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Sample records for gross beta radioactivity

  1. Trend of Gross Beta Radioactivity in Air Particles and Rainwater of around the Domestic Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Jungmin; Shin, Daeyewn; Kim, Soongpyung; Ju, Sundong [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); OH, Youngsoo; Kim, Byunggyu; Kim, Sunsik [Hanbit Nuclear Power Site, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Investigating items can be distinguished into two parts, regional radiation and concentrations of environmental radioactivity, and in environmental radioactivity, to access the internal exposure dose, gross beta-radioactivity of particles in air and rainwater specimen are being tested. Gross beta-radioactivity quickly shows whether radiation is unusual or no since most of nuclide released in radioactive emergency while operating an atomic energy facility emits beta rays, and the method used to test it is simple. Looking at the years of analyzed results of particles in air and rainwater around the facility for gross beta-radioactivity, they have a constant trend. The cause of the trend was investigated with a doubt that something else rather than operation of a nuclear power plant might have caused this trend. Due to high gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter, sometimes, radioactivity concentration five times higher than reported last five years average gross beta radioactivity concentration is detected. Looking at the contents investigated above, we can see nuclear power plants have correlation with surrounding gross beta radioactivity concentration. Precipitation has negative correlation, and the weight of air particles and concentration of component element have positive correlation. Our country is influenced by northwest wind in winter. China which is located northwest, has heavy air pollution and smog due to industrialization and there was a report saying it is affecting Korea. Therefore, not because of management of power plants but because of change in season, it can be misunderstood that operating power plants is causing the increased gross beta radioactivity concentration. Based on this investigation, more research to find various causes of gross beta radioactivity concentration in winter is necessary.

  2. The natural radioactivity in water by gross alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, T.O.; Tessari, B.W.; Silva, A. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    An alternative method for evaluating gross alpha and beta radioactivity in water was developed by performing alpha counting using a surface barrier detector and gamma- ray spectrometry using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Several experiments were realized under controlled conditions in the laboratory with the aim of establishing adequate calibration of the systems utilized for performing activity concentration measurements in water samples of variable salinity. Groundwater samples collected at several spas in Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais States in Brazil were submitted to the developed technique in order to assure its applicability in waters characterized by different Total Dissolved Solids content. The values obtained were compatible with the previous knowledge of the radioactivity of the studied water sources, thus indicating the reliability and usefulness of the method for generating information on investigations focusing environmental aspects and/or the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of radiological aspects.

  3. Gross alpha and beta radioactivity concentration in water, soil and sediment of the Bendimahi River and Van Lake (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk Zorer, Ozlem; Ceylan, Hasan; Doğru, Mahmut

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of the natural radioactivity in water, soil and sediment samples collected from Bendimahi River which originates near the Tendürek Mountain (Van, Turkey), its tributaries and Van Lake (Turkey) were measured. The gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity concentrations were investigated in May and August in 2005. Determination of the gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity of river water, soil and sediment samples was obtained by using gas-flow proportional counter, PIC-MPC 9604-alpha/beta counter. In water samples, the obtained results show that in May; gross-alpha and gross-beta activity concentrations varied between 0.063-0.782 and 0.021-0.816 Bq l(-1) and in August the values were 0.009-0.037 and 0.081-3.116 Bq l(-1), respectively. The gross-alpha and gross-beta activity concentrations in soil samples ranged from 0.800 to 4.277 Bq g(-1) and 0.951 to 11.773 Bq g(-1) in May and 0.686 to 4.713 Bq g(-1) and 0.073 to 9.524 Bq g(-1) in August, respectively. Concentrations ranging from 0.782 to 4.596 Bq g(-1) and from 0.482 to 10.372 Bq g(-1) in May and from 0.580 to 5.824 Bq g(-1) and from 0.303 to 9.702 Bq g(-1) in August for gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity were observed in sediments, respectively.

  4. Gross alpha and beta activity analyses in urine-a routine laboratory method for internal human radioactivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Zhao, Luqian; Qin, Hongran; Zhao, Meijia; Zhou, Yirui; Yang, Shuqiang; Su, Xu; Xu, Xiaohua

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to provide rapid results for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The authors hypothesized that valuable information could be obtained from gas proportional counter techniques by screening urine samples from potentially exposed individuals rapidly. Recommended gross alpha and beta activity screening methods generally employ gas proportional counting techniques. Based on International Standards Organization (ISO) methods, improvements were made in the evaporation process to develop a method to provide rapid results, adequate sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation and operator intervention for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The method described by an American National Standards Institute publication was used to calibrate the gas proportional counter, and urine samples from patients with or without radionuclide treatment were measured to validate the method. By improving the evaporation process, the time required to perform the assay was reduced dramatically. Compared with the reference data, the results of the validation samples were very satisfactory with respect to gross-alpha and gross-beta activities. The gas flow proportional counting method described here has the potential for radioactivity monitoring in the body. This method was easy, efficient, and fast, and its application is of great utility in determining whether a sample should be analyzed by a more complicated method, for example radiochemical and/or γ-spectroscopy. In the future, it may be used commonly in medical examination and nuclear emergency treatment.Health Phys. 106(5):000-000; 2014.

  5. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  6. Determination of natural radioactivity by gross alpha and beta measurements in ground water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Ozçitak, E; Taşkin, H; Varinlioğlu, A

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the gross α and β in ground water samples collected from the different drilled wells in Nevşehir province were measured to assess annual effective dose due to the ingestion of the water samples. Nevşehir province is one of the major cities of Cappadocia Region which is a popular tourist destination as it has many areas with unique geological, historic, and cultural features. Sampling and measurements were carried out in the autumn of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The values of the activity concentrations of the gross α and β measured in the water samples ranged from 80 to 380 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 192 mBq L(-1) and 120-3470 mBq L(-1) with a mean of 579 mBq L(-1) respectively. All values of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two ground water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). Therefore two water samples were the subject of further radioisotope-specific analysis. The obtained result indicated that the elevated activity concentrations of the gross β in these water samples are dominated by (40)K activity. Annual effective doses ranged from 0.04 to 0.20 mSv y(-1).

  7. 探讨串道现象对饮用水中的总放射性测量结果的影响%Influence of crosstalk phenomenon on the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    格日勒满达呼; 哈日巴拉; 许潇; 申娜; 赛文嘎; 白桂林; 王成国

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究串道现象对饮用水中的总放射性测量结果的影响程度.方法 采用不同标准物质、不同的厚度、不同面积进行总放射性测量试验.结果 用241 Am粉测试的串道因子数随质量增加无明显变化,铀粉则随质量增加而增加.仪器测试通道不同,串道因子数也不同.总α对总β的串道影响很明显,反过来串道因子数很小,可忽略.串道因子数受样品盘面积的影响不明显.结论 做饮用水中总放射性检测使用α-β同时测量模式时,总β放射性活度受α串道影响,可以通过粉末标准物质进行修正,减小对测量结果的影响.%Objective To study the influence of crosstalk phenomenon on the measurement of gross radioactivity in drinking water.Methods The gross activity in different standard materials with different thickness and area was measured using national standard method.Results There was no obvious change in crosstalk factor with the increase of 241Am powder amount in the measurement,whereas the larger amount of uranium used might lead to larger crosstalk factor.The different measurement channels resulted in different crosstalk factors.The influence of beta radioactivity on alpha radioactivity measurement was significant.On the contrary,the alpha-to-beta crosstalk factor was negligible.The area of sample plate imposed no significant influence on crosstalk factor.Conclusions The gross beta activity can be corrected to decrease the influence of alpha radioactivity using powder standard samples,when simultaneous alpha and beta counting mode is applied in measurement grass radioactivity in drinking water.

  8. Gross-beta activity in ground water: natural sources and artifacts of sampling and laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.

    1995-01-01

    Gross-beta activity has been used as an indicator of beta-emitting isotopes in water since at least the early 1950s. Originally designed for detection of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests, analysis of gross-beta activity is widely used in studies of naturally occurring radioactivity in ground water. Analyses of about 800 samples from 5 ground-water regions of the United States provide a basis for evaluating the utility of this measurement. The data suggest that measured gross-beta activities are due to (1) long-lived radionuclides in ground water, and (2) ingrowth of beta-emitting radionuclides during holding times between collection of samples and laboratory measurements.Although40K and228Ra appear to be the primary sources of beta activity in ground water, the sum of40K plus228Ra appears to be less than the measured gross-beta activity in most ground-water samples. The difference between the contribution from these radionuclides and gross-beta activity is most pronounced in ground water with gross-beta activities > 10 pCi/L, where these 2 radionuclides account for less than one-half the measured ross-beta activity. One exception is groundwater from the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where40K plus228Ra generally contribute most of the gross-beta activity. In contrast,40K and228Ra generally contribute most of beta activity in ground water with gross-beta activities measure all beta activity in ground water. Although3H contributes beta activity to some ground water, it is driven from the sample before counting and therefore is not detected by gross-beta measurements. Beta-emitting radionuclides with half-lives shorter than a few days can decay to low values between sampling and counting. Although little is known about concentrations of most short-lived beta-emitting radionuclides in environmental ground water (water unaffected by direct releases from nuclear facilities and weapons tests), their activities are expected to be low.Ingrowth of

  9. Gross alpha determination in radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants using the track registration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, M.J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: he04@caminos.upm.es; Pujol, Ll. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Low and intermediate level nuclear wastes (ion-exchange resins and evaporator concentrates) essentially contain beta and gamma emitters, with very few alpha emitters. Several techniques may be used to determine gross alpha activity but, in this case, solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are a suitable technique for gross alpha determination because track detectors are not sensitive to beta and gamma emitters. Also, this technique is simple and inexpensive. In this paper, we studied the parameters (background, efficiency and self-absorption) that could affect the gross alpha determination using SSNTDs for both sample preparation methods, the 'dry method' with tensioactives and the 'wet method'. For the 'dry method', a self-absorption curve for {sup 241}Am standard was prepared using a set of varying thickness of sodium salt and for two different tensioactives: Tween{sup (R)}20 and Teg. The results showed that, below 1mg/cm{sup 2}, the self-absorption factor can be considered similar for both tensioactives and equal to unity. Several detectors for gross alpha determination were compared and we found that the most suitable techniques were ZnS(Ag) solid scintillator and track detectors. Both detectors were used to compare radioactive waste samples. Finally, the proposed methods ('dry method' with Teg tensioactive and 'wet method') using track detectors were tested by analysing the gross alpha activity of several radioactive wastes.

  10. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and actinides activities in exhaust air released from the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States); Mulholland, G.P. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and beta activities is one of the simplest radioanalytical technique used as a method for screening samples of both high and low activities of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental and bioassay samples. Such measurements are of great interest from both a radiological, waste disposal viewpoint, and to establish a trend of radioactivity based on long term monitoring. At the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, unfiltered exhaust air from the underground repository is the most important effluent. As part of its monitoring program, the particulates from WIPP exhaust air are collected everyday at a location typically called the Fixed Air Sampler (FAS) site or Station A, this site is located at the release point for aerosol effluents from the underground to the environment. The measurements of gross alpha and beta activity on air filter samples were performed using an ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta}, from Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the gross alpha and beta instrument enables detection of low value activity from the air filters. In 2009, the values of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations ranged from Simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the particulates from WIPP exhaust air were performed. > Ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-{alpha}/{beta} counter was used for the measurements. > Values of gross alpha activity concentrations ranged from Values of gross beta activity concentrations ranged from

  11. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  12. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  13. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  14. Characterization of large area ZnS(Ag) detector for gross alpha and beta activity measurements in tap water plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunardon, M.; Cester, D.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Stevanato, L.; Viesti, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy ' Galileo Galilei' , University of Padova, (Italy); Schotanus, P.; Bodewits, E. [SCIONIX Holland BV, (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    In this work we present the characterization of a large area 200 x 200 mm{sup 2} EJ-444 scintillation detector to be used for monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in tap water plants. Specific tests were performed to determine the best setup to readout the light from the detector side in order to have the possibility to stack many detectors and get a compact device with total active area of the order of 1 m{sup 2}. Alpha/Beta discrimination, efficiency and homogeneity tests were carried out with alpha and beta sources. Background from ambient radioactivity was measured as well. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in drinking water is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  15. Monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids by using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanato, L.; Cester, D.; Filippi, D.; Lunardon, M.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Viesti, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy ' Galileo Galilei' , University of Padova, (Italy); Badocco, D.; Pastore, P.; Romanini, F. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this work the possibility of monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids using EJ-444 was investigated. Specific tests were carried out to determine the change of the detector properties in water tests. Possible protecting coating is also proposed and tested. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in liquids is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  16. Rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in milk using liquid scintilation counter technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid determination of gross alpha and beta emitters in milk by liquid scintillation counter is discussed. This method is based on direct addition of different types of milk into scintillation cocktail and therefore it is very promising for fast determination of alpha/beta activity due to direct alpha and beta separation, measurement in close 4p geometry and without sample treatment. The selected group of radionuclides was chosen with the respect to military significance, radio-toxicity, and possibility of potential misuse. As model radionuclides 241Am, 239Pu, and 90Sr were selected. The Liquid Scintilation Counter Hidex 300 SL equipped with triple-double-coincidence-ratio technique was used for sample measurement. The aim of the work was focused on comparison of different cocktails produced by Hidex and Perkin Elmer, choosing the best cocktail based on our measurement results and adjustment of its appropriate volume. Furthermore, the optimization of ratio between the volume of scintillation cocktail and the volume of urine was investigated with the respect to the model radionuclides. According to the obtained results, the efficiency for alpha emitters was greater than 85% and for beta, greater than 95%. The obtained results allowed this method to be used for rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in cases where time is an essence, such as first responders or mass-scale samples, where ordinary means suffer from lack of capacity or simply collapse under the onslaught.

  17. 210Po in Nevada groundwater and its relation to gross alpha radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Polonium-210 (210Po) is a highly toxic alpha emitter that is rarely found in groundwater at activities exceeding 1 pCi/L. 210Po activities in 63 domestic and public-supply wells in Lahontan Valley in Churchill County in northern Nevada, United States, ranged from 0.01 ± 0.005 to 178 ± 16 pCi/L with a median activity of 2.88 pCi/L. Wells with high 210Po activities had low dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 0.1 mg/L) and commonly had pH greater than 9. Lead-210 activities are low and aqueous 210Po is unsupported by 210Pb, indicating that the 210Po is mobilized from aquifer sediments. The only significant contributors to alpha particle activity in Lahontan Valley groundwater are 234/238U, 222Rn, and 210Po. Radon-222 activities were below 1000 pCi/L and were uncorrelated with 210Po activity. The only applicable drinking water standard for 210Po in the United States is the adjusted gross alpha radioactivity (GAR) standard of 15 pCi/L. 210Po was not volatile in a Nevada well, but volatile 210Po has been reported in a Florida well. Additional information on the volatility of 210Po is needed because GAR is an inappropriate method to screen for volatile radionuclides. About 25% of the samples had 210Po activities that exceed the level associated with a lifetime total cancer risk of 1× 10−4 (1.1 pCi/L) without exceeding the GAR standard. In cases where the 72-h GAR exceeds the uranium activity by more than 5 to 10 pCi/L, an analysis to rule out the presence of 210Po may be justified to protect human health even though the maximum contaminant level for adjusted GAR is not exceeded.

  18. Methods and Data Used to Investigate Polonium-210 as a Source of Excess Gross-Alpha Radioactivity in Ground Water, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is the major source of drinking water in the Carson River Basin, California and Nevada. Previous studies have shown that uranium and gross-alpha radioactivities in ground water can be greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels, particularly in the Carson Desert, Churchill County, Nevada. Studies also have shown that the primary source of the gross-alpha radioactivity and alpha-emitting radionuclides in ground water is the dissolution of uranium-rich granitic rocks and basin-fill sediments that have their origins in the Sierra Nevada. However, ground water sampled from some wells in the Carson Desert had gross-alpha radioactivities greater than could be accounted for by the decay of dissolved uranium. The occurrence of polonium-210 (Po-210) was hypothesized to explain the higher than expected gross-alpha radioactivities. This report documents and describes the study design, field and analytical methods, and data used to determine whether Po-210 is the source of excess gross-alpha radioactivity in ground water underlying the Carson Desert in and around Fallon, Nevada. Specifically, this report presents: 1) gross alpha and uranium radioactivities for 100 wells sampled from June to September 2001; and 2) pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and Po-210 radioactivity for 25 wells sampled in April and June 2007. Results of quality-control samples for the 2007 dataset are also presented.

  19. Evaluation of different parameters affecting the liquid scintillation spectrometry measurement of gross alpha and beta index in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain); Villa, M. [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion. Servicio Radioisotopos. Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Casacuberta, N. [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals-Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. Spain (Spain); Penalver, A.; Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain); Aguilar, C., E-mail: carme.aguilar@urv.cat [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry is a fast competitive technique for the simultaneous evaluation of gross alpha and beta indexes. However, the implementation of this technique should not be considered as straightforward, and the pre-concentration methods to decrease the detection limit together with quenching and alpha, and beta crossover corrections should be carefully chosen according to the needs of the laboratory. Both aspects are being approached in this work as to find an easy and robust method for alpha/beta measurement in water samples, taking into account the quenching and alpha/beta crossover interferences effects. Results showed that most of the pre-concentration methods increased the quenching in the measurement, although HNO{sub 3} 0.05 M points to be the best solution for pre-concentration and re-dissolution of the sample as converges into low quenching and maximum recovery. Subsequently, in the measurement of water samples with different conductivities, the analysis of the raw counts to obtain gross alpha and beta indexes was carried out using different approaches to implement quenching and interference corrections. If quenching and salt content in the sample are relatively low, interference and quenching-efficiency corrections do not improve the accuracy of the results within the usual precision assumed for a result of gross alpha and beta index (25%). Special attention must be paid when corrections are applied to high quenched or saline samples and when alpha and beta activities values are different in several orders of magnitude. - Highlights: > Developed method for simultaneously quantifying gross alpha and gross beta indexes based on LSC was as accurate and precise as the results obtained from methods based on gas proportional counting and ZnS alpha counting. > Alpha/beta crossover and/or quenching corrections were applied and the results obtained did not improve accuracy within 25% dispersion, a widespread acceptance limit for gross alpha and

  20. Radioactive Ions Production Ring for Beta-Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Wehner, J

    2010-01-01

    Within the FP7 EUROnu program, Work Package 4 addresses the issues of production and acceleration of 8Li and 8B isotopes through the Beta-Beam complex, for the production of electron-neutrino. One of the major critical issues is the production of a high enougth ion ßux, to fulÞll the requirements for physics. In alternative to the direct ISOL production method, a new ap- proach is proposed in [1]. The idea is to use a compact ring for Litium ions at 25 MeV and an internal He or D target, in which the radioactive-isotopes production takes place. The beam is expected to survive for several thousands of turns, therefore cooling in 6D is required and, according this scheme, the ionization cooling provided by the target itself and a suitable RF system would be sufÞcient. We present some preliminary work on the Production ring lat- tice design and cooling issues, for the 7Li ions, and propose plans for future studies, within the EUROnu program.

  1. Design of a Quality Control Program for the Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activities (LMPR-CIEMAT); Diseno del Control de Calidad de las Medidas de Actividad Alfa-Beta Total (LMPR-CIEMAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Gasco, C.; Navarro, N.; Higueras, E.; Noguerales, C.

    2010-10-21

    In accordance with international standards, general requirements for testing laboratories have to include a quality system for planning, implementing, and assessing the work performed by the organization and for carrying out required quality assurance and quality control. The purpose of internal laboratory quality control is to monitor performance, identify problems, and initiate corrective actions. This report describes the internal quality control to monitor the gross alpha and beta activities determination. Identification of specific performance indicators, the principles that govern their use and statistical means of evaluation are explained. Finally, calculation of alpha and beta specific activities, uncertainties and detection limits are performed. (Author) 10 refs.

  2. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-Electron irradiated spices, (2); [beta]-ray counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Furuta, Masakazu; Shibata, Setsuko; Matsunami, Tadao; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1994-02-01

    In order to check radioactivity of beta-emmitters produced by ([gamma], n) reactions which could occur at energies up to 10 MeV, black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy. Beta-rays were counted using a 2[pi] gas flow counter and a liquid scintillation counter. Any induced radioactivity could not be detected in irradiated samples. When inorganic compounds containing the nuclides in the list were artificially added in the samples and were irradiated, the [beta]-activities were detected. From the amount of observed radioactivities of [beta]-emmitters produced in the compounds as photonuclear products, it is concluded that the induced radioactivity in natural samples by 10 MeV-electron irradiation were far smaller than natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples and, hence, its biological effects should be negligible. (author).

  3. An application of LSC method for the measurement of gross alpha and beta activities in spiked water and drinking water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çakal Gaye Özgür

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, after the pulse shape calibration of a liquid scintillation counting (LSC spectrometer (Quantulus 1220, the effi ciency was determined depending on sample quenching parameters. Then, gross alpha and beta activities in two spiked water samples obtained from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA were used for the validation of the ASTM D7283-06 method, which is a standard test method for alpha and beta activity in water by LSC. Later, the drinking water samples (35 tap water and 9 bottled water obtained from different districts of Ankara, Turkey, were measured. The maximum gross alpha activities are measured to be 0.08 Bq/L for tap waters and 0.13 Bq/L for bottled waters, whereas the maximum gross beta activities are found to be 0.18 Bq/L for tap waters and 0.16 Bq/L for bottled waters. These results indicate that these drinking water samples are below the required limits, which are 0.1 Bq/L for alpha emitting radionuclides and 1 Bq/L for beta emitting radionuclides. As a result, gross alpha and beta activities in drinking water of Ankara were determined accurately by this validated LSC method. It is also worth noting that LSC is a rapid and accurate method for the determination of gross alpha and beta activities without requiring a tedious sample preparation.

  4. $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with radioactive At beams

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and radioactive decay of the newly available pure beams of neutron-deficient and neutron-rich astatine (Z=85) isotopes. The fission probability and the fission fragment distribution of the even-even isotopes $^{194,196}$Po following the $\\beta$-decay of the isotopes $^{194,196}$At will be studied with the Windmill setup. In-source laser spectroscopy will be performed on the entire astatine isotopic chain, using a combination of the Windmill setup, ISOLTRAP MR-ToF and ISOLDE Faraday. Radioactive decay data will be acquired at the Windmill setup throughout those studies and contribute to the global understanding of the phenomenon of shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient lead region.

  5. [Measurement of C14 beta-radioactivity of stable natural origin taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) in bovine bile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetano, G; Bisegna, F; Bisio, V; Parenti, M

    1994-01-01

    Taurine from natural sources has gained great importance as essential nutrient in milk for formula-fed infants. There is a strong request for a method capable of determining the natural origin of taurine. The measure of beta-radioactivity of 14C of taurine by means of liquid scintillation counting proved the most reliable. A simple method is reported.

  6. A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of gross alpha and beta activities in water samples using a low background liquid scintillation counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Pujol, Ll. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    1995-05-01

    The radiological examination of water requires a rapid screening technique that permits the determination of the gross alpha and beta activities of each sample in order to decide if further radiological analyses are necessary. In this work, the use of a low background liquid scintillation system (Quantulus 1220) is proposed to simultaneously determine the gross activities in water samples. Liquid scintillation is compared to more conventional techniques used in most monitoring laboratories. In order to determine the best counting configuration of the system, pulse shape discrimination was optimized for 6 scintillant/vial combinations. It was concluded that the best counting configuration was obtained with the scintillation cocktail Optiphase Hisafe 3 in Zinsser low diffusion vials. The detection limits achieved were 0.012 Bq L{sup -1} and 0.14 Bq L{sup {minus}1} for gross alpha and beta activity respectively, after a 1:10 concentration process by simple evaporation and for a counting time of only 360 min. The proposed technique is rapid, gives spectral information, and is adequate to determine gross activities according to the World Health Organization (WMO) guideline values.

  7. Refinement of the gross theory of nuclear {beta}-decay, and hindrance of the first-forbidden transition of rank 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Hidehiko [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tachibana, Takahiro; Yamada, Masami

    1997-03-01

    Recently the gross theory of nuclear {beta}-decay was refined for odd-odd nuclei. In this refinement, the effect of the selection rule of {beta}-transitions from the ground states of odd-odd nuclei to those of even-even nuclei was taken into account based on a statistical consideration. The transitions to the first 2{sup +} excited states in even-even nuclei were also taken into account according to the selection rule approximately. In that study, it was found that the transitions between 1{sup -} ground states of the odd-odd nuclei and 0{sup +} ground states of even-even nuclei, belonging to the first-forbidden transitions of rank 1, are strongly hindered. A reduction factor was introduced for the transitions to the ground states of even-even nuclei to take into account this hindrance. It was also found that the strength functions of the Gamow-Teller transitions obtained from the conventional gross theory are underestimated by a factor of about 3. In order to improve this underestimation, the Lorentz-type function was adopted for the one-particle strength function in the model instead of the hyperbolic-secant-type function. In the present study we have newly analyzed the experimental ft-values of odd-A nuclei, and found that the first-forbidden transitions of rank 1 are also considerably hindered between the ground states. Following the above refinement we have calculated the {beta}-ray spectra of some odd-odd short-lived fission products with the use of the refined gross theory. These results are compared not only with the experiments by Rudstam et al. but also with the conventional gross theory. (author)

  8. The natural radioactivity in Guarani aquifer groundwater, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, T.O. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in Brazil are reported in this paper together with the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228Th}, and {sup 228}Ra. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity values were below the critical level of detection corresponding to 1 mBq/L, however, the whole data set for the gross beta radioactivity and radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 228}Ra was submitted to a statistical treatment, considering class intervals arranged in geometric progression, because of the great variability of the activity. The analysis indicated lognormal distribution of the data, as usually observed in samples taken from the natural context. An inverse relationship between the gross alpha and gross beta activity has been identified and is related to an increase in the K content in the water. The mobility coefficient has been estimated for {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra in Guarani aquifer and the results indicated that the radioelement solubility in the studied system varies according to the following order: radium>uranium>thorium. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed.

  9. The influence of the calibration standard and the chemical composition of the water samples residue in the counting efficiency of proportional detectors for gross alpha and beta counting. Application on the radiologic control of the IPEN-CNEN/SP; A influencia do padrao de calibracao e da composicao do residuo de amostras de agua na eficiencia de contadores proporcionais para contagem alfa e beta total. Aplicacao no controle radiologico do IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Cecilia Martins

    2003-07-01

    In this work the efficiency calibration curves of thin-window and low background gas-flow proportional counters were determined for calibration standards with different energies and different absorber thicknesses. For the gross alpha counting we have used {sup 241}Am and natural uranium standards and for the gross beta counting we have used {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs standards in residue thicknesses ranging from 0 to approximately 18 mg/cm{sup 2}. These sample thicknesses were increased with a previously determined salted solution prepared simulating the chemical composition of the underground water of IPEN The counting efficiency for alpha emitters ranged from 0,273 +- 0,038 for a weightless residue to only 0,015 +- 0,002 in a planchet containing 15 mg/cm{sup 2} of residue for {sup 241}Am standard. For natural uranium standard the efficiency ranged from 0,322 +- 0,030 for a weightless residue to 0,023 +- 0,003 in a planchet containing 14,5 mg/cm{sup 2} of residue. The counting efficiency for beta emitters ranged from 0,430 +- 0,036 for a weightless residue to 0,247 +- 0,020 in a planchet containing 17 mg/cm{sup 2} of residue for {sup 137}Cs standard. For {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y standard the efficiency ranged from 0,489 +- 0,041 for a weightless residue to 0,323 +- 0,026 in a planchet containing 18 mg/cm{sup 2} of residue. Results make evident the counting efficiency variation with the alpha or beta emitters energies and the thickness of the water samples residue. So, the calibration standard, the thickness and the chemical composition of the residue must always be considered in the gross alpha and beta radioactivity determination in water samples. (author)

  10. Analysis of Electron and Antineutrino Energy Spectra from Fissile Samples under Irradiation based on Gross Theory of Beta-decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T.; Tachibana, T.; Chiba, S.

    2016-06-01

    We applied the gross theory of β-decay to calculate the reactor electron and antineutrino ({{{bar ν }}{e}}) spectra emitted from 235,238U and 239,241Pu by summing up all the contributions from a large number of decaying fission-products (FPs). We make it clear what kinds of transition types and FP nuclides are important to shape the lepton spectra. After taking the ambiguity in the current data for fission yields and Qβ-values into account, we suggested a possibility that the high-energy part of the widely referred electron-spectra by Schreckenbach et al., almost only one experimental data set available now, might possibly be too low. Arguments on a special role of the odd(Z)-odd(N) nuclides and on the consistency between U-238 and other fissiles in the experimental data lead to the importance of a new and independent measurement of electron energy spectra which could be converted into the reactor {{{bar ν }}{e}} spectra.

  11. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Syed, U-F; Roselan, A; Haines, D K; Roth, G; West, L; Arndt, M

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with (241)Am (alpha radioactivity), (90)Sr/(90)Y (beta radioactivity), and (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity.

  12. Development of continuous monitor for multiple beta-ray nuclides in liquid radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Uk Won; Seon, G. I.; Kong, G. N.; Chin, H.; Park, J. H.; Yuk, I. S.; Han, W. Y. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Continuous monitor system of multiple beta-ray nuclides was designed conceptually while keeping the optimization and the automation in mind. The conincidence MCA was designed to maintain, repair and upgrade with ease. DSP was adopted to realize hardware function using software and to miniaturize the coincidence Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA). The MCA system showed 99% background rejection rate, and was applied well to gamma-ray system using {sup 60}C0. An algorithm using least square method was developed for simultaneous radioassay of multiple beta-ray nuclides. The algorithm was tested using the simulation and was applied to experimental data. The results show that the algorithm is suitable to continous monitor system of multiple beta-ray nuclides.

  13. Mitigation of Memory Effects in Beta Scintillation Cells for Radioactive Gas Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, Carolyn E; McIntyre, Justin I; Antolick, Kathryn C; Carman, April J; Cooper, Matthew W; Hayes, James C; Heimbigner, Tom R; Hubbard, C W; Litke, Kevin E; Ripplinger, Mike D; Suarez, Reynold

    2005-08-31

    The Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) developed at PNNL measures the relative concentrations of xenon isotopes using a coincidence system. Previous tests of the ARSA system have shown that latent radioactivity remains in the plastic cells after evacuation of the gases, leading to a “memory effect” in which the background count rate is dependent on the sample history. The increased background results in lower detection sensitivity. Two possible solutions to the memory effect are explored in this work: depositing a thin layer of metal on the plastic cell (“metallization”), and using an inorganic scintillating cell composed of yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP). In both cases, the presence of inorganic material at the surface is intended to inhibit the diffusion of gases into the cell walls.

  14. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki.; Chung, Ok Sun [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the monitoring in 2000 at the Seoul monitoring station: gamma dose rate: 14.6 - 10.6 {mu}R/h, gross beta activity in airborne dust : 224 - 9.80 mBq/m{sup 3}, gross beta activity in precipitation dust : 50.0 - 5.68 MBq/km - 30 days ; gross beta activity in rain and snow : 1267 - 19.0 mBq/L, gross beta activity in tap water : 127 - 26.3 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul region in 2000. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul area were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Natural isotopes {sup 40}K and {sup 7}Be constitute the major radioactivity and {sup 137}Cs is the only man-made isotope detected in some sample.

