation of photosynthesis on global scale, we replaced the simplified exponential formulation of the temperature dependence of Vmax and Jmax in the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) by a physiologically more plausible and justified model with short-term optimum temperature. For temperature acclimation we then implemented the acclimation descriptions by Kattge and Knorr (2007). We conducted sets of simulations on site scale driven by meteorological observations, and simulations on global scale for present day climate and for a 6 K warmer climate. The physiologically more plausible and justified model with short-term optimum temperature and temperature acclimation yields similar results as the old exponential formulation not accounting for either process. With the new model, global GPP for present day and in the warming scenario is increased by 0.7% and 0.9%, respectively. Acclimation causes a slight shift of productivity from high to low latitudes, too. A slightly larger effect on GPP has the replacement of the exponential formulation with the model with optimum temperature, resulting in a 1.2% decrease in global GPP under both climatic conditions. Acclimation thus compensates for the effects of the physiologically based temperature optimum of photosynthesis. As the effects

  19. In situ spectral measurements improve the efficiency of light use efficiency models to estimate gross primary productivity in Mediterranean cork oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasoli, S.; Silva, J. M.; Carvalhais, N.; Correia, A.; Costa e Silva, F.; Pereira, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Light Use Efficiency (LUE) concept is usually applied to retrieve Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) estimates in models integrating spectral indexes, namely Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), considered proxies of biophysical properties of vegetation. The integration of spectral measurements into LUE models can increase the robustness of GPP estimates by optimizing particular parameters of the model. NDVI and PRI are frequently obtained by broad band sensors on remote platforms at low spatial resolution (e.g. MODIS). In highly heterogeneous ecosystems such spectral information may not be representative of the dynamic response of the ecosystem to climate variables. In Mediterranean oak woodlands different plant functional types (PFT): trees canopy, shrubs and herbaceous layer, contribute to the overall Gross Primary Productivity (GPP). In situ spectral measurements can provide useful information on each PFT and its temporal variability. The objectives of this study were: i) to analyze the temporal variability of NDVI, PRI and others spectral indices for the three PFT, their response to climate variables and their relationship with biophysical properties of vegetation; ii) to optimize a LUE model integrating selected spectral indexes in which the contribution of each PFT to the overall GPP is estimated individually; iii) to compare the performance of disaggregated GPP estimates and lumped GPP estimates, evaluated against eddy covariance measurements. Ground measurements of vegetation reflectance were performed in a cork oak woodland located in Coruche, Portugal (39°8'N, 8°19'W) where carbon and water fluxes are continuously measured by eddy covariance. Between April 2011 and June 2013 reflectance measurements of the herbaceous layer, shrubs and trees canopy were acquired with a FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (ASD Inc.) which provided data in the range of 350-2500nm. Measurements were repeated approximately on

  20. The association of fatigue, comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results from 34 countries participating in the Quest-RA program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Kathrine Lederballe; Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim is to assess the prevalence of comorbidities and to further analyse to which degree fatigue can be explained by comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product (GDP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Nine thousands eight hundred s...

  1. Effects of in-situ and reanalysis climate data on estimation of cropland gross primary production using the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Cui; Xiao, Xiangming; Wagle, Pradeep; Griffis, Timothy; Dong, Jinwei; Wu, Chaoyang; Qin, Yuanwei; Cook, David R.

    2015-11-01

    Satellite-based Production Efficiency Models (PEMs) often require meteorological reanalysis data such as the North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) as model inputs to simulate Gross Primary Production (GPP) at regional and global scales. This study first evaluated the accuracies of air temperature (TNARR) and downward shortwave radiation (RNARR) of the NARR by comparing with in-situ meteorological measurements at 37 AmeriFlux non-crop eddy flux sites, then used one PEM – the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) to simulate 8-day mean GPP (GPPVPM) at seven AmeriFlux crop sites, and investigated the uncertainties in GPPVPM from climate inputs as compared with eddy covariance-based GPP (GPPEC). Results showed that TNARR agreed well with in-situ measurements; RNARR, however, was positively biased. An empirical linear correction was applied to RNARR, and significantly reduced the relative error of RNARR by ~25% for crop site-years. Overall, GPPVPM calculated from the in-situ (GPPVPM(EC)), original (GPPVPM(NARR)) and adjusted NARR (GPPVPM(adjNARR)) climate data tracked the seasonality of GPPEC well, albeit with different degrees of biases. GPPVPM(EC) showed a good match with GPPEC for maize (Zea mays L.), but was slightly underestimated for soybean (Glycine max L.). Replacing the in-situ climate data with the NARR resulted in a significant overestimation of GPPVPM(NARR) (18.4/29.6% for irrigated/rainfed maize and 12.7/12.5% for irrigated/rainfed soybean). GPPVPM(adjNARR) showed a good agreement with GPPVPM(EC) for both crops due to the reduction in the bias of RNARR. The results imply that the bias of RNARR introduced significant uncertainties into the PEM-based GPP estimates, suggesting that more accurate surface radiation datasets are needed to estimate primary production of terrestrial ecosystems at regional and global scales.

  2. Technical note: The effect of vertical turbulent mixing on gross O2 production assessments by the triple isotopic composition of dissolved O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wurgaft

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The 17O-excess (17Δ of dissolved O2 has been used, for over a decade, to estimate gross O2 production (G17OP rates in the mixed layer (ML in many regions of the ocean. This estimate relies on a steady-state balance of O2 fluxes, which include air-sea gas exchange, photosynthesis and respiration but notably, not turbulent mixing with O2 from the thermocline. In light of recent publications, which showed that neglecting the turbulent flux may lead to inaccurate G17OP estimations, we present a simple correction for the effect of turbulent flux of O2 from the thermocline on ML G17OP. The correction is based on a turbulent-flux term between the thermocline and the ML, and use the difference between the ML 17Δ and that of a single data-point below the ML base. Using a numerical model and measured data we compared turbulence-corrected G17OP rates to those calculated without it. The corrected G17OP rates were 10–90% lower than the uncorrected rates, which implies that a large fraction of the photosynthetic O2 in the ML is actually produced in the thermocline.

  3. Catchment disturbance and stream metabolism: Patterns in ecosystem respiration and gross primary production along a gradient of upland soil and vegetation disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, J.N.; Mulholland, P.J.; Maloney, K.O.

    2005-01-01

    Catchment characteristics determine the inputs of sediments and nutrients to streams. As a result, natural or anthropogenic disturbance of upland soil and vegetation can affect instream processes. The Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia) exhibits a wide range of upland disturbance levels because of spatial variability in the intensity of military training. This gradient of disturbance was used to investigate the effect of upland soil and vegetation disturbance on rates of stream metabolism (ecosystem respiration rate [ER] and gross primary production rate [GPP]). Stream metabolism was measured using an open-system, single-station approach. All streams were net heterotrophic during all seasons. ER was highest in winter and spring and lowest in summer and autumn. ER was negatively correlated with catchment disturbance level in winter, spring, and summer, but not in autumn. ER was positively correlated with abundance of coarse woody debris, but not significantly related to % benthic organic matter. GPP was low in all streams and generally not significantly correlated with disturbance level. Our results suggest that the generally intact riparian zones of these streams were not sufficient to protect them from the effect of upland disturbance, and they emphasize the role of the entire catchment in determining stream structure and function. ?? 2005 by The North American Benthological Society.

  4. Global parameterization and validation of a two-leaf light use efficiency model for predicting gross primary production across FLUXNET sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Yanlian; Wu, Xiaocui; Ju, Weimin;

    2015-01-01

    Light use efficiency (LUE) models are widely used to simulate gross primary production (GPP). However, the treatment of the plant canopy as a big leaf by these models can introduce large uncertainties in simulated GPP. Recently, a two-leaf light use efficiency (TL-LUE) model was developed...... to simulate GPP separately for sunlit and shaded leaves and has been shown to outperform the big-leaf MOD17 model at six FLUX sites in China. In this study we investigated the performance of the TL-LUE model for a wider range of biomes. For this we optimized the parameters and tested the TL-LUE model using...... data from 98 FLUXNET sites which are distributed across the globe. The results showed that the TL-LUE model performed in general better than the MOD17 model in simulating 8 day GPP. Optimized maximum light use efficiency of shaded leaves (epsilon(msh)) was 2.63 to 4.59 times that of sunlit leaves...

  5. Monitoring and Assessing the 2012 Drought in the Great Plains: Analyzing Satellite-Retrieved Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Drought Indices, and Gross Primary Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siheng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF and several meteorological drought indices, including the multi-time-scale standard precipitation index (SPI and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI, to evaluate the potential of using SIF to monitor and assess drought. We found significant positive relationships between SIF and drought indices during the growing season (from June to September. SIF was found to be more sensitive to short-term SPIs (one or two months and less sensitive to long-term SPI (three months than were the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI or the normalized difference water index (NDWI. Significant correlations were found between SIF and PDSI during the growing season for the Great Plains. We found good consistency between SIF and flux-estimated gross primary production (GPP for the years studied, and synchronous declines of SIF and GPP in an extreme drought year (2012. We used SIF to monitor and assess the drought that occurred in the Great Plains during the summer of 2012, and found that although a meteorological drought was experienced throughout the Great Plains from June to September, the western area experienced more agricultural drought than the eastern area. Meanwhile, SIF declined more significantly than NDVI during the peak growing season. Yet for senescence, during which time the reduction of NDVI still went on, the reduction of SIF was eased. Our work provides an alternative to traditional reflectance-based vegetation or drought indices for monitoring and assessing agricultural drought.

  6. Gross primary production variability associated with meteorology, physiology, leaf area, and water supply in contrasting woodland and grassland semiarid riparian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerette, G. D.; Scott, R. L.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Huxman, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchanges in dryland environments has been more challenging than in mesic environments, likely due to more pronounced nonlinear responses of ecosystem processes to environmental variation. To better understand diurnal to interannual variation in gross primary productivity (GPP) variability, we coupled continuous eddy-covariance derived whole ecosystem gas exchange measurements with an ecophysiologic model based on fundamental principles of diffusion, mass balance, reaction kinetics, and biochemical regulation of photosynthesis. We evaluated the coupled data-model system to describe and understand the dynamics of 3 years of growing season GPP from a riparian grassland and woodland in southern Arizona. The data-model fusion procedure skillfully reproduced the majority of daily variation GPP throughout three growing seasons. While meteorology was similar between sites, the woodland site had consistently higher GPP rates and lower variability at daily and interannual timescales relative to the grassland site. We examined the causes of this variation using a new state factor model analysis that partitioned GPP variation into four factors: meteorology, physiology, leaf area, and water supply. The largest proportion of GPP variation was associated with physiological differences. The woodland showed a greater sensitivity than the grassland to water supply, while the grassland showed a greater sensitivity to leaf area. These differences are consistent with hypotheses of woody species using resistance mechanisms, stomatal regulation, and grassland species using resilience mechanisms, leaf area regulation, in avoiding water stress and have implications for future GPP sensitivity to climate variability following wood-grass transitions.

  7. PENGARUH GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, INFLASI, SUKU BUNGA, MONEY SUPPLY, CURRENT ACCOUNT DAN CAPITAL ACCOUNT TERHADAP NILAI KURS RUPIAH INDONESIA – DOLLAR AMERIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunika Murdayanti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since free-floating exchange rate system has been applied in Indonesia on August 1998, the accumulation of depreciation of rupiah against the US dollar has been about 48,7% until December 2001. This condition brings many argumentation about the reasons behind the exchange rate instability faced by Indonesia among many experts whether it is caused by economic factors or by non-economic factors. By recognizing the causes, it will be easier for the experts and government of Indonesia to formulate the solution. This research is intended to analyze the influence of economic variables, i.e. Gross Domestic Product, money supply, interest rate, inflation rate, Current Account & Capital Account in both Indonesia and The United State of America, as well as the position of the balance of international payment of Indonesia to the exchange rate movement in order to give contributions to solve the problem. Based on the result money supply becomes the only variable which has a multicollinearity and excluded from the regression linear. Also only current account is not significant influence on the exchange rate movement, instead of the other variables. Coefficient of determination of the research model is 84.4 %, means that other factors, not accommodated in this research, give 15.6 % influence to the exchange rate movement. These other factors can be categorized as other economic factors or non-economic factors.

  8. Estimation of Gross Domestic Product Using Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Data: A Case Study in Zhejiang Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenze Yue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There exists a spatial mismatch between socioeconomic data, such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP, and physical and environmental datasets. This study provides a dasymetric approach for GDP estimation at a fine scale by combining the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery, enhanced vegetation index (EVI, and land cover data. Despite the advantages of DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery in estimating human activities, its drawbacks, including coarse resolution, overglow, and saturation effects, limit its application. Hence, high-resolution EVI data were integrated with DMSP/OLS in this study to create a Human Settlement Index (HSI for estimating the GDP of secondary and tertiary industries. The GDP of the primary industry was then estimated on the basis of land cover data, and the area with the GDP of the primary industry was classified by a threshold technique (DN ≤ 8. The regression model for GDP distribution estimation was implemented in Zhejiang Province in southeast China, and a GDP density map was generated at a resolution of 250 m × 250 m. Compared with the outcome of taking DMSP/OLS as a unique parameter, estimation errors obviously decreased. This study offers a low-cost and accurate approach for rapidly estimating high-resolution GDP distribution to construct an important database for the government when formulating developmental strategies.

  9. Methodological Approaches for Estimating Gross Regional Product after Taking into Account Depletion of Natural Resources, Environmental Pollution and Human Capital Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alengordovich Korobitsyn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A key indicator of the System of National Accounts of Russia at a regional scale is Gross Regional Product characterizing the value of goods and services produced in all sectors of the economy in a country and intended for final consumption, capital formation and net exports (excluding imports. From a sustainability perspective, the most weakness of GRP is that it ignores depreciation of man-made assets, natural resource depletion, environmental pollution and degradation, and potential social costs such as poorer health due to exposure to occupational hazards. Several types of alternative approaches to measuring socio-economic progress are considering for six administrative units of the Ural Federal District for the period 2006–2014. Proposed alternatives to GRP as a measure of social progress are focused on natural resource depletion, environmental externalities and some human development aspects. The most promising is the use of corrected macroeconomic indicators similar to the “genuine savings” compiled by the World Bank. Genuine savings are defined in this paper as net savings (net gross savings minus consumption of fixed capital minus the consumption of natural non-renewable resources and the monetary evaluations of damages resulting from air pollution, water pollution and waste disposal. Two main groups of non renewable resources are considered: energy resources (uranium ore, oil and natural gas and mineral resources (iron ore, copper, and aluminum. In spite of various shortcomings, this indicator represents a considerable improvement over GRP information. For example, while GRP demonstrates steady growth between 2006 and 2014 for the main Russian oil- and gas-producing regions — Hanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, genuine savings for these regions decreased over all period. It means that their resource-based economy could not be considered as being on a sustainable path even in the framework of

  10. Gross primary production variability associated with meteorology, physiology, leaf area, and water supply in contrasting woodland and grassland semiarid riparian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchanges in dryland environments has been more challenging than in mesic environments, likely due to more pronounced nonlinear responses of ecosystem processes to environmental variation. To better understand diurnal to interannual variation in gross primar...

  11. A mechanistic description of the global COS cycle consistent with atmospheric measurements and its potential to evaluate gross primary production of vegetation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launois, Thomas; Peylin, Philippe; Belviso, Sauveur; Bopp, Laurent; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Cuntz, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimates of the gross carbon fluxes - photosynthesis and respiration - are essential to predict the ecosystem carbon fluxes and stocks and their evolution in a changing climate. The gross primary productivity (GPP) in the current dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), however, shows large differences in terms of mean values, phase and amplitude. As large scale measurements of the GPP are not possible, their estimates are usually based on indirect tracers. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been proposed as a tracer of GPP since COS and CO2 are dominantly taken up by plants via the same enzyme during photosynthesis. Thus leaf uptakes of COS and CO2 are often found to be proportional, with a coefficient of proportionality (LRU) that is species-dependant according to laboratory measurements. However contrarily to CO2, atmospheric records of COS over the last decades show a strong seasonal cycle but with no significant trend, which implies roughly equilibrated sources and sinks of COS at the global scale. Most recent estimates of COS uptake by plants using this LRU concept led to larger sinks over land than initially estimated. In order to maintain a closed atmospheric budget, a compensatory COS source had to be found, with the ocean being suggested as the most likely candidate. In this work, we propose a new mechanistically-based parameterization of the major sources and sinks of COS, allowing to close the global atmospheric budget. For the ocean, we used the ocean general circulation and biogeochemistry model NEMO-PISCES to assess the marine source of COS. Using the simulated organic compounds at the surface, we derived a direct source of COS through the COS photo-production as well as an indirect source through the emissions of sulfur compounds (DMS). The resulting simulated global fluxes correspond to a net source of COS of around 800 GgS yr-1, spatially and temporally consistent with the suggested missing source. For the land, we considered most anoxic soils

  12. Atmospheric COS measurements and satellite-derived vegetation fluorescence data to evaluate the terrestrial gross primary productivity of CMIP5 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peylin, Philippe; MacBean, Natasha; Launois, Thomas; Belviso, Sauveur; Cadule, Patricia; Maignan, Fabienne

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the fate of the ecosystem carbon stocks and their sensitivity to climate change strongly relies on our ability to accurately model the gross carbon fluxes, i.e. photosynthesis and respiration. The Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) simulated by the different terrestrial models used in CMIP5 show large differences however, not only in terms of mean value but also in terms of phase and amplitude, thus hampering accurate investigations into carbon-climate feedbacks. While the net C flux of an ecosystem (NEE) can be measured in situ with the eddy covariance technique, the GPP is not directly accessible at larger scales and usually estimates are based on indirect measurements combining different tracers. Recent measurements of a new atmospheric tracer, the Carbonyl sulphide (COS), as well as the global measurement of Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF) from satellite instruments (GOSAT, GOME2) open a new window for evaluating the GPP of earth system models. The use of COS relies on the fact that it is absorbed by the leaves in a similar manner to CO2, while there seems to be nothing equivalent to respiration for COS. Following recent work by Launois et al. (ACP, 2015), there is a potential to evaluate model GPP from atmospheric COS and CO2 measurements, using a transport model and recent parameterizations for the non-photosynthetic sinks (oxic soils, atmospheric oxidation) and biogenic sources (oceans and anoxic soils) of COS. Vegetation uptake of COS is modeled as a linear function of GPP and the ratio of COS to CO2 rate of uptake by plants. For the fluorescence, recent measurements of SIF from space appear to be highly correlated with monthly variations of data-driven GPP estimates (Guanter et al., 2012), following a strong dependence of vegetation SIF on photosynthetic activity. These global measurements thus provide new indications on the timing of canopy carbon uptake. In this work, we propose a dual approach that combines the strength of both COS and SIF

  13. Inequality in the distribution of rheumatologists in Brazil: correlation with local of medical residency, Gross Domestic Product and Human Development Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Cleandro Pires

    2014-01-01

    To assess the distribution of rheumatologists in Brazil and their correlation with Medical Residency specialization offer, Gross Domestic Product (Gdp) And Municipal Human Development Index (HDI-M) of units of the federation (UFs). Query to various official databases, data summarization by techniques for descriptive statistics and cross-referenced information. For correlation analysis, we used the Spearman correlation coefficient (r). There were 1229 rheumatologists regularly registered in the country. The Northern region had only 3.6% of the total (n = 44), while the Southeast had 42.2% (n = 519). The State capitals, added to the five largest municipalities in each UF, concentrated 75.8% of these specialists (n = 931). In total, 49.9% of rheumatologists offered treatment at SUS. A general ratio of 157,809 inhabitants per rheumatologist in Brazil was determined, but with wide variation among UFs with respect to this ratio. In the years 2000-2012, there were 593 Rheumatology Residency graduated physicians in Brazil. We observed a positive correlation among number of rheumatologists compared with GDP (r = 0.94), HDI-M of the State capitals (r = 0.77) and number of Rheumatology Residency graduated physicians (r = 0.79) in UFs. We noted a strong concentration of rheumatologists in State capitals and larger municipalities, with noticeable inequalities also between UFs and country regions. The distribution of these professionals accompanied GDP, HDI-M of the State capital and number of Rheumatology Residency graduated physicians, suggesting that factors related to income opportunities and human development and the place of speciality training may influence the geographical fixation of rheumatologists.

  14. Global parameterization and validation of a two-leaf light use efficiency model for predicting gross primary production across FLUXNET sites: TL-LUE Parameterization and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yanlian [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science and Technology, School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing China; Wu, Xiaocui [International Institute for Earth System Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing China; Ju, Weimin [International Institute for Earth System Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographic Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing China; Chen, Jing M. [International Institute for Earth System Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing China; Wang, Shaoqiang [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing China; Wang, Huimin [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing China; Yuan, Wenping [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Future Earth Research Institute, Beijing Normal University, Beijing China; Andrew Black, T. [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver British Columbia Canada; Jassal, Rachhpal [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver British Columbia Canada; Ibrom, Andreas [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Kgs. Lyngby Denmark; Han, Shijie [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang China; Yan, Junhua [South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou China; Margolis, Hank [Centre for Forest Studies, Faculty of Forestry, Geography and Geomatics, Laval University, Quebec City Quebec Canada; Roupsard, Olivier [CIRAD-Persyst, UMR Ecologie Fonctionnelle and Biogéochimie des Sols et Agroécosystèmes, SupAgro-CIRAD-INRA-IRD, Montpellier France; CATIE (Tropical Agricultural Centre for Research and Higher Education), Turrialba Costa Rica; Li, Yingnian [Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining China; Zhao, Fenghua [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing China; Kiely, Gerard [Environmental Research Institute, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University College Cork, Cork Ireland; Starr, Gregory [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Alabama USA; Pavelka, Marian [Laboratory of Plants Ecological Physiology, Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology AS CR, Prague Czech Republic; Montagnani, Leonardo [Forest Services, Autonomous Province of Bolzano, Bolzano Italy; Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Free University of Bolzano, Bolzano Italy; Wohlfahrt, Georg [Institute for Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck Austria; European Academy of Bolzano, Bolzano Italy; D' Odorico, Petra [Grassland Sciences Group, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zurich Switzerland; Cook, David [Atmospheric and Climate Research Program, Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA; Arain, M. Altaf [McMaster Centre for Climate Change and School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton Ontario Canada; Bonal, Damien [INRA Nancy, UMR EEF, Champenoux France; Beringer, Jason [School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australia, Crawley Australia; Blanken, Peter D. [Department of Geography, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Loubet, Benjamin [UMR ECOSYS, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Thiverval-Grignon France; Leclerc, Monique Y. [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens Georgia USA; Matteucci, Giorgio [Viea San Camillo Ed LellisViterbo, University of Tuscia, Viterbo Italy; Nagy, Zoltan [MTA-SZIE Plant Ecology Research Group, Szent Istvan University, Godollo Hungary; Olejnik, Janusz [Meteorology Department, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznan Poland; Department of Matter and Energy Fluxes, Global Change Research Center, Brno Czech Republic; Paw U, Kyaw Tha [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis California USA; Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge USA; Varlagin, Andrej [A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Russia

    2016-04-06

    Light use efficiency (LUE) models are widely used to simulate gross primary production (GPP). However, the treatment of the plant canopy as a big leaf by these models can introduce large uncertainties in simulated GPP. Recently, a two-leaf light use efficiency (TL-LUE) model was developed to simulate GPP separately for sunlit and shaded leaves and has been shown to outperform the big-leaf MOD17 model at 6 FLUX sites in China. In this study we investigated the performance of the TL-LUE model for a wider range of biomes. For this we optimized the parameters and tested the TL-LUE model using data from 98 FLUXNET sites which are distributed across the globe. The results showed that the TL-LUE model performed in general better than the MOD17 model in simulating 8-day GPP. Optimized maximum light use efficiency of shaded leaves (εmsh) was 2.63 to 4.59 times that of sunlit leaves (εmsu). Generally, the relationships of εmsh and εmsu with εmax were well described by linear equations, indicating the existence of general patterns across biomes. GPP simulated by the TL-LUE model was much less sensitive to biases in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) input than the MOD17 model. The results of this study suggest that the proposed TL-LUE model has the potential for simulating regional and global GPP of terrestrial ecosystems and it is more robust with regard to usual biases in input data than existing approaches which neglect the bi-modal within-canopy distribution of PAR.

  15. Algorithm developing of gross primary production from its capacity and a canopy conductance index using flux and global observing satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Kanako; Furumi, Shinobu; Daigo, Motomasa

    2015-10-01

    We plan to estimate gross primary production (GPP) using the SGLI sensor on-board the GCOM-C1 satellite after it is launched in 2017 by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, as we have developed a GPP estimation algorithm that uses SGLI sensor data. The characteristics of this GPP estimation method correspond to photosynthesis. The rate of plant photosynthesis depends on the plant's photosynthesis capacity and the degree to which photosynthesis is suppressed. The photosynthesis capacity depends on the chlorophyll content of leaves, which is a plant physiological parameter, and the degree of suppression of photosynthesis depends on weather conditions. The framework of the estimation method to determine the light-response curve parameters was developed using ux and satellite data in a previous study[1]. We estimated one of the light-response curve parameters based on the linear relationship between GPP capacity at 2000 (μmolm-2s-1) of photosynthetically active radiation and a chlorophyll index (CIgreen [2;3] ). The relationship was determined for seven plant functional types. Decreases in the photosynthetic rate are controlled by stomatal opening and closing. Leaf stomatal conductance is maximal during the morning and decreases in the afternoon. We focused on daily changes in leaf stomatal conductance. We used open shrub flux data and MODIS reflectance data to develop an algorithm for a canopy. We first evaluated the daily changes in GPP capacity estimated from CIgreen and photosynthesis active radiation using light response curves, and GPP observed during a flux experiment. Next, we estimated the canopy conductance using flux data and a big-leaf model using the Penman-Monteith equation[4]. We estimated GPP by multiplying GPP capacity by the normalized canopy conductance at 10:30, the time of satellite observations. The results showed that the estimated daily change in GPP was almost the same as the observed GPP. From this result, we defined a normalized canopy

  16. Gross primary production responses to warming, elevated CO2 , and irrigation: quantifying the drivers of ecosystem physiology in a semiarid grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Edmund M; Ogle, Kiona; Peltier, Drew; Walker, Anthony P; De Kauwe, Martin G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Williams, David G; Parton, William; Asao, Shinichi; Guenet, Bertrand; Harper, Anna B; Lu, Xingjie; Luus, Kristina A; Zaehle, Sönke; Shu, Shijie; Werner, Christian; Xia, Jianyang; Pendall, Elise

    2017-08-01

    Determining whether the terrestrial biosphere will be a source or sink of carbon (C) under a future climate of elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) and warming requires accurate quantification of gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux of C in the global C cycle. We evaluated 6 years (2007-2012) of flux-derived GPP data from the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment, situated in a grassland in Wyoming, USA. The GPP data were used to calibrate a light response model whose basic formulation has been successfully used in a variety of ecosystems. The model was extended by modeling maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax ) and light-use efficiency (Q) as functions of soil water, air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, vegetation greenness, and nitrogen at current and antecedent (past) timescales. The model fits the observed GPP well (R(2)  = 0.79), which was confirmed by other model performance checks that compared different variants of the model (e.g. with and without antecedent effects). Stimulation of cumulative 6-year GPP by warming (29%, P = 0.02) and eCO2 (26%, P = 0.07) was primarily driven by enhanced C uptake during spring (129%, P = 0.001) and fall (124%, P = 0.001), respectively, which was consistent across years. Antecedent air temperature (Tairant ) and vapor pressure deficit (VPDant ) effects on Amax (over the past 3-4 days and 1-3 days, respectively) were the most significant predictors of temporal variability in GPP among most treatments. The importance of VPDant suggests that atmospheric drought is important for predicting GPP under current and future climate; we highlight the need for experimental studies to identify the mechanisms underlying such antecedent effects. Finally, posterior estimates of cumulative GPP under control and eCO2 treatments were tested as a benchmark against 12 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs). The narrow uncertainties of these data-driven GPP estimates suggest that they could be useful semi-independent data

  17. Constraining gross primary production and ecosystem respiration estimates for North America using atmospheric observations of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W.; Ju, W.; Chen, H.; Peters, W.; van der Velde, I.; Baker, I. T.; Andrews, A. E.; Zhang, Y.; Launois, T.; Campbell, J. E.; Suntharalingam, P.; Montzka, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a promising novel atmospheric tracer for studying carbon cycle processes. OCS shares a similar pathway as CO2 during photosynthesis but not released through a respiration-like process, thus could be used to partition Gross Primary Production (GPP) from Net Ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 Exchange (NEE). This study uses joint atmospheric observations of OCS and CO2 to constrain GPP and ecosystem respiration (Re). Flask data from tower and aircraft sites over North America are collected. We employ our recently developed CarbonTracker (CT)-Lagrange carbon assimilation system, which is based on the CT framework and the Weather Research and Forecasting - Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT) model, and the Simple Biosphere model with simulated OCS (SiB3-OCS) that provides prior GPP, Re and plant uptake fluxes of OCS. Derived plant OCS fluxes from both process model and GPP-scaled model are tested in our inversion. To investigate the ability of OCS to constrain GPP and understand the uncertainty propagated from OCS modeling errors to constrained fluxes in a dual-tracer system including OCS and CO2, two inversion schemes are implemented and compared: (1) a two-step scheme, which firstly optimizes GPP using OCS observations, and then simultaneously optimizes GPP and Re using CO2 observations with OCS-constrained GPP in the first step as prior; (2) a joint scheme, which simultaneously optimizes GPP and Re using OCS and CO2 observations. We will evaluate the result using an estimated GPP from space-borne solar-induced fluorescence observations and a data-driven GPP upscaled from FLUXNET data with a statistical model (Jung et al., 2011). Preliminary result for the year 2010 shows the joint inversion makes simulated mole fractions more consistent with observations for both OCS and CO2. However, the uncertainty of OCS simulation is larger than that of CO2. The two-step and joint schemes perform similarly in improving the consistence with

  18. Observing and modeling dynamics in terrestrial gross primary productivity and phenology from remote sensing: An assessment using in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Manish K.

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest and most variable component of the carbon cycle and is strongly influenced by phenology. Realistic characterization of spatio-temporal variation in GPP and phenology is therefore crucial for understanding dynamics in the global carbon cycle. In the last two decades, remote sensing has become a widely-used tool for this purpose. However, no study has comprehensively examined how well remote sensing models capture spatiotemporal patterns in GPP, and validation of remote sensing-based phenology models is limited. Using in-situ data from 144 eddy covariance towers located in all major biomes, I assessed the ability of 10 remote sensing-based methods to capture spatio-temporal variation in GPP at annual and seasonal scales. The models are based on different hypotheses regarding ecophysiological controls on GPP and span a range of structural and computational complexity. The results lead to four main conclusions: (i) at annual time scale, models were more successful capturing spatial variability than temporal variability; (ii) at seasonal scale, models were more successful in capturing average seasonal variability than interannual variability; (iii) simpler models performed as well or better than complex models; and (iv) models that were best at explaining seasonal variability in GPP were different from those that were best able to explain variability in annual scale GPP. Seasonal phenology of vegetation follows bounded growth and decay, and is widely modeled using growth functions. However, the specific form of the growth function affects how phenological dynamics are represented in ecosystem and remote sensing-base models. To examine this, four different growth functions (the logistic, Gompertz, Mirror-Gompertz and Richards function) were assessed using remotely sensed and in-situ data collected at several deciduous forest sites. All of the growth functions provided good statistical representation of in

  19. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photochemical reflectance index improve remote-sensing gross primary production estimates under varying nutrient availability in a typical Mediterranean savanna ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Priego, O.; Guan, J.; Rossini, M.; Fava, F.; Wutzler, T.; Moreno, G.; Carvalhais, N.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Julitta, T.; Schrumpf, M.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the performances of different optical indices to estimate gross primary production (GPP) of herbaceous stratum in a Mediterranean savanna with different nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) availability. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence yield computed at 760 nm (Fy760), scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI), MERIS terrestrial-chlorophyll index (MTCI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were computed from near-surface field spectroscopy measurements collected using high spectral resolution spectrometers covering the visible near-infrared regions. GPP was measured using canopy chambers on the same locations sampled by the spectrometers. We tested whether light-use efficiency (LUE) models driven by remote-sensing quantities (RSMs) can better track changes in GPP caused by nutrient supplies compared to those driven exclusively by meteorological data (MM). Particularly, we compared the performances of different RSM formulations - relying on the use of Fy760 or sPRI as a proxy for LUE and NDVI or MTCI as a fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) - with those of classical MM. Results showed higher GPP in the N-fertilized experimental plots during the growing period. These differences in GPP disappeared in the drying period when senescence effects masked out potential differences due to plant N content. Consequently, although MTCI was closely related to the mean of plant N content across treatments (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.01), it was poorly related to GPP (r2 = 0.45, p < 0.05). On the contrary sPRI and Fy760 correlated well with GPP during the whole measurement period. Results revealed that the relationship between GPP and Fy760 is not unique across treatments, but it is affected by N availability. Results from a cross-validation analysis showed that MM (AICcv = 127, MEcv = 0.879) outperformed RSM (AICcv =140, MEcv = 0.8737) when soil moisture was used to constrain the seasonal dynamic of LUE. However

  20. Microbial community engineering for biopolymer production from glycerol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moralejo-Gárate, H.; Mar'atusalihat, E.; Kleerebezem, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the potential of using microbial community engineering for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from glycerol was explored. Crude glycerol is a by-product of the biofuel (biodiesel and bioethanol) industry and potentially a good substrate for bioplastic production. A PHA-producing

  1. Microbial community engineering for biopolymer production from glycerol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moralejo-Gárate, H.; Mar'atusalihat, E.; Kleerebezem, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the potential of using microbial community engineering for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from glycerol was explored. Crude glycerol is a by-product of the biofuel (biodiesel and bioethanol) industry and potentially a good substrate for bioplastic production. A PHA-producing

  2. Does species diversity limit productivity in natural grassland communities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Smith, Melinda D.; Seabloom, Eric; Andelman, Sandy J.; Meche, Gayna; Weiher, Evan; Allain, Larry K.; Jutila, Heli; Sankaran, Mahesh; Knops, Johannes; Ritchie, Mark; Willig, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and experimental studies of synthesized assemblages indicate that under particular circumstances species diversity can enhance community productivity through niche complementarity. It remains unclear whether this process has important effects in mature natural ecosystems where c

  3. Does species diversity limit productivity in natural grassland communities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Smith, Melinda D.; Seabloom, Eric; Andelman, Sandy J.; Meche, Gayna; Weiher, Evan; Allain, Larry K.; Jutila, Heli; Sankaran, Mahesh; Knops, Johannes; Ritchie, Mark; Willig, Michael R.

    Theoretical analyses and experimental studies of synthesized assemblages indicate that under particular circumstances species diversity can enhance community productivity through niche complementarity. It remains unclear whether this process has important effects in mature natural ecosystems where

  4. Oxygen Dynamics and Net Community Productivity During a Lagrangian Cruise in the Western Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meo, O.; Salisbury, J.

