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Sample records for gross alpha total

  1. Design of a Quality Control Program for the Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activities (LMPR-CIEMAT); Diseno del Control de Calidad de las Medidas de Actividad Alfa-Beta Total (LMPR-CIEMAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Gasco, C.; Navarro, N.; Higueras, E.; Noguerales, C.

    2010-10-21

    In accordance with international standards, general requirements for testing laboratories have to include a quality system for planning, implementing, and assessing the work performed by the organization and for carrying out required quality assurance and quality control. The purpose of internal laboratory quality control is to monitor performance, identify problems, and initiate corrective actions. This report describes the internal quality control to monitor the gross alpha and beta activities determination. Identification of specific performance indicators, the principles that govern their use and statistical means of evaluation are explained. Finally, calculation of alpha and beta specific activities, uncertainties and detection limits are performed. (Author) 10 refs.

  2. Requirement of radiochemical recovery determination for gross alpha and gross beta estimation in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveendran, Nanda; Rao, D.D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Presence of radionuclides in drinking water which emits Alpha and Beta particles are the potential sources of internal exposure in drinking water. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in drinking water and packaged drinking water (PDW) as per BIS (Bureau of Indian standards) standards is discussed here. The methods have been tested to account for losses in the radiochemical procedures using radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 243 Am, 232 U. The methods have also been validated in an IAEA proficiency test conducted during 2009. Monitoring of gross alpha and gross beta activity observed in drinking water/packaged drinking water from various states of India were within the limits set by BIS. Average radiochemical recoveries of 84% and 63% were obtained for gross α and gross β respectively. (author)

  3. Measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in human tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Omer; Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Kuecuekoender, Erdal; Zorer, Ozlem Selcuk; Dogru, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were measured in human tooth taken from 3 to 6 age-groups to 40 and over ones. Accumulated teeth samples are investigated in two groups as under and above 18 years. The gross alpha and beta radioactivity of human tooth samples was measured by using a gas-flow proportional counter (PIC-MPC 9604-α/β counter). In tooth samples, for female age-groups, the obtained results show that the mean gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations varied between 0.534-0.203 and 0.010-0.453 Bq g -1 and the same concentrations for male age-groups varied between 0.009-1.168 and 0.071-0.204 Bq g -1 , respectively.

  4. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg -1 . The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg -1 . High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type. (authors)

  5. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in surface and groundwater water by liquid scintillation counting (LSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Ligia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study has used 40 samples of groundwater and surface water collected at four different sites along the period of one year in Brumadinho and Nova Lima, two municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as part of a more extensive study aiming at determination of the natural radioactivity in the water used for domestic use. These two sites are inside an Environmental Protection Area is located in a region of very intensive iron ore exploration. In addition of mineral resources, the region has a geological characteristic that includes quartzitic conglomerates associated with uranium. Radioactivity levels were determined via liquid scintillation counting (LSC), a fast and high counting efficiency method that can be advantageously employed to determine gross alpha and gross beta activity in liquid samples. Previously to gross alpha and gross beta counting the samples were acidified with concentrated HNO 3 in the field. The technique involved a pre-concentration of the sample to obtain a low detection limit. Specific details of the employed methodology are commented. The results showed that concentrations of gross alpha natural activity and gross beta values ranged from less than the detection limit of the equipment (0.03 Bq.L -1 ) to 0.275 ± 0.05 Bq.L -1 for gross alpha. As regards gross beta, all samples were below the limit of detection. (author)

  6. A Method Validation for Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta in Water Sample Using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Method validation (MV) for the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity in water (drinking, mineral and environmental) samples using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System was performed to characterize precision, accuracy and reliable results. The main objective of this assignment is to ensure that both the instrument and method always good performed and resulting accuracy and reliable results. Generally, almost the results of estimated RSD, z-score and U_s_c_o_r_e were reliable which are recorded as ≤30 %, less than 2 and less than 1.5, respectively. Minimum Detected Activity (MDA) was estimated based on the counting time of 100 minutes and present background counting value of gross alpha (0.01 - 0.35 cpm) and gross beta (0.50 - 2.18 cpm). Estimated Detection Limit (DL) was 0.1 Bq/ L for gross alpha and 0.2 Bq/ L for gross beta and expended uncertainty was relatively small of 9.77 % for gross alpha and 10.57 % for gross beta. Align with that, background counting for gross alpha and gross beta was ranged of 0.01 - 0.35 cpm and 0.50 - 2.18 cpm, respectively. While, sample volume was set at minimum of 500 mL and maximum of 2000 mL. These proven the accuracy and precision result that are generated from developed method/ technique is satisfactory and method is recommended to be used. Therefore, it can be concluded that the MV found no doubtful on the ability of the developed method. The test result showed the method is suitable for all types of water samples which are contained several radionuclides and elements as well as any impurities that interfere the measurement analysis of gross alpha and gross beta. (author)

  7. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activities in portuguese drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, I.; Madruga, M.J.; Ferrador, G.O.; Sequeira, M.M.; Oliveira, E.J.; Gomes, A.R.; Rodrigues, F.D.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    The gross beta and tritium activities in the forty Portuguese drinking waters analyzed using the ISO standard methods (Portuguese Guidelines) are below the guidance levels proposed in the Portuguese Drinking Water Quality Guidelines. In what concerns the gross alpha activity only 18% exceeded the recommended level. In general, it can be concluded that the ingestion of these drinking waters does not create a radiological hazard to the human consumption, however, more detailed analyses will be necessary mainly the determinations of the individual alpha emitters radionuclide concentrations. The minimum gross alpha and gross beta detectable activities by L.S.C. methodology are higher than for the proportional counting technique (ISO method). Higher concentration factors will be needed to reach lower required detection limits. (authors)

  8. Technical Basis for the Use of Alpha Absorption Corrections on RCF Gross Alpha Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceffalo, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the supporting data and rationale for making absorption corrections to gross alpha data to correct alpha data for loss due to absorption in the sample matrix. For some time there has been concern that the gross alpha data produced by the Environmental Restoration Contractor Radiological Counting Facility, particularly gross alpha analysis on soils, has been biased toward low results, as no correction for self-absorption was applied to the counting data. The process was investigated, and a new methodology for alpha self-absorption has been developed

  9. Innovative procedure for the determination of gross-alpha/gross-beta activities in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisser, S.; Frenzel, E.; Dittmer, M.

    2006-01-01

    An alternative sample preparation method for the determination of gross-alpha/beta activity concentrations in drinking water is introduced in this paper. After the freeze-drying of tap water samples, determination by liquid scintillation counting can be applied utilizing alpha/beta separation. It has been shown that there is no adsorption or loss of solid radionuclides during the freeze-drying procedure. However, the samples have to be measured quickly after the preparation since the ingrowth of daughter isotopes negatively effects the measurement. The limits of detection for gross-alpha and gross-beta activity are in the range 25-210 mBq/l, respectively, for a measurement time of only 8-9 h

  10. Determination of gross alpha and gross beta in soil around repository facility at Bukit Kledang, Perak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adziz, Mohd Izwan Abdul; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the Long Term Storage Facility (LTSF) in Bukit Kledang, Perak, Malaysia, has been upgraded to repository facility upon the completion of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) process. Thorium waste and contaminated material that may contain some minor amounts of thorium hydroxide were disposed in this facility. This study is conducted to determine the concentrations of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivities in soil samples collected around the repository facility. A total of 12 soil samples were collected consisting 10 samples from around the facility and 2 samples from selected residential area near the facility. In addition, the respective dose rates were measured 5 cm and 1 m above the ground by using survey meter with Geiger Muller (GM) detector and Sodium Iodide (NaI) detector. Soil samples were collected using hand auger and then were taken back to the laboratory for further analysis. Samples were cleaned, dried, pulverized and sieved prior to analysis. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Canberra Series 5 XLB - Automatic Low Background Alpha and Beta Counting System. The obtained results show that, the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentration ranged from 1.55 to 5.34 Bq/g with a mean value of 3.47 ± 0.09 Bq/g and 1.64 to 5.78 Bq/g with a mean value of 3.49 ± 0.09 Bq/g, respectively. These results can be used as an additional data to represent terrestrial radioactivity baseline data for Malaysia environment. This estimation will also serve as baseline for detection of any future related activities of contamination especially around the repository facility area.

  11. Gross alpha and beta activities in Tunisian mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrouni Benbelgacem, Samar

    2011-01-01

    The quality of natural mineral water is a universal health problem seeing its vital importance. This problem is related to the presence of the radionuclides since this water is coming from underground, during their circulation it dissolves and conveys the radionuclides which are present in the earth's crust. This problem which leads to the contamination of the mineral water urged the World Health Organization to set standards and to recommend the respect of the median values of the activities alpha and beta within the framework of the man protection against this internal exhibition. Concerning the radiological quality of Tunisian mineral water studied in this project, we showed, by using the gross alpha and beta activities counting, that this water is specific to human consumption since their gross alpha and beta activities do not forward any risk on health.

  12. The determination of the national background radioactivity of gross alpha and gross beta in water samples at the PUSPATI site and its neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of the natural background radioactivity in water samples has been made at the PUSPATI site and its environs. The study was performed in January 1981 until June 1981. Samples of river, rain and tap water are periodically collected and analyzed in order to determine gross alpha and gross beta activity. In general, the total radioactivity of water is considerably low. The mean concentration of gross alpha in river water and tap water samples are 1.2 +- 0.1 and 0.2 +- 0.1 pCi/ respectively. The level of gross alpha in rain water is however, below the background rate of the detector. The mean concentration of gross beta in river water, tap water and rain water samples are 4.2 +- 0.6, 1.6 +- 0.3, and 1.9 +- 0.3 pCi/ respectively. (author)

  13. Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Radioactivity of River Yobe, North Eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abba, H. T.; Sadiq, U.; Adeyemo, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity of River Yobe has been carried out. Fifteen samples of the river water were collected from the farming, fishing, domestic/livestock and control areas along the river and were analyzed using desktop alpha/beta (MPC 2000- DP) counting system. The count results show the average alpha activities in farming, fishing, domestic/livestock and control areas are 0.207±0.082, 0.257±0.13, 0.437±0.315 and 0.237±0.10 Bq L -1 , respectively. The average beta activities in the four areas are 0.813±0.122, 0.308±0.0145, 0.563±0.230 and 0.225±0.0096 Bq L -1 , respectively. The overall results show that the alpha and beta activities in the four areas are far below the practical screening level of radioactivity in drinking water of 0.5 Bq L -1 for alpha and 1 Bq L -1 for beta recommended by CEC-FAO and WHO and therefore may not pose any serious detrimental health side-effects to the public users of the river.

  14. Gross alpha radioactivity of drinking water in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Gomez, J.; Greaves, E.D.; Herrera, O.; Salazar, V.; Smith, A.

    1997-01-01

    Bottled mineral water is consumed by a large population in Venezuela. The alpha emitters concentration was measured in samples of bottled water and water springs collected near the surface. Approximately 30% of the total mineral water suppliers was monitored. a database on natural and artificial radioactivity in drinking water was produced. Results indicate that 54% of the waters sampled contain a total alpha radioactivity of less than 0.185 Bql -1 and only 12% above 0.37 Bql -1 . Our results revealed a total annual dose of 2.3 mSv year -1 . (author)

  15. Influence of crosstalk phenomenon on the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerilemandahu; Haribala; Xu Xiao; Shen Na; Sai Wenga; Bai Guilin; Wang Chengguo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of crosstalk phenomenon on the measurement of gross radioactivity in drinking water. Methods: The gross activity in different standard materials with different thickness and area was measured using national standard method. Results: There was no obvious change in crosstalk factor with the increase of "2"4"1Am powder amount in the measurement, whereas the larger amount of uranium used might lead to larger crosstalk factor. The different measurement channels resulted in different crosstalk factors. The influence of beta radioactivity on alpha radioactivity measurement was significant. On the contrary, the alpha-to-beta crosstalk factor was negligible. The area of sample plate imposed no significant influence on crosstalk factor. Conclusions: The gross beta activity can be corrected to decrease the influence of alpha radioactivity using powder standard samples, when simultaneous alpha and beta counting mode is applied in measurement grass radioactivity in drinking water. (authors)

  16. Gross alpha/beta analyses in water by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.T.; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA; Soliman, V.M.; Perera, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    The standard procedure for analyzing gross alpha and gross beta in water is evaporation of the sample and radioactivity determination of the resultant solids by proportional counting. This technique lacks precision, and lacks sensitivity for samples with high total dissolved solids. Additionally, the analytical results are dependent on the choice of radionuclide calibration standard and the sample matrix. Direct analysis by liquid scintillation counting has the advantages of high counting efficiencies and minimal sample preparation time. However, due to the small sample aliquants used for analysis, long count times are necessary to reach required detection limits. The procedure proposed consists of evaporating a sample aliquant to dryness, dissolving the resultant solids in a small volume of dilute acid, followed by liquid scintillation counting to determine radioactivity. This procedure can handle sample aliquants containing up to 500 mg of dissolved solids. Various acids, scintillation cocktail mixtures, instrument discriminator settings, and regions of interest (ROI) were evaluated to determine optimum counting conditions. Precision is improved and matrix effects are reduced as compared to proportional counting. Tests indicate that this is a viable alternative to proportional counting for gross alpha and gross beta analyses of water samples. (author)

  17. Sources of variability in the determination by evaporation method of gross alpha activity in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J.A. [LARUEX, Caceres (Spain). Environmental Radioactivity Lab.

    2013-07-01

    Determining the gross alpha activity concentration of water samples is one way to screen for waters whose radionuclide content is so high that its consumption could imply surpassing the Total Indicative Dose as defined in European Directive 98/83/EC. One of the most commonly used methods to prepare the sources to measure gross alpha activity in water samples is desiccation. Its main advantages are the simplicity of the procedure, the low cost of source preparation, and the possibility of simultaneously determining the gross beta activity. The preparation of the source, the construction of the calibration curves, and the measurement procedure itself involve, however, various factors that may introduce sufficient variability into the results to significantly affect the screening process. We here identify the main sources of this variability, and propose specific procedures to follow in the desiccation process that will reduce the uncertainties, and ensure that the result is indeed representative of the sum of the activities of the alpha emitters present in the sample. (orig.)

  18. Measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, radon and radium activity concentrations in aqueous samples using liquid scintillation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Ahmad Saat; Masitah Alias; Siti Afiqah Abdul Rahman; Mohamed Kasim; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Malaysia has taken a positive step toward providing a better water quality by introducing more water quality parameters into its Water Quality Standard. With regard to the natural radionuclides that may present in the water, 3 parameters were introduced that is gross alpha, gross beta and radium which need to be measured and cannot exceed 0.1, 1.0 and 1.0 Bq/ L respectively. This study was conducted to develop a more practical method in measuring these parameters in aqueous environmental samples. Besides having a lot of former tin mining areas, some part of Malaysia is located on the granitic rock which also contributes to a certain extent the amount of natural radionuclides such as uranium and thorium. For all we know these two radionuclides are the origin of other radionuclides being produced from their decay series. The State of Kelantan was chosen as the study area, where the water samples were collected from various part of the Kelantan River. 25 liters of samples were collected, acidify to pH 2 and filtered before the analysis. Measurement of these parameters was done using liquid scintillation counter (LSC). The LSC was set up to the optimum discriminator level and counting was done using alpha-beta mode. The results show that gross alpha and beta can be measured using scintillation cocktail and radium and radon using extraction method. The results for gross alpha, gross beta, 222 Ra and 226 Ra are 0.39-6.42, 0.66-16.18, 0.40-4.65 and 0.05-0.56 Bq/ L. MDA for gross alpha, gross beta and radium is 0.03, 0.08 and 0.00035 Bq/ L respectively. (Author)

  19. Source of gross-alpha radioactivity anomalies in recharge wells, central Florida phosphate district. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oural, C.R.; Brooker, H.R.; Upchurch, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    The central Florida phosphate industry utilizes recharge wells to mitigate withdrawals of water from the Florida aquifer and to dewater the surficial aquifer prior to mining. From a water-management point of view, these wells are efficient and serve a vital function. Recent monitoring of the radiation environment in these wells, however, casts doubts on the safety of the wells. While most of the wells conform to state and federal standards for radium, gross-alpha radiation frequently exceeds standards. The purpose of the study was to determine the radionuclide(s) responsible for the high gross-alpha radiation and to identify a method for sampling of the recharge wells that would standardize data across the phosphate district. It was found that excess gross alpha is primarily due to polonium-210. Since gross alpha and polonium-210 measurements are quite sensitive to methods of sample collections, preservation and analyses, standard procedures for sample processing are presented in the report

  20. Measurement of gross alpha - activity in some thermal water sources in Yugoslavia by SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benderac, R.; Ristic, D.; Antanasijevic, R.; Vukovic, J.

    1991-01-01

    The possible application of the CN-BDH (type 1) nitrocellulose detector synthesized in laboratory conditions, and also the CR-39 detector, to the measurement of the gross alpha-activity of geothermal and mineral water has been investigated. (author)

  1. Measurement of gross alpha and beta in air filter samples by using liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheendran, V.; Baburajan, A.; Gaikwad, R.H.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The determination of gross alpha and gross beta in particulate air filter samples was carried out by alpha, beta discrimination method using Liquid Scintillation Analyzer by setting the PSA value at 55 for 5 ml 0.1 HCl plus 15 ml of Ultima Gold AB cocktail by using 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y sources. The standardized method was compared with the gross alpha and gross beta activity determined by conventional method of direct counting with end window G.M. counter and ZnS (Ag). The minimum detectable activity of LSA method was found to be 9.3 mBq and 17.7 mBq for gross alpha and gross beta respectively for 6000 sec compared to the conventional method of 9.8 mBq and 189 mBq respectively at the same counting time. The result of analysis by both method indicate that the alpha, beta discrimination set up of LSA method is highly effective in the determination of low level alpha, beta activity in air filter samples. (author)

  2. Design of a Quality Control Program for the Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activities (LMPR-CIEMAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Gasco, C.; Navarro, N.; Higueras, E.; Noguerales, C.

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with international standards, general requirements for testing laboratories have to include a quality system for planning, implementing, and assessing the work performed by the organization and for carrying out required quality assurance and quality control. The purpose of internal laboratory quality control is to monitor performance, identify problems, and initiate corrective actions. This report describes the internal quality control to monitor the gross alpha and beta activities determination. Identification of specific performance indicators, the principles that govern their use and statistical means of evaluation are explained. Finally, calculation of alpha and beta specific activities, uncertainties and detection limits are performed. (Author) 10 refs.

  3. Uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta assessment in fountain waters in towns of the Iron Quadrangle, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Claudia A.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Chaves, Renata D.A.; Dalmazio, Ilza, E-mail: cferreiraquimica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: rda@cdtn.br, E-mail: id@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Iron Quadrangle region is known worldwide for its diversity, both ores and rock types, which record a long and important period of Earth's history. For thousands of years erosive processes have exposed ancient rocks, Archean and Proterozoic, in this region. The concentration of uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta activities has been assessed in 34 fountains water samples collected from different towns in the Iron Quadrangle. The results obtained were compared to values established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decree nº 2914/2011 by the Ministry of Health. For Th in water consumption there is no value established in the Brazilian legislation and the concentrations in all samples were lower than 0.01 μg L{sup -1}. For uranium, the values ranged from less than 0.002 to 0.61 μg L{sup -1}, and all results were lower than the value allowed of 15 μg L{sup -1} and 30 μg L{sup -1} established by the legislations above, respectively. The results for the radiation levels of gross alpha and gross beta activity in some fountains waters were slightly above the limits (0.5 Bq L{sup -1} and 1.0 Bq L{sup -1}) established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decreet nº 2914/2011, respectively. (author)

  4. Uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta assessment in fountain waters in towns of the Iron Quadrangle, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Claudia A.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Chaves, Renata D.A.; Dalmazio, Ilza

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Quadrangle region is known worldwide for its diversity, both ores and rock types, which record a long and important period of Earth's history. For thousands of years erosive processes have exposed ancient rocks, Archean and Proterozoic, in this region. The concentration of uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta activities has been assessed in 34 fountains water samples collected from different towns in the Iron Quadrangle. The results obtained were compared to values established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decree nº 2914/2011 by the Ministry of Health. For Th in water consumption there is no value established in the Brazilian legislation and the concentrations in all samples were lower than 0.01 μg L -1 . For uranium, the values ranged from less than 0.002 to 0.61 μg L -1 , and all results were lower than the value allowed of 15 μg L -1 and 30 μg L -1 established by the legislations above, respectively. The results for the radiation levels of gross alpha and gross beta activity in some fountains waters were slightly above the limits (0.5 Bq L -1 and 1.0 Bq L -1 ) established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decreet nº 2914/2011, respectively. (author)

  5. The calculation of the detection efficiency in the calibration of gross alpha-beta systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marian Romeo Calin; Ileana Radulescu; Alexandru Erminiu Druker

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for efficiency calibration of a measuring alpha-beta system PROTEAN ORTEC, MPC-2000-DP, using standard radioactive sources. The system is used to measure gross alpha-beta activity concentrations in environmental samples. The calculated efficiencies of detection were subsequently introduced in the system for two working geometries: measuring geometry-gross alpha-beta ε α g = 31,37 ± 0.25 (%)-the alpha efficiency and ε β g 44.94 ± 0.69 (%)-the beta efficiency, where the spillover factor is X talk g = 25.59 ± 0.50 (%) and measuring geometry up alpha-beta ε α u 36.23 ± 0.29 (%)-the alpha efficiency and ε β u = 48.53 ± 0.74 (%)-the beta efficiency, where the spillover factor is X talk u 31.08 ± 0.60 (%). (author)

  6. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  7. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata-García, D.; Llauradó, M.; Rauret, G.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO 3 , produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: ► We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. ► The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. ► We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. ► HNO 3 produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. ► The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  8. Gross alpha and beta activities in drinking water from Goias State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Regina A.; Costa, Heliana F. da, E-mail: raquel.mingote@cdtn.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil). Parque Estadual Telma Ortegal

    2017-07-01

    Detection of gross alpha and beta radioactivity is important for a quick surveying of both natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in water. Furthermore, gross alpha and gross beta parameters are included in Brazilian legislation on quality of drinking water. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to simultaneously determine gross alpha and gross beta in samples of the public water supplies in the state of Goias, Brazil, during 2010-2015. Sample preparation involved evaporation to concentrate the sample ten-fold. The results indicate that the water meets the radioactivity standards required by the regulations MS 2914/2011 of the Brazilian Department of Health. Concerning the high level of censored observations, a statistical treatment of data was conducted by using analysis methods of censored data to provide a reference value of the gross alpha and beta radioactivity in drinking water from the state of Goias. The estimated typical activities are very low, 0.030 Bq•L{sup -1} and 0.058 Bq•L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  9. Estimation of low level gross alpha activities in the radioactive effluent using liquid scintillation counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhade, Sonali P.D.; Johnson, Bella E.; Singh, Sanjay; Babu, D.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed for simultaneous measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentration in low level liquid effluent samples in presence of higher activity concentrations of tritium. For this purpose, alpha beta discriminating Pulse Shape Analysis Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) technique was used. Main advantages of this technique are easy sample preparation, rapid measurement and higher sensitivity. The calibration methodology for Quantulus1220 LSC based on PSA technique using 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y as alpha and beta standards respectively was described in detail. LSC technique was validated by measuring alpha and beta activity concentrations in test samples with known amount of 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y activities spiked in distilled water. The results obtained by LSC technique were compared with conventional planchet counting methods such as ZnS(Ag) and end window GM detectors. The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in spiked samples, obtained by LSC technique were found to be within ±5% of the reference values. (author)

  10. Monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids by using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanato, L.; Cester, D.; Filippi, D.; Lunardon, M.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Viesti, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy ' Galileo Galilei' , University of Padova, (Italy); Badocco, D.; Pastore, P.; Romanini, F. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this work the possibility of monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids using EJ-444 was investigated. Specific tests were carried out to determine the change of the detector properties in water tests. Possible protecting coating is also proposed and tested. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in liquids is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  11. Determination of self absorption correction factor (SAF) for gross alpha measurement in water samples by BIS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveendran, Nanda; Baburajan, A.; Ravi, P.M.

    2018-01-01

    The laboratories accredited by AERB undertake the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta in packaged drinking water from manufactures across the country and analyze as per the procedure of Bureau of Indian standards. The accurate measurements of gross alpha in the drinking water sample is a challenge due to the self absorption of alpha particle from varying precipitate (Fe(OH) 3 +BaSO 4 ) thickness and total dissolved solids (TDS). This paper deals with a study on tracer recovery generation and self absorption correction factor (SAF). ESL, Tarapur has participated in an inter-laboratory comparison exercise conducted by IDS, RSSD, BARC as per the recommendation of AERB for the accredited laboratories. The thickness of the precipitate is an important aspect which affected the counting process. The activity was reported after conducting multiple experiments with uranium tracer recovery and precipitate thickness. Later on to make our efforts simplified, an average tracer recovery and Self Absorption correction Factor (SAF) was derived by the present experiment and the same was used for the re-calculation of activity from the count rate reported earlier

  12. 210Po in Nevada groundwater and its relation to gross alpha radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Polonium-210 (210Po) is a highly toxic alpha emitter that is rarely found in groundwater at activities exceeding 1 pCi/L. 210Po activities in 63 domestic and public-supply wells in Lahontan Valley in Churchill County in northern Nevada, United States, ranged from 0.01 ± 0.005 to 178 ± 16 pCi/L with a median activity of 2.88 pCi/L. Wells with high 210Po activities had low dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 0.1 mg/L) and commonly had pH greater than 9. Lead-210 activities are low and aqueous 210Po is unsupported by 210Pb, indicating that the 210Po is mobilized from aquifer sediments. The only significant contributors to alpha particle activity in Lahontan Valley groundwater are 234/238U, 222Rn, and 210Po. Radon-222 activities were below 1000 pCi/L and were uncorrelated with 210Po activity. The only applicable drinking water standard for 210Po in the United States is the adjusted gross alpha radioactivity (GAR) standard of 15 pCi/L. 210Po was not volatile in a Nevada well, but volatile 210Po has been reported in a Florida well. Additional information on the volatility of 210Po is needed because GAR is an inappropriate method to screen for volatile radionuclides. About 25% of the samples had 210Po activities that exceed the level associated with a lifetime total cancer risk of 1× 10−4 (1.1 pCi/L) without exceeding the GAR standard. In cases where the 72-h GAR exceeds the uranium activity by more than 5 to 10 pCi/L, an analysis to rule out the presence of 210Po may be justified to protect human health even though the maximum contaminant level for adjusted GAR is not exceeded.

  13. Spreadsheet design and validation for characteristic limits determination in gross alpha and beta measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Rodrigo G.P. do; Dalmazio, Ilza

    2013-01-01

    The identification and detection of ionizing radiation are essential requisites of radiation protection. Gross alpha and beta measurements are widely applied as a screening method in radiological characterization, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. As in any other analytical technique, test performance depends on the quality of instrumental measurements and reliability of calculations. Characteristic limits refer to three specific statistics, namely, decision threshold, detection limit and confidence interval, which are fundamental to ensuring the quality of determinations. This work describes a way to calculate characteristic limits for measurements of gross alpha and beta activity applying spreadsheets. The approach used for determination of decision threshold, detection limit and limits of the confidence interval, the mathematical expressions of measurands and uncertainty followed standards guidelines. A succinct overview of this approach and examples are presented and spreadsheets were validated using specific software. Furthermore, these spreadsheets could be used as tool to instruct beginner users of methods for ionizing radiation measurements. (author)

  14. Measurement of Gross Alpha and Beta Emission Rates from Ceramic Tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wudthicharoonpun, Piyasak; Chankow, Nares

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Ceramic tiles normally used to cover floors and walls contain naturally occurring radioactive elements i.e. potassium-40, uranium, thorium and their daughters from raw materials. Thus, radioactivity was dependent upon source of raw materials and the amount used. The objective of this research was to measure gross alpha and beta emission rates to be used as a database for safety assessment and for selection of rooms to measure radioactive radon-222 gas

  15. The Determination of Gross Alpha And Beta Activity of Drinking Water in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, A.T.; Cifter, C.; Altay, T.

    2002-01-01

    Man and his environment must be protected from the adverse effects of pesticides, radiation, noise and other forms of pollutions. Radioactive materials occur naturally in the environment (for example uranium, thorium and potassium). Same radioactive compounds arise from human activities (for example from medical or industrial uses of radioactivity). Drinking water should be safe to use and aesthetically pleasing. World Health Organisation (WHO) and Turkish Standards (TSE) have established maximum contaminant levels for gross alpha and gross beta. The purpose of these study is to determine the level of gross alpha and gross beta activities of samples collected from the different Regional Directories of The State Hydraulic Works (DSI)). After that compare the results versus permissible values of World Health Organisation and Turkish Standards. Collected samples from 14 Regional Directories of The State Hydraulic Works (DSI), have completed. All the analyses results suitable for WHO and TSE. We will give all the research our final report after completed the other Regional Directories' s analyses

  16. Preparation and validation of gross alpha/beta samples used in EML's quality assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpitta, S.C.

    1997-10-01

    A set of water and filter samples have been incorporated into the existing Environmental Measurements Laboratory's (EML) Quality Assessment Program (QAP) for gross alpha/beta determinations by participating DOE laboratories. The participating laboratories are evaluated by comparing their results with the EML value. The preferred EML method for measuring water and filter samples, described in this report, uses gas flow proportional counters with 2 in. detectors. Procedures for sample preparation, quality control and instrument calibration are presented. Liquid scintillation (LS) counting is an alternative technique that is suitable for quantifying both the alpha ( 241 Am, 230 Th and 238 Pu) and beta ( 90 Sr/ 90 Y) activity concentrations in the solutions used to prepare the QAP water and air filter samples. Three LS counting techniques (Cerenkov, dual dpm and full spectrum analysis) are compared. These techniques may be used to validate the activity concentrations of each component in the alpha/beta solution before the QAP samples are actually prepared

  17. Preliminary studies for the determination of alpha emitters using the gross alpha coprecipitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J. A.; Pujol, L.; Suarez, J. A.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2003-01-01

    The radiological quality of drinking water in Spain is regulated by Nuclear Security Guideline No, 7.7 (Rev.1) of the Nuclear Security Council (NSC). this guideline establishes the protocol to follow when the radiological level exceeds 0,1 Bq.l''1. When this level is passed, the responsible alpha emitter must be identified; ''210 Po, ''226Ra, ''230Th, ''239Pu, ''224Ra, ''234 U and ''138 U. Activity due to these isotopes is usually determined using alpha spectrometry with semiconductor detectors. This method allows the activity of the alpha emitters to be determined with a good sensitivity. however, it requires long radiochemical isolations and long counting times, so the method is not suitable for rough estimate radiological analysis. In this preliminary work, we present the conditioning of the sample-precipitate that is essential for further radiochemical isolations. (Author) 9 refs

  18. Measurement of gross alpha - activity in some thermal water sources in Yugoslavia by SSNTDs. [Solid state nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benderac, R.; Ristic, D. (Inst. of Security, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Antanasijevic, R.; Vukovic, J. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia))

    1991-01-01

    The possible application of the CN-BDH (type 1) nitrocellulose detector synthesized in laboratory conditions, and also the CR-39 detector, to the measurement of the gross alpha-activity of geothermal and mineral water has been investigated. (author).

  19. Determining the level of gross alpha and beta radioactivity of water from Marilao river using liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, J.; Magtaka, J.; Balisi, R.; Castaneda, Soledad; De Vero, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to determine the level of gross alpha- and beta- radioactivity present in the Marilao River. Liquid Scintillation Counter was used to detect samples radioactivity. Water samples were taken along the different spots of Marilao River. The results showed that the radioactivity are below the Philippine National Standard for Drinking Water (PNSDW) which is 0.1 Bq/L for gross alpha activity and 1.0 Bq/L for gross beta activity set by the Dept. of Health. Hence water samples from Marilao River, is safe in terms of the level of radioactivity levels.(author)

  20. Water quality - Measurement of gross alpha activity in non-saline water - Thick source method. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha activity in non-saline waters for alpha-emitting radionuclides which are not volatile at 350 degree Centigrade. It is possible to determine supported volatile radionuclides measured to an extent determined by half-life, matrix retention (of the volatile species) and the duration of measurement (counting time). The method is applicable to raw and potable waters. The range of application depends on the amount of suspended matter in the water and on the performance characteristics (background count rate and counting efficiency) of the counter. Gross alpha radioactivity is determined by using proportional counting or solid scintillation counting on water residue deposited on a planchet. Due to the strong absorption of the residue deposit, it is considered that the alpha emission from the surface is proportional to the alpha activity of the deposit. Gross alpha determination is not an absolute determination of the sample alpha radioactive content, but a relative determination referring to a specific alpha emitter which constitutes the standard calibration source. This type of determination is also known as alpha index. The sample is acidified to stabilize it, evaporated almost to dryness, converted to the sulfate form and then ignited at 350 degree Centigrade. A portion of the residue is transferred to a planchet and the alpha activity measured by counting in an alpha-particle detector or counting system previously calibrated against an alpha-emitting standard and the alpha activity concentration calculated. The paper provides information about scope, normative references, symbols, definitions and units, principle, reagents and equipment, procedure, contamination check, expression of results and test report

  1. Monitoring of gross alpha in the air and exposure gamma radiation on and around the coal fire power at Paiton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarman; Warsono, Asep

    1998-01-01

    Coal is burned in furnace operating at up to 1,700 o C in order to produce electrical energy and ash (bottom ash and fly-ash). The fly-ash is released to the atmosphere or environment around the coal fire power. Therefore, the environmental radioactivity monitoring should be carried out for gross alpha in the air and exposure gamma radiation. The measurement of gross alpha have been carried out using the alpha scintillation counter with the ZnS(Ag) detector, and measurement of gamma radiation using the high pressure ion chamber. The results obtained showed that the gross alpha in the air were the ranging from (7.1 ± 1,2) mBq m -3 to (12.2 ± 1.9) mBq m -3 and the exposure gamma radiation were (3.69 ± 0.11) μR/h to (9.55 ± 0.15) μR/h. The data were still lower than the limit of the maximum permissible concentration and annual intake for breathing but the gross alpha data were higher than in the nuclear installations. (authors)

  2. Radionuclide, scintillation cocktail and chemical/color quench influence on discriminator setting in gross alpha/beta measurements by LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojković, Ivana; Tenjović, Branislava; Nikolov, Jovana; Todorović, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Gross alpha/beta measurements in drinking waters enable radiochemical composition analysis in environmental studies providing efficient screening method that can indicate whether water contains elevated levels of any radionuclide. Routine gross alpha/beta activity monitoring in drinking waters has been carried out for a few years in laboratory for low-level radioactivity measurements in Novi Sad according to ASTM method, performing measurements on liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220 which can simultaneously generate alpha/beta spectra of samples by Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA circuit). In this paper, PSA discriminator impact was investigated to ensure obtaining of accurate and reliable alpha/beta activities. One novelty of presented work is PSA parameter setup with two combinations of radionuclides ( 241 Am, 226 Ra and 90 Sr/ 90 Y) with varying activity concentrations. Performed experiments also make contribution to investigations on the manner in which chemical and color quench affect optimal PSA parameter setting and further on, their altogether influence on gross alpha/beta activity measurements. Nitromethane, 15.8 M nitric acid and water, as well as yellow and yellow-orange dye, were used as quenching agents in order to test PSA/interference factor behavior in the presence of quenchers with different quenching strengths. Variation of PSA setting in quenched samples with two different commercially available cocktails (Ultima Gold LLT and OptiPhase HiSafe 3) was also tested. Lastly, application i.e. assessment of obtained PSA-SQP(E) correlation on the obtained results of activity concentrations of few artesian well water samples and colored spiked samples, based on the measured SQP(E) value of samples, has been demonstrated. - Highlights: • Thorough study on influence of relevant factors on optimal PSA level in gross alpha/beta measurements in waters is presented. • Experiments were performed on liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220™ according

  3. Rapid determination of gross alpha and beta activity in seafood utilizing microwave digestion and liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel Sas; Jiri Janda; Alena Tokarova

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a method for rapid determination of gross alpha and beta activity in seafood using liquid scintillation counting and microwave digestion for fast sample decomposition. The general group of seafood was divided into two groups based on its structure, whether it has shell or not. The selected group of radionuclides was chosen with respect to military significance, radiotoxicity, and possibility of potential misuse. 90 Sr and 239 Pu were selected as model radionuclides. (author)

  4. Method validation to determine total alpha beta emitters in water samples using LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.; Al-akel, B.; Saaid, S.

    2006-06-01

    In this work a method was validated to determine gross alpha and beta emitters in water samples using liquid scintillation counter. 200 ml of water from each sample were evaporated to 20 ml and 8 ml of them were mixed with 12 ml of the suitable cocktail to be measured by liquid scintillation counter Wallac Winspectral 1414. The lower detection limit by this method (LDL) was 0.33 DPM for total alpha emitters and 1.3 DPM for total beta emitters. and the reproducibility limit was (± 2.32 DPM) and (±1.41 DPM) for total alpha and beta emitters respectively, and the repeatability limit was (±2.19 DPM) and (±1.11 DPM) for total alpha and beta emitters respectively. The method is easy and fast because of the simple preparation steps and the large number of samples that can be measured at the same time. In addition, many real samples and standard samples were analyzed by the method and showed accurate results so it was concluded that the method can be used with various water samples. (author)

  5. Methods and Data Used to Investigate Polonium-210 as a Source of Excess Gross-Alpha Radioactivity in Ground Water, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is the major source of drinking water in the Carson River Basin, California and Nevada. Previous studies have shown that uranium and gross-alpha radioactivities in ground water can be greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels, particularly in the Carson Desert, Churchill County, Nevada. Studies also have shown that the primary source of the gross-alpha radioactivity and alpha-emitting radionuclides in ground water is the dissolution of uranium-rich granitic rocks and basin-fill sediments that have their origins in the Sierra Nevada. However, ground water sampled from some wells in the Carson Desert had gross-alpha radioactivities greater than could be accounted for by the decay of dissolved uranium. The occurrence of polonium-210 (Po-210) was hypothesized to explain the higher than expected gross-alpha radioactivities. This report documents and describes the study design, field and analytical methods, and data used to determine whether Po-210 is the source of excess gross-alpha radioactivity in ground water underlying the Carson Desert in and around Fallon, Nevada. Specifically, this report presents: 1) gross alpha and uranium radioactivities for 100 wells sampled from June to September 2001; and 2) pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and Po-210 radioactivity for 25 wells sampled in April and June 2007. Results of quality-control samples for the 2007 dataset are also presented.

  6. Gross alpha and beta activity analyses in urine-a routine laboratory method for internal human radioactivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Zhao, Luqian; Qin, Hongran; Zhao, Meijia; Zhou, Yirui; Yang, Shuqiang; Su, Xu; Xu, Xiaohua

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to provide rapid results for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The authors hypothesized that valuable information could be obtained from gas proportional counter techniques by screening urine samples from potentially exposed individuals rapidly. Recommended gross alpha and beta activity screening methods generally employ gas proportional counting techniques. Based on International Standards Organization (ISO) methods, improvements were made in the evaporation process to develop a method to provide rapid results, adequate sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation and operator intervention for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The method described by an American National Standards Institute publication was used to calibrate the gas proportional counter, and urine samples from patients with or without radionuclide treatment were measured to validate the method. By improving the evaporation process, the time required to perform the assay was reduced dramatically. Compared with the reference data, the results of the validation samples were very satisfactory with respect to gross-alpha and gross-beta activities. The gas flow proportional counting method described here has the potential for radioactivity monitoring in the body. This method was easy, efficient, and fast, and its application is of great utility in determining whether a sample should be analyzed by a more complicated method, for example radiochemical and/or γ-spectroscopy. In the future, it may be used commonly in medical examination and nuclear emergency treatment.Health Phys. 106(5):000-000; 2014.

  7. Assessment of radiological risk parameters associated with some selected rivers around oil mineral producing sites in Abia State, Nigeria due to gross alpha and beta radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enyinna, Paschal Ikenna; Uzochukwu, Francis C.

    2016-01-01

    The study of gross alpha and beta radiation in environmental components and water bodies in particular is very crucial to the environmental, radiation and medical Physicist as this helps to promote good water quality and environmental hygiene. This research work understudied the radiological risk parameters due to gross alpha and beta radiations associated with three selected rivers around crude oil production sites in Abia State, Nigeria. Gross alpha and beta activities were computed for the three rivers based on analytical measurements carried out using a well-calibrated IN-20 model gas-flow proportional counter. Radiological risk parameters were computed from the activity concentrations which included; annual effective dose equivalent of radiation from ingested water (AEDE), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR). The mean of the total AEDE due to the sum of alpha and beta radiations for the three rivers are 0.868 ± 0.221 mSv/y, 1.008 ± 0.156 mSv/y, and 0.917 ± 0.214 mSv/y; and are above the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limit of 0.1 mSv/y. The mean of the total AGDE are 4.048 ± 1.063 mSv/y, 4.756 ± 0.739 mSv/y, and 4.295 ± 1.026 mSv/y; and are above the world average limit of 0.3 mSv/y. The mean of the total ELCR are (3.038 ± 0.774) X 10"-"3, (3.529 ± 0.547) X 10"-"3, and (3.210 ± 0.748) X 10"-"3; and are above the world average limit of 0.29 X 10"-"3. Most values of ELCR computed in this work are >6.0 X 10"-"4 estimated to be the risk of fatal and weighted nonfatal health conditions over a lifetime (70 years) derived from the radiation dose of 0.1 mSv/y (WHO permissible limit for drinking water). Drinking water from these surveyed sources could impact negatively on the end users. (author)

  8. Standardization and estimation of gross alpha and beta activities for potable water samples in presence of TDS using TDCR based LSA (Hidex 300SL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Anil; Lenka, P.; Sahoo, S.K.; Patra, A.C.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Quality of water is important in environmental studies because of its daily use for human consumption and an important route of intake for various elements and radionuclides. Therefore radiological quality of drinking water must be ensured. The screening parameter to evaluate the radiological safety of potable water is by estimating gross alpha and gross beta activities with a limit of 0.5 Bq/l and 1 Bq/l respectively. These have been traditionally being done by radiochemical co-precipitation of alpha and beta emitters followed by counting by ZnS(Ag) counter for alpha and gas flow proportional counter for beta. Gross alpha estimation in water samples with high TDS by ZnS(Ag) is difficult and often leads to underestimation of result due to self-absorption of alpha within the residue. This study was carried out to standardize a method to provide rapid results by simultaneously estimating both gross alpha and gross beta activity in the presence of TDS with adequate sensitivity, minimum sample processing

  9. Determination of the thoron daughter working level by a one gross alpha-count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Lau, W.K.

    1983-02-01

    A study has been done on the determination of the thoron daughter Working Level, WL(Tn), by a one gross α-count. The relationship between the gross α-count rate per unit of volume of air sampled and WL(Tn), denoted the F-factor, has been investigated as a function of sampling time, elapsed time from the end of the sampling period, i.e., waiting time, and the thoron daughter disequilibrium ratio [ThC]/[ThB]. It has been found that F depends on both the waiting time and [ThC]/[ThB]. If α-count measurements are made at least 300 min after the end of sampling, F changes by less than 10 percent over the full range of theoretical values of [ThC]/[ThB], i.e., from 0 to 1. The F-factor is independent of [ThC]/[ThB] at approximately 215 min after the end of sampling. This feature can be used to determine WL(Tn) with higher accuracy and at least 1.5 hr earlier than is commonly done using other one gross α-count methods reported in the literature

  10. Determination of total alpha and beta activities on vegetable samples by LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Regina Apolinaria; Santos, Eliane Eugenia dos; Bakker, Alexandre Pereira; Vavassori, Giullia

    2011-01-01

    Gross alpha and beta analyses are screening techniques used for environmental radioactivity monitoring. The present study proposes to determine the gross alpha and beta activities in vegetable samples by using LSC - liquid scintillation spectrometry. The procedure was applied to vegetable foods. After ashing vegetable samples in a muffle furnace, 100 mg of ash were added to gel mixture of scintillation cocktails, Water - Instagel - Ultima Gold AB (6:10:4) ml, in polyethylene vial. Am-241 standard solution and a KCl (K-40) solution were used to determine the counting configuration, alpha/beta efficiencies and spillover

  11. Radon Progenies as a Source of Gross Alpha-beta Activities in Drinking Water in Vinaninkarena, Antsirabe-Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Rabesiranana, N.; Rasolonirina, M.; Rakotomanga, H.

    2004-01-01

    The village of Vinaninkarena, Antsirabe, Madagascar is located in a high radioactivity area. With the aim of assessing the health impact of radioactivity pollution, a survey was conducted around an abandoned radium mining. Waters from 24 sampling points, including 5 wells and 13 springs were sampled. The water radioactivity was measured using a portable Triathler LSC, model 425-034 from Hidex Turku. Each sample is counted more than 3 times: less than 2h after sampling, 4h to few days and more than 3 weeks after when 226 Ra attains equilibrium with 222 Rn and its short-lived daughters. Combination of water non miscible, radon extractive LS cocktail and water miscible one is used to reveal contribution of radium, radon and its short lived progenies to the gross alpha-beta activities. Maximum activity values found are : 3.6±0.3 Bq.L -1 for 226 Ra, 554±9 Bq.L -1 for the excess of radon, and 408±8 Bq.L -1 for the excess of radon progenies. Based on these data, a daily consumption of 2 L of these waters by a standard person would produce an annual 226 Ra ingestion well above the annual intake limit for 226 Ra. Moreover, the increasing gross alpha-beta activity resulting from radon progenies raises the issue of health effects. The potential for rapid spring-to-mouth delivery, which is frequent in rural area, may expose the water consumer to the short-lived alpha particle emitters.