  15. Radioactivity determination of sealed pure beta-sources by surface dose measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Heon [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seongmoon [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kanghyuk; Son, Kwang-Jae; Lee, Jun Sig [Hanaro Applications Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Center for Convergence Research on Robotics, Advance Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-21

    This study aims to determine the activity of a sealed pure beta-source by measuring the surface dose rate using an extrapolation chamber. A conversion factor (cGy s{sup −1} Bq{sup −1}), which was defined as the ratio of surface dose rate to activity, can be calculated by Monte Carlo simulations of the extrapolation chamber measurement. To validate this hypothesis the certified activities of two standard pure beta-sources of Sr/Y-90 and Si/P-32 were compared with those determined by this method. In addition, a sealed test source of Sr/Y-90 was manufactured by the HANARO reactor group of KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) and used to further validate this method. The measured surface dose rates of the Sr/Y-90 and Si/P-32 standard sources were 4.615×10{sup −5} cGy s{sup −1} and 2.259×10{sup −5} cGy s{sup −1}, respectively. The calculated conversion factors of the two sources were 1.213×10{sup −8} cGy s{sup −1} Bq{sup −1} and 1.071×10{sup −8} cGy s{sup −1} Bq{sup −1}, respectively. Therefore, the activity of the standard Sr/Y-90 source was determined to be 3.995 kBq, which was 2.0% less than the certified value (4.077 kBq). For Si/P-32 the determined activity was 2.102 kBq, which was 6.6% larger than the certified activity (1.971 kBq). The activity of the Sr/Y-90 test source was determined to be 4.166 kBq, while the apparent activity reported by KAERI was 5.803 kBq. This large difference might be due to evaporation and diffusion of the source liquid during preparation and uncertainty in the amount of weighed aliquot of source liquid. The overall uncertainty involved in this method was determined to be 7.3%. We demonstrated that the activity of a sealed pure beta-source could be conveniently determined by complementary combination of measuring the surface dose rate and Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Determination of total alpha and beta activities on vegetable samples by LSC; Determinacao de atividades alfa total e beta total em amostras vegetais por LSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Regina Apolinaria; Santos, Eliane Eugenia dos; Bakker, Alexandre Pereira [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil); Vavassori, Giullia [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil); Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Goias (PUC-GO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia, Engenharia Ambiental; Mingote, Raquel Maia [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Gross alpha and beta analyses are screening techniques used for environmental radioactivity monitoring. The present study proposes to determine the gross alpha and beta activities in vegetable samples by using LSC - liquid scintillation spectrometry. The procedure was applied to vegetable foods. After ashing vegetable samples in a muffle furnace, 100 mg of ash were added to gel mixture of scintillation cocktails, Water - Instagel - Ultima Gold AB (6:10:4) ml, in polyethylene vial. Am-241 standard solution and a KCl (K-40) solution were used to determine the counting configuration, alpha/beta efficiencies and spillover

  17. The radioactive equilibrium and determination methods for ratio e Ra/U; Desequilibrio Radiactivos-1. Metodo {sub {beta}}-{gamma}. Determinacion de la razon eRa/U. Valoracion del contenido en U{sub 3}O{sub 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingarro, E.

    1966-07-01

    The main problems concerning the radioactive non-equilibrium on minerals and a simultaneous counting procedure for {beta}- and {gamma}- activities developed to solve those problems, are described. (Author)

  18. Natural radioactivity of groundwater in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćuk Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 228Ra, 226Ra, 238U and Th232 and gross alpha and beta activities were analyzed in more than 100 samples of groundwater in Serbia. The highest gross alpha activity was recorded at 1.33 Bq/L (average 0.12 Bq/L, while the highest beta activity was 5.43 Bq/L (average 0.68 Bq/L. The potassium isotope 40K exhibited the highest active concentration (2.6 Bq/L and was the largest contributor to the gross natural beta activity. Among the analyzed samples, 28 were found to have elevated beta activity concentrations, of which five samples also measured elevated alpha activity. All the groundwater samples that exhibited elevated radioactivity were of the HCO3-Na type and were genetically associated with granitic rocks. Their TDS levels and CO2 gas concentrations were also elevated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  19. Environmental radioactivity assessment for Bayburt, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucukomeroglu, B; Kurnaz, A; Cevik, U [Department of Physics, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Damla, N [Department of Physics, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskin, H [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre, Altinsehir Yolu, Halkali, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: ndamla@ktu.edu.tr

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the results of environmental radioactivity measurements for Bayburt Province in the Eastern Black Sea area of Turkey. Using {gamma}-ray spectrometry, activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K and a fission product {sup 137}Cs were investigated in soil samples. The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in various building materials such as sand, cement and marble and in drinking waters were determined. The activity concentrations vary from 16 to 54 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 10 to 21 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and from 113 to 542 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K in building materials. The mean specific activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in drinking waters were 93, 30 and 504 mBq l{sup -1}, respectively. The concentrations of gross {alpha} and {beta} radioactivity in drinking water samples collected from four different sampling stations have been determined. The results show that the gross {alpha} and {beta} activities are lower than the screening levels given by the World Health Organization (WHO), which are a maximum contaminant level of 0.5 Bq l{sup -1} and 1.0 Bq l{sup -1} gross {alpha} and {beta} radioactivity, respectively, in drinking water. Indoor radon measurements were made in 44 dwellings in Bayburt by using Cr-39 detectors. Radon concentrations in dwellings in Bayburt varied from 17 to 125 Bq m{sup -3} and the average value was 56 Bq m{sup -3}. The results obtained in this study indicate that the region has a background radiation level that is within the typical natural range and shows no significant departures from other parts of the country.

  20. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. D.; Lee, S. Y. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. Gross beta activities were measured and gamma radionuclides were analysed for the environmental samples of air-borned dust. precipitation. fallout and drinking water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center. and gamma exposure rates were also measured. To establish the basic data base on the environmental radioactivity, gamma radionuclide analyses were carried out for the samples of soil, drinking water, grain, vegetable, milk, and fish which were obtained from 31 different areas, and the spatial gamma exposure rates from 61 different points were also measured in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region.

  1. Evaluation of isotope migration: land burial. Water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Progress report No. 6, July--September 1977. [Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, P.; Weiss, A. J.; Francis, A. J.

    1978-04-01

    A survey of the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level radioactive waste disposal site was conducted to obtain an overview of the radioactivity in the trench waters for the purpose of selecting specific trenches for comprehensive study. Water samples collected from trenches and wells were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved organic carbon, tritium, gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma radioactivities. The results indicate that there are large differences in the composition of trench waters at the site. Several trenches, that represent extreme and average values of the major parameters measured, have been tentatively selected for further study. 10 fig, 6 tables.

  2. Assessment of radioactivity in the drinking water of state of Goias, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Eliane E.; Costa, Heliana F.; Mignote, Raquel M., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: esantos@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadias de Goias, GO (Brazil); Thome Filho, Jamilo J., E-mail: jamilothome@gmail.com [Geological Consultant, Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Bakker, Alexandre P. de [Instituto Nacional do Semiarido (INSA/MCTI), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The demand for drinking water is supplied by surface and underground sources such as rivers and streams. However, there is an increasing worldwide concern about the quality of drinking water. As a result, it is a major goal of governments throughout the world to ensure that water is safe for human consumption through the control of microorganisms, chemicals and radioactive substances. The Brazilian Ministry of Health has issued guidelines designed to protect the quality of drinking water. The use of screening measurements for gross alpha and beta radioactivity is recommend since it maximizes cost-effectiveness of assessing the individual radionuclide content of drinking water. In order to do so tests were carried out to determine of gross alpha and beta radioactivity concentrations in drinking water samples from 44 water supply wells within the State of Goias. The technique used was thermal preconcentration and radiometric determination by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The concentrations for gross alpha ranged from < LD at 0.19 ± 0.05 Bq/L. As for gross beta they ranged from < LD at 0.2 ± 0.1 Bq/L. The results were also related with the geological and hydrological data. (author)

  3. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Chung, Ok Sun; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2002 at the Seoul Monitoring Station: gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 84.1 {+-} 46.2 mBq/m{sup 3}, mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.9 {+-} 5.6 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 317 {+-} 465 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 71.2 {+-} 23.0 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul-Gyunggi districts in 2002. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and Gyunggi districts were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs (peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mug wort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.554 and 0.480 Bq/kg, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves(786 and 574 Bq/kg, respectively)

  4. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Chung, Ok Sun; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2002 at the Seoul Monitoring Station: gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 84.1 {+-} 46.2 mBq/m{sup 3}, mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.9 {+-} 5.6 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 317 {+-} 465 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 71.2 {+-} 23.0 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul-Gyunggi districts in 2002. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and Gyunggi districts were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs (peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mug wort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.554 and 0.480 Bq/kg, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves(786 and 574 Bq/kg, respectively)

  5. Final Report for DUSEL R&D: BetaCage: A Screener of Ultra-Low-Level Radioactive Surface Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golwala, Sunil R. [California Institute of Technology

    2013-12-20

    The eventual full-size, radiopure BetaCage will be a low-background, atmospheric-pressure neon drift chamber with unprecedented sensitivity to emitters of low-energy electrons and alpha particles. We expect that the prototype BetaCage already developed will be an excellent screener of alpha particles. Both the prototype and final BetaCage will provide new infrastructure for rare-event science.

  6. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2000 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra etc. concentrations in the 23 foodstuffs(potato, sweet potato, bean sprout, onion, pumpkin, spinach, welsh onion, radish leaves, red pepper, garlic, lettuce, apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape, mackerel, Alaska pollack, hairtail, squid oyster, baby clam, mussed) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngsoe area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA value, except {sup 40}K nuclide. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra nuclide in tap water are less(or is slightly higher in one sample) than the MDA value.

  7. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Moon Hoe.; Hwang, Sang Gyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2003 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137} Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs etc. concentrations in the 22 foodstuffs(peanut, chestnut, walnut, pine nut acorn, oak mushroom, western mushroom, winter mushroom, oyster mushroom, coffee, green tea, ginseng tea, soils, cereals, vegetable, indicator plant) and 10 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except {sup 40}K nuclide. All the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values.

  8. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2001 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra etc. concentrations in the 23 foodstuffs(potato, sweet potato, bean sprout, onion, pumpkin, spinach, welsh onion, radish leaves, red pepper, garlic, lettuce, apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape, mackerel, Alaska pollack, hairtail, squid oyster, baby clam, mussel) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except {sup 40}K nuclide. All the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values.

  9. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Moon Hoe.; Hwang, Sang Gyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2002 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs etc. concentrations in the 19 foodstuffs(peanut, chestnut, walnut, pine nut acorn, oak mushroom, western mushroom, winter mushroom, oyster mushroom, coffee, green tea, ginseng tea, soils, cereals, vegetable, indicator plant) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except {sup 40}K nuclide. All the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values.

  10. Use of a non-radioactive hybridisation assay for direct detection of gram-negative bacteria carrying TEM beta-lactamase genes in infected urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, G I; Towner, K J; Pearson, N J; Slack, R C

    1989-02-01

    DNA in infected urines from 81 patients with urinary tract infection was hybridised directly with a non-radioactive DNA probe specific for bacterial genes coding for TEM-type beta-lactamase. The results were assessed by means of a computerised image analysis system and compared with those obtained following isolation of the infecting organism, conventional sensitivity testing and isoelectric focusing (IEF) procedures for the detection of TEM-type beta-lactamase. Of the 27 ampicillin-resistant gram-negative organisms isolated in pure culture from the urines, 14 were shown by both hybridisation and IEF to carry a gene for TEM beta-lactamase production. Only four discordant results were obtained: three "false positive" direct hybridisation results, one due to urine pigmentation, and one, possibly, to a TEM beta-lactamase gene which was not being expressed, and one "false negative" result due to insufficient cell numbers in the urine. The system is capable of screening large numbers of samples and is applicable to any gene for which a suitable DNA probe is available.

  11. Measurement of radioactivity in bottled drinking water in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Aguilar, C. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: carme.aguilar@urv.cat

    2007-10-15

    The radioactive parameters in the Spanish regulations on water intended for human consumption (law decree 140/2003) have been determined in 30 different brands of some of the most common bottled mineral waters produced and consumed in Spain. These waters are not included in this legislation but if their consumption increases, the dose of radiation in the population may also increase. After gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, gross beta without potassium contribution and tritium activity had been determined, only a few samples (16% of the samples analysed) were over the normative limit for gross alpha activity (0.1 Bq/l), whereas all the samples were below the normative limits for the other parameters. For samples with high gross alpha activity values, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 224}Ra were determined. The values were between 0.01 and 1.52 Bq/l, and between 0.01 and 0.38 Bq/l, respectively, so alpha activity should be considered to be of natural origin.

  12. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they develop ...

  13. Moderate increase of radioactivity in air, attributable of beta emitter radionuclides, in France at the end of September 2011; Elevation moderee de la radioactivite dans l'air, imputable aux radionucleides emetteurs beta, en France fin septembre 2011. Note d'information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the frame of the regular monitoring of radioactivity in the environment about its nuclear sites, EDF has noticed a moderate but unusual increase of radioactivity in the air. This radioactivity is attributed to beta emitter radionuclides. This document reports and comments measurements performed by EDF and the IRSN (the French Institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety), and additional investigations performed by the IRSN. The possible origin of the radioactivity increase is discussed in terms of meteorological conditions and dust accumulation levels, and of their incidence of activity levels in the air

  14. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Soeb; Jang, Young A [Busan Regional Monitoring Station, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Busan have been measured periodically in 2001 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been I monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Pusan, vegetables, fishes, shellfish, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KlNS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants.

  15. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2000 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant Changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are I fee of radiological contaminants.

  16. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2002 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are fee of radiological contaminants.

  17. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Soeb; Jang, Young A. [Busan Regional Monitoring Station, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Pusan have been measured periodically in 2003 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Busan foodstuffs, dust, drinking water (total 24ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants.

  18. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Soeb; Jang, Young A [Busan Regional Monitoring Station, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Busan have been measured periodically in 2002 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Pusan foodstuffs, dust, drinking water (total 24ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants.

  19. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Cho, Yun Young; Lee, Hae Young [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In this report, we summarized a gamma exposure rates, a gross beta and gamma radionuclide activities for the environmental samples of airborned-dust. precipitation, fallout and tap water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center, and a gamma radionuclide activities for the 28 grocery samples, such as tea, nut and mushroom, rice, chinese cabbage, wormwood and pine needles, soil and drinking water which were obtained from Taegu and Kyungpook region to establish the basic data base for estimating the internal exposure. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region.

  20. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gangneung area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hwa; An, Mi Jung [Gangnung Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to get a systematic data for the distribution of environmental radioactivity levels in Gangnung provinces, and use them as a baseline data for the health of the peoples. To monitor the environmental radiation/radioactivity, gross beta activities and gamma exposure rate in the airborne-dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water were measured in Gangnung province during the period of January 1 - December 31, 2003. Waters from drinking water reservoirs, agricultural and marine products were sampled and measured by the HPGe(High Purity Ge)detector for the analysis from some selected areas to make sure of the effect of the fallout due to the atmospheric weapons test. The radioactivity in Kangnung was all about the past data.

  1. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gangneung area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hwa; An, Mi Jung [Gangnung Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to get a systematic data for the distribution of environmental radioactivity levels in Gangnung provinces, and use them as a baseline data for the health of the peoples. To monitor the environmental radiation/radioactivity, gross beta activities and gamma exposure rate in the airborne-dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water were measured in Kangnung province during the period of January 1- December 31, 2002. Waters from drinking water reservoirs, agricultural and marine products were sampled and measured by the HPGe(High Purity Ge)detector for the analysis from some selected areas to make sure of the effect of the fallout due to the atmospheric weapons test. The radioactivity in Kangnung was all about the past data.

  2. {beta}-decay and the electric dipole moment: searches for time-reversal violation in radioactive nuclei and atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilschut, H.W.; Hoek, D.J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Santra, B.; Shidling, P.; Willmann, L. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2010-11-01

    At the KVI preparations are underway to study time-reversal violation. We will discuss two complementary experiments: Correlations in {beta} decay of {sup 21}Na and the search for an electric dipole moment in Radium. We discuss the complementarity of these measurements and put them in the context of current research.

  3. New valleys of cold fission and cluster radioactivity processes from nuclei far from the {beta}-stability line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, O.; Guzman, F.; Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-10-01

    The present work provides new results for the half-life of cluster radioactivity and cold fission processes from neutron-deficient nuclei of atomic number near proton shell closure. Results are also reported for the half-life of possible decays leading to the neutron-deficient, doubly magic island near {sup 100} Sn. The model reproduces the well established experimental systematics of Geiger-Nuttall's diagrams for alpha decay, as well as predicts similar diagrams for heavy cluster emission and cold fission processes. (author)

  4. Determination of total alpha and beta activity in water for human consumption by LSC(Liquid Scintillation Counter); Determinacao de atividades alfa e beta total em agua para consumo humano por LSC (Contador de Cintilacao Liquida))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The Ordinance Brazilian of Ministry of Health (MS 2914/2011) establishes the standards for quality of water intended for human consumption, being limits values of 5.0 Bq/L for gross alpha, and 1.0 Bq/L for gross beta radioactivity. The liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) technique has been presented as an alternative to conventional procedure using gas flow proportional counter. The present work shows a review of the methods for determination of gross alpha and gross beta in water by using LSC. Between the factors that influence the accuracy and repeatability of the analytical results we can highlight: thermal preconcentration, type of the acid and calibration standard. A procedure was established and carried out to samples of the National Program of Intercomparison of Radionuclides in Environmental Samples for evaluation of its performance. The gross alpha and gross beta analysis in samples of the public water supplies in the Metropolitan Region of Goiania, state of Goias was carried out. The results are consistent with the guideline values form the Ministry of Health concerning radioactivity. (author)

  5. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  6. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  7. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Waste Technology Development Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wafa, Syed Asraf [Radioisotop Technology and Innovation, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wo, Yii Mei [Radiochemistry and Environment, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mahat, Sarimah [Material Technology Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  8. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2003 at the Seoul monitoring station : gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 4.31 {+-} 2.01 mBq/m{sup 3} (after 48 hours), mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.5 {+-} 4.3 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 230 {+-} 246 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 69.3 {+-} 15.7 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul district in 2003. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and northern part of Gyunggi district were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs(peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mugwort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup l37}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.733 and 0.339 Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves (1300 and 579 Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh, respectively)

  9. Determination of Sr{sup 90}, Sb{sup 125}, Cs{sup 137} and absolute beta activities in First Cycle Supernatent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmholz, H.R.

    1954-03-15

    This report discusses procedures have been established for determining the absolute activities of Sr{sup 90}, Sb{sup 125}, Cs{sup 137}, and gross beta in First Cycle Supernatant. These procedures are also valid for other samples such as scavenged Radioactive Waste (RAW), the primary restriction being that the age of the material be at least 250 days so that any Sr{sup 89} activity (53 day half-life) is negligible. With the exception of the gross beta analysis the results are believed to be accurate to within 10%.

  10. The accumulation of radioactive contaminants in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas; Wang, Lili; Chen, Abe

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution system sediment and scales has been documented, raising concerns that the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential human exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of concern because of their known health effects and because of their persistence within associated distribution system materials. The objective of this work was to measure the amount of a number of radioactive contaminants (radium, thorium, and uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity) in distribution solids collected from water systems in four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas). The water utilities chosen had measurable levels of radium in their source waters. In addition, 19 other elements in the solids were quantified. Water systems provided solids primarily collected during routine fire hydrant flushing. Iron was the dominant element in nearly all of the solids and was followed by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, silicon, aluminum and barium in descending order. Gross alpha and beta radiation averaged 255 and 181 pCi/g, and were as high as 1602 and 1169 pCi/g, respectively. Total radium, thorium and uranium averaged 143, 40 and 6.4 pCi/g, respectively. Radium-226 and -228 averaged 74 and 69 pCi/g, and were as high as 250 and 351 pCi/g, respectively. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Natural radioactivity in geothermal waters, Alhambra Hot Springs and nearby areas, Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Robert B.; Janzer, Victor J.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive hot springs issue from a fault zone in crystalline rock of the Boulder batholith at Alhambra, Jefferson County, in southwestern Montana. The discharge contains high concentrations of radon, and the gross alpha activity and the concentration of adium-226 exceed maximum levels recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Part of the discharge is diverted for space heating, bathing, and domestic use. The radioactive thermal waters at measured temperatures of about 60°C are of the sodium bicarbonate type and saturated with respect to calcium carbonate. Radium-226 in the rock and on fractured surfaces or coprecipitated with calcium carbonate probably is the principal source of radon that is dissolved in the thermal water and discharged with other gases from some wells and springs. Local surface water and shallow ground water are of the calcium bicarbonate type and exhibit low background activity. The temperature, percent sodium, and radioactivity of mixed waters adjacent to the fault zone increase with depth. Samples from most of the major hot springs in southwestern Montana have been analyzed for gross alpha and beta activity. The high level of radioactivity at Alhambra appears to be related to leaching of radioactive material from siliceous veins by ascending thermal waters and is not a normal characteristic of hot springs issuing from fractured crystalline rock in Montana.

  12. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactive materials in sediments from the Ebro river reservoir in Flix (Southern Catalonia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola, M.; Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria (URAIS), Consorci d' Aiguees de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra Nacional 340, km 1094, 43895 L' Ampolla (Spain); Borrull, F., E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria (URAIS), Consorci d' Aiguees de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra Nacional 340, km 1094, 43895 L' Ampolla (Spain)

    2011-12-30

    Industrial waste containing radioactive isotopes (from U-decay series) was released into Ebro river basin due to the activity of a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant for a period of more than two decades. Gross alpha, gross beta, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb activities were determined in several sludge samples taken at different depths from different points in the area of influence of the DCP plant located in Flix. Samples were collected from two different zones: one in front of the DCP plant and the second in front of a wastewater treatment plant installed several years after the DCP plant. The data obtained verify the influence of industrial DCP production on radioactivity levels present in the area.

  13. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactive materials in sediments from the Ebro river reservoir in Flix (Southern Catalonia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, M; Palomo, M; Peñalver, A; Aguilar, C; Borrull, F

    2011-12-30

    Industrial waste containing radioactive isotopes (from U-decay series) was released into Ebro river basin due to the activity of a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant for a period of more than two decades. Gross alpha, gross beta, (40)K, (226)Ra and (210)Pb activities were determined in several sludge samples taken at different depths from different points in the area of influence of the DCP plant located in Flix. Samples were collected from two different zones: one in front of the DCP plant and the second in front of a wastewater treatment plant installed several years after the DCP plant. The data obtained verify the influence of industrial DCP production on radioactivity levels present in the area.

  14. Development of a multiplex non-radioactive receptor assay : the benzodiazepine receptor, the serotonin transporter and the beta-adrenergic receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Lutea A. A.; Jeronimus-Stratingh, C. Margot; Cremers, Thomas I. F. H.

    2007-01-01

    Binding assays still form a fundamental part of modem drug development. Receptor binding assays are mostly based on radioactivity because of their speed, ease of use and reproducibility. Disadvantages, such as health hazards and production of radioactive waste, have prompted the development of non-r

  15. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  16. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  17. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  18. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  19. Radioactivity monitoring of the P.P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joksic, J.; Todorovic, D.; Radenkovic, M. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Radiation and Enviro nmental Protecti on Lab., Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactivity monitoring in the 'Nikola Tesla' thermo-electric power plant environment comprised the analysis of soil, waters, flying ash, slag and plants. Soil, plant and water samples were taken in the environment of the 'Tent A', 'Tent B', 'Kolubara' and 'Morava' power plants during the two years period 2003-2004 and analyzed b y standard radiometric methods. Naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, 235 U, 238 U, 210 Pb are determined by gamma spectrometry using H.P. Ge detector, relative efficiency of 23% and energy resolution of 1.8 keV (1332.5 keV). Ceied reference materials: soil matrix with 55 Na, 57 Co, 60 Co, 89 Y, 133 Ba and 137 Cs (MIX-OMHSZ, National Office of Measures) and grass with 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K and 90 Sr (IAEA-373) were used for calibration. The gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements are carried out using low-level background alpha-beta proportional gas counter. Radiochemical analyzes of soil samples have shown the naturally occurring radionuclides: 226 Ra 35-60 Bq/kg, 232 Th 35-49 Bq/kg, 40 K 513-711 Bq/kg, 210 Pb 14-69 Bq/kg, 238 U 25-80 Bq/kg and 235 U 1.1-4.5 Bq/kg. The 137 Cs was found in concentration 10-57 Bq/kg. Radiochemical analyzes of plant samples have shown the naturally occurring radionuclides: 226 Ra 0.7-6.1 Bq/kg, 232 Th 1-4.8 Bq/kg, 40 K 392-1132 Bq/kg, 210 Pb 5.6-97 Bq/kg, 238 U 2.3-7.4 Bq/kg and 235 U 0.2-0.7 Bq/kg. The 137 Cs was found in concentration 0.13-2.8 Bq/kg. The water samples were within the range of recommended values for drinking waters in Serbia and Montenegro. Total alpha activity was below the lowest limit of detection and total beta activities were up to 0.35 Bq/l. The results of measured radionuclides in soil, plant and water samples do not show any significant radioactive environmental pollution. (authors)

  20. Radioactivity doubles up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Bertram

    2008-05-01

    More than a century after Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity, there is still much that physicists do not understand about this spontaneous natural phenomenon. Through Becquerel's use of simple photographic plates to the sophisticated nuclear experiments carried out in today's laboratories, researchers have unearthed a total of nine different ways in which an atomic nucleus can decay. The most well known of these decay modes - alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) radioactivity - are widely used in applications ranging from medicine to archaeology; the others are much rarer.

  1. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory J. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream (BCLALADOEOSRP, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream consists of sealed sources that are no longer needed. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream required a special analysis because cobalt-60 (60Co), strontium-90 (90Sr), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeded the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources in a SLB trench. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. However, the activity concentration of 226Ra listed on the waste profile sheet significantly exceeds the action level. Approval of the waste profile sheet could potentially allow the disposal of high activity 226Ra sources. To ensure that the generator does not include large 226Ra sources in this waste stream without additional evaluation, a control is need on the maximum 226Ra inventory. A limit based on the generator’s estimate of the total 226Ra inventory is recommended. The waste stream is recommended for approval with the control that the total 226Ra inventory disposed shall not exceed 5.5E10 Bq (1.5 Ci).

  2. Background Radioactivity in River and Reservoir Sediments near Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.G.McLin; D.W. Lyons

    2002-05-05

    As part of its continuing Environmental Surveillance Program, regional river and lake-bottom sediments have been collected annually by Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) since 1974 and 1979, respectively. These background samples are collected from three drainage basins at ten different river stations and five reservoirs located throughout northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Radiochemical analyses for these sediments include tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, total uranium, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,-240, americium-241, gross alpha, gross beta, and gross gamma radioactivity. Detection-limit radioactivity originates as worldwide fallout from aboveground nuclear weapons testing and satellite reentry into Earth's atmosphere. Spatial and temporal variations in individual analyte levels originate from atmospheric point-source introductions and natural rate differences in airborne deposition and soil erosion. Background radioactivity values on sediments reflect this variability, and grouped river and reservoir sediment samples show a range of statistical distributions that appear to be analyte dependent. Traditionally, both river and reservoir analyte data were blended together to establish background levels. In this report, however, we group background sediment data according to two criteria. These include sediment source (either river or reservoir sediments) and station location relative to the Laboratory (either upstream or downstream). These grouped data are statistically evaluated through 1997, and background radioactivity values are established for individual analytes in upstream river and reservoir sediments. This information may be used to establish the existence and areal extent of trace-level environmental contamination resulting from historical Laboratory research activities since the early 1940s.

  3. Contra-expertise on determination of radioactivity of waste water and ventilation air of Urenco Nederland B.V. Period 2011; Contra-expertise op bepalingen van radioactiviteit van afvalwater en ventilatielucht van Urenco Nederland BV. Periode 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwakman, P.J.M.; Overwater, R.M.W.

    2012-08-15

    Within the framework of a monitoring programme, RIVM measures the release of radioactivity into the waste water and atmosphere of the Urenco uranium enrichment plant in Almelo, Netherlands. Measurements are carried out eight times per year. This form of counter-expertise is aimed at verifying and supporting the reliability of the analyses carried out by the Urenco plant. As a rule, the waste water contains very low levels of gross alpha and gross beta activity. The two different sets of measurements of gross alpha and gross beta in waste water are generally in agreement, as is also the case in 2011. Radioactivity levels in the ventilation air are very close to those levels expected due to the natural presence of radon in the outside atmosphere. For gross alpha 0,007 - 0,13 mBq.m{sup -3} was found and for gross beta 0,026 - 0,5 mBq.m{sup -3}. The agreement with the measurement results of Urenco was mostly good. Taking into account the natural gross-beta activity, and the ratio gross alpha / gross beta it is possible that at SP4 in two cases a small release of uranium may have occurred. The RIVM determined the gross alpha and gross beta activity in eight waste water samples and 40 samples of ventilation air. The samples were taken by Urenco at time points dispersed throughout 2011. This procedure provides the RIVM with a method for determining the release of artificial alpha emitters into the environment. The analyses were carried out on behalf of the Department of Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguards of the Human Environment and Transport Inspectorate from the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment [Dutch] Het RIVM controleert achtmaal per jaar de metingen van de verrijkingsfabriek Urenco te Almelo. Het gaat hierbij om lozingen van radioactiviteit in water en lucht. De contra-expertise onderbouwt de betrouwbaarheid van de analyses die Urenco uitvoert. Uit de metingen blijkt dat er in het afvalwater doorgaans een (zeer) lage totaal {alpha} en totaal {beta

  4. Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Group of the Safety Commission is responsible for shipping of radioactive material from CERN to any external institute or organisation. The RP group is equally responsible for the reception of radioactive material shipped to any of the CERN sites. Anyone who needs to ship from or import into CERN radioactive material must contact the Radioactive Shipping Service of the RP group in advance. Instructions are available at: http://cern.ch/rp-shipping or in the Radiation Protection Procedure PRP13: https://edms.cern.ch/document/346823 Radiation Protection Group

  5. Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Group of the Safety Commission is responsible for shipping of radioactive material from CERN to any external institute or organisation. The RP group is equally responsible for the reception of radioactive material shipped to any of the CERN sites. Anyone who needs to ship from or import into CERN radioactive material must contact the Radioactive Shipping Service of the RP group in advance. Instructions are available at: http://cern.ch/rp-shipping or in the Radiation Protection Procedure PRP13: https://edms.cern.ch/document/346823 Radiation Protection Group

  6. Introduction to Astronomy with Radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Diehl, Roland

    2010-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, Antoine Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity and thus the physics of weak interactions, well before atomic and quantum physics was known. The different types of radioactive decay, alpha, beta, and gamma decay, all are different types of interactions causing the same, spontaneous, and time-independent decay of an unstable nucleus into another and more stable nucleus. Nuclear reactions in cosmic sites re-arrange the basic constituents of atomic nuclei (neutrons and protons) among the different configurations which are allowed by Nature, thus producing radioactive isotopes as a by-product. Throughout cosmic history, such reactions occur in different sites, and lead to rearrangements of the relative abundances of cosmic nuclei, a process called cosmic chemical evolution, which can be studied through the observations of radioactivity. The special role of radioactivity in such studies is contributed by the intrinsic decay of such material after it has been produced in cosmic site...

  7. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CNS/CIEMAT-04 Among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Aqueous Solution); Resultados del Ejercicio Interlaboratorios de Radiactividad Ambiental CSN/CIEMAT-04 (Solucion Acuosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Gonzalez, M. L.; Barrera Izquierdo, M.

    2004-07-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-04 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC Harmonised Protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical laboratories. Following the issue of the European Community Drinking Water Directive 98/83/EC concerning the quality of water for human consumption, the last inter-comparison exercise was organised by using a water sample, in an attempt to evaluate the performance of the laboratories analysing the required radioactivity parameters (H-3, gross alpha and beta activity and residual beta). The sample (a synthetic drinking water), was prepared at the National Laboratory for Ionising Radiation's Standards (CIEMAT), and contained the following radionuclides ''241 Am, ''239+240 Pu, ''90Sr, ''137 Cs, ''3 H y ''40 K. The results of the exercise were computed for 38 participating laboratories, and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score approach. Robust statistics of the participant's results was applied to obtain the median and standard deviation, including suspected outliers. The exercise has revealed and homogeneous behaviour of laboratories, being statistical parameters from the results close to the reference values. A raised percentage os satisfactory laboratory performance has been obtained for gross alpha, gross beta and residual beta: 85, 97 and 87% respectively. The study has shown that participant laboratories perform radioactive determinations in drinking water samples with satisfactory quality levels. (Author) 16 refs.