    2010-12-01

    Quantifying the coastal ocean’s role in the carbon cycle has become an important consideration in calculating oceanic carbon budgets. While much previous work has focused on elucidating air-sea CO2 fluxes, little work has been done to quantify the biological component influencing this flux, which can be expressed as net community productivity (NCP). NCP is defined as the difference between gross primary productivity (GPP) and community respiration (R). This study seeks to constrain NCP, which is measurable through changes in the biological oxygen anomaly, and to identify an optical proxy for NCP that can be studied remotely by satellite. A Lagrangian experiment was conducted in the Western Gulf of Maine where the temporal evolution of a water mass and its properties were observed on seven cruises over the course of two and a half weeks. Dissolved oxygen data from Winkler incubations and depth profiles were used to calculate NCP independently. NCP was shown to be highly variable, ranging from apparent autotrophic to heterotrophic conditions. Additionally, variability in chlorophyll fluorescence (f-chl) was examined for use as an estimator of NCP. Changes in f-chl inventories correlated well with changes in dissolved oxygen inventories. A similar relationship was also exhibited in turnover rate. These correspondences are indicative that f-chl may be a viable proxy for estimating NCP. However, further work is needed to examine other optical properties that may serve as a better proxy.

  5. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  6. Community Television. A Handbook for Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to encourage older people to take an active role in local television program production and to design and produce programs that will enhance the quality of life for other older Americans. It is noted that locally produced television offers older people a voice at the local level, the opportunity for making new friends and…

  7. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbial communities during microalgal biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Hulatt, Chris J; Wakeman, Kathryn D; Thomas, David N; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2012-11-01

    Eukaryotic and bacterial communities were characterized and quantified in microalgal photobioreactor cultures of freshwater Chlorella vulgaris and marine Dunaliella tertiolecta. The microalgae exhibited good growth, whilst both cultures contained diverse bacterial communities. Both cultures included Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, while C. vulgaris cultures also contained Actinobacteria. The bacterial genera present in the cultures were different due to different growth medium salinities and possibly different extracellular products. Bacterial community profiles were relatively stable in D. tertiolecta cultures but not in C. vulgaris cultures likely due to presence of ciliates (Colpoda sp.) in the latter. The presence of ciliates did not, however, cause decrease in total number of C. vulgaris or bacteria during 14 days of cultivation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) reliably showed relative microalgal and bacterial cell numbers in the batch cultures with stable microbial communities, but was not effective when bacterial communities varied. Raw culture samples were successfully used as qPCR templates.

  8. Counteraction of antibiotic production and degradation stabilizes microbial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsic, Eric D.; Zhao, Jeffrey; Vetsigian, Kalin; Kishony, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Summary A major challenge in theoretical ecology is understanding how natural microbial communities support species diversity 1-8 , and in particular how antibiotic producing, sensitive and resistant species coexist 9-15 . While cyclic “rock-paper-scissors” interactions can stabilize communities in spatial environments 9-11 , coexistence in unstructured environments remains an enigma 12,16 . Here, using simulations and analytical models, we show that the opposing actions of antibiotic product...

  9. Co-production of community mental health services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væggemose, Ulla; Ankersen, Pia Vedel; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Co-production involves knowledge and skills based on both lived experiences of citizens and professionally training of staff. In Europe, co-production is viewed as an essential tool for meeting the demographic, political and economic challenges of welfare states. However, co-production is facing ...... for facilitating the co-productive practice of individual staff. Organised in this way, co-production can succeed even in a mental health setting associated with social stigma and in a welfare state dominated by public services........ The study setting was the Community Families programme, which aim to support the social network of mental health users by offering regular contact with selected private families/individuals. The task of the municipalities was to initiate and support Community Families. The analysis built on qualitative data...

  10. Partitioning of organic production in marine plankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conan, P.; Søndergaard, Morten; Kragh, T.;

    2007-01-01

    N limitation or forced the plankton communities to P limitation. Per added limiting nutrient, the diatom-dominated bags produced more particulate (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) than the other bags. However, the relative partitioning of net production to POC and DOC did not differ...... and a constant low net production of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) across the nutrient gradient. The production of DOP was low in the P-limited (-Si) bags; however, with a surplus of inorganic P, most of the assimilated P (74% to 85%) was recovered as new DOP. The consequence was a huge range...... diagenetic "maturation" process but can be produced almost immediately. Both the nutrient regime and phytoplankton community composition affected the production and composition of new DOM in this experiment...

  11. Competitors' communities and taxonomy of products according to export fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristelli, M.; Tacchella, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Pietronero, L.; Scala, A.; Caldarelli, G.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we use Complex Network Theory to quantitatively characterize and synthetically describe the complexity of trade between nations. In particular, we focus our attention on export fluxes. Starting from the bipartite countries-products network defined by export fluxes, we define two complementary graphs projecting the original network on countries and products respectively. We define, in both cases, a distance matrix amongst countries and products. Specifically, two countries are similar if they export similar products. This relationship can be quantified by building the Minimum Spanning Tree and the Minimum Spanning Forest from the distance matrices for products and countries. Through this simple and scalable method we are also able to carry out a community analysis. It is not gone unnoticed that in this way we can produce an effective categorization for products providing several advantages with respect to traditional classifications of COMTRADE [1]. Finally, the forests of countries allows for the detection of competitors' community and for the analysis of the evolution of these communities.

  12. Liquefied natural gas production at Hammerfest: A transforming marine community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bets, van L.K.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Global energy demand and scarce petroleum resources require communities to adapt to a rapidly changing Arctic environment, but as well to a transforming socio-economic environment instigated by oil and gas development. This is illustrated by liquefied natural gas production by Statoil at Hammerfest,

  13. Biodiversity increases the productivity and stability of phytoplankton communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina A Corcoran

    Full Text Available Global biodiversity losses provide an immediate impetus to elucidate the relationships between biodiversity, productivity and stability. In this study, we quantified the effects of species richness and species combination on the productivity and stability of phytoplankton communities subject to predation by a single rotifer species. We also tested one mechanism of the insurance hypothesis: whether large, slow-growing, potentially-defended cells would compensate for the loss of small, fast-growing, poorly-defended cells after predation. There were significant effects of species richness and species combination on the productivity, relative yield, and stability of phytoplankton cultures, but the relative importance of species richness and combination varied with the response variables. Species combination drove patterns of productivity, whereas species richness was more important for stability. Polycultures containing the most productive single species, Dunaliella, were consistently the most productive. Yet, the most species rich cultures were the most stable, having low temporal variability in measures of biomass. Polycultures recovered from short-term negative grazing effects, but this recovery was not due to the compensation of large, slow-growing cells for the loss of small, fast-growing cells. Instead, polyculture recovery was the result of reduced rotifer grazing rates and persisting small species within the polycultures. Therefore, although an insurance effect in polycultures was found, this effect was indirect and unrelated to grazing tolerance. We hypothesize that diverse phytoplankton assemblages interfered with efficient rotifer grazing and that this "interference effect" facilitated the recovery of the most productive species, Dunaliella. In summary, we demonstrate that both species composition and species richness are important in driving patterns of productivity and stability, respectively, and that stability in biodiverse

  14. Partitioning of organic production in marine plankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conan, P.; Søndergaard, Morten; Kragh, T.

    2007-01-01

    and a constant low net production of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) across the nutrient gradient. The production of DOP was low in the P-limited (-Si) bags; however, with a surplus of inorganic P, most of the assimilated P (74% to 85%) was recovered as new DOP. The consequence was a huge range...... limitation as the initial conditions. The experiment lasted 21 days in August. Addition of silicate (+Si) resulted in diatom dominance, while a more diverse community was present in treatments with no added Si (-Si). Addition of inorganic nutrients in a N:P gradient from 64 to 4 either conserved the initial...... N limitation or forced the plankton communities to P limitation. Per added limiting nutrient, the diatom-dominated bags produced more particulate (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) than the other bags. However, the relative partitioning of net production to POC and DOC did not differ...

  15. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  16. Mining Intention-Related Products on Online Q & A Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段俊文; 陈毅恒; 刘挺; 丁效

    2015-01-01

    User generated content on social media has attracted much attention from service/product providers, as it contains plenty of potential commercial opportunities. However, previous work mainly focuses on user consumption intention (CI) identification, and little effort has been spent to mine intention-related products. In this paper, focusing on the Baby &Child Care domain, we propose a novel approach to mine intention-related products on online question and answer (Q&A) community. Making use of the question-answering pairs as data source, we first automatically extract candidate products based on dependency parser. And then by means of the collocation extraction model, we identify the real intention-related products from the candidate set. The experimental results on our carefully constructed evaluation dataset show that our approach achieves better performance than two natural baseline methods.

  17. Product Safety, It's No Accident. A Consumer Product Safety Monthly Planning Guide for Community Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    A consumer product safety monthly planning guide for community organizations is provided. The material is organized into suggested monthly topics with seasonal emphasis. Each section highlights selected information about how to identify potential hazards associated with categories of products. Each section also includes recommendaitons of ways to…

  18. Counteraction of antibiotic production and degradation stabilizes microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsic, Eric D.; Zhao, Jeffrey; Vetsigian, Kalin; Kishony, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Summary A major challenge in theoretical ecology is understanding how natural microbial communities support species diversity1-8, and in particular how antibiotic producing, sensitive and resistant species coexist9-15. While cyclic “rock-paper-scissors” interactions can stabilize communities in spatial environments9-11, coexistence in unstructured environments remains an enigma12,16. Here, using simulations and analytical models, we show that the opposing actions of antibiotic production and degradation enable coexistence even in well-mixed environments. Coexistence depends on 3-way interactions where an antibiotic degrading species attenuates the inhibitory interactions between two other species. These 3-way interactions enable coexistence that is robust to substantial differences in inherent species growth rates and to invasion by “cheating” species that cease producing or degrading antibiotics. At least two antibiotics are required for stability, with greater numbers of antibiotics enabling more complex communities and diverse dynamical behaviors ranging from stable fixed-points to limit cycles and chaos. Together, these results show how multi-species antibiotic interactions can generate ecological stability in both spatial and mixed microbial communities, suggesting strategies for engineering synthetic ecosystems and highlighting the importance of toxin production and degradation for microbial biodiversity. PMID:25992546

  19. Counteraction of antibiotic production and degradation stabilizes microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsic, Eric D; Zhao, Jeffrey; Vetsigian, Kalin; Kishony, Roy

    2015-05-28

    A major challenge in theoretical ecology is understanding how natural microbial communities support species diversity, and in particular how antibiotic-producing, -sensitive and -resistant species coexist. While cyclic ‘rock–paper–scissors’ interactions can stabilize communities in spatial environments, coexistence in unstructured environments remains unexplained. Here, using simulations and analytical models, we show that the opposing actions of antibiotic production and degradation enable coexistence even in well-mixed environments. Coexistence depends on three-way interactions in which an antibiotic-degrading species attenuates the inhibitory interactions between two other species. These interactions enable coexistence that is robust to substantial differences in inherent species growth rates and to invasion by ‘cheating’ species that cease to produce or degrade antibiotics. At least two antibiotics are required for stability, with greater numbers of antibiotics enabling more complex communities and diverse dynamic behaviours ranging from stable fixed points to limit cycles and chaos. Together, these results show how multi-species antibiotic interactions can generate ecological stability in both spatially structured and mixed microbial communities, suggesting strategies for engineering synthetic ecosystems and highlighting the importance of toxin production and degradation for microbial biodiversity.

  20. Animating Community: Reflexivity and Identity in Indian Animation Production Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Animating Community examines the cultural practices of animators in India, and particularly the role of practitioner testimony in conceiving and negotiating social structures underpinning the nascent Indian animation industry. Recognizing a tendency in practitioner accounts towards theorization of contested industrial discourses, this research takes as its object the reflexive practice of animators in trade texts and interviews. These reveal how local practitioners understand production cultu...

  1. La inversión extranjera directa, las exportaciones, el producto interno bruto y el mercado laboral en Puerto Rico Foreign direct investment, exports, Gross Domestic Product and the labor market in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel L. Ruiz Mercado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se utiliza un modelo de vectores autorregresivos (VAR para examinar la interrelación entre la entrada de flujos de inversión extranjera directa (EFIED, las exportaciones, el producto interno bruto (PIB, la tasa de desempleo (TD y la tasa de participación laboral (TPL en Puerto Rico. Los datos utilizados incluyen los años fisca- les de 1980 al 2010. Se encontraron cuatro vectores cointegrados en el sistema, que evidencian la existencia de una relación de largo plazo entre las variables. Los hallazgos sugieren que aumentos consecutivos en la EFIED podrían reducir significativamente la TD e incrementar el interés de los puertorriqueños por ingresar en la fuerza laboral. El mismo resultado se refleja con relación a los incrementos en el nivel de exportaciones. Las variaciones en el PIB se explican principalmente en el largo plazo por la TD.In this paper, a vector autorregresive model (VAR is applied to examine the interrelationship among foreign direct investment, exports, Gross Domestic Product (GDP, unemployment rate and labor force participation rate in Puerto Rico, taking into account a time period that includes the fiscal years from 1980 to 2010.  Four cointegrating vectors were found in the system which indicates that there is a long run relationship between the variables. The findings suggest that consecutive increases in foreign direct investment inflows could significantly reduce the unemployment rate and increase interest in joining the labor force in Puerto Rico.  The same result also applies to increases in export levels.  The variations in Gross Domestic Product are mainly explained in the long run by the unemployment rate.

  2. Macroalgal blooms alter community structure and primary productivity in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Devin A; Arvanitidis, Christos; Blight, Andrew J; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Guy-Haim, Tamar; Kotta, Jonne; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Queirós, Ana M; Rilov, Gil; Somerfield, Paul J; Crowe, Tasman P

    2014-09-01

    Eutrophication, coupled with loss of herbivory due to habitat degradation and overharvesting, has increased the frequency and severity of macroalgal blooms worldwide. Macroalgal blooms interfere with human activities in coastal areas, and sometimes necessitate costly algal removal programmes. They also have many detrimental effects on marine and estuarine ecosystems, including induction of hypoxia, release of toxic hydrogen sulphide into the sediments and atmosphere, and the loss of ecologically and economically important species. However, macroalgal blooms can also increase habitat complexity, provide organisms with food and shelter, and reduce other problems associated with eutrophication. These contrasting effects make their overall ecological impacts unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the overall effects of macroalgal blooms on several key measures of ecosystem structure and functioning in marine ecosystems. We also evaluated some of the ecological and methodological factors that might explain the highly variable effects observed in different studies. Averaged across all studies, macroalgal blooms had negative effects on the abundance and species richness of marine organisms, but blooms by different algal taxa had different consequences, ranging from strong negative to strong positive effects. Blooms' effects on species richness also depended on the habitat where they occurred, with the strongest negative effects seen in sandy or muddy subtidal habitats and in the rocky intertidal. Invertebrate communities also appeared to be particularly sensitive to blooms, suffering reductions in their abundance, species richness, and diversity. The total net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, and respiration of benthic ecosystems were higher during macroalgal blooms, but blooms had negative effects on the productivity and respiration of other organisms. These results suggest that, in addition to their direct social and

  3. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  4. Climate change amplifies gross nitrogen turnover in montane grasslands of Central Europe both in summer and winter seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, Changhui; Unteregelsbacher, Sebastian; Lu, Haiyan; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Gasche, Rainer; Kolar, Allison; Schloter, Michael; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dannenmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The carbon and nitrogen rich soils of montane grasslands are exposed to above average warming and to altered precipitation patterns as a result of global change. In order to investigate the consequences of climatic change for soil nitrogen turnover, we translocated intact plant-soil mesocosms along an elevational gradient. Following three years of equilibration, we monitored the dynamics of gross nitrogen turnover and ammonia oxidizing microbes over an entire year. Gross nitrogen turnover and gene levels of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) showed pronounced seasonal dynamics. While both summer and winter periods equally contributed to cumulative annual N turnover, the highest gross N turnover and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were observed in frozen soil of climate change sites due to physical liberation of organic substrates and their rapid turnover in the unfrozen soil water film. The control site never experienced soil freezing due to a significant insulating snowpack. Climate change conditions accelerated gross N mineralization by 250% on average. The AOB community benefited more from increased soil ammonium production under climate change conditions than the AOA community and thus accounted for a significant increase in gross nitrification rates. Climate change impacts were restricted to the 2-6 cm topsoil and rarely occurred at 12-16 cm depth, where generally much lower N turnover was observed. Mineralization pulses in a changing climate may result in soil organic matter loss with their associated negative impacts on key soil functions. In this context, N cycling processes in frozen soil can be a hot spot for gross N turnover and thus be of paramount importance for understanding seasonal patterns, annual sum of N turnover and possible climate change feedbacks.

  5. Investigating impacts of economic growth on the environment using remote sensing tools: A case study of gross domestic product and net primary production in China from 2001 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo

    Pursuing sustainable co-development of economy and environment has been established as a basic national policy by the present Chinese government. However, studies regarding actual outcomes of the co-development policy at the whole Chinese scale are still limited. Detecting China's economic growth and changes of environmental quality will not only contribute to evaluation of outcomes of the co-development policy but more importantly is an opportunity to examine the suitability of the IPAT model and improve our understanding of human-environment interactions. The core of the IPAT theory is an equation where I=PxAxT that models human impact on the environment as a function of changes to population (P), affluence ( A), and technology (T). The IPAT theory emphasizes that economic growth will inevitably produce negative impacts on the environment. Thus, if China's environmental quality declined while economic growth occurred, then the IPAT theory will be substantiated. Otherwise, the suitability of the IPAT theory will be called into question and its tenets must be reconsidered. In this dissertation research I selected gross domestic product (GDP) and net primary production (NPP) as indicators to evaluate production of social and ecological systems respectively. The main study objectives are (1) to develop a methodology to facilitate integration of the two indicators derived from demographic data sources and satellite imagery at different geographic scales, (2) to jointly explore changing patterns of China's economic and ecological production (i.e., spatially and temporally coincident patterns of change in GDP and NPP) across different spatial scales, (3) to analyze whether economic growth has produced negative impacts on ecosystem production and whether the impacts correlate to the economic growth, and finally (4) to discuss whether the IPAT theory is suitable for explaining the joint changes of GDP and NPP in China or if it is in need of modification. To fulfill the

  6. The influence of iron and light on net community production in the Subantarctic and Polar Frontal Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cassar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The roles of iron and light in controlling biomass and primary productivity are clearly established in the Southern Ocean. However, their influence on net community production (NCP and carbon export remains to be quantified. To improve our understanding of NCP and carbon export production in the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ and the northern reaches of the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ, we conducted continuous onboard determinations of NCP as part of the Sub-Antarctic Sensitivity to Environmental Change (SAZ-Sense study, which occurred in January–February 2007. Biological O2 supersaturation was derived from measuring O2/Ar ratios by equilibrator inlet mass spectrometry. Based on these continuous measurements, NCP during the austral summer 2007 in the Australian SAZ was approximately 43 mmol O2 m−2 d−1. Both gross primary productivity (estimated from the oxygen triple isotope anomaly and NCP showed significant spatial variability, with larger values near the Subtropical front, and a general southward decrease. For shallower mixed layers (<50 m, dissolved Fe concentrations and Fe sufficiency, estimated from variable fluorescence, correlated strongly with NCP. At stations with deeper mixed layers, NCP was consistently low, regardless of iron sufficiency, consistent with light availability also being an important control of NCP. Our new observations provide independent evidence for the critical roles of iron and light in mediating carbon export from the Southern Ocean mixed layer.

  7. On-line Professional Learning Communities: Increasing Teacher Learning and Productivity in Isolated Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Salazar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available On-line and distance professional learning communities provides teachers with increased access and flexibility as well as the combination of work and education. It also provides a more learner-centered approach, enrichment and new ways of interacting with teachers in isolated rural areas. For educational administrators, on-line learning offers high quality and usually cost-effective professional development for teachers. It allows upgrading of skills, increased productivity and development of a new learning culture. At the same time, it means sharing of costs, of training time, increased portability of training, and the exchange of creativity, information, and dialogue.

  8. Influence of nutrients and mixing on the primary production and community respiration in the Gulf of Riga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Michael; Lundsgaard, Claus; Andrushaitis, Andris

    1999-12-01

    Rates of plankton community production and respiration in relation to wind, solar radiation, biomass and nutrients were measured in the mixed layer during a late spring, a mid-summer and an early autumn situation in the Gulf of Riga. System metabolism was estimated by the in vitro oxygen method and from oxygen mass balance directly in the water. Gross production (GPP) remained fairly stable throughout the investigation periods with a mean of 1.8 g C m -2 day -1 (range: 0.5-3.9 g C m -2 day -1). Community respiration varied from 0.5 to 6.4 g C m -2 day -1 during the two summer studies (the high respiration rates ranging from 3.0 to 10.4 g C m -2 day -1 found during the autumn cruise were probably overestimates). Respiration rates generally exceeded GPP indicating that the system was apparently net-heterotrophic during the three investigation periods. The predominant limiting factor for phytoplankton growth were nutrients during spring and summer. In autumn the combination of low light levels and high vertical mixing due to wind lead to conditions of light limitation. However, growth conditions were affected by the stabilizing (solar heating) and destabilizing (wind) forces acting on the water column in all three situations. Depending on the relative strength of these forces, day-to-day primary production could vary considerably. Under conditions of nutrient limitation mixing may increase photosynthesis; this is a consequence of improved exploitation of incident light and of available nutrients in the mixed layer. The strong dependency of mixing on primary production implies that measurements based on in vitro incubations may underestimate "real" production.

  9. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  10. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  11. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  12. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  13. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  14. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  15. Community College Enrollment as a Function of Economic Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Kevin L.; McGinty, Dixie; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a study that investigated the ability of national economic trends to predict enrollment in community colleges. Reports that unemployment rate, gross domestic product, dollars disposable income, and personal consumption expenditures are good indicators of trends in community college enrollment, but that consumer price index and average…

  16. Prevention of microbial communities: novel approaches based natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogosanu, George D; Grumezescu, Alexandru M; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Bejenaru, Ludovic E; Bejenaru, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Firmly attached to different living or non-living, solid or fluid surfaces rich in nutrients and moisture, microbial biofilm is a matter of great interest due to its major importance for the healthcare community. Depending on common strategies such as mutual protection and hibernation (quiescent bacteria), the resistance, survival and virulence of microbial communities have large implications for human pathology, clinical environment and biomedical devices. The microbial biofilm is continuously changing, stimulating inflammation, increasing vascular permeability and preventing the action of macrophages. About 80% of human infections affecting the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and respiratory systems, oral mucosa and teeth, eyes, middle ear and skin are caused by biofilm-associated microorganisms. Therefore, the search for modern strategies is even more important as microbial biofilms resistant to conventional antibiotics, antiseptics and disinfectants are involved in the frequent treatment failures of some chronic inflammatory diseases and wounds. Natural products containing secondary metabolites, such as aromatic compounds, sulphurated derivatives, terpenoids (essential oils) and alkaloids as quorum-sensing inhibitors and biofilm disruptors, are promising alternatives for the prophylaxis and treatment of chronic infections. Surface modification of medical devices with non-polar functionalized nanoparticles stabilizes the natural compounds antibiofilm activity and inhibits microbial adhesion and biofilm formation and growth for a longer period of time. In this regard, an interdisciplinary approach is needed due to the large number of natural derivatives alone or in combination with biocompatible and biodegradable micro-/ nano-engineered materials.

  17. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  18. 中国国内生产总值及其相关因素分析%The Study of the Gross Domestic Product of China and the Analysis of Various Determining Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪跃芝; 邓波; 董小刚; 赵雅玲

    2011-01-01

    自1978年改革开放以来,中国国内生产总值连续高速增长.基于对1978-2008年共31年来中国国内生产总值、固定资产投资、能源消费总量、进出口贸易总额、居民消费、人口数、财政收入等因素的关系研究,提出一个更为合适的对数线性模型,同时给出了该模型中参数的估计方法.研究表明:截止至2008年,中国国内生产总值的增长是不均衡的,而是分阶段的,而且在不同阶段,影响国内生产总值的因素有所不同,并且从经济学角度对所建立的模型给出了合理的解释,结论符合中国实际.%Since the Economic Reform in 1978, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of China grows continuously and rapidly. This article studies the relationship among factors such as GDP, fixed assets investment, the total energy expense, total import and export trade, consumer, population, financial income etc in the past 31 years, brings out a more reasonable log-linear model and provides the analysis of the modes in the model. The research shows that till 2008, the growth of GDP is not even but depends on different stages, in different stages; the factors that affect the GDP are different. Moreover, the article provides a reasonable explanation on the built model from an economic perspective and the conclusion matches the real situation in China.

  19. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  20. Being Involved in the Country: Productive Ageing in Different Types of Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sandra; Crothers, Natalie; Grant, Jeanette; Young, Sari; Smith, Karly

    2012-01-01

    Productive ageing recognises the contribution of older people to economic, social and cultural growth and helps build a sustainable community. Being involved in community life is good for individuals and good for society. However, we know very little about the participation of and contribution by people aged 50 and over in rural communities. This…

  1. Community Pharmacists’ Views and Practices Regarding Natural Health Products Sold in Community Pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necyk, Candace

    2016-01-01

    Background Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs). The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are “front-line” health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied. Methods Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15) open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies. Results The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68%) recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist’s Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84%) recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31%) recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Conclusions The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists’ practices around NHPs are consistent with

  2. Community Pharmacists' Views and Practices Regarding Natural Health Products Sold in Community Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbogu, Ubaka; Necyk, Candace

    Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs). The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are "front-line" health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied. Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15) open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68%) recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist's Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84%) recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31%) recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists' practices around NHPs are consistent with the existing licensing framework, we found some

  3. Assessing Urban Community Gardens’ Impact on Net Primary Production using NDVI

    OpenAIRE

    Parece, Tammy E.; Campbell, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Community gardens are one form of urban agriculture–growing of food and non-food products for sale or consumption within urban and peri-urban areas. Urban community gardens provide many benefits, including provisioning of fresh and nutritious foods, supporting environmental education, nurturing social interaction and community building, and contributing to sustainability. In many cities worldwide, urban agriculture is now integrated within urban planning programs. Although social, community, ...

  4. Importance of structure and density of macroalgae communities (Fucus serratus) for photosynthetic production and light utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    Determination of photosynthetic production in plant communities is essential for evaluating plant growth rates and carbon fluxes in ecosystems, but it cannot easily be derived from the photosynthetic response of individual leaves or thalli, which has been the focus of virtually all previous aquatic...... studies. To evaluate the regulation of aquatic community production, we measured the photosynthetic production of thallus parts and entire communities of Fucus serratus (L.) of different density and spatial structure exposed to varying photon flux density and dissolved CO2 concentration. Photosynthetic...... production in relation to photon flux density differed considerably between entire communities and individual thallus parts. No light saturation occurred in the communities, and all photosynthetic variables such as light compensation point, efficiency of light utilisation at low light and maximum production...

  5. Phenological Complementarity Does not Enhance Ecosystem Production in Undisturbed Steppe Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zhao; Gui-Xia Yang; Zhong-Ling Liu; Xiao-Ping Xin; Yan-Jiang Luo; Gang Wang

    2007-01-01

    Communities with more species could have a greater variety of species' characteristics, leading to more effective use of limiting resources through niche partitioning (complementarity) and therefore greater production. The effect of phenological complementarity (PC) on ecosystem production has not been fully investigated. The seasonal responses of all vascular plant species were tracked to test the effect of phenological complementarity on ecosystem production within a natural stable steppe community. Although a significant phenological pattern was observed, PC had no significant correlation with community production. The value of PC varied with years, but was observed only in a relatively narrow range during the experimental period. Species diversity (richness and evenness) had no correlation with the ecosystem production. The results suggest that the effect of PC may be saturated and has no contribution to the improvement of ecosystem production in a stable natural grassland community with abundant species.

  6. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  7. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  8. Exploring the locus of invention : The dynamics of network communities and firms’ invention productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytch, M.; Tatarynowicz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Departing from prior research analyzing the implications of social structure for actors' outcomes by applying either an ego network or a global network perspective, this study examines the implications of network communities for the invention productivity of firms. Network communities represent

  9. Diversity effects on root length production and loss in an experimental grassland community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommer, L.; Padilla, F.M.; Ruijven, van J.; Caluwe, de H.; Smit-Tiekstra, A.E.; Berendse, F.; Kroon, de H.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in root ecology have revealed that root standing biomass is higher in species-rich plant communities than in species-poor communities. Currently, we do not know whether this below-ground diversity effect is the result of enhanced root production or reduced root mortality or both, which is

  10. Diversity effects on root length production and loss in an experimental grassland community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommer, L.; Padilla, F.M.; Ruijven, van J.; Caluwe, de H.; Smit-Tiekstra, A.E.; Berendse, F.; Kroon, de H.

    2015-01-01

    1.Advances in root ecology have revealed that root standing biomass is higher in species-rich plant communities than in species-poor communities. Currently, we do not know whether this below-ground diversity effect is the result of enhanced root production or reduced root mortality or both, which is

  11. Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita and geographical distribution of ophthalmologists in Brazil Produto Interno Bruto (PIB per capita e a distribuição geográfica dos oftalmologistas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina de Souza Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the number of ophthalmologists in Brazil, their regional distribution, ophthalmologist/habitant ratio, and the relation between ophthalmologist and State Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita to aid public health policies. METHODS: An ecologic study was conducted. Data were obtained from the "Census 2011 Brazilian Ophthalmology Council", from "Demographic Census of Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE 2010 and from "Brazilian Regional Accounts, 2005-2009"- Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management - IBGE. RESULTS: The number of ophthalmologists in Brazil is 15,719. Considering the performance in more than one municipality, the number of ophthalmologists in service is 17,992, that is, one ophthalmologist for 10,601; the ophthalmologist/site ratio vary among the States from a minimum of 1/51,437 (Amapá to a maximum of 1/4,279 (Distrito Federal. There is a correlation among State GDP per capita and the number of ophthalmologists/habitant: the higher the GDP per capita, the larger is the number of ophthalmologists acting in the State (pOBJETIVO: Analisar o número de médicos que exercem a Oftalmologia no Brasil, sua distribuição regional; relação oftalmologista por habitante e Produto Interno Bruto (PIB Estadual per capita, para auxiliar as políticas de saúde pública. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo ecológico. Os dados foram obtidos do "Censo 2011 - Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia", do "Censo Demográfico do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE 2010 e do "Contas Regionais do Brasil, 2005-2009"- Ministério do Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE. RESULTADOS: O número de oftalmologistas no Brasil é de 15.719. Considerando a atuação em mais de um município, o número de oftalmologistas em atendimento é de 17.992, isto é um oftalmologista para 10.601; as relações oftalmologista/local de atendimento, variam entre os

  12. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  13. Use and evaluation of disposable absorbent products for managing fecal incontinence by community-living people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z; Lewis, Jaclyn; Hasselman, Keegan; Savik, Kay; Lowry, Ann; Whitebird, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The use of disposable absorbent products by community-dwelling people with fecal incontinence (FI) was described. A survey was administered to 189 community-living individuals with FI at the start of a clinical trial about the effects of dietary fiber on FI. Forty-five percent of respondents (86/189) used an absorbent product to manage FI. More women (88%, 76/86, P = .009) and persons aged 65 years and older (44%, 38/86, P = .001) wore an absorbent product. Participants who wore an absorbent product for FI had a higher (worse) FI severity score (median, 4.75; range, 1-27; P = .006). Sixty-three users wore pantiliners and they were the only ones who used more than 3 products per day. Feminine hygiene products were worn more than incontinence products. Half of users were satisfied with the product they used. Evaluations of product features differed by type of product; odor control had some of the lowest ratings. Community-living individuals with FI, especially women and older individuals, tend to wear absorbent products. Perceptions of FI severity, preference, leakage of liquid stool, and presence of urinary incontinence influence the product type and pattern of wear. Participants report that modification of several features of absorbent products might make them more suitable for FI and increase satisfaction.

  14. Making products available among community health workers: Evidence for improving community health supply chains from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandani, Yasmin; Andersson, Sarah; Heaton, Alexis; Noel, Megan; Shieshia, Mildred; Mwirotsi, Amanda; Krudwig, Kirstin; Nsona, Humphreys; Felling, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    A UNICEF review of the challenges to scaling up integrated community case management (iCCM) found that drug shortages were a common bottleneck. In many settings, little thought has gone into the design of supply chains to the community level and limited evidence exists for how to address these unique challenges. SC4CCM's purpose was to conduct intervention research to identify proven, simple, affordable solutions that address the unique supply chain challenges faced by CHWs and to demonstrate that supply chain constraints at the community level can be overcome. SC4CCM selected three countries to implement supply chain innovations and developed a theory of change (TOC) framework for the learning phase, which identified the main drivers of product availability and was used for baseline assessments, design, implementation and evaluation of interventions in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda. Interventions were developed in each country and tested over 12-24 months. Mixed-method follow up assessments were conducted in each country in 2012-2013. The Supply Chain for Community Case Management (SC4CCM) Project then simplified the TOC into a Community Health Supply Chain (CHSC) framework to enable cross country analysis. The findings from interventions in the three countries suggest that the greatest supply chain benefits are realized when all three CHSC framework elements (data flow, product flow, and effective people) are in place and working together. The synergistic effect of these three elements on supply chain performance was most effectively demonstrated by results from the Enhanced Management and Quality Collaborative interventions in Malawi and Rwanda, respectively, which were characterized by lower mean stockout rates and higher in stock rates on day of visit, when compared to other interventions. Many conditions are necessary to ensure continuous product availability at the community level, however a supply chain works best when three key elements (product flow, data

  15. Making products available among community health workers: Evidence for improving community health supply chains from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandani, Yasmin; Andersson, Sarah; Heaton, Alexis; Noel, Megan; Shieshia, Mildred; Mwirotsi, Amanda; Krudwig, Kirstin; Nsona, Humphreys; Felling, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background A UNICEF review of the challenges to scaling up integrated community case management (iCCM) found that drug shortages were a common bottleneck. In many settings, little thought has gone into the design of supply chains to the community level and limited evidence exists for how to address these unique challenges. SC4CCM’s purpose was to conduct intervention research to identify proven, simple, affordable solutions that address the unique supply chain challenges faced by CHWs and to demonstrate that supply chain constraints at the community level can be overcome. Methods SC4CCM selected three countries to implement supply chain innovations and developed a theory of change (TOC) framework for the learning phase, which identified the main drivers of product availability and was used for baseline assessments, design, implementation and evaluation of interventions in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda. Interventions were developed in each country and tested over 12–24 months. Mixed–method follow up assessments were conducted in each country in 2012–2013. The Supply Chain for Community Case Management (SC4CCM) Project then simplified the TOC into a Community Health Supply Chain (CHSC) framework to enable cross country analysis Results The findings from interventions in the three countries suggest that the greatest supply chain benefits are realized when all three CHSC framework elements (data flow, product flow, and effective people) are in place and working together. The synergistic effect of these three elements on supply chain performance was most effectively demonstrated by results from the Enhanced Management and Quality Collaborative interventions in Malawi and Rwanda, respectively, which were characterized by lower mean stockout rates and higher in stock rates on day of visit, when compared to other interventions. Conclusions Many conditions are necessary to ensure continuous product availability at the community level, however a supply chain works

  16. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  17. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  18. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  19. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  20. Congregating to create for social change: Urban youth media production and sense of community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaraman, Linda

    2013-03-01

    This case study explored how adolescents were empowered through after school media production activities and, in the process, re-imagined themselves as active and engaged citizens within their community. Through analyzing interviews, participant observations, and media artifacts of 14 participants (aged 15-19) over a period of 18 months, three main themes emerged from the triangulation of data: (1) sociocultural capital through group ownership; (2) safe space for creative expression; and (3) developing a sense of community with diverse voices. These young people exercised their collective voice toward pro-social actions by writing and producing their stories and showcasing their works at community screenings. They hoped that their videos would promote individual and community transformations. Building on youth development, community psychology, and media literacy frameworks, this article discusses educational implications like advocating for the power of youth media production to bridge participants' personal and private artistry to public and political statements.