  12. Determination of total alpha index in samples of see water by coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Pujol, L.; Pozuelo, M.; Pablo, A. de

    1998-01-01

    An environmental radiological monitoring network in the Spanish sea waters was set up by CEDEX in 1993. Water radioactivity is determined quarterly in eleven sampling points along the Spanish coast. The gross alpha activity is one of the parameters to be determined. The usual method for monitoring the gross alpha activity includes sample evaporation to dryness on a disk and counting using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. Nevertheless, the gross alpha activity determination in saline waters, such as sea waters, is troublesome, because mass attenuation is high and a very small of water is needed (0.2 ml). The coprecipitation method allows to analyze 500 ml water samples, so the detection limit is reduced and sensitivity is improved. In this work, the coprecipitation method was used to determine the gross alpha activity in the radiological network of the Spanish coast sea waters during 1996 and 1997. Gross alpha activity was very homogenous. It averaged 0.0844±0.0086 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.062 to 0.102 Bq.1''1. In collaboration with CIEMAT a set of samples was analyzed, they averaged 0.0689±0.0074 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.056 to 0.082 Bq.1''1. (Author) 5 refs

  13. Gross total resection of pituitary adenomas after endoscopic vs. microscopic transsphenoidal surgery: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Reem D; Muskens, Ivo S; Cote, David J; Dijkman, Mark D; Kavouridis, Vasileios K; Crocker, Erin; Ghazawi, Kholoud; Broekman, Marike L D; Smith, Timothy R; Mekary, Rania A; Zaidi, Hasan A

    2018-05-01

    Microscopic transsphenoidal surgery (mTSS) is a well-established method to address adenomas of the pituitary gland. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (eTSS) has become a viable alternative, however. Advocates suggest that the greater illumination, panoramic visualization, and angled endoscopic views afforded by eTSS may allow for higher rates of gross total tumor resection (GTR). The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the rate of GTR using mTSS and eTSS. A meta-analysis of the literature was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through July 2017 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Seventy case series that reported GTR rate in 8257 pituitary adenoma patients were identified. For all pituitary adenomas, eTSS (GTR=74.0%; I 2  = 92.1%) was associated with higher GTR as compared to mTSS (GTR=66.4%; I 2  = 84.0%) in a fixed-effect model (P-interaction  0.05). No significant publication bias was identified for any of the outcomes. Among patients who were not randomly allocated to either approach, eTSS resulted in a higher rate of GTR as compared to mTSS for all patients and for NFPA patients alone, but only in a fixed-effect model. For FPA, however, eTSS did not seem to offer a significantly higher rate of GTR. These conclusions should be interpreted with caution because of the nature of the included non-comparative studies.

  14. On-line gross alpha radiation monitoring of natural waters with extractive scintillating resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Lara; De Vol, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Extractive scintillating resins, which are used to simultaneously separate and quantify radioactivity in aqueous solutions, were developed for low-level alpha radiation monitoring of natural waters. Resins were investigated with bis(2-ethylhexyl)methane-diphosphonic acid (H 2 DEH[MDP], Dipex[reg]) extractant, which has a strong affinity for tri-, tetra- and hexavalent actinides in dilute acids. Extractive scintillating resins were manifested (1) as a mixed bed of scintillating resin and extraction chromatographic resin and (2) by diffusing the organic fluor 2-(1-naphtyl)-5-phenyloxazole into macroporous polystyrene chromatographic resin, then coating with H 2 DEH[MDP], or by coating H 2 DEH[MDP] on scintillating polyvinyltoluene beads. The scintillation light was detected with a modified Hidex Triathler to allow for continuous flow measurements. The average detection efficiencies were 51.7±2.6% and 65.8±10.1% for natural uranium and 241 Am, respectively, for the extractant coated scintillator. The resin was stable for solution flow of up to 1000 ml resulting in rapid real-time quantification of natural uranium in groundwater down to 30 μg/ml

  15. Phase I Trial of Gross Total Resection, Permanent Iodine-125 Brachytherapy, and Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Allen M.; Chang, Susan; Pouliot, Jean; Sneed, Penny K.; Prados, Michael D.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Malec, Mary K.; McDermott, Michael W.; Berger, Mitchell S.; Larson, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of gross total resection and permanent I-125 brachytherapy followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: From April 1999 to May 2002, 21 patients with glioblastoma multiforme were enrolled on a Phase I protocol investigating planned gross total resection and immediate placement of permanent I-125 seeds, followed by postoperative hyperfractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 60 Gy at 100 cGy b.i.d., 5 days per week. Median age and Karnofsky performance status were 50 years (range, 32-65 years) and 90 (range, 70-100), respectively. Toxicity was assessed according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: Eighteen patients completed treatment according to protocol. The median preoperative tumor volume on magnetic resonance imaging was 18.6 cm 3 (range, 4.4-41.2 cm 3 ). The median brachytherapy dose measured 5 mm radially outward from the resection cavity was 400 Gy (range, 200-600 Gy). Ten patients underwent 12 reoperations, with 11 of 12 reoperations demonstrating necrosis without evidence of tumor. Because of high toxicity, the study was terminated early. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 57 and 114 weeks, respectively, but not significantly improved compared with historical patients treated at University of California, San Francisco, with gross total resection and radiotherapy without brachytherapy. Conclusions: Treatment with gross total resection and permanent I-125 brachytherapy followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy as performed in this study results in high toxicity and reoperation rates, without demonstrated improvement in survival

  16. Uranium analysis in Cypriot groundwaters by total alpha-radiometry and alpha-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, Maria; Kiliari, Tasoula; Pashalidis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Two different alpha-radiometric methods (e.g. alpha-spectroscopy and alpha-particle counting) have been applied to the determination of uranium in Cypriot groundwater samples after separation of the radionuclides by cation exchange using Chelex-100 and its electrodeposition on stainless steel planchettes. The data obtained were compared to show the advantages and disadvantages of the two radiometric methods, determine the alpha-radioactivity concentration and the radiation dose associated with the use of the studied groundwaters. Calibration of the methods was performed by means of uranium standard solutions and the corresponding data were used to evaluate linear range, detector efficiency, detection limits, value of the information obtained, and time of analysis of the methods. Comparison of the data obtained from calibration and natural sample measurements has shown that alpha-particle counting with a simple alpha-radiometer (equipped with a semiconductor detector) may offer only an activity value and not detailed information about the isotopic composition but it is the fastest method and the method of choice if only a screening method for the alpha-radioactivity measurement is required. Based on the alpha-radioactivity data, the corresponding radiation dose was estimated for situations where the groundwaters are used for drinking water purposes.

  17. Comparing survival outcomes of gross total resection and subtotal resection with radiotherapy for craniopharyngioma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Feng, Mengzhao; Guo, Fuyou

    2018-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that subtotal resection (STR) followed by radiation therapy (RT) is an appealing alternative to gross total resection (GTR) for craniopharyngioma, but it remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether GTR is superior to STR with RT for craniopharyngioma. A systematic search was performed for articles published until October 2017 in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central databases. The endpoints of interest are overall survival and progression-free survival. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed or random-effects model. The data were analyzed using Review Manager 5.3 software. A total of 744 patients (seven cohort studies) were enrolled for analyses. There were no significant differences between the GTR and STR with RT groups when the authors compared the pooled HRs at the end of the follow-up period. Overall survival (pooled HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.46-1.25, P = 0.28) and progression-free survival (pooled HR = 1.52, 95% CI: 0.42-5.44, P = 0.52) were similar between the two groups. The current meta-analysis suggests that GTR and STR with RT have the similar survival outcomes for craniopharyngioma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of total alpha and beta activity in water for human consumption by LSC(Liquid Scintillation Counter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Ordinance Brazilian of Ministry of Health (MS 2914/2011) establishes the standards for quality of water intended for human consumption, being limits values of 5.0 Bq/L for gross alpha, and 1.0 Bq/L for gross beta radioactivity. The liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) technique has been presented as an alternative to conventional procedure using gas flow proportional counter. The present work shows a review of the methods for determination of gross alpha and gross beta in water by using LSC. Between the factors that influence the accuracy and repeatability of the analytical results we can highlight: thermal preconcentration, type of the acid and calibration standard. A procedure was established and carried out to samples of the National Program of Intercomparison of Radionuclides in Environmental Samples for evaluation of its performance. The gross alpha and gross beta analysis in samples of the public water supplies in the Metropolitan Region of Goiania, state of Goias was carried out. The results are consistent with the guideline values form the Ministry of Health concerning radioactivity. (author)

  19. Determination of {alpha}{sub s} from Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule by accounting for infrared renormalon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, C [Department of Physics, Universidad Tecn. Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Cvetic, G [Department of Physics, Universidad Tecn. Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Jeong, K S [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taekoon [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    We recapitulate the method which resums the truncated perturbation series of a physical observable in a way which takes into account the structure of the leading infrared renormalon. We apply the method to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith (GLS) sum rule. By confronting the obtained result with the experimentally extracted GLS value, we determine the value of the QCD coupling parameter, which turns out to agree with the present world average.

  20. Design and device construction for plane tables preparation for counter alpha/beta total

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia C, F. J.; Monroy G, F.

    2014-10-01

    This work presents the design and assembly of a device for plane tables preparation for quantification alpha/beta total of radioactive waste samples. The determination of the activity index alpha/beta total is used to detect a wide variety of matrices quickly and the concentration of alpha and/or beta emitters of the contained radionuclides in different samples. In particular, the determination of the activity index alpha and beta total of radioactive wastes involves the digestion of samples in aggressive means that will be evaporated to dryness for its quantification. With the purpose of controlling the emission of corrosive gases during the preparation of the plane tables for the quantification of the index alpha and beta total, was designed and built the device in the Radioactive Waste Laboratory that allows to prepare plane tables for proportional counters in a sure and efficient way. The device is constituted by heating equipment, evaporation cylinder and a gases cleaning system. The self-absorption curve got ready starting from the device. (Author)

  1. Determination of total alpha activity index in samples of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia C, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology of preparation and quantification of samples containing radionuclides beta and/or alpha emitters, to determine the rates of alpha and beta total activity of radioactive waste samples. For this, a device of planchettes preparer was designed, to assist the planchettes preparation in a controlled environment and free of corrosive vapors. Planchettes were prepared in three means: nitrate, carbonate and sulfate, to different mass thickness, natural uranium (alpha and beta emitter) and in case of Sr-90 (beta emitter pure) only in half nitrate; and these planchettes were quantified in an alpha/beta counter, in order to construct the self-absorption curves for alpha and beta particles. These curves are necessary to determine the rate of alpha-beta activity of any sample because they provide the self-absorption correction factor to be applied in calculating the index. Samples with U were prepared with the help of the device of planchettes preparer and subsequently were analyzed in the proportional counter Mpc-100 Pic brand. Samples with Sr-90 were prepared without the device to see if there was a different behavior with respect to obtaining mass thickness. Similarly they were calcined and carried out count in the Mpc-100. To perform the count, first the parameters of counter operating were determined: operating voltages for alpha and beta particles 630 and 1500 V respectively, a count routine was generated where the time and count type were adjusted, and counting efficiencies for alpha and beta particles, with the aid of calibration sources of 210 Po for alphas and 90 Sr for betas. According to the results, the counts per minute will decrease as increasing the mass thickness of the sample (self-absorption curve), adjusting this behavior to an exponential function in all cases studied. The minor self-absorption of alpha and beta particles in the case of U was obtained in sulfate medium. The self-absorption curves of Sr-90 follow the

  2. Determination of total alpha and beta activity in water for human consumption by LSC(Liquid Scintillation Counter); Determinacao de atividades alfa e beta total em agua para consumo humano por LSC (Contador de Cintilacao Liquida))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The Ordinance Brazilian of Ministry of Health (MS 2914/2011) establishes the standards for quality of water intended for human consumption, being limits values of 5.0 Bq/L for gross alpha, and 1.0 Bq/L for gross beta radioactivity. The liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) technique has been presented as an alternative to conventional procedure using gas flow proportional counter. The present work shows a review of the methods for determination of gross alpha and gross beta in water by using LSC. Between the factors that influence the accuracy and repeatability of the analytical results we can highlight: thermal preconcentration, type of the acid and calibration standard. A procedure was established and carried out to samples of the National Program of Intercomparison of Radionuclides in Environmental Samples for evaluation of its performance. The gross alpha and gross beta analysis in samples of the public water supplies in the Metropolitan Region of Goiania, state of Goias was carried out. The results are consistent with the guideline values form the Ministry of Health concerning radioactivity. (author)

  3. The influence of the calibration standard and the chemical composition of the water samples residue in the counting efficiency of proportional detectors for gross alpha and beta counting. Application on the radiologic control of the IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Cecilia Martins

    2003-01-01

    In this work the efficiency calibration curves of thin-window and low background gas-flow proportional counters were determined for calibration standards with different energies and different absorber thicknesses. For the gross alpha counting we have used 241 Am and natural uranium standards and for the gross beta counting we have used 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 137 Cs standards in residue thicknesses ranging from 0 to approximately 18 mg/cm 2 . These sample thicknesses were increased with a previously determined salted solution prepared simulating the chemical composition of the underground water of IPEN The counting efficiency for alpha emitters ranged from 0,273 +- 0,038 for a weightless residue to only 0,015 +- 0,002 in a planchet containing 15 mg/cm 2 of residue for 241 Am standard. For natural uranium standard the efficiency ranged from 0,322 +- 0,030 for a weightless residue to 0,023 +- 0,003 in a planchet containing 14,5 mg/cm 2 of residue. The counting efficiency for beta emitters ranged from 0,430 +- 0,036 for a weightless residue to 0,247 +- 0,020 in a planchet containing 17 mg/cm 2 of residue for 137 Cs standard. For 90 Sr/ 90 Y standard the efficiency ranged from 0,489 +- 0,041 for a weightless residue to 0,323 +- 0,026 in a planchet containing 18 mg/cm 2 of residue. Results make evident the counting efficiency variation with the alpha or beta emitters energies and the thickness of the water samples residue. So, the calibration standard, the thickness and the chemical composition of the residue must always be considered in the gross alpha and beta radioactivity determination in water samples. (author)

  4. Concentration levels of alpha emitting radionuclides in natural waters. Implications in the use of various radionuclides of reference for the determination of total alpha activity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbacho, J. A.; Baeza, A.; Guillen, J.; Valles, I.; Serrano, I.; Camacho, A.; Montana, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out a statistical evaluation of the natural radioactive contents of a large number of water samples collected at different points of the Spanish geography, in order to meet its controlling radioactive composition and assessing the implications of total alpha activity index can have in this type of samples. (Author)

  5. Determination of total alpha activity index in samples of radioactive wastes; Determinacion del indice de actividad alfa total en muestras de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galicia C, F. J.

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology of preparation and quantification of samples containing radionuclides beta and/or alpha emitters, to determine the rates of alpha and beta total activity of radioactive waste samples. For this, a device of planchettes preparer was designed, to assist the planchettes preparation in a controlled environment and free of corrosive vapors. Planchettes were prepared in three means: nitrate, carbonate and sulfate, to different mass thickness, natural uranium (alpha and beta emitter) and in case of Sr-90 (beta emitter pure) only in half nitrate; and these planchettes were quantified in an alpha/beta counter, in order to construct the self-absorption curves for alpha and beta particles. These curves are necessary to determine the rate of alpha-beta activity of any sample because they provide the self-absorption correction factor to be applied in calculating the index. Samples with U were prepared with the help of the device of planchettes preparer and subsequently were analyzed in the proportional counter Mpc-100 Pic brand. Samples with Sr-90 were prepared without the device to see if there was a different behavior with respect to obtaining mass thickness. Similarly they were calcined and carried out count in the Mpc-100. To perform the count, first the parameters of counter operating were determined: operating voltages for alpha and beta particles 630 and 1500 V respectively, a count routine was generated where the time and count type were adjusted, and counting efficiencies for alpha and beta particles, with the aid of calibration sources of {sup 210}Po for alphas and {sup 90}Sr for betas. According to the results, the counts per minute will decrease as increasing the mass thickness of the sample (self-absorption curve), adjusting this behavior to an exponential function in all cases studied. The minor self-absorption of alpha and beta particles in the case of U was obtained in sulfate medium. The self-absorption curves of Sr-90

  6. Re-irradiation after gross total resection of recurrent glioblastoma. Spatial pattern of recurrence and a review of the literature as a basis for target volume definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straube, Christoph; Elpula, Greeshma [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Gempt, Jens; Gerhardt, Julia; Meyer, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Bette, Stefanie; Zimmer, Claus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Schmidt-Graf, Friederike [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Combs, Stephanie E. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute for Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Currently, patients with gross total resection (GTR) of recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) undergo adjuvant chemotherapy or are followed up until progression. Re-irradiation, as one of the most effective treatments in macroscopic rGBM, is withheld in this situation, as uncertainties about the pattern of re-recurrence, the target volume, and also the efficacy of early re-irradiation after GTR exist. Imaging and clinical data from 26 consecutive patients with GTR of rGBM were analyzed. The spatial pattern of recurrences was analyzed according to the RANO-HGG criteria (''response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria for high-grade gliomas''). Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Furthermore, a systematic review was performed in PubMed. All but 4 patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy after GTR. Progression was diagnosed in 20 of 26 patients and 70% of recurrent tumors occurred adjacent to the resection cavity. The median extension beyond the edge of the resection cavity was 20 mm. Median PFS was 6 months; OS was 12.8 months. We propose a target volume containing the resection cavity and every contrast enhancing lesion as the gross tumor volume (GTV), a spherical margin of 5-10 mm to generate the clinical target volume (CTV), and a margin of 1-3 mm to generate the planning target volume (PTV). Re-irradiation of this volume is deemed to be safe and likely to prolong PFS. Re-irradiation is worth considering also after GTR, as the volumes that need to be treated are limited and re-irradiation has already proven to be a safe treatment option in general. The strategy of early re-irradiation is currently being tested within the GlioCave/NOA 17/Aro 2016/03 trial. (orig.) [German] Patienten mit einem rezidivierten Glioblastom (rGBM) werden, wenn eine komplette Resektion (GTR) des makroskopischen Rezidivs durchgefuehrt wurde, aktuell meist systemisch adjuvant behandelt oder einer engmaschigen Nachsorge

  7. Calibration and validation of measures a total alpha beta counter in the tunisian mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasri, Sihem; Skhiri, Noura

    2009-01-01

    The risks due to contamination of mineral waters are essentially risk internal radiation following ingestion of radionuclides which brought us in this study to determine the global alpha and beta of the Tunisian mineral water. We used an alpha beta global counter. The results obtained by this technique have shown that alpha activity of these 10 waters are all lower than 50 mBq / l and are varied between 3.75 and 8.4 mBq / l and beta activity was found only 9 waters are also lower than 50 mBq / l (between 7.17 and 18.25) when only one is between 100 and 500 mBq / l (101.17).

  8. Gamma-spectrometric and total alpha-beta counting methods for radioactivity analysis of deuterium depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, Ov. S.; Mladin, C.; Vladu, Mihaela; Bulubasa, G.; Bidica, N.

    2008-01-01

    According to national regulations, as well as to the EU directive on the quality of drinking water, the radionuclide concentrations represent some of the drinking water quality parameters. Among the most important radioactivity content parameters are: the total alpha and total beta concentration (Bq/l); K-40 content, and the gamma-nuclides volume activities. The paper presents the measuring methods for low-level total alpha and/or beta counting of volume samples, as well as the high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometric method used to measure the volume activity of nuclides in drinking water. These methods are applied to monitor the radioactivity content and quality of the QLARIVIA brand of Deuterium depleted water (DDW). There are discussed the performances of these applied methods as well as some preliminary results. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  10. Evaluation of gross radioactivity in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorer, Oezlem Selcuk; Oeter, Cigdem [Yuzuncu Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-05-15

    The paper presents the results of radiological investigations of food products sampled in the summer and fall of 2011 and 2012 in different parts of Van, Turkey. Gross radioactivity measurements in food products were evaluated. Food items were divided into eight groups: (1) water, (2) fish, (3) cheese products, (4) fruits, (5) vegetables, (6) herbs, (7) walnut and (8) rock salt. The levels of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in all food samples varied widely ranging from 0.070 to 10.885 Bq/g and from 0.132 to 48.285 Bq/g on dry mass basis, respectively. In one sample, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were found to be relatively high according to the other samples and in all samples, the gross alpha radioactivity was measured lower than the gross beta radioactivity. The gross α and gross β activities were measured by using α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604).

  11. Descriptive display of total alpha, energetics, TOC, oxlate as TOC, and H2O sample data from Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMPSON, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    In March 1999, staff at Lockheed Makn Hanford Company (LMHC) were asked to make a presentation to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) about the safety of the waste tanks at the Hanford Site and the necessity for further tank sampling. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provided a statistical analysis of available tank data to help determine whether additional sampling would in fact be required. The analytes examined were total alpha, energetics, total organic carbon (TOC), oxalate as TOC and moisture. These analytes serve as indicators of the stability of tank contents; if any of them fall above or below certain values, further investigation is warranted (Dukelow et al. 1995). PNNL performed an analysis of the data collected on these safety screening analytes with respect to empirical distributions and the established Safety Screening Data Quality Objectives (SS DQO) thresholds and Basis for Interim Operations (BIO) limits. Both univariate and bivariate analyses were performed. Summary statistics and graphical representations of the data were generated

  12. Role of SSNTD technique in three-step method for total assay of alpha activity in air effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolekar, R.V.; Joshi, V.B.; Bhanti, D.P.; Bhagwat, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the present work, low levels of alpha activity in air effluents were estimated. Currently this essay involves collection of effluent samples and assaying them for the release using ZnS(Ag) based scintillation counter (background=1 cpm). Any activity below 1 cpm (net) therefore goes unreported. Air samples showing activity -6 Bq/m 3 (3.73x10 -17 Ci/m 3 ) to 36.41x10 -6 Bq/m 3 (9.84x10 -16 Ci/m 3 ) for samples studied over twelve months period. The three step procedure helps to measure total activity without significant burden on SSNTD technique thereby improving the acceptability of the methodology. (author)

  13. NM Gross Receipts Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  14. Gross National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giri, Krishna Prasad; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    This paper investigates practices related to the ideology of infusing Gross National Happiness (GNH) into school curriculum, the effectiveness of the meditation and mind training and the implication of GNH for school environment. It also explores how GNH ambience has been managed and practiced...... of Gross National Happiness and Educating for Gross National happiness....

  15. Cobalt coordination and clustering in alpha-Co(OH)(2) revealed by synchrotron X-ray total scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, James R; Kurzman, Joshua A; Seshadri, Ram; Morse, Daniel E

    2010-09-03

    Structures of layered metal hydroxides are not well described by traditional crystallography. Total scattering from a synthesis-controlled subset of these materials, as described here, reveals that different cobalt coordination polyhedra cluster within each layer on short length scales, offering new insights and approaches for understanding the properties of these and related layered materials. Structures related to that of brucite [Mg(OH)(2)] are ubiquitous in the mineral world and offer a variety of useful functions ranging from catalysis and ion-exchange to sequestration and energy transduction, including applications in batteries. However, it has been difficult to resolve the atomic structure of these layered compounds because interlayer disorder disrupts the long-range periodicity necessary for diffraction-based structure determination. For this reason, traditional unit-cell-based descriptions have remained inaccurate. Here we apply, for the first time to such layered hydroxides, synchrotron X-ray total scattering methods-analyzing both the Bragg and diffuse components-to resolve the intralayer structure of three different alpha-cobalt hydroxides, revealing the nature and distribution of metal site coordination. The different compounds with incorporated chloride ions have been prepared with kinetic control of hydrolysis to yield different ratios of octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt ions within the layers, as confirmed by total scattering. Real-space analyses indicate local clustering of polyhedra within the layers, manifested in the weighted average of different ordered phases with fixed fractions of tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt sites. These results, hidden from an averaged unit-cell description, reveal new structural characteristics that are essential to understanding the origin of fundamental material properties such as color, anion exchange capacity, and magnetic behavior. Our results also provide further insights into the detailed

  16. Design and device construction for plane tables preparation for counter alpha/beta total; Diseno y construccion de dispositivo para preparacion de planchetas para contador alfa/beta total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galicia C, F. J.; Monroy G, F., E-mail: fgalicia82@yahoo.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work presents the design and assembly of a device for plane tables preparation for quantification alpha/beta total of radioactive waste samples. The determination of the activity index alpha/beta total is used to detect a wide variety of matrices quickly and the concentration of alpha and/or beta emitters of the contained radionuclides in different samples. In particular, the determination of the activity index alpha and beta total of radioactive wastes involves the digestion of samples in aggressive means that will be evaporated to dryness for its quantification. With the purpose of controlling the emission of corrosive gases during the preparation of the plane tables for the quantification of the index alpha and beta total, was designed and built the device in the Radioactive Waste Laboratory that allows to prepare plane tables for proportional counters in a sure and efficient way. The device is constituted by heating equipment, evaporation cylinder and a gases cleaning system. The self-absorption curve got ready starting from the device. (Author)

  17. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley

    2016-01-01

    .93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice......Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...

  18. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  19. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  20. Total synthesis of (+/-)-taiwaniaquinol B via a domino intramolecular friedel-crafts acylation/carbonyl alpha-tert-alkylation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Eric; Fishlock, Dan

    2005-09-28

    The first synthesis of taiwaniaquinol B, a 6-nor-5(6-->7)abeoabietane-type diterpenoid exhibiting the uncommon fused 6-5-6 tricyclic carbon skeleton, was accomplished in 15 steps. A Lewis acid-promoted tandem intramolecular Friedel-Crafts/carbonyl alpha-tert-alkylation reaction was exploited as the core strategy for the synthesis of the sterically congested 1-indanone-containing tricyclic structure. This multiple carbon-carbon bond forming reaction exploits the unique reactivity of Meldrum's acid. The facile precursor synthesis makes this a useful methodology for the expedient modification and assembly of sterically congested 1-indanone-containing ring systems.

  1. On the problems of monitoring the total alpha acitivity concentration of the air in the vicinity of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Hoetzl, H.

    1983-01-01

    The immission measurement of alpha rays as an environmental monitoring programme is necessary for the production and processing of fuel elements and the WAA. Keeping within the dose limits according to Strl Sch V can only be achieved, if the important radio nuclides are detected with a detection limit, which corresponds to 1130 of the dose limits. For Pu 239/240, this is 3.7 x 10 -6 Bg/m 3 (0.1 f Cu/m 3 ). These detection limits can be achieved by analysis of individual nuclides. (DG) [de

  2. Concentration levels of alpha emitting radionuclides in natural waters. Implications in the use of various radionuclides of reference for the determination of total alpha activity index; Niveles de concentracion de radionucleidos emisores alfa en aguas de origen natural. Implicaciones en el uso de los distintos radionucleidos de referencia para la determinacion del indice de actividad total alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbacho, J. A.; Baeza, A.; Guillen, J.; Valles, I.; Serrano, I.; Camacho, A.; Montana, M.

    2013-07-01

    The present study was carried out a statistical evaluation of the natural radioactive contents of a large number of water samples collected at different points of the Spanish geography, in order to meet its controlling radioactive composition and assessing the implications of total alpha activity index can have in this type of samples. (Author)

  3. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Downs

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98. The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  4. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  5. Importance of salt in the production matrix of the efficiency curve for the determination of the total alpha activity in water samples; Importancia de la matriz salina en la fabricacion de la curva de eficiencia para la determinacion del indice de actividad alfa total en muestras de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    The determination of total alpha activity by the evaporation method allows obtaining, from a quick and inexpensive technique, the order of magnitude of the total activity of all alpha emitters present in a sample of water. This study shows that the detection efficiency curve varies significantly depending on the sodium salt is used to manufacture calibration and/or reference radionuclide used. (Author)

  6. Total white blood cell counts and LPS-induced TNF alpha production by monocytes of pregnant, pseudopregnant and cyclic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Moes, H; van der Schaaf, G; de Leij, LFMH; Heineman, MJ

    Pregnancy in the rat may be associated with an activated innate immune system. Therefore, we investigated monocyte function as well as total white blood cell (WBC) counts during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat. Rats were equipped with a permanent

  7. Total white blood cell counts and LPS-induced TNF alpha production by monocytes of pregnant, pseudopregnant and cyclic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M. M.; Moes, H.; van der Schaaf, G.; de Leij, L. F. M. H.; Heineman, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Pregnancy in the rat may be associated with an activated innate immune system. Therefore, we investigated monocyte function as well as total white blood cell (WBC) counts during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat. Rats were equipped with a permanent

  8. Total alpha and beta determination by liquid scintillation counting in water samples from a Brazilian intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabiana F.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May Braga Dulley

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes CNEN/LAPOC's participation in the Brazilian Intercomparison Exercise (PNI) for simultaneous determination of total radioactivity in water samples, which took place in August and December 2008. The Proficiency Test (PT) also involved a short description of the nuclear analytical technique employed, emphasizing sources of uncertainty. A Liquid Scintillation System (Packard TRICARB 2700) was used with appropriate corrections applied to final results, expressed as Bq L -1 . Participation and PT data provide independent information on performance of a Laboratory and have an important role in method validation; especially because it allows the assessment of method performance over an entire range of concentrations and matrices. PT is also an important tool to demonstrate equivalence of measurements, if not their metrological comparability, and to promote education and improvement of Lab practices. (author)

  9. Gross decontamination experiment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment

  10. Gross xenon stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.; Wilson, P.P.H.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of xenon in thermal reactors on steady operation is generally destabilizing. Illustrating this involves the study of appropriate transfer functions, which may be conveniently displayed in three ways: as Bode, Nyquist, and root-locus diagrams. The three forms allow different aspects to be highlighted. These are illustrated for the effect of xenon with allowance not only for the stabilizing effect of the direct yield in fission but also to show the consequences of neglecting the time dependence due to the thermal capacity of the reactor. With careful interpretation, all these forms give an interpretation of stability that is consistent with direct evaluation and promote the understanding of the onset of gross oscillations in power

  11. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  12. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Ye Jida; Chen Qianyuan; Wu Xiaofei; Song Weili; Wang Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross 13 activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02-0.38 mBq/m 3 and 0.10-1.81 mBq/m 3 , respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m 3 and 0.45mBq/m 3 , respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m 3 and 0.52 mBq/m 3 , of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP. (authors)

  13. [Effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase, total protein, salivary flow rate and pH value in Pi deficiency children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-min; Chen, Long-hui; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-rong; Chen, Wei-wen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total protein (TP), salivary flow rate, and pH value between Pi deficiency (PD) children and healthy children, thereby providing evidence for Pi controlling saliva theory. Twenty PD children were recruited, and 29 healthy children were also recruited at the same time. Saliva samples from all subjects were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. The sAA activity and amount, TP contents, salivary flow rate, and pH value were determined and compared. (1) Citric acid stimulation was able to significantly increase salivary flow rate, pH value, sAA activities, sAA specific activity and sAA amount (including glycosylated and non-glycosylated sAA amount) in healthy children (Psalivary flow rate, pH value, and glycosylated sAA levels in PD children (Psalivary indices between the two groups (P>0.05), salivary indices except salivary flow rate and glycosylated sAA levels decreased more in PD children. There was statistical difference in sAA activity ratio, sAA specific activity ratio, and the ratio of glycosylated sAA levels between PD children and healthy children (P<0.05). PD children had decreased response to citric acid stimulation.

  14. N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation Controls Total Antioxidant Capacity, Creatine Kinase, Lactate, and Tumor Necrotic Factor-Alpha against Oxidative Stress Induced by Graded Exercise in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donrawee Leelarungrayub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term (7 days N-acetylcysteine (NAC at 1,200 mg daily supplementation on muscle fatigue, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lactate, creatine kinase (CK, and tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α. Twenty-nine sedentary men (13 controls; 16 in the supplement group from a randomized control were included. At before and after supplementation, fatigue index (FI was evaluated in the quadriceps muscle, and performed a graded exercise treadmill test to induce oxidative stress, and as a measure of VO2max. Blood samples were taken before exercise and 20 minutes after it at before and after supplementation, to determine TAC, CK, lactate, and TNF-α levels. Results showed that FI and VO2max increased significantly in the supplement group. After exercise decreased the levels of TAC and increased lactate, CK, and TNF-α of both groups at before supplementation. After supplementation, lactate, CK, and TNF-α levels significantly increased and TAC decreased after exercise in the control group. Whereas the TAC and lactate levels did not change significantly, but CK and TNF-α increased significantly in the supplement group. Therefore, this results showed that NAC improved the muscle fatigue, VO2max, maintained TAC, controlled lactate production, but had no influence on CK and TNF-α.

  15. Evaluation of plasma concentrations of homocysteine, IL-6, TNF-alpha, hs-CRP, and total antioxidant capacity in patients with end-stage renal failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Babaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that hyperhomocysteinemia has a high prevalence in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, which may contribute to the high cardiovascular risk in these patients. Cardiovascular disease is the first cause of high mortality rate in ESRD patients. The aim of the present study was to assess five important factors in patients with ESRD (the amount of homocysteine, IL-6, TNF-alpha, hs-CRP, and Total Antioxidant Capacity. These factors were surveyed in ESRD patients to compare with healthy subjects. In a cross-sectional study, we enrolled 80 patients on maintenance hemodialysis and measured the inflammatory and oxidative stress indicators. The plasma samples were assayed for five above mentioned variables using standard protocols. Two-hour post hemodialysis plasma samples were also assayed for TAC. Plasma levels of inflammation markers, IL-6 and hs-CRP, homocysteine were significantly increased in ESRD group versus control group. This increase was also found in TNF-α levels as compared to the controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. Also, the post dialysis samples had significantly lower levels of TAC as compared to predialysis ones.

  16. Pricing, renegotiation and gross inequities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, J.S. (Van Cott, Bagley, Cornwall McCarthy, Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Reviews pricing, renegotiation and gross inequity provisions of coal supply agreements in order to provide practical assistance to an attorney called upon to draft in written form the intent of buyer and seller. 26 refs.

  17. 26 CFR 1.61-3 - Gross income derived from business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 1.61-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and..., merchandising, or mining business, “gross income” means the total sales, less the cost of goods sold, plus any...

  18. Bicyclic Guanidine Catalyzed Asymmetric Tandem Isomerization Intramolecular-Diels-Alder Reaction: The First Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-alpha-Yohimbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Jiang, Danfeng; Kee, Choon-Wee; Liu, Hongjun; Tan, Choon-Hong

    2016-02-04

    Hydroisoquinoline derivatives were prepared in moderate to good enantioselectivities via a bicyclic guanidine-catalyzed tandem isomerization intramolecular-Diels-Alder (IMDA) reaction of alkynes. With this synthetic method, the first enantioselective synthesis of (+)-alpha-yohimbine was completed in 9 steps from the IMDA products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. On alpha activity relationships in 226Ra and U/sub nat/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejbichova, Z.

    1982-01-01

    A gross alpha activity of 0.1 Bq/l is permitted for drinking and surface waters. If gross activity is higher, it is suitable to determine the 226 Ra content which must not exceed 0.1 Bq/l. The permissible content of natural uranium is 0.05 mg/l. In most samples of ground and surface waters gross alpha activity was below the permissible limit. In some samples with a high content of salts a higher Ra+U activity was found which exceeded gross activity. This was caused by the interference of nonradioactive admixtures. In other samples a higher gross alpha activity was found than was the sum Ra+U which may have been caused by alpha sources from radon decay. It was found that the gross alpha activity of waters is rather caused by uranium than by radium. (E.S.)

  20. Quantum Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutho Haegeman, Damian Draxler, Vid Stojevic, J. Ignacio Cirac, Tobias J. Osborne, Frank Verstraete

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a non-commutative generalization of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for one-dimensional quantum gasses and quantum liquids. This generalization is obtained by applying the time-dependent variational principle to the variational manifold of continuous matrix product states. This allows for a full quantum description of many body system ---including entanglement and correlations--- and thus extends significantly beyond the usual mean-field description of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is known to fail for (quasi one-dimensional systems. By linearizing around a stationary solution, we furthermore derive an associated generalization of the Bogoliubov -- de Gennes equations. This framework is applied to compute the steady state response amplitude to a periodic perturbation of the potential.

  1. Measurement of total alpha activity of neptunium, plutonium, and americium in highly radioactive Hanford waste by iron hydroxide precipitation and 2-heptanone solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, T.C.; Kaye, J.H.

    1992-06-01

    An improved method has been developed to concentrate the major alpha-emitting actinide elements neptunium, plutonium, and americium from samples with high salt content such as those resulting from efforts to characterize Hanford storage tank waste. Actinide elements are concentrated by coprecipitation of their hydroxides using iron carrier. The iron is removed by extraction from 8M HCI with 2-heptanone. The actinide elements remain in the aqueous phase free from salts, iron, and long-lived fission products. Recoveries averaged 98 percent

  2. Study of total ionization by {alpha} particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature; Etude de l'ionisation totale par les paricules {alpha}, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristeau, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the total ionization by alpha particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature. Using a different experimental method, the results for the mean ionization energy at 300 K given by Jesse in 1953 have been confirmed to within 1 per cent. It is established that in pure gases the mean energy W required to form a pair of ions remains constant as the temperature varies from 77 to 300 K. It is shown that there is a temperature effect for W in binary gas mixtures of the type A-B containing meta-stable atoms A{sup *} and an 'impurity' B. A systematic study is made of the change {delta}W in W as a function of the temperature and of the B 'impurity' concentration in the mixtures Ne - Ar, Ne - Kr, Ne - H{sub 2}, Ne - N{sub 2}, Ne - CH{sub 4} and He - Ar. Experiments have been carried out on a ternary gas mixture of the type A - B - C, where C is a second ionizable 'impurity' added to the binary mixture A - B; they show the existence of excited atoms B{sup *} formed from the 'impurity' B. Finally, it is shown that the amount of metastable atoms formed in a pure gas must be very close to the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs, and that there must exist a correlation between the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs and the number {approx_equal} N{sub 0} of metastable atoms created in the pure rare gases. (author) [French] On realise des experiences sur l'ionisation totale par les particules alpha, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature. Avec une methode experimentale differente, on retrouve a mieux que 1 pour cent pres les valeurs de l'energie moyenne d'ionisation que JESSE a obtenues en 1953 et a 300 K. On etablit que dans les gaz purs, l'energie moyenne W pour creer une paire d'ions demeure constante, quand la temperature varie entre 77 et 300 K. On met en evidence un effet de temperature sur W, dans les melanges gazeux binaires du type

  3. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  4. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  5. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  6. NM Gross Receipts July - December 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  7. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  8. NM Gross Receipts January - June 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico's gross receipts tax districts as identified on the "Gross Receipts Tax Rate Schedule" published by the Taxation and...

  9. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  10. Determination of radon daughter activities of different aerosol fractions by gross-α and gross-β measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, T.; Kanyar, B.; Jobbagy, V.; Kavasi, N.; Molnar, A.; Imre, K.

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to determine the radioactivities of the radon progenies ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 214 Po) attached to the carrier aerosol particles with respect to the size distribution in order to improve the assessment of the inhalation dose. We derived the radionuclide-specific activity concentrations from gross alpha and gross beta measurements provided during 2 hours after sampling and model calculations including parameter estimation. For the aerosol sampling we used an electrical low pressure impactor, which is able to collect aerosol particles in 12 different diameter ranges. In our test investigations the aerosol particles were collected from a closed chamber in a common laboratory building. The chamber contained a relatively high radon concentration (60-90 kBq/m 3 ) in equilibrium with the short lived daughters generated previously without any additional aerosol sources. For the nuclear measurements of the aerosol samples ZnS/plastic sandwich detectors have been used. The time series data of gross alpha and gross beta activities were fitted simultaneously and the initial activities of the daughters were estimated. According to the results from two different fractions (0.06 and 0.7 μm) just followed the end of sampling they contain a higher 218 Po activity than the 214 Pb and 214 Bi ones. The preliminary assessments for the special air conditions show that the 214 Pb-to- 218 Po activity ratios are higher for the small aerosol particles than for the larger ones. The estimated errors of the initial activities were near to 50% in a large part of cases. (author)

  11. Gross beta activity of the Danube river samples in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaskovic, I.; Pantelic, G.; Eremic-Savkovic, M.; Vuletic, V.; Javorina, Lj.; Tanaskovic, I.)

    2007-01-01

    Our paper presents the results of radioactivity control of the Danube samples on Serbian (Bezdan left coast) in 2006. The measurements were carried out by low-phone proportional gas alpha beta counter PIC-WPC-9550. Efficiency for activity was 47%. The results of measurements of gross beta activity (water, sediment, algae and fish) reveal that the values are at the same level as they were before the Paks Nuclear power plant started running. Our results of measurements correlate well with the results of Hungarian part. (author) [sr

  12. Effect of temperate climate tree species on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of

  13. Quality control of total alpha and beta activity analysis in water using the Proportional Counter of Gaseous Flux technique; Controle de qualidade das análises de atividades alfa e beta total em água pela técnica do Contador Proporcional de Fluxo Gasoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Alberto P.; Bastos, Thiago M.R.; Santos, Thiago O.; Filho, Crescêncio A.S.; França, Elvis J. de, E-mail: albertopereiran@gmail.com, E-mail: thiagomrbastos@gmail.com, E-mail: thiago_cbufpe@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: candrade@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The analytical capacity of the CRCN (Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste) for quantification of total alpha and beta concentrations in water samples using the Proportional Counter of Gaseous Flux is presented. To demonstrate the traceability of the results, the National Intercomparison Program (PNI) samples were used, promoted by the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD) from which the Regional Nuclear Science Center of the Northeast (CRCN-NE) participates since 2011. The results reported to the PNI demonstrate the analytical capacity of the CRCN to detect the emission of alpha and beta radioactivities in water within the potability standards in analytical detection of quantification in radioactivity by the technique of the Proportional Flow Counter.

  14. Prophylactic action of Alpha-tocopherol against Gamma irradiation changes in total lipid and phospholipid contents of brain cerebral hemispheres in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdy, A M; Helen, N S; Roushdy, H M [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    1987-12-31

    Male albino rats were intraperitoneally injected with Gamma tocopherol (vitamin E) at 10 mg/100 g animal body weight, 2 hr, before irradiation exposure. exposure. Rats were then exposed to a whole body dose of gamma irradiation at 7 Gy. Rats were sacrificed 1, 3, 7 and 10 days post irradiation. The two cerebral hemispheres were taken to determine the phospholipids and total lipid contents. whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 7 Gy caused a significant decrease in the levels of both phospholipids and total lipid contents in the cerebral hemispheres on the 3 rd, 7 Th, and 10 Th days post-irradiation, the decrease was insignificant on the 1 st day post exposure. The variations were less pronounced in rats treated with vitamin E. The results obtained were discussed in view of the relevant literature. 2 tabs.

  15. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  16. Alpha Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly, but their effects last only a few hours. Long-acting medications take longer to work, but their effects last longer. Which alpha blocker is best for you depends on your health and the condition being treated. Alpha blockers are ...

  17. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  18. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  19. Liquid scintillation alpha spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; McDowell, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate, quantitative determinations of alpha emitting nuclides by conventional plate counting methods are difficult, because of sample self-absorption problems in counting and because of non-reproducible losses in conventional sample separation methods. Liquid scintillation alpha spectrometry offers an attractive alternative with no sample self-absorption or geometry problems and with 100% counting efficiency. Sample preparation may include extraction of the alpha emitter of interest by a specific organic phase-soluble compound directly into the liquid scintillation counting medium. Detection electronics use energy and pulse-shape discrimination, to yield alpha spectra without beta and gamma background interference. Specific procedures have been developed for gross alpha, uranium, plutonium, thorium and colonium assay. Possibilities for a large number of other applications exist. Accuracy and reproducibility are typically in the 1% range. Backgrounds of the order of 0.01 cpm are readily achievable. The paper will present an overview of liquid scintillation alpha counting techniques and some of the results achieved for specific applications. (orig.)

  20. Alternative Measure of Wellbeing: Bhutan's Gross National ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is growing demand for innovative yet rigorous measures of national wellbeing beyond gross domestic product. In 2008, the Centre for Bhutan Studies - Bhutan's main policy research centre - posted data from a preliminary survey of the country's Gross National Happiness (GNH). The Centre for Bhutan Studies ...

  1. Effects of land use change on soil gross nitrogen transformation rates in subtropical acid soils of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbo; Xu, Zhihong

    2015-07-01

    Land use change affects soil gross nitrogen (N) transformations, but such information is particularly lacking under subtropical conditions. A study was carried out to investigate the potential gross N transformation rates in forest and agricultural (converted from the forest) soils in subtropical China. The simultaneously occurring gross N transformations in soil were quantified by a (15)N tracing study under aerobic conditions. The results showed that change of land use types substantially altered most gross N transformation rates. The gross ammonification and nitrification rates were significantly higher in the agricultural soils than in the forest soils, while the reverse was true for the gross N immobilization rates. The higher total carbon (C) concentrations and C / N ratio in the forest soils relative to the agricultural soils were related to the greater gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils. The lower gross ammonification combined with negligible gross nitrification rates, but much higher gross N immobilization rates in the forest soils than in the agricultural soils suggest that this may be a mechanism to effectively conserve available mineral N in the forest soils through increasing microbial biomass N, the relatively labile organic N. The greater gross nitrification rates and lower gross N immobilization rates in the agricultural soils suggest that conversion of forests to agricultural soils may exert more negative effects on the environment by N loss through NO3 (-) leaching or denitrification (when conditions for denitrification exist).

  2. Calibration of sources for alpha spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M.; Goncalez, O.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration methodology for measuring the total alpha activity of plane and thin sources with the Alpha Spectrometer for Silicon Detector in the Nuclear Measures and Dosimetry laboratory at IEAv/CTA. (author)

  3. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  4. A time series analysis of transportation energy use per dollar of gross domestic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Transportation energy use relative to gross domestic product (GDP) has been declining within the past decade. However, the total transportation energy consumed (see figure 1) shows only a more recent decline. To see clearly the long-term decline, the...

  5. Radon Daughters Background Reduction in Alpha Particles Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadon, S. S.; Pelled, O.; Orion, I.