  8. The electrical charging of inactive aerosols in high ionised atmosphere, the electrical charging of artificial beta radioactive aerosols; Le processus de charge electrique: des aerosols non radioactifs en milieu fortement ionise, des aerosols radioactifs artificiels emetteurs beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensdarmes, F

    2000-07-01

    The electrical properties of aerosols greatly influence their transport and deposition in a containment. In a bipolar ionic atmosphere, a neutral electric charge on aerosols is commonly assumed. However, many studies report a different charge distribution in some situations, like highly ionised atmosphere or in the case of radioactive aerosols. Such situations could arise from a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant. Within the framework of safety studies which are carried out at IPSN, our aims were the study of electrical properties of aerosols in highly ionised atmosphere, and the study of artificial radioactive aerosols, in order to suggest experimental validation of available theories. For this purpose, we designed an experimental device that allows us to measure non-radioactive aerosol charge distribution under high gamma irradiation, up to 10{sup 4} Gy/h. With our experimental device we also studied the properties of small ions in the medium. Our results show a variation of the charge distribution in highly ionised atmosphere. The charge increases with the dose of gamma ray. We have related this variation with the one of the small ions in the gases, according to theoretical prediction. However, the model overestimates slightly our experimental results. In the case of the radioactive aerosols, we have designed an original experimental device, which allows us to study the charge distribution of a {sup 137}Cs aerosol. Our results show that the electric charging of such aerosols is strongly dependent on evolution parameters in a containment. So, our results underline a great enhancement of self-charging of particles which are sampled in a confined medium. Our results are qualitatively in agreement with the theoretical model; nevertheless the latter underestimates appreciably the self-charging, owing to the fact that wall effects are not taken into account. (author)

  9. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  10. Simulated Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  11. Radioactivity Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  12. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  13. A study of environmental radioactivity measurements for Cankiri, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapdan, Enis; Taskin, Halim; Kam, Erol; Osmanlioglu, A Erdal; Karahan, Gursel; Bozkurt, Ahmet

    2012-07-01

    This study is the first to assess the level of background radiation for the Cankiri province of Turkey. Indoor air radon concentrations were determined using Columbia Resin-39 nuclear track detectors and the average (222)Rn activity was found to be 44 Bq m(-3) (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 1.1 mSv). Measurements of gamma doses in outdoor air were performed using a portable plastic scintillation detector and the average gamma absorbed dose rate was found to be 8 μR h(-1) (corresponding to an annual effective dose of 87.7 μSv). Radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples were measured through gamma-ray spectrometry and the average activities were determined as 17.7, 22.3, 357 and 4.1 Bq kg(-1) for the radionuclides (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs, respectively. The average annual effective dose from the natural radioactivity sources ((238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K) was calculated to be 44.4 μSv. Radioactivity levels of drinking water samples were carried out using a low-background proportional counter and the average gross alpha and beta activities were obtained as 0.25 and 0.26 Bq l(-1), respectively (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 184 μSv). The average radon concentrations in indoor air and the average radionuclide activities in soil were found to be lower than most Turkish cities while higher levels of outdoor gamma dose rate and water radioactivity were observed. The results of this study showed that the region's background radioactivity level differs considerably from the reported data for Turkish cities.

  14. Environmental radioactivity measurements in Kastamonu region of northern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Erol; Bozkurt, Ahmet

    2007-04-01

    Located in the north-western part of Turkey, the province of Kastamonu has lately been receiving national attention because of its cultural and touristic attractions. This study assesses the environmental radioactivity levels of the region through measurements of indoor radon concentrations and indoor/outdoor gamma absorbed dose in air and radionuclide activities in surface soil and drinking water. The indoor (222)Rn activity concentration was found to be 98.4 Bq/m(3) equivalent to an annual effective dose of 2.48 mSv. The indoor and outdoor gamma absorbed doses were measured as 54.81 and 48.03 nGy/h, respectively, corresponding to a total gamma radiation level (of terrestrial and cosmic origin) of 0.33 mSv/y. The activity concentrations in the soil samples collected from the study area were determined as 32.93, 27.17, 431.43 Bq/kg for the natural radionuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively, and 8.02 Bq/kg for the fission product (137)Cs. These natural radioactivity sources result in a terrestrial gamma level of 60 microSv/y. The water samples collected from the region carry an average of 0.0089 Bq/l of gross alpha and 0.271 Bq/l of gross beta activities which together cause an annual effective dose of 1.83 microSv. The measurement results obtained in this study indicate that the region has a background radiation level that is within the natural limits and shows no significant departure from the other parts of the country.

  15. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  18. Gross job flows and firms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Schuh; Robert K. Triest

    1999-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson [3] and Davis, Haltiwanger, and Schuh [2] on gross job flows among manufacturing plants. Gross job creation, destruction, and reallocation have been shown to be important in understanding the birth, growth, and death of plants, and the relation of plant life cycles to the business cycle. However, little is known about job flows between firms or how job flows among plants occur within firms (corporate restructuring). We use informati...

  19. Natural radioactivity levels in granitic plutons and groundwaters in Southeast part of Eskisehir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgün, Y; Altinsoy, N; Gültekin, A H; Karahan, G; Celebi, N

    2005-08-01

    The present work investigated the radioactivity level of the granitoid plutons and its effect on the groundwaters in the southeast part of Eskisehir. Fourteen granitic samples from the Kaymaz and Sivrihisar plutons and 11 groundwater samples from the near vicinity of the pluton were analyzed. The activity concentrations measured for (238)U and (232)Th ranged from 43.59+/-2 to 651.80+/-24 Bq/kg, and 51.16+/-3 to 351.94+/-13 Bq/kg, respectively. The activity concentrations obtained for (40)K varied from 418.50+/-17 to 1618.03+/-66 Bq/kg. The absorbed dose rates in air outdoors ranged from 87.14 to 531.81 nGy/h. All the results obtained from the Kaymaz pluton are higher than those from the Sivrihisar. The U (ave. 16.6 ppm) and Th (ave. 49.9 ppm) values of the Kaymaz pluton are higher than the average concentrations of the magmatic rocks of granitic composition. These results are consistent with high dose rates of the pluton. The gross-alpha activities in the groundwater samples ranged from 0.009 to 1.64 Bq/l and the gross-beta activities from 0.006 to 0.89 Bq/l. The highest gross-alpha value was found in the sample taken from near the Kaymaz pluton. The concentrations of (222)Rn varied from 0.060 to 0.557 Bq/l.

  20. Radioactivity in groundwater along the borders of Oman and UAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Alshamsi, D.; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2014-01-01

    are alluvium deposits (silt, sand and gravel) and the measured groundwater radioactivity (including 232Th, 238U, 235U, 226Ra, 222Rn, gross-α and gross-β) indicates values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water. The results also show large difference in radioactivity fingerprints, in particular...... for 226Ra and 222Rn within the investigated aquifers. The data further indicate lower radioactivity in groundwater of the alluviums compared to the carbonate aquifers in the region. This feature makes the alluvium aquifers valuable reservoirs that should be carefully exploited as a source of groundwater....... As this is the first investigation on the radioactivity of groundwater in alluvial aquifers in the region, it suggests that other alluvial deposits, particularly those inland and far from the marine water intrusion or seepage from carbonate rocks would have low radioactivity fingerprints....

  1. Radioactivity in drinking water Radiactividad en aguas de consumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Estrada Vélez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Directive on the quality of drinking water in 2003 establishing limits on the values of the radioactive parameters concerning the quality of drinking waters was translated to the Spanish legislation on 2003. These parameters are the gross alpha and beta indexes, tritium content and total indicative dose. The corresponding Spanish Royal Decree came into force in 2008. Not only tap drinking water is subjected to control of radioactivity but also commercial drinking water. Different estudies have been carried out all over the world in both cases. There is a wide range of techniques for the measurement of radioactivity in water. This article describes these techniques and shows when they must be applied. Finally the most important results obtained after analysis in tap water and commercial water are shown both in Spanish and non-Spanish waters. The results show that limits are overtaken in some cases and special care must be taken in order to reduce the levels of radioactivity in drinking water as much as possible.La directiva europea sobre calidad en el agua potable del año 2003 estableció los límites para los valores de los parámetros radiactivos. Esta directiva europea fue incorporada a la legislación 2003. Los parámetros a analizar son los índices alfa y beta total, el contenido en tritio y la dosis indicativa total. El correspondiente real decreto, en el caso de España, se comenzó a aplicar en el año 2008. No solamente el agua potable procedente de captaciones públicas está sujeta a control, sino que también se deben controlar las aguas comerciales. En ambos casos se han llevado a cabo estudios en todo el mundo. Existe un rango amplio de técnicas para la medida de la radiactividad en el agua de consumo. Este artículo describe tales técnicas e indica cuando se debe aplicar cada una de ellas. Por último, se muestran los resultados más importantes obtenidos tras el análisis de aguas potables y comerciales, tanto en

  2. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  3. Radioactive decays at limits of nuclear stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfützner, M.; Karny, M.; Grigorenko, L. V.

    2012-01-01

    The last decades brought impressive progress in synthesizing and studying properties of nuclides located very far from the beta stability line. Among the most fundamental properties of such exotic nuclides, the ones usually established first are the half-life, possible radioactive decay modes...... description of the most recently discovered and most complex radioactive process—the two-proton radioactivity—is discussed in more detail....

  4. Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-08-31

    A screening investigation of radioactivity in Danish drinking water has been carried out during 2001-2003. Samples of drinking water were collected from 296 water supplies representing more than 40% of the water delivered from water works in the country. Total alpha and total beta radioactivity was determined in the samples and compared with screening levels of 0.1 Bq/l total alpha and 1 Bq/l total beta radioactivity. The levels for total beta radioactivity were met in all the water works while total alpha radioactivity exceeded the screening levels for 13 water supplies. Further investigations were carried out for the water works with concentrations of alpha radioactivity above the screening levels in Ebeltoft, Grenae and Frederikssund to estimate the total indicative dose from the water. The elevated levels were found to be due to uranium in the water from individual boreholes. Radiation doses from consumption of water at these uranium levels are estimated to be well below the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/y specified in the Drinking Water Directive Groundwater used for drinking water was collected from different types of geological structures including bed rock and areas with potentially elevated levels of natural radioactivity. Also in these cases the concentrations of radioactivity were sufficiently low to meet the requirements in the Drinking Water Directive. In view of the results it seems probable that the risk of finding drinking water in Denmark with unacceptable concentrations of radioactivity is very small. Therefore there is no need for further radiological investigations of the Danish water supply based on natural groundwaters. (au)

  5. Cluster Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenaru, Dorin N.; Greiner, Walter

    One of the rare examples of phenomena predicted before experimental discovery, offers the opportunity to introduce fission theory based on the asymmetric two center shell model. The valleys within the potential energy surfaces are due to the shell effects and are clearly showing why cluster radioactivity was mostly detected in parent nuclei leading to a doubly magic lead daughter. Saddle point shapes can be determined by solving an integro-differential equation. Nuclear dynamics allows us to calculate the half-lives. The following cluster decay modes (or heavy particle radioactivities) have been experimentally confirmed: 14C, 20O, 23F, 22,24-26Ne, 28,30Mg, 32,34Si with half-lives in good agreement with predicted values within our analytical superasymmetric fission model. The preformation probability is calculated as the internal barrier penetrability. An universal curve is described and used as an alternative for the estimation of the half-lives. The macroscopic-microscopic method was extended to investigate two-alpha accompanied fission and true ternary fission. The methods developed in nuclear physics are also adapted to study the stability of deposited atomic clusters on the planar surfaces.

  6. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  7. Nuclear radioactive techniques applied to materials research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, João Guilherme; Wahl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review materials characterization techniques using radioactive isotopes at the ISOLDE/CERN facility. At ISOLDE intense beams of chemically clean radioactive isotopes are provided by selective ion-sources and high-resolution isotope separators, which are coupled on-line with particle accelerators. There, new experiments are performed by an increasing number of materials researchers, which use nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Mössbauer, Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC), beta-NMR and Emission Channeling with short-lived isotopes not available elsewhere. Additionally, diffusion studies and traditionally non-radioactive techniques as Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy, Hall effect and Photoluminescence measurements are performed on radioactive doped samples, providing in this way the element signature upon correlation of the time dependence of the signal with the isotope transmutation half-life. Current developments, applications and perspectives of using radioactive ion beams and tech...

  8. Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Yoritaka

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay is studied with focusing on its statistical property. The statistics provide a gross view of understanding amplitude of constitutional components of the nuclear matrix element.

  9. Determination of natural radioactivity in irrigation water of drilled wells in northwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhomashi, N; Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F; Almasoud, Fahad I

    2016-02-01

    The levels of natural radiation in bedrock groundwater extracted from drilled wells in selected farms in the northwestern part of Saudi Arabia were addressed. The investigated waters form a source of irrigation for vegetables, agricultural crops, wheat, and alfalfa to feed livestock consumed by the general public. Information about water radioactivity in this area is not available yet. Therefore, this study strives to contribute to the quality assessment of the groundwater of these wells that are drilled into the non-renewable Saq sandstone aquifer. Hence, gross alpha and beta activities as well as the concentrations of (224)Ra, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (234)U, (238)U, and U(total) were measured, compared to national and international limits and contrasted with data quoted from the literature. Correlations between the activities of the analyzed radionuclides were discussed. The concentrations of gross alpha and beta activities as well as (228)Ra were identified by liquid scintillation counting whereas alpha spectrometry was used to determine (224)Ra, (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U after separation from the matrix by extraction chromatography. The mean activity concentrations of gross α and β were 3.15 ± 0.26 Bq L(-1) and 5.39 ± 0.44 Bq L(-1), respectively. Radium isotopes ((228)Ra and (226)Ra) showed mean concentrations of 3.16 ± 0.17 Bq L(-1) and 1.12 ± 0.07 Bq L(-1), respectively, whereas lower levels of uranium isotopes ((234)U and (238)U) were obtained.

  10. Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants at Los Alamos National Laboratory: A large research and development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhart, C.F.

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes the ambient air sampling program for collection, analysis, and reporting of radioactive air contaminants in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Particulate matter and water vapor are sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These samples are collected every two weeks and then analyzed for tritium, and gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma ray radiation. The alpha, beta, and gamma measurements are used to detect unexpected radionuclide releases. Quarterly composites are analyzed for isotopes of uranium ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu, {sup 239/249}Pu), and americium ({sup 241}Am). All of the data is stored in a relational database with hard copies as the official records. Data used to determine environmental concentrations are validated and verified before being used in any calculations. This evaluation demonstrates that the sampling and analysis process can detect tritium, uranium, plutonium, and americium at levels much less than one percent of the public dose limit of 10 millirems. The isotopic results also indicate that, except for tritium, off-site concentrations of radionuclides potentially released from LANL are similar to typical background measurements.

  11. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  12. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  13. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  14. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  15. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  16. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  17. Nationwide occurrence of radon and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, T. R.

    1985-10-01

    The nationwide study, which began in November of 1980, was designed to systematically sample water supplies in all 48 contiguous states. The results of the study will be used, in cooperation with EPA's Office of Drinking Water, to estimate population exposures nationwide and to support possible future standards for radon, uranium, and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies. Samples from more than 2500 public water supplies representing 35 states were collected. Although we sampled only about five percent of the total number of groundwater supplies in the 48 contiguous states of the US, those samples represent nearly 45 percent of the water consumed by US groundwater users in the 48 contiguous states. Sample results are summarized by arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and population weighted arithmetic mean for each state and the entire US. Results include radon, gross alpha, gross beta, Ra-226, Ra-228, total Ra, U-234, U-238, total U, and U-234/U-238 ratios. Individual public water supply results are found in the appendices. 24 refs., 91 figs., 51 tabs.

  18. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  19. Bad Beta, Good Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John; Vuolteenaho, Tuomo

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains the size and value "anomalies" in stock returns using an economically motivated two-beta model. We break the beta of a stock with the market portfolio into two components, one reflecting news about the market's future cash flows and one reflecting news about the market's discount rates. Intertemporal asset pricing theory suggests that the former should have a higher price of risk; thus beta, like cholesterol, comes in "had" and "good" varieties. Empirically, we find that v...

  20. Four loop renormalization of the Gross-Neveu model

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A; Schroder, Y

    2016-01-01

    We renormalize the SU(N) Gross-Neveu model in the modified minimal subtraction (MSbar) scheme at four loops and determine the beta-function at this order. The theory ceases to be multiplicatively renormalizable when dimensionally regularized due to the generation of evanescent 4-fermi operators. The first of these appears at three loops and we correctly take their effect into account in deriving the renormalization group functions. We use the results to provide estimates of critical exponents relevant to phase transitions in graphene.

  1. RADIO-ACTIVE TRANSDUCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanetick, S.

    1962-03-01

    ABS>ure the change in velocity of a moving object. The transducer includes a radioactive source having a collimated beam of radioactive particles, a shield which can block the passage of the radioactive beam, and a scintillation detector to measure the number of radioactive particles in the beam which are not blocked by the shield. The shield is operatively placed across the radioactive beam so that any motion normal to the beam will cause the shield to move in the opposite direction thereby allowing more radioactive particles to reach the detector. The number of particles detected indicates the acceleration. (AEC)

  2. /sup 5/He radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M. (Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania))

    1984-07-01

    The disintegration of a metastable nuclear state by emission of a light particle can be considered to be a very asymmetric fission process. An approximation of the potential barrier in the overlapping region of the two fragments leads to an analytic relationship for the life-time, allowing us to handle a large number of cases to search for new kinds of radioactivities. In this way, it is predicted that some nuclei with Z=83-92, N=127-137 and 97-105, 145-157 are able to decay spontaneously by emission of /sup 5/He particles. A tentative optimistic estimation leads to the result that only 15 radionuclides should have partial life-times in the range 10/sup 14/-10/sup 38/ years; all others, except some superheavies, are longer lived. The best candidate is /sup 213/Po for which the daughter is a double magic nucleus. Smaller life-times, with a better chance to be experimentally confirmed have some ..beta..-delayed /sup 5/He emitters, as for example /sup 155/Yb, /sup 175/Pt, /sup 209 -217/Ra, /sup 9 -11/Be, /sup 13 -14/B, /sup 13 -17/C and /sup 19 -21/O.

  3. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  4. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  5. Natural radioactivity levels in soils, rocks and water at a mining concession of Perseus gold mine and surrounding towns in Central Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanu, A; Adukpo, O K; Tettey-Larbi, L; Lawluvi, H; Kpeglo, D O; Darko, E O; Emi-Reynolds, G; Awudu, R A; Kansaana, C; Amoah, P A; Efa, A O; Ibrahim, A D; Agyeman, B; Kpodzro, R; Agyeman, L

    2016-01-01

    Levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials prior to processing of gold ore within and around the new eastern concession area of Perseus Mining (Ghana) Limited were carried out to ascertain the baseline radioactivity levels. The study was based on situ measurements of external gamma dose rate at 1 m above ground level as well as laboratory analysis by direct gamma spectrometry to quantify the radionuclides of interest namely; (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in soil, rock, ore samples and gross alpha/beta analysis in water samples. The average absorbed dose rate in air at 1 m above sampling point using a radiation survey metre was determined to be 0.08 ± 0.02 μGyh(-1) with a corresponding average annual effective dose calculated to be 0.093 ± 0.028 mSv. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K in the soil, rock, and ore samples were 65.1 ± 2.2, 71.8 ± 2.2 and 1168.3 Bqkg(-1) respectively resulting in an average annual effective dose of 0.91 ± 0.32 mSv. The average Radium equivalent activity value was 257.8 ± 62.4 Bqkg(-1) in the range of 136.6-340.2 Bqkg(-1). The average values of external and internal indices were 0.7 ± 0.2 and 0.9 ± 0.2 respectively. The average gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in the water samples were determined to be 0.0032 ± 0.0024 and 0.0338 ± 0.0083 Bql(-1) respectively. The total annual effective dose from the pathways considered for this study (gamma ray from the soil, rock and ore samples as well as doses determined from the gross alpha/beta activity concentration in water samples) was calculated to be 0.918 mSv. The results obtained in this study shows that the radiation levels are within the natural background radiation levels found in literature and compare well with similar studies for other countries and the total annual effective dose is below the ICRP recommended level of 1 mSv for public exposure control.

  6. Study of tracking detector of NEMO3 experiment - simulation of the measurement of the ultra low {sup 208}Tl radioactivity in the source foils used as neutrinoless double beta decay emitters in NEMO3 experiment; Etude du detecteur de traces de l'experience NEMO3. Simulation de la mesure de l'ultra-faible radioactivite en {sup 208}Tl des sources de l'experience NEMO3 candidates a la double desintegration {beta} sans emission de neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errahmane, K

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of NEMO3 experiment is the research of the neutrinoless double beta decay. This low energy process can sign the massive and Majorana nature of neutrino. This experiment, with a very low radioactive background and containing 10 kg of enriched isotopes, studies mainly {sup 100}Mo. Installed at the Frejus underground laboratory, NEMO3 is a cylindrical detector, which consists in very thin central source foils, in a tracking detector made up of vertical drift cells operating in Geiger mode, in a calorimeter and in a suitable shielding. This thesis is divided in two different parts. The first part is a full study of the features of the tracking detector. With a prototype composed of 9 drift cells, we characterised the longitudinal and transverse reconstruction of position of the ionisation created by a LASER. With the first 3 modules under operation, we used radioactive external neutron sources to measure the transverse resolution of ionisation position in a drift cell for high energy electrons. To study the vertex reconstruction on the source foil, sources of {sup 207}Bi, which produced conversion electrons, were used inside the 3 modules. The second part of this thesis, we show, with simulations, that we can measure, with NEMO3 detector itself, the ultra low level of contamination in {sup 208}Tl of the source foil, which comes from the natural radioactive chain of thorium. Using electron-photons channels, we can obtain the {sup 208}Tl activity in the sources. With an analysis on the energy and on the time of flight of particles, NEMO3 is able to reach a sensitivity of 20{mu}Bq/kg after only 2 months of measurement. This sensitivity is the maximum {sup 208}Tl activity, which we accepted for the sources in the NEMO3 proposal. (author)

  7. Beta-delayed proton emission in neutron-deficient lanthanide isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmarth, P.A.

    1988-09-30

    Forty-two ..beta..-delayed proton precursors with 56less than or equal toZless than or equal to71 and 63less than or equal toNless than or equal to83 were produced in heavy-ion reactions at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory SuperHILAC and their radioactive decay properties studied at the on-line mass separation facility OASIS. Twenty-five isotopes and eight delayed proton branches were identified for the first time. Delayed proton energy spectra and proton coincident ..gamma..-ray and x-ray spectra were measured for all precursors. In a few cases, proton branching ratios were also determined. The precursor mass numbers were determined by the separator, while the proton coincident x-ray energies provided unambiguous Z identifications. The proton coincident ..gamma..-ray intensities were used to extract final state branching ratios. Proton emission from ground and isomeric states was observed in many cases. The majority of the delayed proton spectra exhibited the smooth bell-shaped distribution expected for heavy mass precursors. The experimental results were compared to statistical model calculations using standard parameter sets. Calculations using Nilsson model/RPA ..beta..-strength functions were found to reproduce the spectral shapes and branching ratios better than calculations using either constant or gross theory ..beta..-strength functions. Precursor half-life predictions from the Nilsson model/RPA ..beta..-strength functions were also in better agreement with the measured half-lives than were gross theory predictions. The ratios of positron coincident proton intensities to total proton intensities were used to determine Q/sub EC/-B/sub p/ values for several precursors near N=82. The statistical model calculations were not able to reproduce the experimental results for N=81 precursors. 154 refs., 82 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, B.

    2007-04-18

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  9. Conditioning of sludge produced through chemical treatment of radioactive liquid waste - Operating experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D. Anji, E-mail: anji@igcar.gov.i [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Nuclear Recycle Group, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Khandelwal, S.K.; Muthiah, R.; Shanmugamani, A.G.; Paul, Biplob; Rao, S.V.S.; Sinha, P.K. [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Nuclear Recycle Group, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-15

    At Centralised Waste Management Facility (CWMF) 160 m{sup 3} of radioactive chemical sludge, generated from treatment of several batches of category-II and category-III radioactive liquid wastes by chemical precipitation method was stored in clariflocculator (CF) for downstream processing. The sludge needed conditioning before disposal. The analysis of the sludge samples collected at different radial locations and depths from the CF showed suspended solid content of 2.37-13.07% and radioactive content of gross {beta}-{gamma} 5000-27,000 Bq/g and {alpha} 100-600 Bq/g. After comparing different options available for conditioning of the sludge based on their technological and economical aspects, it was decided to dewater it using centrifuge before fixing in cement matrix with additives. Process Control Laboratory of CWMF studied the process in detail to optimize the relevant parameters for fixation of the concentrate obtained from centrifuge. Based on these results, conditioning of the stored sludge was undertaken. The process consisted of diluting the sludge with low active effluents/water for homogenisation and facilitating the transfer of sludge, dewatering of the slurry utilising decanter centrifuge, fixation of dewatered concentrate in Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with vermiculite as an additive using in-drum mixing method, providing sufficient time for hardening of fixed mass, transportation and safe disposal into Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF). Total 150 m{sup 3} of conditioned waste was produced (750 numbers of drums containing cement fixed concentrate). The paper includes the results of the studies conducted on cement fixed concentrate blocks for finding out their compressive strength and leaching characteristics. It also describes the experiences gained from the above operations.

  10. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  11. Beta Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta thalassemia is found in people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, African, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin genes found on chromosomes ...

  12. Isotopic and Radioactivity Fingerprinting of Groundwater in the United Arab Emirates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Aldahan, A.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    distance precipitation recharge source, indicates a concentration of 222Rn and 226Ra 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than the groundwater of the carbonate rocks. The range of variability for gross alpha is similar, but the gross beta activity indicates only 1 order of magnitude difference between the two...

  13. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  14. Radioactive isotopes in solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Deicher, M

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as M\\"ossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, $\\beta$-NMR, and emission channelling have used nuclear properties (via hyperfine interactions or emitted particles) to gain microscopical information on the structural and dynamical properties of solids. During the last decade, the availability of many different radioactive isotopes as a clean ion beam at ISOL facilities such as ISOLDE at CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive for the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. Extremely sensitive spectroscopic techniques like deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL), and Hall effect have gained a new quality by using radioactive isotopes. Because of their decay the chemical origin of an observed electronic and optical b...

  15. Development of a Radioactive Waste Assay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Duck Won; Song, Myung Jae; Shin, Sang Woon; Sung, Kee Bang; Ko, Dae Hach [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Jeong; Park, Jong Mook; Jee, Kwang Yoong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear Act of Korea requires the manifest of low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated at nuclear power plants prior to disposal sites.Individual history records of the radioactive waste should be contained the information about the activity of nuclides in the drum, total activity, weight, the type of waste. A fully automated nuclide analysis assay system, non-destructive analysis and evaluation system of the radioactive waste, was developed through this research project. For the nuclides that could not be analysis directly by MCA, the activities of the representative {gamma}-emitters(Cs-137, Co-60) contained in the drum were measured by using that system. Then scaling factors were used to calculate the activities of {alpha}, {beta}-emitters. Furthermore, this system can automatically mark the analysis results onto the drum surface. An automated drum handling system developed through this research project can reduce the radiation exposure to workers. (author). 41 refs., figs.

  16. Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive ions at FAIR

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis of elements beyond iron is dominated by neutron captures in the s and r processes. However, 32 stable, proton-rich isotopes cannot be formed during those processes, because they are shielded from the s-process flow and r-process beta-decay chains. These nuclei are attributed to the p and rp process. For all those processes, current research in nuclear astrophysics addresses the need for more precise reaction data involving radioactive isotopes. Depending on the particular ...

  17. Radioactive particles in the 234-5 Building ventilation exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, A.K.; Schwendiman, L.C.

    1959-07-13

    The 234-5 Building ventilation exhaust is continuously sampled for the purpose of estimating the amount of radioactive (alpha emitting) material discharged to the atmosphere. Although a record is kept of the gross amount of radioactive material discharged, few data are available concerning the size and kind of active particles in the exhaust air. Knowledge of the particle size permits: (1) an estimate of the validity of samples drawn through the sampling system, (2) a better knowledge of what the active particle ground deposition pattern might be, and (3) may provide information relating to filter performance. The kind of radioactive material discharged is important in determining relative health hazards. The object of this work was to determine the size and kind of radioactive particles in the 234-5 Building ventilation exhaust. A secondary objective was to review present routine sampling of the stream with particular regard to the particulates to be sampled.

  18. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  19. Comparisons between radioactive and non-radioactive gas lantern mantles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, E; Yoshizawa, Y; Aburai, T

    2000-12-01

    Gas lantern mantles containing radioactive thorium have been used for more than 100 years. Although thorium was once believed to be indispensable for giving a bright light, non-radioactive mantles are now available. From the radioactivities of the daughter nuclides, we estimated the levels of radioactivity of 232Th and 228Th in 11 mantles. The mantles contained various levels of radioactivity from background levels to 1410 +/- 140 Bq. Our finding that radioactive and non-radioactive mantles are equally bright suggests that there is no advantage in using radioactive mantles. A remaining problem is that gas lantern mantles are sold without any information about radioactivity.

  20. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  1. Radioactive ion beam development in Berkeley

    CERN Document Server

    Wutte, D C; Leitner, M A; Xie, Z Q

    1999-01-01

    Two radioactive ion beam projects are under development at the 88" Cyclotron, BEARS (Berkeley Experiment with accelerated radioactive species) and the 14O experiment. The projects are initially focused on the production of 11C and 14O, but it is planned to expand the program to 17F, 18F, 13N and 76Kr. For the BEARS project, the radioactivity is produced in form of either CO2 or N2O in a small medical 10 MeV proton cyclotron. The activity is then transported through a 300 m long He-jet line to the 88" cyclotron building, injected into the AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the 88" cyclotron to energies between 1 to 30 MeV/ nucleon. The 14O experiment is a new experiment at the 88" cyclotron to measure the energy-shape of the beta decay spectrum. For this purpose, a target transfer line and a radioactive ion beam test stand has been constructed. The radioactivity is produced in form of CO in a hot carbon target with a 20 MeV 3He from the 88" Cyclotron. The activity diffuses through an 8m long stainless s...

  2. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Zhou, X. D.; Yi, P.

    2014-01-01

    increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use......Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south...... permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby...

  3. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  4. FUZZY ECCENTRICITY AND GROSS ERROR IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dominant and recessive effect made by exceptional interferer is analyzed in measurement system based on responsive character, and the gross error model of fuzzy clustering based on fuzzy relation and fuzzy equipollence relation is built. The concept and calculate formula of fuzzy eccentricity are defined to deduce the evaluation rule and function of gross error, on the base of them, a fuzzy clustering method of separating and discriminating the gross error is found. Utilized in the dynamic circular division measurement system, the method can identify and eliminate gross error in measured data, and reduce measured data dispersity. Experimental results indicate that the use of the method and model enables repetitive precision of the system to improve 80% higher than the foregoing system, to reach 3.5 s, and angle measurement error is less than 7 s.

  5. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley;

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...... and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking...

  6. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama

    2007-01-01

    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  7. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  8. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  9. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  10. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  11. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail.

  12. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CNS/CIEMAT-2008 among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Phosphogypsum); Evaluacion de la Intercomparacion CSN/CIEMAT-2008 entre Laboratorios Nacionales de Radiactividad Ambiental (Fosfoyeso)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M. L.; Barrera, M.; Valino, F.

    2010-05-27

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-2008 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC. Aphosphogypsum material was used as a test sample, in an attempt to evaluate the performance of the laboratories analyzing NORM (Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials). The analysis required were: U-238, Th-234, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-214, Bi-214, Pb-210, Po-210, Th-232 and U-235, and also gross alpha and gross beta activities. Reference values have been established according to the method of consensus of expert laboratories, with four international laboratories of credited experience: IAEA Seibersdorf, IAEA MEL, IRSN-Orsay and Sta.Teresa ENEA. The results of the exercise were computed for 34 answering laboratories and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score. Robust statistics of the participants results was applied to obtain the median and standard deviation, to achieve a more complete and objective study of the laboratories performance. The exercise has shown an homogeneous behaviour of laboratories, being statistical parameters from the results close to the assigned Reference Values. Participant laboratories have demonstrated their ability to determine natural radionuclides in phosphogypsum samples (NORM material) with a satisfactory quality level. The scheme has also allowed examining the capability of laboratories to determine the activities of natural radionuclides at the equilibrium. (Author) 10 refs.

  13. Radioactivity; La radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  14. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  15. Radiation protection in the geothermal energy facility of the German genetic research center (GFZ) Potsdam in Gross Schoenebeck (Brandenburg); Strahlenschutz in der Geothermieanlage des Deutschen Geoforschungszentrums (GFZ) Potsdam in Gross Schoenebeck (Brandenburg)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilling, Joerg; Doering, Joachim; Ebert, Monika; Mielcarek, Juergen [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Regenspurg, Simona [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam Deutsches Geoforschungszentrum, Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    About 70% of the geothermal energy originates from radioactive decay. For the utilization of geothermal energy water is used as working fluid. The efficiency of a geothermal energy facility is correlated to the water temperature. In the geothermal energy facility of Gross Schoenebeck the thermal water has a temperature of 150 C. The salty water (265 g/l) contains a complex mixture of dissolved components that might precipitate during cooling (scale formation). The deposits can include radioactive materials (isotopes from the uranium and thorium decay series and K-40). The thermal water from the production bore holes is filtered on the surface.