  1. Highly predictable photosynthetic production in natural macroalgal communities from incoming and absorbed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelboe, Anne Lise; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Binzer, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    (canopy absorptance, species number and thallus metabolism). Detached thalli of dominant species performed optimally at different times of the year, but showed no general seasonal changes in photosynthetic features. Production capacity of communities at high light varied only 1.8-fold over the year...... and was unrelated to incident irradiance, temperature and mean thallus photosynthesis, while community absorptance was a highly significant predictor. Actual rates of community photosynthesis were closely related to incident and absorbed irradiance alone. Community absorptance in turn was correlated to canopy...... metabolically active, and (3) maximum possible absorptance at 100% constrains the total photosynthesis of all species. Our results imply that the photosynthetic production of macroalgal communities is more predictable than their complex and dynamic nature suggest and that predictions are possible over wide...

  2. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  3. Effects of temperature and irradiance on a benthic microalgal community: A combined two-dimensional oxygen and fluorescence imaging approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancke, Kasper; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten

    2014-01-01

    The effects of temperature and light on both oxygen (O2) production and gross photosynthesis were resolved in a benthic microalgae community by combining two-dimensional (2D) imaging of O2 and variable chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence. Images revealed a photosynthetically active community with ...

  4. Interactive effects of mycorrhizae and a root hemiparasite on plant community productivity and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia; Rissmann, Cornelia; Hempel, Stefan; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François; Prati, Daniel; Auge, Harald

    2009-02-01

    Plant communities can be affected both by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and hemiparasitic plants. However, little is known about the interactive effects of these two biotic factors on the productivity and diversity of plant communities. To address this question, we set up a greenhouse study in which different AMF inocula and a hemiparasitic plant (Rhinanthus minor) were added to experimental grassland communities in a fully factorial design. In addition, single plants of each species in the grassland community were grown with the same treatments to distinguish direct AMF effects from indirect effects via plant competition. We found that AMF changed plant community structure by influencing the plant species differently. At the community level, AMF decreased the productivity by 15-24%, depending on the particular AMF treatment, mainly because two dominant species, Holcus lanatus and Plantago lanceolata, showed a negative mycorrhizal dependency. Concomitantly, plant diversity increased due to AMF inoculation and was highest in the treatment with a combination of two commercial AM strains. AMF had a positive effect on growth of the hemiparasite, and thereby induced a negative impact of the hemiparasite on host plant biomass which was not found in non-inoculated communities. However, the hemiparasite did not increase plant diversity. Our results highlight the importance of interactions with soil microbes for plant community structure and that these indirect effects can vary among AMF treatments. We conclude that mutualistic interactions with AMF, but not antagonistic interactions with a root hemiparasite, promote plant diversity in this grassland community.

  5. Microbial community structure of three traditional zambian fermented products: mabisi, chibwantu and munkoyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoustra, Sijmen E; Kasase, Chitundu; Toarta, Cristian; Kassen, Rees; Poulain, Alexandre J

    2013-01-01

    Around the world, raw materials are converted into fermented food products through microbial and enzymatic activity. Products are typically produced using a process known as batch culture, where small volumes of an old culture are used to initiate a fresh culture. Repeated over many years, and provided samples are not shared among producers, batch culture techniques allow for the natural evolution of independent microbial ecosystems. While these products form an important part of the diets of many people because of their nutritional, organoleptic and food safety properties, for many traditional African fermented products the microbial communities responsible for fermentation are largely unknown. Here we describe the microbial composition of three traditional fermented non-alcoholic beverages that are widely consumed across Zambia: the milk based product Mabisi and the cereal based products Munkoyo and Chibwantu. Using culture and non-culture based techniques, we found that six to eight lactic acid bacteria predominate in all products. We then used this data to investigate in more detail the factors affecting community structure. We found that products made from similar raw materials do not harbor microbial communities that are more similar to each other than those made from different raw materials. We also found that samples from the same product taken at the same location were as different from each other in terms of microbial community structure and composition, as those from geographically very distant locations. These results suggest that microbial community structure in these products is neither a simple consequence of the raw materials used, nor the particular suite of microbes available in the environment but that anthropogenic variables (e.g., competition among sellers or organoleptic preferences by different tribes) are important in shaping the microbial community structures.

  6. Microbial community structure of three traditional zambian fermented products: mabisi, chibwantu and munkoyo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijmen E Schoustra

    Full Text Available Around the world, raw materials are converted into fermented food products through microbial and enzymatic activity. Products are typically produced using a process known as batch culture, where small volumes of an old culture are used to initiate a fresh culture. Repeated over many years, and provided samples are not shared among producers, batch culture techniques allow for the natural evolution of independent microbial ecosystems. While these products form an important part of the diets of many people because of their nutritional, organoleptic and food safety properties, for many traditional African fermented products the microbial communities responsible for fermentation are largely unknown. Here we describe the microbial composition of three traditional fermented non-alcoholic beverages that are widely consumed across Zambia: the milk based product Mabisi and the cereal based products Munkoyo and Chibwantu. Using culture and non-culture based techniques, we found that six to eight lactic acid bacteria predominate in all products. We then used this data to investigate in more detail the factors affecting community structure. We found that products made from similar raw materials do not harbor microbial communities that are more similar to each other than those made from different raw materials. We also found that samples from the same product taken at the same location were as different from each other in terms of microbial community structure and composition, as those from geographically very distant locations. These results suggest that microbial community structure in these products is neither a simple consequence of the raw materials used, nor the particular suite of microbes available in the environment but that anthropogenic variables (e.g., competition among sellers or organoleptic preferences by different tribes are important in shaping the microbial community structures.

  7. Community photosynthesis of aquatic macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, T.; Sand-Jensen, K.; Middelboe, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition of photosynt......We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition...... of photosynthesis at the highest irradiances of about 2,000 mmol m22 s21. Macrophyte communities displayed much higher maximum gross production (GPmax), respiration, and light compensation point than separate phytoelements because of the multilayered structure and extensive self-shading in the communities, whereas...

  8. Community photosynthesis of aquatic macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, T.; Sand-Jensen, K.; Middelboe, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition of photosynt......We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition...... of photosynthesis at the highest irradiances of about 2,000 mmol m22 s21. Macrophyte communities displayed much higher maximum gross production (GPmax), respiration, and light compensation point than separate phytoelements because of the multilayered structure and extensive self-shading in the communities, whereas...

  9. Net community production in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    Sea. Differential monsoon forcing in these two regions might cause such variability. In contrast to the Arabian Sea, net heterotrophy is noticed during the SWM in the Bay of Bengal when peak river discharge occurs. The bacterial biomass and production...

  10. Consumption of herbal products: a study of urban community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul’Afifah Sulaiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Formulation of herbs into dosage forms promotes their marketing and usage. However, if these herbal products are being taken in an unhealthy trend, they may pose risks to consumers. Aims The present study aimed to investigate herbal product consumption trends (n=550 among adults in the main cities of Malaysia. Methods A questionnaire-based, six-week cross-sectional study was conducted. Respondents were randomly selected in Shah Alam, Klang, Subang, and Kuala Lumpur. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and Chi-square test was applied where appropriate. Results Out of the 550 survey instruments distributed, 453(82.4 per cent responded. The prevalence rate of herbal products use among the adult population in the past 12 months was 71.5 per cent. Regarding the consumption profile; the consumers were mostly female (73.4 per cent, age 25–44 (72.8, and educated at tertiary level (74.8 per cent. The majority of respondents perceived that herbal products helped reduce severity of illness and improve health related quality of life, while (16.4 per cent consumed the herbal products for the treatment of menstrual problem, 71.7 per cent without the recommendation of health care professionals and 85.0 per cent of them purchased through over-the-counter retail sales. The herbal products most commonly consume were Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah (32.4 per cent, Camellia sinensis (Green Tea (32.1 per cent, Panax ginseng (Ginseng (23.8 per cent, and Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali (22.5 per cent. Conclusion This study highlights an unhealthy trend in self-prescription of herbal product consumption without healthcare professionals’ recommendation. Hence, there is an urgent need for healthcare professionals to monitor herbal product consumption.

  11. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and the productivity and structure of prairie grassland communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jonathan T; Kleczewski, Nathan M; Bever, James D; Clay, Keith; Reynolds, Heather L

    2012-12-01

    Due to their complementary roles in meeting plant nutritional needs, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (N(2)-fixers) may have synergistic effects on plant communities. Using greenhouse microcosms, we tested the effects of AMF, N(2)-fixers (symbiotic: rhizobia, and associative: Azospirillum brasilense), and their potential interactions on the productivity, diversity, and species composition of diverse tallgrass prairie communities and on the productivity of Panicum virgatum in monoculture. Our results demonstrate the importance of AMF and N(2)-fixers as drivers of plant community structure and function. In the communities, we found a positive effect of AMF on diversity and productivity, but a negative effect of N(2)-fixers on productivity. Both AMF and N(2)-fixers affected relative abundances of species. AMF shifted the communities from dominance by Elymus canadensis to Sorghastrum nutans, and seven other species increased in abundance with AMF, accounting for the increased diversity. N(2)-fixers led to increases in Astragalus canadensis and Desmanthus illinoense, two legumes that likely benefited from the presence of the appropriate rhizobia symbionts. Sorghastrum nutans declined 44 % in the presence of N(2)-fixers, with the most likely explanation being increased competition from legumes. Panicum monocultures were more productive with AMF, but showed no response to N(2)-fixers, although inference was constrained by low Azospirillum treatment effectivity. We did not find interactions between AMF and N(2)-fixers in communities or Panicum monocultures, indicating that short-term effects of these microbial functional groups are additive.

  12. Community Structure and Productivity in Western Mongolian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyokazu Kawada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The people of the Mongolian steppe have maintained a sustainable, nomadic lifestyle. However, several ecological processes are threatening their way of life. Ecological changan be detected through the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. It is therefore, imperative to develop a sustainable rangeland management system aimed at combating desertifi cation. In this study we quantitatively and qualitatively describe several western Mongolian steppe plant communities by examining species composition, plant volume and community structure. Study sites were located in the Uvs and Khovd provinces and had all been affected by livestock grazing. A total of 48 species were found. Stipa krylovii , S . gobica , Cleistogenes songorica , Koeleria cristata and Ajania achilleoides were dominant. There was a signifi cant relationship between biomass and plant volume at all sites. Study sites were classifi ed into four groups using cluster analysis, based on the presence or absence of several species. More than 90% of plant volumes at all groups were perennial grasses and perennial forbs. The ratio of C 3 to C 4 plants at site 3 was reversed in comparison to the other sites. Species highly palatable to livestock were dominant at all sites. To ensure the sustainable use of biological resources in these arid areas, these fi ndings should be taken into account in designing land-use plans.

  13. Productivity affects the density-body mass relationship of soil fauna communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comor, V.N.R.; Thakur, M.P.; Berg, M.P.; Bie, de S.; Prins, H.H.T.; Langevelde, van F.

    2014-01-01

    The productivity of ecosystems and their disturbance regime affect the structure of animal communities. However, it is not clear which trophic levels benefit the most from higher productivity or are the most impacted by disturbance. The density-body mass (DBM) relationship has been shown to reflect

  14. In vitro O 2 fluxes compared with 14C production and other rate terms during the JGOFS Equatorial Pacific experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Michael; Orchardo, Joe; Dickson, Mary-Lynn; Barber, Richard; Lindley, Steven

    1999-04-01

    We report rates of gross and net O 2 production measured in vitro during JGOFS cruises in the equatorial Pacific in spring and fall, 1992. We scale O 2 productivities to net and gross C production. We then compare the calculated rates with 14C production and with new/export production measured by various techniques. 14C productivities in samples incubated for 24 h are about 45% of gross carbon production rates calculated from gross O 2 production. The difference is compatible with expected rates of the Mehler reaction, photorespiration, excretion, and community mitochondrial respiration. 14C production rates are similar to net carbon production rates in the upper half of the euphotic zone. At lower irradiances, where net C production can be zero or less, 14C productivities lie between net community production and gross primary production. Net carbon production rates in vitro are a factor of =4-20 times greater than estimates from drifting sediment trap and tracer transport studies. This difference probably reflects anomalous accumulation of POC in bottles because of the exclusion of grazers.

  15. PREDICTION OF GROSS FEED EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict gross feed efficiency of Italian Holstein Friesian bulls selected for production, functional and type traits. A total of 12,238 bulls, from the April 2015 genetic evaluation, were used. Predicted daily gross feed efficiency (pFE was obtained as ratio between milk yield (MY and predicted dry matter intake (pDMI. Phenotypic trend for MY, predicted body weight (pBW and pFE were calculated by the bull birth year. The results suggest that pFE can be successfully selected to increase profitability of dairy cattle using the current milk recording system. Direct measurements on DMI should be considered to confirm results of pFE obtained in the present study.

  16. irrigated rice production system of Omor community, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cash earnings/income, experience the most adverse consequences of malaria. ... showed greater flexibility in coping with a member's loss of effective work time by ..... Table 4: Labour utilization patterns and wage rate in the rice production ...

  17. Scientific Knowledge Mobilization: Co-evolution of Data Products and Designated Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Baker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital data are accumulating rapidly, yet issues relating to data production remain unexamined. Data sharing efforts in particular are nascent, disunited and incomplete. We investigate the development of data products tailored for diverse communities with differing knowledge bases. We explore not the technical aspects of how, why, or where data are made available, but rather the socio-scientific aspects influencing what data products are created and made available for use. These products differ from compact data summaries often published in journals. We report on development by a national data center of two data collections describing the changing polar environment. One collection characterizes sea ice products derived from satellite remote sensing data and development unfolds over three decades. The second collection characterizes the Greenland Ice Sheet melt where development of an initial collection of data products over a period of several months was informed by insights gained from earlier experience. In documenting the generation of these two collections, a data product development cycle supported by a data product team is identified as key to mobilizing scientific knowledge. The collections reveal a co-evolution of data products and designated communities where community interest may be triggered by events such as environmental disturbance and new modes of communication. These examples of data product development in practice illustrate knowledge mobilization in the earth sciences; the collections create a bridge between data producers and a growing number of audiences interested in making evidence-based decisions.

  18. Using phylogenetic, functional and trait diversity to understand patterns of plant community productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc W Cadotte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two decades of research showing that increasing plant diversity results in greater community productivity has been predicated on greater functional diversity allowing access to more of the total available resources. Thus, understanding phenotypic attributes that allow species to partition resources is fundamentally important to explaining diversity-productivity relationships. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we use data from a long-term experiment (Cedar Creek, MN and compare the extent to which productivity is explained by seven types of community metrics of functional variation: 1 species richness, 2 variation in 10 individual traits, 3 functional group richness, 4 a distance-based measure of functional diversity, 5 a hierarchical multivariate clustering method, 6 a nonmetric multidimensional scaling approach, and 7 a phylogenetic diversity measure, summing phylogenetic branch lengths connecting community members together and may be a surrogate for ecological differences. Although most of these diversity measures provided significant explanations of variation in productivity, the presence of a nitrogen fixer and phylogenetic diversity were the two best explanatory variables. Further, a statistical model that included the presence of a nitrogen fixer, seed weight and phylogenetic diversity was a better explanation of community productivity than other models. CONCLUSIONS: Evolutionary relationships among species appear to explain patterns of grassland productivity. Further, these results reveal that functional differences among species involve a complex suite of traits and that perhaps phylogenetic relationships provide a better measure of the diversity among species that contributes to productivity than individual or small groups of traits.

  19. Interspecific neighbor interactions promote the positive diversity-productivity relationship in experimental grassland communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Wang, Yongfan; Yu, Shixiao

    2014-01-01

    Because the frequency of heterospecific interactions inevitably increases with species richness in a community, biodiversity effects must be expressed by such interactions. However, little is understood how heterospecific interactions affect ecosystem productivity because rarely are biodiversity ecosystem functioning experiments spatially explicitly manipulated. To test the effect of heterospecific interactions on productivity, direct evidence of heterospecific neighborhood interaction is needed. In this study we conducted experiments with a detailed spatial design to investigate whether and how heterospecific neighborhood interactions promote primary productivity in a grassland community. The results showed that increasing the heterospecific: conspecific contact ratio significantly increased productivity. We found there was a significant difference in the variation in plant height between monoculture and mixture communities, suggesting that height-asymmetric competition for light plays a central role in promoting productivity. Heterospecific interactions make tall plants grow taller and short plants become smaller in mixtures compared to monocultures, thereby increasing the efficiency of light interception and utilization. Overyielding in the mixture communities arises from the fact that the loss in the growth of short plants is compensated by the increased growth of tall plants. The positive correlation between species richness and primary production was strengthened by increasing the frequency of heterospecific interactions. We conclude that species richness significantly promotes primary ecosystem production through heterospecific neighborhood interactions.

  20. Effects of Oxytetracycline on Methane Production and the Microbial Communities During Anaerobic Digestion of Cow Manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Xin; WANG Chun-yong; LI Run-dong; ZHANG Yun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (37°C) of cow manure were investigated. Before anaerobic digestion, OTC was added to digesters at concentrations of 20, 50, and 80 mg L-1, respectively. Compared with no-antibiotic control, all methane productions underwent different levels of inhibition at different concentrations of OTC. Changes in the bacterial and archaeal communities were discussed by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Results showed that OTC affected the richness and diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities. The bacterial genus Flavobacterium and an uncultured bacterium (JN256083.1) were detected throughout the entire process of anaerobic digestion and seemed to be the functional bacteria. Methanobrevibacter boviskoreani and an uncultured archaeon (FJ230982.1) dominated the archaeal communities during anaerobic digestion. These microorganisms may have high resistance to OTC and may play vital roles in methane production.

  1. Consumption-weighted life cycle assessment of a consumer electronic product community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryen, Erinn G; Babbitt, Callie W; Williams, Eric

    2015-02-17

    A new approach for quantifying the net environmental impact of a "community" of interrelated products is demonstrated for consumer electronics owned by an average U.S. household over a 15-year period (1992-2007). This consumption-weighted life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology accounts for both product consumption (number of products per household) and impact (cumulative energy demand (MJ) and greenhouse gas emissions (MT CO2 eq) per product), analyzed using a hybrid LCA framework. Despite efficiency improvements in individual devices from 1992 to 2007, the net impact of the entire product community increased, due primarily to increasing ownership and usage. The net energy impact for the product community is significant, nearly 30% of the average gasoline use in a U.S. passenger vehicle in 2007. The analysis points to a large contribution by legacy products (cathode ray tube televisions and desktop computers), due to historically high consumption rates, although impacts are beginning to shift to smaller mobile devices. This method is also applied to evaluate prospective intervention strategies, indicating that environmental impact can be reduced by strategies such as lifespan extension or energy efficiency, but only when applied to all products owned, or by transforming consumption trends toward fewer, highly multifunctional products.

  2. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  3. The New Mode of Housing Production: Gated Communities in İstanbul

    OpenAIRE

    Yönet, Neslihan Aydın; Yirmibeşoğlu, Funda

    2015-01-01

    The city of Istanbul is undergoing rapid socio-spatial transformation due to globalization and neoliberalpolicies. These policies lead to social segregation by creating unequal income distribution and employmentopportunities. This rapid transformation is changing housing demand and supply. Urban elites flee from the chaosand insecurity of the city and start to move into gated communities (GCs) located in the urban periphery. Thesegated communities are the newest form of housing production in ...

  4. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  5. Variable effects of dispersal on productivity of bacterial communities due to changes in functional trait composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Severin

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown variable relationships between dispersal rate and ecosystem functioning, but the reasons for and mechanisms behind variable dispersal rate-functioning patterns are currently unknown. In this study we used six bacterial lake water communities in a laboratory experiment in order to investigate how dispersal among communities influences community productivity by evaluating three different mechanisms: 1 changes in taxonomic diversity, 2 changes in phylogenetic diversity or 3 changes in the composition of functional traits. The experiment was conducted in two phases; (A a dialysis bag experiment where the dispersal rate among six communities was manipulated and the subsequent change in bacterial diversity and growth rate was recorded, and (B a regrowth experiment where we manipulated available resources to study how well a taxon grows on certain organic carbon resources, i.e. their functional traits. From experiment (B we could thus estimate changes in functional traits in communities in experiment (A. Bacterial production was affected by dispersal, but not consistently among lakes. Neither change in taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity with dispersal could explain the observed dispersal-productivity relationships. Instead, changes in trait composition with dispersal, especially the communities' ability to use p-coumaric acid, an aromatic compound, could explain the observed dispersal-productivity relationships. Changes in this trait caused by dispersal seemed especially important for bacterial productivity in waters with a high aromaticity of the organic matter pool. We conclude that the effect of dispersal on bacterial communities can affect ecosystem functioning in different ways, through changes in functional key-traits which are important for the local environment.

  6. Waste of Felling and On-Site Production of Teak Squarewood of the Community Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Budiaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Major suppliers of teak wood for the raw material of furniture industry in Indonesia are Perum Perhutani, community forests, and private forests.  Community teak forest management produce roundwood or squarewood, in which squarewood is produced on the felling site by the use of chainsaw after felling and bucking activities. Utilization of teak wood from community forest has been practiced for decades, however information on the extent of utilization and the quantity of wood waste have not been published to a greater extent. The present research was intended to determine and analyze the extent of utilization and teak wood waste produced from felling and bucking, and on-site squarewood production of community forests.  Quantification of wood waste from felling and bucking was based on the whole tree method, while that of squarewood production was based on the percentage of yield. It was found that the quantity of teak felling and bucking wood waste in community forest was reaching 28% of felled wood volume that consisted of branch and twig (46.15%, upper trunk (30.77%, short cut off (15.38%, and stumps (7.69%. The largest part of the wood waste of teak felling and bucking satisfied the requirement as raw material of wood working industry according to Indonesian National Standard. On-site production of squarewood increased the quantity of wood waste in the forests (in the form of slabs and sawdust.Keywords: wood waste, felling, bucking, squarewood, community forest

  7. Effects of shearing on biogas production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion with recuperative thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shufan; Phan, Hop V; Bustamante, Heriberto; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-06-01

    Recuperative thickening can intensify anaerobic digestion to produce more biogas and potentially reduce biosolids odour. This study elucidates the effects of sludge shearing during the thickening process on the microbial community structure and its effect on biogas production. Medium shearing resulted in approximately 15% increase in biogas production. By contrast, excessive or high shearing led to a marked decrease in biogas production, possibly due to sludge disintegration and cell lysis. Microbial analysis using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that medium shearing increased the evenness and diversity of the microbial community in the anaerobic digester, which is consistent with the observed improved biogas production. By contrast, microbial diversity decreased under either excessive shearing or high shearing condition. In good agreement with the observed decrease in biogas production, the abundance of Bacteroidales and Syntrophobaterales (which are responsible for hydrolysis and acetogenesis) decreased due to high shearing during recuperative thickening. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  9. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  10. Rice Production Vulnerability to Climate Change in Indonesia: An Overview on Community-based Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaladara, A. A. S. P.; Budiasa, I. W.; Ambarawati, I. G. A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Rice remains to be a major crop and staple food in Indonesia. The task to ensure that rice production meets the demand of a growing population continues to engage the attention of national planners and policy makers. However, the adverse effects of climate change on agriculture production have presented Indonesia with yet another significant challenge. The exposure of rice crops to climate-related hazards such as temperature stress, floods, and drought, may lead to lower yield and self-sufficiency rate. This study explores the vulnerability of rice production to the effects of climate change in Indonesia. Considering the vast geographical span of the country and varying exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity to climate change at regional level, this study emphasize the importance of community-based adaptation. Results from a simulation based on production and climate data from 1984 to 2014 indicates that rice production is sensitive to variation in growing season temperature and precipitation. A projection of these climate factors in 2050 has a significant impact on the major rice crop. To manage the impact of climate change, this study turns to the potential roles of farmer organizations, such as Subak, in adaptation strategies. The Subak in Bali is recognized for its cultural and organizational framework that highlights the sharing of knowledge and local wisdom in rice production. This is demonstrated by its efficient community-based irrigation management system, leading to sustainable rice production. Keywords: rice production, climate change, community-based adaptation, Indonesia

  11. Writing Retreat Increases Productivity And Community For Women Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, S.; Holmes, M.

    2011-12-01

    Five, weeklong geoscientist writing retreats have been completed with an NSF ADANCE PAID grant. During the five nights and four and a half days, eight to twenty-four academics have gathered in a rural setting outside of Boston to get to focus on writing papers and proposals while getting to know each other. Participants range in age and experience from graduate students to emeritus professors. Over twenty papers and proposals acknowledge their production, in part to this writing retreat. Impact extends beyond papers as informal mentoring and discussions at meals and in the evenings centers on succeeding in academia. Research and teaching are foremost in the conversation. Post-docs learn strategies for applying for jobs and grants, and senior professors discuss strategies for working with academic administrations, running departments and mentoring students. They also learn new technologies and perspectives from younger participants. Particularly helpful are discussions on work-life balance. Networking opportunities extend beyond the retreat as participants join each other at their home institutions to give seminars, develop research projects and mentor each other's students. All weeks follow the same format. Participants arrive Sunday and meet during an evening welcome reception. Monday is devoted to writing. Tuesday a writing coach is available. In the morning, using examples from the scientific literature, she discusses strategies and techniques for writing clearly at a group session. During the afternoon, participants work with the coach individually or in small groups to improve their own writing projects. Wednesday evening a skill session is offered on a topic of interest. These have included undergraduate research, NSF funding, productive techniques for dealing with conflict, and generational characteristics and attitudes, which can hamper communication. A Thursday evening wrap-up session prepares participants for Friday's departure. We believe that this model

  12. Structure and dynamics of the microbial communities underlying the carboxylate platform for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollister, Emily B.; Gentry, Terry J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Forrest, Andrea K.; Holtzapple, Mark T. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Wilkinson, Heather H.; Ebbole, Daniel J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology and Microbiology; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Tringe, Susannah G. [DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The carboxylate platform utilizes a mixed microbial community to convert lignocellulosic biomass into chemicals and fuels. While much of the platform is well understood, little is known about its microbiology. Mesophilic (40 C) and thermophilic (55 C) fermentations employing a sorghum feedstock and marine sediment inoculum were profiled using 16S rRNA tag-pyrosequencing over the course of a 30-day incubation. The contrasting fermentation temperatures converted similar amounts of biomass, but the mesophilic community was significantly more productive, and the two temperatures differed significantly with respect to propionic and butyric acid production. Pyrotag sequencing revealed the presence of dynamic communities that responded rapidly to temperature and changed substantially over time. Both temperatures were dominated by bacteria resembling Clostridia, but they shared few taxa in common. The species-rich mesophilic community harbored a variety of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and {gamma}-Proteobacteria, whereas the thermophilic community was composed mainly of Clostridia and Bacilli. Despite differences in composition and productivity, similar patterns of functional class dynamics were observed. Over time, organisms resembling known cellulose degraders decreased in abundance, while organisms resembling known xylose degraders increased. Improved understanding of the carboxylate platform's microbiology will help refine platform performance and contribute to our growing knowledge regarding biomass conversion and biofuel production processes. (orig.)

  13. Community use of XALT in its first year in production

    KAUST Repository

    Budiardja, Reuben

    2015-11-15

    XALT collects accurate, detailed, and continuous job-level and link-time data and stores that data in a database; all the data collection is transparent to the users. The data stored can be mined to generate a picture of the compilers, libraries, and other software that users need to run their jobs successfully, highlighting the products that researchers use. We showcase how data collected by XALT can be easily mined into a digestible format by presenting data from four separate HPC centers. XALT is already used by many HPC centers around the world due to its usefulness and complementariness to existing logs and databases. Centers with XALT have a much better understanding of library and executable usage and patterns. We also present new functionality in XALT - namely the ability to anonymize data and early work in providing seamless access to provenance data.

  14. Determination of respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in soil profile using BaPS system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-tao; HUANG Yao

    2006-01-01

    A facility of BaPS (Barometric Process Separation) was used to determine soil respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in a winter wheat field with depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. N2O production was determined by a gas chromatograph. Crop root mass and relevant soil parameters were measured. Results showed that soil respiration and gross nitrification decreased with the increase of soil depth, while denitrification did not change significantly. In comparison with no-plowing plot, soil respiration increased significantly in plowing plot, especially in the surface soil of 0-7 cm, while gross nitrification and denitrification rates were not affected by plowing. Cropping practice in previous season was found to affect soil gross nitrification in the following wheat-growing season. Higher gross nitrification rate occurred in the filed plot with preceding crop of rice compared with that of maize for all the three depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. A further investigation indicated that the nitrification for all the cases accounted for about 76% of the total nitrogen transformation processes of nitrification and denitrification and the N2O production correlated with nitrification significantly, suggesting that nitrification is a key process of soil N2O production in the wheat field. In addition, the variations of soil respiration and gross nitrification were exponentially dependent on root mass (P<0.001).

  15. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  16. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  17. Impacts of Contrasting Alfalfa Production Systems on the Drivers of Carabid Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Community Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosey, H B; McKenzie, S C; Rolston, M G; O'Neill, K M; Menalled, F D

    2015-08-01

    Growing concerns about the environmental consequences of chemically based pest control strategies have precipitated a call for the development of integrated, ecologically based pest management programs. Carabid or ground beetles (Coleoptera:Carabidae) are an important group of natural enemies of common agricultural pests such as aphids, slugs, and other beetles. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most common forage crop species in the semi-arid western United States. In 2011, Montana alone produced 4.0 × 10(6 )Mg of alfalfa on 8.1 × 10(5 )ha for gross revenue in excess of US$4.3 × 10(8), making it the third largest crop by revenue. We conducted our study over the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Each year, our study consisted of three sites each with adjacent systems of monoculture alfalfa, alfalfa nurse cropped with hay barley, and an uncultivated refuge consisting of a variety of forbs and grasses. Carabid community structure differed and strong temporal shifts were detected during both 2012 and 2013. Multivariate fuzzy set ordination suggests that variation in canopy height among the three vegetation systems was primarily responsible for the differences observed in carabid community structure. Land managers may be able to enhance carabid species richness and total abundance by creating a heterogeneous vegetation structure, and nurse cropping in particular may be effective strategy to achieve this goal. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per

    2014-05-01

    Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon

  19. Responding to patient demand: community pharmacists and herbal and nutritional products for children

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The attitudes and behaviour of pharmacists working in a multi-ethnic community regarding herbal and nutritional products (HNPs) for children, were explored in depth. Qualitative interviews with four pharmacists were analysed using Framework Analysis. Quantitative diary recording of all HNP-related events for child customers in four pharmacies was carried out over 2 separate week periods between March - June 2008. Of 29 events recorded, most involved parents buying product...

  20. Variable effects of dispersal on productivity of bacterial communities due to changes in functional trait composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Ina; Östman, Örjan; Lindström, Eva S.

    2013-01-01

    ) a dialysis bag experiment where the dispersal rate among six communities was manipulated and the subsequent change in bacterial diversity and growth rate was recorded, and (B) a regrowth experiment where we manipulated available resources to study how well a taxon grows on certain organic carbon resources, i......Previous studies have shown variable relationships between dispersal rate and ecosystem functioning, but the reasons for and mechanisms behind variable dispersal rate - functioning patterns are currently unknown. In this study we used six bacterial lake water communities in a laboratory experiment...... in order to investigate how dispersal among communities influences community productivity by evaluating three different mechanisms: 1) changes in taxonomic diversity, 2) changes in phylogenetic diversity or 3) changes in the composition of functional traits. The experiment was conducted in two phases; (A...

  1. Availability of Tobacco and Alcohol Products in Los Angeles Community Pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kim, Gilwan; Ambrose, Peter J.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2012-01-01

    The availability of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies contradicts the pharmacists’ Code of Ethics and presents challenges for a profession that is overwhelmingly not in favor of the sale of these products in its practice settings. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of pharmacies that sell tobacco products and/or alcoholic beverages and to characterize promotion of these products. The proportion of pharmacies that sell non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products as aids to smoking cessation also was estimated. Among 250 randomly-selected community pharmacies in Los Angeles, 32.8% sold cigarettes, and 26.0% sold alcohol products. Cigarettes were more likely to be available in traditional chain pharmacies and grocery stores than in independently-owned pharmacies (100% versus 10.8%; P chain drug stores and grocery stores were more likely to sell alcoholic beverages than were independently-owned pharmacies (87.5% vs. 5.4%; P pharmacies that sold cigarettes and 47 (72.3%) of the 65 pharmacies that sold alcohol also displayed promotional materials for these products. NRT products were merchandised by 58% of pharmacies. Results of this study suggest that when given a choice, pharmacists choose not to sell tobacco or alcohol products. PMID:21644021

  2. Production capacity of biomass of the floodpain community of Salix alba L. in southern Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana López

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of the production capacity of biomass in the seven-year stand of Salix alba L. The communities originated in the process of primary succession in the area of the middle Nové Mlýny reservoir on a newly established island. Already since the first stages, the communities have been monitored. Results have shown that white willow behaves as an R-strategist with fast growth in youth. Moreover, the growth is supported by optimum environmental conditions (soils richly supplied with nutrients and water, long growing season. Accumulated phytomass amounted 102,7 t.ha−1 at the age of 7 years and the yield reached a mean annual increment of 15 t.ha−1.year−1. Communities of white willow rank among highly productive phytocoenoses capable of fixing considerable amounts of carbon and, at the same time fulfilling the function of habitat corridors.

  3. Effects of an oil spill on benthic community production and respiration on subtropical intertidal sandflats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Hua; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2013-08-15

    This study determined effects of an oil spill on subtropical benthic community production and respiration by monitoring CO2 fluxes in benthic chambers on intertidal sandflats during emersion before and after an accidental spill. The oil spill decreased sediment chlorophyll a concentrations, altered benthic macrofaunal community, and affected ecological functioning by suppressing or even stopping microalgal production, increasing bacterial respiration, and causing a shift from an autotrophic system to a heterotrophic system. Effects of the oil spill on the macrofauna were more severe than on benthic microalgae, and affected sedentary infauna more than motile epifauna. Despite the oil spill's impact on the benthic community and carbon metabolism, the affected area appeared to return to normal in about 23 days. Our results suggest that the prompt response of benthic metabolism to exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons can serve as a useful indicator of the impact of an oil spill.