    2014-01-01

    The ABPC method is using a serially occurring events of the beta decay of the 214Bi fallow by alpha decay of the 214Po that take place almost simultaneously to detect the Pseudo Coincidence Event (PCE) from the RDP, and to subtract them from the gross alpha counts. 267 This work showed that it is possible to improve the efficiency of RDP background reduction, including subtracting the 218Po contribution by using the ABPC method based on a single solid state silicon PIPS detector. False counts percentage obtained at the output of the PCE circuit were smaller than 0.1%. The results show that the PCE circuit was not influenced by non RDP alpha emitters. The PCE system did not reduce the non PCE of the 218Po. After 20 minutes the 218Po was strongly decayed, and its contribution became negligible. In order to overcome this disadvantage, a mathematical matching calculations for the 214Po and the 218Po decay equations were employed, and a constant ratio of the APo214(0) / APo218(0) was obtained. This ratio can be used to estimate the count rate of the 218Po at the first 20 minutes, and to subtract it from the total count rate in order to obtain correct RDP reduction

  6. The Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    We present the most recent data on the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule obtained from the combined BEBC Narrow Band Neon and GGM-PS Freon neutrino/antineutrino experiments. The data for the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule as a function of q 2 suggest a smaller value for the QCD coupling constant parameter Λ than is obtained from the analysis of the higher moments. (author)

  7. A global assessment of gross and net land change dynamics for current conditions and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Prestele, Reinhard; Verburg, Peter H.

    2018-05-01

    The consideration of gross land changes, meaning all area gains and losses within a pixel or administrative unit (e.g. country), plays an essential role in the estimation of total land changes. Gross land changes affect the magnitude of total land changes, which feeds back to the attribution of biogeochemical and biophysical processes related to climate change in Earth system models. Global empirical studies on gross land changes are currently lacking. Whilst the relevance of gross changes for global change has been indicated in the literature, it is not accounted for in future land change scenarios. In this study, we extract gross and net land change dynamics from large-scale and high-resolution (30-100 m) remote sensing products to create a new global gross and net change dataset. Subsequently, we developed an approach to integrate our empirically derived gross and net changes with the results of future simulation models by accounting for the gross and net change addressed by the land use model and the gross and net change that is below the resolution of modelling. Based on our empirical data, we found that gross land change within 0.5° grid cells was substantially larger than net changes in all parts of the world. As 0.5° grid cells are a standard resolution of Earth system models, this leads to an underestimation of the amount of change. This finding contradicts earlier studies, which assumed gross land changes to appear in shifting cultivation areas only. Applied in a future scenario, the consideration of gross land changes led to approximately 50 % more land changes globally compared to a net land change representation. Gross land changes were most important in heterogeneous land systems with multiple land uses (e.g. shifting cultivation, smallholder farming, and agro-forestry systems). Moreover, the importance of gross changes decreased over time due to further polarization and intensification of land use. Our results serve as an empirical database for

  8. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  9. Total Counting and Spectroscopy in the Assessment of Alpha Radioactivity in Human Tissues; Determination de la Radioactivite Alpha des Tissus Humains par Dosage de l'Activite Globale et Spectroscopie; Obshchee izmerenie i spektroskopiya pri opredelenii al'fa-radioaktivnosti tkanej cheloveka; Evaluacion de la Actividad Alfa en los Tejidos Humanos por Recuento Global y Espectroscopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayneord, W. V.; Hill, C. R. [Physics Department, Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Cancer Hospital, Clifton Avenue, Belmont, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1964-10-15

    A seven-year programme of measurements of alpha radioactivity is briefly reviewed. The programme which was based initially on a sensitive and simple counting technique, using thin zinc cadmium sulphide screens, now employs in addition techniques of alpha spectroscopy developed for work with very large area low-specific-activity sources. These techniques are capable of measuring specific activities down to 10{sup -13} c/g and can in certain cases provide energy resolution of the order of 40 keV together with independent identification based on half-life measurements. Two alpha spectrometers are described which have been used on a wide variety of human and environmental materials. Particular attention has been given to the study of Po{sup 210}, now known to be present in a variety of foods and human tissues. Techniques are also described for the study of Pu{sup 239} in the atmosphere and examples given of .the results of measurements of low-level air contamination with this material. Techniques for the measurement of Pu{sup 239} in normal human tissues are described and some results given. Consideration is given to the contribution made by Po{sup 210} to the natural background radiation dose-rate in human bone and reproductive organs. It is shown that this contribution may be a significant fraction of the total dose received. (author) [French] L'auteur fait brievement le point de l'execution d'un programme septennal de mesures de la radioactivite alpha. Au debut, on procedait seulement a un dosage simple et sensible au moyen d'ecrans minces de sulfure de cadmium et de zinc; maintenant, ce procede est complete par l'emploi de methodes de spectroscopie alpha qui ont ete mises au point a l'occasion de travaux sur des sources a faible activite specifique et a tres grande surface. Ces methodes permettent de mesurer des activites specifiques aussi faibles que 10{sup -13} c/g, d'obtenir, dans certains cas, une resolution en energie de l'ordre de 40 keV et, independamment, d

  10. Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global drought total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross Domestic...

  11. Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross...

  12. 26 CFR 1.61-1 - Gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income. 1.61-1 Section 1.61-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.61-1 Gross...

  13. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  14. Associations between gross motor skills and physical activity in Australian toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Jones, Rachel A; Santos, Rute; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Pereira, João R; Zhang, Zhiguang; Okely, Anthony D

    2018-08-01

    Physical activity can be promoted by high levels of gross motor skills. A systematic review found a positive relationship in children (3-18 years) but only few studies examined this in younger children. The aim of this study was to examine the association between gross motor skills and physical activity in children aged 11-29 months. Cross-sectional study. This study involved 284 children from 30 childcare services in NSW, Australia (Mean age=19.77±4.18months, 53.2% boys). Physical activity was measured using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+). Gross motor skills were assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition (PDMS-2). Multilevel linear regression analyses were computed to assess associations between gross motor skills and physical activity, adjusting for sex, age and BMI. Children spent 53.08% of their time in physical activity and 10.39% in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Boys had higher total physical activity (pskills score was 96.16. Boys scored higher than girls in object manipulation (pskills and total physical activity or MVPA. Although gross motor skills were not associated with physical activity in this sample, stronger associations are apparent in older children. This study therefore highlights a potential important age to promote gross motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE: EXTENDED LYMAN ALPHA HALOS PRODUCED AT LOW DUST CONTENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Matthew [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Oestlin, Goeran; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Sandberg, Andreas [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Schaerer, Daniel [CNRS, IRAP, 14, avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Verhamme, Anne; Orlitova, Ivana [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Oti-Floranes, Hector [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofisica, POB 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Adamo, Angela [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Herenz, E. Christian [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter, E-mail: matthew@astro.su.se [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-03-10

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Ly{alpha}), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 < z < 0.18 in continuum-subtracted Ly{alpha}, H{alpha}, and the far ultraviolet continuum. We show that Ly{alpha} is emitted on scales that systematically exceed those of the massive stellar population and recombination nebulae: as measured by the Petrosian 20% radius, R{sub P20}, Ly{alpha} radii are larger than those of H{alpha} by factors ranging from 1 to 3.6, with an average of 2.4. The average ratio of Ly{alpha}-to-FUV radii is 2.9. This suggests that much of the Ly{alpha} light is pushed to large radii by resonance scattering. Defining the Relative Petrosian Extension of Ly{alpha} compared to H{alpha}, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} = R {sup Ly{alpha}}{sub P20}/R {sup H{alpha}}{sub P20}, we find {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} to be uncorrelated with total Ly{alpha} luminosity. However, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} is strongly correlated with quantities that scale with dust content, in the sense that a low dust abundance is a necessary requirement (although not the only one) in order to spread Ly{alpha} photons throughout the interstellar medium and drive a large extended Ly{alpha} halo.

  16. Determination of gross gamma and gross beta activities in liquid effluent samples. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, K.E.; Sood, S.P.

    1985-08-01

    Several inadequacies in the presently used procedures for gross gamma and gross beta measurements in aqueous wastes have been identified. Both the presence of suspended particulate activity and the use of cesium-137 as a calibration standard can cause gross gamma measurements to overestimate the actual activity in the sample. At the same time, sample preparation for the determination of gross beta activities causes large losses of radioiodine before the measurement step and the presence of solid material can cause a serious decrease in the beta counting efficiency. A combination of these errors could result in large discrepancies between the results obtained by the two measurement methods. Improved procedures are required to overcome these problems

  17. Development of methodology for detection of long lived alpha emitters in air based on simultaneous alpha and beta activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Vivek; Rath, D.P.; Vinayagami, Bhakti; Ashokkumar, P.; Umashankar, C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    Interference of the radon and thoron progeny co-deposited on the filtration media is the long-standing problem related to prompt analyses in continuous air sampling or monitoring of any potential suspect radionuclides. The solutions to this problem have been quite diverse, and included, for example, simple gross-alpha counting, the use of beta-to-alpha ratios, and the use of alpha spectrum analyses. The techniques based on beta to alpha disintegration ratios make use of the naturally occurring alpha to beta disintegration ratios and departures therefrom. This ratio is found empirically to be relatively constant. With the help of the solution of differential equation, which govern the deposition of radionuclide on filter paper, one can easily estimate theoretically the behavior of the radon progeny alpha to beta disintegration (or count) rate ratio

  18. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Prakash; Rajniti; Deepika; Royana

    2015-01-01

    BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. ...

  19. Gross Motor Skills and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children: A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the linear relationship between gross motor skills and cardiometabolic risk, with aerobic fitness as a mediator variable, in low-income children from the United States. Participants were a convenience sample of 224 children (mean ± SD age = 9.1 ± 1.1 yr; 129 girls and 95 boys) recruited from five low-income elementary schools from the Mountain West Region of the United States. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test for Gross Motor Development, 3rd Edition. Gross motor skills were analyzed using a locomotor skill, a ball skill, and a total gross motor skill score. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run that was administered during physical education class. A continuous and age- and sex-adjusted metabolic syndrome score (MetS) was calculated from health and blood marker measurements collected in a fasted state before school hours. Total effects, average direct effects, and indirect effects (average causal mediation effect) were calculated using a bootstrap mediation analysis method via a linear regression algorithm. The average causal mediation effect of gross locomotor skills on MetS scores, using aerobic fitness as the mediator variable, was statistically significant (β = -0.055, 95% confidence interval = -0.097 to -0.021, P = 0.003). The model explained approximately 17.5% of the total variance in MetS with approximately 43.7% of the relationship between locomotor skills and MetS mediated through aerobic fitness. Ball skills did not significantly relate with cardiometabolic risk. There is a significant relationship between gross locomotor skills and cardiometabolic risk that is partially mediated through aerobic fitness in a sample of low-income children from the United States.

  20. ASSETS ADMITTED TO COVER GROSS TECHNICAL RESERVES CASE STUDY: INSURANCE – REINSURANCE COMPANY ASTRA SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINELA – CONSTANTINA BADEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the asset structure and the coverage of gross technical reserves of the Insurance – Reinsurance Company Astra SA, for the period 2003 – 2014. Insurance companies are required to constitute technical reserves, in order to cope with the payment obligations to policyholders. These reserves may only be covered on account of certain assets, admitted by law. In Romania, Orders No. 8 and 9/2011, issued by the Insurance Supervisory Commission, contain Rules regarding the assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves, the dispersion of assets admitted to cover gross technical reserves and the liquidity coefficient. Order No. 9/2011, relating to general insurance, has been amended by Rule No. 22/2014. In this paper, we have analyzed the main elements of Astra’s assets, their share in total assets and we have calculated the coverage of gross technical reserves by total assets and liquid assets. In 2013 and 2014, the value of total assets was below the value of gross tehnical reserves, which demonstrated Astra’s financial instability, through negative capital and the inability to meet the obligations to policyholders. Failure to comply with the prudential indicators has been one of the main causes of Astra`s bankruptcy.

  1. Gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Oo, Khin Saw; Khin, Myo Thuzar; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2017-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Total 472 healthy Kindergarten children (237 males, 235 females) of 2016-2017 academic year from four schools in urban area and four schools in rural area of Myanmar were recruited. The gross motor skill development of all subjects was assessed with the test of gross motor development second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials for each gross motor skill and the performance was video recorded and scored. The assessment procedures were done according to the standardized guidelines of TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had average level of gross motor skill rank. The significant differences were found on the run and gallop of locomotor skills and the most of object control skills except the catch between males and females. The significant differences were also found between subjects from urban and rural areas. [Conclusion] Gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Kindergarten children in Myanmar had gender-based and region-based differences on both locomotor and object control skills. This study added a valuable information to the establishment of a normative reference of Kindergarten aged children for future studies.

  2. Alpha particle analysis using PEARLS spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; Klingler, G.W.; McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    Alpha particle assay by conventional plate-counting methods is difficult because chemical separation, tracer techniques, and/or self-absorption losses in the final sample may cause either non-reproducible results or create unacceptable errors. PEARLS (Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation) Spectrometry is an attractive alternative since radionuclides may be extracted into a scintillator in which there would be no self-absorption or geometry problems and in which up to 100% chemical recovery and counting efficiency is possible. Sample preparation may include extraction of the alpha emitter of interest by a specific organic-phase-soluble compound directly into the liquid scintillator. Detection electronics use energy and pulse-shape discrimination to provide discrete alpha spectra and virtual absence of beta and gamma backgrounds. Backgrounds on the order of 0.01 cpm are readily achievable. Accuracy and reproducibility are typically in the 100 +-1% range. Specific procedures have been developed for gross alpha, uranium, plutonium, thorium, and polonium assay. This paper will review liquid scintillation alpha counting methods and reference some of the specific applications. 8 refs., 1 fig

  3. Gross anatomy education for South African undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shead, Dorothy A; Roos, Ronel; Olivier, Benita; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2018-01-16

    Eight faculties in South Africa offer undergraduate physiotherapy training with gross anatomy included as a basis for clinical practice. Little information exists about anatomy education for this student body. A 42-question peer-reviewed survey was distributed to physiotherapy gross anatomy course coordinators in all the eight faculties. Seven coordinators from six (75%) of the universities responded. Two respondents' data from the same university were pooled. Collected data show that staff qualifications and experience varied widely and high to average staff to student ratios exist between faculties. Direct anatomy teaching duration was 12.3 (SD ±5.2) weeks per semester. Total number of weeks in courses per faculty was 27.6 (SD ±5.7) varying widely between institutions. Calculable direct contact anatomy hours ranged between 100 and 308 with a mean of 207.6 (SD ±78.1). Direct contact hours in lectures averaged 3.9 (SD ±1.6) per week and the average direct contact hours in practical sessions were 3.5 (SD ±1.8) per week. Dissection, prosection, plastinated models, surface anatomy, and e-learning were available across faculties. Ancillary modalities such as vertical integration and inter-professional learning were in use. All faculties had multiple-choice questions, spot tests, and short examination questions. Half had viva-voce examinations and one had additional long questions assessment. Students evaluated teaching performance in five faculties. Four faculties were reviewing anatomy programs to consider implementing changes to anatomy curriculum or pedagogy. The findings highlighted disparity between programs and also identified the need for specific guidelines to develop a unified South African gross anatomy course for physiotherapy students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  5. 75 FR 78897 - Definition of Omission From Gross Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Definition of Omission From Gross Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations defining an omission from gross income for... overstatement of basis in a sold asset results in an omission from gross income. The regulations will affect any...

  6. Screening procedures for alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.; Gardner, S.E.; Johnson, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    The gross actinide and beta screening methods currently used by the Bioassay Laboratory at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories have been documented and tested. The gross gamma method has also been documented. The gross actinide method was tested with Th-nat, Pu-239, Np-237, Am-241 and Cm-244 and the average percent recoveries were 90, 99, 45, 72 and 78, respectively. The gross beta method was tested with Sr-90/Y-90, Ce-144/Pr-144, Pm-147 and Ba-133 and the average percent recoveries were 78, 100, 46 and 46, respectively. Detection limits for the gross actinide (alpha) method are found to be about 0.4 mBq and about 39 mBq for the gross beta method

  7. Gross shell structure of moments of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.

    2002-01-01

    Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits

  8. Solitons in Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, E.

    1985-01-01

    It is observed that, when the potential is integrable and repulsive, the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation, with non-vanishing boundary conditions, describes a family of planar solitons. A method is presented which provides an exact soliton field to the Dirac Delta potential and an approximation solution to any other kind of potential. As an example the method is then applied to the case of a repulsive Yukawa potential. A brief discuss the relation between these solitons and Anderson's superfluidity mechanism, is also presented. (author) [pt

  9. A global assessment of gross and net land change dynamics for current conditions and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The consideration of gross land changes, meaning all area gains and losses within a pixel or administrative unit (e.g. country, plays an essential role in the estimation of total land changes. Gross land changes affect the magnitude of total land changes, which feeds back to the attribution of biogeochemical and biophysical processes related to climate change in Earth system models. Global empirical studies on gross land changes are currently lacking. Whilst the relevance of gross changes for global change has been indicated in the literature, it is not accounted for in future land change scenarios. In this study, we extract gross and net land change dynamics from large-scale and high-resolution (30–100 m remote sensing products to create a new global gross and net change dataset. Subsequently, we developed an approach to integrate our empirically derived gross and net changes with the results of future simulation models by accounting for the gross and net change addressed by the land use model and the gross and net change that is below the resolution of modelling. Based on our empirical data, we found that gross land change within 0.5° grid cells was substantially larger than net changes in all parts of the world. As 0.5° grid cells are a standard resolution of Earth system models, this leads to an underestimation of the amount of change. This finding contradicts earlier studies, which assumed gross land changes to appear in shifting cultivation areas only. Applied in a future scenario, the consideration of gross land changes led to approximately 50 % more land changes globally compared to a net land change representation. Gross land changes were most important in heterogeneous land systems with multiple land uses (e.g. shifting cultivation, smallholder farming, and agro-forestry systems. Moreover, the importance of gross changes decreased over time due to further polarization and intensification of land use. Our results serve as

  10. Gender preference between traditional and PowerPoint methods of teaching gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhu, Saleh; Adamu, Lawan Hassan; Buba, Mohammed Alhaji; Garba, Sani Hyedima; Dalori, Babagana Mohammed; Yusuf, Ashiru Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Teaching and learning process is increasingly metamorphosing from the traditional chalk and talk to the modern dynamism in the information and communication technology. Medical education is no exception to this dynamism more especially in the teaching of gross anatomy, which serves as one of the bases of understanding the human structure. This study was conducted to determine the gender preference of preclinical medical students on the use of traditional (chalk and talk) and PowerPoint presentation in the teaching of gross anatomy. This was cross-sectional and prospective study, which was conducted among preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Using simple random techniques, a questionnaire was circulated among 280 medical students, where 247 students filled the questionnaire appropriately. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) to find the method preferred by the students among other things. Majority of the preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri preferred PowerPoint method in the teaching of gross anatomy over the conventional methods. The Cronbach alpha value of 0.76 was obtained which is an acceptable level of internal consistency. A statistically significant association was found between gender and preferred method of lecture delivery on the clarity of lecture content where females prefer the conventional method of lecture delivery whereas males prefer the PowerPoint method, On the reproducibility of text and diagram, females prefer PowerPoint method of teaching gross anatomy while males prefer the conventional method of teaching gross anatomy. There are gender preferences with regard to clarity of lecture contents and reproducibility of text and diagram. It was also revealed from this study that majority of the preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri prefer PowerPoint presentation over the traditional chalk and talk method in most of the

  11. Estimation of delayed neutron emission probability by using the gross theory of nuclear β-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Takahiro

    1999-01-01

    The delayed neutron emission probabilities (P n -values) of fission products are necessary in the study of reactor physics; e.g. in the calculation of total delayed neutron yields and in the summation calculation of decay heat. In this report, the P n -values estimated by the gross theory for some fission products are compared with experiment, and it is found that, on the average, the semi-gross theory somewhat underestimates the experimental P n -values. A modification of the β-decay strength function is briefly discussed to get more reasonable P n -values. (author)

  12. GROSS- GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY ATTITUDE DYNAMICS SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft will constitute a major advance in gamma ray astronomy by offering the first opportunity for comprehensive observations in the range of 0.1 to 30,000 megaelectronvolts (MeV). The Gamma Ray Observatory Attitude Dynamics Simulator, GROSS, is designed to simulate this mission. The GRO Dynamics Simulator consists of three separate programs: the Standalone Profile Program; the Simulator Program, which contains the Simulation Control Input/Output (SCIO) Subsystem, the Truth Model (TM) Subsystem, and the Onboard Computer (OBC) Subsystem; and the Postprocessor Program. The Standalone Profile Program models the environment of the spacecraft and generates a profile data set for use by the simulator. This data set contains items such as individual external torques; GRO spacecraft, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), and solar and lunar ephemerides; and star data. The Standalone Profile Program is run before a simulation. The SCIO subsystem is the executive driver for the simulator. It accepts user input, initializes parameters, controls simulation, and generates output data files and simulation status display. The TM subsystem models the spacecraft dynamics, sensors, and actuators. It accepts ephemerides, star data, and environmental torques from the Standalone Profile Program. With these and actuator commands from the OBC subsystem, the TM subsystem propagates the current state of the spacecraft and generates sensor data for use by the OBC and SCIO subsystems. The OBC subsystem uses sensor data from the TM subsystem, a Kalman filter (for attitude determination), and control laws to compute actuator commands to the TM subsystem. The OBC subsystem also provides output data to the SCIO subsystem for output to the analysts. The Postprocessor Program is run after simulation is completed. It generates printer and CRT plots and tabular reports of the simulated data at the direction of the user. GROSS is written in FORTRAN 77 and

  13. What is the microscopic tumor extent beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Richard; Woo, Tony; Assaad, Dalal; Antonyshyn, Oleh; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; McKenzie, David; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Breen, Dale; Mamedov, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the microscopic tumor extension beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers. Methods and Materials: A prospective, single arm, study. Preoperatively, a radiation oncologist outlined the boundary of a gross lesion, and drew 5-mm incremental marks in four directions from the delineated border. Under local anesthesia, the lesion was excised, and resection margins were assessed microscopically by frozen section. Once resection margins were clear, the microscopic tumor extent was calculated using the presurgical incremental markings as references. A potential relationship between the distance of microscopic tumor extension and other variables was analyzed. Results: A total of 71 lesions in 64 consecutive patients, selected for surgical excision with frozen-section-assisted assessment of resection margins, were accrued. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross lesion varied from 1 mm to 15 mm, with a mean of 5.2 mm. A margin of 10 mm was required to provide a 95% chance of obtaining clear resection margins. The microscopic tumor extent was positively correlated with the size of gross lesion, but not with other variables. Conclusions: The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross nonmelanoma skin cancer was variable, with a mean of 5.2 mm. Such information is critical for the proper radiation planning of skin cancer therapy

  14. What is the microscopic tumor extent beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Richard; Woo, Tony; Assaad, Dalal; Antonyshyn, Oleh; Barnes, Elizabeth A; McKenzie, David; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Breen, Dale; Mamedov, Alexander

    2005-07-15

    To quantify the microscopic tumor extension beyond clinically delineated gross tumor boundary in nonmelanoma skin cancers. A prospective, single arm, study. Preoperatively, a radiation oncologist outlined the boundary of a gross lesion, and drew 5-mm incremental marks in four directions from the delineated border. Under local anesthesia, the lesion was excised, and resection margins were assessed microscopically by frozen section. Once resection margins were clear, the microscopic tumor extent was calculated using the presurgical incremental markings as references. A potential relationship between the distance of microscopic tumor extension and other variables was analyzed. A total of 71 lesions in 64 consecutive patients, selected for surgical excision with frozen-section-assisted assessment of resection margins, were accrued. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross lesion varied from 1 mm to 15 mm, with a mean of 5.2 mm. A margin of 10 mm was required to provide a 95% chance of obtaining clear resection margins. The microscopic tumor extent was positively correlated with the size of gross lesion, but not with other variables. The distance of microscopic tumor extension beyond a gross nonmelanoma skin cancer was variable, with a mean of 5.2 mm. Such information is critical for the proper radiation planning of skin cancer therapy.

  15. Testing the Effects of DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage, Total Antioxidant Protection and the Sex-Specific Responses of Reproductive Effort and Lifespan to Dietary Manipulation in Australian Field Crickets (Teleogryllus commodus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ruth Archer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stress theory predicts that the accumulation of oxidative damage causes aging. More generally, oxidative damage could be a cost of reproduction that reduces survival. Both of these hypotheses have mixed empirical support. To better understand the life-history consequences of oxidative damage, we fed male and female Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus four diets differing in their protein and carbohydrate content, which have sex-specific effects on reproductive effort and lifespan. We supplemented half of these crickets with the vitamin E isoform DL-alpha-tocopherol and measured the effects of nutrient intake on lifespan, reproduction, oxidative damage and antioxidant protection. We found a clear trade-off between reproductive effort and lifespan in females but not in males. In direct contrast to the oxidative stress theory, crickets fed diets that improved their lifespan had high levels of oxidative damage to proteins. Supplementation with DL-alpha-tocopherol did not significantly improve lifespan or reproductive effort. However, males fed diets that increased their reproductive investment experienced high oxidative damage to proteins. While this suggests that male reproductive effort could elevate oxidative damage, this was not associated with reduced male survival. Overall, these results provide little evidence that oxidative damage plays a central role in mediating life-history trade-offs in T. commodus.

  16. Fractional Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goychuk, Igor

    2017-11-01

    The linear Boltzmann equation (LBE) approach is generalized to describe fractional superdiffusive transport of the Lévy walk type in external force fields. The time distribution between scattering events is assumed to have a finite mean value and infinite variance. It is completely characterized by the two scattering rates, one fractional and a normal one, which defines also the mean scattering rate. We formulate a general fractional LBE approach and exemplify it with a particularly simple case of the Bohm and Gross scattering integral leading to a fractional generalization of the Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook (BGK) kinetic equation. Here, at each scattering event the particle velocity is completely randomized and takes a value from equilibrium Maxwell distribution at a given fixed temperature. We show that the retardation effects are indispensable even in the limit of infinite mean scattering rate and argue that this novel fractional kinetic equation provides a viable alternative to the fractional Kramers-Fokker-Planck (KFP) equation by Barkai and Silbey and its generalization by Friedrich et al. based on the picture of divergent mean time between scattering events. The case of divergent mean time is also discussed at length and compared with the earlier results obtained within the fractional KFP. Also a phenomenological fractional BGK equation without retardation effects is proposed in the limit of infinite scattering rates. It cannot be, however, rigorously derived from a scattering model, being rather clever postulated. It this respect, this retardationless equation is similar to the fractional KFP by Barkai and Silbey. However, it corresponds to the opposite, much more physical limit and, therefore, also presents a viable alternative.

  17. Promoting gross motor skills and physical activity in childcare: A translational randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Hinkley, Trina; Batterham, Marijka; Burke, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Educator-led programs for physical activity and motor skill development show potential but few have been implemented and evaluated using a randomized controlled design. Furthermore, few educator-led programs have evaluated both gross motor skills and physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a gross motor skill and physical activity program for preschool children which was facilitated solely by childcare educators. A six-month 2-arm randomized controlled trial was implemented between April and September 2012 in four early childhood centers in Tasmania, Australia. Educators participated in ongoing professional development sessions and children participated in structured physical activity lessons and unstructured physical activity sessions. In total, 150 children were recruited from four centers which were randomized to intervention or wait-list control group. Six early childhood educators from the intervention centers were trained to deliver the intervention. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (2nd edition) and physical activity was measured objectively using GT3X+ Actigraph accelerometers. No statistically significant differences were identified. However, small to medium effect sizes, in favor of the intervention group, were evident for four of the five gross motor skills and the total gross motor skill score and small to medium effect sizes were reported for all physical activity outcomes. This study highlights the potential of educator-led physical activity interventions and supports the need for further translational trials within the early childhood sector. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Digital readout alpha survey instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype solid-state digital readout alpha particle survey instrument has been designed and constructed. The meter incorporates a Ludlum alpha scintillator as a detector, digital logic circuits for control and timing, and a Digilin counting module with reflective liquid crystal display. The device is used to monitor alpha radiation from a surface. Sample counts are totalized over 10-second intervals and displayed digitally in counts per minute up to 19,999. Tests over source samples with counts to 15,600 cpm have shown the device to be rapid, versatile and accurate. The instrument can be fabricated in one man-week and requires about $835 in material costs. A complete set of drawings is included

  19. A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of gross morphological and histological syringeal features of true francolins (Galliformes: Francolinus, Scleroptila, Peliperdix and Dendroperdix spp.) and spurfowls ( Pternistis spp.) in a phylogenetic context.

  20. An advanced computer-controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.; Bruinekool, D.J.; Stapleton, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved computer-controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter was developed, based upon an earlier automatic air sample counter design. The system consists of an automatic sample changer, an electronic counting system utilizing a large silicon diode detector, a small desk-type microcomputer, a high-speed matrix printer and the necessary data interfaces. The system is operated by commands from the keyboard and programs stored on magnetic tape cassettes. The programs provide for background counting, Chi 2 test, radon subtraction and sample counting for sample periods of one day to one week. Output data are printed by the matrix printer on standard multifold paper. The data output includes gross beta, gross alpha and plutonium results. Data are automatically corrected for background, counter efficiency, and in the gross alpha and plutonium channels, for the presence of radon

  1. Advanced computer-controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.; Bruinekool, D.J.; Stapleton, E.E.

    1983-01-01

    An improved computer controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter was developed, based upon an earlier automatic air sample counter design. The system consists of an automatic sample changer, an electronic counting system utilizing a large silicon diode detector, a small desk-type microcomputer, a high speed matrix printer, and the necessary data interfaces. The system is operated by commands from the keyboard and programs stored on magnetic tape cassettes. The programs provide for background counting, Chi 2 test, radon subtraction, and sample counting for sample periods of one day to one week. Output data are printed by the matrix printer on standard multifold paper. The data output includes gross beta, gross alpha, and plutonium results. Data are automatically corrected for background, counter efficiency, and in the gross alpha and plutonium channels, for the presence of radon

  2. Drugs interacting with alpha adrenoceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Alpha adrenoceptors should be divided into various subtypes, comprising pre/postsynaptic and alpha 1/alpha 2-subpopulations, respectively. This classification implicates important functional differences between the various alpha-receptor subtypes, including certain differences in signal transduction

  3. 26 CFR 1.832-1 - Gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., except that in the case of a mutual fire insurance company described in § 1.831-1 the amount of single... TAXES Other Insurance Companies § 1.832-1 Gross income. (a) Gross income as defined in section 832(b)(1... approved by the National Convention of Insurance Commissioners, as well as the gain derived from the sale...

  4. 26 CFR 1.993-6 - Definition of gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of gross receipts. 1.993-6 Section 1.993-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-6 Definition of gross receipts. (a...

  5. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... payments (APP), and base production payments (BPP). Repayment rates shall be based on previous payment... 50 gallons of net production increase. (2) For BPP, which will be made on production not eligible for... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross payable...

  6. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  7. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  8. The determination of $\\alpha_s$ by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We review the ALPHA collaboration strategy for obtaining the QCD coupling at high scale. In the three-flavor effective theory it avoids the use of perturbation theory at $\\alpha > 0.2$ and at the same time has the physical scales small compared to the cutoff $1/a$ in all stages of the computation. The result $\\Lambda_\\overline{MS}^{(3)}=332(14)$~MeV is translated to $\\alpha_\\overline{MS}(m_Z)=0.1179(10)(2)$ by use of (high order) perturbative relations between the effective theory couplings at the charm and beauty quark "thresholds". The error of this perturbative step is discussed and estimated as $0.0002$.

  9. An electronic instructor for gross anatomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Eleanor M; Moore, Larry J

    2006-01-01

    Gross anatomy is time consuming to teach and to learn. Because the process of dissection takes up so much student time, assistance in the form of an in-lab instructional DVD program might improve student performance. The DVD could be viewed with a portable device by individual dissection groups at their tables. Groups could dissect at their own pace, with access to step-by-step demonstrations and answers to frequently asked anatomical questions. We created an instructional DVD program demonstrating dissection of the canine ventral neck and thoracic limb. The effect on student exam scores of using the DVD versus not using it was measured in a controlled, two-sample study using incoming first-year veterinary students as volunteers. Volunteers were told the study was of two different dissection methods; the DVD was not specifically mentioned until after the students were separated into two groups (Blue/DVD group and Orange/No DVD group), and then only to volunteers in the Blue group. Except for the DVD, the two groups had the same resources. The difference in scores on an exam given after a single dissection period did not differ sufficiently to conclude that DVD use raised the mean score; however, 73% of the DVD group scored 60% or higher, while only 38% of the No DVD group scored 60% or higher. The difference in mean scores overall was 2.3 points out of a possible 49, suggesting that the DVD helped students, especially those with lower scores, to earn two to three more points than they would have otherwise.

  10. Effects of obesity, total fasting and re-alimentation on L-thyroxine (T4), 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3), 3,3',5'-L-triiodothyronine (rT3), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), cortisol, thyrotrophin, cortisol binding globulin (CBG), transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, P C; Bauer, M; Emmert, D; Fateh-Moghadam, A; Hofmann, G G; Horn, K; Pickardt, C R

    1979-08-01

    The effects of total fasting for 31 +/- 10 days followed by re-alimentation with an 800 calorie diet on thyroid function, i.e. T4,T3,rT3,RT3U (resin T3 uptake), and TSH, and on TBG levels in serum were studied sequentially in obese hospitalized patients (N=18). Additionally, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, parathyrin and free fatty acids were followed as hormonal and metabolic parameters, respectively. Further, CBG, transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 were measured as representatives of other serum proteins. Results before fasting: T4, T3, TBG, cortisol, CBG, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 of the obese patients were elevated when compared with healthy normal weight controls, whereas rT3, T4/TBG ratio, T3/TBG ratio, TSH, coritsol/cbg ratio, growth hormone, prolactin, parathyrin and transferrin of the obese group were normal. RT3U and fT4 index were decreased in the obese patients. Results during fasting: Significant decreases were observed during fasting for the following parameters -- T3, TBG, T3/TBG ratio, transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin complement C'3. rT3, T4/TBG ratio, RT3U, fT4 index and FFA increased. T4, tsh response to TRH stimulation, cortisol, CBG, cortisol/cbg ratio, parathyrin, growth hormone and prolactin did not change. Results during re-alimentation: T3, TBG, T3/TBG ratio, TSH response to TRH, transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 increased. Conversely, fT3, RT3U, FFA, cortisol and cortisol/cbg ratio decreased whereas the other parameters did not change. 1) There is no evidence for primary hypothyroidism in obese patients during prolonged fasting and re-alimentation. 2) The rapid decrease of T3 and increase of RT3U after initiation of fasting are not fully explained by the observed slower decreases in TBG. 3) The alterations of T3, rT3 and RT3U resemble in their kinetics the changes in FFA levels. 4) Fasting reduced the levels of only certain serum proteins, interestingly TBG, transferrin, alpha 2

  11. DT results of TFTR's alpha collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, H.W.; Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Timberlake, J.R.; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    An escaping alpha collector probe has been developed for TFTR's DT phase to complement the results of the lost alpha scintillator detectors which have been operating on TFTR since 1988. Measurements of the energy distribution of escaping alphas have been made by measuring the range of alphas implanted into nickel foils located within the alpha collector. Exposed samples have been analyzed for 4 DT plasma discharges at plasma currents of 1.0 and 1.8 MA. The results at 1.0 MA are in good agreement with predictions for first orbit alpha loss at 3.5 MeV. The 1.8 MA results, however, indicate a large anomalous loss of partially thermalized alphas at an energy ∼30% below the birth energy and at a total fluence nearly an order of magnitude above expected first orbit loss. This anomalous loss is not observed with the lost alpha scintillator detectors in DT plasmas but does resemble the anomalous delayed loss seen in DD plasmas. Several potential explanations for this loss process are examined. None of the candidate explanations proposed thus far are fully consistent with the anomalous loss observations

  12. Gross Motor Skills in Children With Idiopathic Clubfoot and the Association Between Gross Motor Skills, Foot Involvement, Gait, and Foot Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Iversen, Maura D; Broström, Eva W

    2017-02-24

    Little is known regarding gross motor skills (GMS) in children with idiopathic clubfoot (IC). This study describes GMS, specifically foot involvement and asymmetries, and analyses the association between GMS, gait, and foot status in children with IC. Gross motor tasks and gait were analyzed in children with IC and typically developed (TD) children. GMS were assessed using videotapes and the Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP). The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and GDI-Kinetic were calculated from gait analyses. Children were divided into bilateral, unilateral clubfoot, or TD groups. To analyze asymmetries, feet within each group were further classified into superior or inferior foot, depending on their CAP scores. Correlations identified associations between CAP and GDI, GDI-Kinetic, passive foot motion, and Dimeglio Classification Scores at birth in the clubfeet. In total, 75 children (mean age, 5 years) were enrolled (bilateral n=22, unilateral clubfoot n=25, TD=28). Children with clubfeet demonstrated significantly lower GMS, gait, and foot motion compared with TD children. One leg standing and hopping deviated in 84% and 91%, respectively, in at least one foot in children with clubfoot. Gross motor asymmetries were evident in both children with bilateral and unilateral involvement. In children with unilateral clubfoot, contralateral feet showed few deviations in GMS compared with TD; however, differences existed in gait and foot motion. The association between GMS and gait, foot motion, and initial foot status varied between poor and moderate. Gross motor deficits and asymmetries are present in children with both bilateral and unilateral IC. Development of GMS of the contralateral foot mirrors that of TD children, but modifies to the clubfoot in gait and foot motion. The weak association with gait, foot motion, and initial clubfoot severity indicates that gross motor measurements represent a different outcome entity in clubfoot treatment. We therefore, recommend

  13. Summarized report of geothermal well Gross Buchholz Gt1; Kurzprofil der Geothermiebohrung Gross Buchholz Gt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Frauke; Hesshaus, Annalena; Jatho, Reiner; Luppold, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Pletsch, Thomas; Tischner, Torsten [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Hunze, Sabine; Orilski, Judith; Wonik, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Angewandte Geophysik (LIAG), Hannover (Germany); Roehling, Heinz-Gerd [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Hannover (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The well Gross Buchholz Gt1 is a deep geothermal well intended to demonstrate the feasibility of deep geothermal energy mining from tight sedimentary rocks. It is the core part of the GeneSys (Generated Geothermal Energy Systems) project, aiming at developing single well concepts for direct use of geothermal energy. During the course of the project, three different single well concepts have been developed and tested at the research well Horstberg Z1 which is geologically comparable to the Gross Buchholzwell. The latter is intended to supply the heating energy for the premises of Geozentrum Hannover, an office and lab complex of some 35.000 m{sup 2} housing about 1000 employees. The geothermal target are the sandstones of the Lower Triassic Middle Buntsandstein Formation, which have a temperature of about 165 C at 3700 depth. The well has reached a final depth of 3901 m below ground level, penetrating a nearly complete succession from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) to the Lower Triassic (Lower Buntsandstein), while Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous sediments are missing. This article summarizes technical and geographic data, stratigraphic classification, geophysical logging, cores, and sidewall cores of the well. (orig.)

  14. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  15. Gross motor skill development of kindergarten children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Kuramoto-Ahuja, Tsugumi; Sato, Tamae; Sadakiyo, Kaori; Watanabe, Miyoko; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2018-05-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were to assess and explore the gender-based differences in gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children. [Subjects and Methods] This cross-sectional study recruited 60 healthy 5-year-old (third-year kindergarten, i.e., nencho ) children (34 boys, 26 girls) from one local private kindergarten school in Otawara city, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Gross motor skills, including six locomotor and six object control skills, were assessed using the test of gross motor development, second edition (TGMD-2). All subjects performed two trials of each gross motor skill, and the performances were video-recorded and scored. Assessment procedures were performed according to the standardized guidelines of the TGMD-2. [Results] The majority of subjects had an average level of overall gross motor skills. Girls had significantly better locomotor skills. Boys had significantly better object control skills. [Conclusion] The gross motor skill development of 5-year-old Japanese children involves gender-based differences in locomotor and object control skills. This study provided valuable information that can be used to establish normative references for the gross motor skills of 5-year-old Japanese children.

  16. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg-1 d-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 105 t N yr-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12–15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication. PMID:26991904

  17. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  18. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  19. Estimation of inhalation doses from airborne releases using gross monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Monitoring programs at most nuclear facilities involve continuous gross measurements supplemented by periodic isotopic analyses of release samples. The isotopic measurements are required to accurately assess the potential dose from the various effluent streams, but in between these measurements, one depends on the gross monitors to provide approximate indications of the dose. The effluent streams release a variety of nuclides, each with its own dose factor. This means that the relationship between the counting rate in a gross monitor and the potential dose of the effluent being monitored will depend on the isotopic composition of this release. If this composition changes, then the dose indicated by the gross monitor (calibrated for the original group of isotopes) may be significantly in error. The problem of indicating inhalation doses from gross monitoring of airborne releases is considered. In order for this type of monitor to accurately indicate dose, regardless of the isotopic makeup of a release, the analysis shows that its response to each isotope should be proportional to the dose factor of that isotope. These ideas are applied to the monitoring of air particulates using gross beta and gross gamma monitors. The study shows that the former more closely satisfies this condition and as a result, satisfactorily indicates the actual dose from reactor effluents, as determined from detailed isotopic data published in the literature. On the other hand, the gross gamma monitor, with its poorer fit to the condition, provided less than satisfactory accuracy in its dose estimates. In addition, a variety of other mathematical response functions were considered but their dose estimation capabilities were not much better than the straight beta response. The study shows that reasonably accurate dose estimates can be made using properly selected gross monitors, but that significant errors can result with improper ones. (author)

  20. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  1. Recommendations to avoid gross errors of dose in radiotherapeutic treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Cleber Nogueira de; Monti, Carlos Roberto; Sibata, Claudio Hissao

    2001-01-01

    Human mistakes are an important source of errors in radiotherapy and may occur at every step of the radiotherapy planning and treatment. To reduce this level of uncertainties, several specialized organizations have recommended a comprehensive quality assurance program. In Brazil, the requirement for these programs has been strongly stressed, and most radiotherapy services have pursued this goal regarding radiation units and dosimetry equipment, as well as the verification of the calculations of the patient's dose and the revision of the plan charts. As a contribution to the improvement of quality control, we present some recommendations to avoid failure of treatment due to error in the delivered dose, such as redundant check of the manual or computer calculations, weekly check of the total dose for each patient, and prevention of inadvertent access to any safety system of the equipment by any staff member that is only supposed to operate the machine. Moreover, the use of a computerized treatment record and verification system should be considered in order to eliminate errors due to incorrect selection of the treatment parameters, in a daily basis. We report four radioactive incidents with patient injuries occurred throughout the world and some gross errors of dose. (author)

  2. Targeted Alpha Therapy: From Alpha to Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J; Clarke, Raymond; Huang Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the broad spectrum of Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) research in Australia; from in vitro and in vivo studies to clinical trials. The principle of tumour anti-vascular alpha therapy (TAVAT) is discussed in terms of its validation by Monte Carlo calculations of vascular models and the potential role of biological dosimetry is examined. Summmary of this review is as follows: 1. The essence of TAT 2. Therapeutic objectives 3. TAVAT and Monte Carlo microdosimetry 4. Biological dosimetry 5. Preclinical studies 6. Clinical trials 7. What next? 8. Obstacles. (author)

  3. The relationships between gross motor coordination and sport-specific skills in adolescent non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagas Daniel V

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. While the usefulness of gross motor coordination score as predictor of sports performance in young athletes has been demonstrated, practical applications in the settings where the focus is not on elite performance is limited. Further, little is known about the extent to which gross motor coordination score is associated with sport-specific skills among adolescent nonathletes. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between the degree of gross motor coordination and execution in specific volleyball tests among adolescent non-athletes. Methods. The total of 34 students (27 females and 7 males aged 13-14 years who regularly participated in volleyball during physical education classes were randomly recruited. Gross motor coordination was assessed with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Motor performance on volley-specific skills was indicated by two product-oriented tasks: volleyball under service and service reception. Correlation and linear regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between motor coordination scores and motor performance in volley-specific skills. Results. Motor coordination score was positively correlated with motor performance on specific skills (r = 0.503, p = 0.02. Linear regression analysis revealed that motor coordination score accounted for 23% of the variance in the motor performance on volleyball skills (R2 = 0.253, R2 adjusted = 0.230, F = 10.836, p = 0.02. Conclusions. The degree of gross motor coordination seems to play a significant role in the execution of specific volleyball tasks.

  4. 26 CFR 1.61-4 - Gross income of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exchange is to be included in gross income. Proceeds of insurance, such as hail or fire insurance on... include crop insurance proceeds in income for taxable year following taxable year of destruction. For...

  5. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmijster, M.J.; van Soest, A.J.; de Koning, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e

  6. A variational approach to the Gross-Neveu model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, H.; Misra, P.; Mishra, A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors solve the instability of perturbative vacuum of Gross-Neveu model. They use a variational method. The analysis is nonperturbative as it uses only equal time commmutator/anticommutator algebra

  7. Effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sook; Rha, Dong Wook; Shin, Jung Soon; Kim, Soohyeon; Jung, Soojin

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). We recruited 34 children (M:F=15:19, age: 3-12 years) with spastic CP who underwent hippotherapy for 45 minutes twice a week for 8 weeks. Twenty-one children with spastic CP were recruited for control group. The distribution of gross motor function classification system level and mean age were not significantly different between the two groups. Outcome measures, including the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-66, GMFM-88 and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory: Functional Skills Scale (PEDI-FSS), were assessed before therapy and after the 8-weeks intervention as outcome measures. There were no significant differences between intervention and control groups in mean baseline total scores of GMFM-66, GMFM-88 or PEDI-FSS. After the 8-weeks intervention, mean GMFM-66 and GMFM-88 scores were significantly improved in both groups. However, the hippotherapy group had significantly greater improvement in dimension E and GMFM-66 total score than the control group. The total PEDI-FSS score and the sub-scores of its 3 domains were significantly improved in the hippotherapy group, but not in the control group. The results of our study demonstrate the beneficial effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance in children with CP compared to control group. The significant improvement in PEDI-FSS scores suggests that hippotherapy may be useful to maximize the functional performance of children with CP.

  8. Peripheral blood corticotropin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cytokine (Interleukin Beta, Interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels after high- and low-dose total-body irradiation in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girinsky, T.A.; Pallardy, M.; Comoy, E.; Benassi, T.; Roger, R.; Ganem, G.; Socie, G.; Cossett, J.M.; Magdelenat, H.