  16. Concurrent Validity of Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale with Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Heng; Sun, Hsiao-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ching; Huang, Li-chi; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Preschooler Gross Motor Quality Scale (PGMQ) was recently developed to evaluate motor skill quality of preschoolers. The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity of PGMQ using Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) as the gold standard. One hundred and thirty five preschool children aged from three to six years were…

  17. BOREAS HYD-8 Gross Precipitation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-08 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gross precipitation measurements for July to August 1996. Gross precipitation is the precipitation that falls that is not intercepted by tree canopies. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 gross precipitation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  18. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  19. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  20. Analysis of Radioactive Nuclide Impurities in Potassium Pertechnetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiu-feng; CHEN; Ming; SUN; Hong-qing; SUN; Xiao-yi; MA; Peng; DING; You-qian

    2015-01-01

    99Tc is a pure beta radionuclide,its half-life is 2.111×105 a,and is widely used in nuclear medicine.Potassium pertechnetate is an important material of technetium(99Tc)methylene diphosphate injection.In order to determinate the radioactive impurity content,this study established

  1. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Fred

    2012-01-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  2. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J

    1989-01-01

    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  3. The Gross conjecture over rational function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG; Yi

    2005-01-01

    We study the Gross conjecture for the cyclotomic function field extension k(∧f)/k where k = Fq(t) is the rational function field and f is a monic polynomial in Fq[t].We prove the conjecture in the Fermat curve case(i.e., when f = t(t - 1)) by a direct calculation. We also prove the case when f is irreducible, which is analogous to the Weil reciprocity law. In the general case, we manage to show the weak version of the Gross conjecture here.

  4. Future double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piquemal, F. [Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, Modane (France); Centre d' Etudes Nucleaire, Bordeaux-Gradignan (France)

    2013-02-15

    The search of neutrinoless double beta decay is very challenging because of the expected half-life of the process and the backgrounds from the natural radioactivity. Many projects exist to try to reach a sensitivity of ∼50 meV on the effective neutrino mass corresponding to a mass of isotopes of ∼100 kg. In this article some of the futur projects are presented.

  5. Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive ions at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Reifarth, R; Göbel, K; Heftrich, T; Heil, M; Koloczek, A; Langer, C; Plag, R; Pohl, M; Sonnabend, K; Weigand, M; Adachi, T; Aksouh, F; Al-Khalili, J; AlGarawi, M; AlGhamdi, S; Alkhazov, G; Alkhomashi, N; Alvarez-Pol, H; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R; Andreev, V; Andrei, B; Atar, L; Aumann, T; Avdeichikov, V; Bacri, C; Bagchi, S; Barbieri, C; Beceiro, S; Beck, C; Beinrucker, C; Belier, G; Bemmerer, D; Bendel, M; Benlliure, J; Benzoni, G; Berjillos, R; Bertini, D; Bertulani, C; Bishop, S; Blasi, N; Bloch, T; Blumenfeld, Y; Bonaccorso, A; Boretzky, K; Botvina, A; Boudard, A; Boutachkov, P; Boztosun, I; Bracco, A; Brambilla, S; Monago, J Briz; Caamano, M; Caesar, C; Camera, F; Casarejos, E; Catford, W; Cederkall, J; Cederwall, B; Chartier, M; Chatillon, A; Cherciu, M; Chulkov, L; Coleman-Smith, P; Cortina-Gil, D; Crespi, F; Crespo, R; Cresswell, J; Csatlós, M; Déchery, F; Davids, B; Davinson, T; Derya, V; Detistov, P; Fernandez, P Diaz; DiJulio, D; Dmitry, S; Doré, D; nas, J Due\\; Dupont, E; Egelhof, P; Egorova, I; Elekes, Z; Enders, J; Endres, J; Ershov, S; Ershova, O; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Fetisov, A; Fiori, E; Fomichev, A; Fonseca, M; Fraile, L; Freer, M; Friese, J; Borge, M G; Redondo, D Galaviz; Gannon, S; Garg, U; Gasparic, I; Gasques, L; Gastineau, B; Geissel, H; Gernhäuser, R; Ghosh, T; Gilbert, M; Glorius, J; Golubev, P; Gorshkov, A; Gourishetty, A; Grigorenko, L; Gulyas, J; Haiduc, M; Hammache, F; Harakeh, M; Hass, M; Heine, M; Hennig, A; Henriques, A; Herzberg, R; Holl, M; Ignatov, A; Ignatyuk, A; Ilieva, S; Ivanov, M; Iwasa, N; Jakobsson, B; Johansson, H; Jonson, B; Joshi, P; Junghans, A; Jurado, B; Körner, G; Kalantar, N; Kanungo, R; Kelic-Heil, A; Kezzar, K; Khan, E; Khanzadeev, A; Kiselev, O; Kogimtzis, M; Körper, D; Kräckmann, S; Kröll, T; Krücken, R; Krasznahorkay, A; Kratz, J; Kresan, D; Krings, T; Krumbholz, A; Krupko, S; Kulessa, R; Kumar, S; Kurz, N; Kuzmin, E; Labiche, M; Langanke, K; Lazarus, I; Bleis, T Le; Lederer, C; Lemasson, A; Lemmon, R; Liberati, V; Litvinov, Y; Löher, B; Herraiz, J Lopez; Münzenberg, G; Machado, J; Maev, E; Mahata, K; Mancusi, D; Marganiec, J; Perez, M Martinez; Marusov, V; Mengoni, D; Million, B; Morcelle, V; Moreno, O; Movsesyan, A; Nacher, E; Najafi, M; Nakamura, T; Naqvi, F; Nikolski, E; Nilsson, T; Nociforo, C; Nolan, P; Novatsky, B; Nyman, G; Ornelas, A; Palit, R; Pandit, S; Panin, V; Paradela, C; Parkar, V; Paschalis, S; Paw\\lowski, P; Perea, A; Pereira, J; Petrache, C; Petri, M; Pickstone, S; Pietralla, N; Pietri, S; Pivovarov, Y; Potlog, P; Prokofiev, A; Rastrepina, G; Rauscher, T; Ribeiro, G; Ricciardi, M; Richter, A; Rigollet, C; Riisager, K; Rios, A; Ritter, C; Frutos, T Rodríguez; Vignote, J Rodriguez; Röder, M; Romig, C; Rossi, D; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Rout, P; Roy, S; Söderström, P; Sarkar, M Saha; Sakuta, S; Salsac, M; Sampson, J; Saez, J Sanchez del Rio; Rosado, J Sanchez; Sanjari, S; Sarriguren, P; Sauerwein, A; Savran, D; Scheidenberger, C; Scheit, H; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, C; Schnorrenberger, L; Schrock, P; Schwengner, R; Seddon, D; Sherrill, B; Shrivastava, A; Sidorchuk, S; Silva, J; Simon, H; Simpson, E; Singh, P; Slobodan, D; Sohler, D; Spieker, M; Stach, D; Stan, E; Stanoiu, M; Stepantsov, S; Stevenson, P; Strieder, F; Stuhl, L; Suda, T; Sümmerer, K; Streicher, B; Taieb, J; Takechi, M; Tanihata, I; Taylor, J; Tengblad, O; Ter-Akopian, G; Terashima, S; Teubig, P; Thies, R; Thoennessen, M; Thomas, T; Thornhill, J; Thungstrom, G; Timar, J; Togano, Y; Tomohiro, U; Tornyi, T; Tostevin, J; Townsley, C; Trautmann, W; Trivedi, T; Typel, S; Uberseder, E; Udias, J; Uesaka, T; Uvarov, L; Vajta, Z; Velho, P; Vikhrov, V; Volknandt, M; Volkov, V; von Neumann-Cosel, P; von Schmid, M; Wagner, A; Wamers, F; Weick, H; Wells, D; Westerberg, L; Wieland, O; Wiescher, M; Wimmer, C; Wimmer, K; Winfield, J S; Winkel, M; Woods, P; Wyss, R; Yakorev, D; Yavor, M; Cardona, J Zamora; Zartova, I; Zerguerras, T; Zgura, I; Zhdanov, A; Zhukov, M; Zieblinski, M; Zilges, A; Zuber, K

    2016-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis of elements beyond iron is dominated by neutron captures in the s and r processes. However, 32 stable, proton-rich isotopes cannot be formed during those processes, because they are shielded from the s-process flow and r-process beta-decay chains. These nuclei are attributed to the p and rp process. For all those processes, current research in nuclear astrophysics addresses the need for more precise reaction data involving radioactive isotopes. Depending on the particular reaction, direct or inverse kinematics, forward or time-reversed direction are investigated to determine or at least to constrain the desired reaction cross sections. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will offer unique, unprecedented opportunities to investigate many of the important reactions. The high yield of radioactive isotopes, even far away from the valley of stability, allows the investigation of isotopes involved in processes as exotic as the r or rp processes.

  6. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how o

  7. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  8. Survey of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. R.; Lee, C. W.; Choi, G. S.; Cho, Y. H.; Kang, M. J.; Cheong, K. H.; Kim, H. R.; Kwak, J. Y

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to survey and assess radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Based on survey and assessment, final goal is to improve the public health by radiation protection. Sampled foodstuffs items are collected from the markets : one group are imported foodstuffs and the other group are domestic foodstuffs producted around nuclear facilities. After pretreatments such as drying, ashing, and homogenization, all samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer system. The {sup 137}Cs radionuclide was only measured among the regulation radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I) of food code. All radionuclides of the domestic foodstuffs collected around nuclear facilities were below Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). But the activity concentrations of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushooms) from Russia ranged up to 171.27 (average value : 36.65) Bq/kg-fresh. In the case of blueberry jam, the radioactivity of {sup 137}Cs is higher than expected value. Other samples are below MDA except some spices. Based on the previous and present results, it should be strengthen to survey for Inontus obliquus (Chaga mushooms), of which the radioactivity shows the range from MDA up to 800.01 Bq/kg-fresh. It should assess the public radiation exposure via food chain because it has the excess provability of the maximum permitted level of food code, which is regulation of KFDA. The development method based on international standard would be used at radioactive analysis as well as education of practical workers and it could be applied as the basis data for amending the analysis method of food code. Our country only surveys gamma emitting radionuclides till now but international organization or foreign countries for example EU survey alpha and beta emitting radionuclides as well as gamma emitting radionuclides. So our country should also research necessity of survey for alpha and beta emitting

  9. Determination and mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity of natural spring water in the Eastern Black Sea Region by using artificial neural network method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilkanat, Cafer Mert; Kobya, Yaşar

    2015-09-01

    In this study, radiological distribution of gross alpha, gross beta, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs for a total of 40 natural spring water samples obtained from seven cities of the Eastern Black Sea Region was determined by artificial neural network (ANN) method. In the ANN method employed, the backpropagation algorithm, which estimates the backpropagation of the errors and results, was used. In the structure of ANN, five input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, major soil groups, and rainfall) were used for natural radionuclides and four input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, and rainfall) were used for artificial radionuclides, respectively. In addition, 75 % of the total data were used as the data of training and 25 % of them were used as test data in order to reveal the structure of each radionuclide. It has been seen that the results obtained explain the radiographic structure of the region very well. Spatial interpolation maps covering the whole region were created for each radionuclide including spots not measured by using these results. It has been determined that artificial neural network method can be used for mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity with this study, which is conducted for the first time for the Black Sea Region.

  10. The radioactive standard and the development of remote calibration technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Y

    2003-01-01

    The situation of the radioactive standard and traceability are explained. Application of remote calibration technology based on internet technology is ascribed. In order to support the radioactive standard, a group of measurement instruments are working. It consists of 4 pi beta-gamma simultaneous measurement instrument, 4 pi gamma pressurized ionization chamber with standard source, gamma-ray spectrometer, liquid scintillation counter and charge particle measurement instrument. Their features are explained. The traceability system of radioactive standard in Japan is stated. New e-trace project proposed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan is explained. It was proved that the ionization system made possible the radioactive standard by e-trace. (S.Y.)

  11. Calculation of Generation Rate of Electron Ion Pairs Ionized by Radioactive Nuclide in Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Xiu-feng; ZHANG; Li-feng; LUO; Zhi-fu

    2015-01-01

    Alpha and beta nuclides are widely employed in industrial production and life for the ability of ionization.Static eliminator,ionization smoke detector,electron capture detector and radioactive lightning rod are some typical examples.Alpha/beta rays produce electrons by ionizing the air,and then the charge is transferred during

  12. Accelerated radioactive beams from REX-ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kester, O. E-mail: oliver.kester@physik.uni-muenchen.de; Sieber, T.; Emhofer, S.; Ames, F.; Reisinger, K.; Reiter, P.; Thirolf, P.G.; Lutter, R.; Habs, D.; Wolf, B.H.; Huber, G.; Schmidt, P.; Ostrowski, A.N.; Hahn, R. von; Repnow, R.; Fitting, J.; Lauer, M.; Scheit, H.; Schwalm, D.; Podlech, H.; Schempp, A.; Ratzinger, U.; Forstner, O.; Wenander, F.; Cederkaell, J.; Nilsson, T.; Lindroos, M.; Fynbo, H.; Franchoo, S.; Bergmann, U.; Oinonen, M.; Aeystoe, J.; Den Bergh, P. Van; Duppen, P. Van; Huyse, M.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D.; Eberth, J.; Jonson, B.; Nyman, G.; Pantea, M.; Simon, H.; Shrieder, G.; Richter, A.; Tengblad, O.; Davinson, T.; Woods, P.J.; Bollen, G.; Weissmann, L.; Liljeby, L.; Rensfelt, K.G

    2003-05-01

    In 2001 the linear accelerator of the Radioactive beam EXperiment (REX-ISOLDE) delivered for the first time accelerated radioactive ion beams, at a beam energy of 2 MeV/u. REX-ISOLDE uses the method of charge-state breeding, in order to enhance the charge state of the ions before injection into the LINAC. Radioactive singly-charged ions from the on-line mass separator ISOLDE are first accumulated in a Penning trap, then charge bred to an A/q<4.5 in an electron beam ion source (EBIS) and finally accelerated in a LINAC from 5 keV/u to energies between 0.8 and 2.2 MeV/u. Dedicated measurements with REXTRAP, the transfer line and the EBIS have been carried out in conjunction with the first commissioning of the accelerator. Thus the properties of the different elements could be determined for further optimization of the system. In two test beam times in 2001 stable and radioactive Na isotopes ({sup 23}Na-{sup 26}Na) have been accelerated and transmitted to a preliminary target station. There {sup 58}Ni- and {sup 9}Be- and {sup 2}H-targets have been used to study exited states via Coulomb excitation and neutron transfer reactions. One MINIBALL triple cluster detector was used together with a double sided silicon strip detector to detect scattered particles in coincidence with {gamma}-rays. The aim was to study the operation of the detector under realistic conditions with {gamma}-background from the {beta}-decay of the radioactive ions and from the cavities. Recently for efficient detection eight tripple Ge-detectors of MINIBALL and a double sided silicon strip detector have been installed. We will present the first results obtained in the commissioning experiments and will give an overview of realistic beam parameters for future experiments to be started in the spring 2002.

  13. Elaboration of supports for beta emitting sources (with vyns); Elaboracion de soportes para fuentes emisoras beta (con vyns)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, A.; Torre O, J. De la; Tejera R, A.; Becerril V, A.; Bribiesca S, L

    1990-04-15

    The Laboratory of Radioactive patterns account with a 4 {pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system of recent acquisition with which absolute measures of radioactive activity with uncertainties of the order of 0.1% can be made. Since the coincidence method for the activity measure consists on detecting to the particle and the photon corresponding to oneself nuclear disintegration, it is necessary to elaborate special radioactive sources on thin supports, in order to allowing the maximum possible fluence of {beta} particles ({approx} 100%). This work a technique for the elaboration of these sources and for the measure of the thickness of the walls of the support is presented. (Author)

  14. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  15. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  16. The {beta}2p decay mechanism of {sup 31}Ar[23.40.Hc; 27.30.+t; Radioactivity 31Ar({beta}+p) [from Ca(p,3pxn) reaction]; Measured {beta}-delayed protons Ep, E2p; pp energy and angular correlations; 31Ar deduced {beta}1p and {beta}2p decay channels; 30S, 31Cl deduced levels, T, {pi}, branching ratios; CaO target; On-line mass separation; Double sided Si strip detector; Si p-i-n detectors; Surface barrier Si detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fynbo, H.O.U.; Borge, M.J.G.; Axelsson, L.; Aeystoe, J.; Bergmann, U.C.; Fraile, L.M.; Honkanen, A.; Hornshoej, P.; Jading, Y.; Jokinen, A.; Jonson, B.; Martel, I.; Mukha, I.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Oinonen, M.; Piqueras, I.; Riisager, K.; Siiskonen, T.; Smedberg, M.H.; Tengblad, O.; Thaysen, J.; Wenander, F

    2000-09-11

    We have measured the beta-decay of {sup 31}Ar with a high granularity setup sensitive to multiparticle decay branches. Two-proton emission is observed from the isobaric analog state in {sup 31}Cl to the four lowest states in {sup 29}P and furthermore from a large number of states fed in Gamow-Teller transitions. The mechanism of two-proton emission is studied via energy and angular correlations between the two protons. In all cases the mechanism is found to be sequential yielding information about states in {sup 30}S up to 8 MeV excitation energy. Improved data on the {beta}-delayed one-proton branches together with the two-proton data provide precise information about the beta-strength distribution up to 15 MeV excitation energy.

  17. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  18. Natural radioactivity in various water samples and radiation dose estimations in Bolu province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorur, F Korkmaz; Camgoz, H

    2014-10-01

    The level of natural radioactivity for Bolu province of north-western Turkey was assessed in this study. There is no information about radioactivity measurement reported in water samples in the Bolu province so far. For this reason, gross α and β activities of 55 different water samples collected from tap, spring, mineral, river and lake waters in Bolu were determined. The mean activity concentrations were 68.11 mBq L(-1), 169.44 mBq L(-1) for gross α and β in tap water. For all samples the gross β activity is always higher than the gross α activity. All value of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two spring and one mineral water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). The associated age-dependent dose from all water ingestion in Bolu was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value exceeds the WHO recommended limit value. The risk levels from the direct ingestion of the natural radionuclides in tap and mineral water in Bolu were determinated. The mean (210)Po and (228)Ra risk the value of tap and mineral waters slightly exceeds what some consider on acceptable risk of 10(-4) or less.

  19. Noncommutative complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model

    CERN Document Server

    Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper stands for an application of the noncommutative (NC) Noether theorem, given in our previous work [AIP Proc 956 (2007) 55-60], for the NC complex Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. It provides with an extension of a recent work [Physics Letters B 653 (2007) 343-345]. The local conservation of energy-momentum tensors (EMTs) is recovered using improvement procedures based on Moyal algebraic techniques. Broken dilatation symmetry is discussed. NC gauge currents are also explicitly computed.

  20. Trapping of radioactive {sup 21}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruithof, Wilbert L.; Hoek, Duurt J. van der; Giri, Gouri S.; Hoekstra, Ronnie; Hoekstra, Steven; Jungmann, Klaus; Onderwater, Gerco; Santra, Bodhaditya; Shildling, Praveen D.; Sohani, Moslem; Versolato, Oscar O.; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, Hans W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University Groningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Radioactive {sup 21}Na atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) provide an excellent opportunity to search for non-Standard Model contributions in the weak interactions. In particular, correlations between the {beta}-particle and the neutrino are sensitive to time reversal symmetry violating effects. The Na isotope is produced at the TRI{mu}P facility of the KVI using intense {sup 20}Ne beams from the AGOR cyclotron on a cooled deuterium target. The isotopes are stopped and re-thermalized in a Thermal Ionizer. They are transported as a low energy ion beam to a MOT cell where they are neutralized and subsequently captured by laser light. The trapped Na atoms will be transferred to a second MOT which is placed inside a reaction microscope to measure the momentum distribution of the recoiling daughter nuclei after the {beta}-decay. The {beta}-particle will be detected in a scintillation detector. These two devices have been characterized. A pulsed UV laser was used to ionize trapped Na atoms in order to simulate the {beta}-decay in the reaction microscope. The momentum distribution of the recoil ions is measured. The setup of the whole experiment will be presented.

  1. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  2. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  3. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  4. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  5. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  6. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  7. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site. http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  8. Natural radioactivity in bottled mineral and thermal spring waters of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Halim; Asliyuksek, Hizir; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Kam, Erol

    2013-12-01

    Radiological assessment of bottled mineral waters and thermal spring waters collected from various natural sources in Turkey was carried out using gross alpha and gross beta counting techniques. For 40 samples of bottled mineral water, the mean gross alpha activity concentration was determined to be 164 mBq l(-1) (min.:7 mBq l(-1); max.: 3042 mBq l(-1)), whereas the gross beta activity concentration was found to be 555 mBq l(-1) (min.: 21 mBq l(-1); max.: 4845 mBq l(-1)). For 24 samples of thermal spring water, the mean gross alpha activity concentration was obtained to be 663 mBq l(-1) (min.: 18 mBq l(-1); max.: 3070 mBq l(-1)). The gross beta activity concentration for these samples, on the other hand, was determined to be 3314 mBq l(-1) (min.: 79 mBq l(-1); max.: 17955 mBq l(-1)). These values lead to the average annual effective doses of 313 µSv for mineral waters and 1805 µSv for thermal spa waters, which are found to be higher than those recommended for drinking waters by the World Health Organization. It should be noted, however, that one will get less dose from mineral waters since the daily consumption is much lower than 2 l that these calculations assume.

  9. Beta-decay properties of exotic nuclei and the astrophysical r-process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, T. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Adv. Res. Center for Sci. and Eng.; Arnould, M. [Institut d`Astronomie et d`Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1995-05-29

    The r-process abundances are evaluated with the use of three different, {beta} decay models, i.e., the second version of the Gross Theory, the semi-Gross Theory and a QRPA approach. The necessary Q{sub {beta}}-values, as well as the neutron separation energies, are obtained from the TUYY, ETFSI and FRDM mass predictions. A comparison is made among the {beta}-decay half-lives predicted by these {beta}-decay models for the nuclei on a typical r-process path, as well as among the resulting r-process abundances. ((orig.)).

  10. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  11. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  12. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  13. Ising and Gross-Neveu model in next-to-leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Knorr, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    We study scalar and chiral fermionic models in next-to-leading order with the help of the functional renormalisation group. Their critical behaviour is of special interest in condensed matter systems, in particular graphene. To derive the beta functions, we make extensive use of computer algebra. The resulting flow equations were solved with pseudo-spectral methods to guarantee high accuracy. New estimates on critical quantities for both the Ising and the Gross-Neveu model are provided. For the Ising model, the estimates agree with earlier renormalisation group studies of the same level of approximation. By contrast, the approximation for the Gross-Neveu model retains many more operators than all earlier studies. For two Dirac fermions, the results agree with both lattice and large-$N_f$ calculations, but for a single flavour, different methods disagree quantitatively, and further studies are necessary.

  14. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  15. Determination of gross-β and γ-ray activity concentrations of human tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hayun Ja [Dept. of Dental Hygene, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Dental Hygene, Silla University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The γ-ray concentration and gross-β activity by age group were measured in the teeth of males and females of the domestic residents. They were divided into 7 age groups from 10s to the age of 70s. The gross-β activity concentration was measured by using the Tennelec XLB measuring instrument filled with P10 gas (argon 90%, methane 10%). The γ-ray was measured through the γ-ray spectroscopic analytical method by using the high purity germanium (HPGe) radiation detector. The range of gross-β activity concentration was measured 0.089 to 0.32 Bq/kg in females and 0.13 to 0.26 Bq/kg in males. From the γ-ray spectroscopic analysis of the teeth, the natural radioactive isotopes of '4{sup 0}K, {sup 208}Tl, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 234}Th were detected and their measured γ-ray activity concentrations were found to be 20.7, 21.9, 3.88 and 5.24 Bq/kg, respectively.

  16. Radioactive waste management; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan.

  17. Baryons in Massive Gross-Neveu Models

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Baryons in the large N limit of (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu models with either discrete or continuous chiral symmetry have long been known. We generalize their construction to the case where the symmetry is explicitly broken by a bare mass term in the Lagrangian. In the discrete symmetry case, the exact solution is found for arbitrary bare fermion mass, using the Hartree-Fock approach. In the continuous symmetry case, a derivative expansion allows us to rederive a formerly proposed Skyrme-type model and to compute systematically corrections to the leading order description based on an effective sine-Gordon theory.

  18. Handbook of radioactivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The updated and much expanded Third Edition of the "Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis" is an authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity from the very low levels encountered in the environment to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, fuel cycle facilities and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. The Third Edition contains seven new chapters providing a reference text much broader in scope than the previous Second Edition, and all of the other chapters have been updated and expanded many with new authors. The book describes the basic principles of radiation detection and measurement, the preparation of samples from a wide variety of matrices, assists the investigator or technician in the selection and use of appropriate radiation detectors, and presents state-of-the-ar...

  19. Radioactive contamination of BaF2 crystal scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Polischuk, O G; Bernabei, R; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Di Marco, A; Danevich, F A; Incicchitti, A; Poda, D V; Tretyak, V I

    2013-01-01

    Barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) crystal scintillators are promising detectors to search for double beta decay processes in $^{130}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 2619(3) keV) and $^{132}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 844(1) keV). The $^{130}$Ba isotope is of particular interest because of the indications on 2${\\beta}$ decay found in two geochemical experiments. The radioactive contamination of BaF$_2$ scintillation crystal with mass of 1.714 kg was measured over 113.4 hours in a low-background DAMA/R&D set-up deep underground (3600 m w.e.) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of INFN (LNGS, Italy). The half-life of $^{212}$Po (present in the crystal scintillator due to contamination by radium) was estimated as $T_{1/2}$ = 298.8 $\\pm$ 0.8(stat.) $\\pm$ 1.4(syst.) ns by analysis of the events pulse profiles.

  20. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  1. White sea radioactivity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, R.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics]|[Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.]|[Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology; Kalmykov, S.N.; Lisitzin, A.P. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to estimate potential sources and chronology of pollution of the White Sea (Russia) by artificial radionuclides. White Sea is semi-closed water body connected with Barents Sea by a narrow strait. Thus, pollution of White Sea may be caused by highly polluted Barents waters and river (mainly Northern Dvina) run-off. This is the first detailed investigation of radioactivity of White Sea sediment records. (orig.)

  2. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  3. LRT 2006: 2. topical workshop in low radioactivity techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, P.; Piquemal, F.; Ford, R.; Yakushev, E.; Pandola, L.; Franco, D.; Bellini, F.; Hubert, Ph.; Laubenstein, M.; Abt, I.; Bongrand, M.; Schnee, R.; Dusan, B.; Chen, M.; Piquemal, F.; Nachab, A.; Zuzel, G.; Simgen, H.; Navick, X.F.; Pedretti, M.; Wojcik, M.; Sekiya, H.; Kim, Y.; Kishimoto, T.; Dawson, J.; Borjabad, S.; Perrot, F.; Gurriaran, R.; Nikolayko, A.; Hubert, Ph

    2006-07-01

    This second topical workshop in low radioactivity techniques is intended to bring together experts in the field of low background techniques, especially applied to dark matter experiments, double beta decay experiments and neutrino detection in underground laboratories. This workshop has been organized into 7 sessions: 1) underground facilities (where a worldwide review is made), 2) neutron and muon induced background, isotope production, 3) low background counting techniques and low background detectors, 4) techniques for radon reduction, purified noble gases and liquid scintillator purification, 5) low levels on Pb-Bi-Po{sup 210} and surface background, 6) low radioactivity detector components and material purification, and 7) low radioactive techniques in other applications (particularly to check the geographical origin of food-products or to date wine. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations.

  4. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-15

    In 1997, the gross average beta activities measured at Chunchon Regional Monitoring Station are 145.55 {+-} 261.40 mBq/m{sup 3} in airborne after 5 hours, 10.05 {+-} 15.65 mBq/m{sup 3} in airborne after 48 hours, 16.90 {+-} 2.94 MBq/km{sup 2} in fallout for 30 days, 79.5 {+-} 142.7 mBq/L in precipitation, and 34.7 {+-} 24.6 mBq/L in tap water. The gamma exposure rate at the same station is 13.10 {+-} 3.93 {mu}R/h. We find no significant changes in these measurements from the past data, and the artificial radionuclide of {sup 137} Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation are found to be less than the M.D.A. values. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in the soil sampled at 32 sites throughout Yongseo area in Kangwon-do are in the range between 6.59 {+-} 0.47 Bq/kg.dry to 55.54 {+-} 1.58 Bq/kg.dry and 358.3 {+-} 10.3 Bq/kg.dry to 1157.0 {+-} 22.8 Bq/kg.dry, respectively. The gamma exposure rates at 61 sites in Yongseo area are in the range between 12.03 {+-} 0.63 {mu}R/h to 36.74 {+-} 1.06 {mu}R/h with the average value of 17.03 {+-} 3.98 {mu}R/h. Radioactivities in chinese cabbages sampled at 5 different regions in Yongseo area of Kangwon-do are found to be less than M.D.A. value for {sup 137}Cs and 63.60 - 1.03 Bq/kg for {sup 40}K. The data for rice is currently being analysed, and we expect to get the final results for the rice by the time of publishing this report. The radioactivities in dairy and fish product in Yongseo area are found to be that the average concentrations of {sup 137}Cs are in the range of < M.D.A - 0.03 {+-} 0.01 Bq/L in milk product sampled at 3 different regions in Yongseo area and 0.05 {+-} 0.01 - 0.17 {+-} 0.02 Bq/kg in fishes(hair-tail, marckel and Alaska pollack, etc.) sampled in Chunchon city, and the {sup 40}K concentrations are 36.48 {+-} 0.63 - 44.45 {+-} 0.77 Bq/L in the milk samples and 16.26 {+-} 0.34 - 99.44 {+-} 1.60 Bq/kg in the fish samples.

  5. Poster: The EURISOL Beta-beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    The beta-beam concept for the generation of an electron (anti-)neutrino beam was proposed by Piero Zucchelli (CERN) in 2002. A first study of the possibility of using the existing CERN machines for the acceleration for radioactive ions to a relativistic gamma of roughly 100, for later storage in a new decay ring of approximately the size of SPS, was made in 2002. The results from this very first short study were very encouraging.In 2004 it was decided to incorporate a design study for the beta-beam within the EURISOL DS proposal. EURISOL is a project name for a next-generation radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL method for the production of intense radioactive beams for nuclear physics, astrophysics and other applications. The proposal was accepted with the beta-beam task as an integral part. The design study officially started 1 February 2005 and will run for 4 years resulting in a conceptual design report for a beta-beam facility.

  6. Study of proton radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  7. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  8. Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laing, W.R.; Corbin, L.T.

    1979-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory was completed 15 years ago and has been used since as an analytical chemistry support lab for reactor, fuel development, and reprocessing programs. Additions have been made to the building on two occasions, and a third addition is planned for the future. Major maintenance items include replacement of ZnBr/sub 2/ windows, cleanup of lead glass windows, and servicing of the intercell conveyor. An upgrading program, now in progress, includes construction of new hot-cell instrumentation and the installation of new equipment such as an x-ray fluorescence analyzer and a spark source mass spectrometer.

  9. 5He radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivaşcu, M.

    1984-01-01

    The disintegration of a metastable nuclear state by emission of a light particle can be considered to be a very asymmetric fission process. An approximation of the potential barrier in the overlapping region of the two fragments leads to an analytic relationship for the life-time, allowing us to handle a large number of cases to search for new kinds of radioactivities. In this way, it is predicted that some nuclei with Z = 83-92, N = 127-137 and 97-105,145-157 are able to decay spontaneously ...

  10. Radioactivity in gaseous waste discharged from the separations facilities during 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.D.

    1973-04-10

    During 1972, approximately 4.72 x 10/sup 11/ ft/sup 3/ of gaseous effluents were monitored for radioactivity by the Chemical Processing Division stack sampling program. The sum of the measured radioactivity was as follows: alpha (assumed source--Pu)--5.23 x 10/sup -3/ Ci, alpha (assumed source--U)--9.06 x 10/sup -5/ Ci, beta--0.872 Ci, and /sup 131/I--0.210 Ci.

  11. Radioactivity measurements principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Spernol, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors have addressed the basic need for internationally consistent standards and methods demanded by the new and increasing use of radioactive materials, radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds. Particular emphasis is given to the basic and practical problems that may be encountered in measuring radioactivity. The text provides information and recommendations in the areas of radiation protection, focusing on quality control and the precautions necessary for the preparation and handling of radioactive substances. New information is also presented on the applications of both traditiona

  12. Radioactivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tuniz, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.