  4. Sharing and community curation of mass spectrometry data with Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mingxun; Carver, Jeremy J.; Pevzner, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The potential of the diverse chemistries present in natural products (NP) for biotechnology and medicine remains untapped because NP databases are not searchable with raw data and the NP community has no way to share data other than in published papers. Although mass spectrometry (MS) techniques...... are well-suited to high-throughput characterization of NP, there is a pressing need for an infrastructure to enable sharing and curation of data. We present Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS; http://gnps.ucsd.edu), an open-access knowledge base for community-wide organization...... and sharing of raw, processed or identified tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry data. In GNPS, crowdsourced curation of freely available community-wide reference MS libraries will underpin improved annotations. Data-driven social-networking should facilitate identification of spectra and foster collaborations...

  5. Methane production potentials, pathways, and communities of methanogens in vertical sediment profiles of river Sitka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Václav; Blaser, Martin B; Claus, Peter; Chaudhary, Prem P; Rulík, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Biological methanogenesis is linked to permanent water logged systems, e.g., rice field soils or lake sediments. In these systems the methanogenic community as well as the pathway of methane formation are well-described. By contrast, the methanogenic potential of river sediments is so far not well-investigated. Therefore, we analyzed (a) the methanogenic potential (incubation experiments), (b) the pathway of methane production (stable carbon isotopes and inhibitor studies), and (c) the methanogenic community composition (terminal restriction length polymorphism of mcrA) in depth profiles of sediment cores of River Sitka, Czech Republic. We found two depth-related distinct maxima for the methanogenic potentials (a) The pathway of methane production was dominated by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (b) The methanogenic community composition was similar in all depth layers (c) The main TRFs were representative for Methanosarcina, Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium, and Methanomicrobium species. The isotopic signals of acetate indicated a relative high contribution of chemolithotrophic acetogenesis to the acetate pool.

  6. Variable effects of dispersal on productivity of bacterial communities due to changes in functional trait composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Ina; Östman, Örjan; Lindström, Eva S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown variable relationships between dispersal rate and ecosystem functioning, but the reasons for and mechanisms behind variable dispersal rate - functioning patterns are currently unknown. In this study we used six bacterial lake water communities in a laboratory experiment......) a dialysis bag experiment where the dispersal rate among six communities was manipulated and the subsequent change in bacterial diversity and growth rate was recorded, and (B) a regrowth experiment where we manipulated available resources to study how well a taxon grows on certain organic carbon resources, i...... dispersal - productivity relationships. Instead, changes in trait composition with dispersal, especially the communities' ability to use p-coumaric acid, an aromatic compound, could explain the observed dispersal - productivity relationships. Changes in this trait caused by dispersal seemed especially...

  7. Characterization of Bacterial Communities in Selected Smokeless Tobacco Products Using 16S rDNA Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E Tyx

    Full Text Available The bacterial communities present in smokeless tobacco (ST products have not previously reported. In this study, we used Next Generation Sequencing to study the bacteria present in U.S.-made dry snuff, moist snuff and Sudanese toombak. Sample diversity and taxonomic abundances were investigated in these products. A total of 33 bacterial families from four phyla, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were identified. U.S.-produced dry snuff products contained a diverse distribution of all four phyla. Moist snuff products were dominated by Firmicutes. Toombak samples contained mainly Actinobacteria and Firmicutes (Aerococcaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Staphylococcaceae. The program PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States was used to impute the prevalence of genes encoding selected bacterial toxins, antibiotic resistance genes and other pro-inflammatory molecules. PICRUSt also predicted the presence of specific nitrate reductase genes, whose products can contribute to the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Characterization of microbial community abundances and their associated genomes gives us an indication of the presence or absence of pathways of interest and can be used as a foundation for further investigation into the unique microbiological and chemical environments of smokeless tobacco products.

  8. Characterization of Bacterial Communities in Selected Smokeless Tobacco Products Using 16S rDNA Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyx, Robert E; Stanfill, Stephen B; Keong, Lisa M; Rivera, Angel J; Satten, Glen A; Watson, Clifford H

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial communities present in smokeless tobacco (ST) products have not previously reported. In this study, we used Next Generation Sequencing to study the bacteria present in U.S.-made dry snuff, moist snuff and Sudanese toombak. Sample diversity and taxonomic abundances were investigated in these products. A total of 33 bacterial families from four phyla, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were identified. U.S.-produced dry snuff products contained a diverse distribution of all four phyla. Moist snuff products were dominated by Firmicutes. Toombak samples contained mainly Actinobacteria and Firmicutes (Aerococcaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Staphylococcaceae). The program PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) was used to impute the prevalence of genes encoding selected bacterial toxins, antibiotic resistance genes and other pro-inflammatory molecules. PICRUSt also predicted the presence of specific nitrate reductase genes, whose products can contribute to the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Characterization of microbial community abundances and their associated genomes gives us an indication of the presence or absence of pathways of interest and can be used as a foundation for further investigation into the unique microbiological and chemical environments of smokeless tobacco products.

  9. Teaching Diversified Organic Crop Production Using the Community Supported Agriculture Farming System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Constance L.; Pao, Pauline; Cramer, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    An organic garden operated as a community supported agriculture (CSA) venture on the New Mexico State University (NMSU) main campus was begun in January 2002. Students enroll in an organic vegetable production class during spring and fall semesters to help manage and work on the project. The CSA model of farming involves the sale of shares to…

  10. Learning & Knowledge Production in North Carolina Sea Turtle Conservation Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kathleen Carol

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation focused upon non-formal and informal learning practices and knowledge production amongst [adult] participants involved in local sea turtle conservation practices along the US Atlantic coast. In the United States, adult learning and adult education has historically occurred within non-formal settings (e.g., through community-based…

  11. Non-random species loss in bacterial communities reduces antifungal volatile production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, W H Gera; Garbeva, Paolina; Hordijk, Cornelis; Hundscheid, P J; Gunnewiek, Paulien J A Klein; Van Agtmaal, Maaike; Kuramae, Eiko E; De Boer, Wietse

    2015-08-01

    The contribution of low-abundance microbial species to soil ecosystems is easily overlooked because there is considerable overlap between metabolic abilities (functional redundancy) of dominant and subordinate microbial species. Here we studied how loss of less abundant soil bacteria affected the production of antifungal volatiles, an important factor in the natural control of soil-borne pathogenic fungi. We provide novel empirical evidence that the loss of soil bacterial species leads to a decline in the production of volatiles that suppress root pathogens. By using dilution-to-extinction for seven different soils we created bacterial communities with a decreasing number of species and grew them under carbon-limited conditions. Communities with high bacterial species richness produced volatiles that strongly reduced the hyphal growth of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. For most soil origins loss of bacterial species resulted in loss of antifungal volatile production. Analysis of the volatiles revealed that several known antifungal compounds were only produced in the more diverse bacterial communities. Our results suggest that less abundant bacterial species play an important role in antifungal volatile production by soil bacterial communities and, consequently, in the natural suppression of soil-borne pathogens.

  12. Teaching Diversified Organic Crop Production Using the Community Supported Agriculture Farming System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Constance L.; Pao, Pauline; Cramer, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    An organic garden operated as a community supported agriculture (CSA) venture on the New Mexico State University (NMSU) main campus was begun in January 2002. Students enroll in an organic vegetable production class during spring and fall semesters to help manage and work on the project. The CSA model of farming involves the sale of shares to…

  13. 78 FR 57922 - American Energy Production, Inc., Best Energy Services, Inc., Community Central Bank Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION American Energy Production, Inc., Best Energy Services, Inc., Community Central Bank Corporation... Central Bank Corporation because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended September 30...

  14. Congregating to Create for Social Change: Urban Youth Media Production and Sense of Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaraman, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This case study explored how adolescents were empowered through afterschool media production activities and, in the process, re-imagined themselves as active and engaged citizens within their community. Through analyzing interviews, participant observations, and media artifacts of 14 participants (aged 15-19) over a period of 18 months, three main…

  15. Biohydrogen Production from Cheese Processing Wastewater by Anaerobic Fermentation Using Mixed Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen (H2) production from simulated cheese processing wastewater via anaerobic fermentation was conducted using mixed microbial communities under mesophilic conditions. In batch H2 fermentation experiments H2 yields of 8 and 10 mM/g-COD fed were achieved at food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratios of ...

  16. Supporting local farming communities and crop production resilience to climate change through giant reed (Arundo donax L.) cultivation: An Italian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, A; Impagliazzo, A; Fiorentino, N; Langella, G; Mori, M; Fagnano, M

    2017-12-01

    Bioenergy crops are well known for their ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase the soil carbon stock. Although such crops are often held to be in competition with food crops and thus raise the question of current and future food security, at the same time mitigation measures are required to tackle climate change and sustain local farming communities and crop production. However, in some cases the actions envisaged for specific pedo-climatic conditions are not always economically sustainable by farmers. In this frame, energy crops with high environmental adaptability and yields, such as giant reed (Arundo donax L.), may represent an opportunity to improve farm incomes, making marginal areas not suitable for food production once again productive. In so doing, three of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations would be met, namely SDG 2 on food security and sustainable agriculture, SDG 7 on reliable, sustainable and modern energy, and SDG 13 on action to combat climate change and its impacts. In this work, the response of giant reed in the marginal areas of an agricultural district of southern Italy (Destra Sele) and expected farm incomes under climate change (2021-2050) are evaluated. The normalized water productivity index of giant reed was determined (WP; 30.1gm(-2)) by means of a SWAP agro-hydrological model, calibrated and validated on two years of a long-term field experiment. The model was used to estimate giant reed response (biomass yield) in marginal areas under climate change, and economic evaluation was performed to determine expected farm incomes (woodchips and chopped forage). The results show that woodchip production represents the most profitable option for farmers, yielding a gross margin 50% lower than ordinary high-input maize cultivation across the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. GROSS CAPITAL FORMATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH DURING EARLY 2000’S IN EU-MEMBER AND CANDIDATES STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Marius PAVELESCU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to reveal the correlation between the gross capital formation and the gross domestic product in countries of the European Union in 2007, during the period 1999-2006. The evaluation is made both on demand side and on supply side. On the demand side we take into account the gross capital formation dynamics and structure and the gross domestic product dynamics. On the supply side calculate the capital accumulation efficiency, through modification of the formulae resulted from Domar’s economic growth model in order to emphasise the impact of domestic demand and net export changes. In the end we present some conclusions and proposals for gross capital formation contribution to economic growth methodology improvement.

  18. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  19. Carbonate Production by Benthic Communities on Shallow Coralgal Reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Moura Dos Reis

    Full Text Available The abundance of reef builders, non-builders and the calcium carbonate produced by communities established in Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs were determined in three Abrolhos Bank shallow reefs during the period from 2012 to 2014. In addition, the seawater temperature, the irradiance, and the amount and composition of the sediments were determined. The inner and outer reef arcs were compared. CAUs located on the inner reef shelf were under the influence of terrigenous sediments. On the outer reefs, the sediments were composed primarily of marine biogenic carbonates. The mean carbonate production in shallow reefs of Abrolhos was 579 ± 98 g m-2 y-1. The builder community was dominated by crustose coralline algae, while the non-builder community was dominated by turf. A marine heat wave was detected during the summer of 2013-2014, and the number of consecutive days with a temperature above or below the summer mean was positively correlated with the turf cover increase. The mean carbonate production of the shallow reefs of Abrolhos Bank was greater than the estimated carbonate production measured for artificial structures on several other shallow reefs of the world. The calcimass was higher than the non-calcareous mass, suggesting that the Abrolhos reefs are still in a positive carbonate production balance. Given that marine heat waves produce an increase of turf cover on the shallow reefs of the Abrolhos, a decrease in the cover represented by reef builders and shifting carbonate production are expected in the near future.

  20. Carbonate Production by Benthic Communities on Shallow Coralgal Reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Vanessa Moura; Karez, Cláudia Santiago; Mariath, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Fernando Coreixas; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Tomazetto; Brasileiro, Poliana Silva; Bahia, Ricardo da Gama; Lotufo, Tito Monteiro da Cruz; Ramalho, Laís Vieira; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme Henrique; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of reef builders, non-builders and the calcium carbonate produced by communities established in Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) were determined in three Abrolhos Bank shallow reefs during the period from 2012 to 2014. In addition, the seawater temperature, the irradiance, and the amount and composition of the sediments were determined. The inner and outer reef arcs were compared. CAUs located on the inner reef shelf were under the influence of terrigenous sediments. On the outer reefs, the sediments were composed primarily of marine biogenic carbonates. The mean carbonate production in shallow reefs of Abrolhos was 579 ± 98 g m-2 y-1. The builder community was dominated by crustose coralline algae, while the non-builder community was dominated by turf. A marine heat wave was detected during the summer of 2013–2014, and the number of consecutive days with a temperature above or below the summer mean was positively correlated with the turf cover increase. The mean carbonate production of the shallow reefs of Abrolhos Bank was greater than the estimated carbonate production measured for artificial structures on several other shallow reefs of the world. The calcimass was higher than the non-calcareous mass, suggesting that the Abrolhos reefs are still in a positive carbonate production balance. Given that marine heat waves produce an increase of turf cover on the shallow reefs of the Abrolhos, a decrease in the cover represented by reef builders and shifting carbonate production are expected in the near future. PMID:27119151

  1. Carbonate Production by Benthic Communities on Shallow Coralgal Reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Vanessa Moura Dos; Karez, Cláudia Santiago; Mariath, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Fernando Coreixas; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Tomazetto; Brasileiro, Poliana Silva; Bahia, Ricardo da Gama; Lotufo, Tito Monteiro da Cruz; Ramalho, Laís Vieira; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme Henrique; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of reef builders, non-builders and the calcium carbonate produced by communities established in Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) were determined in three Abrolhos Bank shallow reefs during the period from 2012 to 2014. In addition, the seawater temperature, the irradiance, and the amount and composition of the sediments were determined. The inner and outer reef arcs were compared. CAUs located on the inner reef shelf were under the influence of terrigenous sediments. On the outer reefs, the sediments were composed primarily of marine biogenic carbonates. The mean carbonate production in shallow reefs of Abrolhos was 579 ± 98 g m-2 y-1. The builder community was dominated by crustose coralline algae, while the non-builder community was dominated by turf. A marine heat wave was detected during the summer of 2013-2014, and the number of consecutive days with a temperature above or below the summer mean was positively correlated with the turf cover increase. The mean carbonate production of the shallow reefs of Abrolhos Bank was greater than the estimated carbonate production measured for artificial structures on several other shallow reefs of the world. The calcimass was higher than the non-calcareous mass, suggesting that the Abrolhos reefs are still in a positive carbonate production balance. Given that marine heat waves produce an increase of turf cover on the shallow reefs of the Abrolhos, a decrease in the cover represented by reef builders and shifting carbonate production are expected in the near future.

  2. Challenges of Small Ruminants Production in Selected Urban Communities of Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okanlade Lawal-Adebowale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production has become a common trend in urban communities whereby a number of people reared farm animals such as sheep and goats for social and economic reasons. Notwithstanding the associated advantages of livestock production, effective urban production of the small ruminants is greatly challenged by a number of factors. Based on this, the study was conducted with a view to identifying factors that challenged effective sheep and goat production in selected urban communities of Abeokuta, Ogun State. From the selected 12 urban communities where sheep and goats were reared, a total of 217 rearers were non-randomly selected using snow balling sampling method. A reliable and validated interview guide was used alongside field observation to obtain information on challenges to sheep and goats production in the urban areas. The results showed that the challenges were feed, health/disease, environmental, marketing and routine management related. All the respondents (100% experienced challenges such as high cost of feeding, theft of the farm animals, problem of off -season feeding and problem of sourcing feed variety for the animals. The chi-square test showed that a significant relationship exists between the respondents’ socioeconomic characteristics (sex: χ2 = 21.06, df =4; age: χ2 = 43.26, df = 16; education: χ2 = 78.09, df = 12; occupation: χ2 = 62.57, df = 16; income: χ2 = 56.35, df =16 and the encountered challenges (p

  3. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  4. User roles and contributions during the new product development process in collaborative innovation communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zheng, Qing; An, Weijin; Peng, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Collaborative innovation (co-innovation) community emerges as a new product design platform where companies involve users in the new product development (NPD) process. Large numbers of users participate and contribute to the process voluntarily. This exploratory study investigates the heterogeneous roles of users based on a global co-innovation project in online community. Content analysis, social network analysis and cluster method are employed to measure user behaviors, distinguish user roles, and analyze user contributions. The study identifies six user roles that emerge during the NPD process in co-innovation community: project leader, active designer, generalist, communicator, passive designer, and observer. The six user roles differ in their contribution forms and quality. This paper contributes to research on co-innovation in online communities, including design team structure, user roles and their contribution to design task and solution, as well as user value along the process. In addition, the study provides practices guidance on implementing project, attracting users, and designing platform for co-innovation community practitioners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Emotions and Activity Profiles of Influential Users in Product Reviews Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian eTanase

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Viral marketing seeks to maximize the spread of a campaignthrough an online social network, often targeting influential nodes with highcentrality. In this article, we analyze behavioral aspects of influentialusers in trust-based product reviews communities, quantifying emotionalexpression, helpfulness, and user activity level. We focus on two independentproduct review communities, Dooyoo and Epinions, in whichusers can write product reviews and define trust links to filter productrecommendations. Following the patterns of social contagion processes, wemeasure user social influence by means of the k-shell decomposition of trustnetworks. For each of these users, we apply sentiment analysis to extracttheir extent of positive, negative, and neutral emotional expression. Inaddition, we quantify the level of feedback they received in their reviews,the length of their contributions, and their level of activity over theirlifetime in the community. We find that users of both communities exhibit alarge heterogeneity of social influence, and that helpfulness votes and ageare significantly better predictors of the influence of an individual thansentiment. The most active of the analyzed communities shows a particularstructure, in which the inner core of users is qualitatively different fromits periphery in terms of a stronger positive and negative emotionalexpression. These results suggest that both objective and subjective aspectsof reviews are relevant to the communication of subjective experience.

  6. Collaborative networks and patent production in Andean Community of Nations universities (UCANS, 2005-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Agüero Aguilar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness and technological development of a region are measured by the degree of innovation supporting them. The quantity and quality of patents generated and applied in production dynamics serve as an element for evaluation. In this sense, universities play a role as generators and transmitters of knowledge. So it is important to identify the level of their collaboration and the trends in terms of technology application in order to establish future policies for development in this sector. This article identifies the degree of collaboration, types of patents, actors (primary and secondary and dynamics of patents produced at the Andean Community of Nations universities during the period 2005-2015 and present in the European Patent Office database. In conclusion, there is a great disparity between CAN universities regarding patent production, so it is necessary to strengthen the collaborative level among universities in this community. Nevertheless, an increase is seen in the production of patents.

  7. Strengthening Knowledge Co-Production Capacity: Examining Interest in Community-University Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen P. Bell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Building successful, enduring research partnerships is essential for improving links between knowledge and action to address sustainability challenges. Communication research can play a critical role in fostering more effective research partnerships, especially those concerned with knowledge co-production processes. This article focuses on community-university research partnerships and factors that influence participation in the co-production process. We identify specific pathways for improving partnership development through a prospective analytical approach that examines community officials’ interest in partnering with university researchers. Using survey responses from a statewide sample of Maine municipal officials, we conduct a statistical analysis of community-university partnership potential to test a conceptual model of partnership interest grounded in natural resource management theory and environmental communication. Our findings both support and advance prior research on collaborations. Results reveal that belief in the helpfulness of the collaborator to solve problems, institutional proximity, familiarity, perceived problem severity and problem type and trust influence interest in developing community-university partnerships. These findings underscore the benefits of proactively assessing partnership potential prior to forming partnerships and the important roles for communication research within sustainability science, especially with regard to strengthening partnership formation and knowledge co-production processes.

  8. Plant traits mediate consumer and nutrient control on plant community productivity and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Anu; Harrison, Susan; Tuomi, Maria

    2012-12-01

    The interactive effects of consumers and nutrients on terrestrial plant communities, and the role of plant functional traits in mediating these responses, are poorly known. We carried out a six-year full-factorial field experiment using mammalian herbivore exclusion and fertilization in two habitat types (fertile and infertile alpine tundra heaths) that differed in plant functional traits related to resource acquisition and palatability. Infertile habitats were dominated by species with traits indicative of a slow-growing strategy: high C:N ratio, low specific leaf area, and high condensed tannins. We found that herbivory counteracted the effect of fertilization on biomass, and that this response differed between the two habitats and was correlated with plant functional traits. Live biomass dominated the treatment responses in infertile habitats, whereas litter accumulation dominated the treatment responses in fertile habitats and was strongly negatively associated with resident community tannin concentration. Species richness declined under herbivore exclusion and fertilization in fertile habitats, where litter accumulation was greatest. Community means of plant C:N ratio predicted treatment effects on diversity: fertilization decreased and herbivory increased dominance in communities originally dominated by plants with high C:N, while fertilization increased and herbivory diminished dominance in communities where low C:N species were abundant. Our results highlight the close interdependence between consumer effects, soil nutrients, and plant functional traits and suggest that plant traits may provide an improved understanding of how consumers and nutrients influence plant community productivity and diversity.

  9. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  10. Factors affecting the bacterial community composition and heterotrophic production of Columbia River estuarine turbidity maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfort, Lydie; Crump, Byron C; Fortunato, Caroline S; McCue, Lee Ann; Campbell, Victoria; Simon, Holly M; Baptista, António M; Zuber, Peter

    2017-08-06

    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETM) function as hotspots of microbial activity and diversity in estuaries, yet, little is known about the temporal and spatial variability in ETM bacterial community composition. To determine which environmental factors affect ETM bacterial populations in the Columbia River estuary, we analyzed ETM bacterial community composition (Sanger sequencing and amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene) and bulk heterotrophic production ((3) H-leucine incorporation rates). We collected water 20 times to cover five ETM events and obtained 42 samples characterized by different salinities, turbidities, seasons, coastal regimes (upwelling vs. downwelling), locations, and particle size. Spring and summer populations were distinct. All May samples had similar bacterial community composition despite having different salinities (1-24 PSU), but summer non-ETM bacteria separated into marine, freshwater, and brackish assemblages. Summer ETM bacterial communities varied depending on coastal upwelling or downwelling conditions and on the sampling site location with respect to tidal intrusion during the previous neap tide. In contrast to ETM, whole (>0.2 μm) and free-living (0.2-3 μm) assemblages of non-ETM waters were similar to each other, indicating that particle-attached (>3 μm) non-ETM bacteria do not develop a distinct community. Brackish water type (ETM or non-ETM) is thus a major factor affecting particle-attached bacterial communities. Heterotrophic production was higher in particle-attached than free-living fractions in all brackish waters collected throughout the water column during the rise to decline of turbidity through an ETM event (i.e., ETM-impacted waters). However, free-living communities showed higher productivity prior to or after an ETM event (i.e., non-ETM-impacted waters). This study has thus found that Columbia River ETM bacterial communities vary based on seasons, salinity, sampling location, and particle size, with the

  11. Effects of UVB radiation on net community production in the upper global ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2016-08-31

    Aim Erosion of the stratospheric ozone layer together with oligotrophication of the subtropical ocean is leading to enhanced exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in ocean surface waters. The impact of increased exposure to UVB on planktonic primary producers and heterotrophs is uncertain. Here we test the null hypothesis that net community production (NCP) of plankton communities in surface waters of the tropical and subtropical ocean is not affected by ambient UVB radiation and extend this test to the global ocean, including the polar oceans and the Mediterranean Sea using previous results. Location We conducted experiments with 131 surface communities sampled during a circumnavigation cruise along the tropical and subtropical ocean and combined these results with 89 previous reports encompassing the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic and Southern Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Methods The use of quartz (transparent to UVB radiation) and borosilicate glass materials (opaque to most UVB) for incubations allowed us to compare NCP between communities where UVB is excluded and those receiving natural UVB radiation. Results We found that NCP varies when exposed to natural UVB radiation compared to those where UVB was removed. NCP of autotrophic communities tended to decrease under natural UVB radiation, whereas the NCP of heterotrophic communities tended to increase. However, these variations showed the opposite trend under higher levels of UVB radiation. Main conclusions Our results suggest that earlier estimates of NCP for surface communities, which were hitherto derived using materials blocking UVB radiation were biased, with the direction and magnitude of this bias depending on the metabolic status of the communities and the underwater penetration of UVB radiation.

  12. The costs of diabetes among Australians aged 45-64 years from 2015 to 2030: projections of lost productive life years (PLYs), lost personal income, lost taxation revenue, extra welfare payments and lost gross domestic product from Health&WealthMOD2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Cunich, Michelle M; Passey, Megan E; Veerman, Lennert; Tanton, Robert; Kelly, Simon J

    2017-01-09

    To project the number of people aged 45-64 years with lost productive life years (PLYs) due to diabetes and related costs (lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue); and lost gross domestic product (GDP) attributable to diabetes in Australia from 2015 to 2030. A simulation study of how the number of people aged 45-64 years with diabetes increases over time (based on population growth and disease trend data) and the economic losses incurred by individuals and the government. Cross-sectional outputs of a microsimulation model (Health&WealthMOD2030) which used the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003 and 2009 as a base population and integrated outputs from two microsimulation models (Static Incomes Model and Australian Population and Policy Simulation Model), Treasury's population and labour force projections, and chronic disease trends data. Australian population aged 45-64 years in 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030. Lost PLYs, lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue, lost GDP. 18 100 people are out of the labour force due to diabetes in 2015, increasing to 21 400 in 2030 (18% increase). National costs consisted of a loss of $A467 million in annual income in 2015, increasing to $A807 million in 2030 (73% increase). For the government, extra annual welfare payments increased from $A311 million in 2015 to $A350 million in 2030 (13% increase); and lost annual taxation revenue increased from $A102 million in 2015 to $A166 million in 2030 (63% increase). A loss of $A2.1 billion in GDP was projected for 2015, increasing to $A2.9 billion in 2030 attributable to diabetes through its impact on PLYs. Individuals incur significant costs of diabetes through lost PLYs and lost income in addition to disease burden through human suffering and healthcare costs. The government incurs extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue and lost GDP, along with direct healthcare costs. Published by the BMJ

  13. Effects of plant diversity on primary production and species interactions in brackish water angiosperm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina; Gustafsson, Camilla; Boström, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    plant productivity in brackish water angiosperm communities, a 14 wk field experiment was conducted. Using a replacement design with a standardized initial aboveground biomass, shoots of Zostera marina, Potamogeton filiformis and P. perfoliatus were planted on a shallow, sandy bottom in replicated...... monocultures and all possible species combinations. Response variables included aboveground and belowground biomass, shoot density, space occupation and porewater nutrients. To determine whether selection and/or complementarity controlled productivity, additive partitioning and Di were calculated. Richness...... effects were species-specific and only increased the biomass production of P. perfoliatus and tuber production of P. filiformis, while species composition generally had a stronger effect on biomass production. Additive partitioning indicated a positive complementarity effect for the aboveground biomass...

  14. Microbial Community Dynamics and Activity Link to Indigo Production from Indole in Bioaugmented Activated Sludge Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Qu

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of the popular dyestuff indigo from indole has been comprehensively studied using pure cultures, but less has been done to characterize the indigo production by microbial communities. In our previous studies, a wild strain Comamonas sp. MQ was isolated from activated sludge and the recombinant Escherichia coli nagAc carrying the naphthalene dioxygenase gene (nag from strain MQ was constructed, both of which were capable of producing indigo from indole. Herein, three activated sludge systems, G1 (non-augmented control, G2 (augmented with Comamonas sp. MQ, and G3 (augmented with recombinant E. coli nagAc, were constructed to investigate indigo production. After 132-day operation, G3 produced the highest yields of indigo (99.5 ± 3.0 mg/l, followed by G2 (27.3 ± 1.3 mg/l and G1 (19.2 ± 1.2 mg/l. The microbial community dynamics and activities associated with indigo production were analyzed by Illumina Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The inoculated strain MQ survived for at least 30 days, whereas E. coli nagAc was undetectable shortly after inoculation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis suggested the abundance of naphthalene dioxygenase gene (nagAc from both inoculated strains was strongly correlated with indigo yields in early stages (0-30 days (P 0.10 of operation. Based on detrended correspondence analysis (DCA and dissimilarity test results, the communities underwent a noticeable shift during the operation. Among the four major genera (> 1% on average, the commonly reported indigo-producing populations Comamonas and Pseudomonas showed no positive relationship with indigo yields (P > 0.05 based on Pearson correlation test, while Alcaligenes and Aquamicrobium, rarely reported for indigo production, were positively correlated with indigo yields (P < 0.05. This study should provide new insights into our understanding of indigo bio-production by microbial communities.

  15. Consumer Preference for Processed Cowpea Products in Selected Communities of the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimoh, F.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive value of cowpea as an essential source of protein to supplement carbohydrate diets has long been recognized. Its role as a subsidiary crop to be relied on during the “hungry season” and during times of food shortages, drought, inflation and the subsequent erosion of the consumer’s purchasing power, particularly among the urban poor, makes it a crop of choice by housewives who look for nutritious but cheaper sources of food. This paper sought to investigate consumer preference for processed cowpea-based products, such as, boiled cowpea with cereals, fried cowpea paste, and cowpea fortified maize dough in selected communities of the coastal regions of Ghana. Using descriptive statistics, Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance, and Logit Model, it was found that there was high preference for processed cowpea-based products in all the communities studied; and that processing cowpea into various food types was relatively profitable. Key socio-economic factors and consumer characteristics that influence preference include gender, marital status, income, education, product taste, sustainability of products (satisfying and product availability. The production of gas (flatulence after consumption of the products was the most pressing factor that influences preference. Unavailability of the products was identified as the least pressing factor. The researchers recommend that the production and utilization of cowpea in the study area and in other parts of Ghana should be encouraged as it would help to both improve the nutritional status of consumers and also help generate income to producers and processors. There should also be further research into the disliking intrinsic characteristics of the products considered.

  16. Challenges of Small Ruminants Production in Selected Urban Communities of Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okanlade A. Lawal-adebowale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production has become a common trend in urban communities whereby a number of people reared farm animals such as sheep and goats for social and economic reasons. Notwithstanding the associated advantages of livestock production, effective urban production of the small ruminants is greatly challenged by a number of factors. Based on this, the study was conducted with a view to identifying factors that challenged effective sheep and goat production in selected urban communities of Abeokuta, Ogun State. From the selected 12 urban communities where sheep and goats were reared, a total of 217 rearers were non-randomly selected using snow balling sampling method. A reliable and validated interview guide was used alongside field observation to obtain information on challenges to sheep and goats production in the urban areas. The results showed that the challenges were feed, health/disease, environmental, marketing and routine management related. All the respondents (100% experienced challenges such as high cost of feeding, theft of the farm animals, problem of off -season feeding and problem of sourcing feed variety for the animals. The chi-square test showed that a significant relationship exists between the respondents’ socioeconomic characteristics (sex: χ2 = 21.06, df =4; age: χ2 = 43.26, df = 16; education: χ2 = 78.09, df = 12; occupation: χ2 = 62.57, df = 16; income: χ2 = 56.35, df =16 and the encountered challenges (p < 0.05. Based on this, it was concluded that the identified challenges to urban sheep and goat production remained serious issues in the study area. It was thus recommended that conscious efforts should be put up by rearers of the small ruminants to ensure safety of their animals and good feeding routine for increased productivity and beneficial returns.

  17. Development of phytoplankton communities: Implications of nutrient injections on phytoplankton composition, pH and ecosystem production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans; Blanda, Elisa; Stæhr, Peter Anton

    2015-01-01

    The development of a marine phytoplankton community was studied in a series of mesocosm tanks exposed to different levels of nutrient inputs. Key ecosystem variables such as phytoplankton species development, ecosystem net production (NEP), pH and bacteria production were measured. The overall ai...... ultimately uncoupling high bacterial production from primary production, leading to severe oxygen consumption following ephemeral blooms...

  18. Who benefits from taxation of forest products in Nepal’s community forests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Baral, Keshab; Bhandari, Nirmala Singh

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with who benefits from taxation of forest products in Nepal's community forests. The objectives of the study are two-fold; to document who benefits from community forestry user groups' (CFUG) financing of investments in public services and infrastructure and pro......-poor initiatives and to explore whether biases against certain groups in investments coincide with biases in their participation in decision-making. The paper is based upon data on taxation income and revenue expenditures of 45 community-forest user groups (CFUG) and on data from 1111 CFUG member households...... on socio-economic status and participation in and perceptions of CFUG management. The results indicate an overall bias against poor and Dalit households in terms of access to CFUG funded public infrastructure. This overall picture conceals important variation; including that poor CFUG members have a higher...

  19. Microbial abundance and community composition influence production performance in a low-temperature petroleum reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Gao, Peike; Wu, Yunqiang; Tian, Huimei; Dai, Xuecheng; Wang, Yansen; Cui, Qingfeng; Zhang, Hongzuo; Pan, Xiaoxuan; Dong, Hanping; Ma, Ting

    2014-05-06

    Enhanced oil recovery using indigenous microorganisms has been successfully applied in the petroleum industry, but the role of microorganisms remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the relationship between microbial population dynamics and oil production performance during a water flooding process coupled with nutrient injection in a low-temperature petroleum reservoir. Samples were collected monthly over a two-year period. The microbial composition of samples was determined using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Our results indicated that the microbial community structure in each production well microhabitat was dramatically altered during flooding with eutrophic water. As well as an increase in the density of microorganisms, biosurfactant producers, such as Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Rhodococcus, and Rhizobium, were detected in abundance. Furthermore, the density of these microorganisms was closely related to the incremental oil production. Oil emulsification and changes in the fluid-production profile were also observed. In addition, we found that microbial community structure was strongly correlated with environmental factors, such as water content and total nitrogen. These results suggest that injected nutrients increase the abundance of microorganisms, particularly biosurfactant producers. These bacteria and their metabolic products subsequently emulsify oil and alter fluid-production profiles to enhance oil recovery.