    1994-01-01

    Total-body irradiation (TBI) induces an increase in levels of granulocytes and cortisol in blood. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we studied 26 patients who had TBI prior to bone marrow transplantation. Our findings suggest that only a high dose of TBI (10 Gy) was capable of activating the hypothalamopituitary area since corticotropin-releasing factor and blood adrenocorticotropic hormone levels increased at the end of the TBI. There was a concomitant increase in the levels of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor in blood, suggesting that these cytokines might activate the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis. Interleukin 1 was not detected. Since vascular injury is a common after radiation treatment, it is possible that interleukin 6 was secreted by endothelial cells. The exact mechanisms of the production of cyctokines induced by ionizing radiation remain to be determined. 25 refs., 1 fig

  9. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT defic...

  10. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Alpha Thalassemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Alpha Thalassemia What's in this ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Print en español Alfa talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  11. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  12. Alpha clustering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nucleon clustering in nuclei are described, with reference to both nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, and the advantages of using the cluster formalism to describe a range of phenomena are discussed. It is shown that bound and scattering alpha-particle states can be described in a unified way using an energy-dependent alpha-nucleus potential. (author)

  13. Monitoring of global alpha and beta radioactive level in the public water supply of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Ana Claudia

    2002-01-01

    The present work was based in the regulation number 1469 of Brazilian Health Ministry, of 2000, 29 th of December, that establishes the proceedings and responsibilities relatives to control and vigilance of water quality to human consumption and your gauge of potability. In the context the results of the analysis of the gross alpha and gross beta concentrations are presented. They were determined in 143 samples of drinking water supplies of Sao Paulo State in the year of 2001. The gross alpha presented concentrations ranging from <0,001 a 0,182 Bq/L, while the gross beta presented concentrations ranging from <0,001 a 0,872 Bq/L. (author)

  14. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  15. [Age-related change in the alpha-tocopherolquinone/alpha-tocopherol ratio in the rat erythrocyte membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, K; Takeda, H; Matsumiya, T; Takasaki, M

    1999-05-01

    alpha-Tocopherol (alpha-Toc), a lipophilic phenolic antioxidant that is localized mainly in the biomembrane, protects cells against oxidation-associated cytotoxicity by prevention of membrane lipid peroxidation, maintenance of the redox balance intracellular thiols and stabilization of the membrane structure. We investigated the age-related changes in redox dynamics of alpha-Toc in plasma and erythrocyte membrane of an elderly (66 weeks old) and young group (10 weeks old). Total, alpha-, beta + gamma-, delta-Toc and alpha-tocopherolquinone (alpha-TocQ) in plasma and erythrocyte membrane were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a series of multiple coulometric working electrodes (CWE). Rat venous blood sample was divided into plasma and erythrocyte layers by centrifugation, and then erythrocyte membrane sample was prepared according to the method of Dodge et al. under a stream of nitrogen. In plasma, total and alpha-Toc concentrations were increased, and beta + gamma-, delta-Toc and alpha-TocQ concentrations were decreased age-dependently. In the erythrocyte membrane, total, alpha-TocQ concentrations and three fractions of tocopherols decreased age-dependently. Also, a decrease in the alpha-TocQ/alpha-Toc ratio in erythrocyte membrane was observed in the elderly group. These findings suggest that the alpha-Toc uptake in erythrocyte membrane and utilization rate of alpha-Toc in erythrocyte membrane decline age-dependently. This decline may promote membrane lipid peroxidation. alpha-Toc redox dynamics in erythrocyte membrane were useful to investigate the pathophysiology of aging mechanisms related to oxidative stress.

  16. Handling Uncertain Gross Margin and Water Demand in Agricultural Water Resources Management using Robust Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerani, D.; Lesmana, E.; Tressiana, N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an application of Robust Optimization in agricultural water resource management problem under gross margin and water demand uncertainty is presented. Water resource management is a series of activities that includes planning, developing, distributing and managing the use of water resource optimally. Water resource management for agriculture can be one of the efforts to optimize the benefits of agricultural output. The objective function of agricultural water resource management problem is to maximizing total benefits by water allocation to agricultural areas covered by the irrigation network in planning horizon. Due to gross margin and water demand uncertainty, we assume that the uncertain data lies within ellipsoidal uncertainty set. We employ robust counterpart methodology to get the robust optimal solution.

  17. PROMOTING GROSS MOTOR SKILLS IN TODDLERS: THE ACTIVE BEGINNINGS PILOT CLUSTER RANDOMIZED TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Okely, Anthony D; Jones, Rachel A

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a gross motor skill program for toddlers. An 8-wk. skills program in which children practiced three skills was implemented for 10 min. daily in two randomly designated childcare centers. Two other centers served as the control group. Recruitment and retention rates were collected for feasibility. Data on professional development, children's participation, program duration, and appropriateness of the lessons were collected for acceptability, and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Get Skilled, Get Active (total of 28 points) were used to look at the potential efficacy. The participants were 60 toddlers (M age=2.5 yr., SD=0.4; n=29 boys), and the retention rate was 95%. Overall participation was 76%, and educators rated 98% of the lessons as appropriate. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvements in motor skills (pmotor skills among toddlers.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Alpha thalassemia Alpha thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  19. The alpha channeling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  20. Artifacts in conventional computed tomography (CT) and free breathing four-dimensional CT induce uncertainty in gross tumor volume determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Gitte Fredberg; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund; Af Rosenschöld, Per Munck

    2011-01-01

    was to compare delineated gross tumor volume (GTV) sizes in 3DCT, 4DCT, and BHCT scans of patients with lung tumors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 36 patients with 46 tumors referred for stereotactic radiotherapy of lung tumors were included. All patients underwent positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, 4DCT...

  1. Incident radiation and the allocation of nitrogen within Arctic plant canopies: implications for predicting gross primary productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Street, L.E.; Shaver, G.R.; Rastetter, E.B.; Wijk, van M.T.; Kaye, B.A.; Williams, M.

    2012-01-01

    Arctic vegetation is characterized by high spatial variability in plant functional type (PFT) composition and gross primary productivity (P). Despite this variability, the two main drivers of P in sub-Arctic tundra are leaf area index (LT) and total foliar nitrogen (NT). LT and NT have been shown to

  2. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  3. Alpha Hydroxy Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or tenderness (8), chemical burns (6), and increased sunburn (3). The frequency of such reports for skin ... bear a statement that conveys the following information: Sunburn Alert: This product contains an alpha hydroxy acid ( ...

  4. Justify your alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakens, Daniel; Adolfi, Federico G.; Albers, Casper J.; Anvari, Farid; Apps, Matthew A.J.; Argamon, Shlomo E.; Baguley, Thom; Becker, Raymond B.; Benning, Stephen D.; Bradford, Daniel E.; Buchanan, Erin M.; Caldwell, Aaron R.; Van Calster, Ben; Carlsson, Rickard; Chen, Sau Chin; Chung, Bryan; Colling, Lincoln J.; Collins, Gary S.; Crook, Zander; Cross, Emily S.; Daniels, Sameera; Danielsson, Henrik; Debruine, Lisa; Dunleavy, Daniel J.; Earp, Brian D.; Feist, Michele I.; Ferrell, Jason D.; Field, James G.; Fox, Nicholas W.; Friesen, Amanda; Gomes, Caio; Gonzalez-Marquez, Monica; Grange, James A.; Grieve, Andrew P.; Guggenberger, Robert; Grist, James; Van Harmelen, Anne Laura; Hasselman, Fred; Hochard, Kevin D.; Hoffarth, Mark R.; Holmes, Nicholas P.; Ingre, Michael; Isager, Peder M.; Isotalus, Hanna K.; Johansson, Christer; Juszczyk, Konrad; Kenny, David A.; Khalil, Ahmed A.; Konat, Barbara; Lao, Junpeng; Larsen, Erik Gahner; Lodder, Gerine M.A.; Lukavský, Jiří; Madan, Christopher R.; Manheim, David; Martin, Stephen R.; Martin, Andrea E.; Mayo, Deborah G.; McCarthy, Randy J.; McConway, Kevin; McFarland, Colin; Nio, Amanda Q.X.; Nilsonne, Gustav; De Oliveira, Cilene Lino; De Xivry, Jean Jacques Orban; Parsons, Sam; Pfuhl, Gerit; Quinn, Kimberly A.; Sakon, John J.; Saribay, S. Adil; Schneider, Iris K.; Selvaraju, Manojkumar; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Smith, Samuel G.; Smits, Tim; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Sreekumar, Vishnu; Steltenpohl, Crystal N.; Stenhouse, Neil; Świątkowski, Wojciech; Vadillo, Miguel A.; Van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.; Williams, Matt N.; Williams, Samantha E.; Williams, Donald R.; Yarkoni, Tal; Ziano, Ignazio; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2018-01-01

    In response to recommendations to redefine statistical significance to P ≤ 0.005, we propose that researchers should transparently report and justify all choices they make when designing a study, including the alpha level.

  5. Antihydrogen detection in ALPHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hydomako, Richard, E-mail: rhydomako@phas.ucalgary.ca [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Bruun Andresen, Gorm [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Ashkezari, Mohammad Dehghani [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, William [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Butler, Eoin [CERN, European Laboratory for Particle Physics (Switzerland); Bowe, Paul David [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Cesar, Claudo Lenz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fsica (Brazil); Chapman, Steve [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Charlton, Michael [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Fajans, Joel [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gill, David Russell [TRIUMF (Canada); Hangst, Jeffrey Scott [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hardy, Walter Newbold [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayano, Ryugo S. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Hayden, Michael Edward [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Humphries, Andrew James [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Jonsell, Svante [Stockholm University, Fysikum (Sweden); Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    The ALPHA project is an international collaboration, based at CERN, with the experimental goal of performing precision spectroscopic measurements on antihydrogen. As part of this endeavor, the ALPHA experiment includes a silicon tracking detector. This detector consists of a three-layer array of silicon modules surrounding the antihydrogen trapping region of the ALPHA apparatus. Using this device, the antihydrogen annihilation position can be determined with a spatial resolution of better than 5 mm. Knowledge of the annihilation distribution was a critical component in the recently successful antihydrogen trapping effort. This paper will describe the methods used to reconstruct annihilation events in the ALPHA detector. Particular attention will be given to the description of the background rejection criteria.

  6. The relationship between body mass index and gross motor development in children aged 3 to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nervik, Deborah; Martin, Kathy; Rundquist, Peter; Cleland, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between obesity and gross motor development in children who are developing typically and determine whether body mass index (BMI) predicts difficulty in gross motor skills. BMIs were calculated and gross motor skills examined in 50 children who were healthy aged 3 to 5 years using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd edition (PDMS-2). Pearson chi-square statistic and stepwise linear hierarchical regression were used for analysis. A total of 24% of the children were overweight/obese, whereas 76% were found not to be overweight/obese. Fifty-eight percent of the overweight/obese group scored below average on the PDMS-2 compared to 15% of the nonoverweight group. Association between BMI and gross motor quotients was identified with significance of less than 0.002. Regression results were nonsignificant with all 50 subjects, yet showed significance (P = 0.018) when an outlier was excluded. Children aged 3 to 5 years with high BMIs may have difficulty with their gross motor skills. Further research is needed.

  7. AIRFIL: a FORTRAN program for reduction of data obtained from alpha spectrometry of perimeter air filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, E.R. Jr.; Howell, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Isotopic alpha spectrometry of 238 U, 235 U, and 234 U, along with gross alpha/beta counting of perimeter air filters, is performed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Laboratory in support of the Envrirnomental Monitoring Section of the Radiation Safety Department. Weekly samples are gross alpha/beta counted and the isotopic analysis performed on quarterly composites. Calculations and data management represents a major portion of the anlaysis time when performed manually, even with a desktop calculator. In order to reduce calculation time, perform orderly data manipulation and management, reduce errors due to redundant calculations, and eliminate report typing turnaround time, a computer program (AIRFIL) has been developed that performs these functions. The program accepts data through user prompts, then calculates and prints intermediate and final data, including detection limits

  8. Coaching the alpha male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeman, Kate; Erlandson, Eddie

    2004-05-01

    Highly intelligent, confident, and successful, alpha males represent about 70% of all senior executives. Natural leaders, they willingly take on levels of responsibility most rational people would find overwhelming. But many of their quintessential strengths can also make alphas difficult to work with. Their self-confidence can appear domineering. Their high expectations can make them excessively critical. Their unemotional style can keep them from inspiring their teams. That's why alphas need coaching to broaden their interpersonal tool kits while preserving their strengths. Drawing from their experience coaching more than 1,000 senior executives, the authors outline an approach tailored specifically for the alpha. Coaches get the alpha's attention by inundating him with data from 360-degree feedback presented in ways he will find compelling--both hard-boiled metrics and vivid verbatim comments from colleagues about his strengths and weaknesses. A 360-degree assessment is a wake-up call for most alphas, providing undeniable proof that their behavior doesn't work nearly as well as they think it does. That paves the way for a genuine commitment to change. In order to change, the alpha must venture into unfamiliar--and often uncomfortable--psychological territory. He must admit vulnerability, accept accountability not just for his own work for others', connect with his underlying emotions, learn to motivate through a balance of criticism and validation, and become aware of unproductive behavior patterns. The goal of executive coaching is not simply to treat the alpha as an individual problem but to improve the entire team dynamic. Initial success creates an incentive to persevere, and the virtuous cycle reverberates throughout the entire organization.

  9. Alpha - Skew Pi - Armendariz Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M Abduldaim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a new concept called Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha - S Pi - ARas a generalization of the notion of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings.Another important goal behind studying this class of rings is to employ it in order to design a modern algorithm of an identification scheme according to the evolution of using modern algebra in the applications of the field of cryptography.We investigate general properties of this concept and give examples for illustration. Furthermore, this paperstudy the relationship between this concept and some previous notions related to Alpha-skew Armendariz rings. It clearly presents that every weak Alpha-skew Armendariz ring is Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz (Alpha-S Pi-AR. Also, thisarticle showsthat the concepts of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings and Alpha-skew Pi- Armendariz rings are equivalent in case R is 2-primal and semiprime ring.Moreover, this paper proves for a semicommutative Alpha-compatible ringR that if R[x;Alpha] is nil-Armendariz, thenR is an Alpha-S Pi-AR. In addition, if R is an Alpha - S Pi -AR, 2-primal and semiprime ring, then N(R[x;Alpha]=N(R[x;Alpha]. Finally, we look forwardthat Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha-S Pi-ARbe more effect (due to their properties in the field of cryptography than Pi-Armendariz rings, weak Armendariz rings and others.For these properties and characterizations of the introduced concept Alpha-S Pi-AR, we aspire to design a novel algorithm of an identification scheme.

  10. ALPHA-2: the sequel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    While many experiments are methodically planning for intense works over the long shutdown, there is one experiment that is already working at full steam: ALPHA-2. Its final components arrived last month and will completely replace the previous ALPHA set-up. Unlike its predecessor, this next generation experiment has been specifically designed to measure the properties of antimatter.   The ALPHA team lower the new superconducting solenoid magnet into place. The ALPHA collaboration is working at full speed to complete the ALPHA-2 set-up for mid-November – this will give them a few weeks of running before the AD shutdown on 17 December. “We really want to get some experience with this device this year so that, if we need to make any changes, we will have time during the long shutdown in which to make them,” says Jeffrey Hangst, ALPHA spokesperson. “Rather than starting the 2014 run in the commissioning stage, we will be up and running from the get go.&...

  11. Effect of water content nitrogen gross mineralization and immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla C, Ximena; Parada, Ana Maria; Nario M, Adriana; Pino N, Ines; Hood, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the accompanying mineralization and immobilization of inorganic N, are key processes in the soil plant cycle. It is hypothesized that moisture regime may also play an important role on these processes. Two laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the effect of moisture regime on gross mineralization and immobilization of N, in and Ultisol soil, which was incubated at 25 o C, under two moisture regimes, field capacity (CC) (40% w/w) and 85% of field capacity (34% w/w): Using mirror image 15 N isotope dilution techniques, it was possible to determine gross nitrification and mineralization rates. The rates of gross mineralization and nitrification rate in this soil was extremely rapid and efficient, specially with 85% CC. The N transformations varied with moisture regime (author)

  12. Associations of Gross Motor Delay, Behavior, and Quality of Life in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgecock, James B; Dannemiller, Lisa A; Shui, Amy M; Rapport, Mary Jane; Katz, Terry

    2018-04-01

    Young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have gross motor delays that may accentuate problem daytime behavior and health-related quality of life (QoL). The objective of this study was to describe the degree of gross motor delays in young children with ASD and associations of gross motor delays with problem daytime behavior and QoL. The primary hypothesis was that Gross motor delays significantly modifies the associations between internalizing or externalizing problem daytime behavior and QoL. This study used a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis. Data from 3253 children who were 2 to 6 years old and who had ASD were obtained from the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network and analyzed using unadjusted and adjusted linear regression. Measures included the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2nd edition, gross motor v-scale score (VABS-GM) (for Gross motor delays), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (for Problem daytime behavior), and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) (for QoL). The mean VABS-GM was 12.12 (SD = 2.2), representing performance at or below the 16th percentile. After adjustment for covariates, the internalizing CBCL t score decreased with increasing VABS-GM (β = - 0.64 SE = 0.12). Total and subscale PedsQL scores increased with increasing VABS-GM (for total score: β = 1.79 SE = 0.17; for subscale score: β = 0.9-2.66 SE = 0.17-0.25). CBCL internalizing and externalizing t scores decreased with increasing PedsQL total score (β = - 0.39 SE = 0.01; β = - 0.36 SE = 0.01). The associations between CBCL internalizing or externalizing t scores and PedsQL were significantly modified by VABSGM (β = - 0.026 SE = 0.005]; β = - 0.019 SE = 0.007). The study lacked ethnic and socioeconomic diversity. Measures were collected via parent report without accompanying clinical assessment. Cross motor delay was independently associated with Problem daytime behavior and QoL in children with ASD. Gross

  13. Changes in gross grasp strength and fine motor skills in adolescents with pediatric multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, Mary; Ray, Sharon; Milazzo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the gross grasp strength and fine motor dexterity of adolescents, who are diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total sample size of 72 participants between the ages of 13 to 17 was studied. Thirty six with a diagnosis of pediatric relapse remitting MS and 36 matched control participants were selected from various local youth groups. Data on hand strength and dexterity was collected using a dynamometer, nine hole peg board and Purdue pegboard on both groups. Utilizing ANCOVA to describe the differences across the two groups by diagnosis, controlling for age and gender, it was found that the MS group demonstrated significantly decreased dexterity when compared to age and gender matched controls. There was no significant difference in gross grasp strength by diagnostic group. This preliminary study showed that children with a diagnosis of pediatric MS may have differences in fine motor dexterity, but not gross grasp strength from their peers who do not have the diagnosis. Further study is indicated to examine this phenomenon.

  14. Effect of a 12-Week Physical Activity Program on Gross Motor Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You; Fang, Yi; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the effects of a 12-week Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) on gross motor skill development in children from low-income families. Participants were 1,460 school-aged children (mean age = 8.4 ± 1.8 years; 730 girls, 730 boys) recruited from three schools receiving U.S. governmental financial assistance. Students were recruited from grades K-6. CSPAP was implemented over one semester during the 2014-2015 school year. Select gross motor skill items were assessed during each student's physical education class at baseline and at a 12-week follow-up using the Test for Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD-2). Each student's TGMD-2 score was converted to a percentage of the total possible score. A 7 × 2 × 2 analysis of variance test with repeated measures was employed to examine the effects of age, sex, and time on TGMD-2 percent scores, adjusting for clustering within the data structure. There were greater TGMD-2 percent scores at follow-up compared with baseline (82.4% vs. 72.6%, mean difference = 9.8%, p < .001, Cohen's d = 0.67), and greater improvements were seen in younger children compared with older children (mean difference of change = 4.0%-7.5%, p < .01, Cohen's d = 0.30-0.55).

  15. Soil gross nitrogen transformations in responses to land use conversion in a subtropical karst region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dejun; Liu, Jing; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Liang; Wang, Kelin

    2018-04-15

    Gross nitrogen (N) transformations can provide important information for assessing indigenous soil N supply capacity and soil nitrate leaching potential. The current study aimed to assess the variation of gross N transformations in response to conversion of maize-soybean fields to sugarcane, mulberry, and forage grass fields in a subtropical karst region of southwest China. Mature forests were included for comparison. Gross rates of N mineralization (GNM) were highest in the forests, intermediate in the maize-soybean and forage grass fields, and lowest in the sugarcane and mulberry fields, suggesting capacity of indigenous soil N supply derived from organic N mineralization was lowered after conversion to sugarcane and mulberry fields. The relative high indigenous soil N supply capacity in the maize-soybean fields was obtained at the cost of soil organic N depletion. Gross nitrification (GN) rates were highest in the forests, intermediate in the forage grass fields and lowest in the other three agricultural land use types. The nitrate retention capacity (24.1 ± 2.0% on average) was similar among the five land use types, implying that nitrate leaching potential was not changed after land use conversion. Microbial biomass N exerted significant direct effects on the rates of N mineralization, nitrification, ammonium immobilization and nitrate immobilization. Soil organic carbon, total N and exchangeable magnesium had significant indirect effects on these N transformation rates. Our findings suggest that forage grass cultivation instead of other agricultural land uses should be recommended from the perspective of increasing indigenous soil N supply while not depleting soil organic N pool. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. COST OF PRODUCTION, GROSS RETURN AND NET PROFIT IN COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahoor-ul-Haq1, M.A. Mian, F.R. Durrani and M. Syed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Chakwal, Pakistan by collecting data from randomly selected 109 flocks to investigate cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer. Majority of the buildings in the study area were rented therefore, rent per layer was added to the total cost of production instead of depreciation on building and equipments. Overall total cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer was Rs. 393.88 ± 5.36, 432.14 ± 8.01 and 38.26 ± 6.66, respectively. Rate of return over the invested capital was 27%. Mean feed cost per layer was Rs. 302.23 ± 5.01, including Rs. 10.27 ± 0.24, 29.19 ± 0.42 and 262.77 ± 5.08 for starter, grower and layer ration, respectively. Feed cost was the major component contributing 76.73% to the total cost of production. Average cost of labor, day-old chick, building rent, vaccination, therapy, miscellaneous item, electricity, bedding material and transportation was Rs. 19.90 ± 0.45, 19.75 ± 0.05, 16.25 ± 0.26, 12.80 ± 0.10, 10.90 ± 2.32, 4.35 ± 0.09, 3.15 ± 0.07, 2.65 ± 0.09 and 1.90 ± 0.08, respectively, contributing 5.05, 5.01, 4.13, 3.25, 2.77, 1.10, 0.80, 0.67 and 0.48 % to the total cost of production. Gross return from the sale of marketable eggs, culled eggs, spent/culled bird, empty bags and manure was Rs. 388.84 ± 7.91, 3.85 ± 0.01, 35.80 ± 0.23, 2.20 ± 0.04 and 1.45 ± 0.01, respectively, contributing 89.98, 0.89, 8.28, 0.51 and 0.34% to the total return. Determining the effect of different parameters on the cost of production and net profit, large flocks, Hisex strain, brood-grow and lay system of rearing, good hygienic conditions of the farm, normal stocking rate and cage system of housing wee found to give maximum gross return as well as net profit.

  17. Goats reinfected with Toxoplasma gondii: loss of viable prolificacy and gross revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe determined the reproductive parameters and clinical disorders in pregnant goats infected and reinfected with Toxoplasma gondii, and posteriorly the loss of gross revenue due to congenital toxoplasmosis was estimated. Of the 25 non-pregnant females negative for T. gondii, 20 were orally inoculated (ME 49 strain and of these, 15 pregnant females chronically infected were orally reinoculated (VEG strain with T. gondii oocysts. Five groups were formed (n=5: GI, GII and GIII (reinoculations at 40, 80 and 120 days of gestation, respectively, GIV (inoculation and GV (no inoculation. Clinical and serological exams were performed on days 0 (prior to inoculation, 3, 6 9, 15 and 21 and every 7 days post-inoculation. Exams were also performed on day 3 and every 7 days post-reinoculation. Reproductive management was performed on all females and initiated when the females infected displayed IgG titers IFAT<1,024. From the average prolificacy indexes of each experimental group were estimated: total production of kilograms of live weight (total kg LW of goats for slaughter, gross revenue and loss of gross revenue in U.S. dollars (US$, designed for a herd of 1,000 matrices. The unviable prolificacy indexes were 0.8 (GI, 1.2 (GII and 0.2 (GIII. Clinical disorders affected 57.1% (GI, 75.0% (GII and 16.7% (GIII of the offspring of goats reinfected with T. gondii. Congenital toxoplasmosis in goats reinfected resulted in the loss of 26.5% of gross revenues, being GI (US$ 10,577.60 or 57.1% and GII (US$ 12,693.12 or 60% holders of the highest values and percentages of economic losses. It was found that congenital toxoplasmosis reinfection cause clinical disorders in goats chronically infected with T. gondii and their offspring with birth of unviable animals and loss of gross revenue, at different stages of pregnancy (40, 80 and 120 days of gestation, being in the initial and intermediate stages of pregnancy the largest estimates of these losses.

  18. Phytochemical Screening, Polyphenolic Content and Alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traditionally in the management of diabetes mellitus and in the treatment of wounds and stomach ache. In this study, phytochemical screening, total phenolic contents and alpha-glucosidase ... Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases (Di Matteo and Esposito, 2003) as well as inflammation and problems caused by cell and ...

  19. Pattern of Gross Congenital Malformations in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Jenita; Kusre, Giriraj; Bora, Reeta

    2015-10-01

    To explore the prevalence of structural congenital malformations among newborns and study some of the fetal and maternal characteristics of the malformed babies in North east India where such systematic study on congenital malformation has not been undertaken before. A cross sectional study was undertaken from May 2010 through Feb 2013 for estimation of gross congenital malformations among live birth and stillbirth children born in Assam Medical College. All live births were clinically examined for detection of gross congenital malformations and autopsy was carried out on still births and neonates dying within 24 h of birth to detect gross congenital malformations in the internal organs. All malformations were classified as per ICD 10 classification. The mothers of the newborns with congenital malformations were interviewed in a predesigned, pretested proforma. The variables included maternal age, antenatal registration, antenatal history of drug intake, consanguinity and previous history of malformations. Statistical analysis was done using chi square test. A total 18,192 births including live births and still births were examined and 206 cases of structural malformations were observed. Prevalence of congenital malformations was 1.2 % of the total live births. Distribution of malformation was predominant among males than in females (60.67 vs. 37.37 %; p malformation of the cardiovascular system was found to be very low. Malformations among stillbirths and newborns born to unregistered mothers were significantly more. Percentage of malformations in babies born to mothers of more than 30 y of age was higher than other age groups (2.2 %). Occurrence of malformations in low birth weight babies were significantly more (p malformations was 1.2 % of the total live births. Musculoskeletal system was the most common system involved. Congenital malformations were significantly associated with sex of the new born, registration of the mother and birth weight of the

  20. Monte Carlo alpha calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, D.; Soran, P.; Whalen, P.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm to efficiently calculate static alpha eigenvalues, N = ne/sup ..cap alpha..t/, for supercritical systems has been developed and tested. A direct Monte Carlo approach to calculating a static alpha is to simply follow the buildup in time of neutrons in a supercritical system and evaluate the logarithmic derivative of the neutron population with respect to time. This procedure is expensive, and the solution is very noisy and almost useless for a system near critical. The modified approach is to convert the time-dependent problem to a static ..cap alpha../sup -/eigenvalue problem and regress ..cap alpha.. on solutions of a/sup -/ k/sup -/eigenvalue problem. In practice, this procedure is much more efficient than the direct calculation, and produces much more accurate results. Because the Monte Carlo codes are intrinsically three-dimensional and use elaborate continuous-energy cross sections, this technique is now used as a standard for evaluating other calculational techniques in odd geometries or with group cross sections.

  1. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro; Pustika Efar; Soedjatmiko; Amanda Soebadi; Agus Firmansyah; Hui-Ju Chen; Kun-Long Hung

    2016-01-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and sociali...

  2. ϵ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, Avinash [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-10-18

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O(N) Gross-Neveu model in d=2+ϵ dimensions. To do this, we extend the “cowpie contraction' algorithm of http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  3. Gross morphometric study on the reproductive system of Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quail farming is emerging in commercial poultry farming to provide alternatives to domestic chicken production and also strengthen the poultry production demands for animal protein. This study was conducted to determine the gross morphometry of the ovary and oviduct of inapparently healthy adult laying Japanese quail ...

  4. Awareness and use of Gross Motor Function Classification System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction The degree of disability in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) can be evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), a valid tool which was designed for such purposes. However, there appears to be paucity of data on the awareness and use of the GMFCS particularly in the ...

  5. Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in the West African Dwarf Goat ( Capra hircus ) during the foetal and post-natal periods of development. ... The right lobe was more cranially located on the larynx and trachea than the left lobe in all age groups. Thyroid isthmus was absent in few foetal thyroid ...

  6. Survey On Management Systems And Gross Profit Analysis Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey On Management Systems And Gross Profit Analysis Of Muturu In Southern Cross River State. ... in muturu rearing for commercial purposes. Cost price of muturu within the study area was uniform due to the influence of market associations. The selling price of muturu cattle is however influenced by the location.

  7. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  8. 77 FR 51706 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0156] RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY... combination weight rating'' (GCWR) in our regulations. The definition currently prescribes how the GCWR is... comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy...

  9. 77 FR 65497 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0156] RIN 2126-AB53 Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY... combination weight rating'' (GCWR) in 49 CFR parts 383 and 390. The DFR would have taken effect on October 26... submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy Act notice...

  10. Monopol suretab kohaliku loomakasvataja / Oleg Gross ; interv . Illar Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Oleg, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Väike-Maarja jäätmetehase monopoolse seisundi vastu sõna võtnud OG Elektra omanik Oleg Gross on kindel, et jäätmetehasega suretatakse kohalikud väiksemad lihatootjad välja. Kommenteerivad talupidaja Jüri Järvet ja Rakvere Lihakombinaadi direktor Olle Horm

  11. casual relationship between gross domestic saving and economic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOSHIBA

    private saving has both direct and indirect effects on economic growth. ... sector have a bigger impact on GDP than gross domestic savings. ... Development economists have been concerned for decades about the crucial role of ..... higher investment and higher economic growth is not supported by East African countries.

  12. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Marcello Pecoraro; Schultz, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  13. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello Pecoraro Toscano; Regina Schultz

    2014-01-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith?Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  14. Anomaly detection in real-time gross payment data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triepels, Ron; Daniels, Hennie; Heijmans, R.; Camp, Olivier; Filipe, Joaquim

    2017-01-01

    We discuss how an autoencoder can detect system-level anomalies in a real-time gross settlement system by reconstructing a set of liquidity vectors. A liquidity vector is an aggregated representation of the underlying payment network of a settlement system for a particular time interval.

  15. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  16. Lattice simulation of 2d Gross-Neveu-type models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limmer, M.; Gattringer, C.; Hermann, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: We discuss a Monte Carlo simulation of 2d Gross-Neveu-type models on the lattice. The four-Fermi interaction is written as a Gaussian integral with an auxiliary field and the fermion determinant is included by reweighting. We present results for bulk quantities and correlators and compare them to a simulation using a fermion-loop representation. (author)

  17. Potato production in Europe - a gross margin analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Bizik, Jan; Costa, Luisa Dalla

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different cropping practices, cost structures and gross margins for producing conventional table potatoes in 6 different regions within the European Union: Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Slovakia. Findings from this study show that pot...

  18. Gross theory of nuclear β-decay with shell effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, M.

    1979-01-01

    The present work tries to introduce shell effects selection rules into the gross theory systematically. Instead of an unbunched or bunched Fermigas spectrum a single-particle spectrum in the shell model with a Woods-Saxon potential is used. The knowledge of spin and parity of the levels allows us to introduce selection rules in an approximative way. (orig.)

  19. The effects of climatic factors on the occurrence and gross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial agents of ovine and caprine pneumonia and associated gross pathological lesions were studied for a period of ten years (1985-1995). Bacteriological data were obtained from the necropsy report books of the Microbiology and Pathology Dagnostic units of the Department of Vetinary Pathology and ...

  20. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma : gross appearance and corresponding pathologic and radiologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Chang Guhn; Lee, Moon Gyu; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Auh, Yong Ho; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1999-01-01

    To assess the clinical and pathologic features of each type of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, which is divided into three types according to gross appearance, and to determine the efficacy of CT in detecting this tumor. The pathologic and CT features of 53 surgically proven cases of intrahepatic cholangio-carcinoma were reviewed. On the basis of their gross appearance, the tumors were divided into three types, as follows : mass forming (n=33), periductal infiltrating (n=6), and intraductal growth type (n=14). CT scans were analyzed for sensitivity of detection and correlation between a tumors appearance and its histopathology. The most common histopathologic feature of mass forming and periductal infiltrating type was tubular adenocarcinoma, while in the intraductal growth type, papillary adenocarcinoma (100%) was common. With regard to pattern of tumor spread, intrahepatic and lymph node metastasis were more common in the mass forming and periductal infiltrating type than in the intraductal growth type. CT findings including intrahepatic mass, ductal wall thickening or intraductal mass associated with segmental dilatation of intrahepataic bile ducts, corresponded with these morphologic types. This classification according to gross appearance is of considerable value when interpreting the pathologic features of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. CT seems to be a useful modality for the detection of tumors and may be consistent with their gross morphologic findings

  1. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  2. Fine and Gross Motor Ability in Males with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fine and gross motor abilities were evaluated in 10-year-old males with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and compared to a group of control children at the School of Psychology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.

  3. Energy use and gross margin analysis for sesame production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the negative impacts of energy by-products affect the climate, the knowledge and efficient use of energy in crop production will minimise environmental problems and promote sustainable agriculture as an economic production system in Nigeria and else where. The aim of the study was to evaluate energy use and gross ...

  4. Gross and Histomorphological Assessment of the Oropharynx and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the morphology of the oropharynx and tongue of the guinea fowl using gross anatomical and histological techniques. The results showed that the mouth and pharynx of the guinea fowl lacked a definite line of demarcation, and so formed a common oropharyngeal cavity. The roof of the oropharynx ...

  5. School Physical Activity Programming and Gross Motor Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-09-01

    We examined the effect of a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) on gross motor skills in children. Participants were 959 children (1st-6th grade; Mean age = 9.1 ± 1.5 years; 406 girls, 553 boys) recruited from 5 low-income schools receiving a year-long CSPAP intervention. Data were collected at the beginning of the school year and at a 36-week follow-up. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test for Gross Motor Development (3rd ed.) (TGMD-3) instrument. Multi-level mixed effects models were employed to examine the effect of CSPAP on TGMD-3 scores, testing age and sex as effect modifiers and adjusting for clustering of observations within the data structure. There were statistically significant coefficients for time (β = 8.1, 95% CI [3.9, 12.3], p skills and ball skills sub-test scores. Children showed improved gross motor skill scores at the end of the 36-week CSPAP that were modified by age, as younger children displayed greater improvements in TGMD-3 scores compared to older children.

  6. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  7. Gross Motor Skill Acquisition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Sarah; Maraj, Brian K. V.; Weeks, Daniel; Chua, Romeo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether verbal-motor performances deficits exhibited by individuals with Down syndrome limited their ability to acquire gross motor skills when given visual and verbal instruction together and then transferred to either a visual or verbal instructional mode to reproduce the movement. Nine individuals with…

  8. A Study on Gross Motor Skills of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joanne Hui-Tzu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a creative movement program on gross motor skills of preschool children. Sixty children between the ages of 3 to 5 were drawn from the population of a preschool in Taichung, Taiwan. An experimental pretest-posttest control-group design was utilized. The children enrolled in the…

  9. Relationship Between Broiler Body Weights, Eimeria maxima Gross Lesion Scores, and Microscores in Three Anticoccidial Sensitivity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Miguel A; Da Costa, Manuel; Kimminau, Emily; Fuller, Lorraine; Clark, Steven; Pesti, Gene; Beckstead, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Anticoccidial sensitivity tests (ASTs) serve to determine the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against Eimeria field isolates in a controlled laboratory setting. The most commonly measured parameters are body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gross intestinal lesion scores, and mortality. Due to the difficulty in reliably scoring gross lesion scores of Eimeria maxima , microscopic analysis of intestinal scrapings (microscores) can be used in the field to indicate the presence of this particular Eimeria. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between E. maxima microscores and broiler body weights and gross E. maxima lesion scores in three ASTs. Day-old broiler chicks were raised for 12 days on a standard corn-soy diet. On Day 12, chicks were placed in Petersime batteries and treatment diets were provided. There were six birds per pen, four pens per treatment, and 12 treatments, for a total of 288 chicks per AST. The treatments were as follows: 1) nonmedicated, noninfected; 2) nonmedicated, infected; 3) lasalocid, infected; 4) salinomycin, infected; 5) diclazuril, infected; 6) monensin, infected; 7) decoquinate, infected; 8) narasin + nicarbazin, infected; 9) narasin, infected; 10) nicarbazin, infected; 11) robenidine, infected; and 12) zoalene, infected. On Day 14, chicks were challenged with an Eimeria field isolate by oral gavage. On Day 20, broilers were weighed, and gross lesion scores and microscores were classified from 0 to 4 depending on the severity of the gross lesion scores and E. maxima microscores. Data from three trials using different field isolates were statistically analyzed using a logarithmic regression model. There was no relationship (P = 0.1224) between microscores and body weight gain. There was a positive relationship between microscores and gross lesion scores (P = 0.004). However, there was also an interaction between isolate and treatment (P Eimeria or the amount of E. maxima in the inoculum.

  10. Correlates of Gross Motor Competence in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Lai, Samuel K; Veldman, Sanne L C; Hardy, Louise L; Cliff, Dylan P; Morgan, Philip J; Zask, Avigdor; Lubans, David R; Shultz, Sarah P; Ridgers, Nicola D; Rush, Elaine; Brown, Helen L; Okely, Anthony D

    2016-11-01

    Gross motor competence confers health benefits, but levels in children and adolescents are low. While interventions can improve gross motor competence, it remains unclear which correlates should be targeted to ensure interventions are most effective, and for whom targeted and tailored interventions should be developed. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the potential correlates of gross motor competence in typically developing children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years) using an ecological approach. Motor competence was defined as gross motor skill competency, encompassing fundamental movement skills and motor coordination, but excluding motor fitness. Studies needed to assess a summary score of at least one aspect of motor competence (i.e., object control, locomotor, stability, or motor coordination). A structured electronic literature search was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Six electronic databases (CINAHL Complete, ERIC, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO ® , Scopus and SPORTDiscus with Full Text) were searched from 1994 to 5 August 2014. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between potential correlates and motor competency if at least three individual studies investigated the same correlate and also reported standardized regression coefficients. A total of 59 studies were identified from 22 different countries, published between 1995 and 2014. Studies reflected the full range of age groups. The most examined correlates were biological and demographic factors. Age (increasing) was a correlate of children's motor competence. Weight status (healthy), sex (male) and socioeconomic background (higher) were consistent correlates for certain aspects of motor competence only. Physical activity and sport participation constituted the majority of investigations in the behavioral attributes and skills category. Whilst we found physical activity to be a positive

  11. Coincidence study of alpha particle fragmentation at E/sub alpha/ = 140 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an experimental study of the interaction of 140 MeV alpha particles with 90 Zr nuclei resulting in fragmentation of the alpha particle are reported. The experimental observations of the study are analyzed and are found to show that alpha particle breakup reactions leading to at least 4-body final states, composed of two charged alpha particle fragments, contribute significantly to the singles yield of charged fragments observed at a fixed forward angle. The conclusions are based on coincidence measurements where one charged fragment is detected at a small forward angle which remains fixed, while the second charged fragment is detected at a series of coplanar secondary angles. The largest coincidence charged particle yield for the multiparticle final state events results from 90 Zr(α,pp)X reactions, where both of the measured protons have energy distributions similar to the proton singles energy distributions. The second largest observed coincidence yield involving two charged fragments arises from 90 Zr(α,pd)X reactions, where the p and d fragments, as in the 90 Zr(α,pp)X reactions also have energy distribution similar to the singles energy distributions. Analysis of additional measurements, where alpha particle fragments at the fixed angle are detected in coincidence with evaporation and nonequilibrium particles at many coplanar angles, show that the alpha particle fragmentation reactions are also generally associated with large energy transfer to the target nucleus. A multiple scattering model of the fragmentation reaction is employed, in conjunction with the experimental observations, to estimate the cross sections for alpha particle fragmentation into multi-particle final states resulting in n, 2n, p, pp, d, dn, dp, t and 3 He fragments. The estimated total cross section for all fragmentation reactions is 755 mb or approximately 38% of the total reaction cross section for 140 MeV alpha particle interactions with 90 Zr

  12. Alpha Momentum and Price Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lea Hühn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a novel alpha momentum strategy that invests in stocks based on three-factor alphas which we estimate using daily returns. The empirical analysis for the U.S. and for Europe shows that (i past alpha has power in predicting the cross-section of stock returns; (ii alpha momentum exhibits less dynamic factor exposures than price momentum and (iii alpha momentum dominates price momentum only in the U.S. Connecting both strategies to behavioral explanations, alpha momentum is more related to an underreaction to firm-specific news while price momentum is primarily driven by price overshooting due to momentum trading.

  13. Gross Domestic Savings and Gross Capital: what Matters to Their Formation in an Era of Economic Recession in Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Success Abusomwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to empirically investigate the long run and short run dynamic impact of interest rate and output on gross domestic savings and gross capital formation in Nigeria. Literatures, both theoretical and empirical, suggest that the rate of interest and output are the key factors influencing savings and investments. A review of factors influencing interest rates and output in Nigeria is necessitated by the recent economic downturns in Nigeria that has resulted in tight monetary policy which some commentators regard as inimical to growth. Employing Ordinary Least Squares, Co-integration, Error Correction Mechanism and Granger Causality econometric techniques on a data spanning 1981 to 2014 of the Nigerian economy sourced from the World Development Index, it was found that changes in output explains the long run and short run dynamic behaviour of gross domestic savings and gross capital formation which were used as proxies for savings and investment respectively. Whereas, a bi-causality was established between output and investment, causality flowed from output to savings in Nigeria. The research also found that interest rate is not a significant determinant of savings and investment in Nigeria in both long run and short run. It is therefore recommended that to enhance investment in a period of economic downturn in Nigeria, aggregate demand should be boosted to enhance output through vigorous pursuit of fiscal policy while implementing contractionary monetary policy to address inflationary pressures created by the increase in demand. Domestic savings will improve and gross capital formation will be sustained.

  14. Participation in asynchronous online discussion forums does improve student learning of gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rodney A; Farchione, Davide; Hughes, Diane L; Chan, Siew-Pang

    2014-01-01

    Asynchronous online discussion forums are common in blended learning models and are popular with students. A previous report has suggested that participation in these forums may assist student learning in a gross anatomy subject but it was unclear as to whether more academically able students post more often or whether participation led to improved learning outcomes. This study used a path model to analyze the contribution of forum participation, previous academic ability, and student campus of enrolment to final marks in a multicampus gross anatomy course for physiotherapy students. The course has a substantial online learning management system (LMS) that incorporates asynchronous forums as a learning tool, particularly to answer learning objectives. Students were encouraged to post new threads and answer queries in threads started by others. The forums were moderated weekly by staff. Discussion forums were the most used feature of the LMS site with 31,920 hits. Forty-eight percent of the students posted at least once with 186 threads initiated by students and a total of 608 posts. The total number of posts made a significant direct contribution to final mark (P = 0.008) as did previous academic ability (P = 0.002). Although campus did not contribute to final mark, there was a trend for students at the campus where the course coordinator was situated to post more often than those at the other campus (P = 0.073). These results indicate that asynchronous online discussion forums can be an effective tool for improving student learning outcomes as evidenced by final marks in gross anatomy teaching. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Synthesis of peptide .alpha.-thioesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A [Livermore, CA; Mitchell, Alexander R [Livermore, CA; De Yoreo, James J [Clayton, CA

    2008-08-19

    Disclosed herein is a new method for the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal peptide .alpha. thioesters using Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazine linker, which is totally stable to conditions required for Fmoc-SPPS. When the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker is achieved by mild oxidation. The oxidation step converts the acyl-hydrazine group into a highly reactive acyl-diazene intermediate which reacts with an .alpha.-amino acid alkylthioester (H-AA-SR) to yield the corresponding peptide .alpha.-thioester in good yield. A variety of peptide thioesters, cyclic peptides and a fully functional Src homology 3 (SH3) protein domain have been successfully prepared.

  16. Alpha Antihydrogen Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, M C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Cesar, C L; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wilding, D; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2011-01-01

    ALPHA is an experiment at CERN, whose ultimate goal is to perform a precise test of CPT symmetry with trapped antihydrogen atoms. After reviewing the motivations, we discuss our recent progress toward the initial goal of stable trapping of antihydrogen, with some emphasis on particle detection techniques.

  17. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  18. Alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line; Stensland, Hilde Monica Frostad Riise; Olsen, Klaus Juul

    2015-01-01

    of the three subgroups of genotype/subcellular localisation and the clinical and biochemical data were done to investigate the potential relationship between genotype and phenotype in alpha-mannosidosis. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software. Analyses of covariance were performed...

  19. Radial-velocity variations in Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco, and Alpha Her

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.; Patten, B.M.; Goldberg, L.