  13. Robust Principal Component Test in Gross Error Detection and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Principle component analysis (PCA) based chi-square test is more sensitive to subtle gross errors and has greater power to correctly detect gross errors than classical chi-square test. However, classical principal component test (PCT) is non-robust and can be very sensitive to one or more outliers. In this paper, a Huber function liked robust weight factor was added in the collective chi-square test to eliminate the influence of gross errors on the PCT. Meanwhile, robust chi-square test was applied to modified simultaneous estimation of gross error (MSEGE) strategy to detect and identify multiple gross errors. Simulation results show that the proposed robust test can reduce the possibility of type Ⅱ errors effectively. Adding robust chi-square test into MSEGE does not obviously improve the power of multiple gross error identification, the proposed approach considers the influence of outliers on hypothesis statistic test and is more reasonable.

  14. Radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Cappella, F; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Dubovik, A M; d'Angelo, S; Galashov, E N; Grinyov, B V; Incicchitti, A; Kobychev, V V; Laubenstein, M; Nagornaya, L L; Nozzoli, F; Poda, D V; Podviyanuk, R B; Polischuk, O G; Prosperi, D; Shlegel, V N; Tretyak, V I; Tupitsyna, I A; Vasiliev, Ya V; Vostretsov, Yu Ya

    2010-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators has been measured deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN in Italy with a total exposure 3197 kg x h. Monte Carlo simulation, time-amplitude and pulse-shape analyses of the data have been applied to estimate the radioactive contamination of the ZnWO4 samples. One of the ZnWO4 crystals has also been tested by ultra-low background gamma spectrometry. The radioactive contaminations of the ZnWO4 samples do not exceed 0.002 – 0.8 mBq/kg (depending on the radionuclide), the total alpha activity is in the range: 0.2 - 2 mBq/kg. Particular radioactivity, beta active 65Zn and alpha active 180W, has been detected. The effect of the re-crystallization on the radiopurity of the ZnWO4 crystal has been studied. The radioactive contamination of samples of the ceramic details of the set-ups used in the crystals growth has been checked by low background gamma spectrometry. A project scheme on further improvement of the radiopur...

  15. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  16. Nuclear astrophysics with secondary (radioactive) beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gai, M

    1995-01-01

    Some problems in nuclear astrophysics are discussed with emphasize on the ones central to the field which were not solved over the last two decades, including Helium Burning in Massive stars (the 12C(a,g)16O reaction) and the 8B Solar Neutrino Flux Problem (the 7Be(p,g)8B reaction). We demonstrate that a great deal of progress was achieved by measuring the time reverse process(es): the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16N and the Coulomb dissociation of 8B, using radioactive beams (of 16N and 8B). In this way an amplification of the sought for cross section was achieved, allowing a measurement of the small cross section(s) of relevance for stellar (solar) process(es).

  17. Distribution and environmental impacts of heavy metals and radioactivity in sediment and seawater samples of the Marmara Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otansev, Pelin; Taşkın, Halim; Başsarı, Asiye; Varinlioğlu, Ahmet

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels in the sediment samples collected from the Marmara Sea in Turkey were determined. The average activity concentrations (range) of (226)Ra, (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs were found to be 23.8 (13.8-34.2) Bq kg(-1), 18.8 (6.4-25.9) Bq kg(-1), 23.02 (6.3-31.1) Bq kg(-1), 558.6 (378.8-693.6) Bq kg(-1) and 9.14 (4.8-16.3) Bq kg(-1), respectively. Our results showed that the average activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (238)U and (232)Th in the sediment samples were within the acceptable limits; whereas the average activity concentration of (40)K in the sediment samples was higher than the worldwide average concentration. The average radium equivalent activity, the average absorbed dose rate and the average external hazard index were calculated as 100.01 Bq kg(-1), 48.32 nGy h(-1) and 0.27, respectively. The average gross alpha and beta activity in the seawater samples were found to be 0.042 Bq L(-1) and 13.402 Bq L(-1), respectively. The gross alpha and beta activity concentrations increased with water depth in the same stations. The average heavy metal concentrations (range) in the sediment samples were 114.6 (21.6-201.7) μg g(-1) for Cr, 568.2 (190.8-1625.1) μg g(-1) for Mn, 39.3 (4.9-83.4) μg g(-1) for Cu, 85.5 (11.0-171.8) μg g(-1) for Zn, 32.9 (9.1-73.1) μg g(-1) for Pb and 49.1 (6.8-103.0) μg g(-1) for Ni. S5 station was heavily polluted by Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb. The results showed that heavy metal enrichment in sediments of the Marmara Sea was widespread.

  18. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. MATERIAL & METHOD: Random selections of pregnant Swiss albino mice were selected. AgNPs, of 20 - 100 nm size ra nge, were administered to pregnant mice by repeated oral gavages at concentra tions of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 & 20 mg/kg/day during 4 - 17 gestational day. All dams were subjected to exteriorization on GD 18. The fetuses were evaluated for body malformation effects . RESULTS: Repeated oral gavages treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 0.5mg/kg/day caused resorption (4.61% and intra uterine growth retardation (7.69% with no gross morphology alteration. 1 mg/kg/day caused resorption (9.23% and intra uterine growth retardation (10.76% with a rare case of haemorrhagic conception (1.53%, 5mg/kg/day caused limb malformation (7.01% resorption (17.54% and intra uterine growth retardation (17.54%, closed type Neural tube deformity (5.26%, 10mg/kg/day caused 20 % of limb malformation including Amelia, foot and tail vein hemorrhages and simple tail vein haemorrhage (3.50% each, resorption (22.80%, intra uterine growth retardation (29.82%, 15mg/kg/day caused severe hemorrhage within the entire body (22.80%, lim b anomaly including syndactyly and oligodactyly (8.77%, resorption (42.10%, intra uterine growth retardation (45.61%, 20mg/kg/day caused Omphalocele (3.27%, Bidiscoidal placental anomaly (9.83%, resorption (29.50% and intra uterine growth retardation (62.29%. CONCLUSION: The results show that a repeated oral dose of AgNPs during pregnancy caused fetal body dysmorphogenesis which is dose

  19. Development of monitoring technology for environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Cho, Young Hyun; Lee, M. H.; Choi, K. S.; Hong, K. H.; Sin, H. S.; Kim, M. K.; Pak, J. H

    2000-05-01

    The accurate and reliable determination techniques of the radioactive isotopes in environmental samples are very important to protect public health from the potential hazards of radiation. Isolation and purification of radiostrontium from environmental aqueous sample was performed by using strontium selectively binding resin (Sr-spec) and strontium selectively permeable liquid membrane. Radioactivity of radiostrontium was measured by liquid scintillation counter coupled with dual counting window and spectrum unfolding method. With combustion apparatus a new determination of Tc-99 in the environmental samples was developed for overcoming demerits of conventional TBP extraction method. An optimized method for determining beta-emitting {sup 2}41Pu in the presence of alpha-emitting nuclides was developed using a liquid scintillation counting system. A method for measuring Rn-222 and Ra-226 in aqueous sample using liquid scintillation counting technique has studied. On-line measurement system coupled with ion chromatography and portable liquid scintillation detector was developed. U and Th measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mehtod of flow-injection preconcentration for the analysis of U and Th in seawater was developed. A new electrodeposition method for alpha spectrometry was developed.

  20. Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A. [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

  1. Radioactive waste: show time?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.V. [COVRA N.V., Spanjeweg 1, 4455 TW Nieuwdorp (Netherlands); McCombie, Charles; Chapman, Neil [Arius Association, Taefernstrasse 1, CH-4050 Baden (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    The basic concept within both EC funded SAPIERR I and SAPIERR II projects (FP6) is that of one or more geological repositories developed in collaboration by two or more European countries to accept spent nuclear fuel, vitrified high-level waste and other long-lived radioactive waste from those partner countries. The SAPIERR II project (Strategic Action Plan for Implementation of Regional European Repositories) examines in detail issues that directly influence the practicability and acceptability of such facilities. This paper describes the work in the SAPIERR II project (2006-2008) on the development of a possible practical implementation strategy for shared, regional repositories in Europe and lays out the first steps in implementing that strategy. (authors)

  2. Arduino based radioactive tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rashid, Mohd Fazlie Bin Abdul; Rahman, Anwar Bin Abdul; Ramlan, Atikah

    2017-01-01

    There is a clear need to strengthen security measures to prevent any malevolent use or accidental misuse of radioactive sources. Some of these radioactive sources are regularly transported outside of office or laboratory premises for work and consultation purposes. This paper present the initial development of radioactive source tracking system, which combined Arduino microcontroller, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) technologies. The tracking system will help the owner to monitor the movement of the radioactive sources. Currently, the system is capable of tracking the movement of radioactive source through the GPS satellite signals. The GPS co-ordinate could either be transmitted to headquarters at fixed interval via Short Messaging Service (SMS) to enable real time monitoring, or stored in a memory card for offline monitoring and data logging.

  3. PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, Katharina

    2009-09-01

    both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols

  4. Progress on Radioactive Waste Treatment Facilities Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, five projects were undertaken by radioactive waste projects management department, which are "Cold Commissioning of the Pilot Project on Radioactive Waste Retrieval and Conditioning (abbreviation 'Pilot Project')", "Radioactive Ventilation Project Construction (abbreviation 'Ventilation

  5. Determination of natural radioactivity of groundwater and surface of Brumadinho and Nova Lima, Brazil; Determinacao da radioatividade natural de agua subterranea e superficial de Brumadinho e Nova Lima, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Ligia Santana de

    2013-07-01

    The municipalities of Brumadinho and Nova Lima are located in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte city. They are of ecological interest since they belong to an Environmental Protection Area, which is located on a very important deposit of iron ore. In addition of mineral wealth, the region has a geological characteristic that includes quartzitic conglomerates associated with uranium and significant potential underground water with hydrogeological characteristics very particular and complex, as the Quartzite Aquifer, which belongs to a geological formation called the 'Moeda Formation'. In the present work radiometric measurements were performed for 44 water samples. The samples were collected in four geographical points, three of them situated in Brumadinho (surface water) and one point situated in Nova Lima municipality (underground water). The period of sampling extended for a thirteen months period. Some of these locations was used as an alternative sampling point. Uranium and thorium concentrations of the samples were determined using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. The content of gross alpha and gross beta activity, and the concentration of the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra e {sup 210}Pb were determinate by using Spectrometer Liquid Scintillation. In this case was necessary to calibrate the spectrometer using {sup 241}Am e {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y standards. The resultants values were compared with those recommended by the World Health Organization, Ministry of Health and the National Council of the Environment. The maximum level of water natural radioactivity found was 0,275 ± 0,052 Bq.L{sup -1} for gross alpha radiation, 0,130 ± 0,046 Bq.L{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and 0,096 ± 0,005 Bq.L-1 for {sup 228}Ra. The levels of gross beta activity and {sup 210}Pb were below the detection limit. The maximum concentrations of uranium and thorium found were 0,068 μg.L{sup -1} and 0.027 μg.L{sup -1} respectively. (author)

  6. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  7. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  8. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gross income of farmers. (a) Farmers using the cash method of accounting. A farmer using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall include in his gross income for the taxable year— (1) The amount of cash and the value of merchandise or other property received during the taxable...

  9. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  10. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  11. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  12. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  13. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilbeck, G. [Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  14. SELF SINTERING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, T.N.; Johnson, J.R.; Struxness, E.G.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1959-12-29

    A method is described for disposal of radioactive liquid waste materials. The wastes are mixed with clays and fluxes to form a ceramic slip and disposed in a thermally insulated container in a layer. The temperature of the layer rises due to conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat boillng off the liquid to fomn a dry mass. The dry mass is then covered with thermal insulation, and the mass is self-sintered into a leach-resistant ceramic cake by further conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat.

  15. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  16. Radioactive decay data tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.

  17. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  18. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  19. Radioactivity standardization in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's national radioactivity measurement standard is maintained at a satellite laboratory in Cape Town by the National Metrology Laboratory (NML) of the Council-for Scientific and Industrial Research. Standardizations are undertaken by a...

  20. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in ... eat, the ground we walk upon, and the consumer products we purchase and use. Although many might ...

  1. Environmental radioactivity survey in Suwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Keun; Park, Jong Mi [Kyunghee Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Suwon, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Suwon regional monitoring station m 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  2. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  3. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  4. Natural and artificial radioactivity in surface waters of the Ebro river basin (Northeast Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, Ll.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A

    2000-11-01

    A radiological characterisation of surface waters of the Ebro river basin was carried out during November 1994. For this purpose, 75 water samples were collected from points distributed throughout the Ebro river basin. Analysis included gross alpha and gross beta activities, relevant natural radionuclides ({sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 234,238}U -uranium total-) and several artificial radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr and radiocaesium). Mean gross alpha and gross beta activities in surface waters of the river's main course were 0.095{+-}0.004 and 0.213{+-}0.012 Bq l{sup -1}, respectively. Mean activities of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and uranium (total) were 0.132{+-}0.009, 0.0282{+-}0.0008 and 0.053{+-}0.006 Bq l{sup -1}, respectively. Regarding artificial radionuclides, the mean {sup 90}Sr activity was 6.6{+-}0.3 mBq l{sup -1}, {sup 3}H was detected in 8% of the samples, and radiocaesium was not detected in any sample. It is estimated that almost 100% of gross alpha and 97% of gross beta activities of surface waters in the Ebro river came from natural sources. Furthermore, results showed that the geological setting, large cities, agricultural areas and dams strongly influence the occurrence of natural radionuclides. Contamination from nuclear power plants located along the river was not detected. Finally, we estimated that the annual dose equivalent due to the hypothetical ingestion of Ebro river waters was 7.59 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}, which represented only 0.3% of the average annual effective dose attributable to natural background radiation in the area.

  5. Alpha, Beta, Gamma

    CERN Multimedia

    CEA Films

    1960-01-01

    Starts with conversation with a fisherman and vigneron who say that their work goes badly because of radioactivity. Follows a discussion and defense of radioactivity as explained to reassure an "average" man.

  6. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  7. Radioactivity of the Cooling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E. P.

    1943-03-01

    The most important source of radioactivity at the exit manifold of the pile will be due to O{sup 19}, formed by neutron absorption of O{sup 18}. A recent measurement of Fermi and Weil permits to estimate that it will be safe to stay about 80 minutes daily close to the exit manifolds without any shield. Estimates are given for the radioactivities from other sources both in the neighborhood and farther away from the pile.

  8. Atomic Batteries: Energy from Radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Suhas

    2015-01-01

    With alternate, sustainable, natural sources of energy being sought after, there is new interest in energy from radioactivity, including natural and waste radioactive materials. A study of various atomic batteries is presented with perspectives of development and comparisons of performance parameters and cost. We discuss radioisotope thermal generators, indirect conversion batteries, direct conversion batteries, and direct charge batteries. We qualitatively describe their principles of operat...

  9. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  10. Predicted halflives for cluster radioactivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Greiner, W.; Ivascu, M.

    1989-10-01

    The main results of the analytical superasymmetric fission model, describing in a unified manner cluster radioactivities, alpha-decay and cold fission processes, are briefly reviewed. Predicted halflives for 14C, 24, 25, 26Ne, 28, 30Mg and 32Si radioactivities in the range 10 11-10 26 s and the corresponding branching ratios relative to α-decay 10 -16 - 10 -9 have been experimentally confirmed within 1.5 orders of magnitude.

  11. Radioactive contamination of ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, P. [INFN sezione Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R., E-mail: rita.bernabei@roma2.infn.i [INFN sezione Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Cappella, F. [INFN sezione Roma ' La Sapienza' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , 00185 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Danevich, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Dubovik, A.M. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); D' Angelo, S. [INFN sezione Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Galashov, E.N. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Grinyov, B.V. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Incicchitti, A. [INFN sezione Roma ' La Sapienza' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , 00185 Rome (Italy); Kobychev, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Laubenstein, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Nagornaya, L.L. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Nozzoli, F. [INFN sezione Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Poda, D.V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Podviyanuk, R.B.; Polischuk, O.G. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Prosperi, D. [INFN sezione Roma ' La Sapienza' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. di Roma ' La Sapienza' , 00185 Rome (Italy); Shlegel, V.N. [Nikolaev Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-21

    The radioactive contamination of ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators has been measured deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN in Italy with a total exposure 3197 kg h. Monte Carlo simulation, time-amplitude and pulse-shape analyses of the data have been applied to estimate the radioactive contamination of the ZnWO{sub 4} samples. One of the ZnWO{sub 4} crystals has also been tested by ultra-low background {gamma} spectrometry. The radioactive contaminations of the best ZnWO{sub 4} samples are estimated to be less than 0.002 mBq/kg ({sup 228}Th and {sup 226}Ra), the total {alpha} activity is 0.18 mBq/kg. The {beta} active {sup 65}Zn and the {alpha} active {sup 180}W have been detected in ZnWO{sub 4} crystals. The effect of the re-crystallization on the radiopurity of the ZnWO{sub 4} crystal has been studied. The radioactive contamination of the ceramic components of the set-ups used in the crystals growth has been checked by low background {gamma} spectrometry. Some ideas for future improvement of the radiopurity level of ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators are briefly discussed.

  12. Endangered and Extinct Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, M. D.

    1993-07-01

    Gamma ray spectroscopy holds great promise for probing nucleosynthesis in individual nucleosynthesis events, via observations of short-lived radioactivity, and for measuring global galactic nucleosynthesis today with detections of longer-lived radioactivity. Many of the astrophysical issues addressed by these observations are precisely those that must be understood in order to interpret observations of extinct radioactivity in meteorites. It was somewhat surprising that the former case was realized first for a Type II supernova, when both 56Co [1] and 57Co [2] were detected in SN 1987A. These provide unprecedented constraints on models of Type II explosions. Live 26Al in the galaxy might come from Type II supernovae and their progenitors, and if this is eventually shown to be the case, can constrain massive star evolution, supernova nucleosynthesis, the galactic Type II supernova rate, and even models of the chemical evolution of the galaxy [3]. Titanium-44 is produced primarily in the alpha-rich freezeout from nuclear statistical equilibrium, possibly in Type Ia [4] and almost certainly in Type II supernovae [5]. The galactic recurrence time of these events is comparable to the 44Ti lifetime, so we expect to be able to see at most a few otherwise unseen 44Ti remnants at any given time. No such remnants have been detected yet [6]. Very simple arguments lead to the expectation that about 4 x 10^-4 M(sub)solar mass of 44Ca are produced per century. The product of the supernova frequency times the 44Ti yield per event must equal this number. Even assuming that only the latest event would be seen, rates in excess of 2 century^-1 are ruled out at >=99% confidence by the gamma ray limits. Only rates less than 0.3 century^-1 are acceptable at >5% confidence, and this means that the yield per event must be >10^-3 M(sub)solar mass to produce the requisite 44Ca. Rates this low are incompatible with current estimates for Type II supernovae and yields this high are also very

  13. Measurement of $\\beta\\beta$ Decay-Simulating Events in Nuclear Emulsion with Molybdenum Filling

    CERN Document Server

    Ashitkov, V D; Bradnova, V Ya; Ditlov, V A; Dubinina, V V; Egorenkova, N P; Konovalov, S I; Pozharova, E A; Polukhina, N G; Smirnitsky, V A; Starkov, N I; Chernyavsky, M M; Shchedrina, T V; Umatov, V I

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of positron--nucleus collisions was used to estimate the possibility of suppressing background events that simulate $\\beta\\beta$ decay in the emulsion region adjacent to molybdenum conglomerates. The range of the escape of two relativistic particles from the interaction was found to be $ = (0.60\\pm 0.03) ~\\mu$m, which approximately corresponds to the grain size of developed nuclear emulsion. No correlation of the values of d with the angle between two relativistic particles was observed. It was shown that it was possible to exclude $\\beta\\beta$ decay background from electrons emerging in the decay of elements of naturally occurring radioactive chains. The background from $\\beta$ decays of $^{90}$Sr and $^{40}$K available in emulsion around Mo conglomerates was determined by the ratio of the volume $(\\sim d^3)$ to the total volume of emulsion and was found to be $1.5\\cdot 10^{-2}$. It was shown that the backgrounds from $^{40}$K, $^{90}$Sr and natural radioactivity could be significantly suppre...

  14. Absorption of Beta Particles in Different Materials: An Undergraduate Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The absorption of beta rays from a radioactive source in different materials was investigated by the use of a simple setup based on a Geiger counter and a set of absorber sheets. The number of electrons traversing the material was measured as a function of its thickness. Detailed GEANT simulations were carried out to reproduce the obtained…

  15. Management of radioactive waste: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Paulo Sant'ana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from country to country. Furthermore, microbiological procedures, plasma vitrification process, chemical precipitation, ion exchange, evaporation and reverse osmosis are strategies used for the treatment of radioactive wastes. The major challenge is to manage these radioactive substances after being used and discharged. This report brings data from the literature published worldwide from 2009 to 2014 on radioactive waste management studies and it covers production, classification and management of radioactive solid, liquid and gas waste.

  16. In-Trap Spectroscopy of Charge-Bred Radioactive Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennarz, A.; Grossheim, A.; Leach, K. G.; Alanssari, M.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Gallant, A. T.; Holl, M.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lassen, J.; Macdonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Seeraji, S.; Simon, M. C.; Andreoiu, C.; Dilling, J.; Frekers, D.

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we introduce the concept of in-trap nuclear decay spectroscopy of highly charged radioactive ions and describe its successful application as a novel spectroscopic tool. This is demonstrated by a measurement of the decay properties of radioactive mass A=124 ions (here, In124 and Cs124) in the electron-beam ion trap of the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. By subjecting the trapped ions to an intense electron beam, the ions are charge bred to high charge states (i.e., equivalent to the removal of N-shell electrons), and an increase of storage times to the level of minutes without significant ion losses is achieved. The present technique opens the venue for precision spectroscopy of low branching ratios and is being developed in the context of measuring electron-capture branching ratios needed for determining the nuclear ground-state properties of the intermediate odd-odd nuclei in double-beta (ββ) decay.

  17. Theoretical Aspects of Science with Radioactive Nuclear Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Dobaczewski, J; Dobaczewski, Jacek; Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-01-01

    Physics of radioactive nuclear beams is one of the main frontiers of nuclear science today. Experimentally, thanks to technological developments, we are on the verge of invading the territory of extreme N/Z ratios in an unprecedented way. Theoretically, nuclear exotica represent a formidable challenge for the nuclear many-body theories and their power to predict nuclear properties in nuclear terra incognita. It is important to remember that the lesson learned by going to the limits of the nuclear binding is also important for normal nuclei from the neighborhood of the beta stability valley. And, of course, radioactive nuclei are crucial astrophysically; they pave the highway along which the nuclear material is transported up in the proton and neutron numbers during the complicated synthesis process in stars.

  18. Sectoral contributions to Nigerian gross domestic product using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... This study analyzed sectoral contributions to Gross Domestic Product by Agriculture, Industry and services ... KEYWORDS: Granger causality, Unit root, VAR model and sectoral contribution ...

  19. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Beta Thalassemia Print A A ... Complications Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment en español Beta talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  20. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (P<.001) from those students who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments.

  2. Radioactivity measurements using storage phosphor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y.T. [NeuTek, Darnestown, MD (United States); Hwang, J. [Advanced Technologies and Labs. International, Rockville, MD (United States); Hutchinson, M.R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01

    We propose to apply a recently developed charged particle radiation imaging concept in bio-medical research for fast, cost-effective characterization of radionuclides in contaminated sites and environmental samples. This concept utilizes sensors with storage photostimulable phosphor (SPP) technology as radiation detectors. They exhibit high sensitivity for all types of radiation and the response is linear over a wide dynamic range (>10{sup 5}), essential for quantitative analysis. These new sensors have an Active area of up to 35 cm x 43 cm in size and a spatial resolution as fine as 50 {mu}m. They offer considerable promise as large area detectors for fast characterization of radionuclides with an added ability to locate and identify hot spots. Tests with SPP sensors have found that a single alpha particle effect can be observed and an alpha field of 100 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} or a beta activity of 0.1 dpm/mm{sup 2} or gamma radiation of few {mu}R/hr can all be measured in minutes. Radioactive isotopes can further be identified by energy discrimination which is accomplished by placing different thicknesses of filter material in front of the sensor plate. For areas with possible neutron contamination, the sensors can be coupled to a neutron to charged particle converter screen, such as dysprosium foil to detect neutrons. Our study has shown that this approach can detect a neutron flux of 1 n/cm{sup 2}s or lower, again with only minutes of exposure time. The utilization of these new sensors can significantly reduce the time and cost required for many site characterization and environmental monitoring tasks. The {open_quotes}exposure{close_quotes} time for mapping radioactivity in an environmental sample may be in terms of minutes and offer a positional resolution not obtainable with presently used counting equipment. The resultant digital image will lend itself to ready analysis.

  3. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV electron-irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Katayama, Tadashi; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1993-10-01

    In order to make clear appreciation to induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods, photonuclear reactions which could produce radioactivity at energies up to 10 MeV were listed up from elemental compositions of black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric. The samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy and radioactivity was measured. Induced radioactivity could not be detected significantly by gamma-ray spectrometry and beta-ray counting in the irradiated samples except for spiked samples which contain some photonuclear target nuclides in the list. From the amount of observed radioactivities of short-lived photonuclear products in the spiked samples and calculation of H[sub 50] according to ICRP Publication 30, it was concluded that the induced radioactivity and its biological effects in the 10 MeV electron-irradiated natural samples were negligible in comparison with natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples. (J.P.N.).

  4. Low-impact sampling under an active solid low-level radioactive waste disposal unit using horizontal drilling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, C.V.; Vold, E.L.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the performance of the solid low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal units located on a mesa top at TA-54, Area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, and to provide in-situ (vadose zone) site characterization information to Area G`s Performance Assessment. The vadose zone beneath an active disposal unit (DU 37), was accessed by utilizing low-impact, air-rotary horizontal drilling technology. Core samples were pulled, via wire-line core method, in 3 horizontal holes fanning out below DU 37 at approximately 5 foot intervals depending on recovery percentage. Samples were surveyed and prepared in-field following Environmental Restoration (ER) guidelines. Samples were transferred from the field to the CST-9 Radvan for initial radiological screening. Following screening, samples were delivered to CST-3 analytical lab for analyses including moisture content, 23 inorganics, 60 volatile organic compounds (VOC`s), 68 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC`s), tritium, lead 210, radium 226 & 228, cesium 137, isotopic plutonium, americium 241, strontium 90, isotopic uranium, and isotopic thorium. Other analyses included matric potential, alpha spectroscopy, gamma spectroscopy, and gross alpha/beta. The overall results of the analysis identified only tritium as having migrated from the DU. Am-241, Eu-152, and Pu-238 were possibly identified above background but the results are not definitive. Of all organics analysed for, only ethyl acetate was tentatively identified slightly above background. All inorganics were found to be well below regulatory limits. Based on the results of the above mentioned analyses, it was determined that Area G`s disposal units are performing well and no significant liquid phase migration of contaminants has occurred.

  5. Environmental radioactivity survey in Andong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Zi Hong; Jo, Kum Ju [Andong Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal level in Andong area and to provide a base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity levels in case of any radiological emergency situation. The project is important in view of protecting the public health from the potential hazards of radiation and keeping up the clean environment. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring samples Gamma exposure rates, airborne dust, precipitation, fall-out and drinking-water. Environmental samples 2 kinds of indicator plant, 4 kinds of mushroom, 7 kinds of nut and seeds, and drinking waters. Among the all 2002 radiological monitoring and environmental data in Andong area were not found the extraordinary data. And a nation-wide environmental radiation/radioactivity level survey results were all background levels attributed to terrestrial and cosmic radiation.

  6. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  7. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported.

  8. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported.

  9. Marcos da história da radioatividade e tendências atuais Landmarks in the history of radioactivity and current tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Moreira Xavier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The first days of radioactivity, the discoveries of X-rays, radioactivity, of alpha- and beta- particles and gamma- radiation, of new radioactive elements, of artificial radioactivity, the neutron and positron and nuclear fission are reviewed as well as several adverse historical marks, such as the Manhattan project and some nuclear and radiological accidents. Nuclear energy generation in Brazil and the world, as an alternative to minimize environmental problems, is discussed, as are the medicinal, industrial and food applications of ionizing radiation. The text leads the reader to reflect on the subject and to consider its various aspects with scientific and technological maturity.

  10. [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP is superior to [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP for quantitation of the dopamine transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundkvist, Camilla; Halldin, Christer; Ginovart, Nathalie; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Farde, Lars

    1997-10-01

    {beta}-CIT-FP [N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane] is a cocaine analogue with high affinity for the dopamine transporter. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies with [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP ([{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP) has shown that equilibrium conditions were approached but, however, not reached at the end of measurement. Moreover, metabolite studies of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP in monkey plasma demonstrated a lipophilic-labelled metabolite that may enter the brain. We therefore labelled {beta}-CIT-FP with fluorine-18 in a position that may avoid the formation of labelled lipophilic metabolites. The more long-lived radionuclide ({sup 18}F) was used to allow for measurements over longer time. [N-fluoropropyl-{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP ([{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP) was prepared by N-alkylation of nor-{beta}-CIT with [{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl bromide. PET studies were performed in cynomolgus monkeys. [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP entered the brain rapidly. There was a high concentration of radioactivity in the striatum and much lower in the thalamus, neocortex, and cerebellum. The striatum-to-cerebellum ratio was about 5 at time of transient equilibrium, which occurred after 60 to 100 min. After pretreatment with GBR 12909, radioactivity in the striatum was markedly reduced, thus indicating specific [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP binding to the dopamine transporter. The fraction of unchanged [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP determined by HPLC was 10-15% after 140 min. No lipophilic labelled metabolites were detected. The absence of measurable lipophilic labelled metabolites and the occurrence of transient equilibrium within the time of the PET measurement indicate that [{sup 18}F]{beta}-CIT-FP is superior to [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP as a PET radioligand for quantification of the dopamine transporter in the human brain.

  11. Radioactive Ion Beams and Radiopharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Morton, A. C.; Schaffer, P.

    2014-02-01

    Experiments performed at radioactive ion beam facilities shed new light on nuclear physics and nuclear structure, as well as nuclear astrophysics, materials science and medical science. The many existing facilities, as well as the new generation of facilities being built and those proposed for the future, are a testament to the high interest in this rapidly expanding field. The opportunities inherent in radioactive beam facilities have enabled the search for radioisotopes suitable for medical diagnosis or therapy. In this article, an overview of the production techniques and the current status of RIB facilities and proposals will be presented. In addition, accelerator-generated radiopharmaceuticals will be reviewed.

  12. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  13. Predicted halflives for cluster radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenaru, D.N. (Institutul Central de Fizica, Bucharest (Romania); Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik); Greiner, W. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik); Ivascu, M. (Institutul Central de Fizica, Bucharest (Romania))

    1989-10-09

    The main results of the analytical superasymmetric fission model, describing in a unified manner cluster radioactivities, alpha-decay and cold fission processes, are briefly reviewed. Predicted halflives for {sup 14}C, {sup 24,25,26}Ne, {sup 28,30}Mg and {sup 32}Si radioactivities in the range 10{sup 11}-10{sup 26} s and the corresponding branching ratios relative to {alpha}-decay 10{sup -16}-10{sup -9} have been experimentally confirmed within 1.5 orders of magnitude. (orig.).

  14. Gross Pollutant Traps: Wet Load Assessment at Sungai Kerayong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shah, M. R.; Zahari, N. M.; Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Husni, M. M. Mohammad; Jajarmizadeh, Milad; Roseli, ZA; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to carry out assessment on the effectiveness and performance of Gross Pollutant Traps (GPTs) stormwater quality control in the urban areas. The study aims to provide a management and planning tool for effective management of the gross pollutants in the urban areas specifically in River of Life (ROL) project. ROL project is a Malaysian Government initiative under the Economic Transformation Program. One of the program in the greater Klang Valley is to transform Klang River into a vibrant and livable waterfront by the year 2020. The main river in ROL catchment is Sungai Klang (upper catchment), with main tributaries Sungai Gombak, Sungai Batu, Sungai Jinjang, Sungai Keroh, Sungai Bunus, Sungai Ampang and Sungai Kerayong. This paper objective is to study the gross pollutant wet load at Sungai Kerayong 1 and Sungai Kerayong 2 which is located at the downstream location of the ROL project. The result shows that Sungai Kerayong 2 produced higher gross pollutant wet load (8025.33 kg/ha/yr) than Sungai Kerayong 1 (4695.12 kg/ha/yr). This could be due to high contributions amounts of gross pollutant traps from residential area, the degree of develop area, and also the location of the river itself related to climate and rainfall.