  20. Alternative scenarios of bioenergy crop production in an agricultural landscape and implications for bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Peter J; Williams, Carol L; Sample, David W; Meehan, Timothy D; Turner, Monica G

    2016-01-01

    Increased demand and government mandates for bioenergy crops in the United States could require a large allocation of agricultural land to bioenergy feedstock production and substantially alter current landscape patterns. Incorporating bioenergy landscape design into land-use decision making could help maximize benefits and minimize trade-offs among alternative land uses. We developed spatially explicit landscape scenarios of increased bioenergy crop production in an 80-km radius agricultural landscape centered on a potential biomass-processing energy facility and evaluated the consequences of each scenario for bird communities. Our scenarios included conversion of existing annual row crops to perennial bioenergy grasslands and conversion of existing grasslands to annual bioenergy row crops. The scenarios explored combinations of four biomass crop types (three potential grassland crops along a gradient of plant diversity and one annual row crop [corn]), three land conversion percentages to bioenergy crops (10%, 20%, or 30% of row crops or grasslands), and three spatial configurations of biomass crop fields (random, clustered near similar field types, or centered on the processing plant), yielding 36 scenarios. For each scenario, we predicted the impact on four bird community metrics: species richness, total bird density, species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) density, and SGCN hotspots (SGCN birds/ha ≥ 2). Bird community metrics consistently increased with conversion of row crops to bioenergy grasslands and consistently decreased with conversion of grasslands to bioenergy row crops. Spatial arrangement of bioenergy fields had strong effects on the bird community and in some cases was more influential than the amount converted to bioenergy crops. Clustering grasslands had a stronger positive influence on the bird community than locating grasslands near the central plant or at random. Expansion of bioenergy grasslands onto marginal agricultural lands will

  1. Ectomycorrhizal communities above and below ground and truffle productivity in a Tuber aestivum orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Salerni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities (EM above (EMFb and below (EMMt ground associated with Quercus cerris L., Q. pubescens Willd., and Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold was analyzed.Area of study: A 20 year-old orchard that produces Tuber aestivum truffles, located a few kilometers from Chiusi della Verna (latitude 43° 41’ 53’’; longitude 11° 56’ 9’’ in Tuscany (central Italy was observed.Material and Methods: This investigation combined analyses of EMFb, EMMt, T. aestivum productivity, different host trees, and statistical data on community ecology.Main results: The EM communities showed high species richness and differed slightly in relation to both the host tree and their location above or below ground, providing frequent findings of Tricholoma and Tomentella, respectively. Positive correlations were found between the number of truffles and host trees, and between the weight and number of truffles and EMFb.Research highlights: Mycorrhizal fungi and truffle production are not in competition.Key words: Fungal communities; fruiting bodies; morphotypes; Tuber aestivum; competition; Italy.

  2. Methane production and microbial community structure for alkaline pretreated waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Xing, Defeng; Jia, Jianna; Zhou, Aijuan; Zhang, Lu; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-10-01

    Alkaline pretreatment was studied to analyze the influence on waste activated sludge (WAS) reduction, methane production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion. Methane production from alkaline pretreated sludge (A-WAS) (pH = 12) increased from 251.2 mL/Ld to 362.2 mL/Ld with the methane content of 68.7% compared to raw sludge (R-WAS). Sludge reduction had been improved, and volatile suspended solids (VSS) removal rate and protein reduction had increased by ∼ 10% and ∼ 35%, respectively. The bacterial and methanogenic communities were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing and clone libraries of 16S rRNA gene. Remarkable shifts were observed in microbial community structures after alkaline pretreatment, especially for Archaea. The dominant methanogenic population changed from Methanosaeta for R-WAS to Methanosarcina for A-WAS. In addition to the enhancement of solubilization and hydrolysis of anaerobic digestion of WAS, alkaline pretreatment showed significant impacts on the enrichment and syntrophic interactions between microbial communities.

  3. Bioaugmentation of Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B affects hydrogen production through altering indigenous bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Shi, Xiaoshuang; He, Shuai; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Dang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-07-01

    Bioaugmentation can facilitate hydrogen production from complex organic substrates, but it still is unknown how indigenous microbial communities respond to the added bacteria. Here, using a Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B (named as LX-B) bioaugmentation experiments, the distribution of metabolites and the responses of indigenous bacterial communities were investigated via batch cultivation (BC) and repeated batch cultivation (RBC). In BC the LX-B/sludge ratio of 0.12 achieved substantial high hydrogen yield, which was over twice that of control. In RBC one-time bioaugmentation and repeated batch bioaugmentation of LX-B resulted in the hydrogen yield that was average 1.2-fold and 0.8-fold higher than that in control, respectively. This improved hydrogen production performance mainly benefited from a shift in composition of the indigenous bacterial community caused by LX-B bioaugmentation. The findings represented an important step in understanding the relationship between bioaugmentation, a shift in bacterial communities, and altered bioreactor performance.

  4. Characterization of the contaminant bacterial communities in sugarcane first-generation industrial ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatelli, Maria L; Quecine, Maria C; Silva, Mariana S; Labate, Carlos A

    2017-09-15

    The industrial ethanolic fermentation process is operated in distilleries, either in fed-batch or continuous mode. A consequence of the large industrial ethanol production is bacterial contamination in the fermentation tanks, which is responsible for significant economic losses. To investigate this community, we accessed the profile of bacterial contaminant from two distilleries in Brazil, each operating a different fermentation mode, throughout sugarcane harvest of 2013-2014. Bacterial communities were accessed through Illumina culture-independent 16S rDNA gene sequencing, and qPCR was used to quantify total bacteria abundance. Both ethanol production modes showed similar bacterial abundance, around 105 gene copies/mL. 16S rDNA sequencing showed that 92%-99% of the sequences affiliated to Lactobacillus genus. Operational taxonomic units differently represented belonged mainly to Lactobacillus, but also to Weissella, Pediococcus, Acetobacter and Anaeosporobacter, although in lower abundance. Alpha-diversity only showed a correlation through the fermentation tanks in continuous mode, where it was always higher in the second and third tanks. Beta-diversity clearly separated the two distilleries and metagenome prediction reinforces clusterization within distilleries. Despite certain variations between bacterial community in the distilleries throughout harvest season, Lactobacillus were the main genera reported in both distilleries and bacterial community seemed to persist along time, suggesting bacterial reinfestation. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  6. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  7. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  8. The costs of diabetes among Australians aged 45–64 years from 2015 to 2030: projections of lost productive life years (PLYs), lost personal income, lost taxation revenue, extra welfare payments and lost gross domestic product from Health&WealthMOD2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Cunich, Michelle M; Veerman, Lennert; Tanton, Robert; Kelly, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To project the number of people aged 45–64 years with lost productive life years (PLYs) due to diabetes and related costs (lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue); and lost gross domestic product (GDP) attributable to diabetes in Australia from 2015 to 2030. Design A simulation study of how the number of people aged 45–64 years with diabetes increases over time (based on population growth and disease trend data) and the economic losses incurred by individuals and the government. Cross-sectional outputs of a microsimulation model (Health&WealthMOD2030) which used the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003 and 2009 as a base population and integrated outputs from two microsimulation models (Static Incomes Model and Australian Population and Policy Simulation Model), Treasury's population and labour force projections, and chronic disease trends data. Setting Australian population aged 45–64 years in 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030. Outcome measures Lost PLYs, lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue, lost GDP. Results 18 100 people are out of the labour force due to diabetes in 2015, increasing to 21 400 in 2030 (18% increase). National costs consisted of a loss of $A467 million in annual income in 2015, increasing to $A807 million in 2030 (73% increase). For the government, extra annual welfare payments increased from $A311 million in 2015 to $A350 million in 2030 (13% increase); and lost annual taxation revenue increased from $A102 million in 2015 to $A166 million in 2030 (63% increase). A loss of $A2.1 billion in GDP was projected for 2015, increasing to $A2.9 billion in 2030 attributable to diabetes through its impact on PLYs. Conclusions Individuals incur significant costs of diabetes through lost PLYs and lost income in addition to disease burden through human suffering and healthcare costs. The government incurs extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue and

  9. Influence of plant community composition on biomass production in planted grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschell, Max A; Webster, Christopher R; Flaspohler, David J; Fortin, Chad R

    2015-01-01

    United States energy policy mandates increased use of renewable fuels. Restoring grasslands could contribute to a portion of this requirement through biomass harvest for bioenergy use. We investigated which plant community characteristics are associated with differences in biomass yield from a range of realistic native prairie plantings (n = 11; i.e., conservation planting, restoration, and wildlife cover). Our primary goal was to understand whether patterns in plant community composition and the Floristic Quality Index (FQI) were related to productivity as evidenced by dormant season biomass yield. FQI is an objective measure of how closely a plant community represents that of a pre-European settlement community. Our research was conducted in planted fields of native tallgrass prairie species, and provided a gradient in floristic quality index, species richness, species diversity, and species evenness in south-central Wisconsin during 2008 and 2009. We used a network of 15 randomly located 1 m2 plots within each field to characterize the plant community and estimate biomass yield by clipping the plots at the end of each growing season. While plant community composition and diversity varied significantly by planting type, biomass yield did not vary significantly among planting types (ANOVA; P >0.05). Biomass yield was positively correlated with plant community evenness, richness, C4 grass cover, and floristic quality index, but negatively correlated with plant species diversity in our multi-season multiple linear mixed effects models. Concordantly, plots with biomass yield in the lowest quartile (biomass yield biomass yield > 5800 kh/ha). Our results suggest that promoting the establishment of fields with high species evenness and floristic quality may increase biomass yield, while simultaneously supporting biodiversity.

  10. An integrated metagenome and -proteome analysis of the microbial community residing in a biogas production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortseifen, Vera; Stolze, Yvonne; Maus, Irena; Sczyrba, Alexander; Bremges, Andreas; Albaum, Stefan P; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Fracowiak, Jochen; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2016-08-10

    To study the metaproteome of a biogas-producing microbial community, fermentation samples were taken from an agricultural biogas plant for microbial cell and protein extraction and corresponding metagenome analyses. Based on metagenome sequence data, taxonomic community profiling was performed to elucidate the composition of bacterial and archaeal sub-communities. The community's cytosolic metaproteome was represented in a 2D-PAGE approach. Metaproteome databases for protein identification were compiled based on the assembled metagenome sequence dataset for the biogas plant analyzed and non-corresponding biogas metagenomes. Protein identification results revealed that the corresponding biogas protein database facilitated the highest identification rate followed by other biogas-specific databases, whereas common public databases yielded insufficient identification rates. Proteins of the biogas microbiome identified as highly abundant were assigned to the pathways involved in methanogenesis, transport and carbon metabolism. Moreover, the integrated metagenome/-proteome approach enabled the examination of genetic-context information for genes encoding identified proteins by studying neighboring genes on the corresponding contig. Exemplarily, this approach led to the identification of a Methanoculleus sp. contig encoding 16 methanogenesis-related gene products, three of which were also detected as abundant proteins within the community's metaproteome. Thus, metagenome contigs provide additional information on the genetic environment of identified abundant proteins.

  11. Biogas production using anaerobic groundwater containing a subterranean microbial community associated with the accretionary prism

    OpenAIRE

    Baito, Kyohei; Imai, Satomi; Matsushita, Makoto; Otani, Miku; Sato, Yu; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    In a deep aquifer associated with an accretionary prism, significant methane (CH4) is produced by a subterranean microbial community. Here, we developed bioreactors for producing CH4 and hydrogen (H2) using anaerobic groundwater collected from the deep aquifer. To generate CH4, the anaerobic groundwater amended with organic substrates was incubated in the bioreactor. At first, H2 was detected and accumulated in the gas phase of the bioreactor. After the H2 decreased, rapid CH4 production was ...

  12. Advantages and limitations of online communities of patients for research on health products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoire, Sophie; Lang, Marie; Perrin, Elena

    2017-02-01

    The way patients and their caregivers share information on various online platforms about health topics and their own experiential knowledge presents new potential environments for research, particularly as concerns health products. The information provided individually and voluntarily by patients who are members of these online communities is a new resource for identifying and understanding precisely how health products are used, assessing their effectiveness, quantifying potential adverse effects in real-life situations, detecting subtle signs that are significant for experts in pharmacovigilance and addiction studies, and developing new assessment tools to help form new working hypotheses. How patients freely express their experiences and feelings and the reality of what they share also opens the way for societal research into health products, a field that is still under-explored. Well-established regulations govern research into health products, which uses resources and methodologies that have changed little over the years. However, the development of online communities of patients presents new possibilities in this field. The challenge we face today is defining their place among traditional research techniques. This place cannot be accepted by all stakeholders unless we first establish a firm understanding of the advantages, limitations, and constraints of these communities. The round table on this topic endeavoured to: explore these issues and develop a better understanding of the phenomenon and the different varieties of online communities and networks for patients; identify possible advantages, special features, and methodological, regulatory, and ethical limitations that researchers currently face; and finally, to put forward the first recommendations in this growing field of research. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Production and zooplankton community structure in the lagoon and surrounding sea at Kavaratti atoll (Lakshadweep)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    .6 degrees C, 35.7 x 10/3, ml.l/1 and 0.8, 1.5 and 3.6 mu g-at.l/1 respectively. Fluctuations in the secondary production were greater in the surrounding sea (19.9 to 44.8 mgC.m/2.d/1) than at lagoon (6.6 to 15.7 mgC.m/2 d/1). Zooplankton community structure...

  14. Increasing community health worker productivity and effectiveness: a review of the influence of the work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaskiewicz Wanda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community health workers (CHWs are increasingly recognized as a critical link in improving access to services and achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals. Given the financial and human resources constraints in developing countries, CHWs are expected to do more without necessarily receiving the needed support to do their jobs well. How much can be expected of CHWs before work overload and reduced organizational support negatively affect their productivity, the quality of services, and in turn the effectiveness of the community-based programmes that rely on them? This article presents policy-makers and programme managers with key considerations for a model to improve the work environment as an important approach to increase CHW productivity and, ultimately, the effectiveness of community-based strategies. Methods A desk review of selective published and unpublished articles and reports on CHW programs in developing countries was conducted to analyse and organize findings on the elements that influence CHW productivity. The search was not exhaustive but rather was meant to gather information on general themes that run through the various documents to generate perspectives on the issue and provide evidence on which to formulate ideas. After an initial search for key terminology related to CHW productivity, a snowball technique was used where a reference in one article led to the discovery of additional documents and reports. Results CHW productivity is determined in large part by the conditions under which they work. Attention to the provision of an enabling work environment for CHWs is essential for achieving high levels of productivity. We present a model in which the work environment encompasses four essential elements—workload, supportive supervision, supplies and equipment, and respect from the community and the health system—that affect the productivity of CHWs. We propose that when CHWs have a

  15. Declining Petroleum Production and the Effect Upon Communities in New Mexico's Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Ryan D.

    The petroleum industry, a vital component of New Mexico's economy, is in a gradual decline. As petroleum production is primarily focused in the southeastern corner of the state, this decline phenomenon is particularly relevant to area residents. The problem addressed in this study was that little information is available regarding the lived experiences of business and community leaders concerning this phenomenon, particularly in terms of future economic sustainability. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to interview a purposive sample of business and community leaders regarding their lived experiences and perceptions relating to the economic sustainability of the region. Research questions asked about the general awareness of the decline of oil production---data collected from federal and state databases---and potential options for alternative economic development. Coded data were analyzed and themes and patterns were identified. Findings included a general lack of awareness of area residents regarding a decline of production, assumed economic stability, and resistance to change based on a lack of incentive. Included in the findings were potential options for strategic economic diversification. Recommendations included a campaign to promote awareness of the decline of oil, provide incentives for change, and economic diversification as method of moving the local economy away from dependence upon the petroleum industry. Implications for positive social change were that the affected region can use the findings to identify sustainable alternative industries to support the communities into the future.

  16. Warming and Elevated CO2 Interact to Drive Rapid Shifts in Marine Community Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascade J B Sorte

    Full Text Available Predicting the outcome of future climate change requires an understanding of how alterations in multiple environmental factors manifest in natural communities and affect ecosystem functioning. We conducted an in situ, fully factorial field manipulation of CO2 and temperature on a rocky shoreline in southeastern Alaska, USA. Warming strongly impacted functioning of tide pool systems within one month, with the rate of net community production (NCP more than doubling in warmed pools under ambient CO2 levels relative to initial NCP values. However, in pools with added CO2, NCP was unaffected by warming. Productivity responses paralleled changes in the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of a red alga, the most abundant primary producer species in the system, highlighting the direct link between physiology and ecosystem functioning. These observed changes in algal physiology and community productivity in response to our manipulations indicate the potential for natural systems to shift rapidly in response to changing climatic conditions and for multiple environmental factors to act antagonistically.

  17. PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES IN RURAL SCHOOLS: A COMMUNITY MISSION OF THE EXECUTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena del Rosario Piñero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study consisted of valuing the productive activities for rural schools from the community mission that the executive exercises in the educational context of the Parish Ana Maria Campos, municipality Elevated place, condition Zulia. The study was considered to be descriptive, to such effects his basic action consisted of the valuation of elements considered like fundamental to identify the productive activities in rural schools from the community mission of the executive. The design of the investigation is not experimental, of field, transactional with a methodology qualitative and quantitative of dominant quantitative approach carried out in the educational context of the communities El Mecocal, El Crespo, El Rodeo, La Quebrada y el Kilometro 42. The population was constituted by teachers, parents and rural representatives to whom an instrument applied comprising questionnaire of 15 questions type Likert and 5 questions opened of triple version, validated in his content by 10 experts whose results were valued for categories and processed statistically across percentage tests. Between the conclusions there was demonstrated that the pedagogic practices are based basically on the approximation of executives and teachers by prevalence in knowing the expectations of learning of the pupils, the performance of the executives is estimated by good disposition by the teachers and the productive projects are realized across the education of the theoretical contents in the classroom of classes.

  18. Healthy Community and Healthy Commons: ‘Opensourcing’ as a Sustainable Model of Software Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damrongsak Naparat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many commercial software firms rely on opensourcing as a viable model of software production. Opensourcing is a specific form of interaction between firms and open source software (OSS communities for collaboratively producing software. The existing literature has identified opensourcing as a viable form of software production, which could be a substitute for “in-house” or “outsourced” software development. However, little is known about how opensourcing works or is sustained in the long term. The objective of this research is to explain the factors affecting the sustainability of opensourcing as a model of software production. The study employs a single case study of hospital software in Thailand to understand how firms and the communities can live symbiotically and sustain their collaboration to peer-produce vertical domain software. The analysis reveals six mechanisms (positive experience, trust in the leadership of the project leader, the demonstration of reciprocity, marketing the community, enriching knowledge, and face-to-face meetings and demonstrates how they operate in conjunction with each other to sustain opensourcing.

  19. [Presence of sulfites in minced meat and meat products prepared in industries of the Valencia Community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubeldia Lauzurica, L; Gomar Fayos, J

    1997-01-01

    In view of the development of harmonization provisions for food legislation with regard to additives, the aim of this study is to find out the use of sulfites in minced meats and meat products prepared in establishments located in the Valencia Region. Following planning of the types of products and number of samples to be researched, the results obtained were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively for the presence of sulfites, expressed in mg/kg of SO2. The presence of sulfites was found in 65.38% of the samples of beef and pork burgers and in 64.18% of chicken burgers. Minced meat, fresh chorizo (highly-seasoned pork sausage) and raw sausages were more in line with legislation. The extensive use of sulfites in prepared meat products was observed. The imminent application of Community legislation will bring lead to a modification in the practices when preparing these products.

  20. Mechanisms driving diversity-productivity relationships differ between exotic and native communities and are affected by gastropod herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korell, Lotte; Schmidt, Robin; Bruelheide, Helge; Hensen, Isabell; Auge, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that productivity usually increases with plant species richness. However, most of those studies disregarded the importance of trophic interactions to the diversity-productivity relationship, and focused on the loss of native species while ignoring invasions by exotic species. Yet, as functional complementarity and the impact of plant antagonists are likely to differ between native and exotic communities, the diversity-productivity relationship may change when native communities are invaded by exotic species. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to test how diversity effects, evenness, and productivity differed between exotic and native assemblages of grassland plants, and how these communities were influenced by slug herbivory. In line with other experiments, we found higher productivity in exotic than in native communities. However, different mechanisms (complementarity vs. selection effect) contributed to the positive diversity-productivity relationships in exotic vs. native communities. Against expectations, native communities showed much lower evenness and a greater selection effect, suggesting that competitive dominance among native species may be even stronger than among exotic species. Slug herbivory decreased productivity independently of species origin and species diversity. However, exotic communities showed a threefold higher complementarity effect than native communities in the absence of slugs, which was mainly driven by differences in the responses of native and exotic legumes and nonleguminous herbs. Our results imply that underlying mechanisms for the positive diversity-productivity relationship differ between native and exotic communities in the early stages of community development, and that differential responses of plant functional groups to generalist herbivory can contribute to this pattern.

  1. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  2. Consumption patterns of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Receveur, Olivier; Cargo, Margaret; Daniel, Mark

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the consumption patterns of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community and examines its associations with physical activity, sedentary behaviours and BMI. A two-stage cross-sectional design was used. In Stage 1 (n 42), 24 h recalls enabled the identification of sweetened products. In Stage 2 (n 192), an FFQ was administered to measure the daily consumption of these products and to collect sociodemographic and behavioural data. Sweetened products were defined as processed culinary ingredients and ultra-processed products for which total sugar content exceeded 20% of total energy. Three Catholic Middle Eastern churches located in Montreal, Canada. Normoglycaemic men and women (18-60 years old). Twenty-six sweetened products represented an average consumption of 75·4 g total sugars/d or 15·1% of daily energy intake (n 190, 56% women). Soft drinks, juices, sweetened coffee, chocolate, cookies, cakes and muffins were the main sources of consumption and mostly consumed between meals. Age (exp (β) = 0·99; P recommendation for free sugars. Being physically active and spending less time using a computer may favour a reduced consumption of sweetened products. Very active individuals may, however, overconsume such products.

  3. Evaluation of Biogas Production Performance and Dynamics of the Microbial Community in Different Straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Liu, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Xin; Ge, Chang-Ming; Piao, Ren-Zhe; Wang, Wei-Dong; Cui, Zong-Jun; Zhao, Hong-Yan

    2017-03-28

    The development and utilization of crop straw biogas resources can effectively alleviate the shortage of energy, environmental pollution, and other issues. This study performed a continuous batch test at 35°C to assess the methane production potential and volatile organic acid contents using the modified Gompertz equation. Illumina MiSeq platform sequencing, which is a sequencing method based on sequencing-by-synthesis, was used to compare the archaeal community diversity, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to analyze the bacterial community diversity in rice straw, dry maize straw, silage maize straw, and tobacco straw. The results showed that cumulative gas production values for silage maize straw, rice straw, dry maize straw, and tobacco straw were 4,870, 4,032.5, 3,907.5, and 3,628.3 ml/g ·VS , respectively, after 24 days. Maximum daily gas production values of silage maize straw and rice straw were 1,025 and 904.17 ml/g ·VS, respectively, followed by tobacco straw and dry maize straw. The methane content of all four kinds of straws was > 60%, particularly that of silage maize straw, which peaked at 67.3%. Biogas production from the four kinds of straw was in the order silage maize straw > rice straw > dry maize straw > tobacco straw, and the values were 1,166.7, 1,048.4, 890, and 637.4 ml/g ·VS, respectively. The microbial community analysis showed that metabolism was mainly carried out by acetate-utilizing methanogens, and that Methanosarcina was the dominant archaeal genus in the four kinds of straw, and the DGGE bands belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Silage maize is useful for biogas production because it contains four kinds of straw.

  4. The effect of antibiotics on associated bacterial community of stored product mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kopecky

    Full Text Available Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata. The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria.Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae and associated bacterial community structure were assessed. Mites were treated by antibiotic supplementation (1 mg g(-1 of diet for 21 days and numbers of mites and bacterial communities were analyzed and compared to the untreated control. Bacterial quantities, determined by real-time PCR, significantly decreased in antibiotic treated specimens from 5 to 30 times in A. siro and T. putrescentiae, while no decline was observed in L. destructor. Streptomycin treatment eliminated Bartonella-like bacteria in the both A. siro and T. putrescentiae and Cardinium in T. putrescentiae. Solitalea-like bacteria proportion increased in the communities of neomycin and streptomycin treated A. siro specimens. Kocuria proportion increased in the bacterial communities of ampicillin and streptomycin treated A. siro and neomycin and streptomycin treated L. destructor.The work demonstrated the changes of mite associated bacterial community under antibiotic pressure in pests of medical importance. Pre-treatment of mites by 1 mg g(-1 antibiotic diets improved mite fitness as indicated accelerated population growth of A. siro pretreated streptomycin and neomycin and L. destructor pretreated by neomycin. All tested antibiotics supplemented to diets caused the decrease of mite growth rate in comparison to the control diet.

  5. Extracellular Lipase and Protease Production from a Model Drinking Water Bacterial Community Is Functionally Robust to Absence of Individual Members.

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    Graham G Willsey

    Full Text Available Bacteria secrete enzymes into the extracellular space to hydrolyze macromolecules into constituents that can be imported for microbial nutrition. In bacterial communities, these enzymes and their resultant products can be modeled as community property. Our goal was to investigate the impact of individual community member absence on the resulting community production of exoenzymes (extracellular enzymes involved in lipid and protein hydrolysis. Our model community contained nine bacteria isolated from the potable water system of the International Space Station. Bacteria were grown in static conditions individually, all together, or in all combinations of eight species and exoproduct production was measured by colorimetric or fluorometric reagents to assess short chain and long chain lipases, choline-specific phospholipases C, and proteases. The exoenzyme production of each species grown alone varied widely, however, the enzyme activity levels of the mixed communities were functionally robust to absence of any single species, with the exception of phospholipase C production in one community. For phospholipase C, absence of Chryseobacterium gleum led to increased choline-specific phospholipase C production, correlated with increased growth of Burkholderia cepacia and Sphingomonas sanguinis. Because each individual species produced different enzyme activity levels in isolation, we calculated an expected activity value for each bacterial mixture using input levels or known final composition. This analysis suggested that robustness of each exoenzyme activity is not solely mediated by community composition, but possibly influenced by bacterial communication, which is known to regulate such pathways in many bacteria. We conclude that in this simplified model of a drinking water bacterial community, community structure imposes constraints on production and/or secretion of exoenzymes to generate a level appropriate to exploit a given nutrient environment.

  6. Biogas production using anaerobic groundwater containing a subterranean microbial community associated with the accretionary prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baito, Kyohei; Imai, Satomi; Matsushita, Makoto; Otani, Miku; Sato, Yu; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    In a deep aquifer associated with an accretionary prism, significant methane (CH₄) is produced by a subterranean microbial community. Here, we developed bioreactors for producing CH₄ and hydrogen (H₂) using anaerobic groundwater collected from the deep aquifer. To generate CH₄, the anaerobic groundwater amended with organic substrates was incubated in the bioreactor. At first, H₂ was detected and accumulated in the gas phase of the bioreactor. After the H₂ decreased, rapid CH₄ production was observed. Phylogenetic analysis targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that the H₂ -producing fermentative bacterium and hydrogenotrophic methanogen were predominant in the reactor. The results suggested that syntrophic biodegradation of organic substrates by the H₂ -producing fermentative bacterium and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen contributed to the CH₄ production. For H₂ production, the anaerobic groundwater, amended with organic substrates and an inhibitor of methanogens (2-bromoethanesulfonate), was incubated in a bioreactor. After incubation for 24 h, H₂ was detected from the gas phase of the bioreactor and accumulated. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis suggested the dominance of the H₂ -producing fermentative bacterium in the reactor. Our study demonstrated a simple and rapid CH4 and H2 production utilizing anaerobic groundwater containing an active subterranean microbial community.

  7. Assessment of net community production and calcification of a coral reef using a boundary layer approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Yuichiro; McGillis, Wade; Briggs, Ellen M.; Carter, Amanda L.; Donham, Emily M.; Martz, Todd R.; Price, Nichole N.; Smith, Jennifer E.

    2016-08-01

    Coral reefs are threatened worldwide, and there is a need to develop new approaches to monitor reef health under natural conditions. Because simultaneous measurements of net community production (NCP) and net community calcification (NCC) are used as important indicators of reef health, tools are needed to assess them in situ. Here we present the Benthic Ecosystem and Acidification Measurement System (BEAMS) to provide the first fully autonomous approach capable of sustained, simultaneous measurements of reef NCP and NCC under undisturbed, natural conditions on time scales ranging from tens of minutes to weeks. BEAMS combines the chemical and velocity gradient in the benthic boundary layer to quantify flux from the benthos for a variety of parameters to measure NCP and NCC. Here BEAMS was used to measure these rates from two different sites with different benthic communities on the western reef terrace at Palmyra Atoll for 2 weeks in September 2014. Measurements were made every ˜15 min. The trends in metabolic rates were consistent with the benthic communities between the two sites with one dominated by fleshy organisms and the other dominated by calcifiers (degraded and healthy reefs, respectively). This demonstrates the potential utility of BEAMS as a reef health monitoring tool. NCP and NCC were tightly coupled on time scales of minutes to days, and light was the primary driver for the variability of daily integrated metabolic rates. No correlation between CO2 levels and daily integrated NCC was observed, indicating that NCC at these sites were not significantly affected by CO2.

  8. FISCAL FEATURES SPECIFIC TO INTRA-COMMUNITY TRANSACTIONS OF NEW MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION AND EXCISABLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU - POPA LUCIA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With a view to our country's accession to the Community space, the Romanian legislation has undergone many changes, and we should point out among others those in the tax system, that primarily aims to ensure the functioning of the national economy in the globalization of the economic and social activities worldwide. Although at first sight the new procedures have a positive impact on the development of intra-Community commercial businesses, due to the elimination of customs formalities and hence of the fees paid to customs officials, however there are costs generated by the application of EU law, which should not be neglected. Considering the many situations that arise in carrying out intra-Community commercial transactions, that are aimed at the differentiated tax procedures from the value added tax perspective, we considered appropriate, to address below the tax features related to intra-Community acquisitions and supplies of new means of transport and excisable products, because these are two important categories of goods that generate differential tax treatments, so that after the tax analysis we should be able to draw some relevant conclusions.

  9. Biotechnology education as social and cultural production/reproduction of the biotechnology community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Maria

    2014-03-01

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study demonstrates how students begin to acquire `the right way' of approaching the controversial issue of producing and consuming genetically modified organisms. In my response I discuss the ethnographic account of this particular educational practice in terms of social and cultural production/reproduction of a biotechnology community and how the participants (students and teaching professors) deal with the dialectic of individual and collective transformation. In the perspective of the biotechnology community, the work done by the teaching professor becomes a way of ensuring the future of the biotechnology community in terms of what values and objectives are held highly in the community of practice.

  10. Biodegradation of Leonardite by an alkali-producing bacterial community and characterization of the degraded products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong-Guo; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Jin-Shui; Li, Bao-Zhen; Yuan, Hong-Li

    2012-03-01

    In this study, three bacterial communities were obtained from 12 Leonardite samples with the aim of identifying a clean, effective, and economic technique for the dissolution of Leonardite, a type of low-grade coal, in the production of humic acid (HA). The biodegradation ability and characteristics of the degraded products of the most effective bacterial community (MCSL-2), which degraded 50% of the Leonardite within 21 days, were further investigated. Analyses of elemental composition, (13)C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared revealed that the contents of C, O, and aliphatic carbon were similar in biodegraded humic acid (bHA) and chemically (alkali) extracted humic acid (cHA). However, the N and carboxyl carbon contents of bHA was higher than that of cHA. Furthermore, a positive correlation was identified between the degradation efficiency and the increasing pH of the culture medium, while increases of manganese peroxidase and esterase activities were also observed. These data demonstrated that both alkali production and enzyme reactions were involved in Leonardite solubilization by MCSL-2, although the former mechanism predominated. No fungus was observed by microscopy. Only four bacterial phylotypes were recognized, and Bacillus licheniformis-related bacteria were identified as the main group in MCSL-2 by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, thus demonstrating that Leonardite degradation ability has a limited distribution in bacteria. Hormone-like bioactivities of bHA were also detected. In this study, a bacterial community capable of Leonardite degradation was identified and the products characterized. These data implicate the use of such bacteria for the exploitation of Leonardite as a biofertilizer.

  11. Hydrogen production by anaerobic microbial communities exposed to repeated heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangmanee, T; Padmasiri, S I; Simmons, J J; Raskin, L; Sung, S

    2007-09-01

    Biological hydrogen production by anaerobic mixed communities was studied in laboratory-scale bioreactors using sucrose as the substrate. A bioreactor in which a fraction of the return sludge was exposed to repeated heat treatments performed better than a control bioreactor without repeated heat treatment of return sludge and produced a yield of 2.15 moles of hydrogen per mole of sucrose, with 50% hydrogen in the biogas. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that two different Clostridium groups (comprised of one or more species) were dominant during hydrogen production. The relative abundance of two other non-Clostridium groups increased during periods of decreased hydrogen production. The first group consisted of Bifidobacterium thermophilum, and the second group included one or more of Bacillus, Melissococcus, Spirochaeta, and Spiroplasma spp.

  12. [Biodiversity in plankton, benthos, and fish communities, and ecosystems of fresh water bodies with various productivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimov, A F

    2001-01-01

    The species diversity of phyto- and zooplankton, benthic animals, and ichthyofauna was studied in continental water bodies that differ in type, geographic location, size, and productivity. The results showed that the number of species in the communities of aquatic organisms and in ecosystems depends on the area and volume of the water body and the level of plankton primary production. Corresponding relationships can be approximated by the equations of exponential and polymodal functions. The species number and biomass per unit area or volume proved to decrease the area or volume of the water body increased. The greatest number of heterotrophic species was observed in water bodies whose primary production approached 1400 kcal/m2 per year. It is proposed that the number of aquatic species in a body of water depends on the total area of the latter and the area of individual territories occupied by the representatives of certain species.

  13. Terrestrial gross carbon dioxide uptake: Global distribution and covariation with climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, C.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is the largest global CO2 flux driving several ecosystem functions. We provide an observation-based estimate of this flux at 123 ± 8 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year-1) using eddy covariance flux data and various diagnostic models. Tropical forests

  14. The impact of unit cost reductions on gross profit: Increasing or decreasing returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Dahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that marketers actively participate in reducing unit costs during new product development, consistent with the theme of integrated marketing and manufacturing. Most marketing managers misjudge the impact on gross profit of reducing variable unit manufacturing costs, mistakenly believing that such cost reductions yield decreasing or linear returns while they actually generate increasing returns.

  15. Firm Productivity and Type of Innovation: Evidence from the Community Innovation Survey 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Stojčić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Having recognized the impact of innovation for the improvement of productivity in firms and for the growth of national economies, researchers have been exploring the innovation process and its underlying factors for over a decade now. Much of the empirical findings in this area have been based on national firm-level studies while research that encompasses several countries, particularly in transition economies, is still rare. This paper attempts to fill this gap by investigating the impact of innovation on firms’ productivity across a number of East and West European countries, using a structural model based on Crepon, Duguet and Mairesse (1998 and a firm-level dataset from the 2006 round of the Community Innovation Survey (CIS6. In contrast to previous studies that focused only on product innovation as the measure of innovation output, we distinguish between firms engaged in only one type of innovation activities (product or process and those engaged in both types. The results of the investigation provide support for the relationship between different stages of the innovation process and confirm the impact of innovation output on productivity. In addition, we find differences in the productivity associated with the type of innovation activities undertaken.