    1989-01-01

    Radial-velocity observations of Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco A, and Alpha Her A are used to study radial-velocity periodicities in M supergiants. The data refer to several metallic lines in the H-alpha region and to H-alpha itself. It is shown that Alpha Ori and Alpha Sco A have cycle lengths of about 1 yr and semiamplitudes of 2 km/s. It is suggested that many semiregular red supergiant varibles such as Alpha Ori may be heading toward chaos. All three stars show short-term stochastic flucutations with an amplitude of 1-2 km/s. It is found that the long-term variability of H-alpha velocities may be a consequence of intermittent failed ejections. 58 refs

  20. Design of New Complex Detector Used for Gross Beta Measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junmin

    2010-01-01

    The level of gross β for radioactive aerosol in the containment of nuclear plants can indicate how serious the radioactive pollution is in the shell, and it can provide evidence which shows whether there is the phenomenon of leak in the boundaries of confined aquifer of the primary coolant circuit equipment.In the process of measuring, the counting of gross β is influenced by γ. In order to avoid the influence of γ, a new method was introduced and a new detector was designed using plastic scintillator as the major detecting component and BGO as the sub-component. Based on distinctive difference of light attenuation time, signal induced in them can be discriminated. γ background in plastic scintillator was subtracted according to the counting of γ in BGO. The functions of absolute detection efficiency were obtained. The simulation for Monte-Carlo method shows that the influence of γ background is decreased about one order of magnitude. (authors)

  1. Gross-Pitaevski map as a chaotic dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Italo

    2017-03-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski map is a discrete time, split-operator version of the Gross-Pitaevski dynamics in the circle, for which exponential instability has been recently reported. Here it is studied as a classical dynamical system in its own right. A systematic analysis of Lyapunov exponents exposes strongly chaotic behavior. Exponential growth of energy is then shown to be a direct consequence of rotational invariance and for stationary solutions the full spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is analytically computed. The present analysis includes the "resonant" case, when the free rotation period is commensurate to 2π, and the map has countably many constants of the motion. Except for lowest-order resonances, this case exhibits an integrable-chaotic transition.

  2. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000.

  3. Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404

  4. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  5. Jatropha curcas – Analysis of Gross Calorific Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Ružbarský

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years biofuels have obtained a considerable interest, due to the implementation of ruling and gradual replacement of fossil fuels. One of production steps at gaining the oil is a pressing process. Wastes come into being from this process. These wastes are used as feed, fertilizer prospectively as fuel. A contemporary scientific literature pays attention namely to one of prospective produces which is a produce of the tropical and subtropical zones Jatropa curcas. Tests were performed at Jatropha Curcas seeds of a brown colour (that means gnaw. The aim of a research is an analysis of Jatropa curcas seed from the utilization point of view of the gross calorific value. The basic instrument to evaluate the gross calorific value of each variant of the experiment was a calorimeter PARR 6200 and digital scales for accurate laboratory weighing.

  6. Unitarity violation in noninteger dimensional Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yao; Kelly, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We construct an explicit example of unitarity violation in fermionic quantum field theories in noninteger dimensions. We study the two-point correlation function of four-fermion operators. We compute the one-loop anomalous dimensions of these operators in the Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model. We find that at one-loop order, the four-fermion operators split into three classes with one class having negative norms. This implies that the theory violates unitarity, following the definition in Ref. [1].

  7. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Gross alfa activity measurement in water from the Agueda river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, F.; Figueroa, C.F.; Gomez, J.M.G.; Lozano, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Gross α activity has been measured in water from the Agueda river, in the province of Salamanca (Spain), covering about 45 km around the uranium mine Fe. The activity has been found to be negligeable above the mine, and average values range from 0.13Bq/λ just after the mine to 0,05 Bq/λ 22 km below. (author) 9 refs

  9. Determination of gross plasma equilibrium from magnetic multipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    A new approximate technique to determine the gross plasma equilibrium parameters, major radius, minor radius, elongation and triangularity for an up-down symmetric plasma is developed. It is based on a multipole representation of the externally applied poloidal magnetic field, relating specific terms to the equilibrium parameters. The technique shows reasonable agreement with free boundary MHD equilibrium results. The method is useful in dynamic simulation and control studies.

  10. Determination of gross plasma equilibrium from magnetic multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    A new approximate technique to determine the gross plasma equilibrium parameters, major radius, minor radius, elongation and triangularity for an up-down symmetric plasma is developed. It is based on a multipole representation of the externally applied poloidal magnetic field, relating specific terms to the equilibrium parameters. The technique shows reasonable agreement with free boundary MHD equilibrium results. The method is useful in dynamic simulation and control studies

  11. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia: case report with gross and histological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Pecoraro Toscano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD is a rare placental disorder characterized by placental enlargement and areas of abnormal, enlarged, grape-like villi. This condition may resemble a partial hydatidiform mole and may occur associated with Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS or in phenotypically normal fetuses. There were 110 cases reported so far. We describe one case with typical gross and microscopic placental lesions.

  12. Improvements of mass formula and β-decay gross theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Takahiro

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear mass greatly decreases when the number of protons Z and neutrons N is simultaneously equal to a magic number (mutual support of magicities). The mass also tends to decrease due to deformation as both N and Z are away from the magic numbers (mutual support of deformations). These two effects are introduced to a nuclear mass formula containing a constant-type shell term to derive a new formula. The mass excess is expressed by a sum of three parts, i.e. gross part, even-odd part and shell part. The gross part, which represents the general nature, consists of two rest mass terms and a coulomb term. The even-odd part is of a typical form with a correction term. The shell part consists of a proton shell term, neutron shell term, third term expressing the two mutual support effects, and fourth term representing a decrease in coulomb energy due to deformation of the nucleus. The improvements made in the β-decay gross theory are associated with the single particle intensity function D 0 GT (E,ε). They are intended for: (1) reproducing the peak that accounts for about a half of the Gamow-Teller intensity, which has recently been found in (p,n) reactions at energies above the isobaric analogue state and (2) explaining the other half by an exponential-type D 0 GT (E,ε). (Nogami, K.)

  13. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  14. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  15. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  16. AlphaACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-20

    and other ADT data As part of Task 2, AlphaTRAC: • Collaborated with CERDEC and the U.S. Military Academy Network Sciences Center to develop...example) Meehl (1954) and Swets, Dawes, and Monahan (2000), which convincingly explain how actuarial judgments rendered by statistical models tend to...Reasoning (DARPA), Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA. Swcts, J.A., Dawes, R.M., and Monahan, J. (2000). Better decisions through science

  17. Rossi Alpha Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Rossi Alpha Method has proved to be valuable for the determination of prompt neutron lifetimes in fissile assemblies having known reproduction numbers at or near delayed critical. This workshop report emphasizes the pioneering applications of the method by Dr. John D. Orndoff to fast-neutron critical assemblies at Los Alamos. The value of the method appears to disappear for subcritical systems where the Rossi-α is no longer an α-eigenvalue

  18. Integration of digital gross pathology images for enterprise-wide access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milon Amin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sharing digital pathology images for enterprise- wide use into a picture archiving and communication system (PACS is not yet widely adopted. We share our solution and 3-year experience of transmitting such images to an enterprise image server (EIS. Methods: Gross pathology images acquired by prosectors were integrated with clinical cases into the laboratory information system′s image management module, and stored in JPEG2000 format on a networked image server. Automated daily searches for cases with gross images were used to compile an ASCII text file that was forwarded to a separate institutional Enterprise Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM Wrapper (EDW server. Concurrently, an HL7-based image order for these cases was generated, containing the locations of images and patient data, and forwarded to the EDW, which combined data in these locations to generate images with patient data, as required by DICOM standards. The image and data were then "wrapped" according to DICOM standards, transferred to the PACS servers, and made accessible on an institution-wide basis. Results: In total, 26,966 gross images from 9,733 cases were transmitted over the 3-year period from the laboratory information system to the EIS. The average process time for cases with successful automatic uploads (n=9,688 to the EIS was 98 seconds. Only 45 cases (0.5% failed requiring manual intervention. Uploaded images were immediately available to institution- wide PACS users. Since inception, user feedback has been positive. Conclusions: Enterprise- wide PACS- based sharing of pathology images is feasible, provides useful services to clinical staff, and utilizes existing information system and telecommunications infrastructure. PACS-shared pathology images, however, require a "DICOM wrapper" for multisystem compatibility.

  19. Gross greenhouse gas fluxes from hydro-power reservoir compared to thermo-power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Marco Aurelio dos; Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Sikar, Bohdan; Sikar, Elizabeth; Santos, Ednaldo Oliveira dos

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of gross carbon dioxide and methane emissions measurements in several Brazilian hydro-reservoirs, compared to thermo power generation. The term 'gross emissions' means gas flux measurements from the reservoir surface without natural pre-impoundment emissions by natural bodies such as the river channel, seasonal flooding and terrestrial ecosystems. The net emissions result from deducting pre-existing emissions by the reservoir. A power dam emits biogenic gases such as CO 2 and CH 4 . However, studies comparing gas emissions (gross emissions) from the reservoir surface with emissions by thermo-power generation technologies show that the hydro-based option presents better results in most cases analyzed. In this study, measurements were carried in the Miranda, Barra Bonita, Segredo, Tres Marias, Xingo, and Samuel and Tucurui reservoirs, located in two different climatological regimes. Additional data were used here from measurements taken at the Itaipu and Serra da Mesa reservoirs. Comparisons were also made between emissions from hydro-power plants and their thermo-based equivalents. Bearing in mind that the estimated values for hydro-power plants include emissions that are not totally anthropogenic, the hydro-power plants studied generally posted lower emissions than their equivalent thermo-based counterparts. Hydro-power complexes with greater power densities (capacity/area flooded-W/m 2 ), such as Itaipu, Xingo, Segredo and Miranda, have the best performance, well above thermo-power plants using state-of-the-art technology: combined cycle fueled by natural gas, with 50% efficiency. On the other hand, some hydro-power complexes with low-power density perform only slightly better or even worse than their thermo-power counterparts

  20. Methodology for full comparative assessment of direct gross glycerin combustion in a flame tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, Aymer Yeferson; Pagliuso, Josmar D. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Sao Carlos School of Engineering. University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: aymermat@sc.usp.br, josmar@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study is to develop a methodology to identify and evaluate the emissions and heat transfer associated to combustion of gross glycerin a by-product of the Brazilian biodiesel manufacture process as alternative energy source. It aims to increase the present knowledge on the matter and to contribute to the improvement of the economic and environmental perspective of biodiesel industry. This methodology was considered to be used for assessment of gross glycerin combustion from three different types of biodiesel (bovine tallow, palm and soy). The procedures for evaluation and quantification of emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acrolein were analyzed, described and standardized. Experimental techniques for mutagenic and toxic effects assessment of gases similarly were analyzed and standardized, as well as the calorific power, the associate heat transfer and fundamentals operational parameters. The methodology was developed, using a full-instrumented flame tube furnace, continuous gas analyzers, a chromatograph, automatic data acquisition systems and other auxiliary equipment. The mutagenic and toxic effects of the study was based on Tradescantia clone KU-20, using chambers of intoxication and biological analytical techniques previously developed and others were specially adapted. The benchmark for the initial set up was based on the performance evaluation of the previous equipment tested with diesel considering its behavior during direct combustion. Finally, the following factors were defined for the combustion of crude glycerin, configurations of equipment types, operational parameters such as air fuel ratio adiabatic temperature and other necessary aspect for successful application of the methodology. The developed and integrated methodology was made available to the concern industry, environmental authorities and researchers as procedures to access the viability of gross glycerin or similar fuels as

  1. 26 CFR 1.61-14 - Miscellaneous items of gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as treble damages under the antitrust laws and exemplary damages for fraud are gross income. Another... by law. Illegal gains constitute gross income. Treasure trove, to the extent of its value in United...

  2. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  3. Evaluation of the reliability and construct validity of test of gross motor development-2 (Ulrich 2 in children of Semnan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Soltanian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the second edition of test of gross motor development (TGMD-2; Ulrich in 7-11 aged children of Semnan province, Iran.Materials and Methods: TGMD-2 measures 12 fundamental movement skills divided evenly into locomotor and object control subtests. 1277 children (651 girls and 626 boys aged from seven to eleven years were participated.Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the two subtests were ranged from 0.60 to 0.78, and test-retest reliability was from 0.86 to 0.89. Two-factor structure of TGMD-2 and proper assignment of skills to locomotor and object control factors were supported for our population.Conclusion: Based on our findings, we conclude that the TGMD-2 is an appropriate tool to examine the gross motor skills in this population

  4. Characterization Of The Alpha/Beta Counting System Type MPC 9400 And Its Utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhsum; Sutarman; Fikri, Hanif; Handoko, Djati

    2000-01-01

    Have been carried out the experiment to determine the operation voltage, instrument stability, counting efficiency, figure of merit, and minimum detectable activity. This instrument used to count gross alpha and gross beta. This instrument belongs good stability at the confidence level of 95 % and the background count that was 0,144 cpm for alpha and 22,65 cpm for beta. The counting efficiency was 27,41 % (electrodeposition of Am-241), 6,57 % (deposition of Am-241), 51,82 % (deposition of Sr-90). The limit of detectable activity was 1,04 x 10 exp.-2 Bq (electrodeposition of Am-241), 4,35 x 10 exp.-2 Bq (% deposition of Sr 90)

  5. The relationship between gross motor skills and visual perception of preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    TEPELI, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    Answers were searched for these questions; “Is there a relationship between visual perceptions and gross motor skills of preschool children?”, “Are preschool children's visual perceptions predictors of their gross motor skills?”, “Is there any difference between visual perceptions of the children having low, average and high level of gross motor skills?” within this study where the relationship between preschool children's visual perceptions and their gross motor skills were compara...

  6. Test of gross motor development-2 for Filipino children with intellectual disability: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M; Eguia, Kathlynne F; Simons, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine aspects of validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in Filipino children with intellectual disability. Content and construct validity were verified, as well as inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Two paediatric physiotherapists tested 81 children with intellectual disability (mean age = 9.29 ± 2.71 years) on locomotor and object control skills. Analysis of covariance, confirmatory factor analysis and analysis of variance were used to test validity, while Cronbach's alpha, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine reliability. Age was a significant predictor of locomotor and object control scores (P = 0.004). The data fit the hypothesised two-factor model with fit indices as follows: χ(2) = 33.525, DF = 34, P = 0.491, χ(2)/DF = 0.986. As hypothesised, gender was a significant predictor for object control skills (P = 0.038). Participants' mean scores were significantly below mastery (locomotor, P intellectual disability.

  7. Evaluation of total carotenoids, alpha- and beta-carotene in carrots (Daucus carota L. during home processing Avaliação de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenoura (Daucus carota L. durante processamento a nível doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Maria PINHEIRO-SANT’ANA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of dehydration and different preparation methods during home processing related toalpha-carotene, beta-carotene and total carotenoids stability in carrots. Vitamin A values were evaluated after different treatments. Thus, carrots were submitted to steam cooking, water cooking with and without pressure, moist/dry cooking and conventional dehydration. Determination of alpha- and beta-carotenes was made by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC (conditions were developed by us using spectrophotometric detection visible-UV at 470 nm; a RP-18 column and methanol: acetonitrile: ethyl acetate (80: 10: 10 as mobile phase. Total carotenoids quantification was made by 449 nm spectrophotometer. The retention of the analyzed carotenoids ranged from 60.13 to 85.64%. Water cooking without pressure promoted higher retention levels of alpha- and beta-carotene and vitamin A values, while water cooking with pressure promoted higher retention levels of total carotenoids. Dehydration promoted the highest carotenoid losses. The results showed that, among the routinely utilized methods under domestic condition, cooking without pressure, if performed under controlled time and temperature, is the best method as it reduces losses in the amount of alpha- and beta-carotene, the main carotenoids present in the carrots. Despite the significant carotenoid losses, carrots prepared through domestic methods, remain a rich source of provitamin A.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a influência da desidratação e de diferentes métodos de preparo a nível doméstico sobre a estabilidade de alfa-caroteno, beta-caroteno e carotenóides totais em cenouras. Os valores de vitamina A foram avaliados após os diferentes tratamentos. Para tanto, amostras de cenoura foram submetidas à cocção a vapor, cocção em água com e sem pressão, cocção úmida/seca e à desidratação convencional. Para a determinação de alfa e beta

  8. 26 CFR 1.924(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading gross receipts. 1.924(a)-1T Section 1.924(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.924(a)-1T Temporary regulations; definition of foreign trading gross receipts. (a) In general. The term “foreign trading gross receipts” means any of the five amounts described in paragraphs...

  9. 46 CFR 167.01-8 - Inspection of school ships using gross tonnage criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of school ships using gross tonnage criterion... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS General Provisions § 167.01-8 Inspection of school ships using gross... school ships by relative sizes in gross tonnages. When it is determined in accordance with § 70.05-20 of...

  10. The Relationship between Gross Motor Skills and Academic Achievement in Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…

  11. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident alien...

  12. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor

  13. Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Pamela S; Wagner, Matthias O; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2014-10-01

    Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3=20/200-20/599, legally blind; B2=20/600 and up, travel vision; B1=totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.049) or B3 groups (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p=0.006), catch (p=0.000), and throw (p=0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p=0.009), dribbling (p=0.013), and throwing (p=0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p=0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Omid; Fors, Egil A; Borchgrevink, Petter Chr; Öhberg, Fredrik; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin

    2017-01-01

    This paper aimed to investigate motor proficiency in fine and gross motor function, with a focus on reaction time (RT) and movement skill, in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared to healthy controls (HC). A total of 60 individuals (20 CFS, 20 FM, and 20 HC), age 19-49 years, participated in this study. Gross motor function in the lower extremity was assessed using a RT task during gait initiation in response to an auditory trigger. Fine motor function in the upper extremity was measured during a precision task (the Purdue Pegboard test) where the number of pins inserted within 30 s was counted. No significant differences were found between FM and CFS in any parameters. FM and CFS groups had significantly longer RT than HC in the gait initiation ( p =0.001, and p =0.004 respectively). In the Purdue Pegboard test, 20% in the FM group, 15% in the CFS groups, and 0% of HC group, scored below the threshold of the accepted performance. However, there were no significant differences between FM, CFS, and HC in this task ( p =0.12). Compared to controls, both CFS and FM groups displayed significantly longer RT in the gait initiation task. Generally, FM patients showed the worst results in both tests, although no group differences were found in fine motor control, according to the Purdue Pegboard test.

  15. Advance organizers in a gross anatomy dissection course and their effects on academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun-Kyung; Nam, Kwang-Il; Oh, Sun-A; Han, Eui-Ryoung; Woo, Young-Jong; Hitchcock, Maurice A

    2013-04-01

    We presented two kinds of advance organizers (AOs), video clips and prosection, for a gross anatomy dissection course and compared their effects on academic achievement and student perception of the learning experience. In total, 141 students at Chonnam National University Medical School were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 (n = 70) was provided with video clips AO, whereas Group 2 (n = 71) was provided with prosection AO, the use of cadaveric specimens dissected by the course instructor. Student self-assessment scores regarding the learning objectives of upper limb anatomy improved significantly in both groups. Academic achievement scores in Group 2 were significantly higher than those in Group 1, although the self-assessment scores were not significantly different between the groups. Additionally, students in Group 2 responded significantly more positively to the statements about perception of the learning experience such as helping them understand the course content and concepts, decreasing anxiety about the dissection course, and participating actively in the dissection. It would seem that the application of prosection as an AO improved academic achievement and increased student engagement and satisfaction. This study will contribute to designing effective AOs and developing a teaching and learning strategy for a gross anatomy dissection course. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Share of Renewable Sources in Gross Final Energy Consumption in Croatia in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalea, M.

    2016-01-01

    Eurostat, the statistical agency of the European Union follows the share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption for many years. The EU Directive 2009/28/EC on renewable energy sources takes as a key indicator of developments in the use of renewable sources of individual member states precisely this indicator. This directive has set the goals of testimony percentage value of the shares that each member state must be achieved by 2020. These are the objectives for each country-member generally different, depending on the starting achieved share (2005), about the possibilities of individual forms of renewable energy and the wealth of individual member states. The goals are set so that in the European Union as a whole in 2020 it reached the share of renewables by 20 percent. Incidentally, Croatia is the default target is also 20 percent, a marginal tasks are 10 percent (for Malta) and 49 percent (for Sweden). At the same time, the Directive sets all member states equal to the target share of energy from renewable sources in the total energy demand for the needs of road transport by 10 percent by 2020. This short work of explanation is very strictly defined way of determining the share of renewable sources in gross final energy consumption, including the data for Croatia in 2014.(author).

  17. Transportation-Related Safety Behaviors in Top-Grossing Children's Movies from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppana, Shilpa; Shen, Jiabin; Schwebel, David C

    2016-05-01

    Children regularly imitate behavior from movies. The authors assessed injury risk behaviors in top-grossing children's films. The 5 top-grossing G- or PG-rated movies annually from 2008 to 2013 were included, including animated movies and those set in the past/future. Researchers coded transportation scenes for risk taking in 3 domains: protection/equipment, unsafe behaviors, and distraction/attention. Safe and risky behaviors were recorded across the 3 domains. With regard to protection and equipment, 20% of motor vehicle scenes showed characters riding without seat belts and 27% of scenes with motorcycles showed characters riding without helmets. Eighty-nine percent of scenes with horses showed riders without helmets and 67% of boat operators failed to wear personal flotation devices. The most common unsafe behaviors were speeding and unsafe street-crossing. Twenty-one percent of scenes with motor vehicles showed drivers speeding and 90% of pedestrians in films failed to wait for signal changes. Distracted and inattentive behaviors were rare, with distracted driving of motor vehicles occurring in only approximately 2% of total driving scenes. Although many safe transportation behaviors were portrayed, the film industry continues to depict unsafe behaviors in movies designed for pediatric audiences. There is a need for the film industry to continue to balance entertainment and art with modeling of safe behavior for children.

  18. Dengue endemic and its impact on the gross national product of BRAZILIAN'S economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montibeler, Everlam Elias; Oliveira, Daniel Ribeiro de

    2018-02-01

    In history disease has caused social and economic damage. Dengue is an illness typically found in the tropics that has affected more and more people. In Brazil, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), in 2013 at least 12.9% of the population (25.8 million) reported already having had dengue in their life. So, how wide are the economic impacts that dengue's contagion has on the gross national product? Using Leontief's method, it became possible to estimate the direct and indirect impact on the workforce and output by one country. Workforce absenteeism reduced the national productiveness and welfare state where we found maximum inoperability of 0.027% and a minimum of 0.002%. This paper develops a methodology for estimation of the impact dengue has incurred in each sector of an economy; designing a ranking with sectors that have been more affected and forecasting the propagation of the endemic throughout a region. This research measures the impact of dengue on economy, the result was that the total loss of the Brazilian economy in 2013 was around BRL 1,023,174,876.83; the importance of 0.02% of the Gross Domestic Product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin D levels are associated with gross motor function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, Sabrina; Macklin, Eric A; Karam, Chafic; Yu, Hong; Gonterman, Fernando; Fetterman, K Ashley; Cudkowicz, Merit; Berry, James; Wills, Anne-Marie

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether serum vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). 25(OH)D was measured in subjects enrolled in a multicenter study for validation of ALS biomarkers. Baseline 25(OH)D levels were correlated with baseline ALSFRS-R scores. Average 25(OH)D levels from baseline and month 6 visits (seasonally asynchronous) were used to predict subsequent rate of change in ALSFRS-R from month 6 to month 18. Most subjects had either insufficient or deficient 25(OH)D levels. Lower 25(OH)D was associated with lower ALSFRS-R gross motor scores, but not lower ALSFRS-R total scores at baseline. Levels of 25(OH)D were not predictive of disease progression over the next 12 months. 25(OH)D was associated with baseline gross motor ALSFRS-R scores but did not predict the rate of disease progression. Vitamin D levels may reflect poor mobility in patients with ALS. Muscle Nerve, 2017 Muscle Nerve 56: 726-731, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  1. The Schroedinger functional for Gross-Neveu models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leder, B.

    2007-01-01

    Gross-Neveu type models with a finite number of fermion flavours are studied on a two-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice. The models are asymptotically free and are invariant under a chiral symmetry. These similarities to QCD make them perfect benchmark systems for fermion actions used in large scale lattice QCD computations. The Schroedinger functional for the Gross-Neveu models is defined for both, Wilson and Ginsparg-Wilson fermions, and shown to be renormalisable in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. In two dimensions four fermion interactions of the Gross-Neveu models have dimensionless coupling constants. The symmetry properties of the four fermion interaction terms and the relations among them are discussed. For Wilson fermions chiral symmetry is explicitly broken and additional terms must be included in the action. Chiral symmetry is restored up to cut-off effects by tuning the bare mass and one of the couplings. The critical mass and the symmetry restoring coupling are computed to second order in lattice perturbation theory. This result is used in the 1-loop computation of the renormalised couplings and the associated beta-functions. The renormalised couplings are defined in terms of suitable boundary-to-boundary correlation functions. In the computation the known first order coefficients of the beta-functions are reproduced. One of the couplings is found to have a vanishing betafunction. The calculation is repeated for the recently proposed Schroedinger functional with exact chiral symmetry, i.e. Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. The renormalisation pattern is found to be the same as in the Wilson case. Using the regularisation dependent finite part of the renormalised couplings, the ratio of the Lambda-parameters is computed. (orig.)

  2. Gross shell structure at high spin in heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleplanque, Marie-Agnes; Frauendorf, Stefan; Pashkevich, Vitaly V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, Anja

    2003-01-01

    Experimental nuclear moments of inertia at high spins along the yrast line have been determined systematically and found to differ from the rigid-body values. The difference is attributed to shell effect and these have been calculated microscopically. The data and quantal calculations are interpreted by means of the semiclassical Periodic Orbit Theory. From this new perspective, features in the moments of inertia as a function of neutron number and spin, as well as their relation to the shell energies can be understood. Gross shell effects persist up to the highest angular momenta observed

  3. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  4. A Langevin simulation of the Gross-Neveu spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaze, R.; Morel, A.; Petersson, B.

    1989-01-01

    We study the order parameter of Chiral symmetry, and fermion and boson masses in the Gross-Neveu model as a function of the flavour number N and of the Langevin time step ε in the scaling region. The 1/N dependence of the ε=0 value of the order parameter is in excellent agreement with an analytical calculation up to second order. Care is taken of the important two fermion contribution in the bosonic correlation functions. Mass ratios are found to be ε dependent, but their ε=0 extrapolation is compatible with the analytic expectation

  5. Electron scattering from the deuteron using the Gross equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Van Orden; N. Devine; F. Gross

    1996-01-01

    The elastic electromagnetic form factors for the deuteron are calculated in the context of a one-boson-exchange model using the Gross or Spectator equation [1]. The formalism is manifestly covariant and gauge invariant. Results are shown for the impulse approximation and for pxy exchange currents. The impulse approximation results are quite close to the available data which suggests that only a relatively small exchange current contribution is required. It is shown that by using a soft form factor for the exchange current, the model provides a very good representation of the data.

  6. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Weak turbulence theory for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, S.; West, R.; Lvov, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to use the ideas developed for the NLSE to derive a weak turbulence theory for a large set of random waves described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. An interesting picture emerges even from a naive application of the results already obtained for the NLSE case. Imagine an arbitrary initial excitation; a superposition of modes with energies somewhere in the middle of the potential well. Because of the nonlinear interaction (''collisions'') there is a redistribution of energy E and particles N among the modes. (orig.)

  8. Gross domestic product and health expenditure associated with incidence, 30-day fatality, and age at stroke onset: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Luciano A; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Differences in definitions of socioeconomic status and between study designs hinder their comparability across countries. We aimed to analyze the correlation between 3 widely used macrosocioeconomic status indicators and clinical outcomes. We selected population-based studies reporting incident stroke risk and/or 30-day case-fatality according to prespecified criteria. We used 3 macrosocioeconomic status indicators that are consistently defined by international agencies: per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity, total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity, and unemployment rate. We examined the correlation of each macrosocioeconomic status indicator with incident risk of stroke, 30-day case-fatality, proportion of hemorrhagic strokes, and age at stroke onset. Twenty-three articles comprising 30 population-based studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Age-adjusted incident risk of stroke using the standardized World Health Organization World population was associated to lower per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity (ρ=-0.661, P=0.027, R(2)=0.32) and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity (ρ=-0.623, P=0.040, R(2)=0.26). Thirty-day case-fatality rates and proportion of hemorrhagic strokes were also related to lower per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity. Moreover, stroke occurred at a younger age in populations with low per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity. There was no correlation between unemployment rates and outcome measures. Lower per capita gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity and total health expenditures per capita at purchasing power parity were associated with higher incident risk of stroke, higher case-fatality, a greater

  9. Fixation of radioactive elements on diethylene-glycol-succinate and its use for the determination of gross activity in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.B.; Nazmy, A.F.; Eldesoky, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    Studies are given to illustrate surface adsorption of 144 Ce, 90 Sr, 232 Th, 235 U, 239 Pu and 241 Am on diethylene-glycol-succinate, DGS. Adsorption of these elements was studied from aqueous and phosphate solutions. A procedure for the determination of gross activity in urine, based on surface adsorption on DGS is described. Groups of nine solutions, in 30 ml 1N HNO 3 , were spiked with the investigated radioactive elements (approximately 5 pCi). The pH of the solutions was adjusted to a range of 0.5 to 10 using ammonia. Each solution was passed through the column and the fixed activity was removed from the column with 50 ml of 4N HCl, followed by two washes with 10 ml of distilled water. The acid solution was evaporated to dryness for alpha- or beta-counting. The percentage fixation was determined by comparison with a standard source of the same spiked element. Adsorption was found to depend on pH, age of the tracer solution, hydrolysis state of the radioelement and the ionic strength of the solution. The adsorption phenomenon which was particularly well observed could be used as a separation stage in a method for the determination of gross activity in urine. Recoveries of about 85% were obtained. (T.G.)

  10. Treatment of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the current state of the art of alpha waste treatment, which is an integral part of the overall nuclear waste management system. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines alpha bearing waste as 'waste containing one or more alpha emitting radionuclides, usually actinides, in quantities above acceptable limits'. The limits are established by national regulatory bodies. The limits above which wastes are considered as alpha contaminated refer to the concentrations of alpha emitters that need special consideration for occupational exposures and/or potential safety, health, or environmental impact during one or more steps from generation through disposal. Owing to the widespread use of waste segregation by source - that is, based upon the 'suspect origin' of the material - significant volumes of waste are being handled as alpha contaminated which, in fact, do not require such consideration by reason of risk or environmental concern. The quantification of de minimis concepts by national regulatory bodies could largely contribute to the safe reduction of waste volumes and associated costs. Other factors which could significantly contribute to the reduction of alpha waste arisings are an increased application of assaying and sorting, instrumentation and the use of feedback mechanisms to control or modify the processes which generate these wastes. Alpha bearing wastes are generated during fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear fuels, decommissioning of alpha contaminated facilities, and other activities. Most alpha wastes are contact handled, but a small portion may require shielding or remote handling because of high levels of neutron (n), beta (β), or gamma (γ) emissions associated with the waste material. This report describes the sources and characteristics of alpha wastes and strategies for alpha waste management. General descriptions of treatment processes for solid and liquid alpha wastes are included. 71 refs, 14 figs, 9 tabs

  11. Bi209 alpha activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Penna, M.M. de.

    1970-01-01

    The study for measuring Bi 209 alpha activity is presented. Ilford L4 nuclear emulsion pellicles loaded with bismuth citrate to obtain a load of 100 mg/cm 3 of dry emulsion, were prepared. Other pellicles were prepared with the same. Ilford L4 gel to estimate the background radiation. To observe 'fading' effect, pellicles loaded with bismuth were submitted to neutrons of high energy, aiming to record recoil proton tracks. The pellicles were confined in nitrogen atmosphere at temperature lower than -10 0 C. The Bi 209 experimental half-life was obtained and compared with the estimated theoretical data. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Alpha-mannosidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilssen Øivind

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life, skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum, hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Alpha-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12. Diagnosis is made by measuring acid alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating

  13. The alpha effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Much of the recent interest in RAM system reliability stems from concern over alpha particle soft error rates reported for the initial 64 k RAMs. With increasing memory density likely in the next few years the problem of soft errors is rearing its head again. A few years ago ITT carried out experiments on 16k RAMs and found no significant problems. However, recent tests have shown a raise in the number of soft errors with 64k RAMs, and the launch of 256k and 512k memories is likely to make the problem acute

  14. Technical Equivalency Documentation for a Newly Acquired Alpha Spectroscopy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, D P; Fisher, S K; Hann, P R; Hume, R

    2007-01-01

    The response of a recently acquired Canberra(trademark) Alpha Analyst 'Blue' system (Chamber Number's 173-208) used by the Hazards Control, Radiation Safety Section, WBC/Spectroscopy Team has been studied with respect to an existing Canberra system. The existing Canberra system consists of thirty Alpha Analyst dual chambers Model XXXX comprising a total of sixty detectors (Chambers Number's 101-124 and 137-172). The existing chambers were previously compared to an older system consisting of thirty-six Model 7401 alpha spectrometry chambers (Chamber Number's 1-36) Chambers 101-124 and 137-172 are DOELAP accredited. The older system was previously DOELAP accredited for the routine Alpha Spectroscopy program used in LLNL's in vitro bioassay program. The newly acquired Alpha Analyst system operates on a network with software that controls and performs analysis of the current Alpha Analyst system (Chamber Number's 101-124 and 137-172). This exact same software is used for the current system and the newly acquired system and is DOELAP accredited. This document compares results from the existing Alpha System with the newer Alpha Analyst system

  15. High prevalence of alpha-thalassemia among individuals with microcytosis and hypochromia without anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borges

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the contribution of alpha-thalassemia to microcytosis and hypochromia, 339 adult outpatients seen at Unicamp University Hospital (with the exception of the Clinical Hematology outpatient clinics, who showed normal hemoglobin (Hb levels and reduced mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, were analyzed. Ninety-eight were Blacks (28.9% and 241 were Caucasians (71.1%. In all cases, Hb A2 and F levels were either normal or low. The most common deletional and nondeletional forms of alpha-thalassemia [-alpha3.7, -alpha4.2, --MED, -(alpha20.5, alphaHphIalpha, alphaNcoIalpha, aaNcoI and alphaTSAUDI] were investigated by PCR and restriction enzyme analyses. A total of 169 individuals (49.9% presented alpha-thalassemia: 145 (42.8% were heterozygous for the -alpha3.7 deletion (-alpha3.7/aa and 18 (5.3% homozygous (-alpha3.7/-alpha3.7, 5 (1.5% were heterozygous for the nondeletional form alphaHphIalpha (alphaHphIalpha/aa, and 1 (0.3% was a --MED carrier (--MED/aa. Among the Blacks, 56 (57.1% showed the -alpha3.7/aa genotype, whereas 12 (12.2% were -alpha3.7/-alpha3.7 and 1 (1.0% was an alphaHphIalpha carrier; among the Caucasians, 89 (36.9% were -alpha3.7/aa, 6 (2.5% had the -alpha3.7/-alpha3.7 genotype, 4 (1.7% presented the nondeletional form (alphaHphIalpha/aa, and 1 (0.4% was a --MED carrier. These results demonstrate that alpha-thalassemia, mainly through the -alpha3.7 deletion, is an important cause of microcytosis and hypochromia in individuals without anemia. These data are of clinical relevance since these hematological alterations are often interpreted as indicators of iron deficiency.

  16. Intravenous alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy: systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed the benefits and harms of augmentation therapy with alpha-1 antitrypsin in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and lung disease. We searched for randomised trials comparing augmentation therapy with placebo or no treatment in PubMed and ClinicalTrials (7 January 2010). Two...... (difference 1.14 g/l; 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 2.14; p = 0.03) over the total course of the trials. Augmentation therapy with alpha-1 antitrypsin cannot be recommended in view of the lack of evidence of clinical benefit and the cost of treatment....

  17. Gross morphological changes in premature and post mature human plancentae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherin, F.; Afzal, E.; Seema, N.

    2015-01-01

    Placenta is a valuable tool for maternal and foetal diseases. Gross pathological changes are seen in the placenta of many disorders of pregnancy, which are associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted with the aim to compare the morphological features of preterm, term and post term placentae in our setup. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 150 placentae: 50 were from normal (term) pregnancies considered as control (delivered between 37 to 42 weeks of gestation.), 50 from premature pregnancies (gestational age between 35-37 weeks) from mothers having hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and 50 from post mature pregnancies (gestational age more than 42 weeks). The placentae were collected from Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, through purposive sampling. Placentae were examined in the department of Anatomy, Khyber Medical College Peshawar. Results: In gross morphological features of placentae (weight and diameter) showed significant (p<0.001) among the groups Conclusion: In was concluded that the hypertensive disorders of the pregnancy adversely influence the morphology of placenta, which leads to the premature delivery. (author)

  18. Exploring the changing learning environment of the gross anatomy lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robin; Regehr, Glenn; Wilson, Timothy D

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of virtual models and prosected specimens in the context of the gross anatomy lab. In 2009, student volunteers from an undergraduate anatomy class were randomly assigned to study groups in one of three learning conditions. All groups studied the muscles of mastication and completed identical learning objectives during a 45-minute lab. All groups were provided with two reference atlases. Groups were distinguished by the type of primary tools they were provided: gross prosections, three-dimensional stereoscopic computer model, or both resources. The facilitator kept observational field notes. A prepost multiple-choice knowledge test was administered to evaluate students' learning. No significant effect of the laboratory models was demonstrated between groups on the prepost assessment of knowledge. Recurring observations included students' tendency to revert to individual memorization prior to the posttest, rotation of models to match views in the provided atlas, and dissemination of groups into smaller working units. The use of virtual lab resources seemed to influence the social context and learning environment of the anatomy lab. As computer-based learning methods are implemented and studied, they must be evaluated beyond their impact on knowledge gain to consider the effect technology has on students' social development.

  19. Leadership and professionalism curriculum in the Gross Anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlina, Wojciech; Hromanik, Michael J; Milanese, Tia R; Dierkhising, Ross; Viggiano, Thomas R; Carmichael, Stephen W

    2006-09-01

    Today's physicians must demonstrate both professionalism and leadership skills in order to succeed in largely team-based healthcare environments. The purpose of this study was to determine if professionalism attributes, leadership style, and leadership style adaptability are associated with academic performance among first-year students early in their medical curriculum. Students were divided into 4-member dissection groups for the duration of the Gross and Developmental Anatomy course. Leadership responsibility was randomly assigned to a team member on a rotating basis every 5 weeks. After each 5-week block, student performance was measured by written and practical examinations, and each student assessed their leader's or their own professionalism attributes and leadership style using validated survey instruments. Most students demonstrated either a "selling" only (57%) or "participating" only (30%) leadership style with low to moderate leadership adaptability. "Participating" and "delegating" leadership styles have the highest average group written exam scores (89.4%, P leadership styles and aspects of professionalism are associated with written and practical examination scores in the Gross and Developmental Anatomy course. Furthermore, it demonstrates that first-year medical students are in need of leadership skill development.

  20. Electricity prices and generator behaviour in gross pool electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahoney, Amy; Denny, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Electricity market liberalisation has become common practice internationally. The justification for this process has been to enhance competition in a market traditionally characterised by statutory monopolies in an attempt to reduce costs to end-users. This paper endeavours to see whether a pool market achieves this goal of increasing competition and reducing electricity prices. Here the electricity market is set up as a sealed bid second price auction. Theory predicts that such markets should result with firms bidding their marginal cost, thereby resulting in an efficient outcome and lower costs to consumers. The Irish electricity system with a gross pool market experiences among the highest electricity prices in Europe. Thus, we analyse the Irish pool system econometrically in order to test if the high electricity prices seen there are due to participants bidding outside of market rules or out of line with theory. Overall we do not find any evidence that the interaction between generator and the pool in the Irish electricity market is not efficient. Thus, the pool element of the market structure does not explain the high electricity prices experienced in Ireland. - Highlights: • We consider whether a gross pool achieves competitive behaviour. • We analyse the Irish pool system econometrically. • Results indicate the Irish pool system appears to work efficiently. • Generators appear to be bidding appropriately

  1. Liquid scintillation alpha counting and spectrometry and its application to bone and tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.; Weiss, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Three methods for determination of alpha-emitting nuclides using liquid scintillation counting are compared, and the pertinent literature is reviewed. Data showing the application of each method to the measurement of plutonium concentration in tissue and bone samples are presented. Counting with a commercial beta-liquid scintillation counter and an aqueous-phase-accepting scintillator is shown to be accurate only in cases where the alpha activity is high (several hundred counts/min or more), only gross alpha counting is desired, and beta-gamma emitters are known to be absent from the sample or present at low levels compared with the alpha activity. Counting with the same equipment and an aqueous immiscible scintillator containing an extractant for the nuclide of interest (extractive scintillator) is shown to allow better control of alpha peak shift due to quenching, a significant reduction of beta-gamma interference, and, usually, a low background. The desirability of using a multichannel pulse-height analyzer in the above two counting methods is stressed. The use of equipment and procedures designed for alpha liquid scintillation counting is shown to allow alpha spectrometry with an energy resolution capability of 200 to 300 keV full-peak-width-at-half-peak-height and a background of 0.3 to 1.0 counts/min, or as low as 0.01 counts/min if pulse-shape discrimination methods are used. Methods for preparing animal bone and tissue samples for assay are described

  2. Distribution of alpha3, alpha5 and alpha(v) integrin subunits in mature and immature human oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, G; Mart, M; Santaló, J; Bolton, V N

    1998-10-01

    The distribution of three integrin subunits, alpha3, alpha5 and alpha(v), in immature and mature human oocytes has been examined using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. The results demonstrate that both alpha5 and alpha(v) are present at the germinal vesicle stage, while alpha3 was only detected in oocytes after germinal vesicle breakdown, in metaphase I and II stage oocytes. The cortical concentration of integrin subunits alpha3 and alpha5 is consistent with their localization in the oolemma. In contrast, the homogeneous distribution of alpha(v) throughout the oocyte suggests the existence of cytoplasmic reservoirs of this protein in the oocyte.

  3. Cystic craniopharyngioma: intratumoral chemotherapy with alpha interferon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alessandra Dastoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the cystic craniopharyngiomas can be controlled with the use of intratumoral applications of interferon alpha. METHOD: Nineteen patients with the diagnosis of cystic craniopharyngioma were treated with intratumoral chemotherapy with interferon alpha from January 2002 to April 2006. All patients underwent placement of an intracystic catheter connected to an Ommaya reservoir. Through this reservoir were made applications during chemotherapy cycles. Each cycle corresponded to application of 3,000,000 units of interferon alpha three times per week on alternate days totalizing 36,000,000 units. Response to treatment was evaluated by calculating the tumor volume on MRI control after one, three and six months after the end of each cycle. Patients who developed worsening of symptoms or who had insignificant reduction in tumor volume during follow-up underwent repeat cycle chemotherapy. RESULTS: Four patients received four cycles of chemotherapy, three patients received three cycles, six patients received two cycles and six patients received one. The lower percentage of reduction in tumor volume was 60% and the bigger reduction was 98.37%. Eleven patients had a reduction greater than 90%. Five patients had a tumor reduction between 75 and 90% and in three patients the tumors were reduced by less than 75%. No deaths occurred during treatment and side effects of interferon alpha were well tolerated. No treatment was discontinued. Follow-up after the last application ranged from one year and five months to three years and nine months. CONCLUSION: The intratumoral chemotherapy with interferon alpha decreases the volume of cystic craniopharyngiomas and so far can be considered a new therapeutic alternative.

  4. Criteria for requesting specific radionuclide analysis through gross α and gross β concentration measurements in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper suggests some criteria for the decision to proceed with the analysis of specific radionuclides based on results of the determination of gross α and β concentrations in environmental samples of aerosols, water, dairy and agricultural products, soil and sediments. The samples considered are provenient from the environmental surveillance of uranium mining and milling facilities as well as the mining and processing plants of monazite sands. The radionuclides to be analysed are those considered to be the most critical to human health, that is: U-nat; Th-nat; Th-230; Ra-228; Ra-226; Po-210; Pb-210. The measured gross α and β concentrations will be compared with the Maximum Allowable Concentrations for some defined radionuclides. Radiochemical analysis of specific radionuclides may then become necessary, depending upon the results of this comparison. The main goal of the proposed guide is to simplify and to discipline the execution of environmental surveillance programs in a safe and economical way, avoiding unnecessary analysis. (author) [pt

  5. Variability of the Lyman alpha flux with solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lean, J.L.; Skumanich, A.

    1983-01-01

    A three-component model of the solar chromosphere, developed from ground based observations of the Ca II K chromospheric emission, is used to calculate the variability of the Lyman alpha flux between 1969 and 1980. The Lyman alpha flux at solar minimum is required in the model and is taken as 2.32 x 10 11 photons/cm 2 /s. This value occurred during 1975 as well as in 1976 near the commencement of solar cycle 21. The model predicts that the Lyman alpha flux increases to as much as 5 x 10 11 photons/cm 2 /s at the maximum of the solar cycle. The ratio of the average fluxes for December 1979 (cycle maximum) and July 1976 (cycle minimum) is 1.9. During solar maximum the 27-day solar rotation is shown to cause the Lyman alpha flux to vary by as much as 40% or as little as 5%. The model also shows that the Lyman alpha flux varies over intermediate time periods of 2 to 3 years, as well as over the 11-year sunspot cycle. We conclude that, unlike the sunspot number and the 10.7-cm radio flux, the Lyman alpha flux had a variability that was approximately the same during each of the past three cycles. Lyman alpha fluxes calculated by the model are consistent with measurements of the Lyman alpha flux made by 11 of a total of 14 rocket experiments conducted during the period 1969--1980. The model explains satisfactorily the absolute magnitude, long-term trends, and the cycle variability seen in the Lyman alpha irradiances by the OSO 5 satellite experiment. The 27-day variability observed by the AE-E satellite experiment is well reproduced. However, the magntidue of the AE-E 1 Lyman alpha irradiances are higher than the model calculations by between 40% and 80%. We suggest that the assumed calibration of the AE-E irradiances is in error

  6. ALPHA/AMPU, Radionuclide Radioactivity from Alpha Spectrometer Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The two computer programs, ALPHA and AMPU, take raw data obtained from alpha spectrometry and from these calculate activities and uncertainties of the radionuclides present in the sample. ALPHA determines activities of any alpha emitter in a sample that has been directly precipitated with NdF 3 . AMPU determines the Pu-239, Pu-238,and Am-241 activities using Pu-236 and Am-243 tracers. 2 - Method of solution: These programs propagate all random and systematic uncertainties, found anywhere in the experimental process, to the final result. The result is rounded and is in decimal agreement with the uncertainty. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: In ALPHA, a chemical yield of 98% is assumed

  7. Alpha wastes treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thouvenot, P.

    2000-01-01

    Alter 2004, the alpha wastes issued from the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique installations will be sent to the CEDRA plant. The aims of this installation are decontamination and wastes storage. Because of recent environmental regulations concerning ozone layer depletion, the use of CFC 113 in the decontamination unit, as previously planned, is impossible. Two alternatives processes are studied: the AVD process and an aqueous process including surfactants. Best formulations for both processes are defined issuing degreasing kinetics. It is observed that a good degreasing efficiency is linked to a good decontamination efficiency. Best results are obtained with the aqueous process. Furthermore, from the point of view of an existing waste treatment unit, the aqueous process turns out to be more suitable than the AVD process. (author)

  8. Alpha spectrometry without chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.S.; Heaton, B.

    1983-01-01

    A gridded cylindrical pulse ionization chamber is considered for the simultaneous analysis of natural alpha emitters. Solid sources of up to 0.3 g are deposited after wet grinding as a thin layer on 1.1 m 2 of aluminized plastic film, which acts as the cathode. No chemistry is involved, and thus there is little chance of nuclide fractionation. With a ''weightless'' source the resolution is about 55 keV; 110 keV has been easily achieved at 4.2 MeV with real sources. We conclude that significant information about isotope activities in the natural series is available with only a fraction of the work involved in conventional techniques. (author)

  9. The Convergent Evolution of Romania’s Gross Domestic Product in Relation to the Average Macro-Economic Result of the European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Necula

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania's economic growth is a target that can be achieved only within the accordance of all the economic sectors with the Europe 2020 Strategy. As provided in the Convergence Programme 2014-2020, this objective entails a series of steps that Romania must rigorously follow in order to be able to ensure a real converge process at the level of developed European Union (EU countries form the Euro Area. This paper aims an overview presentation of the economy synthetized in its major result, respectively in the dynamics of the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP /capita and agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP /capita, and it also compares with the level of the EU 28 average and the level of the Euro Area average. There are calculated, using linear and quadratic functions, the Gross Domestic Product GDP trends, and, with the convergence equation, there are calculated the years that separate Romania from the level of other countries, through the application of annual growth rates. The calculations result shows a strong economic boost of Romania, the annual growth rates being high, both for Gross Domestic Product (GDP / capita (US$ and for agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP/ capita (US$, but also a pretty big gap between its development level and the EU 28 and the Euro Area average level.