  15. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Van Soest, Arthur J; De Koning, Jos J

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e(gross)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if e(gross) is affected by stroke rate. A second aim was to determine whether internal power losses can be estimated by the negative power output during the stroke cycle (P(negative)). Seventeen well-trained female rowers participated in this study. They rowed three trials on a modified rowing ergometer on slides at a submaximal intensity, with a respiratory exchange ratio of 1 or close to 1. Stroke rates were 28, 34, and 40 strokes per minute. The trials were fully randomized. Power transfer to the flywheel was kept constant whereas e(gross) was determined during each trial. No significant differences in e(gross) were found between conditions. This finding suggests that in rowing internal power losses are not influenced by stroke rate. Furthermore, although P(negative) increased at increasing stroke rate (P measure to estimate internal power losses. This study shows that within the range of stroke rates applied in competitive rowing, internal power losses are unrelated to rowing cycle frequency.

  16. Radioactivity Backgrounds in ZEPLIN-III

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, H M; Barnes, E J; Belov, V A; Bewick, A; Burenkov, A A; Currie, V Chepel A; DeViveiros, L; Edwards, B; Ghag, C; Hollingsworth, A; Horn, M; Kalmus, G E; Kobyakin, A S; Kovalenko, A G; Lebedenko, V N; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Luscher, R; Majewski, P; Neves, A StJ Murphy F; Paling, S M; da Cunha, J Pinto; Preece, R; Quenby, J J; Reichhart, L; Scovell, P R; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Smith, N J T; Smith, P F; Stekhanov, V N; Sumner, T J; Thorne, C; Walker, R J

    2011-01-01

    We examine electron and nuclear recoil backgrounds from radioactivity in the ZEPLIN-III dark matter experiment at Boulby. The rate of electron recoils in the liquid xenon WIMP target is 0.75$\\pm$0.05 events/kg/day/keV at low energy, which represents a 20-fold improvement over the rate observed in the first run of the experiment. Energy and spatial distributions agree with those predicted by component-level Monte Carlo simulations based on measured radiological contamination. Neutron elastic scattering is predicted to yield 3.05$\\pm$0.5 nuclear recoils with energy 5-50 keV per year, which translates to an expectation of 0.4 events in a 1-year dataset in anti-coincidence with the veto detector for realistic signal acceptance. Less obvious background sources are discussed, especially in the context of future experiments. These include contamination of scintillation pulses with Cherenkov light from $\\beta$ activity internal to photomultipliers, which can increase the size and lower the apparent time constant of t...

  17. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  18. Radioactivity in Dutch consumer products

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, M P M

    2002-01-01

    This study took place within the framework of a general update of the average radiation dose for the Dutch population. It focuses on consumer products in which radionuclides have been intentionally incorporated and on radiation-emitting devices that can be supplied to members of the public without special surveillance. Eleven consumer products were studied in more detail. The radiation from these products determined 90% of the total collective dose due to consumer products in the Netherlands in 1988. Individual and collective doses are presented here for each product. The total collective dose has decreased from 130 personSv in 1988 to 4.6 personSv at present. This reduction was attributed to: a decrease in the number of radioactive products (gas mantles), lower estimates of the number of radioactive products present in the Netherlands thanks to new information (camera lenses, smoke detectors containing Ra-226), replacement of radioactive by non-radioactive products (gas mantles, dental protheses), and a lowe...

  19. Traps for neutral radioactive atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Sprouse, G D; Grossman, J S; Orozco, L A; Pearson, M R

    2002-01-01

    We describe several methods for efficiently injecting a small number of radioactive atoms into a laser trap. The characteristics of laser traps that make them desirable for physics experiments are discussed and several different experimental directions are described. We describe recent experiments with the alkali element Fr and point to future directions of the neutral atom trapping program.

  20. Keeping an Eye on Radioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China sets up a national testing system for levels of radiation from various sources Radioactive iodine had been detected in the air above several regions of China,said China’s National Nuclear Emergency Coordination Committee on March 29.The regions include Heilongjiang

  1. Mass measurement of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Scheidenberger, C

    2004-01-01

    The highest precision in mass measurements on short-lived radionuclides is obtained using trapping and cooling techniques. Here, the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI/Darmstadt and the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN play an important role. Status and recent results on mass measurements of radioactive nuclides with ESR and ISOLTRAP are summarized.

  2. Gross municipal product: the design procedure and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasilevich Kolechkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem to find the adequate methods to assess the economic performance of municipalities conditioned by their growing independence and role in the development of regional economy. Nowadays many researchers are working on the practical application and testing of various approaches to assessing theterritory economicresults based on thecalculation of gross municipal product (GМP. However, the development of methodological reasonable calculation tools is still at an early stage. In this article presents a simplified method of calculating the gross municipal product, an analysis of the dynamics and territorialindustrial structure GМP, implemented in terms of grouping areas GМP methods hierarchical cluster analysis of the economic characteristics of the obtained clustersbased on systematic occurring in the economic literature, methodological developments in the calculation of gross municipal product, determination of strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches

  3. Anatomy of the Gross Intestine of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The anatomy of the gross intestine and its mesentery of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris have not been described completely. Approach: In the present study, eight adult capybaras were studied using gross dissection. Results: The cecum was the largest part of the intestine and was divided into base, body and apex. The cecocolic fold joined the cecum to the full extent of the proximal loop of ascending colon. The ascending colon was divided into two ansae, one proximal and one distal or spiral. The distal ansa had a spiral arrangement and was placed cranially to the right, covered ventrally by the apex of the cecum. This ansa had a centripetal gyrus to the left, a central flexure and a centrifugal gyrus turning to the right that was continuous with the transverse colon in the right colic flexure. Conclusion: The gross intestine of the capybara was different to other previously studied rodents.

  4. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla;

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot......The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show...... that potato cropping practices varies signifi-cantly between these countries with major differences in yields and costs. Italy and Denmark are the two regions with highest gross margins due to high yields and reve-nues. Poland is by far the largest potato producing country among the 6 countries ex...

  5. Indian programme on radioactive waste management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Wattal

    2013-10-01

    The primary objective of radioactive waste management is protection of human health, environment and future generation. This article describes, briefly, the Indian programme on management of different radioactive wastes arising in the entire nuclear fuel cycle adhering to this objective.

  6. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management. (LK)

  8. Radioactive waste caracterisation by neutron activation

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, Tangi

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear activities produce radioactive wastes classified following their radioactive level and decay time. An accurate characterization is necessary for efficient classification and management. Medium and high level wastes containing long lived radioactive isotopes will be stored in deep geological storage for hundreds of thousands years. At the end of this period, it is essential to ensure that the wastes do not represent any risk for humans and environment, not only from radioactive point o...

  9. Numerical simulation for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation based on the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin

    2017-09-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is proposed in this paper. Some numerical tests for one- and two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been conducted. The waves of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation are simulated. Numerical results show that the lattice Boltzmann method is an effective method for the wave of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  10. 29 CFR 779.259 - What is included in annual gross volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is included in annual gross volume. 779.259 Section... Coverage Annual Gross Volume of Sales Made Or Business Done § 779.259 What is included in annual gross volume. (a) The annual gross volume of sales made or business done of an enterprise consists of its...

  11. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  12. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard question. Hence Gross National Happiness can be measured by the average response to such questions in general populations surveys. Survey data on average self-report of happiness can be combined with est...

  13. The Impact of Investments and Gross Value Added upon Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa APARASCHIVEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to capture the impact of investments and gross value added, but also the impact of the employment on the average wage. The analysis refers to the period 1998- 2008 and we are using data on the activities of the Romanian economy. The results of this study confirm the negative influence of the employment, being consistent with the theory. Also, the impact of investments and that of gross value added came out to be positive and significant.

  14. Revised Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2003-01-01

    We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at non-zero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of baryonic matter in the Gross-Neveu model is an Overhauser type instability with gap formation at the Fermi surface.

  15. Measurement of nuclear cross sections using radioactive beams; Medicion de secciones eficaces nucleares usando haces radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizcano, D.; Aguilera, E.F.; Martinez Q, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    One of the main applications of the production and use of nuclear radioactive beams is the measurement of nuclear cross sections. In this work is used a {sup 6} He nuclear radioactive beam ({beta} emitting with half life 806.7 ms) for the study of the reaction {sup 6} + {sup 209} Bi which could have several products. This investigation was realized in collaboration with the personnel of the Nuclear Structure laboratory at the University of Notre Dame (U.S.A.) and the National institute of Nuclear Research and CONACyT by Mexico. (Author)

  16. Acquired TGF beta 1 sensitivity and TGF beta 1 expression in cell lines established from a single small cell lung cancer patient during clinical progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K;

    1996-01-01

    was found in GLC 16 and GLC 19. These cell lines were also growth inhibited by exogenously administrated TGF beta 1. TGF beta 1 mRNA and protein in its latent form was only expressed in the radiotherapy-resistant cell line, GLC 19. The results indicate that disease progression in this patient was paralleled...... by a gain in sensitivity to the growth inhibition by TGF beta 1 due to type II TGF beta receptor, and a gain of latent TGF beta 1 protein. Lack of type II receptor expression in GLC 14, which was also resistant to growth inhibition by exogenous TGF beta 1, was not due to gross structural changes in the type...

  17. Radioactive waste isolation in salt:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditmars, J.D.; Baecher, G.B.; Edgar, D.E.; Dowding, C.H.

    1988-03-01

    The approach presumes that measurements are undertaken to support performance predictions. A quantitative performance objective like groundwater travel time is compared with performance predictions. The approach recognizes that such predictions are uncertain because the measurements upon which they are based are uncertain. The effectiveness of measurement activities is quantified by an index, ..beta.., that reflects the number of standard deviations separating the best estimate of performance from the performance objective. Measurements that reduce the uncertainty in predictions lead to increased values of ..beta... Evaluating ..beta.. for a particular measurement scheme requires identifying the measured quantities that significantly affect prediction uncertainty. Sources of uncertainty are spatial variation, noise, estimation error, and measurement bias. Changing the measurement scheme to increase ..beta.. increases the likelihood of a performance objective being achieved or exceeded. The application of the ..beta..-index method to the Richton dome site in Mississippi focuses on uncertainties in hydraulic conductivity data in relation to groundwater travel time predictions. The ..beta.. values for four different measurement schemes for hydraulic conductivity are determined. 44 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  19. Radioactive Waste Material From Tapping Natural Resources ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Rocks around oil and gas and mineral deposits may contain natural radioactivity. Drilling through these rocks and bringing them to the surface creates radioactive waste materials. Once desired minerals have been removed from ore, the radionuclides left in the waste are more concentrated. Scientists call this waste Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material or simply TENORM.

  20. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on board, used in any manner, or stored on the vessel, unless the...

  1. Development of CaMoO4 crystal scintillators for double beta decay experiment with 100-Mo

    CERN Document Server

    Annenkov, A N; Danevich, F A; Georgadze, A S; Kim, S K; Kim, H J; Kim, Y D; Kobychev, V V; Kornoukhov, V N; Korzhik, M; Lee, J I; Missevitch, O; Mokina, V M; Nagorny, S S; Nikolaiko, A S; Poda, D V; Podviyanuk, R B; Sedlak, D J; Shkulkova, O G; So, J H; Solsky, I M; Tretyak, V I; Yurchenko, S S

    2007-01-01

    Energy resolution, alpha/beta ratio, pulse-shape discrimination for gamma rays and alpha particles, temperature dependence of scintillation properties, and radioactive contamination were studied with CaMoO4 crystal scintillators. A high sensitivity experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100-Mo by using CaMoO4 scintillators is discussed.

  2. 26 CFR 1.555-2 - Additions to gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corporation sells 90percent of its stock in the Y Corporation and thus is a minority shareholder in the Y... on which the required United States group exists, and (2) Such foreign corporation is a shareholder... the gross income of its shareholders, whether United States shareholders or other foreign...

  3. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  4. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  5. 40 CFR 403.15 - Net/Gross calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.15 Net/Gross... pollutants in the Industrial User's intake water in accordance with this section. Any Industrial User wishing... of the Industrial User, the applicable Standard will be calculated on a “net” basis (i.e., adjusted...

  6. Rubriek 'Meten in de praktijk': Gross Motor Function Measure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.

    2004-01-01

    De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) is een instrument dat de grof-motorische vaardigheden meet van kinderen met cerebrale parese. De GMFM is expliciet ontwikkeld als evaluatief meetinstrument, wat betekent dat het bedoeld is om veranderingen over de tijd of verandering en die optreden na behandel

  7. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  8. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  9. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  10. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the....regulations.gov . Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of...

  11. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  12. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  13. Happy Life Years: a measure of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is defined as the degree to which a person enjoys his or her life-as-a-whole. Accordingly ‘Gross National Happiness’ is defined as the degree to which citizens in a country enjoy the life they live. Individual happiness can be measured by self-report on a single standard

  14. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390 RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  15. Strategic improvements for gross anatomy web-based teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; Juluru, Krishna; Long, Chris; Magid, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year's digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points) and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points). Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  16. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  17. Construction of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we construct the noncommutative Grosse-Wulkenhaar model on 2-dimensional Moyal plane with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  18. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  19. ɛ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O( N ) Gross-Neveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions. To do this, we extend the "cowpie contraction" algorithm of arXiv:1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  20. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  1. Samuel D. Gross: the nestor of American surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2006-01-01

    Samuel David Gross (1805-1884) represented the most notable surgeon of his generation and was honored with the title of "The Nestor of American Surgeon" by surgeon biographer Isaac Minis Hays. Of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, he was born on the family farm near Easton, Pennsylvania. He attended Wilkebarré Academy and Lawrenceville High School, noted private institutions of the day. He apprenticed under Doctor Joseph K. Swift of Easton and later with Professor George McClellan while in Philadelphia. In 1828, he graduated from Jefferson Medical College and remained for a short time in Philadelphia. Professor Gross focused his professional pursuits in the cities of Easton (1830-1833), Cincinnati (1833-1840), Louisville (1840-1856), and Philadelphia (1856-1882). He retired from Jefferson Medical College two years before his death in 1884. Samuel D. Gross' contributions to surgery were numerous and diverse. He was recognized as a prolific author of classic texts of pathology, surgery, and history, an educator, a leader, a surgical researcher, and a pioneer surgeon practitioner. His influence in national affairs was immense, and his recognition as a respected surgeon was unmatched. He remains the most distinguished surgeon of his times. History values him as a hard working, honest, highly competent, and committed individual. His capacity for work and his dedication to a single cause were unrivaled. Doctor Gross integrated the best that surgery could give to future generations of surgical professionals.

  2. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  3. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  4. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  5. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  6. 75 FR 15610 - Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Exclusions From Gross Income of Foreign Corporations CFR Correction In Title 26 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1 (Sec. Sec. 1.851 to 1.907), revised as...

  7. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  8. Outcomes of a Rotational Dissection System in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, David W.; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z.; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to…

  9. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Marker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year’s digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points. Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  10. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R

    1966-01-01

    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  11. Radioactive waste management in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubauer Josef

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf, there are several facilities in stalled for treatment of waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level (radwaste. A separate company within Centers, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, has been formed recently, acting as a centralized facility for treatment, conditioning and storing of such waste within the country. The relevant treatment technology is applied depending on the waste category. In total about 6900 m3 of solid waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level originating from Austria was treated in the period between 1976 and 2002. Presently, there exists no final repository for radwaste in Austria. A study is under way to identify the structure for a long term storage facility.

  12. Review of Monte Carlo simulations for backgrounds from radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Marco

    2013-08-01

    For all experiments dealing with the rare event searches (neutrino, dark matter, neutrino-less double-beta decay), the reduction of the radioactive background is one of the most important and difficult tasks. There are basically two types of background, electron recoils and nuclear recoils. The electron recoil background is mostly from the gamma rays through the radioactive decay. The nuclear recoil background is from neutrons from spontaneous fission, (α, n) reactions and muoninduced interactions (spallations, photo-nuclear and hadronic interaction). The external gammas and neutrons from the muons and laboratory environment, can be reduced by operating the detector at deep underground laboratories and by placing active or passive shield materials around the detector. The radioactivity of the detector materials also contributes to the background; in order to reduce it a careful screening campaign is mandatory to select highly radio-pure materials. In this review I present the status of current Monte Carlo simulations aimed to estimate and reproduce the background induced by gamma and neutron radioactivity of the materials and the shield of rare event search experiment. For the electromagnetic background a good level of agreement between the data and the MC simulation has been reached by the XENON100 and EDELWEISS experiments, using the GEANT4 toolkit. For the neutron background, a comparison between the yield of neutrons from spontaneous fission and (α, n) obtained with two dedicated softwares, SOURCES-4A and the one developed by Mei-Zhang-Hime, show a good overall agreement, with total yields within a factor 2 difference. The energy spectra from SOURCES-4A are in general smoother, while those from MZH presents sharp peaks. The neutron propagation through various materials has been studied with two MC codes, GEANT4 and MCNPX, showing a reasonably good agreement, inside 50% discrepancy.

  13. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  14. Analysis methods for airborne radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ala-Heikkilä, Jarmo J

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry is an analysis method well suitable for monitoring airborne radioactivity. Many of the natural radionuclides and a majority of anthropogenic nuclides are prominent gamma-ray emitters. With gamma-ray spectrometry different radionuclides are readily observed at minute concentrations that are far from health hazards. The gamma-ray spectrometric analyses applied in air monitoring programmes can be divided into particulate measurements and gas measurements. I...

  15. Clays in radioactive waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun; Tang, Anh-Minh

    2010-01-01

    Clays and argillites are considered in some countries as possible host rocks for nuclear waste disposal at great depth. The use of compacted swelling clays as engineered barriers is also considered within the framework of the multi-barrier concept. In relation to these concepts, various research programs have been conducted to assess the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. After introducing the concepts of waste isolation developed in Belgium, Fran...

  16. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  17. Radioactive waste management in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Neubauer Josef

    2004-01-01

    At the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf, there are several facilities in stalled for treatment of waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level (radwaste). A separate company within Centers, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, has been formed recently, acting as a centralized facility for treatment, conditioning and storing of such waste within the country. The relevant treatment technology is applied depending on the waste category. In total about 6900 m3 of solid waste of low and inte...

  18. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSweeney, T.I.; Maheras, S.J.; Ross, S.B. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites.

  19. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patches on the tongue and mouth called oral leukoplakia. Taking beta-carotene by mouth for up to 12 months seems to decrease symptoms of oral leukoplakia. Osteoarthritis. Beta-carotene taken by mouth may prevent ...

  20. Background radioactivity of construction materials, raw substance and ready-made CaMoO4 crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Busanov, O A; Gavriljuk, Yu M; Gezhaev, A M; Kazalov, V V; Kornoukhov, V N; Kuzminov, V V; Moseev, P S; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S; Yakimenko, S P

    2013-01-01

    The results of measurements of natural radioactive isotopes content in different source materials of natural and enriched composition used for CaMoO4 scintillation crystal growing are presented. The crystals are to be used in the experiment to search for double neutrinoless betas-decay of Mo-100.

  1. Background radioactivity of construction materials, raw substance and ready-made CaMoO4 crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busanov O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of measurements of natural radioactive isotopes content in different source materials of natural and enriched composition used for CaMoO4 scintillation crystal growing are presented. The crystals are to be used in the experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo.

  2. Detection and positioning of radioactive sources using a four-detector response algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, Michael J.; Skutnik, Steven E.; Hall, Howard L.

    2014-12-11

    A method for detecting and identifying radioactive gamma-ray sources along with determining a directional bearing is described. This method is based upon comparing the relative intensities of four detectors placed side by side in a four-quadrant formation, allowing for the system to take advantage of shadowing in the occluded array of detectors. Based on this shielding principle, a fuzzy logic algorithm is used to analyze the gross count response of each individual detector with respect to the other three. The result of this algorithm is a numerical result that can be converted to a directional bearing in a 360° x–y plane.

  3. Current and future searches for neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinski, Michelle J.

    2016-09-01

    With the discovery of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass, it has become a pressing question whether neutrinos have distinct antiparticle states. The most practical experimental approach to answering this question is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay, a version of a rare nuclear process that would violate lepton number conservation. The observation of neutrinoless double beta decay would prove that neutrinos are their own antiparticles. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments deploy large source masses consisting of a select few (usually enriched) isotopes of interest. Detectors must achieve extremely low levels of radioactive background to detect this rare decay. I will report on recent searches for neutrinoless double beta decay and discuss the technical challenges that the next generation of experiments will overcome.

  4. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    .S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  5. A new method in the management of skin neoplasm using a flexible radioactive patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Sang Gun; Lee, Min Geol [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gwi Eon; Chung, Yae Lee [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Hee [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyung Bae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We have developed a flexible radioactive polyurethane patch incorporating {beta}-emitting radionuclide (166Ho) to treat malignant skin lesions. We covered the tumor surface (n=133) with the radioactive patch for 33.58 {+-} 5.33 minutes. Radiation dose delivered was 35 Gy for Bowen's disease (n=78), Kaposi sarcoma (n=25), actinic keratosis (n=5), and 50 Gy for BCC (n=17) and squamous carcinoma (n=8). Complete response was observed in 91.7% after the first therapeutic trial, 96.2% after 2nd and 97.7% after 4th trial with excellent cosmetic outcome for 31.15{+-}13.88 months of follow-up. Radioactive patch therapy is effective for superficial skin cancers that are impractical for surgery.

  6. Radioactivity of Drinking-Water in the Vicinity of Nuclear Power Plants in China Based on a Large-Scale Monitoring Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiang Miao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The public concern for radioactivity of drinking-water has been increasing in recent years after the rapid development of nuclear power plants, and especially after the Fukushima nuclear accident. In this study, the radioactivity of water samples collected in the vicinity of nuclear facilities from seven provinces in China was measured and an average annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was calculated. The results showed that, in winter and spring, the activities of gross α and β ranged from 0.009 Bq/L to 0.200 Bq/L and from 0.067 Bq/L to 0.320 Bq/L, respectively. While, in summer and autumn, the activities of gross a and β varied from 0.002 Bq/L to 0.175 Bq/L and from 0.060 Bq/L to 0.334 Bq/L. Our results indicated that the gross a and β activities in these measured water samples were below the WHO recommended values (0.5 Bq/L for gross α and 1.0 Bq/L for gross β and the annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was at a safe level.

  7. Radioactivity of drinking-water in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in China based on a large-scale monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiao-Xiang; Ji, Yan-Qin; Shao, Xian-Zhang; Wang, Huan; Sun, Quan-Fu; Su, Xu

    2013-12-06

    The public concern for radioactivity of drinking-water has been increasing in recent years after the rapid development of nuclear power plants, and especially after the Fukushima nuclear accident. In this study, the radioactivity of water samples collected in the vicinity of nuclear facilities from seven provinces in China was measured and an average annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was calculated. The results showed that, in winter and spring, the activities of gross α and β ranged from 0.009 Bq/L to 0.200 Bq/L and from 0.067 Bq/L to 0.320 Bq/L, respectively. While, in summer and autumn, the activities of gross a and β varied from 0.002 Bq/L to 0.175 Bq/L and from 0.060 Bq/L to 0.334 Bq/L. Our results indicated that the gross a and β activities in these measured water samples were below the WHO recommended values (0.5 Bq/L for gross α and 1.0 Bq/L for gross β) and the annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was at a safe level.

  8. Systematic Study of Trace Radioactive Impurities in Candidate Construction Materials for EXO-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, D.S.; Grinberg, P.; Weber, P.; Baussan, E.; Djurcic, Z.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Akimov, D.; Bellerive, A.; Bowcock, M.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Conley, R.; Craddock, W.; Danilov, M.; DeVoe, R.; Dixit, M.; Dolgolenko, A.; /Alabama U. /NRC-INMS /Neuchatel U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Maryland U. /UC, Irvine

    2007-10-24

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) will search for double beta decays of 136Xe. We report the results of a systematic study of trace concentrations of radioactive impurities in a wide range of raw materials and finished parts considered for use in the construction of EXO-200, the first stage of the EXO experimental program. Analysis techniques employed, and described here, include direct gamma counting, alpha counting, neutron activation analysis, and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry.

  9. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward......-looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  10. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reistad, O; Dowdall, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Standring, W J F; Hustveit, S; Steenhuisen, F; Sørlie, A

    2008-07-01

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site is an interesting case study for decommissioning due to the extremely large amounts of radioactivity present at the site and the conditions under which it is stored; very little has been previously published in the scientific literature about this site. This paper complements the paper describing dose rates at Andreeva Bay which is published in this issue of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity by the same authors. This study presents new data related to the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in surface soils and measurements of alpha- and beta-particle fluxes taken at different areas around the site. Limited data on 60Co is also presented. The results of the study indicate that the main areas of site contamination are associated with the former spent nuclear fuel storage facility at Building 5, due to accidental discharges which began in 1982. Substantial contamination is also observed at the solid radioactive waste storage facilities, probably due to the ingress of water into these facilities. More than 240 samples were measured: maximum contamination levels were 1 x 10(6)Bq/kg (137)Cs (mean value 4.1 x 10(5)Bq/kg) and 4 x 10(6)Bq/kg (90)Sr (mean value 1.2 x1 0(5)Bq/kg). Localised patches of alpha and beta contamination were also observed throughout the site.

  11. Radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratta, E.J. [Winchester Engineering and Analytical Center, Winchester, MA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cesium-134 and -137 in Foods, Gamma-Ray Spectrophotometric Methods. The method entitled {open_quotes}Cs-134 and Cs-137 in Foods, Gamma-Ray Spectrophotometric Method{close_quotes} has been adopted official first action, with minor revisions. Iodine 131: The method {open_quotes}Iodine-131 in Milk, Radiochemical Separation Method{close_quotes} has been accepted by the Committee on Residues and Related Topics and has been recommended to the Methods Committee for adoption first action. Search is continuing for a new Associated Referee. Plutonium-239: The Associate Referee is doing a literature search for a method for the determination of plutonium in foods. When one is selected, she will prepared a protocol for a collaborative study and submit it for approval. Radium-228: Search is ongoing for a new Associate Referee. When one is appointed, a method should be selected and tested. Strontium-89 and -90: The Associate Referee is investigating methods using resin discs and/or resin columns for these radionuclides. These methods are now being used in analyses for strontium-89 and -90 in water. She will now attempt to apply it to milk. If successful, she will prepare a protocol for a collaborative study and submit it for approval. Tritium: Search is continuing for a new Associate Referee for this topic.

  12. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  13. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  14. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2 π , and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  15. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  16. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  17. PREDICTION OF GROSS FEED EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict gross feed efficiency of Italian Holstein Friesian bulls selected for production, functional and type traits. A total of 12,238 bulls, from the April 2015 genetic evaluation, were used. Predicted daily gross feed efficiency (pFE was obtained as ratio between milk yield (MY and predicted dry matter intake (pDMI. Phenotypic trend for MY, predicted body weight (pBW and pFE were calculated by the bull birth year. The results suggest that pFE can be successfully selected to increase profitability of dairy cattle using the current milk recording system. Direct measurements on DMI should be considered to confirm results of pFE obtained in the present study.

  18. A state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, B. K.; Lee, K. W.; Oh, W. Z.; Woo, Z. H.; Kim, G. H

    2004-11-15

    Many radioactive wastes are produced during the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities. Their radiological characterization must be estimated for disposal and reuse. Especially, it is very difficult to measure the in-pipe surface contamination, because of the difficulty of access. So, it is necessary to develop the measurement technology for the in-pipe surface contamination. In the developed counties of the decommissioning technology such as America, Japan etc. they developed the measuring device for the in-pipe radioactive contamination and performed the capacity estimation. In this report, the state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and radiation detector for measuring the each radiation(alpha, beta, and gamma) proceeding around the world was analyzed. By means of such technology analysis, we will develop the measuring technology of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and apply to the decommissioning sites.

  19. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  20. Constructive Renormalization of 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhituo

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we briefly report the recent work on the construction of the 2-dimensional Grosse-Wulkenhaar model with the method of loop vertex expansion. We treat renormalization with this new tool, adapt Nelson's argument and prove Borel summability of the perturbation series. This is the first non-commutative quantum field theory model to be built in a non-perturbative sense.

  1. Radioactive geochronometry from the treatise on geochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, H D

    2011-01-01

    The history of Earth in the Solar System has been unraveled using natural radioactivity. The sources of this radioactivity are the original creation of the elements and the subsequent bombardment of objects, including Earth, in the Solar System by cosmic rays. Both radioactive and radiogenic nuclides are harnessed to arrive at ages of various events and processes on Earth. This collection of chapters from the "Treatise on Geochemistry" displays the range of radioactive geochronometric studies that have been addressed by researchers in various fields of Earth science. These range from the age of Earth and the Solar System to the dating of the history of Earth that assists us in defining the major events in Earth history. In addition, the use of radioactive geochronometry in describing rates of Earth surface processes, including the climate history recorded in ocean sediments and the patterns of circulation of the fluid Earth, has extended the range of utility of radioactive isotopes as chronometric and tracer ...

  2. Communication from the Radioactive Shipping Service

    CERN Multimedia

    DDGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive materials Import/Export service reminds you that all movements of potentially radioactive material must be declared in advance. For exports, shipping requests must be made via the EDH request form, ticking the box “radioactive material”. For imports, an electronic form must be completed before the arrival of the material. Requests which do not comply with the above procedure and any unauthorized imports of radioactive material will be refused.The same applies to imports/exports of radioactive sources. All necessary information is given in the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Phone: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00 Email: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  3. Fission approach to cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D N Poenaru; R A Gherghescu

    2015-09-01

    Fission theory is used to explain decay. Also, the analytical superasymmetric fission (ASAF) model is successfully employed to make a systematic search and to predict, with other models, cluster radioactivity. The macroscopic–microscopic method is illustrated for the superheavy nucleus 286Fl. Then a few results of the theoretical approach of decay (ASAF, UNIV and semFIS models), cluster decay (ASAF and UNIV) and spontaneous fission dynamics are described with Werner–Wheeler and cranking inertia. UNIV denotes universal curve and semFIS the fission-based semiempirical formula.

  4. Radioactive Probes on Ferromagnetic Surfaces

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On the (broad) basis of our studies of nonmagnetic radioactive probe atoms on magnetic surfaces and at interfaces, we propose to investigate the magnetic interaction of magnetic probe atoms with their immediate environment, in particular of rare earth (RE) elements positioned on and in ferromagnetic surfaces. The preparation and analysis of the structural properties of such samples will be performed in the UHV chamber HYDRA at the HMI/Berlin. For the investigations of the magnetic properties of RE atoms on surfaces Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) measurements and Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS) in the UHV chamber ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN) are proposed.

  5. Bremsstrahlung information for the non-destructive characterization of radioactive waste packages. Final report; Nutzung von Bremsstrahlungsinformationen fuer die zerstoerungsfreie Charakterisierung radioaktiver Abfaelle. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecherl, T.; Rohrmoser, B.; Lierse von Gostomski, C.

    2013-04-15

    The report describes a feasibility study on non-destructive characterization of radioactive waste package using bremsstrahlung information within the gamma spectra. A multi-step was developed for the identification of the bremsstrahlung in the measured gamma spectra under defined boundary conditions. The experimental investigations were performed using a stationary HPGe detector system, a mobile HPGe detector system and a mobile gamma scanner. Further studies are necessary with respect to the possible beta emitting radionuclides in a radioactive waste package.

  6. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up: Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, G

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's Radioactive Waste and Clean-up Division performs studies and develops strategies, techniques and technologies in the area of radioactive waste management, the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear installations and the remediation of radioactive-contaminated sites. These activities are performed in the context of our responsibility towards the safety of present and future generations and contribute to achieve intrageneration equity.

  7. Radioactive Waste Management in A Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, AT; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A; Ajaz, M.; Jan, FA

    2010-01-01

    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance w...

  8. [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP, a potential radioligand for quantitation of the dopamine transporter: Preparation, autoradiography, metabolite studies, and positron emission tomography examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundkvist, Camilla; Halldin, Christer; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Hall, Haakan; Karlsson, Per; Nakashima, Yoshifumi; Wang, Shaoyin; Milius, Richard A.; Neumeyer, John L.; Farde, Lars

    1995-10-01

    {beta}-CIT-FP [N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane] is a cocaine analogue with a high affinity for the dopamine transporter. [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP ([{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP) was prepared byO -alkylation of the free acid with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide. The total radiochemical yield of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP was 50 to 60% with an overall synthesis time of 30 min. The radiochemical purity was >99%, and the specific radioactivity at time of injection was about 37 GBq/{mu}mol (1000 Ci/mmol). Autoradiographic examination of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP binding in human brain postmortem demonstrated specific binding in the caudate nucleus and putamen. Positron emission tomography (PET) examination of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP in a Cynomolgus monkey demonstrated accumulation in the striatum with a striatum-to-cerebellum ratio of about 8 after 60 min. Equilibrium in the striatum was attained within 70 to 90 min. The radioactivity ratios of thalamus/cerebellum and neocortex/cerebellum were about 2 and 1.5, respectively. In a displacement experiment, radioactivity in the striatum but not in the cerebellum was reduced after injection of {beta}-CIT, indicating that striatal radioactivity following injection of [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP is associated with dopamine transporter sites and that the binding is reversible. The fraction of the total radioactivity in plasma representing [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was 84% at 15 min and 50% at 95 min. [{sup 11}C]{beta}-CIT-FP should be a useful PET radioligand for the quantitation of dopamine transporters in the human brain in vivo.