  16. A mathematical model of quorum sensing regulated EPS production in biofilm communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Mallory R; Kuttler, Christina; Hense, Burkhard A; Eberl, Hermann J

    2011-04-10

    Biofilms are microbial communities encased in a layer of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix provides several functional purposes for the biofilm, such as protecting bacteria from environmental stresses, and providing mechanical stability. Quorum sensing is a cell-cell communication mechanism used by several bacterial taxa to coordinate gene expression and behaviour in groups, based on population densities. We mathematically model quorum sensing and EPS production in a growing biofilm under various environmental conditions, to study how a developing biofilm impacts quorum sensing, and conversely, how a biofilm is affected by quorum sensing-regulated EPS production. We investigate circumstances when using quorum-sensing regulated EPS production is a beneficial strategy for biofilm cells. We find that biofilms that use quorum sensing to induce increased EPS production do not obtain the high cell populations of low-EPS producers, but can rapidly increase their volume to parallel high-EPS producers. Quorum sensing-induced EPS production allows a biofilm to switch behaviours, from a colonization mode (with an optimized growth rate), to a protection mode. A biofilm will benefit from using quorum sensing-induced EPS production if bacteria cells have the objective of acquiring a thick, protective layer of EPS, or if they wish to clog their environment with biomass as a means of securing nutrient supply and outcompeting other colonies in the channel, of their own or a different species.

  17. Exploration of the relationship between biogas production and microbial community under high salinity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie; Hou, Xiaocong; Su, Haijia

    2017-04-25

    High salinity frequently causes inhibition and even failure in anaerobic digestion. To explore the impact of increasing NaCl concentrations on biogas production, and reveal the microbial community variations in response to high salinity stress, the Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was employed. The results showed that a NaCl concentration of 20 g/L (H group) exhibited a similar level of VFAs and specific CO2 production rate with that in the blank group, thus indicating that the bacterial activity in acidogenesis might not be inhibited. However, the methanogenic activity in the H group was significantly affected compared with that in the blank group, causing a 42.2% decrease in CH4 production, a 37.12% reduction in the specific CH4 generation rate and a lower pH value. Illumina sequencing revealed that microbial communities between the blank and H groups were significantly different. Bacteroides, Clostridium and BA021 uncultured were the dominant species in the blank group while some halotolerant genera, such as Thermovirga, Soehngenia and Actinomyces, dominated and complemented the hydrolytic and acidogenetic abilities in the H group. Additionally, the most abundant archaeal species included Methanosaeta, Methanolinea, Methanospirillum and Methanoculleus in both groups, but hydrogenotrophic methanogens showed a lower resistance to high salinity than aceticlastic methanogens.

  18. Effects of heat treatment on microbial communities of granular sludge for biological hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Favaro, Lorenzo; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Basaglia, Marina; Casella, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Dark fermentation shares many features with anaerobic digestion with the exception that to maximize hydrogen production, methanogens and hydrogen-consuming bacteria should be inhibited. Heat treatment is widely applied as an inoculum pre-treatment due to its effectiveness in inhibiting methanogenic microflora but it may not exclusively select for hydrogen-producing bacteria. This work evaluated the effects of heat treatment on microbial viability and structure of anaerobic granular sludge. Heat treatment was carried out on granular sludge at 100 °C with four residence times (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h). Hydrogen production of treated sludges was studied from glucose by means of batch test at different pH values. Results indicated that each heat treatment strongly influenced the granular sludge resulting in microbial communities having different hydrogen productions. The highest hydrogen yields (2.14 moles of hydrogen per mole of glucose) were obtained at pH 5.5 using the sludge treated for 4 h characterized by the lowest CFU concentration (2.3 × 10(3)CFU/g sludge). This study demonstrated that heat treatment should be carefully defined according to the structure of the sludge microbial community, allowing the selection of highly efficient hydrogen-producing microbes.

  19. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  20. Biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D; Kurola, J M; Lähde, K; Kymäläinen, M; Sinkkonen, A; Romantschuk, M

    2014-10-01

    Over 258 Mt of solid waste are generated annually in Europe, a large fraction of which is biowaste. Sewage sludge is another major waste fraction. In this study, biowaste and sewage sludge were co-digested in an anaerobic digestion reactor (30% and 70% of total wet weight, respectively). The purpose was to investigate the biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community composition in the anaerobic digestion reactor under meso- (35-37 °C) and thermophilic (55-57 °C) processes and an increasing organic loading rate (OLR, 1-10 kg VS m(-3) d(-1)), and also to find a feasible compromise between waste treatment capacity and biogas production without causing process instability. In summary, more biogas was produced with all OLRs by the thermophilic process. Both processes showed a limited diversity of the methanogenic archaeal community which was dominated by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (e.g. Methanosarcina) in both meso- and thermophilic processes. Methanothermobacter was detected as an additional dominant genus in the thermophilic process. In addition to operating temperatures, the OLRs, the acetate concentration, and the presence of key substrates like propionate also affected the methanogenic archaeal community composition. A bacterial cell count 6.25 times higher than archaeal cell count was observed throughout the thermophilic process, while the cell count ratio varied between 0.2 and 8.5 in the mesophilic process. This suggests that the thermophilic process is more stable, but also that the relative abundance between bacteria and archaea can vary without seriously affecting biogas production.

  1. Financial Variables Effect on the U.S. Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) 1959-2001

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Byron E

    2007-01-01

    I studied what role the US stock markets and money markets have possibly played in the Gross Private Domestic Investment (GPDI) of the United States from the year 1959 to the year 2001, Gross Private Domestic Investment refers to the total amount of investment spending by businesses and firms located within the borders of a nation. It includes both the values of the purchases of non-residential fixed investment, which include capital goods used for production, and the values of the purchases of residential fixed investment, which include construction spending for factories or offices. And I created a Multiple Linear Regression Model of the GDPI. To see if companies and private citizens use the stock market and money markets as a way of financing capital projects (business ventures, buying commercial and noncommercial property, etc). Keywords: Gross Private Domestic Investment, Pearson Correlation, SP 500, TB3

  2. [Marketing of medicinal products in the European Community. The Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The Mutual Recognition Procedure (MRP) and the Decentralised Procedure (DCP), which were first established in late 2005, can be regarded as the backbone for marketing authorisation of medicinal products in the European Community (EC) and the European Economic Area (EEA). Both procedures are compared and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. However, the focus is more related to current developments than the detailed comparison of both procedures. The role of the Coordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures-Human (CMD(h)) and the decision making process in relation to the MRP and DCP is also discussed.

  3. Interplay of community dynamics, temperature, and productivity on the hydrogen isotope signatures of lipid biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiah Ladd, S.; Dubois, Nathalie; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2017-09-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition (δ2H) of lipid biomarkers has diverse applications in the fields of paleoclimatology, biogeochemistry, and microbial community dynamics. Large changes in hydrogen isotope fractionation have been observed among microbes with differing core metabolisms, while environmental factors including temperature and nutrient availability can affect isotope fractionation by photoautotrophs. Much effort has gone into studying these effects under laboratory conditions with single species cultures. Moving beyond controlled environments and quantifying the natural extent of these changes in freshwater lacustrine settings and identifying their causes is essential for robust application of δ2H values of common short-chain fatty acids as a proxy of net community metabolism and of phytoplankton-specific biomarkers as a paleohydrologic proxy. This work targets the effect of community dynamics, temperature, and productivity on 2H/1H fractionation in lipid biomarkers through a comparative time series in two central Swiss lakes: eutrophic Lake Greifen and oligotrophic Lake Lucerne. Particulate organic matter was collected from surface waters at six time points throughout the spring and summer of 2015, and δ2H values of short-chain fatty acids, as well as chlorophyll-derived phytol and the diatom biomarker brassicasterol, were measured. We paired these measurements with in situ incubations conducted with NaH13CO3, which were used to calculate the production rates of individual lipids in lake surface water. As algal productivity increased from April to June, net discrimination against 2H in Lake Greifen increased by as much as 148 ‰ for individual fatty acids. During the same time period in Lake Lucerne, net discrimination against 2H increased by as much as 58 ‰ for individual fatty acids. A large portion of this signal is likely due to a greater proportion of heterotrophically derived fatty acids in the winter and early spring, which are displaced by

  4. Community syndicalism for the United States: preliminary observations on law and globalization in democratic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. Casebeer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession resulting from the globalization of Finance Capitalism created two structural labor crises for developed economies: 1 The channeling of substantial investment into non-productive, paper commodities, reducing growth of production for use and therefore reducing available aggregate job creation; and 2 The continued exportation of industrial jobs to other lower cost jurisdictions, and outsourcing, automation, just-in-time production, and speed-ups associated with global supply chains. As a result, local communities and regional populations have destabilized and even collapsed with attendant social problems. One possible response is Community Syndicalism – local community finance and operating credit for industrial production combined with democratic worker ownership and control of production. The result would increase investment directly for production, retain jobs in existing population centers, promote job skilling, and retain tax bases for local services and income supporting local businesses, at the same time increasing support for authentic political democracy by rendering the exploitive ideology of the Public/Private distinction superfluous. Slowing job exportation may reduce the global race to the bottom of labor standards and differential wage rates reducing the return to producers of value and increasing the skew of income distribution undermining social wages and welfare worldwide. Community Syndicalism can serve as moral goal in an alternative production model focusing incentives on long term stability of jobs and community economic base. La Gran Recesión que ha traído la globalización del capitalismo financiero ha dado lugar a dos crisis laborales estructurales en las economías desarrolladas: 1 El destino principal de la inversión hacia bienes no productivos, reduciendo la producción de bienes de consumo, y reduciendo también las posibilidades de creación de puestos de trabajo, y 2 el traslado de puestos de

  5. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  6. Litter Production, Decomposition, and Nutrient Release in Subalpine Forest Communities of the Northwest Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K. Bisht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production, decomposition, and release of nutrients from leaf and nonleaf litter were investigated in four subalpine forests of North-West Himalaya, India. Total annual litter fall in four communities varied from 2950.00 to 4040.00 kg ha−1 and was found significant (CD0.05 = 118.2. Decomposition of leaf litter varied from 1.82–3.5% during autumn-winter to 36.14–45.51 during summer rainy season in all stands and percent of mass loss was significantly varied in stands (CD6.00. Similarly, decomposition in nonleaf litter was varied from 0.3–1.1% during autumn-winter to 19.59–30.05% during summer rainy season and was significantly varied irrespective of seasons. However, percent decomposition of leaf litter and the values of decay constant (k were at par in all stands. Total standing state of nutrients in fresh litter as well as release of total nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K in due course of decomposition (12 months was also varying significantly. The rate of nonleaf litter decomposition was significantly positively correlated with air temperature (r=0.63–0.74 in all communities. The significant correlation (r=0.85 was observed only in Rhododendron-Sorbus forest community (PRS. Study indicates that the air temperature is a major determinant for nonleaf litter decomposition in this region.

  7. Bacterial communities associated with production facilities of two newly drilled thermogenic natural gas wells in the Barnett Shale (Texas, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James P; Struchtemeyer, Christopher G; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2012-11-01

    We monitored the bacterial communities in the gas-water separator and water storage tank of two newly drilled natural gas wells in the Barnett Shale in north central Texas, using a 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing approach over a period of 6 months. Overall, the communities were composed mainly of moderately halophilic and halotolerant members of the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria (classes Βeta-, Gamma-, and Epsilonproteobacteria) in both wells at all sampling times and locations. Many of the observed lineages were encountered in prior investigations of microbial communities from various fossil fluid formations and production facilities. In all of the samples, multiple H(2)S-producing lineages were encountered; belonging to the sulfate- and sulfur-reducing class Deltaproteobacteria, order Clostridiales, and phylum Synergistetes, as well as the thiosulfate-reducing order Halanaerobiales. The bacterial communities from the separator and tank samples bore little resemblance to the bacterial communities in the drilling mud and hydraulic-fracture waters that were used to drill these wells, suggesting the in situ development of the unique bacterial communities in such well components was in response to the prevalent geochemical conditions present. Conversely, comparison of the bacterial communities on temporal and spatial scales suggested the establishment of a core microbial community in each sampled location. The results provide the first overview of bacterial dynamics and colonization patterns in newly drilled, thermogenic natural gas wells and highlights patterns of spatial and temporal variability observed in bacterial communities in natural gas production facilities.

  8. Predicting hunter behavior of indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon: insights from a household production model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique de la Montaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many indigenous communities living in the Amazon rely on hunting and fishing to meet the majority of their protein needs. Despite the importance of these practices, few studies from the region have analyzed the socioeconomic drivers of hunting and fishing at the household level. We propose a household production model to assess the effect of key economic parameters on hunting and fishing in small indigenous communities located in the Ecuadorian Amazon, whose principal source of protein is derived from hunting and fishing. The model was validated using empirical data from two communities that reflect different levels of market integration and forest conservation. Demand and supply functions were generated from household data gathered over 19 months. Elasticities were derived to determine the sensitivity of the decision to engage in hunting to exogenous parameters such as off-farm wages, hunting costs, bushmeat price, penalties for the illegal sale of bushmeat, and biological characteristics of the game species. After calibrating the model, we simulated changes in the key economic parameters. The parameter that most directly affected hunting activity in both communities was off-farm wages. Simulating a 10% wage increase resulted in a 16-20% reduction in harvested biomass, while a 50% increase diminished harvested biomass by > 50%. Model simulations revealed that bushmeat price and penalties for illegal trade also had important effects on hunter behavior in terms of amount of bushmeat sold, but not in terms of total harvest. As a tool for understanding hunters' economic decision-making, the model provides a basis for developing strategies that promote sustainable hunting and wildlife conservation while protecting indigenous livelihoods.

  9. The main objective of this paper is to determine the effect of Foreign Direct Investment on the hospitality sector in the Colombian economic growth. This is estimated using a method that uses the Gross Domestic Product –GDP- per capita and its disaggreg Impacto de la inversión extranjera directa en el sector hotelero colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Uribe Montoya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine the effect of Foreign Direct Investment on the hospitality sector in the Colombian economic growth. This is estimated using a method that uses the Gross Domestic Product –GDP- per capita and its disaggregated data according to the different economic sectors, providing an ex post assessment of the contribution of tourism on GDP growth. The results show that Colombia has competitive levels in tourism contribution to GDP, although its level is low compared to countries where the sector is the most active player in their economies.El objetivo de este estudio es determinar el efecto de la Inversión Extranjera Directa en el sector hotelero en el crecimiento económico colombiano. Para ello, se estima utilizando un método que utiliza el crecimiento del Producto Interno Bruto –PIB- real per cápita y se desagrega según los diferentes sectores económicos, lo cual brinda una estimación ex post de la contribución del turismo sobre el crecimiento del PIB.  Los resultados muestran que Colombia presenta niveles competitivos de contribución del sector turismo al PIB, aunque su nivel sea bajo con respecto a países cuyo sector es el más activo y protagonista en sus economías

  10. Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) links biodiversity conservation with sustainable improvements in livelihoods and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dale; Bell, Samuel D; Fay, John; Bothi, Kim L; Gatere, Lydiah; Kabila, Makando; Mukamba, Mwangala; Matokwani, Edwin; Mushimbalume, Matthews; Moraru, Carmen I; Lehmann, Johannes; Lassoie, James; Wolfe, David; Lee, David R; Buck, Louise; Travis, Alexander J

    2011-08-23

    In the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, persistent poverty and hunger present linked challenges to rural development and biodiversity conservation. Both household coping strategies and larger-scale economic development efforts have caused severe natural resource degradation that limits future economic opportunities and endangers ecosystem services. A model based on a business infrastructure has been developed to promote and maintain sustainable agricultural and natural resource management practices, leading to direct and indirect conservation outcomes. The Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) model operates primarily with communities surrounding national parks, strengthening conservation benefits produced by these protected areas. COMACO first identifies the least food-secure households and trains them in sustainable agricultural practices that minimize threats to natural resources while meeting household needs. In addition, COMACO identifies people responsible for severe natural resource depletion and trains them to generate alternative income sources. In an effort to maintain compliance with these practices, COMACO provides extension support and access to high-value markets that would otherwise be inaccessible to participants. Because the model is continually evolving via adaptive management, success or failure of the model as a whole is difficult to quantify at this early stage. We therefore test specific hypotheses and present data documenting the stabilization of previously declining wildlife populations; the meeting of thresholds of productivity that give COMACO access to stable, high-value markets and progress toward economic self-sufficiency; and the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices by participants and other community members. Together, these findings describe a unique, business-oriented model for poverty alleviation, food production, and biodiversity conservation.

  11. De-coupling of net community production and new production in the euphotic zone of the equatorial Pacific: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujun; Murtugudde, Ragu; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Le Borgne, Robert

    2005-11-01

    A physical-biogeochemical model is employed to estimate rates of nitrogen based primary production (PP*), net community production (NCP*), and new production (NP) in the equatorial Pacific. The model reproduces observed vertical differences between ammonium regeneration and uptake: uptake > regeneration above 40 m and uptake over-consumption in the upper ocean of the equatorial Pacific with implications for predicting sinks/sources of CO2.

  12. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  13. Semi-continuous methane production from undiluted brown algae using a halophilic marine microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toyokazu; Kita, Akihisa; Okamura, Yoshiko; Aki, Tsunehiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Acclimated marine sediment-derived culture was used for semi-continuous methane production from materials equivalent to raw brown algae, without dilution of salinity and without nutrient supply, under 3 consecutive conditions of varying organic loading rates (OLRs) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). Methane production was stable at 2.0gVS/kg/day (39-day HRT); however, it became unstable at 2.9gVS/kg/day (28-day HRT) due to acetate and propionate accumulation. OLR subsequently decreased to 1.7gVS/kg/day (46-day HRT), stabilizing methane production beyond steady state. Methane yield was above 300mL/g VS at all OLRs. These results indicated that the acclimated marine sediment culture was able to produce methane semi-continuously from raw brown algae without dilution and nutrient supply under steady state. Microbial community analysis suggested that hydrogenotrophic methanogens predominated among archaea during unstable methane production, implying a partial shift of the methanogenic pathway from acetoclastic methanogenesis to acetate oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fungal Identification Using Molecular Tools: A Primer for the Natural Products Research Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Huzefa A; Miller, Andrew N; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2017-03-24

    Fungi are morphologically, ecologically, metabolically, and phylogenetically diverse. They are known to produce numerous bioactive molecules, which makes them very useful for natural products researchers in their pursuit of discovering new chemical diversity with agricultural, industrial, and pharmaceutical applications. Despite their importance in natural products chemistry, identification of fungi remains a daunting task for chemists, especially those who do not work with a trained mycologist. The purpose of this review is to update natural products researchers about the tools available for molecular identification of fungi. In particular, we discuss (1) problems of using morphology alone in the identification of fungi to the species level; (2) the three nuclear ribosomal genes most commonly used in fungal identification and the potential advantages and limitations of the ITS region, which is the official DNA barcoding marker for species-level identification of fungi; (3) how to use NCBI-BLAST search for DNA barcoding, with a cautionary note regarding its limitations; (4) the numerous curated molecular databases containing fungal sequences; (5) the various protein-coding genes used to augment or supplant ITS in species-level identification of certain fungal groups; and (6) methods used in the construction of phylogenetic trees from DNA sequences to facilitate fungal species identification. We recommend that, whenever possible, both morphology and molecular data be used for fungal identification. Our goal is that this review will provide a set of standardized procedures for the molecular identification of fungi that can be utilized by the natural products research community.

  15. Making products available among community health workers: Evidence for improving community health supply chains from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Chandani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A UNICEF review of the challenges to scaling up integrated community case management (iCCM found that drug shortages were a common bottleneck. In many settings, little thought has gone into the design of supply chains to the community level and limited evidence exists for how to address these unique challenges. SC4CCM’s purpose was to conduct intervention research to identify proven, simple, affordable solutions that address the unique supply chain challenges faced by CHWs and to demonstrate that supply chain constraints at the community level can be overcome.

  16. 26 CFR 1.199-3 - Domestic production gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... out of scrap, salvage, or junk material as well as from new or raw material by processing... of Columbia, the territorial waters of the United States, and the seabed and subsoil of those submarine areas that are adjacent to the territorial waters of the United States and over which the...

  17. Monitoring the Perturbation of Soil and Groundwater Microbial Communities Due to Pig Production Activities

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2013-02-08

    This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms was conducted, and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was utilized to determine the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (i.e., tetQ and tetZ) and integrase genes (i.e., intI1 and intI2). We observed that the abundances of tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in the soils increased at least 6-fold after manure application, and their abundances remained elevated above the background for up to 16 months. Q-PCR further determined total abundances of up to 5.88 × 109 copies/ng DNA for tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in some of the groundwater wells that were situated next to the manure lagoon and in the facility well used to supply water for one of the farms. We further utilized 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing to assess the microbial communities, and our comparative analyses suggest that most of the soil samples collected before and after manure application did not change significantly, sharing a high Bray-Curtis similarity of 78.5%. In contrast, an increase in Bacteroidetes and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations was observed in the groundwaters collected from lagoon-associated groundwater wells. Genera associated with opportunistic human and animal pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, Yersinia, and Coxiella, were detected in some of the manure-treated soils and affected groundwater wells. Feces-associated bacteria such as Streptococcus, Erysipelothrix, and Bacteroides were detected in the manure, soil, and groundwater ecosystems, suggesting a perturbation of the soil and groundwater environments by invader species from pig production activities.

  18. Managing soil microbial communities in grain production systems through cropping practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vadakattu

    2013-04-01

    Cropping practices can significantly influence the composition and activity of soil microbial communities with consequences to plant growth and production. Plant type can affect functional capacity of different groups of biota in the soil surrounding their roots, rhizosphere, influencing plant nutrition, beneficial symbioses, pests and diseases and overall plant health and crop production. The interaction between different players in the rhizosphere is due to the plethora of carbon and nutritional compounds, root-specific chemical signals and growth regulators that originate from the plant and are modulated by the physico-chemical properties of soils. A number of plant and environmental factors and management practices can influence the quantity and quality of rhizodeposition and in turn affect the composition of rhizosphere biota communities, microbe-fauna interactions and biological processes. Some of the examples of rhizosphere interactions that are currently considered important are: proliferation of plant and variety specific genera or groups of microbiota, induction of genes involved in symbiosis and virulence, promoter activity in biocontrol agents and genes correlated with root adhesion and border cell quality and quantity. The observation of variety-based differences in rhizodeposition and associated changes in rhizosphere microbial diversity and function suggests the possibility for the development of varieties with specific root-microbe interactions targeted for soil type and environment i.e. designer rhizospheres. Spatial location of microorganisms in the heterogeneous field soil matrix can have significant impacts on biological processes. Therefore, for rhizosphere research to be effective in variable seasonal climate and soil conditions, it must be evaluated in the field and within a farming systems context. With the current focus on security of food to feed the growing global populations through sustainable agricultural production systems there is a

  19. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  20. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  1. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  2. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  3. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  4. Responses of plant community composition and biomass production to warming and nitrogen deposition in a temperate meadow ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Guo, Rui; Gao, Song; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and biomass production are not well understood. A four-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and biomass production in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental warming had no significant effect on plant species richness, evenness, and diversity, while N addition highly reduced the species richness and diversity. Warming tended to reduce the importance value of graminoid species but increased the value of forbs, while N addition had the opposite effect. Warming tended to increase the belowground biomass, but had an opposite tendency to decrease the aboveground biomass. The influences of warming on aboveground production were dependent upon precipitation. Experimental warming had little effect on aboveground biomass in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed aboveground biomass in dry years. Our results suggest that warming had indirect effects on plant production via its effect on the water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and below-ground production, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors determining plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of warming plus N addition on belowground biomass were also detected. Our observations revealed that environmental changes (warming and N deposition) play significant roles in regulating plant community composition and biomass production in temperate meadow steppe ecosystem in northeast China.

  5. CO2 increases 14C primary production in an Arctic plankton community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Engel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Responses to ocean acidification in plankton communities were studied during a CO2-enrichment experiment in the Arctic Ocean, accomplished from June to July 2010 in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (78°56′ 2′′ N, 11°53′ 6′′ E. Enclosed in 9 mesocosms (volume: 43.9–47.6 m3, plankton was exposed to CO2 concentrations, ranging from glacial to projected mid-next-century levels. Fertilization with inorganic nutrients at day 13 of the experiment supported the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass, as indicated by two periods of high chl a concentration. This study tested for CO2 sensitivities in primary production (PP of particulate organic carbon (PPPOC and of dissolved organic carbon (PPDOC. Therefore, 14C-bottle incubations (24 h of mesocosm samples were performed at 1 m depth receiving about 60% of incoming radiation. PP for all mesocosms averaged 8.06 ± 3.64 μmol C L−1 d−1 and was slightly higher than in the outside fjord system. Comparison between mesocosms revealed significantly higher PPPOC at elevated compared to low pCO2 after nutrient addition. PPDOC was significantly higher in CO2-enriched mesocosms before as well as after nutrient addition, suggesting that CO2 had a direct influence on DOC production. DOC concentrations inside the mesocosms increased before nutrient addition and more in high CO2 mesocosms. After addition of nutrients, however, further DOC accumulation was negligible and not significantly different between treatments, indicating rapid utilization of freshly produced DOC. Bacterial biomass production (BP was coupled to PP in all treatments, indicating that 3.5 ± 1.9% of PP or 21.6 ± 12.5% of PPDOC provided on average sufficient carbon for synthesis of bacterial biomass. During the later course of the bloom, the response of 14C-based PP rates to CO2 enrichment differed from net community production (NCP rates that were also determined during this mesocosm campaign. We conclude that the enhanced release of

  6. CO2 increases 14C-primary production in an Arctic plankton community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bellerby

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Responses to ocean acidification in plankton communities were studied during a CO2-enrichment experiment in the Arctic Ocean, accomplished from June to July 2010 in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (78°56, 2' N, 11°53, 6' E. Enclosed in 9 mesocosms (volume: 43.9–47.6 m3, plankton was exposed to CO2 concentrations, ranging from glacial to projected mid-next-century levels. Fertilization with inorganic nutrients at day 13 of the experiment supported the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass, as indicated by two periods of high Chl a concentration. This study tested for CO2 sensitivities in primary production (PP of particulate organic carbon (PPPOC and of dissolved organic carbon (PPDOC. Therefore, 14C-bottle incubations (24 h of mesocosm samples were performed at 1 m depth receiving about 60% of incoming radiation. PP for all mesocosms averaged 8.06 ± 3.64 μmol C l−1 d−1 and was slightly higher than in the outside fjord system. Comparison between mesocosms revealed significantly higher PPPOC at elevated compared to low pCO2 after nutrient addition. PPDOC was significantly higher in CO2 enriched mesocosms before as well as after nutrient addition, suggesting that CO2 had a direct influence on DOC production. DOC concentrations inside the mesocosms increased before nutrient addition and more in high CO2 mesocosms. After addition of nutrients, however, further DOC accumulation was negligible and not significantly different between treatments, indicating rapid utilization of freshly produced DOC. Bacterial biomass production (BP was coupled to PP in all treatments, indicating that 3.5 ± 1.9% of PP, or 21.6 ± 12.5% of PPDOC provided sufficient carbon for synthesis of bacterial biomass. The response of 14C-based PP rates to CO2 enrichment was at odds with O2-based net community production (NCP rates that were also determined during this study, albeit at lower light level. We conclude that the enhanced release of labile DOC during autotrophic

  7. Biohydrogen production from cheese processing wastewater by anaerobic fermentation using mixed microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Peilin [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Zhang, Ruihong [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); McGarvey, Jeffery A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); Benemann, John R. [Benemann Associates, Walnut Creek, CA 94595 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production from simulated cheese processing wastewater via anaerobic fermentation was conducted using mixed microbial communities under mesophilic conditions. In batch H{sub 2} fermentation experiments H{sub 2} yields of 8 and 10 mM/g COD fed were achieved at food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratios of 1.0 and 1.5, respectively. Butyric, acetic, propionic, and valeric acids were the major volatile fatty acids (VFA) produced in the fermentation process. Continuous H{sub 2} fermentation experiments were also performed using a completely mixed reactor (CSTR). The pH of the bioreactor was controlled in a range of 4.0-5.0 by addition of carbonate in the feed material. Maximum H{sub 2} yields were between 1.8 and 2.3 mM/g COD fed for the loading rates (LRs) tested with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. Occasionally CH{sub 4} was produced in the biogas with concurrent reductions in H{sub 2} production; however, continuous H{sub 2} production was achieved for over 3 weeks at each LR. The 16S rDNA analysis of DNA extracted from the bioreactors during periods of high H{sub 2} production revealed that more than 50% of the bacteria present were members of the genus Lactobacillus and about 5% were Clostridia. When H{sub 2} production in the bioreactors decreased concurrent reductions in the genus Lactobacillus were also observed. Therefore, the microbial populations in the bioreactors were closely related to the conditions and performance of the bioreactors. (author)

  8. Effects of organic loading rate on biogas production from macroalgae: Performance and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng-Ting; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Xian; Fu, Shan-Fei; He, Shuai; Manasa, M R K; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2017-07-01

    Macroalgae biomass has been considered as a promising feedstock for biogas production. In order to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD) of macroalgae, semi-continuous fermentation was conducted to examine the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) on biogas production from Macrocystis pyrifer. Results showed that, under OLRs of 1.37, 2.74, 4.12 and 6.85kgVSsubstrate/(m(3)·d), the average unit biogas yields were 438.9, 477.3, 480.1 and 188.7mL/(gVSsubstrated), respectively. It indicated that biogas production was promoted by the increased OLR in an appropriate range while inhibited by the OLR beyond the appropriate range. The investigation on physical-chemical parameters revealed that unfavorable VFAs concentration, pH and salinity might be the main causes for system failure due to the overrange OLR, while the total phenols failed to reach the inhibitory concentration. Microbial community analysis demonstrated that several bacterial and archaeal phyla altered with increase in OLR apparently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on gross nitrogen and carbon dynamics in a permanent grassland: A field pulse-labeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Gerald; Gorenflo, André; Keidel, Lisa; Brenzinger, Kristof; Elias, Dafydd; McNamara, Niall; Maček, Irena; Vodnik, Dominik; Braker, Gesche; Schimmelpfennig, Sonja; Gerstner, Judith; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    To predict ecosystem reactions to elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) it is essential to understand the interactions between plant carbon input, microbial community composition and activity and associated nutrient dynamics. Long-term observations (> 14 years) within the Giessen Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (Giessen FACE) study on permanent grassland showed next to an enhanced biomass production an unexpected strong positive feedback effect on ecosystem respiration and nitrous oxide (N2O) production. The overall goal of this study is to understand the long-term effects of eCO2 and carbon input on microbial community composition and activity as well as the associated nitrogen dynamics, N2O production and plant N uptake in the Giessen FACE study on permanent grassland. A combination of 13CO2 pulse labelling with 15N tracing of 15NH4+ and 15NO3- was carried out in situ. Different fractions of soil organic matter (recalcitrant, labile SOM) and the various mineral N pools in the soil (NH4+, NO3-), gross N transformation rates, pool size dependent N2O and N2 emissions as well as N species dependent plant N uptake rates and the origin of the CO2 respiration have been quantified. Microbial analyses include exploring changes in the composition of microbial communities involved in the turnover of NH4+, NO3-, N2O and N2, i.e. ammonia oxidizing, denitrifying, and microbial communities involved in dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA). mRNA based analyses will be employed to comparably evaluate the long-term effects of eCO2 on the structure and abundance of these communities, while transcripts of these genes will be used to target the fractions of the communities which actively contribute to N transformations. We quantified the contribution of mycorrhizae on N2O emissions and observed the phenological development of the mycorrhizae after the labeling.

  10. Seasonal distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon and net community production on the Bering Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Mathis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The southeastern shelf of the Bering Sea is one of the ocean's most productive ecosystems and sustains more than half of the total US fish landings annually. However, the character of the Bering Sea shelf ecosystem has undergone a dramatic shift over the last several decades, causing notable increases in the dominance of temperate features coupled to the decline of arctic species and decreases in the abundance of commercially important organisms. In order to assess the current state of primary production in the southeastern Bering Sea, we measured the spatio-temporal distribution and controls on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations in spring and summer of 2008 across six shelf domains defined by differing biogeochemical characteristics. DIC concentrations were tightly coupled to salinity in spring and ranged from ~1900 μmol kg−1 over the inner shelf to ~2400 μmol kg−1 in the deeper waters of the Bering Sea. In summer, DIC concentrations were lower due to dilution from sea ice melt and primary production. Concentrations were found to be as low ~1800 μmol kg−1 over the inner shelf. We found that DIC concentrations were drawn down 30–150 μmol kg−1 in the upper 30 m of the water column due to primary production between the spring and summer occupations. Using the seasonal drawdown of DIC, estimated rates of net community production (NCP on the inner, middle, and outer shelf averaged 28±10 mmol C m−2 d−1. However, higher rates of NCP (40–47 mmol C m−2 d−1 were observed in the ''Green Belt'' where the greatest confluence of nutrient-rich basin water and iron-rich shelf water occurs. We estimated that in 2008, total productivity across the shelf was on the order of ~105 Tg C yr−1. Due to the paucity of consistent, comparable productivity data, it is impossible at this time to quantify whether the system is becoming

  11. Duck Production: Has a Potential to Reduce Poverty among Rural Households in Asian Communities – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Adzitey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Duck production plays an important part in the agricultural economy of many Asia countries. The continent alone accounts for 82.6% of the total duck meat produced worldwide. Not only is Asia involved in duck production but also duck meat, eggs and their products are relished and consumed by many Asians. In spite of this, intensive education to empower rural households to increase duck production is limited. In recent times, much emphasize is being laid on commercialization to increase production at the neglect of rural household production. Subsequently this can affect the income levels of many rural households in Asia countries with the potential and can take the advantage to engage in duck production should they have been given adequate training and education. Poverty alleviation among rural communities had involved a number of strategies including women empowerment, promotion of crop, poultry and livestock production, and various activities of governmental and non-governmental organizations geared towards community development. Considering the population, importance and prospects of duck production in Asia, this mini review discusses the potentials duck farming has in reducing poverty level among rural communities in Asia

  12. Do ecohydrology and community dynamics feed back to banded-ecosystem structure and productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegaro, Chiara; Ursino, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    Mixed communities including grass, shrubs and trees are often reported to populate self-organized vegetation patterns. Patterns of survey data suggest that species diversity and complementarity strengthen the dynamics of banded environments. Resource scarcity and local facilitation trigger self organization, whereas coexistence of multiple species in vegetated self-organizing patches, implying competition for water and nutrients and favorable reproduction sites, is made possible by differing adaptation strategies. Mixed community spatial self-organization has so far received relatively little attention, compared with local net facilitation of isolated species. We assumed that soil moisture availability is a proxy for the environmental niche of plant species according to Ursino and Callegaro (2016). Our modelling effort was focused on niche differentiation of coexisting species within a tiger bush type ecosystem. By minimal numerical modelling and stability analysis we try to answer a few open scientific questions: Is there an adaptation strategy that increases biodiversity and ecosystem functioning? Does specific adaptation to environmental niches influence the structure of self-organizing vegetation pattern? What specific niche distribution along the environmental gradient gives the highest global productivity?