  10. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2 nd edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, Michael; Ura, Karma

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  12. Optimal Bilinear Control of Gross--Pitaevskii Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hintermü ller, Michael; Marahrens, Daniel; Markowich, Peter A.; Sparber, Christof

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical framework for optimal bilinear control of nonlinear Schrödinger equations of Gross--Pitaevskii type arising in the description of Bose--Einstein condensates is presented. The obtained results generalize earlier efforts found in the literature in several aspects. In particular, the cost induced by the physical workload over the control process is taken into account rather than the often used L^2- or H^1-norms for the cost of the control action. Well-posedness of the problem and existence of an optimal control are proved. In addition, the first order optimality system is rigorously derived. Also a numerical solution method is proposed, which is based on a Newton-type iteration, and used to solve several coherent quantum control problems.

  13. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  14. Labor Absorption and Its Impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ika Prastyadewi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of labor absorption in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector and its impact on Gross Regional Domestic Product/GRDP at Bali Province. This study is important due to the fact that the GRDP in this sector is the highest compared to other sector but the labor absorption is lower than the agriculture sector. This study used panel data comprising 9 regencies/cities at Bali Province in the period 2003-2009 including fixed effect model and simultaneous equation model of Two-Stage Least Square. The results showed that GRDP, working age population, and the minimum wage have positive effect on employment, while the educated unemployment has no significant effect on the employment in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector. In addition, increases in employment and workers productivity have positive and significant effects the GRDP in the trade, hotel and restaurant sector at Bali Province.

  15. Surface deposition measurements of the TMI-2 gross decontamination experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIssac, C.V.; Hetzer, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of the gross decontamination experiment (principally a water spray technique) performed in the TMI-2 reactor building, the Technical Information and Examination Program's Radiation and Environment personnel made surface activity measurements before and after the experiment. In conjunction with surface sampling, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and gamma spectrometry measurements were also performed to distinguish between radiation fields and contamination. The surface sampler used to collect samples from external surfaces within the reactor building is a milling tool having four major components: a 1.27-cm constant-speed drill; a drill support assembly that allows setting sample penetration depth; filter cartridges for intake air purification and sample collection; and an air pump that forces air across the surface being sampled and through the sample filter cartridge

  16. Recent developments for field monitoring of alpha-emitting contaminants in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlquist, A.J.; Umbarger, C.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has adapted two field methods to assess rapidly locations and concentrations of alpha-emitting contaminants in soil. (1) A ZnS scintillator is used for gross-alpha measurements on soil samples. Sample preparation and the calibration and detection limits of the system are discussed, and results of gross-alpha analysis are compared with results of a 239 Pu radiochemistry analysis. (2) A Phoswich detector is used as a field survey instrument because it can detect lower levels of radioactivity than the FIDLER probe. The electronics are carried in a truck and the probe is connected by an umbilical cord. The system electronics are calibrated with an energy window of 12-40 keV which allows detection of Pu, Am, Th (using daughter L X-rays of the alpha-emitters) and 137 Cs (using its daughter 32 keV X-rays). The bremsstrahlung from 90 Sr can also be detected. (author)

  17. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ( 211 At) and natural bismuth-212 ( 212 Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ( 223 Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs

  18. Proteinaceous alpha-araylase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    -amylase inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha...

  19. Mind Your p's and Alphas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.

    In the educational research literature alpha, the a priori level of significance, and p, the a posteriori probability of obtaining a test statistic of at least a certain value when the null hypothesis is true, are often confused. Explanations for this confusion are offered. Paradoxically, alpha retains a prominent place in textbook discussions of…

  20. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2014-01-21

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  1. The Lyman alpha reference sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Schaerer, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028

  2. Insurance - Piper Alpha ''et al''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper opens with some brief information about the Piper Alpha loss, how the loss was handled and its final cost. More importantly, it discusses the effect of the Piper Alpha loss on the world insurance market including the oil insurance captives such as O.I.L Limited. Finally, the insurance market current status and prognosis for the future are considered. (Author)

  3. Long-range alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha-particle and alpha-contamination detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity even if the particles are intercepted. Alpha detectors have had to be operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. Alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of ∼30,000 ion pairs per mega-electron-volt of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) offers several advantages over more traditional alpha detectors. First and foremost, it can operate efficiently even if the contamination is not easily accessible. Second, ions generated by contamination in crevices and other unmonitorable locations can be detected if the airflow penetrates those areas. Third, all of the contamination on a large surface will generate ions that can be detected in a single detector; hence, the detector's sensitivity to distributed sources is not limited by the size of the probe. Finally, a simple ion chamber can detect very small electric currents, making this technique potentially quite sensitive

  4. Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Gross Motor Development of Healthy Term Infants: A Randomized Dose-Response Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklow, Brandy; Gallo, Sina; Majnemer, Annette; Vanstone, Catherine; Comeau, Kathryn; Jones, Glenville; L'Abbe, Mary; Khamessan, Ali; Sharma, Atul; Weiler, Hope; Rodd, Celia

    2016-08-01

    In addition to benefits for bone health, vitamin D is implicated in muscle function in children and adults. To determine if vitamin D dosage positively correlated with gross motor development at 3 and 6 months of age. We hypothesized that higher doses would be associated with higher scores for gross motor skills. A consecutive sample of 55 healthy, term, and breastfed infants from Montreal, Canada were recruited from a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation between 2009 and 2012. Infants were randomized to 400 International Units (IU) (n = 19), 800 IU (n = 18) or 1,200 IU (n = 18) vitamin D3/day. Motor performance at 3 and 6 months was quantified by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Plasma vitamin D3 metabolites were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. AIMS scores did not differ at 3 months. However, total AIMS scores and sitting subscores were significantly higher at 6 months in infants receiving 400 IU/day compared to 800 IU/day and 1,200 IU/day groups (p gross motor achievements were significantly higher in infants receiving 400 IU/day vitamin D. Our findings also support longer infants being slightly delayed.

  5. 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors and prostatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, F H

    1994-08-01

    5 alpha-Reductase inhibitors are a new class of substances with very specific effects on type I and type II 5 alpha R which may be of use in the treatment of skin disease, such as male pattern baldness, male acne and hirsutism, as well as prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. At least two types of 5 alpha R inhibitors with a different pH optimum have been described. cDNA encoding for both the type I and the type II enzyme has been cloned. Most of the orally effective 5 alpha R inhibitors belong to the class of 4-azasteroids. The radical substituted in the 17 position of the steroid ring seems to be related to species specific variations and to the types of 5 alpha R enzymes in different species and organ systems. 5 alpha R inhibitors lead to a decrease of plasma DHT by about 65% while there is a slight rise in plasma testosterone. The decrease of tissue DHT in the ventral prostate of the intact rat, the dog and in humans is more pronounced and amounts to about 85%. There is a reciprocal rise of tissue T in these systems. The application of an inhibitor of 5 alpha R type II leads to a shrinkage of BPH in men by about 30%. In the rat a similar shrinkage accompanied by a significant decrease of total organ DNA occurs. This decrease, however, is not as pronounced as can be achieved with castration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15/prolactin-inducible protein as a biomarker for keratoconus disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Priyadarsini

    Full Text Available Keratoconus (KC is a bilateral degenerative disease of the cornea characterized by corneal bulging, stromal thinning, and scarring. The etiology of the disease is unknown. In this study, we identified a new biomarker for KC that is present in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, tear samples were collected from age-matched controls with no eye disease (n = 36 and KC diagnosed subjects (n = 17. Samples were processed for proteomics using LC-MS/MS. In vitro, cells were isolated from controls (Human Corneal Fibroblasts-HCF and KC subjects (Human Keratoconus Cells-HKC and stimulated with a Vitamin C (VitC derivative for 4 weeks, and with one of the three transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β isoforms. Samples were analyzed using real-time PCR and Western Blots. By using proteomics analysis, the Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15 or prolactin-inducible protein (PIP was found to be the best independent biomarker able to discriminate between KC and controls. The intensity of GCDFP-15/PIP was significantly higher in healthy subjects compared to KC-diagnosed. Similar findings were seen in vitro, using a 3D culture model. All three TGF-β isoforms significantly down-regulated the expression of GCDFP-15/PIP. Zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein (AZGP1, a protein that binds to PIP, was identified by proteomics and cell culture to be highly regulated. In this study by different complementary techniques we confirmed the potential role of GCDFP-15/PIP as a novel biomarker for KC disease. It is likely that exploring the GCDFP-15/PIP-AZGP1 interactions will help better understand the mechanism of KC disease.

  7. Association of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphism G-308A with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma in the Pakistani population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.I.; Micheal, S.; Rana, N.; Akhtar, F.; Hollander, A.I. den; Ahmed, A.; Qamar, R.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene polymorphism G-308A and total serum immunoglobulin E (TsIgE) levels in the onset of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG) in Pakistani patients. METHODS: The TNF-alpha polymorphism

  8. Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T.; Banyard, Harry G.; McKeown, Ian; Fransen, Job; Robertson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Talent identification (TID) is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF). This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18) AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives) and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives). Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA), consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs), single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs), and a push up (six movement criterions). Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 – 0.87; p = 0.01 – 0.02). Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE) = -0.89(0.44); p talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent identification approaches in junior AF, as it may provide coaches

  9. Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary...

  10. [The physical therapy undergraduate students' responses to the gross human anatomy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anahara, Reiko; Kawashiro, Yukiko; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Mori, Chisato; Kohno, Toshihiko

    2008-09-01

    Instruction in gross human anatomy is one of the important items in the subject for co-medical students of the physical therapist course. The physical therapy undergraduate students are required to have a solid understanding of the structure and formation of the human body. Therefore, their good-understanding of the course on the gross human anatomy and their experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory (observation practice) are acquired to improve their knowledge of the human body. To clarify the student responses to the gross human anatomy course including the gross human anatomy laboratory, several questionnaires were administered to the freshman physical therapy undergraduate student for two years. We found that more than 80% of the students, who felt a negative attitude for gross human anatomy before the course started, had a positive attitude about the gross human anatomy after going through the course. The experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory increased the students' activity of learning and they thought more about the dignity of being human after the course than before viewing. In addition, the results suggested that the multiple experiences of the gross human anatomy course are useful for the physical therapy undergraduate students to improve the quality of their understanding of the human body.

  11. Measurement of sup 15 O(. alpha. ,. gamma. ) sup 19 Ne resonance strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnus, P V; Smith, M S; Howard, A J; Parker, P D [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA). Nuclear Structure Lab.; Champagne, A E [Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1990-01-08

    States in {sup 19}Ne above the {sup 15}O+{alpha} threshold were populated by means of the {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne* reaction, and their alpha-particle decays to the {sup 15}O ground state were measured. The branching ratios {Gamma}{sub {alpha}}/{Gamma}{sub total} for the E{sub c.m.}=850-, 1020-, 1971-, 1183- and 1563-keV resonances in {sup 15}O+{alpha} were determined. This information together with alpha-particle and/or gamma-ray partial widths (determined from knowledge of these quantities for the mirror states in {sup 19}F) determines the strengths of these {sup 15}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 19}Ne resonances and the {sup 15}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 19}Ne reaction rate for temperatures between 7x10{sup 8} and 3x10{sup 9} K. (orig.).

  12. ALPHA freezes antiprotons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Laboratories like CERN can routinely produce many different types of antiparticles. In 1995, the PS210 experiment formed the first antihydrogen atoms and a few years later, in 2002, ATRAP and ATHENA were already able to produce several thousand of them. However, no experiment in the world has succeeded in ‘trapping’ these anti-atoms in order to study them. This is the goal of the ALPHA experiment, which has recently managed to cool down the antiprotons to just a few Kelvin. This represents a major step towards trapping the anti-atom, thus opening a new avenue into the investigation of antimatter properties.   Members of the ALPHA collaboration working on the apparatus in the Antiproton Decelerator experimental hall at CERN. Just like the atom, the anti-atom is neutral. Unlike the atom, the anti-atom is made up of antiprotons (as opposed to protons in the atom) and positrons (as opposed to electrons). In order to thoroughly study the properties of the anti-atoms, scien...

  13. Penetration of HEPA filters by alpha recoil aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.; Ryan, M.T.

    1976-01-01

    The self-scattering of alpha-active substances has long been recognized and is attributed to expulsion of aggregates of atoms from the surface of alpha-active materials by alpha emission recoil energy, and perhaps to further propulsion of these aggregates by subsequent alpha recoils. Workers at the University of Lowell recently predicted that this phenomenon might affect the retention of alpha-active particulate matter by HEPA filters, and found support in experiments with 212 Pb. Tests at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have confirmed that alpha-emitting particulate matter does penetrate high-efficiency filter media, such as that used in HEPA filters, much more effectively than do non-radioactive or beta-gamma active aerosols. Filter retention efficiencies drastically lower than the 99.9 percent quoted for ordinary particulate matter were observed with 212 Pb, 253 Es, and 238 Pu sources, indicating that the phenomenon is common to all of these and probably to all alpha-emitting materials of appropriate half-life. Results with controlled air-flow through filters in series are consistent with the picture of small particles dislodged from the ''massive'' surface of an alpha-active material, and then repeatedly dislodged from positions on the filter fibers by subsequent alpha recoils. The process shows only a small dependence on the physical form of the source material. Oxide dust, nitrate salt, and plated metal all seem to generate the recoil particles effectively. The amount penetrating a series of filters depends on the total amount of activity in the source material, its specific activity, and the length of time of air flow

  14. Suitability of faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) predictions for estimating gross calorific value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Roza-Delgado, B.; Modroño, S.; Vicente, F.; Martínez-Fernández, A.; Soldado, A.

    2015-07-01

    A total of 220 faecal pig and poultry samples, collected from different experimental trials were employed with the aim to demonstrate the suitability of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) technology for estimation of gross calorific value on faeces as output products in energy balances studies. NIR spectra from dried and grounded faeces samples were analyzed using a Foss NIRSystem 6500 instrument, scanning over the wavelength range 400-2500 nm. Validation studies for quantitative analytical models were carried out to estimate the relevance of method performance associated to reference values to obtain an appropriate, accuracy and precision. The results for prediction of gross calorific value (GCV) of NIRS calibrations obtained for individual species showed high correlation coefficients comparing chemical analysis and NIRS predictions, ranged from 0.92 to 0.97 for poultry and pig. For external validation, the ratio between the standard error of cross validation (SECV) and the standard error of prediction (SEP) varied between 0.73 and 0.86 for poultry and pig respectively, indicating a sufficiently precision of calibrations. In addition a global model to estimate GCV in both species was developed and externally validated. It showed correlation coefficients of 0.99 for calibration, 0.98 for cross-validation and 0.97 for external validation. Finally, relative uncertainty was calculated for NIRS developed prediction models with the final value when applying individual NIRS species model of 1.3% and 1.5% for NIRS global prediction. This study suggests that NIRS is a suitable and accurate method for the determination of GCV in faeces, decreasing cost, timeless and for convenient handling of unpleasant samples.. (Author)

  15. Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl T. Woods, Harry G. Banyard, Ian McKeown, Job Fransen, Sam Robertson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Talent identification (TID is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF. This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18 AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives. Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA, consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs, single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs, and a push up (six movement criterions. Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 – 0.87; p = 0.01 – 0.02. Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE = -0.89(0.44; p < 0.05, with a score of 4.5 classifying 64% and 88% of the talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent

  16. Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Banyard, Harry G; McKeown, Ian; Fransen, Job; Robertson, Sam

    2016-09-01

    Talent identification (TID) is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF). This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18) AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives) and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives). Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA), consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs), single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs), and a push up (six movement criterions). Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 - 0.87; p = 0.01 - 0.02). Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE) = -0.89(0.44); p talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent identification approaches in junior AF, as it may provide coaches with

  17. The evaluation of the real alpha value in Brazil and its projection until the year 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Clarice F.; Ghobril, Carlos N.; Sordi, Gian Maria; Sahyun, Adelia

    2017-01-01

    When a cost-benefit analysis is applied to the optimization of practices involving radiation protection, the alpha value is used to determine the amount of money required to be invested in a practice to minimize radiation doses to acceptable levels. The alpha value is often linked to the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, so the monetary reference value of person-Sievert can often be different in each country. Evaluation of the alpha value in Brazil was performed in 1993 and 2000 making use of the procedure advised by ICRP to produce projections up to 2015 and subsequently in 2004 by using the procedure recommended by the IAEA. This paper, in response to the social and economic situation in Brazil, calculates the alpha value and compares it with the projections of the 1993 and 2000 papers and includes a dollar correction to take account of the differences in the purchasing power from that time. This procedure illustrates the significant gap of value in use and that the actual value should be two to three times higher. By GDP per capita, the authors could calculate the alpha value updated to various countries including the European Union and compare them with the official value currently in use. In conclusion, it is believed that all countries that adopt an alpha value should upgrade it to the present day. (authors)

  18. Contribution to the calculation of the alpha value in the study of optimization on radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Clarice de Freitas Acosta

    2007-01-01

    The Alpha value is an extremely important criterion because it determines the time that each country takes to reach its proposals to decrease the doses to workers involved with ionizing radiation sources. Presently, countries adopt a single value for alpha based in the annual gross national product, GNP, per capita. The aim of this paper is to show that it should be more efficient the selection of a curve for alpha in place of a single value. This curve, in its turn, should allow an alpha value that would be constraint to the greatest individual doses present in each optimization process, applied to design and operation. These maximum individual doses should represent the dose distribution between the workers team. To build the curve, alpha values suggested will not be based on the GNP per capita but on a distribution function of the maximum individual doses and on the time necessary to reach the goal of 1/10 of the annual dose limit, that is, to reach the region where the individual doses are considered acceptable. This new alpha value approach solves several problems risen by the present methodology, among which we emphasize: a) It can be accomplished only one optimization for each radiological protection option set; b) each country may have different constraints limits that can create serious problems in the international interchange; c) it avoids the possibility to calculate the probable death rate due to the collective dose. This type of calculation is undesirable to international organization. (author)

  19. Method validation for simultaneous counting of Total α , β in Drinking Water using Liquid Scintillation Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, Method Validation Methods and Pulse Shape Analysis were validated to determine gross Alpha and Beta Emitters in Drinking Water using Liquid Scintillation Counter Win spectral 1414. Validation parameters include Method Detection Limit, Method Quantitation Limit, Repeatability Limit, Intermediate Precision, Trueness) Bias), Recovery Coefficient, Linearity and Uncertainty Budget in analysis. The results show that the Method Detection Limit and Method Quantitation Limit were 0.07, 0.24 Bq/l for Alpha emitters respectively, and 0.42, 1.4 Bq/l for Beta emitters, respectively. The relative standard deviation of Repeatability Limit reached 2.81% for Alpha emitters and 3.96% for Beta emitters. In addition to, the relative standard deviation of Intermediate Precisionis was 0.54% for Alpha emitters and 1.17% for Beta emitters. Moreover, the trueness was - 7.7% for Alpha emitters and - 4.5% for Beta emitters. Recovery Coefficient ranged between 87 - 96% and 88-101 for Alpha and Beta emitters, respectively. Linearity reached 1 for both Alpha and Beta emitters. on the other hand, Uncertainty Budget for all continents was 96.65% ,83.14% for Alpha and Beta emitters, respectively (author).

  20. Alpha detection on moving surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.; Orr, C.; Luff, C.

    1998-01-01

    Both environmental restoration (ER) and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) require characterization of large surface areas (walls, floors, in situ soil, soil and rubble on a conveyor belt, etc.) for radioactive contamination. Many facilities which have processed alpha active material such as plutonium or uranium require effective and efficient characterization for alpha contamination. Traditional methods for alpha surface characterization are limited by the short range and poor penetration of alpha particles. These probes are only sensitive to contamination located directly under the probe. Furthermore, the probe must be held close to the surface to be monitored in order to avoid excessive losses in the ambient air. The combination of proximity and thin detector windows can easily cause instrument damage unless extreme care is taken. The long-range alpha detection (LRAD) system addresses these problems by detecting the ions generated by alpha particles interacting with ambient air rather than the alpha particle directly. Thus, detectors based on LRAD overcome the limitations due to alpha particle range (the ions can travel many meters as opposed to the several-centimeter alpha particle range) and penetrating ability (an LRAD-based detector has no window). Unfortunately, all LRAD-based detectors described previously are static devices, i.e., these detectors cannot be used over surfaces which are continuously moving. In this paper, the authors report on the first tests of two techniques (the electrostatic ion seal and the gridded electrostatic LRAD detector) which extend the capabilities of LRAD surface monitors to use over moving surfaces. This dynamic surface monitoring system was developed jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and at BNFL Instruments. All testing was performed at the BNFL Instruments facility in the UK

  1. Alpha-emitting isotopes and chromium in a coastal California aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Izbicki, John A.; Murtaugh, Joseph M.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    The unadjusted 72-h gross alpha activities in water from two wells completed in marine and alluvial deposits in a coastal southern California aquifer 40 km north of San Diego were 15 and 25 picoCuries per liter (pCi/L). Although activities were below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 15 pCi/L, when adjusted for uranium activity; there is concern that new wells in the area may exceed MCLs, or that future regulations may limit water use from the wells. Coupled well-bore flow and depth-dependent water-quality data collected from the wells in 2011 (with analyses for isotopes within the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay-chains) show gross alpha activity in marine deposits is associated with decay of naturally-occurring 238U and its daughter 234U. Radon activities in marine deposits were as high as 2230 pCi/L. In contrast, gross alpha activities in overlying alluvium within the Piedra de Lumbre watershed, eroded from the nearby San Onofre Hills, were associated with decay of 232Th, including its daughter 224Ra. Radon activities in alluvium from Piedra de Lumbre of 450 pCi/L were lower than in marine deposits. Chromium VI concentrations in marine deposits were less than the California MCL of 10 μg/L (effective July 1, 2014) but δ53Cr compositions were near zero and within reported ranges for anthropogenic chromium. Alluvial deposits from the nearby Las Flores watershed, which drains a larger area having diverse geology, has low alpha activities and chromium as a result of geologic and geochemical conditions and may be more promising for future water-supply development.

  2. Radon compensation for alpha air monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.M.; Rising, F.L.; Zuerner, L.V.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous alpha air monitors, employing solid state detectors and single channel analyzers, for the detection of alpha particles of a specific energy have been available commercially for several years. The single channel pulse height analyzers provide good sensitivity to the isotope of interest and reject much of the unwanted activity from other isotopes such as naturally occurring radon and daughters. A small percentage of the radon daughters are degraded in energy by the air between the collecting filter and the diode to the extent that they coincide with energy of the isotope being measured and are counted as unwanted background. When 239 Pu is the isotope being measured the activity in the Pu channel resulting from radon is typically 2 percent of the total radon background. The majority of this unwanted background results from the degradation of the 6.0 MeV 218 Po (RaA) peak. This background is sufficient to cause instrument alarms during periods of radon activity. In attempts to reduce the frequency of false alarms, background subtraction circuits have been added as standard equipment to most of the alpha air monitors available on the market for the past several years. A method for calibrating these background subtraction circuits using a radon generator is described. (U.S.)

  3. Alpha heating in toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Ignition (or near-ignition) by alpha heating is a key objective for the achievement of economic fusion reactors. While good confinement of high-energy alphas appears possible in larger reactors, near-term tokamak-type ignition experiments as well as some concepts for small reactors (e.g., the Field-Reversed Mirror or FRM) potentially face marginal situations. Consequently, there is a strong motivation to develop methods to evaluate alpha losses and heating profiles in some detail. Such studies for a TFTR-size tokamak and for a small FRM are described here

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of equine assisted activities and therapies on gross motor outcome in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Sung-Hui; Chen, Hung-Chou; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the literature on the efficacy of equine assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) on gross motor outcomes representing the ICF component of body functions and activity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies of hippotherapy (HPOT) and therapeutic horseback riding (TR) for children with spastic CP. Gross motor outcomes, assessed via muscle activity and muscle tone, gait, posture and Gross Motor Function Measures (GMFM) were evaluated. Five TR studies and nine HPOT studies were included. Our meta-analysis indicated that short-term HPOT (total riding time 8-10 min) significantly reduced asymmetrical activity of the hip adductor muscles. HPOT could improve postural control in children with spastic CP, GMFCS level < 5. However, the evidence did not show a statistically significant effect on GMFM after long-term HPOT or TR (total riding time, 8-22 h) in children with spastic CP. This systematic review found insufficient evidence to support the claim that long-term TR or HPOT provide a significant benefit to children with spastic CP. We found no statistically significant evidence of either therapeutic effect or maintenance effects on the gross motor activity status in CP children.

  5. Emphysematous cystitis: a rare cause of gross hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chirn-Bin; Chang, Chia-Chu

    2011-05-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a relatively rare infectious condition of the urinary bladder. The mortality rate is high if the diagnosis is delayed or if the treatment is inadequate. We present an uncommon case of emphysematous cystitis and highlight the risk factors for this disease. An 81-year-old man with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes and a central pontine infarction presented to the Emergency Department due to gross hematuria. Computed tomography (CT) and plain radiography revealed localized gas within the bladder that was compatible with the diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. A Foley catheter was inserted. Urine culture grew Klebsiella pneumoniae; 2 g cefotaxime daily was initiated. Subsequent plain radiography and CT scan showed regression of intraluminal gas. We recommend CT for the definitive diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. Adequate antibiotic therapy, strict blood glucose control, adequate drainage of urine, and early goal-directed therapy for suspected sepsis are suggested to prevent the complications of emphysematous cystitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Hospital costs estimation by micro and gross-costing approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerre, P; Hayes, N; Bertaux, A-C

    2018-03-01

    Cost analysis has become increasingly commonplace in healthcare facilities in recent years. Regardless of the aim, the first consideration for a hospital costing process is to determine the point of view, or perspective, to adopt. Should the cost figures reflect the healthcare facility's point of view or enlighten perspectives for the public health insurance system? Another consideration is in regard to the method to adopt, as there are several. The two most widely used methods to determine the costs of hospital treatments in France are the micro-costing method and the gross-costing method. The aims of this work are: (1) to describe each of these methods (e.g. data collection, assignment of monetary value to resource consumption) with their advantages and shortcomings as they relate to the difficulties encountered with their implementation in hospitals; (2) to present a review of the literature comparing the two methods and their possible combination; and (3) to propose ways to address the questions that need to be asked before compiling resource consumption data and assigning monetary value to hospital costs. A final diagram summarizes methodologies to be preferred according to the evaluation strategy and the impact on patient care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  8. Gross congenital malformation at birth in a government hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Sandeep; Nanda, Smiti; Bhalla, Kapil; Sachdeva, Ruchi

    2014-01-01

    A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine proportion of gross congenital malformation (GCMF) occurring at intramural births. Rate of GCMF was found to be 16.4/1000 consecutive singleton births (>28 weeks) with three leading malformation as anencephaly (44.68%), talipes equinovarus (17.02%) and meningomyelocele (10.63%). Higher risk of malformed births were noticed amongst un-booked (2.07%) in-comparison to booked (1.01%) mothers; women with low level of education (up to 8 years [2.14%] vs. at least 9 years of schooling [0.82%]); gravida status of at least 3 (2.69%) followed by 1 (1.43%) and 2 (1.0%) respectively; pre-term (5.13%) vs. term (0.66%); cesarean section (4.36%) versus vaginal delivery (0.62%). Mortality was significantly higher among congenitally malformed (17.35%) than normal (0.34%) newborns. With-in study limitation, emergence of neural tube defect as the single largest category of congenital malformation indicates maternal malnutrition (especially folic acid) that needs appropriate attention and management.

  9. The gross anatomy of the renal sympathetic nerves revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mompeo, Blanca; Maranillo, Eva; Garcia-Touchard, Arturo; Larkin, Theresa; Sanudo, Jose

    2016-07-01

    Catheter-based renal denervation techniques focus on reducing blood pressure in resistant hypertension. This procedure requires exact knowledge of the anatomical interrelation between the renal arteries and the targeted renal nervous plexus. The aim of this work was to build on classical anatomical studies and describe the gross anatomy and anatomical relationships of the renal arteries and nerve supply to the kidneys in a sample of human cadavers. Twelve human cadavers (six males and six females), age range 73 to 94 years, were dissected. The nervous fibers and renal arteries were dissected using a surgical microscope. The renal plexus along the hilar renal artery comprised a fiber-ganglionic ring surrounding the proximal third of the renal artery, a neural network along the middle and distal thirds, and smaller accessory ganglia along the course of the nerve fibers. The fibers of the neural network were mainly located on the superior (95.83%) and inferior (91.66%) surfaces of the renal artery and they were sparsely interconnected by diagonal fibers. Polar arteries were present in 33.33% of cases and the renal nerve pattern for these was similar to that of the hilar arteries. Effective renal denervation needs to target the superior and inferior surfaces of the hilar and polar arteries, where the fibers of the neural network are present. Clin. Anat. 29:660-664, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Contribution of clinical trials to gross domestic product in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Antal, János; Pénzes, Miklós; Pozsgay, Csilla; Szepezdi, Zsuzsanna; Nagyjánosi, László

    2014-10-01

    To determine the contribution of clinical trials to the gross domestic product (GDP) in Hungary. An anonymous survey of pharmaceutical companies and clinical research organizations (CROs) was conducted to estimate their clinical trial-related employment and revenues. Clinical trial documents at the National Institute of Pharmacy (NIP) were analyzed to estimate trial-related revenues at health care institutions and the value of investigational medical products (IMPs) based on avoided drug costs. Financial benefits were calculated as 2010 US $ purchasing power parity (PPP) values. Clinical trials increased the revenue of Hungarian health care providers by 1 US $65.6 million. The value of IMPs was US $67.0 million. Clinical trial operation and management activities generated 900 jobs and US $166.9 million in revenue among CROs and pharmaceutical companies. The contribution of clinical trials to the Hungarian GDP in 2010 amounted to 0.2%. Participation in international clinical trials may result in health, financial, and intangible benefits that contribute to the sustainability of health care systems, especially in countries with severe resource constraints. Although a conservative approach was employed to estimate the economic benefits of clinical trials, further research is necessary to improve the generalizability of our findings.

  11. Regge poles and alpha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuleneer, R.

    1974-01-01

    The direct Regge pole model as a means of describing resonances in elastic particle scattering has been used for the analysis of the so-called ''anormalous large angle scattering'' of alpha particles by spinless nuclei. (Z.M.)

  12. Global determination of alpha emitters (241Am, 237Np, 239Pu, 232Th) in biological media (urine and feces)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataller, Georges; Vasson, Olivier de; Bazin, Roger; Bonnard, Danielle; Morello, Marcel.

    1979-01-01

    A technique is described in this paper which permits the determination of the gross alpha activity emitted by a mixture of specially radiotoxic elements in urine and feces. After reduction and adjustment of the solution at pH 5,0, the radionuclides are adsorbed on glass marbles. The elution is made in acid medium (HCl 6N). Under these conditions the chemical yields are very satisfying: 96+-6% for urine and 68+-9% for feces. In case of significant results at the end of the manipulation, the radioactive source quality is sufficient to allow the identification of the contaminating radionuclide(s) by alpha spectrometry [fr

  13. Cardiac Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors: Novel Aspects of Expression, Signaling Mechanisms, Physiologic Function, and Clinical Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Timothy D.; Jensen, Brian C.; Baker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors (AR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have a crucial role in cardiac physiology in health and disease. Alpha1-ARs signal through Gαq, and signaling through Gq, for example, by endothelin and angiotensin receptors, is thought to be detrimental to the heart. In contrast, cardiac alpha1-ARs mediate important protective and adaptive functions in the heart, although alpha1-ARs are only a minor fraction of total cardiac ARs. Cardiac alpha1-ARs activate pleiotropic downstream signaling to prevent pathologic remodeling in heart failure. Mechanisms defined in animal and cell models include activation of adaptive hypertrophy, prevention of cardiac myocyte death, augmentation of contractility, and induction of ischemic preconditioning. Surprisingly, at the molecular level, alpha1-ARs localize to and signal at the nucleus in cardiac myocytes, and, unlike most GPCRs, activate “inside-out” signaling to cause cardioprotection. Contrary to past opinion, human cardiac alpha1-AR expression is similar to that in the mouse, where alpha1-AR effects are seen most convincingly in knockout models. Human clinical studies show that alpha1-blockade worsens heart failure in hypertension and does not improve outcomes in heart failure, implying a cardioprotective role for human alpha1-ARs. In summary, these findings identify novel functional and mechanistic aspects of cardiac alpha1-AR function and suggest that activation of cardiac alpha1-AR might be a viable therapeutic strategy in heart failure. PMID:24368739

  14. Modeling of the Gross Regional Product on the Basis of Production Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovin, Nikolay S.; Kokotkina, Tatiana N.; Barkalova, Tatiana G.; Tsaregorodsev, Evgeny I.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to elaboration and construction of a static model of macroeconomics in which economics is considered as an unstructured holistic unit, the input of which receives the resources, and the output is the result of the functioning of economics in the form of gross domestic product or gross regional product. Resources are…

  15. 26 CFR 41.4482(b)-1 - Definition of taxable gross weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(b)-1 Definition of taxable gross weight. (a) Actual unloaded weight—(1) In... general. The taxable gross weight of a highway motor vehicle is the sum of the actual unloaded weight of the vehicle fully equipped for service, the actual unloaded weight of any semitrailers or trailers...

  16. 26 CFR 1.804-3 - Gross investment income of a life insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross investment income of a life insurance company. 1.804-3 Section 1.804-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Investment Income § 1.804-3 Gross investment income of a life...

  17. Fixed Point of Generalized Eventual Cyclic Gross in Fuzzy Norm Spaces for Contractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. Mohsenialhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We define generalized eventual cyclic gross contractive mapping in fuzzy norm spaces, which is a generalization of the eventual cyclic gross contractions. Also we prove the existence of a fixed point for this type of contractive mapping on fuzzy norm spaces.

  18. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  19. Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined

  20. Are Gross Motor Skills and Sports Participation Related in Children with Intellectual Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 less than or equal to IQ greater than or equal to 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in…

  1. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  2. 26 CFR 1.1332-1 - Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inclusion in gross income of war loss recoveries. 1.1332-1 Section 1.1332-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1332-1 Inclusion in gross income of...

  3. Tomato juices and tomato juice concentrates : a study of factors contributing to their gross viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, R.

    1986-01-01

    The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the

  4. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  5. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the reliability of the instrument. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM): a validity study of the Dutch translation focusses on the responsiveness of

  6. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  7. Trained, Generalized, and Collateral Behavior Changes of Preschool Children Receiving Gross-Motor Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Holborn, Stephen W.

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Results indicated that the program improved the 10 targeted gross-motor skills and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. The program did not produce changes in fine-motor skills or social behaviors. Implications are…

  8. De Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): een onderzoek naar de responsiviteit van de Nederlandse vertaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Ketelaar, M.; Petegem-van Beek, E. van; Vermeer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is about the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch translation of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). It describes the responsiveness to change. The article "Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM): a reliability study of the Dutch translation" focuses on the reliability of the

  9. The Performance of Fundamental Gross Motor Skills by Children Enrolled in Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Rebecca J.; Yun, Joonkoo

    2001-01-01

    This study sought to descriptively evaluate the performance of fundamental gross motor skills among Head Start children. Levels of performance were compared and contrasted with performance profiles of the Test of Gross Motor Development. Findings suggest that Head Start curriculum should focus on the importance of developing fundamental gross…

  10. Gross-Motor Skill Acquisition by Preschool Dance Students under Self-Instruction Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintere, Parsla; Hemmes, Nancy S.; Brown, Bruce L.; Poulson, Claire L.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two training procedures -- (a) modeling and praise and (b) self-instruction, modeling, and praise -- on complex gross-motor chain acquisition for preschool dance class students were evaluated. Six girls participated in the study. A multiple baseline design across six gross-motor chains with a secondary group comparison for treatment…

  11. 25 CFR 215.21 - Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. 215.21... ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.21 Payment of gross production tax on lead and zinc. The superintendent of the Quapaw Indian Agency is hereby authorized and directed to pay at the...

  12. Interrater reliability assessment using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Minto, Christine; Lander, Natalie; Hardy, Louise L

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to examine interrater reliability of the object control subtest from the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 by live observation in a school field setting. Reliability Study--cross sectional. Raters were rated on their ability to agree on (1) the raw total for the six object control skills; (2) each skill performance and (3) the skill components. Agreement for the object control subtest and the individual skills was assessed by an intraclass correlation (ICC) and a kappa statistic assessed for skill component agreement. A total of 37 children (65% girls) aged 4-8 years (M = 6.2, SD = 0.8) were assessed in six skills by two raters; equating to 222 skill tests. Interrater reliability was excellent for the object control subset (ICC = 0.93), and for individual skills, highest for the dribble (ICC = 0.94) followed by strike (ICC = 0.85), overhand throw (ICC = 0.84), underhand roll (ICC = 0.82), kick (ICC = 0.80) and the catch (ICC = 0.71). The strike and the throw had more components with less agreement. Even though the overall subtest score and individual skill agreement was good, some skill components had lower agreement, suggesting these may be more problematic to assess. This may mean some skill components need to be specified differently in order to improve component reliability. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Global Dental Research Productivity and Its Association With Human Development, Gross National Income, and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Rampa, Sankeerth; Nalliah, Romesh P; Elangovan, Satheesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the associations between country level factors (such as human development, economic productivity, and political stability) and their dental research productivity. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of bibliometric data from Scopus search engine. Human Development Index (HDI), Gross National Income per capita (GNI), and Failed State Index measures were the independent variables. Outcomes were "Total number of publications (articles or articles in press) in the field of dentistry" and "Total number of publications in the field of dentistry per million population." Non-parametric tests were used to examine the association between the independent and outcome variables. During the year 2013, a total of 11,952 dental research articles were published across the world. The top 5 publishing countries were United States, Brazil, India, Japan, and United Kingdom. "Very High" HDI countries had significantly higher number of total dental research articles and dental research articles per million population when compared to the "High HDI," "Medium HDI," and "Low HDI" countries (p < 0.0001). There was a significant linear relationship between the GNI quartile income levels and outcome metrics (p ≤ 0.007). Countries which were highly politically stable were associated with significantly higher dental research productivity (p < 0.0001). There appears to be a regional concentration of articles with just five countries contributing to over 50% of all articles. The human development and economic development of a country are linearly correlated with dental research productivity. Dental research productivity also increases with increasing political stability of a country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Classification of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Kenny, B.; Schwinn, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Two alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha 1A and alpha 1B) have been detected in various tissues by pharmacological techniques, and three distinct cDNAs encoding alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes have been cloned. The profile of an increasing number of subtype-selective compounds at cloned and endogenous

  15. Nuclear medium effects in the evaluation of Callan Gross relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, F.; Haider, H.; Athar, M. Sajjad; Singh, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    JLab has recently measured F 1 (x) and F 2 (x) structure functions separately as well as studied the difference F 2 (x) - 2 xF 1 (x) (Callan-Gross relation) using electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in the energy region of 2-6 GeV of the electron beam. Theoretically, it is important to understand nuclear medium effects for a fundamental process eN → eX (N is the nucleon and X is jet of hadrons) taking place with a nucleon bound inside the nucleus. Generally, nuclear medium effects in the DIS region are understood due to shadowing and antishadowing effects, mesonic cloud contributions, Fermi motion and binding energy etc. In the present paper we have studied nuclear medium effects in microscopic model using relativistic nucleon spectral function to describe nucleon momentum distribution. The Fermi motion, binding energy effect and nucleon-nucleon correlations are taken into account using spectral functions. The spectral functions that describe energy and momentum distribution of nucleon is obtained by using the Lehmann's representation for the relativistic nucleon propagator and nuclear many body theory is used to calculate it for an interacting Fermi sea in nuclear matter. A local density approximation is then applied to translate these results to a finite nucleus. We have taken into account pion and rho mesons cloud contributions which are found to have important contribution in the intermediate region of Bjorken variable x. Furthermore, shadowing and antishadowing effects are also taken into account using phenomenological model of Kulagin and Petti. Numerical evaluation have been performed both at the leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO)

  16. MRI and gross anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polster, Joshua M.; Lee, Ho; Klika, Alison; Barsoum, Wael; Drake, Richard; Elgabaly, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to explain the anatomic basis of a longitudinal cleft of increased signal in the iliopsoas tendon seen on hip MR arthrograms. A prospective review of 20 MR hip arthrograms was performed using standard and fat-suppressed T1-weighted images to establish whether or not the cleft was composed of fatty tissue and to define the anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex. Three cadaver dissections of the hip region were then performed for anatomic correlation. Fourteen out of 20 MR hip arthrograms demonstrated a longitudinal cleft of increased T1 signal adjacent to the iliopsoas tendon, which suppressed on frequency selective fat-suppressed images, indicating fatty composition. Gross anatomic correlation demonstrated this fatty cleft to represent a fascial plane adjacent to the iliopsoas tendon, in one case separating the iliopsoas tendon medially from a thin intramuscular tendon within the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle. Also noted was a direct muscular insertion of the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle onto the anterior portion of the proximal femoral diaphysis in all 3 cadavers. The anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex is more complicated than typically illustrated and includes the iliopsoas tendon itself attaching to the lesser trochanter, the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle attaching directly upon the anterior portion of the proximal femoral diaphysis, and a thin intramuscular tendon within this lateral iliacus muscle that is separated from the iliopsoas tendon by a cleft of fatty fascia that accounts for the MRI findings of a cleft of increased T1 signal. (orig.)

  17. Alpha-contaminated waste from reprocessing of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, W.

    1982-01-01

    The anticipated alpha-waste production rates from the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing plant is discussed. The estimated alpha-waste production rate from the 1500 metric ton/year plant is about 85,000 ft 3 /year at the 10 nCi/g limit. Most of this waste is estimated to come from the separation facility, and the major waste sources were cladding, which was 27%, and low-level contact-handled general process trash, which was estimated at 32% of the total. It was estimated that 45% of the waste was combustible and 72% of the waste was compactible. These characteristics could have a significant impact on the final volumes as disposed. Changing the alpha-waste limit from 10 nCi/g to 100 nCi/g was estimated to reduce the amount of alpha waste produced by about 20%. Again, the uncertainty in this value obviously has to be substantial. One has to recognize that these estimates were just that; they were not based on any operating experience. The total plutonium losses to waste, including the high-level waste, was estimated to be 1.5%. The cladding waste was estimated to be contaminated with alpha emitters to the extent of 10 4 to 10 5 nCi/g

  18. A new family of Fisher-curves estimates Fisher's alpha more accurately

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, R.P.O.; Lantinga, E.A.; Hawkins, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Fisher's alpha is a satisfactory scale-independent indicator of biodiversity. However, alpha may be underestimated in communities in which the spatial arrangement of individuals is strongly clustered, or in which the total number of species does not tend to infinity. We have extended Fisher's curve

  19. Off-label use of TNF-alpha inhibitors in a dermatological university department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Freja Lærke; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-01-01

    (four), Sweet's syndrome (four), Well's syndrome (one), benign familial pemphigus (one), lichen planus (one), and folliculitis decalvans (one). A significant number of these patients went into remission during therapy with TNF-alpha inhibitors. A total of 11 patients (9%) experienced severe adverse......-alpha inhibitors for these conditions....

  20. Alpha radiation gauge for the measurement of gas density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lech, M.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha gauge for the measurement of gas density with thick alfa source, has been developed. The gauge is based on radiation transmission through a space filled with gas and total-count principle. Air density can be measured in the range 1,2 - 1,27 kg m -3 with a maximum standard deviation of 2 x 10 -3 kg m -3 . (author)

  1. Triplet states at an O vacancy in alpha-quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The energy landscape of an alpha-quartz O vacancy in the lowest triplet state is investigated. Four local minima are identified and geometries, total energies, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameters are obtained. On the basis of calculated values for the magnetic dipole interaction...