  9. [Microbiological Aspects of Radioactive Waste Storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, A V; Gorbunova, O A; German, K E; Zakharova, E V; Tregubova, V E; Ershov, B G; Nazina, T N

    2015-01-01

    The article gives information about the microorganisms inhabiting in surface storages of solid radioactive waste and deep disposal sites of liquid radioactive waste. It was shown that intensification of microbial processes can lead to significant changes in the chemical composition and physical state of the radioactive waste. It was concluded that the biogeochemical processes can have both a positive effect on the safety of radioactive waste storages (immobilization of RW macrocomponents, a decreased migration ability of radionuclides) and a negative one (biogenic gas production in subterranean formations and destruction of cement matrix).

  10. MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘自强

    1994-01-01

    The policy and principles on management of radioactive wastes are stipulated.Cement solidification and bituminization unit has come into trial run.Solid radioactive waste is stored in tentative storage vault built in each of nuclear facilities.Seventeen storages associated with applications of nuclear technology and radioisotopes have been built for provinces.Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes pursues the policy of “regional disposal”.Four repositories have been planned to be built in northwest.southwest,south and east China respectively.A program for treatment and disposal of high level radioactive waste has been made.

  11. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  12. Common errors in transport of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Fabio F.; Boni-Mitake, Malvina; Dellamano, Jos C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: ffsuzuki@ipen.br; mbmitake@ipen.br; jcdellam@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The transport of radioactive waste is a stage of the waste management and must fit the same protection and safety requirements of any radioactive material shipment. In Brazil, the radioactive waste shipments must comply with the national regulations for transport of dangerous goods and the specific regulation for the safe transport of radioactive material of the nuclear regulatory authority. In these regulations, the consignor is responsible for the safety during the transport, however, the unload operations are consignee's responsibility. The Radioactive Waste Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, receives institutional radioactive waste from several radioactive facilities in the country. During the unload operations, protection and safety items are verified, such as the data written into the transport documents and the maximum levels of radiation on packages. The records show that almost all shipments of radioactive waste presented irregularities that varied from mistakes in fulfilling transport documents, up to the total disregard to the regulations. The shipments that could result in radiological risk to the operators of IPEN-CNEN/SP gave origin to reports that had been sent to the nuclear regulatory authority to take steps to prevent new occurrences and to enforce consignors and carriers. The adoption of this procedure in any type of occurrence, as well as its institutionalization in all radioactive waste management facilities of the nuclear regulatory authority could be an improvement against the errors observed in this type of transport. (author)

  13. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  14. Elaboration of Co-60 sources on gilding vyns, with beta efficiencies 80 % or better and its activity measure by the coincidences method; Elaboracion de fuentes de Co-60 sobre vyns dorado, con eficiencias beta del 80 % o mejor y su medida de actividad por el metodo de coincidencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, A.; Tejera R, A.; Becerril V, A.; Ortiz C, A

    1991-12-15

    The measuring technique of radioactive activity by the coincidences method 4 {pi} {beta}{sup -} {gamma} it requires of the elaboration of radioactive sources on thin supports in order to flows the biggest percentage of beta particles, those of the order of the 80 % or but. In this work a procedure for the elaboration of this type of sources, with gilding Vyns is reported. (Author)

  15. Import/Export Service of Radioactive Material and Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export Service of radioactive material (http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ - e-mail : service-rp-shipping@cern.ch) and the Radioactive Sources Service (http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources - e-mail : service-radioactive-sources@cern.ch) at bldg. 24/E-024 will be closed on FRIDAY 10 SEPTEMBER 2004. Tel. 73171

  16. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  17. [Determination of radioactivity by smartphones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, H; Freudenberg, R; Andreeff, M; Kotzerke, J

    2013-01-01

    The interest in the detection of radioactive materials has strongly increased after the accident in the nuclear power plant Fukushima and has led to a bottleneck of suitable measuring instruments. Smartphones equipped with a commercially available software tool could be used for dose rate measurements following a calibration according to the specific camera module. We examined whether such measurements provide reliable data for typical activities and radionuclides in nuclear medicine. For the nuclides 99mTc (10 - 1000 MBq), 131I (3.7 - 1800 MBq, therapy capsule) and 68Ga (50 - 600 MBq) radioactivity with defined geometry in different distances was measured. The smartphones Milestone Droid 1 (Motorola) and HTC Desire (HTC Corporation) were compared with the standard instruments AD6 (automess) and DoseGUARD (AEA Technology). Measurements with the smartphones and the other devices show a good agreement: linear signal increase with rising activity and dose rate. The long time measurement (131I, 729 MBq, 0.5 m, 60 min) demonstrates a considerably higher variation (by 20%) of the measured smartphone data values compared with the AD6. For low dose rates (rates resulting from typical nuclear medicine procedures can be measured reliably (e. g., dismissal dose after radioiodine therapy). The signal shows a high correlation to measured values of conventional dose measurement devices.

  18. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  19. Relationship Between Gross Motor Function and Daily Functional Skill in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Tae Won; Chang, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between gross motor function and daily functional skill in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore how this relationship is moderated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System, Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF), neuromotor types, and limb distribution of CP. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 112 children with CP (range, 4 years to 7 years and 7 months) was performed. Gross motor function was assessed with the Gross Motor Function ...

  20. Effect of radioactivity on stent-graft incorporation after endovascular treatment of aneurysms: An animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerouge, Sophie; Raymond, Jean; Schloesser, Klaus; Gaboury, Louis; Soulez, Gilles

    2006-12-01

    Poor stent-graft (SG) incorporation into the vessel wall, following endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR), can lead to endoleaks and SG migration. Low-dose radiation can prevent aneurysm recurrence after coil embolization, and has been associated with a "paradoxical" increase in neointima formation after stenting in a few studies. It was hypothesized that in situ beta radiation emitted from SG could improve its incorporation by preventing the persistence of circulating channels between the implant and the vessel wall and increasing neointima formation around the SG. Phosphorus 32 ((32)P, 200 or 400 kBq per SG (n = 6 each)) was ion implanted on the external surface of balloon-expandable SGs. Twelve radioactive and six non-radioactive SGs were deployed in iliac arteries of nine Mongrel dogs. Neointima formation inside the graft and the persistence of circulating flow through an artificial groove created during the endovascular procedure were assessed by follow-up imaging and by blinded, computerized histomorphometric analysis after animal sacrifice at 3 months. Occlusion occurred in four radioactive SGs. A lesser number of patent grooves was observed along high-activity SGs than along control SGs (1/3 versus 4/4). No difference in neointima formation was observed in radioactive and non-radioactive SGs. Alteration of external graft surface was observed after ion implantation. Ion implantation of (32)P on SGs does not seem to be a viable strategy to improve incorporation and prevent type-I endoleak after EVAR.

  1. Benchmarking Microwave Cavity Dark Matter Searches using a Radioactive Source

    CERN Multimedia

    Caspers, F

    2014-01-01

    A radioactive source is proposed as a calibration device to verify the sensitivity of a microwave dark matter search experiment. The interaction of e.g., electrons travelling in an arbitrary direction and velocity through an electromagnetically “empty” microwave cavity can be calculated numerically. We give an estimation of the energy deposited by a charged particle into a particular mode. Numerical examples are given for beta emitters and two particular cases: interaction with a field free cavity and interaction with a cavity which already contains an electromagnetic field. Each particle delivers a certain amount of energy related to the modal R/Q value of the cavity. The transferred energy is a function of the particles trajectory and its velocity. It results in a resonant response of the cavity, which can be observed using a sensitive microwave receiver, provided that the deposited energy is significantly above the single photon threshold.

  2. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs. October-December 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; Soldat, J.K.

    1956-02-06

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period October, November, and December 1955. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, selfabsorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 5 refs.

  3. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, July-September 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilcher, G.E.; Soldat, J.K.; Carey, Z.E.

    1955-04-20

    This publication summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period July, August, and September 1954. Samples were collected by Regional Survey forces. These samples were analyzed by the Control Laboratory of the Control Unit. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, back-scatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by the Control Services group. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct smples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII which discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and its effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil and water. 9 refs.

  4. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, July-September 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConiga, M.W.; Selby, J.M.; Soldat, J.K.

    1958-02-24

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period July, August, September, 1957. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VI. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 10 refs.

  5. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, July-September 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; Soldat, J.K.

    1955-10-10

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period July, August, and September, 1955. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 6 refs.

  6. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, April-June 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; Soldat, J.K.

    1956-08-07

    This document summarized the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period April, May, and June, 1956. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 8 refs.

  7. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, October-December 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; McConiga, M.W.; Soldat, J.K.

    1957-02-25

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period October, November, and December, 1956. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 8 refs.

  8. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, October-December 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConiga, M.W.; Selby, J.M.; Soldat, J.K.

    1958-02-28

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period October, November, December, 1957. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of sort half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VI. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 8 refs.

  9. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, January-March 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; Soldat, J.K.

    1956-05-28

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period January, February, and March 1956. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 7 refs.

  10. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, January-March 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConiga, M.W.; Soldat, J.K.

    1957-06-17

    The document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period January, February, and March, 1957. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 9 refs.

  11. Human kidney 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: regulation by adrenocorticotropin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, S; Quinkler, M; Miller, K; Heilmann, P; Schoneshofer, M; Oelkers, W

    1996-03-01

    In ectopic adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) syndrome (EAS) with higher ACTH levels than in pituitary Cushing's syndrome and during ACTH infusion, the ratio of cortisol to cortisone in plasma and urine is increased, suggesting inhibition of renal 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD) by ACTH or by ACTH-dependent steroids. Measuring the conversion of cortisol to cortisone by human kidney slices under different conditions, we tested the possibility of 11 beta-HSD regulation by ACTH and corticosteroids. Slices prepared from unaffected parts of kidneys removed because of renal cell carcinoma were incubated with unlabeled or labeled cortisol, and cortisol and cortisone were quantitated after HPLC separation by UV or radioactive detection. The 11 beta HSD activity was not influenced by incubation with increasing concentrations (10(-12)-10(-9) mol/l) of ACTH (1-24 or 1-39) for 1 h. Among 12 ACTH-dependent steroids tested (10(-9)-10(-6) mol/l), only corticosterone (IC50 = 2 x 10(-7) mol/l), 18-OH-corticosterone and 11 beta-OH-androstenedione showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition of 11 beta-HSD activity. The percentage conversion rate of cortisol to cortisone was concentration dependent over the whole range of cortisol concentrations tested (10(-8) - 10(-5) mol/l. A direct inhibitory effect of ACTH on 11 beta-HSD is, therefore, unlikely. The only steroids inhibiting the conversion of cortisol to cortisone are natural substrates for 11 beta-HSD. Kinetic studies show a saturation of the enzyme at high cortisol concentrations. Thus, the reduced percentage renal cortisol inactivation in EAS seems to be due mainly to overload of the enzyme with endogenous substrates (cortisol, corticosterone and others) rather than to direct inhibition of 11 beta-HSD by ACTH or ACTH-dependent steroids, not being substrates of 11 beta-HSD.

  12. 26 CFR 1.927(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; Definition of gross...(b)-1T Temporary regulations; Definition of gross receipts. (a) General rule. Under section 927(b.... The FSC's gross receipts for purposes of computing its profit under the administrative pricing...

  13. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  14. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means...

  15. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  16. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  17. 26 CFR 20.2031-1 - Definition of gross estate; valuation of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that if the executor elects the alternate valuation method under section 2032, it is the fair... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross estate; valuation of... § 20.2031-1 Definition of gross estate; valuation of property. (a) Definition of gross estate. Except...

  18. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in...

  19. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    -looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta......Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward...... at the daily frequency. This beta can be computed using option data for a single day, and is able to reflect sudden changes in the structure of the underlying company. Based on an empirical investigation of daily cross-sections of option contracts on thirty underlying companies, we conclude that these forward...

  20. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for......, the return of the BAB factor is low. (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one. (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....... for US equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures. (2) A betting against beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low-beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns. (3) When funding constraints tighten...

  1. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets........S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  2. Enzymic Mechanism of Starch Breakdown in Germinating Rice Seeds: 9. DE NOVO SYNTHESIS OF beta-AMYLASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, K; Akazawa, T

    1980-01-01

    Germinating rice seeds were fed with [(35)S]methionine and the incorporation of (35)S into beta-amylase demonstrated by quantitative immunoprecipitation using rabbit anti-beta-amylase immunoglobulin G fraction. Separation of the antigen-antibody complex by Na-dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis and subsequent radioautography clearly showed the radioactive labeling of the beta-amylase molecule. The specific radioactivity of beta-amylase derived from scutellum by immunoprecipitation was significantly greater than that of the endosperm. The results strongly indicate that at the onset of germination of rice seeds beta-amylase is synthesized de novo in the scutellum and that in later stages there occurs activation of an inactive, latent form of the enzyme associated with starch granules in the endosperm. In later stages of germination this activated form of the enzyme becomes dominant.

  3. Imperfect World of $\\beta\\beta$-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Pritychenko, B

    2015-01-01

    The precision of double-beta ($\\beta\\beta$) decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for $\\beta\\beta$-decay T$_{1/2}^{2\

  4. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This issue is the special number on the radioactive survey data of dietary materials collected in 1996. The samples sent from 46 prefectures in Japan were analyzed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 by Japan Chemical Analysis Center. The collection of dietary materials were conducted as follows. A full one-day ordinary diet including three meals, water, tea and snack between meals was collected semiyearly from 5 persons as a total diet sample and ashed at 450degC in an electric muffle furnace. Polished rice was yearly collected in producing districts and consumer`s areas followed by ashing in a porcelain dish. Raw milk is producing districts and commercial one were collected semiyearly. Spinach and Japanese radish were chosen as the representatives for left vegetables and for non-starch roots, respectively. Yearly collected fish, shellfish and seaweed were ashed in an electric muffle furnace after carbonization. All samples were analyzed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 after radiochemical separation by the precipitation method with sodium carbonate. Counting of radioactivity was conducted by low background {beta}-counter and based on those results, the concentrations of the nuclides were estimated. The detail data are presented in this report. (M.N.)

  5. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 1. Environmental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This issue is the special number on the radioactive survey data of environmental materials collected in 1996. Samples were sent to Japan Chemical Analysis Center from 46 prefectures to analyze the levels of strontium-90 and cesium-137. Rain and dry fallout were collected monthly on a sampling tray (5000 cm{sup 2} in area). Airborne dusts were collected by an electrostatic precipitator or a filter air sampler for every 3 months. Service water at the intake of a water-treatment plant and from the tap, fresh water and sea water at fixed stations were yearly collected. Seasediments were collected in the same area as those for the sea water samples. Rain, service and fresh water were pretreated using cation-exchange column. Soil and sea sediment samples were ashed in an electric muffle furnace at 450degC. After separating strontium-90 and cesium-137 by precipitation method, their radioactivities were counted using low background {beta}-counters. And the contents of these nuclides in the original samples were estimated. The respective survey data are presented in this issue. (M.N.)

  6. An Excel™ model of a radioactive series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. G. H.

    2009-01-01

    A computer model of the decay of a radioactive series, written in Visual Basic in Excel™, is presented. The model is based on the random selection of cells in an array. The results compare well with the theoretical equations. The model is a useful tool in teaching this aspect of radioactivity.

  7. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items. (DC)

  8. Research on Calibration of Radioactive Aerosol Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xi-lin; WU; Chang-ping; ZHANG; Xi; MENG; Jun; DIAO; Li-jun; CHEN; Ke-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive aerosol monitors were used to monitor the radioactive substance concentration or the total amounts in effluents from the nuclear facilities,in according to which evaluation was done if the national regulated discharged limitations or the designated object amounts were met

  9. Measurements of radioactive contaminants in semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Murray, Conal E.; McNally, Brendan D.

    2016-12-01

    The emission of alpha particles from materials used to manufacture semiconductors can contribute substantially to the single-event upset rate. The alpha particles originate from contamination in the materials, or from radioactive isotopes, themselves. In this review paper, we discuss the sources of the radioactivity and the measurement methods to detect the emitted particles.

  10. Note from the Radioactive Waste Section

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to announce that the radioactive waste treatment centre will be closed on Friday, 19 December. In addition, waste reception will be limited to a strict minimum on Thursday, 18 December. Users of the centre are requested to adjust their plans accordingly. For more information, call 73875.

  11. The response of gross nitrogen mineralization to labile carbon inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per

    2014-05-01

    Input of labile carbon sources to forest soils commonly result in priming, i.e. an increase in the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. Efforts aimed at quantifying the extent of priming have, to date, largely focused on soil organic matter decomposition manifested as soil respiration. Less is known about how gross nitrogen mineralization responds to input of labile carbon. It is often assumed that increased priming results in decreased soil carbon stocks. However, microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen into plant available forms is a major factor limiting primary production in forests. If increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to labile carbon is accompanied by a concurrent increased nitrogen mineralization, this could result in elevated primary production and higher rates of plant derived organic matter input to soils. Therefore, in order to fully understand the effect of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon stocks, it is vital to consider if increased decomposition of soil organic matter caused by priming also results in increased nitrogen mineralization. Here I present the results from a series of experiments aimed at determining if, and to which extent, gross nitrogen mineralization is stimulated by input of labile carbon. The results suggest that it is by no means uncommon to find an increase in gross N mineralization rates in response to labile carbon inputs. The magnitude of the increase seems dependent on the nitrogen status of the soil, as well as the concentration and rate of labile carbon inputs. However, continuous input of labile carbon sources that also contains nitrogen, e.g. amino acids, seems to inhibit rather than increase the mineralization of organic nitrogen. These findings suggest that there is a potential for a positive feedback between priming and primary production that needs to be considered in order to fully understand the influence of priming on net ecosystem exchange and soil carbon

  12. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  13. Low-dimensional chiral physics. Gross-Neveu universality and magnetic catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Daniel David

    2012-09-27

    beyond the determination of critical exponents, we analyze the Gross-Neveu beta functions at finite temperature. The critical temperature for the 2nd order phase transition within the 2d-Ising universality class is determined as a function of the number of fermion species and we try to quantitatively describe the suppression of the so-called Ginzburg region with the number of fermion flavors. Finally we analyze the minimal coupling of the fermionic degrees of freedom to a background magnetic field that leads to the phenomenon of magnetic catalysis. The external magnetic field modifies the mode structure of the free theory to relativistic Landau levels, enhancing the efficiency of quantum fluctuations by dimensional reduction, thus leading to spontaneous symmetry breaking even for subcritical values of the coupling. We identify the corresponding renormalization group mechanism and quantitatively study the magnetic field dependence of the dynamically generated spectral gap.

  14. Ternary fission and cluster radioactivities

    CERN Document Server

    Poenaru, D N; Greiner, W; Gherghescu, R A; Hamilton, J H; Ramayya, A V

    2002-01-01

    Ternary fission yield for different kinds of light particle accompanied fission processes is compared to the Q-values for the corresponding cold phenomena, showing a striking correlation. The experimental evidence for the existence of a quasimolecular state in sup 1 sup 0 Be accompanied fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf may be explained using a three-center phenomenological model which generates a third minimum in the deformation energy at a separation distance very close to the touching point. This model is a natural extension of the unified approach to three groups of binary decay modes (cold fission, cluster radioactivities and alpha decay), illustrated by sup 2 sup 3 sup 4 U decay modes, and the alpha valley on the potential energy surfaces of sup 1 sup 0 sup 6 Te. New measurements of cluster decay modes, confirming earlier predictions within analytical superasymmetric fission model, are included in a comprehensive half-life systematics. (authors)

  15. Complex saddles in the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Gabriel; Medina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We give an exhaustive characterization of the complex saddle point configurations of the Gross-Witten-Wadia matrix model in the large-N limit. In particular, we characterize the cases in which the saddles accumulate in one, two, or three arcs, in terms of the values of the coupling constant and of the fraction of the total unit density that is supported in one of the arcs, and derive an explicit condition for gap closing associated to nonvacuum saddles. By applying the idea of large-N instanton we also give direct analytic derivations of the weak-coupling and strong-coupling instanton actions.

  16. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  17. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Deleplanque, M A; Pashkevich, V V; Chu, S Y; Unzhakova, A

    2004-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effects and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  18. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ika Prastyadewi; Agus Suman; Devanto Shasta Pratomo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and ...

  19. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  20. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-10-07

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed.

  1. [Examination of radioactive contamination in foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear plant accident in Mar. 2011, the examination of radioactive contamination in foods is being carried out in Nagoya. During the period between 30 Mar. 2011 and 31 Oct. 2012, a total of 300 food samples were collected and the concentrations of radioactive nuclides were determined by means of γ-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector. The results of analysis indicate that the concentrations of radioactive iodine (I) and cesium (Cs) were below the regulatory limits. Radioactive I ((131)I) was detected in 7 samples which belonged to the categories of green and yellow vegetables and other vegetables. Radioactive Cs ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) was detected in 60 samples which belonged to the categories of rice and its processed products, potatoes and its processed products, nuts and seeds, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, fishes and shellfishes, processed sea foods, meat, milk and dairy products and other beverages.

  2. Removal of radioactive contaminants by polymeric microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2016-11-01

    Radionuclide removal from radioactive liquid waste by adsorption on polymeric microspheres is the latest application of polymers in waste management. Polymeric microspheres have significant immobilization capacity for ionic substances. A laboratory study was carried out by using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for encapsulation of radionuclide in the liquid radioactive waste. There are numbers of advantages to use an encapsulation technology in radioactive waste management. Results show that polymerization step of radionuclide increases integrity of solidified waste form. Test results showed that adding the appropriate polymer into the liquid waste at an appropriate pH and temperature level, radionuclide was encapsulated into polymer. This technology may provide barriers between hazardous radioactive ions and the environment. By this method, solidification techniques became easier and safer in nuclear waste management. By using polymer microspheres as dust form, contamination risks were decreased in the nuclear industry and radioactive waste operations.

  3. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  4. Radioactively Contaminated Sites | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    If radioactive materials are used or disposed of improperly, they can contaminate buildings and the environment. Every site requiring cleanup is different depending on the type of facility, the radioactive elements involved and the concentration of the radioactive elements.

  5. Establishment of Radioactive Waste Running Safely in Whole Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In 2008, the radioactive wastes treatment and operation center received about 90 m3 of radioactiveliquid waste, about 30 m3 of radioactive solid waste, and about 160 million m3 of treated radioactive

  6. Activity measurement of phosphorus-32 in the presence of pure beta-emitting impurities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, B

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available measurements indicated the presence of radioactive impurities, the occurrence of the pure beta-emitters phosphorus-33 and sulphur-35 was assumed. The method adopted to extract the phosphorus-32 activity was thus to follow the decay over an extended period...

  7. CP-Violation in Neutrino Oscillations from EC/{beta}{sup +} decaying ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Catalina [Centre for Theoretical Particle Physics, IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-08-15

    We discuss the separation of unknown neutrino properties by means of the energy dependence of the oscillation probability and we consider an hybrid setup which combines the electron capture and the {beta}{sup +} decay from the same radioactive proton-rich ion with the same boost. We conclude that the combination of the two decay channels, with different neutrino energies, achieves remarkable results.

  8. Negative Beta Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\

  9. Double beta decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S

    2011-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  10. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  11. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions beta thalassemia beta thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  12. Radioactive contamination of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Galenin, E; Gektin, A; Incicchitti, A; Isaienko, V; Kobychev, V V; Laubenstein, M; Nagorny, S S; Podviyanuk, R B; Tkachenko, S; Tretyak, V I

    2011-01-01

    A strontium iodide crystal doped by europium (SrI2(Eu)) was produced by using the Stockbarger growth technique. The crystal was subjected to characterisation that included relative photoelectron output and energy resolution for gamma quanta. The intrinsic radioactivity of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator was tested both in scintillation mode and by using ultra-low background HPGe gamma spectrometry deep underground. The response of the SrI2(Eu) detector to alpha particles (alpha/beta ratio and pulse shape) was estimated by analysing the 226Ra trace contamination internal to the crystal. We have found alpha/beta=0.55 and no difference in scintillation decay for alpha particles and gamma quanta. The application of the obtained results in the search for the double electron capture and electron capture with positron emission in 84Sr has been investigated at a level of sensitivity T_1/2 \\sim 10^15-10^16 yr. The results of these studies demonstrate the potentiality of this material for a variety of scintillation appli...

  13. Characterization of Aged Radioactive Pollucite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortner, Jeffrey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kropf, A. Jeremy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this task was to provide information to better understand the long-term effects of decay on the stability of crystalline pollucite (CsAlSi2O6, also known as Cs-leucite). This decay is a key scientific issue in the assessment of the long-term stability, and hence performance, of pollucite as a waste form for 137Cs. Most previous work on radiation effects in waste forms focused on alpha radiation, which produces more displacements per decay than beta radiation. However, the results of decay with beta radiation, which changes both the ionic radius and the valence of the element undergoing decay (0.160 nm for Ba2+ vs. 0.188 nm for Cs+), are likely to predominate over cascade damage. The resulting changes in coordination chemistry may destabilize the waste form, permitting release of radionuclides to the accessible environment.

  14. A laboratory activity for teaching natural radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilakouta, M.; Savidou, A.; Vasileiadou, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an educational approach for teaching natural radioactivity using commercial granite samples. A laboratory activity focusing on the topic of natural radioactivity is designed to develop the knowledge and understanding of undergraduate university students on the topic of radioactivity, to appreciate the importance of environmental radioactivity and familiarize them with the basic technology used in radioactivity measurements. The laboratory activity is divided into three parts: (i) measurements of the count rate with a Geiger-Muller counter of some granite samples and the ambient background radiation rate, (ii) measurement of one of the samples using gamma ray spectrometry with a NaI detector and identification of the radioactive elements of the sample, (iii) using already recorded 24 h gamma ray spectra of the samples from the first part (from the Granite Gamma-Ray Spectrum Library (GGRSL) of our laboratory) and analyzing selected peaks in the spectrum, students estimate the contribution of each radioactive element to the total specific activity of each sample. A brief description of the activity as well as some results and their interpretation are presented.

  15. Natural radioactivity in groundwater--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Chau, Nguyen; Dulinski, Marek; Jodlowski, Pawel; Nowak, Jakub; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Sleziak, Monika; Wachniew, Przemyslaw

    2011-12-01

    The issue of natural radioactivity in groundwater is reviewed, with emphasis on those radioisotopes which contribute in a significant way to the overall effective dose received by members of the public due to the intake of drinking water originating from groundwater systems. The term 'natural radioactivity' is used in this context to cover all radioactivity present in the environment, including man-made (anthropogenic) radioactivity. Comprehensive discussion of radiological aspects of the presence of natural radionuclides in groundwater, including an overview of current regulations dealing with radioactivity in drinking water, is provided. The presented data indicate that thorough assessments of the committed doses resulting from the presence of natural radioactivity in groundwater are needed, particularly when such water is envisaged for regular intake by infants. They should be based on a precise determination of radioactivity concentration levels of the whole suite of radionuclides, including characterisation of their temporal variability. Equally important is a realistic assessment of water intake values for specific age groups. Only such an evaluation may provide the basis for possible remedial actions.

  16. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  17. Radioactive waste management in member states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this part of the report is to present a brief overview of key issues in radioactive waste management on a nation-by-nation basis. Member State representatives were asked to address nine questions in no more than three or four pages. Hence, by design, the presentations are not comprehensive. Even so, the information set out here should provide the reader valuable insights into the nature of problems associated with radioactive waste management. The materials may also be used as a ready reference for specific information about radioactive waste management in individual Member States as well as for comparative purposes. (author).

  18. The Radioactive Waste Management at Studsvik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, R.; Lindskog, A.

    1966-04-15

    The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries.

  19. Nuclear Astrophysics Measurements with Radioactive Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael S.; Ernst Rehm, K.

    Radioactive nuclei play an important role in a diverse range of astrophysical phenomena including the early universe, the sun, red giant stars, nova explosions, X-ray bursts, supernova explosions, and supermassive stars. Measurements of reactions with beams of short-lived radioactive nuclei can, for the first time, probe the nuclear reactions occurring in these cosmic phenomena. This article describes the astrophysical motivation for experiments with radioactive beams, the techniques to produce these beams and perform astrophysically relevant measurements, results from recent experiments, and plans for future facilities.

  20. Environmental radioactivity survey data in Cheonju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mo Sung; Goo, Hyun Mi [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    We surveyed the en environmental radiation and radioactivity in Chungcheongbuk-do in order to provide baseline data in the year of 2003. Data generated from the project will be the information base for making decisions necessary to ensure the protection of public health. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Cheongju regional monitoring station In the year 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  1. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  2. Communication from the Radioactive Waste Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste service of the Radiation protection Group informs you that as of 15 April 2011 radioactive waste can be delivered to the waste treatment centre (Bldg. 573) only during the following hours: Mon- Thu: 08:00 – 11:30 / 13:30 – 16:00 Fri : 08:00 – 11:30 An electronic form must be filled in before the arrival of the waste at the treatment centre: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/General/RadioactiveWaste for further information, please call 73171.

  3. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2(nd) edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Is Radioactive Decay Really Exponential?

    CERN Document Server

    Aston, Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive decay of an unstable isotope is widely believed to be exponential. This view is supported by experiments on rapidly decaying isotopes but is more difficult to verify for slowly decaying isotopes. The decay of 14C can be calibrated over a period of 12,550 years by comparing radiocarbon dates with dates obtained from dendrochronology. It is well known that this approach shows that radiocarbon dates of over 3,000 years are in error, which is generally attributed to past variation in atmospheric levels of 14C. We note that predicted atmospheric variation (assuming exponential decay) does not agree with results from modelling, and that theoretical quantum mechanics does not predict exact exponential decay. We give mathematical arguments that non-exponential decay should be expected for slowly decaying isotopes and explore the consequences of non-exponential decay. We propose an experimental test of this prediction of non-exponential decay for 14C. If confirmed, a foundation stone of current dating meth...

  5. Radioactive Ions for Surface Characterization

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The collaboration has completed a set of pilot experiments with the aim to develop techniques for using radioactive nuclei in surface physics. The first result was a method for thermal deposition of isolated atoms (Cd, In, Rb) on clean metallic surfaces. \\\\ \\\\ Then the diffusion history of deposited Cd and In atoms on two model surfaces, Mo(110) and Pd(111), was followed through the electric field gradients (efg) acting at the probe nuclei as measured with the Perturbed Angular Correlation technique. For Mo(110) a rather simple history of the adatoms was inferred from the experiments: Atoms initially landing at terrace sites diffuse from there to ledges and then to kinks, defects always present at real surfaces. The next stage is desorption from the surface. For Pd a scenario that goes still further was found. Following the kink stage the adatoms get incorporated into ledges and finally into the top surface layer. For all these five sites the efg's could be measured.\\\\ \\\\ In preparation for a further series o...

  6. Optimal Bilinear Control of Gross--Pitaevskii Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hintermüller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical framework for optimal bilinear control of nonlinear Schrödinger equations of Gross--Pitaevskii type arising in the description of Bose--Einstein condensates is presented. The obtained results generalize earlier efforts found in the literature in several aspects. In particular, the cost induced by the physical workload over the control process is taken into account rather than the often used L^2- or H^1-norms for the cost of the control action. Well-posedness of the problem and existence of an optimal control are proved. In addition, the first order optimality system is rigorously derived. Also a numerical solution method is proposed, which is based on a Newton-type iteration, and used to solve several coherent quantum control problems.

  7. Gross National Happiness: Ideology versus practices in Bhutanese Seconday Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh; Giri, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced......, the influence of the concept of GNH in school life generally and specifically and the effects on teachers and students of mindfull training in the class, how does it work? The investigation is based on empirical data from eight selected secondary schools spread all over Bhutan. Principals, teachers, students...... and parents were interviewed in 2012/2013 individually and in groups. Further more classroom observations took place. Finally the investigation is based on literature review and readings of documents, which describe and analyse policies, principles, strategies and philosophies related to the implementation...