  13. Microscale characterization of dissolved organic matter production and uptake in marine microbial mat communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, H. W.; Bebout, B. M.; Joye, S. B.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Intertidal marine microbial mats exhibited biologically mediated uptake of low molecular weight dissolved organic matter (DOM), including D-glucose, acetate, and an L-amino acid mixture at trace concentrations. Uptake of all compounds occurred in darkness, but was frequently enhanced under natural illumination. The photosystem 2 inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea (DCMU) generally failed to inhibit light-stimulated DOM uptake. Occasionally, light plus DCMU-amended treatments led to uptake rates higher than light-incubated samples, possibly due to phototrophic bacteria present in subsurface anoxic layers. Uptake was similar with either 3H- or 14C-labeled substrates, indicating that recycling of labeled CO2 via photosynthetic fixation was not interfering with measurements of light-stimulated DOM uptake. Microautoradiographs showed a variety of pigmented and nonpigmented bacteria and, to a lesser extent, cyanobacteria and eucaryotic microalgae involved in light-mediated DOM uptake. Light-stimulated DOM uptake was often observed in bacteria associated with sheaths and mucilage surrounding filamentous cyanobacteria, revealing a close association of organisms taking up DOM with photoautotrophic members of the mat community. The capacity for dark- and light-mediated heterotrophy, coupled to efficient retention of fixed carbon in the mat community, may help optimize net production and accretion of mats, even in oligotrophic waters.

  14. Technical support for Life Sciences communities on a production grid infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Franck; Glatard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    Production operation of large distributed computing infrastructures (DCI) still requires a lot of human intervention to reach acceptable quality of service. This may be achievable for scientific communities with solid IT support, but it remains a show-stopper for others. Some application execution environments are used to hide runtime technical issues from end users. But they mostly aim at fault-tolerance rather than incident resolution, and their operation still requires substantial manpower. A longer-term support activity is thus needed to ensure sustained quality of service for Virtual Organisations (VO). This paper describes how the biomed VO has addressed this challenge by setting up a technical support team. Its organisation, tooling, daily tasks, and procedures are described. Results are shown in terms of resource usage by end users, amount of reported incidents, and developed software tools. Based on our experience, we suggest ways to measure the impact of the technical support, perspectives to decrea...

  15. Effects of ocean acidification on primary production in a coastal North Sea phytoplankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Tim; Wohlrab, Sylke; Rost, Björn; John, Uwe; Bach, Lennart T.; Riebesell, Ulf; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on a coastal North Sea plankton community in a long-term mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (BIOACID II long-term mesocosm study). From March to July 2013, 10 mesocosms of 19 m length with a volume of 47.5 to 55.9 m3 were deployed in the Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. CO2 concentrations were enriched in five mesocosms to reach average CO2 partial pressures (pCO2) of 760 μatm. The remaining five mesocosms were used as control at ambient pCO2 of 380 μatm. Our paper is part of a PLOS collection on this long-term mesocosm experiment. Here, we here tested the effect of OA on total primary production (PPT) by performing 14C-based bottle incubations for 24 h. Furthermore, photoacclimation was assessed by conducting 14C-based photosynthesis-irradiance response (P/I) curves. Changes in chlorophyll a concentrations over time were reflected in the development of PPT, and showed higher phytoplankton biomass build-up under OA. We observed two subsequent phytoplankton blooms in all mesocosms, with peaks in PPT around day 33 and day 56. OA had no significant effect on PPT, except for a marginal increase during the second phytoplankton bloom when inorganic nutrients were already depleted. Maximum light use efficiencies and light saturation indices calculated from the P/I curves changed simultaneously in all mesocosms, and suggest that OA did not alter phytoplankton photoacclimation. Despite large variability in time-integrated productivity estimates among replicates, our overall results indicate that coastal phytoplankton communities can be affected by OA at certain times of the seasonal succession with potential consequences for ecosystem functioning. PMID:28273107

  16. Hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor for tetracycline removal: biodegradation, transformation products, and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkan, Banu; Hanay, Özge; Taşkan, Ergin; Erdem, Mehmet; Hasar, Halil

    2016-11-01

    Tetracycline (TC) in aqueous environment could be reductively degraded by using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (H2-MBfR) under denitrifying conditions as it provides an appropriate environment for the antibiotic-degrading bacteria in biofilm communities. This study evaluates the performance of H2-MBfR for simultaneous removal of nitrate and TC, formation of degradation products of TC, and community analysis of the biofilm grown on the gas-permeable hollow fiber membranes. Hence, a H2-MBfR receiving approximately 20 mg N/l nitrate and 0.5 mg/l TC was operated under different H2 pressures, hydraulic retention times (HRTs), and influent TC concentrations in order to provide various nitrate and TC loadings. The results showed that H2-MBfR accomplished successfully the degradation of TC, and it reached TC removal of 80-95 % at 10 h of HRT and 6 psi (0.41 atm) of H2 gas pressure. TC degradation took placed at increased HRT and H2 pressures while nitrate was the preferred electron acceptor for most of the electrons generated from H2 oxidation used for denitrification. The transformation products of TC were found at part per billion levels through all the experiments, and the concentrations decreased with the increasing HRT regardless of H2 pressure. Analyses from clone library showed that the microbial diversity at the optimal conditions was higher than that at the other periods. The dominant species were revealed to be Betaproteobacteria, Acidovorax caeni, and Alicycliphilus denitrificans.

  17. The role of non-timber forest products to communities living in the Northern periphery of the Korup National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afungang Ngwatung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-timber forest products (NTFPs extraction and trade is considered an income generating activity for subsistence livelihood in rural forest communities in Cameroon. This paper is to ascertain whether Non-timber forest products exploitation and commercialization is economically profitable to livelihood or just a customary activity promoted by economic hardship. Surveys involving 184 households, parcel inventories, interviews and reviews were used revealing that Non-timber forest products exploitation and farming occupy 90.8% and 80.4% respectively of the total work force. Agricultural contribute 66% against 31% for Non-timber forest products to the local economy. Policy changes like the institutionalization of community forest and decentralizations in 1997 and the transfer of authoritative regulation to peripheral actors in the mid-1990s permitted local benefit from Non-timber forest products resources.

  18. Methane Production in Dairy Cows Correlates with Rumen Methanogenic and Bacterial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Rebecca; Dicksved, Johan; Sun, Li; Gonda, Horacio; Müller, Bettina; Schnürer, Anna; Bertilsson, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Methane (CH4) is produced as an end product from feed fermentation in the rumen. Yield of CH4 varies between individuals despite identical feeding conditions. To get a better understanding of factors behind the individual variation, 73 dairy cows given the same feed but differing in CH4 emissions were investigated with focus on fiber digestion, fermentation end products and bacterial and archaeal composition. In total 21 cows (12 Holstein, 9 Swedish Red) identified as persistent low, medium or high CH4 emitters over a 3 month period were furthermore chosen for analysis of microbial community structure in rumen fluid. This was assessed by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene and by quantitative qPCR of targeted Methanobrevibacter groups. The results showed a positive correlation between low CH4 emitters and higher abundance of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level of bacteria showed two distinct clusters (P Fermentation pattern of volatile fatty acids showed that proportion of propionate was higher in cluster L, while proportion of butyrate was higher in cluster H. No difference was found in milk production or organic matter digestibility between cows. Cows in cluster L had lower CH4/kg energy corrected milk (ECM) compared to cows in cluster H, 8.3 compared to 9.7 g CH4/kg ECM, showing that low CH4 cows utilized the feed more efficient for milk production which might indicate a more efficient microbial population or host genetic differences that is reflected in bacterial and archaeal (or methanogens) populations. PMID:28261182

  19. Pelagic community production and carbon-nutrient stoichiometry under variable ocean acidification in an Arctic fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silyakova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Net community production (NCP and carbon to nutrient uptake ratios were studied during a large-scale mesocosm experiment on ocean acidification in Kongsfjorden, western Svalbard, during June–July 2010. Nutrient depleted fjord water with natural plankton assemblages, enclosed in nine mesocosms of ~ 50 m3 in volume, was exposed to pCO2 levels ranging initially from 185 to 1420 μatm. NCP estimations are the cumulative change in dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations after accounting for gas exchange and total alkalinity variations. Stoichiometric coupling between inorganic carbon and nutrient net uptake is shown as a ratio of NCP to a cumulative change in inorganic nutrients. Phytoplankton growth was stimulated by nutrient addition half way through the experiment and three distinct peaks in chlorophyll a concentration were observed during the experiment. Accordingly, the experiment was divided in three phases. Cumulative NCP was similar in all mesocosms over the duration of the experiment. However, in phases I and II, NCP was higher and in phase III lower at elevated pCO2. Due to relatively low inorganic nutrient concentration in phase I, C : N and C : P uptake ratios were calculated only for the period after nutrient addition (phase II and phase III. For the total post-nutrient period (phase II + phase III ratios were close to Redfield, however they were lower in phase II and higher in phase III. Variability of NCP, C : N and C : P uptake ratios in different phases reflects the effect of increasing CO2 on phytoplankton community composition and succession. The phytoplankton community was composed predominantly of haptophytes in phase I, prasinophytes, dinoflagellates, and cryptophytes in phase II, and haptophytes, prasinophytes, dinoflagellates and chlorophytes in phase III (Schulz et al., 2013. Increasing ambient inorganic carbon concentrations have also been shown to promote primary production and carbon assimilation. For this study, it is

  20. Determinação por sensoriamento remoto da produtividade primária bruta do perímetro irrigado São Gonçalo - PB Assessment of gross primary production - GPP in the irrigated perimeter São Gonçalo - PB using remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Barbosa da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da produtividade primária bruta - GPP (do inglês Gross Primary Production é de fundamental importância nos estudos de mudanças climáticas, por estar diretamente relacionada ao carbono efetivamente extraído da atmosfera pelos diferentes ecossistemas terrestres. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a GPP no perímetro irrigado São Gonçalo (PB, localizado no Semiárido brasileiro, com imagens TM - Landsat 5 e dados complementares de superfície. Foram adquiridas imagens TM - Landsat 5, sem presença de nuvens no ano de 2008, para obtenção da GPP diária em cinco dias selecionados. O modelo utilizado expressa a GPP em função da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa absorvida e da eficiência de uso da luz pela vegetação. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados aos valores da GPP extraídos do produto MOD17A2. As diferenças entre os valores da GPP obtida segundo as duas técnicas resultaram em Desvio Absoluto Médio - DAM de 0,91 g C m-2 dia-1, Desvio Percentual Médio - DPM de 11,82% e Raiz do Desvio Quadrático Médio - RDQM de 1,12 g C m-2 dia-1. A integração da GPP em todo o Perímetro Irrigado São Gonçalo, durante os cinco dias selecionados, resultou na fixação de 200,3 a 295,3 ton C dia-1.The Gross Primary Production (GPP assessment and monitoring by remote sensing is of crucial importance in the climate changes studies given its direct connection to the effectively extracted carbon from the atmosphere by numerous earth ecosystems. The present work aims to assess the GPP in a Brazilian semi-arid irrigated area, using TM - Landsat 5 images and complementary surface meteorological data. Cloudless TM images were acquired from the year 2008 and were used to obtain daily GPP for five selected days. This model expresses GPP as a function of the absorbed photosynthetic active radiation and the efficiency of light use by vegetation. A comparison is made between the obtained results with TM images and GPP from MOD

  1. Community Knowledge Sharing and Co-Production of Water Services: Two Cases of Community Aqueduct Associations in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Llano-Arias

    2015-06-01

    These new forms of citizenship based on claims of sovereignty over natural, common goods are gradually transforming Colombian democratic space. The article draws on debates around active citizenship, deepening democracy, and participatory communication approaches to explain the aims of community organisations and the mechanisms by which they are self-organising and managing water at the local level.

  2. The structure and productivity of the Thalassia testudinum community in Bon Accord Lagoon,Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahanna A Juman

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Thalassia testudinum dominated seagrass community in the Buccoo Reef/Bon Accord Lagoon Marine Park,measures 0.5 km² and is part of a contiguous coral reef,seagrass bed and mangrove swamp system in southwest Tobago.T.testudinum coverage,productivity and percent turnover rates were measured from February 1998 to February 1999 at four sample locations,while total T.testudinum biomass was measured at two locations in the lagoon from 1992-2002.Productivity and turnover rates varied spatially and seasonally. They were higher in the back-reef area than in the mangrove-fringed lagoon,and were lowest at locations near to a sewage outfall.T.testudinum coverage ranged from 6.6%in the lagoon to 68.5%in the back-reef area while productivity ranged from 3.9 to 4.9 g dry wt m-2 d-1 .Productivity and percentage turnover rates were higher in the dry season (January -Junethan in the wet season (July -December.Productivity ranged from 3.0 in the wet season to 5.0 g dry wt m-2 d-1 in the dry season while percentage turnover rates ranged from 4.2%to 5.6%.Total Thalassia biomass and productivity in Bon Accord Lagoon were compared to six similar sites in the Caribbean that also participate in the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Program (CARICOMP.This seagrass community is being negatively impacted by nutrient-enriched conditions.La comunidad de pastos marinos de Buccoo Reef/ Parque Nacional Bon Accord Lagoon,dominado por Thalassia testudinum,mide 0.5 km² y es parte de un complejo de arrecifes,lechos de pastos marinos y manglares en el suroeste de Tobago.La cobertura,productividad y tasa de recambio de T.testudinum fueron medidas de febrero 1998 a febrero 1999 en cuatro localidades,mientras que la biomasa total de T.testudinum fue medida en dos localidades en la laguna,entre 1992-2002.La productividad y la tasa de recambio variaron espacialmente y estacionalmente.Fueron mayores en la parte trasera del arrecife que en el manglar y la laguna del arrecife

  3. Calculation of gross energy consumption[in a building]; Beregning af bruttoenergiforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, Kirsten; Aggerholm, Soeren

    2000-07-01

    This bulletin presents a method for calculating the gross energy consumption of a building. The net heat demand for space heating, ventilation and domestic hot water should be calculated. Next converted to gross energy consumption, i.e. the amount of energy that is required to supply, for instance, a gas furnace in order that it produces the calculated amount of heat. First the electricity consumption required for ventilation, appliances and lighting is calculated, taking into consideration the daylight utilisation in commercial buildings. The point of departure is the existing method for calculating the net heat demand of buildings. The method includes heat supply from persons, lighting and appliances. This calculating method was later extended to include a method for calculating the energy demand for domestic hot water and addition of non-utilised heat loss from pipes and heat producing installations. This loss is calculated on the basis of loss in hot water tanks, heat and hot water pipes. Heat supply from solar collectors is calculated and deducted from the heat demand. The calculated end result is called gross heat requirement. Next the gross energy consumption for heating, ventilation and domestic hot water is determined by means of annual efficiency for heating installations. An inventory of the environmental impact is calculated based on the energy consumption measured by the total CO{sub 2} production per m{sup 2} floor area. The CO{sub 2} emission is calculated on the basis of the calculated gross energy consumption of heating and electricity, and on standard values for CO{sub 2} contents in the fuels used and emissions from electricity production issued by the Danish Energy Agency. The gross energy consumption is calculated for three examples of buildings: a single-family house, an administration building and a multi-storey building. The examples show that it is feasible to do calculations for typical buildings. Heat consumption for space heating and

  4. Daily variation in net primary production and net calcification in coral reef communities exposed to elevated pCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Steeve; Edmunds, Peter J.; Lantz, Coulson A.; Carpenter, Robert C.

    2017-07-01

    The threat represented by ocean acidification (OA) for coral reefs has received considerable attention because of the sensitivity of calcifiers to changing seawater carbonate chemistry. However, most studies have focused on the organismic response of calcification to OA, and only a few have addressed community-level effects, or investigated parameters other than calcification, such as photosynthesis. Light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) is a driver of biological processes on coral reefs, and the possibility that these processes might be perturbed by OA has important implications for community function. Here we investigate how CO2 enrichment affects the relationships between PAR and community net O2 production (Pnet), and between PAR and community net calcification (Gnet), using experiments on three coral communities constructed to match (i) the back reef of Mo'orea, French Polynesia, (ii) the fore reef of Mo'orea, and (iii) the back reef of O'ahu, Hawaii. The results were used to test the hypothesis that OA affects the relationship between Pnet and Gnet. For the three communities tested, pCO2 did not affect the Pnet-PAR relationship, but it affected the intercept of the hyperbolic tangent curve fitting the Gnet-PAR relationship for both reef communities in Mo'orea (but not in O'ahu). For the three communities, the slopes of the linear relationships between Pnet and Gnet were not affected by OA, although the intercepts were depressed by the inhibitory effect of high pCO2 on Gnet. Our result indicates that OA can modify the balance between net calcification and net photosynthesis of reef communities by depressing community calcification, but without affecting community photosynthesis.

  5. Daily variation in net primary production and net calcification in coral reef communities exposed to elevated pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Comeau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The threat represented by ocean acidification (OA for coral reefs has received considerable attention because of the sensitivity of calcifiers to changing seawater carbonate chemistry. However, most studies have focused on the organismic response of calcification to OA, and only a few have addressed community-level effects, or investigated parameters other than calcification, such as photosynthesis. Light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR is a driver of biological processes on coral reefs, and the possibility that these processes might be perturbed by OA has important implications for community function. Here we investigate how CO2 enrichment affects the relationships between PAR and community net O2 production (Pnet, and between PAR and community net calcification (Gnet, using experiments on three coral communities constructed to match (i the back reef of Mo'orea, French Polynesia, (ii the fore reef of Mo'orea, and (iii the back reef of O'ahu, Hawaii. The results were used to test the hypothesis that OA affects the relationship between Pnet and Gnet. For the three communities tested, pCO2 did not affect the Pnet–PAR relationship, but it affected the intercept of the hyperbolic tangent curve fitting the Gnet–PAR relationship for both reef communities in Mo'orea (but not in O'ahu. For the three communities, the slopes of the linear relationships between Pnet and Gnet were not affected by OA, although the intercepts were depressed by the inhibitory effect of high pCO2 on Gnet. Our result indicates that OA can modify the balance between net calcification and net photosynthesis of reef communities by depressing community calcification, but without affecting community photosynthesis.

  6. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  7. Incorporating benthic community changes into hydrochemical-based projections of coral reef calcium carbonate production under ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Emily C.; Hamylton, Sarah M.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2016-06-01

    The existence of coral reefs is dependent on the production and maintenance of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) framework that is produced through calcification. The net production of CaCO3 will likely decline in the future, from both declining net calcification rates (decreasing calcification and increasing dissolution) and shifts in benthic community composition from calcifying organisms to non-calcifying organisms. Here, we present a framework for hydrochemical studies that allows both declining net calcification rates and changes in benthic community composition to be incorporated into projections of coral reef CaCO3 production. The framework involves upscaling net calcification rates for each benthic community type using mapped proportional cover of the benthic communities. This upscaling process was applied to the reef flats at One Tree and Lady Elliot reefs (Great Barrier Reef) and Shiraho Reef (Okinawa), and compared to existing data. Future CaCO3 budgets were projected for Lady Elliot Reef, predicting a decline of 53 % from the present value by end-century (800 ppm CO2) without any changes to benthic community composition. A further 5.7 % decline in net CaCO3 production is expected for each 10 % decline in calcifier cover, and net dissolution is predicted by end-century if calcifier cover drops below 18 % of the present extent. These results show the combined negative effect of both declining net calcification rates and changing benthic community composition on reefs and the importance of considering both processes for determining future reef CaCO3 production.

  8. Factors Affecting Re-usage Intentions of Virtual Communities Supporting Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhong-Min Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: This study uses a cosmetic virtual community (VC as the research context and the UTAUT model as the theoretical structure aim to explore factors affecting the re-usage intentions of VC members. Background: The Internet use rate of VC was up to 50%, thereby implying that VC gained the attention of Internet users. Therefore, operating a VC will be an effective way to communicate with customers. However, to maintain an existing member is more efficient than creating a new one. As such, understanding determinants of VC members’ re-use intentions becomes important for firms. Methodology: Through an online survey, 276 valid responses were gathered. The collected data were examined by performing confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modelling procedures, as well as the moderator analysis. Contribution: This study shows the importance in the context of online cosmetics-related VC, which was rarely explored before. We provide issues for future research, despite the accumulated academic literature related to UTAUT and VC. Findings: Results show that only performance expectancy and social influence significantly affecting re-usage intentions and only gender has moderating effects on the path from performance expectancy to VC re-use intention and from trust to VC re-use intention. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: This study found that users emphasized performance expectancy most of all. A cosmetic product-related VC should introduce products abundantly, offer useful information, and help people accomplish tasks quickly and productively. Recommendation for Researchers: Future researchers may use our findings to conduct further positivist research in the area of social influence using different subjects and research contexts.

  9. Growth and production of the copepod community in the southern area of the Humboldt Current System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Escribano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton production is a critical issue for understanding marine ecosystem structure and dynamics, however, its time-space variations are mostly unknown in most systems. In this study, estimates of copepod growth and production (CP in the coastal upwelling and coastal transition zones off central-southern Chile (∼35–37° S were obtained from annual cycles during a 3 year time series (2004, 2005, and 2006 at a fixed shelf station and from spring–summer surveys during the same years. C-specific growth rates (g varied extensively among species and under variable environmental conditions; however, g values were not correlated to either near surface temperature or copepod size. Copepod biomass (CB and CP were higher within the coastal upwelling zone (−2 year−1 with a~mean annual P/B ratio of 2.7. We estimated that CP could consume up to 60% of the annual primary production (PP in the upwelling zone but most of the time is around 8%. Interannual changes in CB and CP values were associated with changes in the copepod community structure, the dominance of large-sized forms replaced by small-sized species from 2004 to 2006. This change was accompanied by more persistent and time extended upwelling during the same seasonal period. Extended upwelling may have caused large losses of CB from the upwelling zone due to an increase in offshore advection of coastal plankton. On a larger scale, these results suggest that climate-related impacts of increasing wind-driven upwelling in coastal upwelling systems may generate a negative trend in zooplankton biomass.

  10. Direct impacts of biochar on N2O production during denitrification by a soil microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Akanksha; Harter, Johannes; Hagemann, Nikolas; Kappler, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Biochar, i.e. biomass heated under O2 limitation to 350-1000°C (pyrolysis), is suggested as a beneficial soil amendment to mitigate climate change and to maintain and restore the fertility of agro-ecosystems. Its stability enables long-term carbon sequestration and biochar effectively reduces soil-borne N2O emissions. Biochar's ability to reduce N2O emissions is well recognized through field and laboratory experiments as well as meta-analyses. However, the underlying mechanisms remain widely debated. Microbial nitrogen transformations, especially denitrification, the stepwise reduction of nitrate/nitrite via NO and N2O to N2, are considered to be a major source of N2O emissions. Soil microcosm experiments showed lower N2O emissions in the presence of biochar often correlate with a higher abundance and/or activity of N2O reducing bacteria in the presence of biochar. However, it is still unknown whether these shifts in the microbial community and/or activity is cause or effect of reduced N2O production. Biochar has the potential to change the physico-chemical environment towards conditions that favor complete denitrification, i.e. decrease the N2O/(N2O+N2) product ratio. Specifically, biochar can increase soil pH, reduce the availability of nitrate and increase the entrapment of gases, including N2O. These effects are known to decrease the N2O/(N2O+N2) ratio. In addition to the observed effects in the physio-chemical environment, we hypothesized that biochar has a direct impact on the soil microbial community. For instance, it has been shown to provide a suitable habitat to microorganisms, or facilitate electron transfer between microbe and substrates by acting as an electron shuttle or as a temporary acceptor/donor of electrons. To test this hypothesis, our experiment consisted of a microbial community extracted from soil and cultivated under anoxic conditions. It was introduced as an inoculum into three different treatments: biochar, quartz (control with a solid

  11. Seasonal distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon and net community production on the Bering Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Mathis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the current state of net community production (NCP in the southeastern Bering Sea, we measured the spatio-temporal distribution and controls on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations in spring and summer of 2008 across six shelf domains defined by differing biogeochemical characteristics. DIC concentrations were tightly coupled to salinity in spring and ranged from ~1900 μmoles kg−1 over the inner shelf to ~2400 μmoles kg−1 in the deeper waters of the Bering Sea. In summer, DIC concentrations were lower due to dilution from sea ice melt, terrestrial inputs, and primary production. Concentrations were found to be as low ~1800 μmoles kg−1 over the inner shelf. We found that DIC concentrations were drawn down 30–150 μmoles kg−1 in the upper 30 m of the water column due to primary production and calcium carbonate formation between the spring and summer occupations. Using the seasonal drawdown of DIC, estimated rates of NCP on the inner, middle, and outer shelf averaged 28 ± 9 mmoles C m−2 d−1. However, higher rates of NCP (40–47 mmoles C m−2 d−1 were observed in the "Green Belt" where the greatest confluence of nutrient-rich basin water and iron-rich shelf water occurs. We estimated that in 2008, total NCP across the shelf was on the order of ~96 Tg C yr−1. Due to the paucity of consistent, comparable productivity data, it is impossible at this time to quantify whether the system is becoming more or less productive. However, as changing climate continues to modify the character of the Bering Sea, we have shown that NCP can be an important indicator of how the ecosystem is functioning.

  12. Effects of Habitat-Forming Species Richness, Evenness, Identity, and Abundance on Benthic Intertidal Community Establishment and Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Julie; Cusson, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    In a context of reduced global biodiversity, the potential impacts from the loss of habitat-forming species (HFS) on ecosystem structure and functioning must be established. These species are often the main community primary producers and have a major role in the establishment of organisms through facilitation processes. This study focuses on macroalgae and mussels as HFS within an intertidal zone along the St. Lawrence estuary (Quebec, Canada). Over a 16-week period, we manipulated the in situ diversity profile (richness, evenness, identity, and abundance) of the dominant HFS (Fucus distichus edentatus, F. vesiculosus, and Mytilus spp.) in order to define their role in both the establishment of associated species and community primary production. Contrary to expectation, no general change in HFS richness, evenness, abundance, or identity on associated species community establishment was observed. However, over the study period, the HFS diversity profile modified the structure within the trophic guilds, which may potentially affect further community functions. Also, our results showed that the low abundance of HFS had a negative impact on the primary productivity of the community. Our results suggest that HFS diversity profiles have a limited short-term role in our study habitat and may indicate that biological forcing in these intertidal communities is less important than environmental conditions. As such, there was an opportunistic establishment of species that ensured rapid colonization regardless of the absence, or the diversity profile, of facilitators such as HFS. PMID:25313459

  13. Effects of habitat-forming species richness, evenness, identity, and abundance on benthic intertidal community establishment and productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lemieux

    Full Text Available In a context of reduced global biodiversity, the potential impacts from the loss of habitat-forming species (HFS on ecosystem structure and functioning must be established. These species are often the main community primary producers and have a major role in the establishment of organisms through facilitation processes. This study focuses on macroalgae and mussels as HFS within an intertidal zone along the St. Lawrence estuary (Quebec, Canada. Over a 16-week period, we manipulated the in situ diversity profile (richness, evenness, identity, and abundance of the dominant HFS (Fucus distichus edentatus, F. vesiculosus, and Mytilus spp. in order to define their role in both the establishment of associated species and community primary production. Contrary to expectation, no general change in HFS richness, evenness, abundance, or identity on associated species community establishment was observed. However, over the study period, the HFS diversity profile modified the structure within the trophic guilds, which may potentially affect further community functions. Also, our results showed that the low abundance of HFS had a negative impact on the primary productivity of the community. Our results suggest that HFS diversity profiles have a limited short-term role in our study habitat and may indicate that biological forcing in these intertidal communities is less important than environmental conditions. As such, there was an opportunistic establishment of species that ensured rapid colonization regardless of the absence, or the diversity profile, of facilitators such as HFS.

  14. Twisted Grosse-Wulkenhaar $\\phi^{\\star 4}$ model: dynamical noncommutativity and Noether currents

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the computation of Noether currrents for the renormalizable Grosse-Wulkenhaar (GW) $\\phi^{\\star 4}$ model subjected to a dynamical noncomutativity realized through a twisted Moyal product. The noncommutative (NC) energy-momentum tensor (EMT), angular momentum tensor (AMT) and the dilatation current (DC) are explicitly derived. The breaking of translation and rotation invariances has been avoided via a constraint equation.

  15. EPOSAR: an innovative service to provide EPOS community with advanced DInSAR products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manunta, Michele; De Luca, Claudio; Elefante, Stefano; Lanari, Riccardo; Pepe, Antonio; Zinno, Ivana; Casu, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The quantitative evaluation of ground deformation is traditionally based on in-situ surveying techniques that, through the intensive use of GPS stations, automatic total stations and levelling benchmarks, can measure up to sub-centimetre displacements. In the last decades, the extensive use of satellite remote sensing data, such as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, has represented an important breakthrough in the context of non-invasive ground deformation analyses over large areas, thanks to their large spatial coverage and relatively short revisit time, as well as to their medium-high ground resolution. In such a context, the well-known Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique allows us to map and measure deformation phenomena due to both natural and man-made causes with centimetre to millimetre accuracy. The Earth Science community has a wide interest in the use of DInSAR displacement maps both for crisis management and risk mitigation activities, and for surveillance, monitoring and analysis of geophysical phenomena. In areas characterized by high level of hazards the availability of routinely generated advanced DInSAR products would allow a fast analysis of their current status, providing a near real time monitoring. Similarly, an on-demand service would allow the customization of the products by selecting the area of interest, the SAR data to be processed, and other processing parameters to be set by the users to edit/correct/improve the final products. In this work we discuss the Satellite Data Thematic Core Service of EPOS and we present the EPOSAR service. In particular, the EPOSAR service, based on the well-known DInSAR approach referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS), accomplishes a shared and synergic Earth Observation (EO) service aimed at designing, implementing and harmonizing efficient satellite data processing chains capable of ingesting the significantly increased data stream expected from the ESA Sentinel-1 satellites. EPOSAR

  16. Optimization and microbial community analysis for production of biohydrogen from palm oil mill effluent by thermophilic fermentative process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasertsan, Poonsuk [Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Palm Oil Product and Technology Research Center, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Phatthalung 93110 (Thailand); Birkeland, Nils-Kaare [Department of Biology and Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2009-09-15

    The optimum values of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR) of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) for biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent (POME) under thermophilic conditions (60 C) were investigated in order to achieve the maximum process stability. Microbial community structure dynamics in the ASBR was studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) aiming at improved insight into the hydrogen fermentation microorganisms. The optimum values of 2-d HRT with an OLR of 60 gCOD l{sup -1} d{sup -1} gave a maximum hydrogen yield of 0.27 l H{sub 2} g COD{sup -1} with a volumetric hydrogen production rate of 9.1 l H{sub 2} l{sup -1} d{sup -1} (16.9 mmol l{sup -1}h{sup -1}). The hydrogen content, total carbohydrate consumption, COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal and suspended solids removal were 55 {+-} 3.5%, 92 {+-} 3%, 57 {+-} 2.5% and 78 {+-} 2%, respectively. Acetic acid and butyric acid were the major soluble end-products. The microbial community structure was strongly dependent on the HRT and OLR. DGGE profiling illustrated that Thermoanaerobacterium spp., such as Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum and Thermoanaerobacterium bryantii, were dominant and probably played an important role in hydrogen production under the optimum conditions. The shift in the microbial community from a dominance of T. thermosaccharolyticum to a community where also Caloramator proteoclasticus constituted a major component occurred at suboptimal HRT (1 d) and OLR (80 gCOD l{sup -1} d{sup -1}) conditions. The results showed that the hydrogen production performance was closely correlated with the bacterial community structure. This is the first report of a successful ASBR operation achieving a high hydrogen production rate from real wastewater (POME). (author)

  17. Sustainable Products and the PPMs Dilemma: How the international community can help in resolving developing countries' concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borregaard, Nicola [RIDES (Chile); Dufey, Annie

    2004-07-01

    Sustainable Products have been identified as having significant potential for win-win-win outcomes from trade for developing countries. However, several barriers are preventing developing countries from exploiting these opportunities. While the international community could play a key role in resolving some constraints, national governments need also to take a more proactive and coherent approach to promote sustainable products if they want to keep abreast with a highly dynamic and rapidly evolving market.

  18. Investigating health information needs of community radio stations and applying the World Wide Web to disseminate audio products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyders, Janus; van Wyk, Elmarie; van Zyl, Hendra

    2010-01-01

    The Web and Media Technologies Platform (WMTP) of the South African Medical Research Council (MRC) conducted a pilot project amongst community radio stations in South Africa. Based on previous research done in Africa WMTP investigated the following research question: How reliable is the content of health information broadcast by community radio stations? The main objectives of the project were to determine the 1) intervals of health slots on community radio stations, 2) sources used by community radio stations for health slots, 3) type of audio products needed for health slots, and 4) to develop a user friendly Web site in response to the stations' needs for easy access to audio material on health information.

  19. Co-Production in Community Development: A Day at the Educational Fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes community development efforts of the Educacion Communitaria Radial (Community Education through Radio) in Bolivia during 1979-80 that encouraged cooperation within and between communities through coproduction of learning activities. The use of theater that evolved into a day-long educational fair is described, and school involvement is…

  20. Co-Production in Community Development: A Day at the Educational Fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes community development efforts of the Educacion Communitaria Radial (Community Education through Radio) in Bolivia during 1979-80 that encouraged cooperation within and between communities through coproduction of learning activities. The use of theater that evolved into a day-long educational fair is described, and school involvement is…

  1. INCREASING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES WITH THE USE OF EKOVITAL AND VETCH-OAT GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tson’

    2015-10-01

    productive breeding ponds of the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine. The potential of natural fish productivity of an aquatic ecosystem based on zooplankton when applying the green fertilizer (vetch-oat grass and Ekovital showed a 3–7 time increase compared to the control. The maximum potential natural fish productivity based on zooplankton was achieved at the level of 152.90 ± 85.25 kg/ha in the variant D2. Originality. For the first time we presented the results of the studies of zooplankton community productivity in fish-breeding ponds with the use of the green fertilizer of vetch-oat grass and bacterial preparation Ekovital under the conditions of model ponds ecosystems (microcosms. Practical value. The received results are the basis for further studies on the use of a method for increasing natural fish productivity in fish-breeding ponds with the use of a green fertilizer such as vetch-oat grass and Ekovital.