  2. Investigation of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in (alpha, alpha 'gamma) coincidence experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savran, D.; Babilon, M.; van den Berg, A. M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hasper, J.; Wortche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2007-01-01

    We report on first results from experiments using the (alpha, alpha'gamma) reaction at E alpha = 136 MeV to investigate bound electric dipole (El) excitations building the so-called Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in the semi-magic nucleus Ce-140. The method of (alpha, alpha'gamma) allows the

  3. [Prevalence survey and molecular characterization of alpha and beta thalassemia in Liuzhou city of Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ren; Li, Liyan; Liang, Xin; Liu, Zhongying; Su, Liu; Li, Wenjun; Zhu, Qiangui; Mo, Qiuhua; Pan, Lizhen; Ouyang, Hong; Huang, Lihua; Xu, Xiangmin

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the gene frequencies and mutation patterns of alpha thalassemia (alpha-thal) and beta thalassemia (beta-thal) in Liuzhou city of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Cluster sampling was used. A total of 1 028 of umbilical blood samples were collected for a prevalence study of alpha-thal and a total of 1 312 healthy young people when receiving pre-marriage consultation were recruited for a beta-thal prevalence survey. Individuals live in city or town area of Liuzhou. A complete blood count as well as hemoglobin electrophoresis analysis were done in all of samples for phenotyping of alpha and beta-thals. Those with Hb Bart's for alpha-thal indicator and those with both microcytosis (MCV /=4.0%) for beta-thal were further studied by DNA analysis. PCR-based methodologies were used to characterize the mutation contributions of alpha and beta-thals. All the subjects were tested for the state of carrying beta-thala alleles for evaluating the situation of the compound heterozygotes of alpha-thal with beta-thal. Of 1 028 random samples of umbilical blood screened, 112 of subjects were defined to be the gene carriers of alpha-thal. The alpha-thal carrier rate was as high as 11.19% including 3 compound heterozygotes. Five well-known types of alpha-thal alleles were detected with gene contributions of 37.4% (--(SEA) deletion), 31.3% (-alpha(3.7) deletion), 17.4% (-alpha(4.2) deletion), 12.1% (alpha(CS)alpha mutation), and 0.9% (alpha(QS)alpha mutation), successively. Of the 1 312 adult specimens studied, 89 with beta-thal including 14 of the compound higher Hb F subjects were detected. All of the 89 phenotypic beta-thal carriers had the mutations in the beta-globin gene, making the overall prevalence 6.78%. The commonly seen three mutations, beta CD41 - 42 (-CTTT) frameshift, beta CD17 (T-A) nonsense mutation and beta-28 (A-G) promoter variation were accounted for 90% of the beta-thal alleles in Liuzhou. Of these beta-thal subjects, 16 (accounting for 18%) were

  4. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethke, Siegfried; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Hoang, Andre H.; /Vienna U.; Kluth, Stefan; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Schieck, Jochen; /Munich U.; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  5. Molecular basis for nondeletion alpha-thalassemia in American blacks. Alpha 2(116GAG----UAG).

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Coleman, M B; Adams, J G; Cash, F E; Steinberg, M H

    1987-01-01

    An American black woman was found to have the phenotype of moderately severe alpha-thalassemia normally associated with the loss of two to three alpha-globin genes despite an alpha-globin gene map that demonstrated the loss of only a single alpha-globin gene (-alpha/alpha alpha). Several individuals in her kindred with normal alpha-globin gene mapping studies (alpha alpha/alpha alpha) had mild alpha-thalassemia hematologic values consistent with the loss of one to two alpha-globin genes. Thes...

  6. Differentiation of the mRNA transcripts originating from the alpha 1- and alpha 2-globin loci in normals and alpha-thalassemics.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Kan, Y W

    1981-01-01

    The alpha-globin polypeptide is encoded by two adjacent genes, alpha 1 and alpha 2. In the normal diploid state (alpha alpha/alpha alpha) all four alpha-globin genes are expressed. Loss or dysfunction of one or more of these genes leads to deficient alpha-globin production and results in alpha-thalassemia. We present a technique to differentially assess the steady-state levels of the alpha 1- and alpha-2-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts and thus delineate the relative level of expressi...

  7. Nutrient Content, Phytonutrient Composition, Alpha Amylase, Alpha Glucosidase Inhibition Activity and Antioxidant Activity of the Stoechospermum Marginatum Collected in Pre Monsoon Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reka Palanivel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the nutrient content, phytonutrient composition, physicochemical properties, alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity of the brown algae Stoechospermum marginatum collected from Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India in pre monsoon season (June- September, 2015. Six and eight hours of ethanol and aqueous extract of Stoechospermum marginatum were used for phytonutrient screening, alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity. From the results of the study it is understood that Stoechospermum marginatum contain a high amount of carbohydrate, protein, crude fiber and phytonutrients like tannin, flavonoid, saponin, alkaloid, terpenoids, steroid and total phenolic content. The physicochemical properties namely Water absorption and Swelling power were very promising. Alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity was recorded to be high in both aqueous and ethanol extracts of eight hour extraction than in extracts taken from six hours extraction. Antioxidant activity was detected using DPPH, FRAP, beta carotene scavenging and H2O2 assay and found to have a high radical scavenging activity. Stoechospermum marginatum possess a valuable amount of total phenolic content and other phytonutrients and physicochemical properties, it may the reason for the potential inhibition of alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase and antioxidant activity. It is concluded from the study that the brown algae may be incorporated into foods to enhance their nutritional and therapeutic value.

  8. Divergence of fine and gross motor skills in prelingually deaf children: implications for cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, David L; Pisoni, David B; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess relations between fine and gross motor development and spoken language processing skills in pediatric cochlear implant users. The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of longitudinal data. Prelingually deaf children who received a cochlear implant before age 5 and had no known developmental delay or cognitive impairment were included in the study. Fine and gross motor development were assessed before implantation using the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales, a standardized parental report of adaptive behavior. Fine and gross motor scores reflected a given child's motor functioning with respect to a normative sample of typically developing, normal-hearing children. Relations between these preimplant scores and postimplant spoken language outcomes were assessed. In general, gross motor scores were found to be positively related to chronologic age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for fine motor scores. Fine motor scores were more strongly correlated with postimplant expressive and receptive language scores than gross motor scores. Our findings suggest a disassociation between fine and gross motor development in prelingually deaf children: fine motor skills, in contrast to gross motor skills, tend to be delayed as the prelingually deaf children get older. These findings provide new knowledge about the links between motor and spoken language development and suggest that auditory deprivation may lead to atypical development of certain motor and language skills that share common cortical processing resources.

  9. Oropharyngeal dysphagia and gross motor skills in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Bell, Kristie L; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) and its subtypes (oral phase, pharyngeal phase, saliva control), and their relationship to gross motor functional skills in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). It was hypothesized that OPD would be present across all gross motor severity levels, and children with more severe gross motor function would have increased prevalence and severity of OPD. Children with a confirmed diagnosis of CP, 18 to 36 months corrected age, born in Queensland between 2006 and 2009, participated. Children with neurodegenerative conditions were excluded. This was a cross-sectional population-based study. Children were assessed by using 2 direct OPD measures (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment; Dysphagia Disorders Survey), and observations of signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment and impaired saliva control. Gross motor skills were described by using the Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System, and motor type/ distribution. OPD was prevalent in 85% of children with CP, and there was a stepwise relationship between OPD and GMFCS level. There was a significant increase in odds of having OPD, or a subtype, for children who were nonambulant (GMFCS V) compared with those who were ambulant (GMFCS I) (odds ratio = 17.9, P = .036). OPD was present across all levels of gross motor severity using direct assessments. This highlights the need for proactive screening of all young children with CP, even those with mild impairments, to improve growth and nutritional outcomes and respiratory health.

  10. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  11. Analysis of thick source alpha particle spectrum from radium and its daughters in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mausner, L.F.; Schlenker, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The alpha particle energy spectrum of 226 Ra and its four alpha emitting daughters in an ashed, ground bone sample has been resolved into its components using a computerized spectrum stripping algorithm. These calculated results have been compared to direct measurements of the 226 Ra and 214 Po distributions obtained by alpha--gamma coincidence techniques. The ability of the calculation to deconvolute the total spectrum into its five alpha components implies that straightforward alpha counting may be used instead of the very low efficiency 226 Ra alpha--gamma coincidence method. From knowledge of the actual 226 Ra distribution, along with suitable detector energy and efficiency calibrations, one could determine endosteal cell dose rate empirically

  12. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  13. Contribution to the study of alpha-alpha interaction; Contribution a l'etude de l'interaction alpha - alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darriulai, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    Two sets of measurements of the {alpha}-{alpha} elastic scattering differential cross section are presented. The first set - angular distributions from 50 up to 120 MeV - shows two new resonances, 6{sup +} and 8{sup +}, at 25 and 57 MeV. Complex phase shifts are extracted from the data and a phenomenological potential is given. A description of the 3 {alpha}-particle 0{sup +} states in C{sup 12} is made with this interaction potential. The second set - excitation curves between 20 and 50 MeV - allows investigation of the Be{sup 8} level structure within this energy range - It identifies the 16.6 and 16.9 MeV states as 2{sup +}, but the rise of inelastic processes at higher energies makes further identification of spins and parities more and more difficult. (author) [French] Deux series de mesures de la section efficace differentielle de diffusion {alpha}-{alpha} sont presentees. La premiere - distributions angulaires entre 50 et 120 MeV - fait apparaitre deux nouvelles resonances, 6{sup +} et 8{sup +}, a 25 et 57 MeV d'excitation. Des dephasages complexes en sont extraits et un potentiel phenomenologique est presente. Une etude des etats 0{sup +} a parentage (3{alpha}) de {sup 12}C est faite a partir de ce potentiel. La seconde - courbes d'excitation s'etendant de 20 a 50 MeV - met en evidence la structure de {sup 8}Be dans cette region. Elle montre que les niveaux a 16,6 et 16,9 MeV sont des 2{sup +} mais l'importance des processus inelastiques rend difficile l'identification des niveaux d'excitation plus elevee. (auteur)

  14. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  15. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    . The participants were tested using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Results Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the segmental level of trunk control and age......, with both gross motor function and mobility. Segmental trunk control measured using the SATCo could explain between 38% and 40% of variation in GMFM and between 32% and 37% of variation in PEDI. Interpretation This study suggests a strong association between segmental trunk postural control and gross motor...

  16. A preliminary investigation of the relationship between language and gross motor skills in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, W J; Barnett, B E

    1995-12-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between language skills and gross-motor skills of 28 preschool children from two private preschools in New York City. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated for language (revised Preschool Language Scale) and gross motor (Test of Gross Motor Development) scores. Locomotor skills were significantly related to both auditory comprehension and verbal ability while object control scores did not correlate significantly with either language score. These results were discussed in terms of previous research and with reference to dynamical systems theory. Suggestions for research were made.

  17. Exploring the role of CT densitometry: a randomised study of augmentation therapy in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, A; Piitulainen, E; Parr, D G

    2009-01-01

    for the assessment of the therapeutic effect of augmentation therapy in subjects with alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha(1)-AT) deficiency. In total, 77 subjects (protease inhibitor type Z) were randomised to weekly infusions of 60 mg x kg(-1) human alpha(1)-AT (Prolastin) or placebo for 2-2.5 yrs. The primary end...... was unaltered by treatment, but a reduction in exacerbation severity was observed. In patients with alpha(1)-AT deficiency, CT is a more sensitive outcome measure of emphysema-modifying therapy than physiology and health status, and demonstrates a trend of treatment benefit from alpha(1)-AT augmentation....

  18. Control of the dynamics of coupled atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates: Modified Gross-Pitaevskii approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Moumita; Dastidar, Krishna Rai

    2009-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the atomic and molecular Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of 87 Rb in a spherically symmetric trap coupled by stimulated Raman photoassociation process. Considering the higher order nonlinearity in the atom-atom interaction we analyze the dynamics of the system using coupled modified Gross-Pitaevskii (MGP) equations and compare it with mean-field coupled Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) dynamics. Considerable differences in the dynamics are obtained in these two approaches at large scattering length, i.e., for large values of peak-gas parameter x pk ≥10 -3 . We show how the dynamics of the coupled system is affected when the atom-molecule and molecule-molecule interactions are considered together with the atom-atom interaction and also when the strengths of these three interactions are increased. The effect of detuning on the efficiency of conversion of atomic fractions into molecules is demonstrated and the feasibility of maximum molecular BEC formation by varying the Raman detuning parameter at different values of time is explored. Thus by varying the Raman detuning and the scattering length for atom-atom interaction one can control the dynamics of the coupled atomic-molecular BEC system. We have also solved coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for atomic to molecular condensate formation through magnetic Feshbach resonance in a BEC of 85 Rb. We found similar features for oscillations between atomic and molecular condensates noted in previous theoretical study and obtained fairly good agreement with the evolution of total atomic condensate observed experimentally.

  19. Affective and cognitive effects of global deletion of alpha3-containing gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, Roberto; Rudolph, Uwe; Straub, Carolin J; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K

    2008-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors characterized by the presence of the alpha3 subunit are the major GABAA receptor subtype expressed in brain stem monoaminergic nuclei. These alpha3-GABAA receptors are therefore in a unique position to regulate monoaminergic functions. To characterize the functional properties of alpha3-GABAA receptors, we present a preliminary assessment of the expression of affective and cognitive behaviour in male mice with a targeted deletion of the Gabra3 gene encoding the alpha3 subunit [alpha3 knockout (KO) mice] on a C57BL/6Jx129X1/SvJ F1 hybrid genetic background. The alpha3 KO mice did not exhibit any gross change of anxiety-like behaviour or spontaneous locomotor behaviour. In the Porsolt forced swim test for potential antidepressant activity, alpha3 KO mice exhibited reduced floating and enhanced swimming behaviour relative to wild-type controls. Performance on a two-choice sucrose preference test, however, revealed no evidence for an increase in sucrose preference in the alpha3 KO mice that would have substantiated a potential phenotype for depression-related behaviour. In contrast, a suggestion of an enhanced negative contrast effect was revealed in a one-bottle sucrose consumption test across different sucrose concentrations. These affective phenotypes were accompanied by alterations in the balance between conditioned responding to the discrete conditioned stimulus and to the context, and a suggestion of faster extinction, in the Pavlovian conditioned freezing paradigm. Spatial learning in the water maze reference memory test, however, was largely unchanged in the alpha3 KO mice, except for a trend of preservation during reversal learning. The novel phenotypes following global deletion of the GABAA receptor alpha3 subunit identified here provided relevant insights, in addition to our earlier study, into the potential behavioural relevance of this specific receptor subtypes in the modulation of both affective and cognitive

  20. Gross and fine motor skills in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Cinzia R; McCarthy, Maria; Galvin, Jane; Green, Jessica L; Murphy, Alexandra; Knight, Sarah; Williams, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    Chemotherapy treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) may disrupt motor development, with suggestions that gross and fine motor deficits are different depending on time since treatment. Thirty-seven participants aged between 2.5 to 5 years at the time of diagnosis were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (MABC-2) and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, 2nd Edition, Short Form (BOT-2 SF), and divided into groups (i.e., months-off-treatment): (1) 0-12, (2) 13-24, and (3) 25-60 for comparison. MABC-2 and BOT-2 SF mean total scores fell within the average range. Twenty-six percent of the sample performed in the impaired range on the MABC-2. Group 2 had significantly lower Manual Dexterity scores than the normative population and lower BOT-2 SF scores than Group 1. Most children treated for ALL display appropriate motor skills, yet around a quarter experience general motor difficulties. Time-off-treatment did not affect the prevalence of motor impairments on any measure.

  1. Floating Offshore Wind in California: Gross Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Construction of the first offshore wind farm in the United States began in 2015, using fixed platform structures that are appropriate for shallow seafloors, like those located off of the East Coast and mid-Atlantic. However, floating platforms, which have yet to be deployed commercially, will likely need to anchor to the deeper seafloor if deployed off of the West Coast. To analyze the employment and economic potential for floating offshore wind along the West Coast, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze two hypothetical, large-scale deployment scenarios for California: 16 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario A) and 10 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario B). The results of this analysis can be used to better understand the general scales of economic opportunities that could result from offshore wind development. Results show total state gross domestic product (GDP) impacts of $16.2 billion in Scenario B or $39.7 billion in Scenario A for construction; and $3.5 billion in Scenario B or $7.9 billion in Scenario A for the operations phases.

  2. Gross and fine motor function in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasouli O

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Omid Rasouli,1,2 Egil A Fors,3 Petter Chr Borchgrevink,4,5 Fredrik Öhberg,6 Ann-Katrin Stensdotter1 1Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Public Health and Nursing, General Practice Research Unit, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 4Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Pain and Palliation Research Group, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 5National Competence Centre for Complex Symptom Disorders, St. Olav’s University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Radiation Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Purpose: This paper aimed to investigate motor proficiency in fine and gross motor function, with a focus on reaction time (RT and movement skill, in patients with fibromyalgia (FM and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS compared to healthy controls (HC.Methods: A total of 60 individuals (20 CFS, 20 FM, and 20 HC, age 19–49 years, participated in this study. Gross motor function in the lower extremity was assessed using a RT task during gait initiation in response to an auditory trigger. Fine motor function in the upper extremity was measured during a precision task (the Purdue Pegboard test where the number of pins inserted within 30 s was counted.Results: No significant differences were found between FM and CFS in any parameters. FM and CFS groups had significantly longer RT than HC in the gait initiation (p=0.001, and p=0.004 respectively. In the Purdue Pegboard test, 20% in the FM group, 15% in the CFS groups, and 0% of HC group, scored below the threshold of the accepted performance. However, there were no

  3. Study on molecular epidemiology of the alpha-thalassemias in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ren; Liu, Jingzhong; Wang, Lirong; Liang, Xin; Xiao, Bai; Su, Liu; Zhou, Yan; Pan, Lizhen

    2004-01-01

    Guangxi is one of the provinces of Southern China with the highest incidence of alpha-thalassemia (thal). Liuzhou is the second biggest city in Guangxi. To find out the incidence of the various alpha-thal genotypes, and their distribution in the Liuzhou area, an F820 Blood Cell Analysis System was used to measure the parameters of red blood cells. A SPIFE Rapid Auto-Electrophoresis System was used to analyze the normal and abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) was used to detect the alpha-globin genotypes. Thirty-two (2.05%) out of 7805 young couples undergoing pre-marriage counseling, were diagnosed as having an Hb H (beta4) disease. The study of 1228 cord blood samples revealed 138 newborn children carrying an alpha-thal determinant with nine different genotypes, thus making the total incidence of alpha-thal 11.24%. Among 185 cases of Hb H, 119 (64.1%) were confirmed as being deletional, and 66 cases (35.7%) nondeletional types. The severity of the Hb H diseases could be classified in the following order: alphaCSalpha/--SEA (alphaConstant (Spring)alpha/--Southeast Asia); alpha(-4.2)/--SEA; alpha(-3.7)/--SEA. Ten cases of alpha-thal determinants were found in combination with beta-thal. The mPCR technique can detect all kinds of combinations of the three common large deletions (--SEA, alpha(-4.2) and alpha(-3.7)) accurately and conveniently.

  4. Previous study for the setting up and optimization of detection of ZnS(Ag) scintillation applied to the measure of alpha radioactivity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Montero, M.

    1998-01-01

    The determination of radiological water quality is useful for a wide range of environmental studies. In these cases, the gross alpha activity is one of the parameters to determine. This parameter permits to decide if further radiological analyses are necessary in order to identify and quantify the presence of alpha emitters in water. The usual method for monitoring the gross alpha activity includes sample evaporation to dryness on a disk and counting using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. Detector electronics is provided with two components which are adjustable by the user the high-voltage applied to the photomultiplier tubes and the low level discriminator that is used to eliminate the electronic noise. The high-voltage and low level discriminator optimization are convenient in order to reach the best counting conditions. This paper is a preliminary study of the procedure followed for the setting up and optimization of the detector electronics in the laboratories of CEDEX for the measurement of gross alpha activity. (Author)

  5. Change in the alpha criterion policy: variable based on the maximum individual dose function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Acosta Perez, C. de; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha value is an extremely important criterion because it determines the time that a country takes to achieve its proposals in order to decrease the workers doses involved with ionizing radiation sources. Currently the countries adopt a single value for alpha based on the annual gross national product, GNP, per capita. The aim of this paper is to show that the selection of a curve for the alpha in place of a single value would be more efficient. This curve would provide alpha values that would will be constraints to the biggest individual doses presented in each optimization process as applied both to designs and to operations. These maximum individual doses would represent the dose distribution among the workers team. To build the curve, the alpha values suggested are not based on the GNP per capita but on a distribution function of the maximum individual doses and on the time necessary to reach the proposal of 1/10 of the annual dose limit foreseen in the sequential optimization processes, that is to reach the region where the individual doses are considered acceptable. So, the differential equations will be - d X/dS =α(H m ax). To clarify our sight about the alpha value we started using the uranium mine example presented in ICRP publication 55, adopting the decision-aiding technique known as extended cost-benefit. for right. Then we used the same example in a hypothetical curve with portions: constant, linear, quadratic and exponential. Eventually we discussed briefly the different shapes of the curves that the alpha value can assume in function of the individual doses. Each of these shapes can correspond to the so called 'risk neutral attitude', 'risk adverse attitude' or 'risk prone attitude' suggested in the appendix B of the ICRP publication 55

  6. Design of a preamplifier for an alpha particles spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo O, R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Chacon R, A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2010-09-01

    To detect radiation diverse detector types are used, when these are alpha particles proportional type detectors are used, semiconductor, of scintillation or traces. In this work the design results, the construction and the first tests of a spectrometer (preamplifier) are presented for alpha particles that was designed starting from a Pin type photodiode. The system was designed and simulated with a program for electronic circuits. With the results of the simulation phase was constructed the electronics that is coupled to a spectroscopic amplifier and a multichannel analyzer. The total of the system is evaluated analyzing its performance before a triple source of alphas and that they are produced by two smoke detectors of domestic use. Of the tests phase we find that the system allows to obtain in a multichannel, the pulses height spectrum, with which we calibrate the system. (Author)

  7. Lens proteome map and alpha-crystallin profile of the catfish Rita rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Bhattacharjee, Soma; Das, Manas Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Crystallins are a diverse group of proteins that constitute nearly 90% of the total soluble proteins of the vertebrate eye lens and these tightly packed crystallins are responsible for transparency of the lens. These proteins have been studied in different model and non-model species for understanding the modifications they undergo with ageing that lead to cataract, a disease of protein aggregation. In the present investigation, we studied the lens crystallin profile of the tropical freshwater catfish Rita rita. Profiles of lens crystallins were analyzed and crystallin proteome maps of Rita rita were generated for the first time. alphaA-crystallins, member of the alpha-crystallin family, which are molecular chaperons and play crucial role in maintaining lens transparency were identified by 1- and 2-D immunoblot analysis with anti-alphaA-crystallin antibody. Two protein bands of 19-20 kDa were identified as alphaA-crystallins on 1-D immunoblots and these bands separated into 10 discrete spots on 2-D immunoblot. However, anti-alphaB-crystallin and antiphospho-alphaB-crystallin antibodies were not able to detect any immunoreactive bands on 1- and 2-D immunoblots, indicating alphaB-crystallin was either absent or present in extremely low concentration in Rita rita lens. Thus, Rita rita alpha-crystallins are more like that of the catfish Clarias batrachus and the mammal kangaroo in its alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin content (contain low amount from 5-9% of alphaB-crystallin) and unlike the dogfish, zebrafish, human, bovine and mouse alpha-crystallins (contain higher amount of alphaB-crystallin from 25% in mouse and bovine to 85% in dogfish). Results of the present study can be the baseline information for stimulating further investigation on Rita rita lens crystallins for comparative lens proteomics. Comparing and contrasting the alpha-crystallins of the dogfish and Rita rita may provide valuable information on the functional attributes of alphaA- and alphaB-isoforms, as

  8. Source preparation in alpha spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lally, A E [UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Environmental and Medical Sciences Div.; Glover, K M [UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Chemistry Div.

    1984-06-15

    Techniques, for the preparation of sources suitable for alpha spectrometric measurements are presented. These include vacuum sublimation, electrodeposition, self-deposition, direct evaporation, direct precipitation and the use of solvents and spreading agents. The relative merits of each technique and the applicability to both high and low levels of activity are considered.

  9. Clubfoot Does Not Impair Gross Motor Development in 5-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Karina A; Karol, Lori A; Jeans, Kelly A; Jo, Chan-Hee

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the gross motor development of 5-year-olds using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd Edition (PDMS-2), test after initial nonoperative management of clubfoot as infants. The PDMS-2 Stationary, Locomotion, and Object Manipulation subtests were assessed on 128 children with idiopathic clubfeet at the age of 5 years. Children were categorized by their initial clubfoot severity as greater than 13, unilateral or bilateral involvement, and required surgery. Children with treated clubfeet had average gross motor scores (99 Gross Motor Quotient) compared with age-matched normative scores. Children with more severe clubfeet required surgery significantly more than children with less severe scores (P < .01). Peabody scores were not significantly different according to initial clubfoot severity, unilateral versus bilateral involvement, and surgical versus nonsurgical outcomes. Clubfoot does not significantly impair gross motor development in 5-year-olds.

  10. The Hans Gross Museum of Criminology at the Karl-Franzens-University Graz

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Bachhiesl

    2008-01-01

    The Hans Gross Museum of Criminology combines scientific research and academic activity with a wide range of public events, such as crime thriller readings and stage plays, connecting the campus with the wider community.

  11. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  12. The one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and its some excitation states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayitno, T. B., E-mail: trunk-002@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda Rawamangun no. 10, Jakarta, 13220 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    We have derived some excitation states of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation coupled by the gravitational potential. The methods that we have used here are taken by pursuing the recent work of Kivshar et. al. by considering the equation as a macroscopic quantum oscillator. To obtain the states, we have made the appropriate transformation to reduce the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation into the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and applying the time-independent perturbation theory in the general solution of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation as a linear superposition of the normalized eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger equation for the harmonic oscillator potential. Moreover, we also impose the condition by assuming that some terms in the equation should be so small in order to preserve the use of the perturbation method.

  13. Analysis of The Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P) of Nigeria:1960-2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Gross Domestic Product takes into account the market value of ... economic growth of Nigeria using GDP as an indicator and ... where the best opportunity of investors lies. Paul [6] ... the information encoded in past events and.

  14. Integral equation for inhomogeneous condensed bosons generalizing the Gross-Pitaevskii differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angilella, G.G.N.; Pucci, R.; March, N.H.

    2004-01-01

    We give here the derivation of a Gross-Pitaevskii-type equation for inhomogeneous condensed bosons. Instead of the original Gross-Pitaevskii differential equation, we obtain an integral equation that implies less restrictive assumptions than are made in the very recent study of Pieri and Strinati [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 030401 (2003)]. In particular, the Thomas-Fermi approximation and the restriction to small spatial variations of the order parameter invoked in their study are avoided

  15. A Closer Look at Revealed Comparative Advantage: Gross-versus Value Added Trade Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    2015-01-01

    With the availability of international value added trade data it has become evident that gross export data and value added data do not provide the same information. Although gross exports crosses national borders and is the target of trade policy, value added data tell us what fragment in the production chain is internationally competitive in a particular country. With respect to comparative advantage the differences between the two types of data are often illustrated by means of examples usi...

  16. Analysis of historical gross gamma logging data from BX tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MYERS, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Gross gamma ray logs, recorded from January 1975 through mid-year 1994 as part of the Single-Shell Tank Farm Dry Well Surveillance Program, have been reanalyzed for the BX tank farm to locate the presence of mobile radionuclides in the subsurface. This report presents the BX tank farm gross gamma ray data in such a way as to assist others in their study of vadose zone mechanism

  17. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy fr...

  18. Higher-spin currents in the Gross-Neveu model at 1/n"2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manashov, A.N.

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the anomalous dimensions of higher-spin currents, both singlet and non-singlet, in the Gross - Neveu model at the 1/n"2 order. It was conjectured that in the critical regime this model is dual to a higher-spin gauge theory on AdS_4. The AdS/CFT correspondence predicts that the masses of higher-spin fields correspond to the scaling dimensions of the singlet currents in the Gross - Neveu model.

  19. Current usage and future trends in gross digital photography in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher L; DeKoning, Lawrence; Klonowski, Paul; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current usage, utilization and future direction of digital photography of gross surgical specimens in pathology laboratories across Canada. An online survey consisting of 23 multiple choice and free-text questions regarding gross digital photography was sent out to via email to laboratory staff across Canada involved in gross dissection of surgical specimens. Sixty surveys were returned with representation from most of the provinces. Results showed that gross digital photography is utilized at most institutions (90.0%) and the primary users of the technology are Pathologists (88.0%), Pathologists' Assistants (54.0%) and Pathology residents (50.0%). Most respondents felt that there is a definite need for routine digital imaging of gross surgical specimens in their practice (80.0%). The top two applications for gross digital photography are for documentation of interesting/ complex cases (98.0%) and for teaching purposes (84.0%). The main limitations identified by the survey group are storage space (42.5%) and security issues (40.0%). Respondents indicated that future applications of gross digital photography mostly include teaching (96.6%), presentation at tumour boards/ clinical rounds (89.8%), medico-legal documentation (72.9%) and usage for consultation purposes (69.5%). The results of this survey indicate that pathology staff across Canada currently utilizes gross digital images for regular documentation and educational reasons. They also show that the technology will be needed for future applications in teaching, consultation and medico-legal purposes.

  20. Fetal dosimetry from natural alpha emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purnell, S.J

    1999-09-01

    The size of marrow cavities in fetal vertebra, rib and sternum was investigated using an image analysis system. The average chord lengths through marrow spaces in the vertebrae were found to increase approximately linearly with gestational age from 140 {mu}m at 20 weeks to 300 {mu}m at 40 weeks. Average chord lengths through marrow spaces in fetal rib and sternum were 330 {mu}m at 35 weeks in both cases. These results can be compared with an average chord length across marrow spaces in adult vertebra of 1172 {mu}m. At natural background UK exposure, activity concentrations of supported {sup 210}Po in fetal bone of 0.075 Bq kg{sup -1} and 0.15 Bq kg{sup -1} at mid- and late gestation respectively were calculated. Monte Carlo simulations modelling the paths of alpha-particles in fetal vertebra gave a total alpha-radiation dose to marrow over the second and third trimesters of 32.0 {+-} 0.8 {mu}Sv with the {sup 210}Po in bone contributing 8.9 {+-} 0.9 {mu}Sv. The dose to primitive haemopoietic stem cells, the target cells for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and the survival of these stem cells following a hit by an alpha-particle was investigated, also using Monte Carlo simulations. Alpha-particles emitted from bone and marrow contributed an average dose of 1.9 Gy to stem cells with a nuclear diameter of 3.8 {mu}m. This study has estimated that 1% of babies born each year are born with a mutated primitive haemopoietic stem cell due to in utero irradiation from high LET radiation. That is 7,320 babies compared to an estimated 300 incidences of cALL each year initiated in utero. The probability that a mutated cell will go on to give rise to leukaemia is unknown but it would seem not unlikely that irradiation in utero plays a substantial part in the induction of childhood leukaemia. (author)

  1. Failure of isolated rat tibial periosteal cells to 5 alpha reduce testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.T.; Bleiberg, B.; Colvard, D.S.; Keeting, P.E.; Evans, G.; Spelsberg, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Periosteal cells were isolated from tibiae of adult male rats after collagenase treatment. Northern blot analysis of total cytoplasmic RNA extracted from the isolated periosteal cells was positive for expression of genes encoding the osteoblast marker proteins osteocalcin (BGP) and pre-pro-alpha 2(I) chain of type 1 precollagen. The isolated periosteal cells were incubated with 1 nM [3H]testosterone [( 3 H]T) for up to 240 minutes and the reaction products separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. [ 3 H]5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone [( 3 H]DHT) was not detected in extracts of periosteal cell incubations. In contrast, [ 3 H]DHT was produced in a time-dependent manner by cells from seminal vesicles. These results suggest that testosterone 5 alpha-reductase activity is not expressed by osteoblasts in rat tibial periosteum and that the anabolic effects of androgens in this tissue are not mediated by locally produced DHT

  2. The new energy management policy: Indonesian PSC-gross-split applied on steam flooding project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irham, S.; Julyus, P.

    2018-01-01

    “SIPY” oil field has been producing oil using steam flooding technology since 1992 under the PSC-Cost-Recovery policy. In 2021, the contract will be finished, and a new agreement must be submitted to the Indonesian government. There are two applied fiscal policies on oil and gas management: PSC-Cost-Recovery and PSC-Gross-Split (introduced in 2017 as the new energy management plan). The contractor must choose between PSC-Cost-Recovery and PSC-Gross-split which makes more profit. The aim of this research is to determine the best oil and gas contract policy for the contractor. The methods are calculating contractor cash flow and comparing the Profitability Indexes. The results of this study are (1) Net Present Values for the PSC-Cost-Recovery and the PSC-Gross-Split are 15 MMUS and 61 MMUS, respectively; and (2) Internal Rate of Return values for the PSC-Cost-Recovery and PSC-Gross-Split are 10% and 11%, respectively. The conclusion is that the Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return of PSC-Gross-Split are greater than those of PSC-Cost-Recovery, but in Pay Out Time of PSC-Gross-split is longer than Pay Out Time in PSC-Cost-Recovery. Thus, the new energy management policy will be more attractive than PSC-Cost-Recovery.

  3. The new management policy: Indonesian PSC-Gross split applied on CO2 flooding project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irham, S.; Sibuea, S. N.; Danu, A.

    2018-01-01

    “SIAD” oil field will be developed by CO2 flooding. CO2, a famous pollutant gas, is injected into the oil reservoir to optimize the oil recovery. This technique should be conducted economically according to the energy management policy in Indonesia. In general, Indonesia has two policy contracts on oil and gas: the old one is PSC-Cost-Recovery, and the new one is PSC-Gross-Split (introduced in 2017 as the new energy management plan). The contractor must choose between PSC-Cost-Recovery and PSC-Gross-Split which makes more profit. The aim of this paper is to show the best oil and gas contract policy for the contractor. The methods are calculating and comparing the economic indicators. The result of this study are (1) NPV for the PSC-Cost-Recovery is -46 MUS, while for the PSC-Gross-Split is 73 MUS, and (2) IRR for the PSC-Cost-Recovery is 9%, whereas for the PSC-Gross-Split is 11%. The conclusion is that the NPV and IRR for PSC-Gross-Split are greater than the NPV and IRR of PSC-Cost-Recovery, but POT in PSC-Gross-split is longer than POT in PSC-Cost-Recovery. Thus, in this case, the new energy policy contract can be applied for CO2 flooding technology since it yields higher economic indicators than its antecendent.

  4. The relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity has been considered as a major impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), but the relationship between this impairment and motor functions is still unclear, especially in the same group of patients with CP. The aim of this investigation is to determine the relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic CP. Seventy-one children (30 boys, 41 girls) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV (n=34) and V (n=37) were included in the study. The spasticity level in lower limbs was evaluated using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the gross motor function with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and the strength of the relationship. The results showed a moderate correlation between spasticity and gross motor skills (ρ=0.52 for the GMFCS level; ρ=0.57 for the GMFM-88), accounting for less than 30% of the explained variance. It seems that spasticity is just one factor among many others that could interfere with gross motor skills, even in children with severe forms of spastic CP. Knowledge of the impact of spasticity on motor skills may be useful in the setting of adequate rehabilitation strategies for nonambulatory children with spastic CP.

  5. Help of third-year medical students decreases first-year medical students' negative psychological reactions on the first day of gross anatomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwink, Aletta P; Kurup, Anil N; Kollars, Joshua P; Kral Kollars, Catharine A; Carmichael, Stephen W; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2004-05-01

    The assistance of third-year medical students (MS3) may be an easy, inexpensive, educational method to decrease physical and emotional stress among first-year medical students (MS1) on the first day of gross anatomy dissection. In the academic years 2000-2001 and 2001-2002, a questionnaire on the emotional and physical reactions on the first day of dissection was distributed to 84 MS1 at Mayo Medical School (Rochester, MN); 74 (88%) responded. Student perceptions were assessed on a 5-point Likert scale. The 42 second-year medical students (MS2) whose first academic year was 1999-2000 were used as a control group, because they had not had assistance from MS3. MS2 completed the same questionnaire (59% response rate). Data were collected from MS1 on the day of their first gross anatomy dissection. The most frequent reactions were headache, disgust, grief or sadness, and feeling light-headed. Significant differences (alpha vs. 88%), reporting lower levels of anxiety (23% vs. 48%), headache (14% vs. 36%), disgust (9% vs. 20%), feeling light-headed (11% vs. 24%), and reaction to the smell of the cadaver and laboratory (8% vs. 52%). MS1 commented that having MS3 at the dissection table was extremely helpful. They relied less on their peers and felt they learned more efficiently about the dissection techniques and anatomical structures. Using MS3 as assistants is one method to reduce fear and anxiety on the first day of gross anatomy dissection. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. 17 CFR 270.5b-1 - Definition of “total assets.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.5b-1 Definition of “total assets... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of âtotal assets.â..., shall mean the gross assets of the company with respect to which the computation is made, taken as of...

  7. Training detector as simulator of alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirosh, D.; Duvniz, E.; Assido, H.; Barak, D.; Paran, J.

    1997-01-01

    Alpha contamination is a common phenomena in radiation research laboratories and other sites. Training staff to properly detect and control alpha contamination, present special problems. In order to train health physics personnel, while using alpha sources, both the trainers and the trainees are inevitably exposed to alpha contamination. This fact of course, comes in conflict with safety principles. In order to overcome these difficulties, a training detector was developed, built and successfully tested. (authors)

  8. Field production and functional evaluation of chloroplast-derived interferon-alpha2b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, Philip A; Falconer, Regina; Cherukumilli, Sri; Cole, Amy; Cole, Alexander M; Oishi, Karen K; Daniell, Henry

    2007-07-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) inhibit viral replication and cell growth and enhance the immune response, and therefore have many clinical applications. IFN-alpha2b ranks third in world market use for a biopharmaceutical, behind only insulin and erythropoietin. The average annual cost of IFN-alpha2b for the treatment of hepatitis C infection is $26,000, and is therefore unavailable to the majority of patients in developing countries. Therefore, we expressed IFN-alpha2b in tobacco chloroplasts, and transgenic lines were grown in the field after obtaining United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) approval. Stable, site-specific integration of transgenes into chloroplast genomes and homoplasmy through several generations were confirmed. IFN-alpha2b levels reached up to 20% of total soluble protein, or 3 mg per gram of leaf (fresh weight). Transgenic IFN-alpha2b had similar in vitro biological activity to commercially produced PEG-Introntrade mark when tested for its ability to protect cells against cytopathic viral replication in the vesicular stomatitis virus cytopathic effect (VSV CPE) assay and to inhibit early-stage human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The antitumour and immunomodulating properties of IFN-alpha2b were also seen in vivo. Chloroplast-derived IFN-alpha2b increased the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) on splenocytes and the total number of natural killer (NK) cells. Finally, IFN-alpha2b purified from chloroplast transgenic lines (cpIFN-alpha2b) protected mice from a highly metastatic tumour line. This demonstration of high levels of expression of IFN-alpha2b, transgene containment and biological activity akin to that of commercial preparations of IFN-alpha2b facilitated the first field production of a plant-derived human blood protein, a critical step towards human clinical trials and commercialization.

  9. Resolution of G(s)alpha and G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha proteins in membrane domains by two-dimensional electrophoresis: the effect of long-term agonist stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, P; Novotný, J; Svoboda, P

    2004-01-01

    Low-density membrane-domain fractions were prepared from S49 lymphoma cells and clone e2m11 of HEK293 cells expressing a large number of thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRH-R) and G(11)alpha by flotation on sucrose density gradients. The intact cell structure was broken by detergent-extraction, alkaline-treatment or drastic homogenization. Three types of low-density membranes were resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and analyzed for G(s)alpha (S49) or G(q)alpha/G11) (e2m11) content. Four individual immunoblot signals of Gsalpha protein were identified in S49 lymphoma cells indicating complete resolution of the long G(s)alpha L+/-ser and short G(s)alpha S+/-ser variants of G(s)alpha. All these were diminished by prolonged agonist (isoprenaline) stimulation. In e2m11-HEK cells, five different immunoblot signals were detected indicating post-translational modification of G proteins of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha family. The two major spots corresponding to exogenously (over)expressed G(11)alpha and endogenous G(q)alpha were reduced; the minor spots diminished by hormonal stimulation. Parallel analysis by silver staining of the total protein content indicated that no major changes in protein composition occurred under these conditions. Our data thus indicate that agonist-stimulation of target cells results in down-regulation of all different members of G(s) and G(q)/G(11) families. This agonist-specific effect may be demonstrated in crude membrane as well as domain/raft preparations and it is not accompanied by changes in overall protein composition.

  10. Enzyme replacement therapy for alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Dali, Christine I.; Fogh, J

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis (OMIM 248500) is a rare lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Manifestations include intellectual disabilities, facial characteristics and hearing impairment. A recombinant human alpha-mannosidase (rhLAMAN) has been developed for weekly...

  11. Neurofeedback training of EEG alpha rhythm enhances episodic and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Jen-Jui; Chen, Tzu-Shan; Chen, Jia-Jin; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-07-01

    Neurofeedback training (NFT) of the alpha rhythm has been used for several decades but is still controversial in regards to its trainability and effects on working memory. Alpha rhythm of the frontoparietal region are associated with either the intelligence or memory of healthy subjects and are also related to pathological states. In this study, alpha NFT effects on memory performances were explored. Fifty healthy participants were recruited and randomly assigned into a group receiving a 8-12-Hz amplitude (Alpha) or a group receiving a random 4-Hz amplitude from the range of 7 to 20 Hz (Ctrl). Three NFT sessions per week were conducted for 4 weeks. Working memory was assessed by both a backward digit span task and an operation span task, and episodic memory was assessed using a word pair task. Four questionnaires were used to assess anxiety, depression, insomnia, and cognitive function. The Ctrl group had no change in alpha amplitude and duration. In contrast, the Alpha group showed a progressive significant increase in the alpha amplitude and total alpha duration of the frontoparietal region. Accuracies of both working and episodic memories were significantly improved in a large proportion of participants of the Alpha group, particularly for those with remarkable alpha-amplitude increases. Scores of four questionnaires fell in a normal range before and after NFT. The current study provided supporting evidence for alpha trainability within a small session number compared with that of therapy. The findings suggested the enhancement of working and episodic memory through alpha NFT. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2662-2675, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP may alter depressive behavior of pregnant and lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Cheryl A; Walf, Alicia A

    2004-07-01

    The 5alpha-reduced metabolite of progesterone (P), 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), may mediate progestins' effects to reduce depressive behavior of female rats in part through actions in the hippocampus. To investigate, forced swim test behavior and plasma and hippocampal progestin levels were assessed in groups of rats expected to differ in their 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels due to endogenous differences (pregnant and postpartum), administration of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor (finasteride; 50 mg/kg sc), and/or gestational stress [prenatal stress (PNS)], an animal model of depression. Pregnant rats had higher plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and less depressive behavior (decreased immobility, increased struggling and swimming) in the forced swim test than did postpartum rats. Finasteride, compared to vehicle-administration, reduced plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased depressive behavior (increased immobility, decreased struggling and swimming). PNS was associated with lower hippocampal, but not plasma, 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased swimming compared to that observed in control rats. Together, these data suggest that 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the hippocampus may mediate antidepressive behavior of female rats.

  13. Alternative splicing of T cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain transcripts containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahotka, C; Hansen-Hagge, T E; Bartram, C R

    1995-10-01

    Human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines represent valuable tools to investigate distinct steps of the complex regulatory pathways underlying T cell receptor recombination and expression. A case in point are V delta 2D delta 3 and subsequent V delta 2D delta 3J alpha rearrangements observed in human leukemic pre-B cells as well as in normal lymphopoiesis. The functional expression of these unusual (VD) delta (JC) alpha hybrids is almost exclusively prevented by alternative splicing events. In this report we show that alternative splicing at cryptic splice donor sites within V elements is not a unique feature of hybrid TCR delta/alpha transcripts. Among seven V alpha families analyzed by RT-PCR, alternatively spliced products were observed in TCR alpha recombinations containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements. In contrast to normal peripheral blood cells and thymocytes, the leukemia cell line JM expressing functional V alpha 1J alpha 3C alpha transcripts lacked evidence of aberrant TCR alpha RNA species.

  14. Crystalline anhydrous {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (polymorph {beta}) and crystalline dihydrate {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose: A calorimetric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Susana S. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: susanapinto@ist.utl.pt; Diogo, Herminio P. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: hdiogo@ist.utl.pt; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. [Centro de Quimica-Fisica Molecular, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: mouraramos@ist.utl.pt

    2006-09-15

    The mean values of the standard massic energy of combustion of crystalline anhydrous {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}, polymorph {beta}) and crystalline dihydrate {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (C{sub 12}H{sub 26}O{sub 13}) measured by static-bomb combustion calorimetry in oxygen, at the temperature T=298.15K, are {delta}{sub c}u{sup o}=-(16434.05+/-4.50)J.g{sup -1} and {delta}{sub c}u{sup o}=-(14816.05+/-3.52)J.g{sup -1}, respectively. The standard (p{sup o}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of these compounds were derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of combustion, respectively, {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11},cr)=-(2240.9+/-3.9)kJ.mol{sup -1}, and {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 12}H{sub 26}O{sub 13},cr)=-(2832.6+/-3.6)kJ.mol{sup -1}. The values of the standard enthalpies of formation obtained in this work, together with data on enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution ({delta}{sub sol}H{sup {approx}}) for crystalline dihydrate and amorphous anhydrous trehalose, allow a better insight on the thermodynamic description of the trehalose system which can provide, together with the future research on the subject, a contribution for understanding the metabolism in several organisms, as well as the phase transition between the different polymorphs.

  15. Optimal Trading with Alpha Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Filippo Passerini; Samuel E. Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of optimal trading using general alpha predictors with linear costs and temporary impact. We do this within the framework of stochastic optimization with finite horizon using both limit and market orders. Consistently with other studies, we find that the presence of linear costs induces a no-trading zone when using market orders, and a corresponding market-making zone when using limit orders. We show that, when combining both market and limit orders, the problem is furthe...