  8. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  9. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  10. Specific features of measuring the ecologically adjusted gross regional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douginets Ganna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article formulates a necessity of deepening and improvement of ecological and economic indicators and considers the existing indices and indicators of sustainable development. It conducts a comparative analysis of existing norms of calculation of the ecological tax and fees for environmental pollution. It marks main problems of nature management in Ukraine and their consequences, namely, negative impact on health of the population. It offers methods of measurement of the ecologically adjusted gross regional product (EGRP on the basis of improvement of the cost method. It analyses dependence of the regional welfare on the state of environment with the help of measuring the EGRP of Ukrainian regions. It studies the pressure on Ukrainian regions by components: pollution of aquatic environment, atmospheric air, land resources and rates of waste formation. It conducts grouping of regions by EGRP per capita with specification of positive and negative dynamics of the indicator.

  11. Stimulation of gross dimethylsulfide (DMS) production by solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galí, Martí; Saló, Violeta; Almeda, Rodrigo; Calbet, Albert; Simó, Rafel

    2011-08-01

    Oceanic gross DMS production (GP) exerts a fundamental control on the concentration and the sea-air flux of this climatically-active trace gas. However, it is a poorly constrained process, owing to the complexity of the microbial food web processes involved and their interplay with physical forcing, particularly with solar radiation. The “inhibitor method”, using dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) or other compounds to inhibit bacterial DMS consumption, has been frequently used to determine GP in dark incubations. In the work presented here, DMDS addition was optimized for its use in light incubations. By comparing simultaneous dark and light measurements of GP in meso- to ultraoligotrophic waters, we found a significant enhancement of GP in natural sunlight in 7 out of 10 experiments. Such stimulation, which was generally between 30 and 80% on a daily basis, occurred throughout contrasting microbial communities and oceanographic settings.

  12. Full Phase Diagram of the Massive Gross-Neveu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The scalar potential is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. It contains three parameters which are determined by transcendental equations. Self-consistency of the scalar potential is proved. The phase diagram for non-zero bare quark mass is found to contain a kink-antikink crystal phase as well as a massive fermion gas phase featuring a cross-over from light to heavy effective fermion mass. For zero bare quark mass we recover the three known phases kink-antikink crystal, massless fermion gas, and massive fermion gas. All phase transitions are shown to be of second order. Equations for the phase boundaries are given and solved numerically. Implications on condensed matter physics are indicated where our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.

  13. Delta expansion and Wilson fermion in the Gross-Neveu model: Compatibility with linear divergence and continuum limit from inverse-mass expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    We apply the $\\delta$-expansion to the Gross-Neveu model in the large $N$ limit with Wilson fermion and investigate dynamical mass generation from inverse-mass expansion. The dimensionless mass $M$ defined via the effective potential is employed as the expansion parameter of the bare coupling constant $\\beta$ which is partially renormalized by the subtraction of linear divergence. We show that $\\delta$-expansion of the $1/M$ series of $\\beta$ is compatible with the mass renormalization. After the confirmation of the continuum scaling of the bare coupling without fermion doubling, we attempt to estimate dynamical mass in the continuum limit and obtain the results converging to the exact value for values of Wilson parameter $r\\in (0.8,1.0)$.

  14. Radioactivity in man: levels, effects and unknowns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J.

    1980-01-01

    The report discusses the potential for significant human exposure to internal radiation. Sources of radiation considered include background radiation, fallout, reactor accidents, radioactive waste, and occupational exposure to various radioisotopes. (ACR)

  15. The ISOLDE Facility: Radioactive beams at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The Isope Separation On-Line (ISOL) technique evolved from chemical techniques used to separate radioactive isotopes off-line from irradiated "targets". The ISOL targets of today, used at e.g. ISOLDE, can be of many different types and in different phases but the isotopes are always delivered at very low energies making the technique ideal for study of ground state properties and collections for other applications such as solid state physics and medical physics. The possibility of accelerating these low energy beams for nuclear structure studies, and in the long term future for neutrino physics, is now being explored at first generation radioactive beam facilities. The upgrade towards HIE-ISOLDE aim to consolidate ISOLDE's position as a world leading radioactive nuclear beam facility and it will be a pre-cursor to a future all European ISOL facility, EURISOL, with order of magnitudes higher radioactive beam intensities and energies. Prerequisite knowledge and references: None

  16. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  17. DEPO-related to Radioactive Sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-24

    Design and Evaluation Process Outline (DEPO) is discussed as it pertains to protection of radioactive sources. The bulk of the report describes features of various kinds of detection systems, and follows this with systems for entry control and personnel identification.

  18. Liquid Radioactive Wastes Treatment: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tse Hung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a byproduct of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores, combustion of fossil fuels, or production of natural gas and oil. To ensure the protection of human health and the environment from the hazard of these wastes, a planned integrated radioactive waste management practice should be applied. This work is directed to review recent published researches that are concerned with testing and application of different treatment options as a part of the integrated radioactive waste management practice. The main aim from this work is to highlight the scientific community interest in important problems that affect different treatment processes. This review is divided into the following sections: advances in conventional treatment of aqueous radioactive wastes, advances in conventional treatment of organic liquid wastes, and emerged technological options.

  19. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant. (LK)

  20. Diffusion of Radioactive Materials in the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Wali Ajlouni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The dispersion of radioactive materials in the environment related to escaping of noble gases, halogens and aerosols of non-volatile radioactive materials, from the reactor containment during normal operations, or in the event of a sever reactor accident. Approach: radionuclide dispersion in the environment is demonstrated by mathematical tools which are the partial differential equations, mainly the diffusion equation. A mathematical model to calculate the concentration of nuclear pollutants (radioactivity with certain boundary conditions is constructed. Results: Solving the mathematical model and using some approximations lead to a distribution represents a model for plume of radioactive pollutants dispersed in two dimensions normal to the wind direction in which the plume moves as an entire non-dispersible unit. Conclusion: The obtained result theoretically are very close to those achieved experimentally.

  1. Production of negatively charged radioactive ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Stracener, D. W.; Stora, T.

    2017-08-01

    Beams of short-lived radioactive nuclei are needed for frontier experimental research in nuclear structure, reactions, and astrophysics. Negatively charged radioactive ion beams have unique advantages and allow for the use of a tandem accelerator for post-acceleration, which can provide the highest beam quality and continuously variable energies. Negative ion beams can be obtained with high intensity and some unique beam purification techniques based on differences in electronegativity and chemical reactivity can be used to provide beams with high purity. This article describes the production of negative radioactive ion beams at the former holifield radioactive ion beam facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the CERN ISOLDE facility with emphasis on the development of the negative ion sources employed at these two facilities. ).

  2. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Akar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible link between radioactivity and the occurrence of neural tube defects is a long lasting debate since the Chernobyl nuclear fallout in 1986. A recent report on the incidence of neural defects in the west coast of USA, following Fukushima disaster, brought another evidence for effect of radioactive fallout on the occurrence of NTD’s. Here a literature review was performed focusing on this special subject.

  3. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iroulard, M.G

    2007-04-15

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  4. Liquid radioactive waste subsystem design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-06-01

    The Liquid Radioactive Waste Subsystem provides a reliable system to safely control liquid waste radiation and to collect, process, and dispose of all radioactive liquid waste without impairing plant operation. Liquid waste is stored in radwaste receiver tanks and is processed through demineralizers and temporarily stored in test tanks prior to sampling and discharge. Radwastes unsuitable for discharge are transferred to the Solid Radwaste System.

  5. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  6. Production and trapping of radioactive atoms at the TRI\\muP facility

    CERN Document Server

    Traykov, E; De, S; Dermois, O C; Huisman, L; Jungmann, K; Kruithof, W; Mol, A J; Onderwater, C J G; Rogachevskiy, A; Silva, M da Silva e; Sohani, M; Versolato, O; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2007-01-01

    The structures for the TRI$\\mu$P facility have been completed and commissioned. At the facility radioactive nuclides will be produced to study fundamental interactions and symmetries. An important feature is the possibility to trap radioactive atom in order to obtain and hold a pure substrate-free sample that will allow precision measurements. The TRI$\\mu$P facility consists of a chain of several separate units: A production target followed by a magnetic separator produces fast radioactive isotopes. The separator is commissioned and is operating. Various modes to produce radioactive particles have been tested for optimal production. A thermal ionizer stops the fast products and transports the nuclides as low energy singly charged ions into a radio frequency quadrupole cooler and buncher. This allows one to collect and transport the ions via a drift tube and a low energy beam line into a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The ions are neutralized in the MOT chamber and will be transported to a second trap for $\\beta$...

  7. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Zuber

    2012-10-01

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  8. Single Epoch GPS Deformation Signals Extraction and Gross Error Detection Technique Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jingxiang; XU Changhui

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet theory is efficient as an adequate tool for analyzing single epoch GPS deformation signal. Wavelet analysis technique on gross error detection and recovery is advanced. Criteria of wavelet function choosing and Mallat decomposition levels decision are discussed. An effective deformation signal extracting method is proposed, that is wavelet noise reduction technique considering gross error recovery, which combines wavelet multi-resolution gross error detection results. Time position recognizing of gross errors and their repairing performance are realized. In the experiment, compactly supported orthogonal wavelet with short support block is more efficient than the longer one when discerning gross errors, which can obtain more finely analyses. And the shape of discerned gross error of short support wavelet is simpler than that of the longer one. Meanwhile, the time scale is easier to identify.

  9. Disposal of radioactive waste. Some ethical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The threat posed to humans and nature by radioactive material is a result of the ionizing radiation released during the radioactive decay. The present use of radioactivity in medicine research and technologies produces steadily radioactive waste. It is therefore necessary to safely store this waste, particularly high level waste from nuclear facilities. The decisive factors determining the necessary duration of isolation or confinement are the physical half-life times ranging with some radionuclides up to many million years. It has therefore been accepted worldwide that the radioactive material needs to be confined isolated from the biosphere, the habitat of humans and all other organisms, for very long time periods. Although it is generally accepted that repositories for the waste are necessary, strong public emotions have been built up against the strategies to erect such installations. Apparently transparent information and public participation has been insufficient or even lacking. These problems have led to endeavours to achieve public acceptance and to consider ethical acceptability. Some aspects of such discussions and possibilities will be taken up in this contribution. This article is based on the work of an interdisciplinary group. The results have been published in 'Radioactive Waste - Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal' by C. Streffer, C.F. Gethmann, G. Kamp et al. in 'Ethics of Sciences and Technology Assessment', Volume 38, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  10. Electrochemistry and Radioactive Wastes: A Scientific Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Abed Elaziz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive wastes are arising from nuclear applications such as nuclear medicine and nuclear power plants. Radioactive wastes should be managed in a safe manner to protect human beings and the environment now and in the future. The management strategy depends on collection, segregation, treatment, immobilization, and disposal. The treatment process is a very important step in which the hazardous materials were converted to a more concentrated, less volume and less movable materials. Electrochemistry is the branch of chemistry in which the passage of electric current was producing a chemical change. Electrochemical treatment of radioactive wastes is widely used all over the world. It has a number of advantages and hence benefits. Electrochemistry can lead to remote, automatic control and increasing safety. The present work is focusing on the role of electrochemistry in the treatment of radioactive wastes worldwide. It contains the fundamentals of electrochemistry, the brief story of radioactive wastes, and the modern trends in the electrochemical treatment of radioactive wastes. An overview of electrochemical decomposition of organic wastes, electrochemical reduction of nitrates, electro- precipitation, electro- ion exchange, and electrochemical remediation of soil are outlined. The main operating factors, the mechanism of decontamination, energy consumption and examples of field trials are considered.

  11. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  12. 10 CFR 835.1202 - Accountable sealed radioactive sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactive material shall be controlled in a manner that minimizes the spread of radioactive contamination. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountable sealed radioactive sources. 835.1202 Section 835.1202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Sealed Radioactive Source...

  13. 10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83... Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive material except as... paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, the Corporation may transfer radioactive material: (1) From...

  14. Spectrochemical studies with {beta}-emitting radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesta, Miguel A.; Plivelic, Tomas S.; Mainardi, Raul T. [Cordoba Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Matematica, Atronomia y Fisica

    1997-12-01

    Electrons emitted by {sup 90} Sr radioactive source and positrons from a {sup 22} Na source were used to produce ionizations in the constituents of a sample. The sources have similar energy spectra and this allowed us to compare the characteristic radiation emission efficiencies. The new proposed experimental set up for radioisotope excited x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) is of a transparent source type and provides at least a ten times increase in the intensity of characteristic x-rays emitted by the sample as compared with a standard set up in XRFA. It is shown that this fact, together with the relatively high energy of the beta particles, make it possible to carry out a mirror elemental analysis in a few minutes using low intensity radioactive sources (no special handling license). Preliminary experimental results are shown using both electrons and positrons impinging on pure and composed samples and simple analytical expressions are provided for the characteristic radiation intensity as detected by an HPGe detector. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-15

    Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water.

  16. Beta-thalassemia

    OpenAIRE

    Origa Raffaella; Galanello Renzo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor...

  17. Alpha and Beta Determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Dunietz, Isard

    1999-01-01

    Because the Bd -> J/psi Ks asymmetry determines only sin(2 beta), a discrete ambiguity in the true value of beta remains. This note reviews how the ambiguity can be removed. Extractions of the CKM angle alpha are discussed next. Some of the methods require very large data samples and will not be feasible in the near future. In the near future, semi-inclusive CP-violating searches could be undertaken, which are reviewed last.

  18. Measurement of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon CCDs of the DAMIC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A; Bertou, X; Bole, D; Butner, M; Cancelo, G; Vázquez, A Castañeda; Chavarria, A E; Neto, J R T de Mello; Dixon, S; D'Olivo, J C; Estrada, J; Moroni, G Fernandez; Torres, K P Hernández; Izraelevitch, F; Kavner, A; Kilminster, B; Lawson, I; Liao, J; López, M; Molina, J; Moreno-Granados, G; Pena, J; Privitera, P; Sarkis, Y; Scarpine, V; Schwarz, T; Haro, M Sofo; Tiffenberg, J; Machado, D Torres; Trillaud, F; You, X; Zhou, J

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through $\\alpha$ spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the $^{238}$U ($^{232}$Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from $^{32}$Si-$^{32}$P or $^{210}$Pb-$^{210}$Bi sequences of $\\beta$ decays. The decay rate of $^{32}$Si was found to be $80^{+110}_{-65}$ kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CI). An upper limit of $\\sim$35 kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CL) on the $^{210}$Pb decay rate was obtained independently by $\\alpha$ spectroscopy and the $\\beta$ decay sequence search. These levels of radioactive contamination are su...

  19. Digitisation of radioactive isotope images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCready, V.R.; Chittenden, S.

    1987-02-01

    Our conclusions are that for the production of optimum hard copy digital imaging techniques are essential. For routine imaging each image can be correctly exposed and windowed to ensure accurate diagnosis. Digital imaging is ideal in difficult low activity examinations such as gallium-67 studies, labelled monoclonal antibodies or MIBG imaging. The correct choice of matrix size is important. For high information density imaging the 256x256 matrix size with a large field of view camera seems to be optimum for most types of nuclear medicine examinations. In the low information density situation it is probably better to use a 128x128 matrix with some computer smoothing. An algorithm which modulated the intensity of individual pixels based on the average counting rate along the x- or y-axis would help in accentuating small changes in radioactivity. From our experiments in digitising high photon images it is obvious that there should be no edges, lines or empty space visible on the image. To overcome this problem some form of spot wobble is suggested which will only marginally degrade the spacial information on the image. The optimum form of hard copy has yet to be found. So far all forms of paper output have yielded less than satisfactory results. Transparent films appear to be most popular. For this form of output, digital imaging is ideal since the computer can be adjusted so that the end image directly reflects what has been seen on the digital camera monitor. While instant prints are valuable for including in the patients notes, probably the ideal medium is instant hard copy in the form of a transparent image.

  20. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, D. S.

    1980-03-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the absorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strengths and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area.

  1. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  2. Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toor, A; Buck, R

    2000-03-15

    Lack of a safe disposal method for radioactive nuclear waste (RNW) is a problem of staggering proportion and impact. A typical LWR fission reactor will produce the following RNW in one year: minor actinides (i.e. {sup 237}Np, {sup 242-243}Am, {sup 243-245}Cm) {approx}40 kg, long-lived fission products (i.e, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 93}Zr, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs) {approx}80 kg, short lived fission products (e.g. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr) {approx}50kg and plutonium {approx}280 kg. The total RNW produced by France and Canada amounts to hundreds of metric tonnes per year. Obtaining a uniform policy dealing with RNW has been blocked by the desire on one hand to harvest the energy stored in plutonium to benefit society and on the other hand the need to assure that the stockpile of plutonium will not be channeled into future nuclear weapons. In the meantime, the quantity and handling of these materials represents a potential health hazard to the world's population and particularly to people in the vicinity of temporary storage facilities. In the U.S., societal awareness of the hazards associated with RNW has effectively delayed development of U.S. nuclear fission reactors during the past decade. As a result the U.S. does not benefit from the large investment of resources in this industry. Reluctance to employ nuclear energy has compelled our society to rely increasingly on non-reusable alternative energy sources; coal, oil, and natural gas. That decision has compounded other unresolved global problems such as air pollution, acid rain, and global warming. Relying on these energy sources to meet our increasing energy demands has led the U.S. to increase its reliance on foreign oil; a policy that is disadvantageous to our economy and our national security. RNW can be simplistically thought of as being composed of two principal components: (1) actinides with half lives up to 10{sup 6} years and (2) the broad class of fission fragments with typical half lives of a few hundred

  3. Beta cell dynamics: beta cell replenishment, beta cell compensation and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2013-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, arises mostly from beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and remains a highly complex metabolic disease due to various stages in its pathogenesis. Glucose homeostasis is primarily regulated by insulin secretion from the beta cells in response to prevailing glycemia. Beta cell populations are dynamic as they respond to fluctuating insulin demand. Beta cell replenishment and death primarily regulate beta cell populations. Beta cells, pancreatic cells, and extra-pancreatic cells represent the three tiers for replenishing beta cells. In rodents, beta cell self-replenishment appears to be the dominant source for new beta cells supported by pancreatic cells (non-beta islet cells, acinar cells, and duct cells) and extra-pancreatic cells (liver, neural, and stem/progenitor cells). In humans, beta cell neogenesis from non-beta cells appears to be the dominant source of beta cell replenishment as limited beta cell self-replenishment occurs particularly in adulthood. Metabolic states of increased insulin demand trigger increased insulin synthesis and secretion from beta cells. Beta cells, therefore, adapt to support their physiology. Maintaining physiological beta cell populations is a strategy for targeting metabolic states of persistently increased insulin demand as in diabetes.

  4. Radioactivity and thermalization in the ejecta of compact object mergers and their impact on kilonova light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Jennifer; Wu, Meng-Ru; Mart'inez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    One of the most promising electromagnetic signatures of compact object mergers are kilonovae: approximately isotropic radioactively-powered transients that peak days to weeks post-merger. Key uncertainties in modeling kilonovae include the emission profiles of the radioactive decay products---non-thermal beta- and alpha-particles, fission fragments, and gamma-rays---and the efficiency with which they deposit their energy in the ejecta. The total radioactive energy and the efficiency of its thermalization sets the luminosity budget and is therefore necessary for predicting kilonova light curves. We outline the uncertainties in r-process decay, describe the physical processes by which the energy of the decay products is absorbed in the ejecta, and present time-dependent thermalization efficiencies for each particle type. We determine the net heating efficiency and explore its dependence on r-process yields---in particular, the production of translead nuclei that undergo alpha-decay---and on the ejecta's mass, v...

  5. TRI mu P - a radioactive isotope trapping facility under construction at KVI

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, G P; Dermois, O; Harakeh, M N; Hoekstra, R; Jungmann, Klaus; Kopecky, S; Morgenstern, R; Rogachevskiy, A; Timmermans, R; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2003-01-01

    At the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut a new facility (TRI mu P) is under development which aims to investigate fundamental interactions using radioactive ions. A spectrum of radioactive isotopes will be produced in inverse-kinematics and fragmentation reactions using heavy-ion beams from the superconducting cyclotron AGOR. The reaction products will be separated from the primary beam in a dual-mode recoil and fragment separator. The beam of isotopes of interest will be transformed into a low-energy, high-quality, bunched beam and, after neutralization, stored in an atom trap. The emphasis will be put on studying the origin of parity violation via beta-nu angular correlations and the search for permanent electric dipole moments of atoms and nuclei. The facility will be open to outside users; suggestions for collaborations to extend the scientific program are encouraged.

  6. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polischuk, O. G. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv, Ukraine and INFN, Section of Rome, La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Belli, P. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boiko, R. S.; Danevich, F. A.; Mokina, V. M.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Cappella, F.; Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Section of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S. [INFN, Gran Sasso National Laboratories, I-67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232,228}Th typically on the level of ∼ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R and D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  7. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy.

  8. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  9. Radioactive waste management status and prospects in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ik Hwan [Nuclear Environment Technology Institite, Korea Electric Power Corporation, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of radioactive waste management including management policy and system in the Republic of Korea. Also included are the status and plan of the radioactive waste management projects: construction of a low-level radioactive waste repository, construction of spent fuel interim storage facility, transportation, radioisotope waste management, and public acceptance program. Finally, the status and prospects on radioactive waste management based on the national radioactive waste management program are briefly introduced. (author)

  10. Development of CaMoO{sub 4} crystal scintillators for a double beta decay experiment with {sup 100}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annenkov, A.N.; Buzanov, O.A. [Moscow Steel and Alloy Institute, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Danevich, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine)], E-mail: danevich@kinr.kiev.ua; Georgadze, A.Sh. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kim, S.K. [DMRC and School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.J. [Physics Department, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.D. [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kobychev, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Korzhik, M. [Institute for Nuclear Problems, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Lee, J.I. [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Missevitch, O. [Institute for Nuclear Problems, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Mokina, V.M.; Nagorny, S.S.; Nikolaiko, A.S.; Poda, D.V.; Podviyanuk, R.B.; Sedlak, D.J.; Shkulkova, O.G. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); So, J.H. [Physics Department, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-01-11

    We have studied the energy resolution, {alpha}/{beta} ratio, temperature dependence of the scintillation properties, and the radioactive contamination of CaMoO{sub 4} crystal scintillators. We have also examined the use of pulse-shape discrimination to distinguish {gamma} rays and {alpha} particles. A high sensitivity experiment to search for the 0{nu}2{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo using CaMoO{sub 4} scintillators is discussed.

  11. A study on the radioactive waste management for DUPIC fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, H. S.; Park, J. J.; Kim, J. H.; Cho, Y. H.; Shin, J. M.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. G.; Park, S. D.; Suh, M. Y.; Sohn, S. C.; Song, B. C.; Lee, C. H.; Jeon, Y. S.; Jo, K. S.; Jee, K. Y.; Jee, C. S.; Han, S. H.

    1997-09-01

    Part 1: The characteristics if the radioactive wastes coming from the DUPIC fuel manufacturing process were analyzed and evaluated. The gross {alpha}-activity and {alpha}-, {gamma}-spectrum of irradiated zircaloy specimens form KORI unit 1 were analyzed. In order to develop the trapping media of radioactive ruthenium oxides, trapping behavior of volatilized ruthenium oxides on various metal oxides or carbonates was analyzed. Fly ash was selected as a trapping materials for gaseous cesium. And reaction characteristics of CsNO{sub 3} and CsI with fly ash have been investigated. Also, trapping material were performed to test fly ash filter for removal of gaseous cesium under the air and hydrogen atmosphere. The applicability of fly ash to the vitrification of the spent filter was analyzed in the aspects of predictability, leachability. Good quality of Borosilicate glass was formed using Cesium spent filter. Offgas treatment system of DUPIC fuel manufacturing facility was designed and constructed in order to trap of gaseous radioactive waste from 100 batch of OREOXA furnace (the capacity : 500 g/batch). Part II: To develop chemical analysis techniques necessary for understanding chemical properties of the highly radioactive materials related to the development of DUPIC fuel cycle technology, the following basic studies were performed : dissolution of SIMFUEL (simulated fuel), determination of uranium by potentiometry and UV/Vis absorption spectrophotometry, separation of PWR spent fuel, group separation of fission products from uranium, individual separation for analysis of actinides, determination of free acid in a artificial dissolved solution of PWR spent fuel, group separation of fission products form uranium, individual separation of Sm from a mixed rare earth elements and measurement of its isotopes by TI-mass spectrometry, and characteristics of detectors in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) suitable for analysis of trace fission

  12. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

  13. Monte Carlo investigation of single cell beta dosimetry for intraperitoneal radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syme, A M [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 412 Avadh Bhatia Physics Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); Kirkby, C [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 412 Avadh Bhatia Physics Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); Riauka, T A [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Fallone, B G [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 412 Avadh Bhatia Physics Laboratory, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); McQuarrie, S A [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, 3118 Dentistry/Pharmacy Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N8 (Canada)

    2004-05-21

    Single event spectra for five beta-emitting radionuclides (Lu-177, Cu-67, Re-186, Re-188, Y-90) were calculated for single cells from two source geometries. The first was a surface-bound isotropically emitting point source and the second was a bath of free radioactivity in which the cell was submerged. Together these represent a targeted intraperitoneal radionuclide therapy. Monoenergetic single event spectra were calculated over an energy range of 11 keV to 2500 keV using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system. Radionuclide single event spectra were constructed by weighting monoenergetic single event spectra according to radionuclide spectra appropriate for each source geometry. In the case of surface-bound radioactivity, these were radionuclide beta decay spectra. For the free radioactivity, a continuous slowing down approximation spectrum was used that was calculated based on the radionuclide decay spectra. The frequency mean specific energy per event increased as the energy of the beta emitter decreased. This is because, at these energies, the stopping power of the electrons decreases with increasing energy. The free radioactivity produced a higher frequency mean specific energy per event than the corresponding surface-bound value. This was primarily due to the longer mean path length through the target for this geometry. This information differentiates the radionuclides in terms of the physical process of energy deposition and could be of use in the radionuclide selection procedure for this type of therapy.

  14. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  15. CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.

    2010-05-05

    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to

  16. REMOTE DETECTION OF RADIOACTIVE PLUMES USING MILLIMETER WAVE TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnowski, R.; Chien; H.; Gopalsami, N.

    2009-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, a common method for manufacturing weapons-grade special nuclear materials, is accompanied by the release of fi ssion products trapped within the fuel. One of these fi ssion products is a radioactive isotope of Krypton (Kr-85); a pure β- emitter with a half-life of 10.72 years. Due to its chemical neutrality and relatively long half life, nearly all of the Kr-85 is released into the surrounding air during reprocessing, resulting in a concentration of Kr-85 near the source that is several orders of magnitude higher than the typical background (atmospheric) concentrations. This high concentration of Kr-85 is accompanied by a proportionately high increase in air ionization due to the release of beta radiation from Kr-85 decay. Millimeter wave (MMW) sensing technology can be used to detect the presence of Kr-85 induced plumes since a high concentration of ions in the air increases the radar cross section due to a combination of atmospheric phenomena. Possible applications for this technology include the remote sensing of reprocessing activities across national borders bolstering global anti-proliferation initiatives. The feasibility of using MMW radar technology to uniquely detect the presence of Kr-85 can be tested using commercial ion generators or sealed radioactive sources in the laboratory. In this paper we describe our work to derive an ion dispersion model that will describe the spatial distribution of ions from Kr-85 and other common lab sources. The types and energies of radiation emitted by isotopes Co-60 and Cs-137 were researched, and these parameters were incorporated into these dispersion models. Our results can be compared with the results of MMW detection experiments in order to quantify the relationship between radar cross section and air ionization as well as to further calibrate the MMW detection equipment.

  17. Mutagenic potential assessment associated with human exposure to natural radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alexandre Endres; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe; Garcia, Anuska Conde Fagundes Soares; do Amaral, Viviane Souza; Petta, Reinaldo Antônio; Campos, Thomas Ferreira da Costa; Panosso, Renata; Quinelato, Antônio Luiz; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo

    2017-01-01

    Lucrécia city, known to harbor a high cancer rate, is located in a semiarid region characterized by the presence of mineral reservoirs, facing a high exposure to metal and natural radioactivity. The present study aimed to assess the environmental scenario at a semiarid region located in Northeastern Brazil. Metal concentration, alpha and beta radiation, and cyanobacteria content in tap water along with indoor radon and gamma emitters (U, K and Th) concentrations were measured. In addition, mutagenic and nuclear instability effects were assessed using buccal micronucleus cytome assay. The study included five samplings corresponding to a period between 2007 and 2009. Drinking water from Lucrécia city presented levels of Mn, Ni and Cr along with cyanobacteria in concentrations one to four times higher than regulatory guidelines considered. Furthermore, high levels of all the tested radionuclides were found. A high percentage of the houses included in this study presented indoor radon concentrations over 100 Bq m(-3). The mean annual effective dose from Lucrécia houses was six times higher than observed in a control region. The levels of exposure in most of the Lucrécia houses were classified as middle to high. A significant mutagenic effect, represented as an increase of micronuclei (MN) frequency and nuclear abnormalities as nuclear buds (NB), binucleated cells (BN), and pyknotic cells (PYC) were found. The results obtained highlight the role of high background radioactivity on the observed mutagenic effect and could help to explain the exacerbated cancer rate reported in this locality.

  18. Characterization of radioactive aerosols in Tehran research reactor containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to determine the levels of radioactivity in the Tehran research reactor containment and to investigate the mass-size distribution, composition, and concentration of radionuclides during operation of the reactor. A cascade impactor sampler was used to determine the size-activity distributions of radioactive aerosols in each of the sampling stations. Levels of a and b activities were determined based on a counting method using a liquid scintillation counter and smear tests. The total average mass fractions of fine particles (particle diameter dp < 1 mm in all of the sampling stations were approximately 26.75 %, with the mean and standard deviation of 52.15 ± 19.75 mg/m3. The total average mass fractions of coarse particles were approximately 73.2%, with the mean and standard deviation of 71.34 ± 24.57 mg/m3. In addition to natural radionuclides, artificial radionuclides, such as 24Na, 91Sr, 131I, 133I, 103Ru, 82Br, and 140La, may be released into the reactor containment structure. Maximum activity was associated with accumulation-mode particles with diameters less than 400 nm. The results obtained from liquid scintillation counting suggested that the mean specific activity of alpha particles in fine and coarse-modes were 89.7 % and 10.26 %, respectively. The mean specific activity of beta particles in fine and coarse-modes were 81.15 % and 18.51 %, respectively. A large fraction of the radionuclides' mass concentration in the Tehran research reactor containment was associated with coarse-mode particles, in addition, a large fraction of the activity in the aerosol particles was associated with accumulation-mode particles.

  19. Synthesis of. beta. -D-glucan in vitro: HPLC separation of oligosaccharides from enzymic digests of glucans synthesized by Golgi apparatus and UDP-glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibeaut, D.M.; Carpita, N.C. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Anion exchange HPLC (Dionex) resolves {beta}-D-glucose oligosaccharides which vary in (1{yields}3) and (1{yields}4) linkage structure. The products from incubation of UDPG and cellular membranes from maize enriched for Golgi apparatus, ER, and plasma membrane are digested with glucan hydrolases specific for either (1{yields}3) or (1{yields}4) linkages and one which requires a specific (1{yields}3){beta}-D-glc-(1{yields}4){beta}-D-glc sequence. Two oligomers released by the latter enzyme are diagnostic of cereal grass mixed-linkage {beta}-D-glucan and are used as standards to examine reaction conditions for synthesis of this polymer with radioactive substrates. Our preliminary data indicate that formation of specific sequences of {beta}-D-glucan is increased by high concentrations of UDPG. Other radioactive oligomers are present in greater quantity than those from authentic mixed-linkage glucan and their linkage structure is now under investigation.

  20. Radioactive Ion Beam Development at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Stracener, Dan; Beene, James R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Blackmon, Jeff C; Carter, Ken; Dowling, Darryl; Juras, Raymond; Kawai, Yoko; Kronenberg, Andreas; Liu, Yuan; Meigs, Martha; Müller, Paul; Spejewski, Eugene H; Tatum, A

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive beams are produced at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) technique. Radioactive nuclei are produced in a thick target via irradiation with energetic light ions (protons, deuterons, helium isotopes) and then post-accelerated to a few MeV/nucleon for use in nuclear physics experiments. An overview of radioactive beam development at the HRIBF will be presented, including ion source development, improvements in the ISOL production targets, and a description of techniques to improve the quality (intensity and purity) of the beams. Facilities for radioactive ion beam development include two ion source test facilities, a target/ion source preparation and quality assurance facility, and an in-beam test facility where low intensity production beams are used. A new test facility, the High Power Target Laboratory, will be available later this year. At this facility, high intensity production beams will be available t...