  2. Controls on bacterial and archaeal community structure and greenhouse gas production in natural, mined, and restored Canadian peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan eBasiliko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Northern peatlands are important global C reservoirs, largely because of their slow rates of microbial C mineralization. Particularly in sites that are heavily influenced by anthropogenic disturbances, there is scant information about microbial ecology and whether or not microbial community structure influences greenhouse gas production. This work characterized communities of bacteria and archaea using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and functional genes across eight natural, mined, or restored peatlands in two locations in eastern Canada. Correlations were explored among chemical properties of peat, bacterial and archaeal community structure, and carbon dioxide and methane production rates under oxic and anoxic conditions. Bacteria and archaea similar to those found in other peat soil environments were detected. In contrast to other reports, methanogen diversity was low in our study, with only 2 groups of known or suspected methanogens. Although mining and restoration affected substrate availability and microbial activity, these land-uses did not consistently affect bacterial or archaeal community composition. In fact, larger differences were observed between the two locations and between oxic and anoxic peat samples than between mined and restored sites, with anoxic samples characterized by less detectable bacterial diversity and stronger dominance by members of the phylum Acidobacteria. There were also no apparent strong linkages between prokaryote community structure and methane or carbon dioxide production, suggesting that different organisms exhibit functional redundancy and/or that the same taxa function at very different rates when exposed to different peat substrates. In contrast to other earlier work focusing on fungal communities across similar mined and restored peatlands, bacterial and archaeal communities appeared to be more resistant or resilient to peat substrate changes brought

  3. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan eRen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and 6 adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5% and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions.

  4. Biogas production from coumarin-rich plants--inhibition by coumarin and recovery by adaptation of the bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Denny; Schrader, Steffi; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Harms, Hauke; Sträuber, Heike

    2015-09-01

    Plants like sweet clover (Melilotus spp.) are not suitable as fodder for cattle because of harmful effects of the plant secondary metabolite coumarin. As an alternative usage, the applicability of coumarin-rich plants as substrates for biogas production was investigated. When coumarin was added to continuous fermentation processes codigesting grass silage and cow manure, it caused a strong inhibition noticeable as decrease of biogas production by 19% and increase of metabolite concentrations to an organic acids/alkalinity ratio higher than 0.3(gorganic acids) gCaCO3 (-1). Microbial communities of methanogenic archaea were dominated by the genera Methanosarcina (77%) and Methanoculleus (11%). This community composition was not influenced by coumarin addition. The bacterial community analysis unraveled a divergence caused by coumarin addition correlating with the anaerobic degradation of coumarin and the recovery of the biogas process. As a consequence, biogas production resumed similar to the coumarin-free control with a biogas yield of 0.34 LN g(volatile solids) (-1) and at initial metabolite concentrations (∼ 0.2 g(organic acids) gCaCO3 (-1)). Coumarin acts as inhibitor and as substrate during anaerobic digestion. Hence, coumarin-rich plants might be suitable for biogas production, but should only be used after adaptation of the microbial community to coumarin.

  5. Empowering Women and Ethnic Minority Groups to Collectively Market non Timber Forest Products from Community Forests in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnatten, van Judith; Mala, William Armand; Ingram, V.J.; Belibi, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Community forestry (CF) was introduced in Cameroon in 1994 as a way to reduce poverty and enhance sustainable forest management. CF activities have primarily focused on timber exploitation rather than non-timber forest product (NTFP) collection processing or marketing. The study reports on a two

  6. Empowering Women and Ethnic Minority Groups to Collectively Market non Timber Forest Products from Community Forests in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnatten, van Judith; Mala, William Armand; Ingram, V.J.; Belibi, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Community forestry (CF) was introduced in Cameroon in 1994 as a way to reduce poverty and enhance sustainable forest management. CF activities have primarily focused on timber exploitation rather than non-timber forest product (NTFP) collection processing or marketing. The study reports on a two yea

  7. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Monitoring of microbial community structure and succession in the biohydrogen production reactor by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING; Defeng; REN; Nanqi; GONG; Manli; LI; Jianzheng; LI; Q

    2005-01-01

    To study the structure of microbial communities in the biological hydrogen production reactor and determine the ecological function of hydrogen producing bacteria, anaerobic sludge was obtained from the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in different periods of time, and the diversity and dynamics of microbial communities were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results of DGGE demonstrated that an obvious shift of microbial population happened from the beginning of star-up to the 28th day, and the ethanol type fermentation was established. After 28 days the structure of microbial community became stable, and the climax community was formed. Comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from reamplifying and sequencing the prominent bands indicated that the dominant population belonged to low G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium sp. And Ethanologenbacterium sp.), β- proteobacteria (Acidovorax sp.), γ-proteobacteria (Kluyvera sp.), Bacteroides (uncultured bacterium SJA-168), and Spirochaetes (uncultured eubacterium E1-K13), respectively. The hydrogen production rate increased obviously with the increase of Ethanologenbacterium sp., Clostridium sp. And uncultured Spirochaetes after 21 days, meanwhile the succession of ethanol type fermentation was formed. Throughout the succession the microbial diversity increased however it decreased after 21 days. Some types of Clostridium sp. Acidovorax sp., Kluyvera sp., and Bacteroides were dominant populations during all periods of time. These special populations were essential for the construction of climax community. Hydrogen production efficiency was dependent on both hydrogen producing bacteria and other populations. It implied that the co-metabolism of microbial community played a great role of biohydrogen production in the reactors.

  9. Monitoring of microbial community structure and succession in the biohydrogen production reactor by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nanqi; Gong, Manli; Li, Jianzheng; Li, Qiubo

    2005-04-01

    To study the structure of microbial communities in the biological hydrogen production reactor and determine the ecological function of hydrogen producing bacteria, anaerobic sludge was obtained from the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in different periods of time, and the diversity and dynamics of microbial communities were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results of DGGE demonstrated that an obvious shift of microbial population happened from the beginning of star-up to the 28th day, and the ethanol type fermentation was established. After 28 days the structure of microbial community became stable, and the climax community was formed. Comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from reamplifying and sequencing the prominent bands indicated that the dominant population belonged to low G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium sp. and Ethanologenbacterium sp.), beta-proteobacteria (Acidovorax sp.), gamma-proteobacteria (Kluyvera sp.), Bacteroides (uncultured bacterium SJA-168), and Spirochaetes (uncultured eubacterium E1-K13), respectively. The hydrogen production rate increased obviously with the increase of Ethanologenbacterium sp., Clostridium sp. and uncultured Spirochaetes after 21 days, meanwhile the succession of ethanol type fermentation was formed. Throughout the succession the microbial diversity increased however it decreased after 21 days. Some types of Clostridium sp. Acidovorax sp., Kluyvera sp., and Bacteroides were dominant populations during all periods of time. These special populations were essential for the construction of climax community. Hydrogen production efficiency was dependent on both hydrogen producing bacteria and other populations. It implied that the co-metabolism of microbial community played a great role of biohydrogen production in the reactors.

  10. Dynamics of culturable mesophilic bacterial communities of three fresh herbs and their production environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekenidis, M-T; Gossin, D; Schmelcher, M; Schöner, U; Remus-Emsermann, M N P; Drissner, D

    2017-10-01

    Investigate dynamics of culturable mesophilic bacteria and selected food-contaminating bacteria from three herbs and their production environment. Marjoram, basil and thyme were investigated during one growing season by sampling plants, organic fertilizers, soil, irrigation water and marketed products. Mesophilic bacteria and selected food-contaminating bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Bacillus cereus group) were cultured and identified by MALDI biotyping. Culturable mesophilic bacteria on marjoram and basil plants decreased over time by two orders of magnitude starting at above 10(6) colony forming units per gram (CFU per g), while they remained constant on thyme (~10(4)  CFU per g). Compared to the last field sample, mesophilic bacteria were increased on all market-ready products by one order of magnitude. Marjoram and basil were dominated by B. cereus group, Enterobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp., thyme by Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. All selected food-contaminating bacteria were detected in soil and reservoir-sourced irrigation water, whereas in municipal water, only B. cereus group and rarely Enterococcus spp. were found. Escherichia coli was detected only on young marjoram and basil plants (5 × 10(2) and 5 × 10(1)  CFU per g, respectively), whereas Enterococcus spp. and B. cereus group were consistently detected on these two herbs. Thyme plants only contained B. cereus group consistently (above 10(3) CFU per g). Marketed marjoram and thyme contained Enterococcus spp. (5 × 10(2) and 10(4) CFU per g) and B. cereus group (~5 × 10(2) CFU per g), while no selected food-contaminating bacteria were found on marketed basil. Overall, culturable mesophilic bacteria were dominated by Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp., with increased numbers on market-ready products. Selected food-contaminating bacteria were readily detectable, however, only the B. cereus group was found throughout in all systems. Insight into composition and

  11. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  12. Health and Gross National Happiness: review of current status in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres CE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tashi Tobgay1, Ugen Dophu1, Cristina E Torres2, Kesara Na-Bangchang31Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kawajangsa, Bhutan; 2Forum for Ethical Review Committees in Asian and Western Pacific Region, Clinical Coordination and Training Center, 3Thailand Center of Excellence on Drug Discovery and Development (TCEDDD, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, ThailandAbstract: Worldwide, contemporary measures of the success of health development programs have been mostly in terms of the reduction of mortality and morbidity as well as increasing longevity. While these goals have yielded much-needed health improvements, the subjective outcomes of these improvements, as experienced by individuals and the communities, have not been considered. Bhutan, under the overarching policy of Gross National Happiness, has provided due consideration to these subjective indicators. Here, we report on the current status of health and happiness in Bhutan as revealed by conventional objective indicators and subjective Gross National Happiness indicators. The current literature on health in Bhutan in relation to the Gross National Happiness Survey conducted by the Centre of Bhutan Studies has been reviewed. Bhutan has made great strides within a short period of modernization, as shown by both objective and subjective indicators. Tremendous challenges lie ahead to achieve the ultimate goal of health and happiness, and how Bhutan articulates its path to modernization may be a lesson for the rest of the world.Keywords: Bhutan, happiness, health, indicators

  13. Denitrifying bacterial communities affect current production and nitrous oxide accumulation in a microbial fuel cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Vilar-Sanz

    Full Text Available The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production decreased from 15.0 A · m(-3 NCC (Net Cathodic Compartment, when nitrate was used as an electron acceptor, to 14.1 A · m(-3 NCC in the case of nitrite. Contrarily, nitrous oxide (N2O accumulation in the MFC was higher when nitrite was used as the main electron acceptor and accounted for 70% of gaseous nitrogen. Relative abundance of nitrite to nitrous oxide reducers, calculated as (qnirS+qnirK/qnosZ, correlated positively with N2O emissions. Collectively, data indicate that bacteria catalysing the initial denitrification steps in a MFC are highly influenced by main electron acceptors and have a major influence on current production and N2O accumulation.

  14. Effect of inoculum conditioning on hydrogen fermentation and pH effect on bacterial community relevant to hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoshi, Yasunori; Hino, Naoe; Fujimoto, Aya; Nakao, Masaharu; Fujita, Yukiko; Sugimura, Seiji; Furukawa, Kenji

    2005-11-01

    The effect of conditioning for a variety of inoculums on fermentative hydrogen production was investigated. In addition, the effects of pH condition on hydrogen fermentation and bacterial community were investigated. The effect of conditioning on hydrogen production was different depending on the inoculum types. An appreciable hydrogen production was shown with anaerobic digested sludge and lake sediment without conditioning, however, no hydrogen was produced when refuse compost and kiwi grove soil were used as inoculums without conditioning. The highest hydrogen production was obtained with heat-conditioned anaerobic digested sludge, almost the same production was also obtained with unconditioned digested sludge. The pH condition considerably affected hydrogen fermentation, hydrogen gas was efficiently produced with unconditioned anaerobic sludge when the pH was controlled at 6.0 throughout the culture period and not when only the initial pH was adjusted to 6.0 and 7.0. Hydrogen production decreased when the culture pH was only adjusted at the beginning of each batch in continuous batch culture, and additionally, bacterial community varied with the change in hydrogen production. It was suggested that Clostridium and Coprothermobacter species played important role in hydrogen fermentation, and Lactobacillus species had an adverse effect on hydrogen production.

  15. Community control in cellular protein production: consequences for amino acid starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldt, Frank S; Brackley, Chris A; Grebogi, Celso; Thiel, Marco

    2015-12-13

    Deprivation of essential nutrients can have stark consequences for many processes in a cell. We consider amino acid starvation, which can result in bottlenecks in mRNA translation when ribosomes stall due to lack of resources, i.e. tRNAs charged with the missing amino acid. Recent experiments also show less obvious effects such as increased charging of other (non-starved) tRNA species and selective charging of isoaccepting tRNAs. We present a mechanism which accounts for these observations and shows that production of some proteins can actually increase under starvation. One might assume that such responses could only be a result of sophisticated control pathways, but here we show that these effects can occur naturally due to changes in the supply and demand for different resources, and that control can be accomplished through selective use of rare codons. We develop a model for translation which includes the dynamics of the charging and use of aminoacylated tRNAs, explicitly taking into account the effect of specific codon sequences. This constitutes a new control mechanism in gene regulation which emerges at the community level, i.e. via resources used by all ribosomes.

  16. Net community production and calcification from 7 years of NOAA Station Papa Mooring measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Andrea J.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Cronin, Meghan F.

    2016-02-01

    Seven years of near-continuous observations from the Ocean Station Papa (OSP) surface mooring were used to evaluate drivers of marine carbon cycling in the eastern subarctic Pacific. Processes contributing to mixed layer carbon inventory changes throughout each deployment year were quantitatively assessed using a time-dependent mass balance approach in which total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon were used as tracers. By using two mixed layer carbon tracers, it was possible to isolate the influences of net community production (NCP) and calcification. Our results indicate that the annual NCP at OSP is 2 ± 1 mol C m-2 yr-1 and the annual calcification is 0.3 ± 0.3 mol C m-2 yr-1. Piecing together evidence for potentially significant dissolved organic carbon cycling in this region, we estimate a particulate inorganic carbon to particulate organic carbon ratio between 0.15 and 0.25. This is at least double the global average, adding to the growing evidence that calcifying organisms play an important role in carbon export at this location. These results, coupled with significant seasonality in the NCP, suggest that carbon cycling near OSP may be more complex than previously thought and highlight the importance of continuous observations for robust assessments of biogeochemical cycling.

  17. 4000 clicks: a productivity analysis of electronic medical records in a community hospital ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert G; Sears, Lynn Marie; Melanson, Scott W

    2013-11-01

    We evaluate physician productivity using electronic medical records in a community hospital emergency department. Physician time usage per hour was observed and tabulated in the categories of direct patient contact, data and order entry, interaction with colleagues, and review of test results and old records. The mean percentage of time spent on data entry was 43% (95% confidence interval, 39%-47%). The mean percentage of time spent in direct contact with patients was 28%. The pooled weighted average time allocations were 44% on data entry, 28% in direct patient care, 12% reviewing test results and records, 13% in discussion with colleagues, and 3% on other activities. Tabulation was made of the number of mouse clicks necessary for several common emergency department charting functions and for selected patient encounters. Total mouse clicks approach 4000 during a busy 10-hour shift. Emergency department physicians spend significantly more time entering data into electronic medical records than on any other activity, including direct patient care. Improved efficiency in data entry would allow emergency physicians to devote more time to patient care, thus increasing hospital revenue. © 2013.

  18. Microbial Community Shifts during Biogas Production from Biowaste and/or Propionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoran Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Propionate is the most delicate intermediate during anaerobic digestion as its degradation is thermodynamically unfavorable. To determine its maximum possible degradation rates during anaerobic digestion, a reactor was fed Monday to Friday with an organic loading rate (OLR of 12/14 kg CODbiowaste·m−3·d−1 plus propionate up to a final OLR of 18 kg COD·m−3·d−1. No feed was supplied on weekends as it was the case in full-scale. To maintain permanently high propionate oxidizing activity (POA, a basic OLR of 3 kg CODpropionate·m−3·d−1 all week + 11 kg CODbiowaste·m−3·d−1 from Monday to Friday was supplied. Finally a reactor was operated with an OLR of 12 kg CODbiowaste·m−3·d−1 from Monday to Friday and 5 kg CODpropionate·m−3·d−1 from Friday night to Monday morning to maintain a constant gas production for permanent operation of a gas engine. The propionate degradation rates (PDRs were determined for biowaste + propionate feeding. Decreasing PDRs during starvation were analyzed. The POA was higher after propionate supply than after biowaste feeding and decreased faster during starvation of a propionate-fed rather than a biowaste-fed inoculum. Shifts of the propionate-oxidizing and methanogenic community were determined.

  19. Tackling the Use of Supari (Areca Nut) and Smokeless Tobacco Products in the South Asian Community in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chande, Milan; Suba, Krishna

    2016-06-01

    The use of supari (areca nut) and smokeless tobacco products are seen as a major risk factor for oral cancer. There are increasing rates of oral cancer across the United Kingdom, along with the increase of the use of these products. This article examines the uses of such products amongst the South Asian Community and explores sensitive issues associated with the cessation of their use. Evidence-based recommendations are provided on how to provide advice and treatment to patients that regularly use these products. A rethink is also suggested on the policy of taxation of such products. CPD/Clinical Relevance: With the rates of oral cancer increasing across the United Kingdom, it is important for us as dental professionals to tackle the use of areca nut and smokeless tobacco products.

  20. Biomarker reconstruction of phytoplankton productivity and community structure changes in the middle Okinawa Trough during the last 15 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Lei; ZHAO MeiXun; ZHANG HaiLong; LIU YanGuang; SHI XueFa

    2008-01-01

    Biomarkers have been widely used to reconstruct phytoplankton productivity and community structure changes,and this method has been applied for the first time in the middle Okinawa Trough during the transition from the last deglaciation to the Holocene.The total content of all marine phytoplankton biomarkers,used as a total productivity indicator,reveals higher productivity during the deglaciation.The ratios of the biomarkers are used as community structure indicators which show that,compared with the Holocene,the contribution from haptophytes decreased while the contributions from diatoms and dinoflagellates increased during the deglaciation.The increased productivity during the deglacia-tion was likely caused by the stronger winter monsoon.Also increased nutrient supply from terrestrial sources contributes to the higher productivity due to lower sea-level,which is consistent with higher terrestrial biomarker (long-chain n-alkanols) content.These changes in the nutrient supply also con-tributed to the community structure changes in the Okinawa Trough.

  1. Microbial community structure of a starch-feeding fermentative hydrogen production reactor operated under different incubation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chin-Hung; Hung, Chun-Hsiung; Liau, Pei-Yu.; Liang, Chih-Ming [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 402 (China); Lee, Kuo-Shing [Department of Health and Safety and Environmental Engineering, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601 (China); Yang, Lee-Hao; Lin, Ping-Jei [Department Chemical Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Lin, Chiu-Yue [Department Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China)

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to establish the particular biohydrogen-production related microbial community structure in a starch-feeding dark fermentation agitated granular sludge bed (AGSB) reactor which was operated under pH 6.0 and 5.5 as well as under different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The bacterial community diversity and percent of their cell count of the bioreactor were ascertained using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) individually. Based on the comparison of bacterial structure and hydrogen production efficiency under different HRT, no conclusion could be made on whether the diversity of Clostridium community could directly affect the reactor performance in these two pH systems. However, bacterial cell counts showed that the viable number of dominated Clostridium sp. changed along with the hydrogen production rate (HPR). It was believed that it could directly affect the hydrogen production efficiency. The highest HPR and hydrogen yield (HY) occurred when the reactor was operated at HRT 0.5 h, while the ratio of Clostridium sp. cell count and Bifidobacterium sp. cell count over the total Eubacteria cell count were around 40% and 40-60%, respectively. Therefore, we suggested that bacterial species which could degrade starch, such as Bifidobacterium sp. in this study, broke down starch into small molecules first and then these less complex compounds were utilized by the Clostridium species for hydrogen production. (author)

  2. Impact of different antibiotics on methane production using waste-activated sludge: mechanisms and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nurul Asyifah; Sakai, Kenji; Shirai, Yoshihito; Maeda, Toshinari

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an effective method for reducing the by-product of waste-activated sludge (WAS) from wastewater treatment plants and for producing bioenergy from WAS. However, only a limited number of studies have attempted to improve anaerobic digestion by targeting the microbial interactions in WAS. In this study, we examined whether different antibiotics positively, negatively, or neutrally influence methane fermentation by evaluating changes in the microbial community and functions in WAS. Addition of azithromycin promoted the microbial communities related to the acidogenic and acetogenic stages, and a high concentration of soluble proteins and a high activity of methanogens were detected. Chloramphenicol inhibited methane production but did not affect the bacteria that contribute to the hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and acetogenesis digestion stages. The addition of kanamycin, which exhibits the same methane productivity as a control (antibiotic-free WAS), did not affect all of the microbial communities during anaerobic digestion. This study demonstrates the simultaneous functions and interactions of diverse bacteria and methanogenic Archaea in different stages of the anaerobic digestion of WAS. The ratio of Caldilinea, Methanosarcina, and Clostridium may correspond closely to the trend of methane production in each antibiotic. The changes in microbial activities and function by antibiotics facilitate a better understanding of bioenergy production.

  3. Distribution and production of plankton communities in the subtropical convergence zone of the Sargasso Sea. II. Protozooplankton and copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj G.; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2011-01-01

    larvae and ostracods. Most of the recorded metazoan groups responded numerically to the frontal features (i.e. the surfacing of the isotherms) with high abundance in the STCZ compared with areas north and south of this. Juvenile copepod growth and egg production peaked in the STCZ, with a weight......The oligotrophic Sargasso Sea in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean is influenced by a complex set of oceanographic features that might introduce nutrients and enhance productivity in certain areas. To increase our understanding of the variability in plankton communities and to determine...... the potential reasons why Atlantic eels Anguilla spp. use this area for spawning, we investigated the distribution and productivity of the zooplankton community across the Subtropical Convergence Zone (STCZ) in the Sargasso Sea in March and April 2007. The vertical and horizontal distributions of protozoans...

  4. Organic loading rates affect composition of soil-derived bacterial communities during continuous, fermentative biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yonghua; Bruns, Mary Ann [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang, Husen; Salerno, Michael; Logan, Bruce E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Bacterial community composition during steady-state, fermentative H{sub 2} production was compared across a range of organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.5-19 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1} in a 2-l continuous flow reactor at 30 C. The varied OLRs were achieved with glucose concentrations of 2.5-10 g l{sup -1} and hydraulic retention times of 1-10 h. The synthetic wastewater feed was amended with L-cysteine and maintained at a pH of 5.5. For each run at a given glucose concentration, the reactor was inoculated with an aliquot of well-mixed agricultural topsoil that had been heat-treated to reduce numbers of vegetative cells. At OLRs less than 2 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, DNA sequences from ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer analysis profiles revealed more diverse and variable populations (Selenomonas, Enterobacter, and Clostridium spp.) than were observed above 2 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1} (Clostridium spp. only). An isolate, LYH1, was cultured from a reactor sample (10 g glucose l{sup -1} at a 10-h HRT) on medium containing L-cysteine. In confirming H{sub 2} production by LYH1 in liquid batch culture, lag periods for H{sub 2} production in the presence and absence of L-cysteine were 5 and 50 h, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of LYH1 indicated that the isolate was a Clostridium sp. affiliated with RNA subcluster Ic, with >99% similarity to Clostridium sp. FRB1. In fluorescent in situ hybridization tests, an oligonucleotide probe complementary to the 16S rRNA of LYH1 hybridized with 90% of cells observed at an OLR of 2 g COD h{sup -1}, compared to 26% of cells at an OLR of 0.5 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1}. An OLR of 2 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1} appeared to be a critical threshold above which clostridia were better able to outcompete Enterobacteriaceae and other organisms in the mixed soil inoculum. Our results are discussed in light of other biohydrogen studies employing pure cultures and mixed inocula. (author)

  5. Community structure and carbonate production of a temperate rhodolith bank from Arvoredo Island, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas F. M. Gherardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A small (100,000 m² rhodolith bank located at the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve (Santa Catarina, Brazil has been surveyed to determine the main bank components, the community structure, and carbonate production rates. Data from five photographic transects perpendicular to Arvoredo Island shore were complemented with sediment samples and shallow cores, all collected by scuba diving. The main bank component is the unattached, nongeniculate, coralline red algae Lithophyllum sp., used as substrate by the zoanthid Zoanthus sp. Percentage cover of living and dead coralline algae, zoanthids and sediment patches account for nearly 98% of the investigated area. Classification and ordination of samples showed that differences in the proportion of live and dead thalli of Lithophyllum sp. determine the relative abundances of zoanthids. Results also indicate that similarity of samples is high and community gradients are subtle. Significant differences in percentage cover along transects are concentrated in the central portion of the bank. Low carbonate content of sediments from deeper samples suggests low rates of recruitment and dispersal of coralline algae via fragmentation. However, carbonate production of Lithophyllum sp ranging from 55-136.3 g m-2 yr-1 agrees with production rates reported for other temperate settings. In the long run, rhodolith density at Arvoredo Is. is likely to be dependent upon random dispersal of spores and/or fragments from other source areas.Investigou-se um pequeno (100,000 m² banco de rodolitos localizado na Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (Santa Catarina, Brasil para se determinar os pricipais componentes do banco, a estrutura da comunidade e a produção de carbonato de cálcio. Dados de cobertura relativa foram obtidos ao longo de cinco transectos fotográficos perpendiculares à ilha do Arvoredo, e complementados com amostras de sedimento superficial e testemunhos rasos. O principal componente do banco é a

  6. Community, environmental, and occupational health risks associated with fossil fuel energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Mark A.

    Short-term and long-term health risks associated with fossil fuel power production can be grouped into three broad categories: risks to the surrounding community, the natural environment and to plant workers. The results of three studies examining the primary short-term or long-term impacts of fossil fuel power plants are presented within this dissertation. The first study estimates the plausible community health effects associated with peak SO2 emissions from three coal-fired power plants in the Baltimore, Maryland area. Concentrations from mobile and stationary air monitoring were compared to human clinical studies that demonstrated respiratory morbidity. Results indicate that exposure concentrations are below levels associated with respiratory symptoms. A single measurement at one monitoring site, however, may indicate risk of asymptomatic lung function decrement for SO2-sensitive asthmatics. The second study estimates the relationship between operational, environmental and temporal factors at a Texas coastal power plant and fish and shellfish impingement. Impingement is a long-term risk to fish populations near power plants. When large quantities of water are withdrawn from water bodies for cooling, fish and shellfish may be harmed if impinged against screens intended to remove debris. In this study, impingement of fish and shellfish was best explained by dissolved oxygen concentration, sampling month and sampling time. When examined separately, temperature and sampling month were most important in explaining fish impingement, while for shellfish, sampling month and sampling time were most important. Operational factors were not significant predictors of impingement. The third study examines whether the number of worker similar exposure groups classified using observation methods was the same as groups classified using personal exposure monitoring. Using observational techniques and personal monitoring, power plant workers were grouped according to exposure

  7. Phase structure of the massive chiral Gross-Neveu model from Hartree-Fock

    CERN Document Server

    Boehmer, Christian; Kraus, Sebastian; Thies, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The phase diagram of the massive chiral Gross-Neveu model (the massive Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in 1+1 dimensions) is constructed. In the large N limit, the Hartree-Fock approach can be used. We find numerically a chiral crystal phase separated from a massive Fermi gas phase by a 1st order transition. Using perturbation theory, we also construct the critical sheet where the homogeneous phase becomes unstable in a 2nd order transition. A tricritical curve is located. The phase diagram is mapped out as a function of fermion mass, chemical potential and temperature and compared with the one of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model. As a by-product, we illustrate the crystal structure of matter at zero temperature for various densities and fermion masses.

  8. Climate change impacts on net primary production (NPP) and export production (EP) regulated by increasing stratification and phytoplankton community structure in the CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weiwei; Randerson, James T.; Moore, J. Keith

    2016-09-01

    We examine climate change impacts on net primary production (NPP) and export production (sinking particulate flux; EP) with simulations from nine Earth system models (ESMs) performed in the framework of the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Global NPP and EP are reduced by the end of the century for the intense warming scenario of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. Relative to the 1990s, NPP in the 2090s is reduced by 2-16 % and EP by 7-18 %. The models with the largest increases in stratification (and largest relative declines in NPP and EP) also show the largest positive biases in stratification for the contemporary period, suggesting overestimation of climate change impacts on NPP and EP. All of the CMIP5 models show an increase in stratification in response to surface-ocean warming and freshening, which is accompanied by decreases in surface nutrients, NPP and EP. There is considerable variability across the models in the magnitudes of NPP, EP, surface nutrient concentrations and their perturbations by climate change. The negative response of NPP and EP to increasing stratification reflects primarily a bottom-up control, as upward nutrient flux declines at the global scale. Models with dynamic phytoplankton community structure show larger declines in EP than in NPP. This pattern is driven by phytoplankton community composition shifts, with reductions in productivity by large phytoplankton as smaller phytoplankton (which export less efficiently) are favored under the increasing nutrient stress. Thus, the projections of the NPP response to climate change are critically dependent on the simulated phytoplankton community structure, the efficiency of the biological pump and the resulting levels of regenerated production, which vary widely across the models. Community structure is represented simply in the CMIP5 models, and should be expanded to better capture the spatial patterns and climate-driven changes in export

  9. Effects of phosphate limitation on soluble microbial products and microbial community structure in semi-continuous Synechocystis-based photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, Alexander S; Nam, Taekgul; Rittmann, Bruce; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    All bacteria release organic compounds called soluble microbial products (SMP) as a part of their normal metabolism. In photobioreactor (PBR) settings, SMP produced by cyanobacteria represent a major pool of carbon and electrons available to heterotrophic bacteria. Thus, SMP in PBRs are a major driver for the growth of heterotrophic bacteria, and understanding the distribution of SMP in PBRs is an important step toward proper management of PBR microbial communities. Here, we analyzed the SMP and microbial communities in two Synechocystis sp. PCC6803-based PBRs. The first PBR (PBRP0) became phosphate limited after several days of operation, while the second PBR (PBRP+) did not have phosphate limitation. Heterotrophic bacteria were detected in both PBRs, but PBRP0 had a much higher proportion of heterotrophic bacteria than PBRP+. Furthermore, PBRP+ had greater biomass production and lower SMP production per unit biomass than PBRP0. Carbohydrates that were most likely derived from hydrolysis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) dominated the SMP in PBRP0, while products resulting from cell lysis or decay dominated the SMP in PBRP+. Together, our data support that maintaining phosphate availability in Synechocystis-based PBRs is important for managing SMP and, thus, the heterotrophic community.

  10. Gross Pollutant Traps: Wet Load Assessment at Sungai Kerayong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shah, M. R.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Husni, M. M. Mohammad; Jajarmizadeh, Milad; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to carry out assessment on the effectiveness and performance of Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) stormwater quality control in the urban areas. The study aims to provide a management and planning tool for effective management of the gross pollutants in the urban areas specifically in River of Life (ROL) project. ROL project is a Malaysian Government initiative under the Economic Transformation Program. One of the program in the greater Klang Valley is to transform Klang River into a vibrant and livable waterfront by the year 2020. The main river in ROL catchment is Sungai Klang (upper catchment), with main tributaries Sungai Gombak, Sungai Batu, Sungai Jinjang, Sungai Keroh, Sungai Bunus, Sungai Ampang and Sungai Kerayong. This paper objective is to study the gross pollutant wet load at Sungai Kerayong 1 and Sungai Kerayong 2 which is located at the downstream location of the ROL project. The result shows that Sungai Kerayong 2 produced higher gross pollutant wet load (8025.33 kg/ha/yr) than Sungai Kerayong 1 (4695.12 kg/ha/yr). This could be due to high contributions amounts of gross pollutant traps from residential area, the degree of develop area, and also the location of the river itself related to climate and rainfall.

  11. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Van Soest, Arthur J; De Koning, Jos J

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e(gross)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if e(gross) is affected by stroke rate. A second aim was to determine whether internal power losses can be estimated by the negative power output during the stroke cycle (P(negative)). Seventeen well-trained female rowers participated in this study. They rowed three trials on a modified rowing ergometer on slides at a submaximal intensity, with a respiratory exchange ratio of 1 or close to 1. Stroke rates were 28, 34, and 40 strokes per minute. The trials were fully randomized. Power transfer to the flywheel was kept constant whereas e(gross) was determined during each trial. No significant differences in e(gross) were found between conditions. This finding suggests that in rowing internal power losses are not influenced by stroke rate. Furthermore, although P(negative) increased at increasing stroke rate (P measure to estimate internal power losses. This study shows that within the range of stroke rates applied in competitive rowing, internal power losses are unrelated to rowing cycle frequency.

  12. Exploring the Utilization of Complex Algal Communities to Address Algal Pond Crash and Increase Annual Biomass Production for Algal Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Cyd E. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States).

    2014-03-25

    This white paper briefly reviews the research literature exploring complex algal communities as a means of increasing algal biomass production via increased tolerance, resilience, and resistance to a variety of abiotic and biotic perturbations occurring within harvesting timescales. This paper identifies what data are available and whether more research utilizing complex communities is needed to explore the potential of complex algal community stability (CACS) approach as a plausible means to increase biomass yields regardless of ecological context and resulting in decreased algal-based fuel prices by reducing operations costs. By reviewing the literature for what we do and do not know, in terms of CACS methodologies, this report will provide guidance for future research addressing pond crash phenomena.

  13. The relationship between species diversity and ecosystem function (productivity) of the late Middle Permian brachiopods community at the region of Hechuan, Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yong; JIANG LiJun; KE Yan; L(U) Qian; ZHAO Li; LIANG JiaDong; HU Han; LINGHU Bo

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between species diversity and ecosystem function is a hot topic in ecology and environics.This paper investigates the evolution of diversity of the late Middle Permian brachiopods community in Hechuan,Chongqing,China,and discusses the relationship between species diversity and community productivity in terms of the geohistorical development.This paper shows that the species diversity is externalized by several indexes,and the relationship between diversity and productivity is too complex to be described by a single assumption.The relationship between species diversity and community productivity is restricted by environment and community evolution.When the community succeeds normally,the relationship between species richness index,species diversity index,and species evenness index to productivity is in linear dependence relation to each other,which is met with the third assumption.But,when the environment interference surpasses the bearing capability of the community,not only the community succession will be terminated and be replaced by another one,but also the relationship between species richness index,species diversity index,and species evenness index to productivity is also inversed to negative correlation by the interference from environment.Only the relationship between ecological dominance and productivity is in linear dependence relation to each other and approximately met with the third assumption.It is illustrated that the assumption that the productivity is in linear dependence relation with diversity should be established on the presupposition that the community succession is normal.

  14. Assessing community pharmacist engagement in a policing partnership strategy to reduce the illicit diversion of pseudoephedrine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Julianne L

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of illicit diversion of pharmaceutical products is a worldwide problem associated with negative health consequences and with other crimes. The illicit diversion of pharmaceuticals containing the active ingredient pseudoephedrine is of concern, primarily due to the role this substance plays in the manufacture of synthetic illicit drugs such as methylamphetamine. There are a range of strategies employed to curb the problem of precursor diversion. Not least is the development of strategies involving front-line health professionals such as community pharmacists to play an important role in reducing the incidence of diversion. This study aimed to examine levels of pharmacist engagement in an intervention expected to decrease diversion of pseudoephedrine products from community pharmacies. The primary obj