  16. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  17. Interventions to improve gross motor performance in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Barbara R; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Coggan, Sarah; Pinto, Rafael Z; Jirikowic, Tracy; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Latimer, Jane

    2016-11-29

    Gross motor skills are fundamental to childhood development. The effectiveness of current physical therapy options for children with mild to moderate gross motor disorders is unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to investigate the effectiveness of conservative interventions to improve gross motor performance in children with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders. A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDro, Cochrane Collaboration, Google Scholar databases and clinical trial registries were searched. Published randomised controlled trials including children 3 to ≤18 years with (i) Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) or Cerebral Palsy (CP) (Gross Motor Function Classification System Level 1) or Developmental Delay or Minimal Acquired Brain Injury or Prematurity (gross motor outcomes obtained using a standardised assessment tool. Meta-analysis was performed to determine the pooled effect of intervention on gross motor function. Methodological quality and strength of meta-analysis recommendations were evaluated using PEDro and the GRADE approach respectively. Of 2513 papers, 9 met inclusion criteria including children with CP (n = 2) or DCD (n = 7) receiving 11 different interventions. Only two of 9 trials showed an effect for treatment. Using the least conservative trial outcomes a large beneficial effect of intervention was shown (SMD:-0.8; 95% CI:-1.1 to -0.5) with "very low quality" GRADE ratings. Using the most conservative trial outcomes there is no treatment effect (SMD:-0.1; 95% CI:-0.3 to 0.2) with "low quality" GRADE ratings. Study limitations included the small number and poor quality of the available trials. Although we found that some interventions with a task-orientated framework can improve gross motor outcomes in children with DCD or CP, these findings are limited by the very low quality of the available evidence. High quality intervention

  18. Self-absorption alpha particle factor in water: interest in the monitoring of specific military sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazoulat, A.; Lecompte, Y.; Bohand, S.; Gerasimo, P.

    2007-01-01

    Self-absorption alpha particle factor validation in water: Interest in the monitoring of specific military sites. The population internal intake prevention by radionuclides present in water needs to monitor the radioactive Level of this water. The French public health legislation introduces four radiological parameters for monitoring water, such as the gross alpha radioactivity. Regarding the alpha particle characteristics, a self-absorption factor has to be established beforehand, not to underestimate the real alpha radioactivity in water samples. The aim of this paper is to describe the procedure used by the laboratory of the French army radioprotection service to determine this f factor, which depends on the water residue mass m after evaporation. The relation is f = 0.0253 m + 1.2813. This formula can be employed for such waters used in this experiment and for masses between 0 and 100 mg. The uncertainty associated is about 11% (k = 2). Some water monitoring examples are given. It is specially the case of depleted uranium shells experiment centres, localized in Gramat and Bourges. (authors)

  19. Alpha particles detection in nitrocellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, M.

    1976-01-01

    The method for the manufacturing of the detection films follows these steps: preparation of the mass which includes nitrocellulose in the form of cotton as raw material ethyl acetate, cellosolve acetate, isopropyl and butyl alcohols as solvents and dioctyl phtalate as plasticiser; dilution of the paste; pouring of the diluted mass; and drying of the detection films. The results obtained experimentally are: The determination of the development times of the different thicknesses of the manufactured films. Response linearity of the detectors, variation of the number of tracks according to the distance of the source to the detector. Sizes of the diameter of the tracks depending of the distance detector-alpha emmission source. As a conclusion we can say the the nitrocellulose detectors are specific for alpha radiation; the more effective thicknesses in uranium prospecting works were those of 60 microns, since for the laboratory works the thicknesses of 30 to 40 microns were the ideal; the development technique of the detection films is simple and cheap and can be realized even in another place than the laboratory; this way of the manufacturing of nitrocellulose detection film sensitive to alpha nuclear radiation is open to future research. (author)

  20. Alpha and beta detection and spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saro, S.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of alpha and beta radioactive decay, the interaction of alpha and beta particles with matter, and their detection and spectrometry are dealt with in seven chapters: 1. Alpha transformation of atomic nuclei; 2. Basic properties of detectors and statistics of detection; 3. Alpha detectors and spectrometers; 4. Applications of alpha detection and spectrometry; 5. Beta transformation of atomic nuclei; 6. Beta particle detectors and spectrometers; 7. Detection of low energy beta particles. Chapter 8 is devoted to sampling and preparation of samples for radiometry. (E.F.)

  1. Innovations in Los Alamos alpha box design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, J.M.; Dowler, K.E.; Cook, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Destructive examinations of irradiated fuel pins containing plutonium fuel must be performed in shielded hot cells with strict provisions for containing the plutonium. Alpha boxes provide containment for the plutonium, toxic fission products, and other hazardous highly radioactive materials. The alpha box contains windows for viewing and a variety of transfer systems specially designed to allow transfers in and out of the alpha box without spread of the hazardous materials that are contained in the box. Alpha boxes have been in use in the Wing 9 hot cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than 20 years. Features of the newly designed alpha boxes are presented

  2. Measurement and analysis of $\\alpha$ particle induced reactions on yttrium

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, N L; Chintalapudi, S N

    2000-01-01

    Excitation functions for /sup 89/Y[( alpha ,3n); ( alpha ,4n); ( alpha , p3n); ( alpha , alpha n); ( alpha , alpha 2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ( alpha , xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ( alpha , alpha xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ( alpha ,4n), ( alpha , p3n), ( alpha , alpha n) and ( alpha , alpha 2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (23 refs).

  3. Measurement and analysis of alpha particle induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N.L.; Gadkari, M.S. [Baroda Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Chintalapudi, S.N. [IUC-DAEF Calcutta Centre, Calcutta (India)

    2000-05-01

    Excitation functions for {sup 89}Y[({alpha},3n);({alpha},4n);({alpha},p3n);({alpha},{alpha}n);({alpha},{alpha}2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ({alpha},xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ({alpha},{alpha}xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ({alpha},4n), ({alpha},p3n), ({alpha},{alpha}n) and ({alpha},{alpha}2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (orig.)

  4. The heavy quarkonium spectrum at order $m\\alpha_{s}^{5}\\ln\\alpha_{s}$

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, Nora; Soto, Joan; Vairo, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We compute the complete leading-log terms of the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order corrections to potential NRQCD. As a by-product we obtain the leading logs at $O(m\\alpha_s^5)$ in the heavy quarkonium spectrum. These leading logs, when $\\Lambda_{QCD} \\ll m\\alpha_s^2$, give the complete $O(m\\alpha_s^5 \\ln \\alpha_s)$ corrections to the heavy quarkonium spectrum.

  5. ECONOMETRIC METHODS AND MODELS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORIAL INFLUENCE OF THE GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin ANGHELACHE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gross Domestic Product is the most representative synthetic indicator that expresses the evolution of the national economy. This macroeconomic indicator is used in the analysis of the level of the national economy, as well as the dynamic evolution of the national economy. In the forecast studies we rely on GDP evolution. In these situations, we might identify the factors of economic growth, and their influence. On the evolution of GDP have influence some factors: employees, labour productivity, the level of technology, investments and foreign direct investment, imports, exports or net exports, total consumption, and so on. We can analyze the data series and graphical representation. Detailed analysis is performed using econometric methods, parameters which express interdependence, meaning and intensity of correlation. Thus, we estimate the economic developments. The authors studied and proposed some econometric models for the analysis of economic growth/forecast. The novelty is that we adapt some econometric models to macroeconomic analysis.

  6. How we can Transform the Constant Alpha Value into a Variable Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta P, C.F.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    For the cost-benefit analysis used in the quantitative decision aiding techniques the alpha value is the aim of the question, because it is the alpha value that, directly or indirectly determines the analytical solution Y, consequently, the workers doses distribution involved with ionizing radiation source. Currently, each country adopts a single alpha value that can be linked to the annual gross product (GNP) per capita. Otherwise, the risks due to the ionizing radiation practices Y the ultimate objective, that is, to decrease the doses to admissible levels, are the same in any place of the world. In this case, it seems reasonable to think that the alpha value would be the same in every country. With this view, this paper has the objective to present, as suggestion, how it is possible to make a variable of the alpha value. To achieve this goal using a rigorous mathematical model, the protection options were linked by a curve selected among several curves that best fit in place of the straight line as the ICRP does. The curve selection was applied to the small uranium mine example provide by ICRP in publication number 55. Introducing a variable alpha value as function of the highest individual dose, their values will not depend on the GNP per capita anymore, but on the maximum individual dose distribution Y the length of time necessary to comprise, if possible, the aim of 1/10 of the annual dose limits for workers foreseen in the successive optimizations, that is, to range the individual dose zone considered acceptable. (Author)

  7. How we can Transform the Constant Alpha Value into a Variable Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta P, C.F.; Sordi, G.M.A.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: cani@osite.com.br

    2006-07-01

    For the cost-benefit analysis used in the quantitative decision aiding techniques the alpha value is the aim of the question, because it is the alpha value that, directly or indirectly determines the analytical solution Y, consequently, the workers doses distribution involved with ionizing radiation source. Currently, each country adopts a single alpha value that can be linked to the annual gross product (GNP) per capita. Otherwise, the risks due to the ionizing radiation practices Y the ultimate objective, that is, to decrease the doses to admissible levels, are the same in any place of the world. In this case, it seems reasonable to think that the alpha value would be the same in every country. With this view, this paper has the objective to present, as suggestion, how it is possible to make a variable of the alpha value. To achieve this goal using a rigorous mathematical model, the protection options were linked by a curve selected among several curves that best fit in place of the straight line as the ICRP does. The curve selection was applied to the small uranium mine example provide by ICRP in publication number 55. Introducing a variable alpha value as function of the highest individual dose, their values will not depend on the GNP per capita anymore, but on the maximum individual dose distribution Y the length of time necessary to comprise, if possible, the aim of 1/10 of the annual dose limits for workers foreseen in the successive optimizations, that is, to range the individual dose zone considered acceptable. (Author)

  8. Cancer therapy with alpha-emitters labeled peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2010-05-01

    Actively targeted alpha-particles offer specific tumor cell killing action with less collateral damage to surrounding normal tissues than beta-emitters. During the last decade, radiolabeled peptides that bind to different receptors on the tumors have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents both in the preclinical and clinical settings. Advantages of radiolabeled peptides over antibodies include relatively straightforward chemical synthesis, versatility, easier radiolabeling, rapid clearance from the circulation, faster penetration and more uniform distribution into tissues, and less immunogenicity. Rapid internalization of the radiolabeled peptides with equally rapid re-expression of the cell surface target is a highly desirable property that enhances the total delivery of these radionuclides into malignant sites. Peptides, such as octreotide, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogues, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing peptides, bombesin derivatives, and others may all be feasible for use with alpha-emitters. The on-going preclinical work has primarily concentrated on octreotide and octreotate analogues labeled with Bismuth-213 and Astatine-211. In addition, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogue has been labeled with Lead-212/Bismuth-212 in vivo generator and demonstrated the encouraging therapeutic efficacy in treatment of experimental melanoma. Obstacles that continue to obstruct widespread acceptance of alpha-emitter-labeled peptides are primarily the supply of these radionuclides and concerns about potential kidney toxicity. New sources and methods for production of these medically valuable radionuclides and better understanding of mechanisms related to the peptide renal uptake and clearance should speed up the introduction of alpha-emitter-labeled peptides into the clinic. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ALPHA-BETA SEPARATION PORTFOLIO STRATEGIES FOR ISLAMIC FINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyn Khokhlov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical alpha-beta separation model that can be used to create a core-satellite portfolio management strategy that complies with the principles of Islamic finance. Methodology. Core-satellite portfolio construction methodology is used to implement the alpha-beta separation approach, where the core part of the portfolio is managed using the tracking error minimization strategy, and the satellite part of the portfolio is managed using the mean-variance optimization strategy. Results of the portfolio dynamics clearly show that a significant amount of value was created by alpha-beta separation. The typical alpha ranges from 4% to 5.7%. The most aggressive portfolio strategies that allow short positions in the satellite portfolio work best with frequent rebalancing and benefit from the active bets. Smoothing technique that was introduced to decrease the portfolio turnover and stabilize its composition works better when active bets are less efficient, particularly with less frequent rebalancing. The best risk-return combinations are achieved with modest (3% to 10% allocation of the total portfolio to the satellite, and the remaining part (90% to 97% being managed in order to minimize the tracking error. Practical implications. The alpha-beta separation framework suggested in this paper can be used to enhance the portfolio management techniques for the hedge funds that operate under tight restrictions, particularly under the Islamic finance principles. The mathematical models developed in this paper allow practical implementation of the alphabeta separation concept. Originality/value. While the idea of alpha-beta separation existed in hedge fund management before, there was no comprehensive mathematical model under it, so its implementation was based on the ad hoc approach. This paper introduces such a mathematical model and demonstrates how portfolio managers can create value for their clients using it.

  10. The Gross Morphology and Histochemistry of Respiratory Muscles in Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Pamela B.; Piscitelli, Marina A.; McLellan, William A.; Rommel, Sentiel A.; Dearolf, Jennifer L.; Pabst, D. Ann

    2011-01-01

    Most mammals possess stamina because their locomotor and respiratory (i.e., ventilatory) systems are mechanically coupled. These systems are decoupled, however, in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) as they swim on a breath-hold. Locomotion and ventilation are coupled only during their brief surfacing event, when they respire explosively (up to 90% of total lung volume in approximately 0.3s) (Ridgway et al., 1969). The predominantly slow-twitch fiber profile of their diaphragm (Dearolf, 2003) suggests that this muscle does not likely power their rapid ventilatory event. Based upon Bramble's (1989) biomechanical model of locomotor-respiratory coupling in galloping mammals, it was hypothesized that locomotor muscles function to power ventilation in bottlenose dolphins. It was further hypothesized that these muscles would be composed predominantly of fast-twitch fibers to facilitate the bottlenose dolphin's rapid ventilation. The gross morphology of cranio-cervical (scalenus, sternocephalicus, sternohyoid), thoracic (intercostals, transverse thoracis), and lumbo-pelvic (hypaxialis, rectus abdominis, abdominal obliques) muscles (n=7) and the fiber-type profiles (n=6) of selected muscles (scalenus, sternocephalicus, sternohyoid, rectus abdominis) of bottlenose dolphins were investigated. Physical manipulations of excised thoracic units were carried out to investigate potential actions of these muscles. Results suggest that the cranio-cervical muscles act to draw the sternum and associated ribs cranio-dorsally, which flares the ribs laterally, and increases the thoracic cavity volume required for inspiration. The lumbo-pelvic muscles act to draw the sternum and caudal ribs caudally, which decreases the volumes of the thoracic and abdominal cavities required for expiration. All muscles investigated were composed predominantly of fast-twitch fibers (range 61-88% by area) and appear histochemically poised for rapid contraction. These combined results suggest that

  11. Consistency Between Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Gross Primary Production of Vegetation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Jin, Cui; Dong, Jinwei; Zhou, Sha; Wagle, Pradeep; Joiner, Joanna; Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhang , Geli; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the gross primary production (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is vital for a better understanding of the spatial-temporal patterns of the global carbon cycle. In this study,we estimate GPP in North America (NA) using the satellite-based Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) images at 8-day temporal and 500 meter spatial resolutions, and NCEP-NARR (National Center for Environmental Prediction-North America Regional Reanalysis) climate data. The simulated GPP (GPP (sub VPM)) agrees well with the flux tower derived GPP (GPPEC) at 39 AmeriFlux sites (155 site-years). The GPP (sub VPM) in 2010 is spatially aggregated to 0.5 by 0.5-degree grid cells and then compared with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data from Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2), which is directly related to vegetation photosynthesis. Spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics of GPP (sub VPM) and GOME-2 SIF show good consistency. At the biome scale, GPP (sub VPM) and SIF shows strong linear relationships (R (sup 2) is greater than 0.95) and small variations in regression slopes ((4.60-5.55 grams Carbon per square meter per day) divided by (milliwatts per square meter per nanometer per square radian)). The total annual GPP (sub VPM) in NA in 2010 is approximately 13.53 petagrams Carbon per year, which accounts for approximately 11.0 percent of the global terrestrial GPP and is within the range of annual GPP estimates from six other process-based and data-driven models (11.35-22.23 petagrams Carbon per year). Among the seven models, some models did not capture the spatial pattern of GOME-2 SIF data at annual scale, especially in Midwest cropland region. The results from this study demonstrate the reliable performance of VPM at the continental scale, and the potential of SIF data being used as a benchmark to compare with GPP models.

  12. Post mortem CT scans as a supplementary teaching method in gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenting, Mara; Mueller, Tjark; Raupach, Tobias; Luers, Georg; Wehrenberg, Uwe; Gehl, Axel; Anders, Sven

    2016-11-01

    Despite increasing the integration of radiologic imaging teaching in anatomy dissection courses, studies on learning outcome of these interventions are rare or have certain shortcomings in study design. In this study, students were randomly allocated to an intervention group (n=53) receiving five weekly CT-courses of 30min duration during a 6-week gross anatomy course. Students in the control group (n=329) received no additional teaching. Total teaching time did not differ among groups. All students were asked to participate in a pre- and post-course self-assessment (comparative self-assessment; CSA) of learning objectives related to anatomical spatial relationships and a post-course formative assessment on radiologic anatomy. Items of both assessments were matched. Moreover, students of the intervention group were asked to evaluate the CT-courses. Most participants of the intervention group classified the CT-courses as "good" or "very good". Nevertheless, results of the CSA and formative assessment did not differ among study and control groups. These findings indicate that the teaching intervention (CT-courses) did not have an impact on recognition of anatomical structures in radiological images beyond the knowledge acquired in the anatomical dissection course. As a consequence, interventions integrating radiology imaging into dissection courses should be based on psychological considerations of how to best foster student learning. Learning outcome has to be monitored, as results of evaluation surveys can be misleading. Further research on curricular concepts is needed considering both short- and long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of foliage clumping on the estimation of global terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing M.; Mo, Gang; Pisek, Jan; Liu, Jane; Deng, Feng; Ishizawa, Misa; Chan, Douglas

    2012-03-01

    Sunlit and shaded leaf separation proposed by Norman (1982) is an effective way to upscale from leaf to canopy in modeling vegetation photosynthesis. The Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) makes use of this methodology, and has been shown to be reliable in modeling the gross primary productivity (GPP) derived from CO2flux and tree ring measurements. In this study, we use BEPS to investigate the effect of canopy architecture on the global distribution of GPP. For this purpose, we use not only leaf area index (LAI) but also the first ever global map of the foliage clumping index derived from the multiangle satellite sensor POLDER at 6 km resolution. The clumping index, which characterizes the degree of the deviation of 3-dimensional leaf spatial distributions from the random case, is used to separate sunlit and shaded LAI values for a given LAI. Our model results show that global GPP in 2003 was 132 ± 22 Pg C. Relative to this baseline case, our results also show: (1) global GPP is overestimated by 12% when accurate LAI is available but clumping is ignored, and (2) global GPP is underestimated by 9% when the effective LAI is available and clumping is ignored. The clumping effects in both cases are statistically significant (p < 0.001). The effective LAI is often derived from remote sensing by inverting the measured canopy gap fraction to LAI without considering the clumping. Global GPP would therefore be generally underestimated when remotely sensed LAI (actually effective LAI by our definition) is used. This is due to the underestimation of the shaded LAI and therefore the contribution of shaded leaves to GPP. We found that shaded leaves contribute 50%, 38%, 37%, 39%, 26%, 29% and 21% to the total GPP for broadleaf evergreen forest, broadleaf deciduous forest, evergreen conifer forest, deciduous conifer forest, shrub, C4 vegetation, and other vegetation, respectively. The global average of this ratio is 35%.

  14. HUMAN CORONARY ARTERIES- A STUDY BASED ON GROSS ANATOMY AND CORONARY CAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayamma K. N

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Present study is an attempt to throw light upon the coronary arterial pattern, variations in arterial distribution and extent of intercoronary anastomosis and arterial preponderance in different age groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total of 115 hearts were made use for this study. Ninety hearts were dissected for the gross anatomical study of coronary arteries and 25 hearts including three fetal hearts were used for the coronary cast study. The right and left coronary arteries were traced from aortic sinus along the atrioventricular groove to the area of its termination. The atrial ventricular and septal branches were traced and looked for anastomosis. Coronary casts were prepared by injecting coloured liquid latex through the coronary ostia and the branching pattern and anastomosis were studied. The coronary arterial pattern, extent of distribution of its branches, arterial preponderance and variations were observed. RESULTS It was found that 73 % cases of SA nodal branch arise from right coronary artery and 27 % from circumflex branch of left coronary artery. SA node has dual blood supply from both coronary arteries in 4% cases. Right coronary preponderance was observed in 83% of cases and left coronary preponderance in 11 % cases, and balanced supply in 6% cases. Coronary cast was helpful to understand the branching pattern of vessels, and the anastomosis of small capillaries. It was also seen that all 11 % of left preponderance were seen in male hearts and all of the 31 female hearts dissected were right preponderant. CONCLUSION Coronary arteries are called end arteries functionally. Right coronary artery originates from anterior aortic sinus in all cases except one which takes origin from posterior left aortic sinus along with left coronary artery. Right coronary preponderance is observed in 83% cases. Left coronary artery branching pattern shows variability. Left coronary preponderance was observed in 11% and all cases are male

  15. Improved assessment of gross and net primary productivity of Canada's landmass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M.; Price, David T.; Kurz, Werner A.; Liu, Jane; Boisvenue, Céline; Hember, Robbie A.; Wu, Chaoyang; Chang, Kuo-Hsien

    2013-12-01

    assess Canada's gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) using boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) at 250 m spatial resolution with improved input parameter and driver fields and phenology and nutrient release parameterization schemes. BEPS is a process-based two-leaf enzyme kinetic terrestrial ecosystem model designed to simulate energy, water, and carbon (C) fluxes using spatial data sets of meteorology, remotely sensed land surface variables, soil properties, and photosynthesis and respiration rate parameters. Two improved key land surface variables, leaf area index (LAI) and land cover type, are derived at 250 m from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor. For diagnostic error assessment, we use nine forest flux tower sites where all measured C flux, meteorology, and ancillary data sets are available. The errors due to input drivers and parameters are then independently corrected for Canada-wide GPP and NPP simulations. The optimized LAI use, for example, reduced the absolute bias in GPP from 20.7% to 1.1% for hourly BEPS simulations. Following the error diagnostics and corrections, daily GPP and NPP are simulated over Canada at 250 m spatial resolution, the highest resolution simulation yet for the country or any other comparable region. Total NPP (GPP) for Canada's land area was 1.27 (2.68) Pg C for 2008, with forests contributing 1.02 (2.2) Pg C. The annual comparisons between measured and simulated GPP show that the mean differences are not statistically significant (p > 0.05, paired t test). The main BEPS simulation error sources are from the driver fields.

  16. Method for calculation of upper limit internal alpha dose rates to aquatic organisms with application of plutonium-239 in plankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Baptista, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the calculation of upper limit internal alpha dose rates to aquatic organisms is presented. The mean alpha energies per disintegration of radionuclides of interest are listed to be used in standard methodologies to calculate dose to aquatic biota. As an application, the upper limits for the alpha dose rates from 239 Pu to the total body of plankton are estimated based on data available in open literature [pt

  17. Relating life cycle assessment indicators to gross value added for Dutch dairy farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Dolman, M.A.; Van Calker, K.J.; De Boer, I.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable dairy production requires farms that are economically viable, environmentally sound and socially acceptable. A low environmental impact of milk production is not necessarily associated with an economically viable farm. To gain insight into a possible trade-off between economic and environmental sustainability, the relation between the environmental and economic indicators of dairy farms was quantified, and farm characteristics that influence this relation were identified. Economic and environmental indicators were quantified for 119 specialized dairy farms in 2005, based on data from the Dutch Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). Economic indicators used were: gross value added expressed per kg fat-and-protein-corrected milk (FPCM) or expressed per unit of labour, i.e. labour productivity. Environmental indicators used were: land use per kg FPCM, energy use per kg FPCM, global warming potential per kg FPCM, eutrophication and acidification potential per kg FPCM or per ha of land. Environmental indicators were deduced from a life cycle assessment. High labour productivity on dairy farms was associated with low on-farm energy use, total and on-farm land use, total and on-farm global warming potential, and total and off-farm acidification potential per kg FPCM. High labour productivity, however, was associated also with high on-farm eutrophication and acidification potential per hectare. From partial least squares regression analysis, it was concluded that relations between economic and environmental indicators were affected mainly by milk production per ha, annual milk production per cow, farm size, and amount of concentrates per kg FPCM. An increase in annual milk production per cow, for example, not only increased labour productivity, reduced energy use and global warming potential per kg FPCM but also, in the case of an unchanged stocking density, increased eutrophication and acidification per ha. To be economically and environmentally sustainable

  18. Diagnostic extrapolation of gross primary production from flux tower sites to the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christian; Reichstein, Markus; Tomelleri, Enrico; Ciais, Philippe; Jung, Martin; Carvalhais, Nuno; Rödenbeck, Christian; Baldocchi, Dennis; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Papale, Dario

    2010-05-01

    The uptake of atmospheric CO2 by plant photosynthesis is the largest global carbon flux and is thought of driving most terrestrial carbon cycle processes. While the photosynthesis processes at the leaf and canopy levels are quite well understood, so far only very crude estimates of its global integral, the Gross Primary Production (GPP) can be found in the literature. Existing estimates have been lacking sound empirical basis. Reasons for such limitations lie in the absence of direct estimates of ecosystem-level GPP and methodological difficulties in scaling local carbon flux measurements to global scale across heterogeneous vegetation. Here, we present global estimates of GPP based on different diagnostic approaches. These up-scaling schemes integrated high-resolution remote sensing products, such as land cover, the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) and leaf-area index, with carbon flux measurements from the global network of eddy covariance stations (FLUXNET). In addition, meteorological datasets from diverse sources and river runoff observations were used. All the above-mentioned approaches were also capable of estimating uncertainties. With six novel or newly parameterized and highly diverse up-scaling schemes we consistently estimated a global GPP of 122 Pg C y-1. In the quantification of the total uncertainties, we considered uncertainties arising from the measurement technique and data processing (i.e. partitioning into GPP and respiration). Furthermore, we accounted for the uncertainties of drivers and the structural uncertainties of the extrapolation approach. The total propagation led to a global uncertainty of 15 % of the mean value. Although our mean GPP estimate of 122 Pg C y-1 is similar to the previous postulate by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2001, we estimated a different variability among ecoregions. The tropics accounted for 32 % of GPP showing a greater importance of tropical ecosystems for the global carbon

  19. The effect of height, weight and head circumference on gross motor development in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Penelope Jane; Ware, Robert S; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether height, weight, head circumference and/or relationships between these factors are associated with gross motor milestone acquisition in children with achondroplasia. Population-based data regarding timing of major gross motor milestones up to 5 years were correlated with height, weight and head circumference at birth and 12 months in 48 children with achondroplasia born in Australia and New Zealand between 2000 and 2009. Although as a group children with achondroplasia showed delayed gross motor skill acquisition, within group differences in height, weight or head circumference did not appear to influence timing of gross motor skills before 5 years. The exception was lie to sit transitioning, which appears likely to occur earlier if the child is taller and heavier at 12 months, and later if the child has significant head-to-body disproportion. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between common musculoskeletal impairments associated with achondroplasia and timing of gross motor achievement. Identification of the musculoskeletal factors that exacerbate delays in transitioning from lying to sitting will assist clinicians to provide more proactive assessment, advice and intervention regarding motor skill acquisition for this population. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  1. Evaluation of the contributions of four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmang Wu

    Full Text Available Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more strongly in the eastern region than in other regions. Investment and inter-provincial exports were the major impetus for gross domestic product growth in the central and western regions. We also found that consumption played a minimal role in driving the growth of the gross domestic product in all regions in China. According to these findings, although various regions can share much in terms of policies to transform the impetus for economic growth, there should be different foci for different regions. Their shared policy is to increase the role of final consumption in stimulating economic growth. Region-specific policies mandate that the eastern region should strengthen the driving force provided by international exports and that the central and western regions should strengthen indigenous growth capabilities by improving scientific innovation, industrial support, and institutional innovation.

  2. Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio: Use as a Control for Natural Progression in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Pierre; Marois, Mikael; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Vanasse, Michel; Lambert, Jean; Ballaz, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    To develop a new way to interpret Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) score improvement in studies conducted without control groups in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The curves, which describe the pattern of motor development according to the children's Gross Motor Function Classification System level, were used as historical control to define the GMFM-66 expected natural evolution in children with CP. These curves have been modeled and generalized to fit the curve to particular children characteristics. Research center. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Assuming that the GMFM-66 score evolution followed the shape of the Rosenbaum curves, by taking into account the age and GMFM-66 score of children, the expected natural evolution of the GMFM-66 score was predicted for any group of children with CP who were Ratio, was defined as follows: Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio=measured GMFM-66 score change/expected natural evolution. For practical or ethical reasons, it is almost impossible to use control groups in studies evaluating effectiveness of many therapeutic modalities. The Gross Motor Function Measure Evolution Ratio gives the opportunity to take into account the expected natural evolution of the gross motor function of children with CP, which is essential to accurately interpret the therapy effect on the GMFM-66. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test of Children's Gross Motor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Tung, Li-Chen; Chou, Yeh-Tai; Wu, Hing-Man; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2018-03-01

    To (1) develop a computerized adaptive test for gross motor skills (GM-CAT) as a diagnostic test and an outcome measure, using the gross motor skills subscale of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT-GM) as the candidate item bank; and (2) examine the psychometric properties and the efficiency of the GM-CAT. Retrospective study. A developmental center of a medical center. Children with and without developmental delay (N=1738). Not applicable. The CDIIT-GM contains 56 universal items on gross motor skills assessing children's antigravity control, locomotion, and body movement coordination. The item bank of the GM-CAT had 44 items that met the dichotomous Rasch model's assumptions. High Rasch person reliabilities were found for each estimated gross motor skill for the GM-CAT (Rasch person reliabilities =.940-.995, SE=.68-2.43). For children aged 6 to 71 months, the GM-CAT had good concurrent validity (r values =.97-.98), adequate to excellent diagnostic accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristics curve =.80-.98), and moderate to large responsiveness (effect size =.65-5.82). The averages of items administered for the GM-CAT were 7 to 11, depending on the age group. The results of this study support the use of the GM-CAT as a diagnostic and outcome measure to estimate children's gross motor skills in both research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fine and gross motor skills: The effects on skill-focused dual-tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisbeck, Louisa D; Diekfuss, Jed A

    2015-10-01

    Dual-task methodology often directs participants' attention towards a gross motor skill involved in the execution of a skill, but researchers have not investigated the comparative effects of attention on fine motor skill tasks. Furthermore, there is limited information about participants' subjective perception of workload with respect to task performance. To examine this, the current study administered the NASA-Task Load Index following a simulated shooting dual-task. The task required participants to stand 15 feet from a projector screen which depicted virtual targets and fire a modified Glock 17 handgun equipped with an infrared laser. Participants performed the primary shooting task alone (control), or were also instructed to focus their attention on a gross motor skill relevant to task execution (gross skill-focused) and a fine motor skill relevant to task execution (fine skill-focused). Results revealed that workload was significantly greater during the fine skill-focused task for both skill levels, but performance was only affected for the lesser-skilled participants. Shooting performance for the lesser-skilled participants was greater during the gross skill-focused condition compared to the fine skill-focused condition. Correlational analyses also demonstrated a significant negative relationship between shooting performance and workload during the gross skill-focused task for the higher-skilled participants. A discussion of the relationship between skill type, workload, skill level, and performance in dual-task paradigms is presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 ≤ IQ ≥ 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in both groups. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and a self-report measure were used to assess children's gross motor skills and sports participation, respectively. The children with ID scored significantly lower on almost all specific motor skill items than the typically developing children. Children with mild ID scored lower on the locomotor skills than children with borderline ID. Furthermore, we found in all groups that children with higher object-control scores participated more in organized sports than children with lower object-control scores. Our results support the importance of attention for well-developed gross motor skills in children with borderline and mild ID, especially to object-control skills, which might contribute positively to their sports participation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal of uranium and gross radioactivity from coal bottom ash by CaCl{sub 2} roasting followed by HNO{sub 3} leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Xuefei; Qi, Guangxia; Sun, Yinglong; Xu, Hui; Wang, Yi, E-mail: yi_wang@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-07-15

    Highlight: • Roasting the ash with CaCl{sub 2} enhanced the removal of uranium and gross radioactivity. • 87.3% of the total uranium was removed via the optimized roast-leach process. • Nearly 90% of gross α and β radioactivity was removed via the roast-leach process. • Molten CaCl{sub 2} promoted the incorporation of Ca and Al into Si-O matrices in ash. • Radionuclides were removed by the acid decomposition of newly formed silicates. - Abstract: A roast-leach method using CaCl{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} to remove uranium and gross radioactivity in coal bottom ash was investigated. Heat treatment of the ash with 100% CaCl{sub 2} (900 °C, 2 h) significantly enhanced uranium leachability (>95%) compared with direct acid-leaching (22.6–25.5%). The removal efficiency of uranium and gross radioactivity increased steeply with increasing CaCl{sub 2} content, from 10% to 50%, and a HNO{sub 3} leaching time from 5 min to 1 h, but remained nearly constant or decreased slightly with increasing CaCl{sub 2} dosage >50% or acid-leaching time >1 h. The majority of the uranium (87.3%), gross α (92.9%) and gross β (84.9%) were removed under the optimized roast-leach conditions (50% CaCl{sub 2}, 1 M HNO{sub 3} leaching for 1 h). The mineralogical characteristics of roasted clinker indicated that molten CaCl{sub 2} promoted the incorporation of Ca into silica and silicates and resulted in its progressive susceptibility to acid attack. Uranium and other radionuclides, most likely present in the form of silicates or in association with miscellaneous silicates in the highest density fraction (>2.5 g mL{sup −1}), were probably leached out as the result of the acid decomposition of newly formed “gelatinizing silicates”.

  7. Alpha-emitting isotopes and chromium in a coastal California aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Izbicki, John A.; Murtaugh, Joseph M.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alluvium in Piedra de Lumbre basin higher radionuclides likely from natural Th. • Natural uranium decay-chain isotopes, including Ra, present in marine deposits. • Marine deposits also contain low concentrations of chromium. • Radionuclides and chromium concentrations lower in alluvium in the Las Flores basin. - Abstract: The unadjusted 72-h gross alpha activities in water from two wells completed in marine and alluvial deposits in a coastal southern California aquifer 40 km north of San Diego were 15 and 25 picoCuries per liter (pCi/L). Although activities were below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 15 pCi/L, when adjusted for uranium activity; there is concern that new wells in the area may exceed MCLs, or that future regulations may limit water use from the wells. Coupled well-bore flow and depth-dependent water-quality data collected from the wells in 2011 (with analyses for isotopes within the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay-chains) show gross alpha activity in marine deposits is associated with decay of naturally-occurring 238 U and its daughter 234 U. Radon activities in marine deposits were as high as 2230 pCi/L. In contrast, gross alpha activities in overlying alluvium within the Piedra de Lumbre watershed, eroded from the nearby San Onofre Hills, were associated with decay of 232 Th, including its daughter 224 Ra. Radon activities in alluvium from Piedra de Lumbre of 450 pCi/L were lower than in marine deposits. Chromium VI concentrations in marine deposits were less than the California MCL of 10 μg/L (effective July 1, 2014) but δ 53 Cr compositions were near zero and within reported ranges for anthropogenic chromium. Alluvial deposits from the nearby Las Flores watershed, which drains a larger area having diverse geology, has low alpha activities and chromium as a result of geologic and geochemical conditions and may be more promising for future water-supply development

  8. Threshold values of ankle dorsiflexion and gross motor function in 60 children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle M; Svensson, Joachim; Thorning, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Background and purpose - Threshold values defining 3 categories of passive range of motion are used in the Cerebral Palsy follow-Up Program to guide clinical decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the threshold values by testing the hypothesis that passive range of motion in ankle...... dorsiflexion is associated with gross motor function and that function differs between the groups of participants in each category. Patients and methods - We analyzed data from 60 ambulatory children (aged 5-9 years) with spastic cerebral palsy. Outcomes were passive range of motion in ankle dorsiflexion...... with flexed and extended knee and gross motor function (Gait Deviation Index, Gait Variable Score of the ankle, peak dorsiflexion during gait, 1-minute walk, Gross Motor Function Measure, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Cerebral Palsy Module, and Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument). Results...

  9. The effects of ultraviolet radiation on the growth and gross morphology of Zea mays, Linn. seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ann Kristine Joy T.; Mendiola, Carlo Paulo T

    2000-03-01

    The study was conducted with a descriptive experimental design in order to determine the effects of broad spectrum ultraviolet radiation on growth factors, seedling height, root length, chlorophyll content, organic weights, and percentage survival, as well as gross morphological factors, leaf, stem, and root appearance, of native sweet corn seedlings. The study was limited to the seedling stage of the plant and observations were taken after 20 days of treatment. The results gathered show that there was a visible manifestation of the detrimental effects of UV on the irradiated seedlings. There were observed decreases in the growth parameters while the gross morphological parameters exhibited signs of wilting and stress. It was therefore concluded that based on the observed results, UV had a detrimental effect on the studied growth and gross morphological parameters. (Author)

  10. Measurement of gross beta radioactivity in high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Feng; Lin Cansheng; Zhang Xianzi; Chen Guoan; Zhang Chonghai

    1992-01-01

    Using beta plastic scintillation counter of low level background, gross beta radioactivity of twelve samples for high-level liquid waste is determined directly. Beta efficiency curves of plastic scintillation counter for four mass thickness are calibrated in advance. Determining gross beta radioactivity, gross efficiency of the scintillation counter for various energy beta ray is calculated via weighted mean method with the ratio of radioactivity for each nuclide. The ratio of radioactivity for nuclides which have gamma disintegration is determined in terms of the radioactivity measured by gamma spectrometer. The ratio of the radioactivity for 90 Sr which has purity beta disintegration is calculated in terms of half life time approximation. The ratio of the radioactivity for 147 Pm which also has purity disintegration is calculated by means of apparent cooling-time approximation. The uncertainty of results for the present work is about +-15%

  11. a Gross Error Elimination Method for Point Cloud Data Based on Kd-Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Q.; Huang, G.; Yang, S.

    2018-04-01

    Point cloud data has been one type of widely used data sources in the field of remote sensing. Key steps of point cloud data's pro-processing focus on gross error elimination and quality control. Owing to the volume feature of point could data, existed gross error elimination methods need spend massive memory both in space and time. This paper employed a new method which based on Kd-tree algorithm to construct, k-nearest neighbor algorithm to search, settled appropriate threshold to determine with result turns out a judgement that whether target point is or not an outlier. Experimental results show that, our proposed algorithm will help to delete gross error in point cloud data and facilitate to decrease memory consumption, improve efficiency.

  12. Combined climate factors alleviate changes in gross soil nitrogen dynamics in heathlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorsne, Anna-Karin; Rutting, Tobias; Ambus, Per

    2014-01-01

    of exposure to three climate change factors, i.e. warming, elevated CO2 (eCO(2)) and summer drought, applied both in isolation and in combination. By conducting laboratory N-15 tracing experiments we show that warming increased both gross N mineralization and nitrification rates. In contrast, gross......The ongoing climate change affects biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, but the magnitude and direction of this impact is yet unclear. To shed further light on the climate change impact, we investigated alterations in the soil nitrogen (N) cycling in a Danish heathland after 5 years......CO(2). In the full treatment combination, simulating the predicted climate for the year 2075, gross N transformations were only moderately affected compared to control, suggesting a minor alteration of the N cycle due to climate change. Overall, our study confirms the importance of multifactorial field...

  13. Gross N transformation rates after application of household compost or domestic sewage sludge to agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Kure, L.K.; Jensen, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    Gross N mineralization and immobilization was examined in soil amended with compost and sewage sludge on seven occasions during a year using N-15 pool dilution and enrichment techniques. Gross N mineralization was initially stimulated with both wastes and accelerated through the first 112 days...... of incubation, peaking at 5 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) with compost compared with 4 mg N.kg(-1).d(-1) in control and sludge-treated soil. The magnitudes of mineralization rates exceeded those of immobilization by on average 6.3 ( compost) and 11.4 ( sludge) times, leading to a persistent net N mineralization cumulating...... up to 160 mg N.kg(-1) soil(compost) and 54 mg N.kg(-1) soil (sludge) over the season from May to November. The numerical model FLUAZ comprehensively predicted rates of gross mineralization and immobilization. Sludge exhibited an early season N-release, whereas compost released only 10% of the N...

  14. Improvement to the gross theory of β decay by inclusion of change in parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    An improvement to the single-particle structure is made to the gross theory, which is a global β -decay model. The gross theory is based on the sum rule of the intensity of the β -decay transition and a strength function. This model provides reasonable results for β -decay rates and delayed neutrons for the entire nuclear mass region. An attempt is made to improve the gross theory of nuclear β decay by considering the change in parity at the single-particle level of ground-state nuclei. In this treatment, the nuclear matrix elements are suppressed when the parity of the single neutron and proton levels is different for the allowed transition. The assignment of parity is performed using the Woods-Saxon-type single-particle potential. The discrepancies from experimental half-lives, which appeared in the vicinity of the magic numbers of neutrons and protons, are systematically improved in the nuclear mass region.

  15. Relationships Between Gross Motor Skills and Social Function in Young Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Jamie M; Long, Toby M; Biasini, Fred

    2018-05-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and social function in young boys with autism spectrum disorder. Twenty-one children with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition and the Miller Function and Participation Scales were used to assess gross motor skills. The Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales was used to assess social function. Moderately high correlations were found between overall gross motor and social skills (r = 0.644) and between the core stability motor subtest and overall social skills (r = -0.672). Specific motor impairments in stability, motor accuracy, and object manipulation scores were predictive of social function. This study suggests that motor skills and social function are related in young boys with autism. Implications for physical therapy intervention are also discussed.

  16. Controls on gross fluxes of nitrous oxide and methane from an active agricultural ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. H.; Silver, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural soils can be a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Most research on the dynamics of these gases measure net fluxes across the soil-atmosphere interface. This approach limits our ability to determine driving variables because production and consumption processes occur simultaneously, and may be controlled by different factors. We used the trace gas stable isotope pool dilution technique to simultaneously measure field rates of gross production and consumption of N2O and CH4 during the growing season in a corn field located in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California. We also measured net nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates, soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to explore their role as drivers of greenhouse gas fluxes. Across five sampling dates spanning from seeding to senescence, net N2O fluxes ranged from 0 - 4.5 mg N m-2 d-1 and averaged 1.6 × 0.2 mg N m-2 d-1 (n = 112). Gross N2O production ranged from 0.09 - 6.6 mg N m-2 d-1 and gross N2O reduction rates ranged from 0.00 - 0.95 mg N m-2 d-1. The N2O yield averaged 0.68 × 0.02 (n = 40). At peak growth (days after seeding 59 and 94), 89 % of the variability in gross N2O production rates was predicted by the combination of soil moisture, soil temperature, net N mineralization, and CO2 emissions (n = 15, p seeding 11, 24, and 171), gross N2O production was most strongly correlated with soil temperature (R2 = 0.20, n = 24, p = 0.03), and gross N2O reduction rates were best predicted by CO2 emissions (R2 = 0.80, n =24, p production in 36 out of 37 measurements. Gross CH4 production reached as high as 5.4 mg C m-2 d-1 with rates trending higher throughout the growing season. Gross CH4 production rates were marginally significantly higher in rows than in inter-rows (p = 0.10). Gross CH4 oxidation did not differ significantly among sampling dates (Figure 2b), averaging 1.1 × 0.2 mg C m-2 d-1 across all measurements (n = 37). However

  17. A GROSS ERROR ELIMINATION METHOD FOR POINT CLOUD DATA BASED ON KD-TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Kang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Point cloud data has been one type of widely used data sources in the field of remote sensing. Key steps of point cloud data’s pro-processing focus on gross error elimination and quality control. Owing to the volume feature of point could data, existed gross error elimination methods need spend massive memory both in space and time. This paper employed a new method which based on Kd-tree algorithm to construct, k-nearest neighbor algorithm to search, settled appropriate threshold to determine with result turns out a judgement that whether target point is or not an outlier. Experimental results show that, our proposed algorithm will help to delete gross error in point cloud data and facilitate to decrease memory consumption, improve efficiency.

  18. Gross motor skill performance in children with and without visual impairments--research to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias O; Haibach, Pamela S; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an empirical basis for teaching gross motor skills in children with visual impairments. For this purpose, gross motor skill performance of 23, 6-12 year old, boys and girls who are blind (ICD-10 H54.0) and 28 sighted controls with comparable age and gender characteristics was compared on six locomotor and six object control tasks using the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition. Results indicate that children who are blind perform significantly (pskills, whereby running, leaping, kicking and catching are the most affected skills, and corresponding differences are related to most running, leaping, kicking and catching component. Practical implications are provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics were examined in children with learning disabilities. As expected, the children with learning disabilities scored poorer on both the locomotor and object-control subtests than their typically developing peers. Furthermore, in children with learning disabilities a specific relationship was observed between reading and locomotor skills and a trend was found for a relationship between mathematics and object-control skills: the larger children's learning lag, the poorer their motor skill scores. This study stresses the importance of specific interventions facilitating both motor and academic abilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of alpha2C-adrenoceptor subtype in spatial working memory as revealed by mice with targeted disruption of the alpha2C-adrenoceptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanila, H; Mustonen, K; Sallinen, J; Scheinin, M; Riekkinen, P

    1999-02-01

    The role of the alpha2C-adrenoceptor subtype in mediating the beneficial effect of alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists on spatial working memory was studied in adult mice with targeted inactivation of the alpha2C-receptor gene (KO) and their wild-type controls (WT). A delayed alternation task was run in a T-maze with mixed delays varying from 20 s to 120 s. Dexmedetomidine, a specific but subtype nonselective alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist, dose-dependently decreased the total number of errors. The effect was strongest at the dose of 5 microg/kg (s.c.), and was observed similarly in KO and WT mice. KO mice performed inferior to WT mice due to a higher number of perseverative errors. Dexmedetomidine slowed initiation of the motor response in the start phase at lower doses in WT mice than in KO mice but no such difference was observed in the return phase of the task, suggesting involvement of alpha2C-adrenoceptors in the cognitive aspect of response preparation or in response sequence initiation. According to these findings, enhancement of spatial working memory is best achieved with alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists which have neither agonistic nor antagonistic effects at the alpha2C-adrenoceptor subtype.