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Sample records for grosbeak pheucticus melanocephalus

  1. Environmental Assessment: Construction and Operation of New Security Forces Facility at Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    mexicanus Black-headed Grosbeak Pheucticus melanocephalus Killdeer Charadrius vociferus Lazuli Bunting Passerina amoena California Gull Larus...californicus Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina Rock Dove Columba livia Brewer’s Sparrow Spizella breweri Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura Lark

  2. Hematological and serum biochemical values of white ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapol Aengwanich

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Hematological and biochemical values are important for diagnosis of clinical signs, showing how disease processes change. This is the first report to demonstrate hematological and serum biochemical values of white ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus in Thailand, which are rare species in tropical countries. The study was carried out in ten healthy white ibises (male, n=5; female, n=5, at the age of 4 years from Khow Khoew Open Zoo, Chon Buri province, Thailand. The results revealed the following information: total red blood cell, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell, percentage of lymphocyte,percentage of heterophil, percentage of monocyte, percentage of eosinophil, percentage of basophil and thrombocyte of white ibis were 2.78±0.70 × 106 cells/µl, 18.75±1.32 g/dl, 46.00±3.59%, 173.51±38.52 fl, 70.73 ±15.42 g/dl, 40.82±1.65 pg, 1.49± 0.66 × 104 cells/µl, 89.70±6.40%, 8.50±6.34%, 0.50±0.97%, 0.90±1.29%, .30±0.95% and 16.2±0.49 × 103 cells/µl, respectively. Serum biochemistry values i.e. serum glucose, serum creatinine, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase of white ibis were 12.55±1.90 mmol/dl, 69.95±13.05 mmol/l, 204.82±56.76 IU/L and 30.43±8.66 IU/L, respectively. Hematological and biochemical values between males and females white ibis were not significantly different (P>0.05.

  3. Reconsidering the taxonomy of the Black-Faced Uacaris, Cacajao melanocephalus group (Mammalia: Pitheciidae), from the northern Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stephen F; Guedes, Patrícia G; Figueiredo-Ready, Wilsea M B; Barnett, Adrian A

    2014-09-24

    The black-faced uacaris are a poorly known group of platyrrhine monkeys from the Rio Negro basin in northwestern Amazonia. Originally described as two distinct species-Cacajao melanocephalus (Humboldt 1812) and Cacajao ouakary (Spix 1823)-from opposite banks of the Negro, they were treated as a single species until the end of the twentieth century, when molecular studies reconfirmed their status as true species. One of these studies not only nominated a third (northern) species, Cacajao ayresi Boubli et al. 2008, but also identified C. ouakary as a junior synonym of C. melanocephalus, resulting in the introduction of a new nomen, Cacajao hosomi Boubli et al. 2008. In the present study, additional evidence on morphological and zoogeographic variables is analyzed, which indicates that C. ouakary should be reinstated, and supports the nomination of a neotype of C. melanocephalus. The molecular and zoogeographic data on the species status of the ayresi form are also re-assessed, leading to the conclusion that, on the basis of the evidence available at the present time, this form should be considered a subspecies of C. melanocephalus. A new taxonomic arrangement is proposed, which recognizes two species, C. ouakary and C. melanocephalus, the latter with two subspecies, C. m. melanocephalus and C. m. ayresi.

  4. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management in Cazenovia Creek Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    Pheucticus ludovicianus rose-breasted grosbeak Passerina cyanea indigo bunting Carpodacus purpureus purple finch Spinus tristis American goldfish...Henslow’s sparrow Pooecetes graminius vesper sparrow Junko hyemalis slate-colored junko (2) Spizella Passerina chipping sparrow Spizella pusilla

  5. Nasal mites of the subfamily Speleognathinae (Ereynetidae) from birds in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, D B; Casto, S D

    1976-06-01

    Nasal mites of the subfamily Speleognathinae were recovered from several species of birds in Texas. New host records include Ophthalmophagus striatus (Crossley) 1952 from Columbigallina passerina, Boydaia clarki Fain 1963 from Callipepla squamata, Boydaia falconis Fain 1956 from Falco sparverius, and Boydaia tyrannus Ford 1959 from Myiarchus cinerascens. Also recovered was Astrida coccyzae Pence 1972 from Coccyzus americanus. Boydaia pheucticola sp. n. from Pheucticus melanocephalus is described. It differs from similar species in the adult female by having the coxal setae formula 2-1-2-0, sensillae clavate but not globose or subglobose, and interior seta on coxa I reduced in size but not vestigial. The larva is differentiated by the modified legs II with one long recurved hooklike claw and a shorter curved claw.

  6. Age-specific density-dependent survival in Mediterranean Gulls Larus melanocephalus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Marvelde, Luc; Meininger, Peter L.; Flamant, Renaud; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2009-01-01

    Survival and reproductive rates often decrease with increasing population density. Such negative density dependence reflects a changing net balance between the benefits and costs of presence of others with increasing density. When densities are low, however, survival and reproductive rates might

  7. Age-specific density-dependent survival in Mediterranean Gulls Larus melanocephalus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Marvelde, Luc; Meininger, Peter L.; Flamant, Renaud; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2009-01-01

    Survival and reproductive rates often decrease with increasing population density. Such negative density dependence reflects a changing net balance between the benefits and costs of presence of others with increasing density. When densities are low, however, survival and reproductive rates might inc

  8. Genetic evaluation of ex situ conservation breeding projects of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii) and Western Tragopan (Tragopan melanocephalus) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh; Garg, Shipra; Javed, Ruheena; Sood, Shudhanta; Singh, Harvinder

    2016-05-01

    When setting-up a captive population, genetic assessment of founders is essential to formulate effective breeding strategies that minimize the negative effects of inbreeding in the successive generations caused by mating between genetically related individuals. We carried out molecular genetic analysis of Cheer Pheasant and Western Tragopan populations of Chail and Sarahan Pheasantries in the State of Himachal Pradesh. The results revealed that the captive stock of Cheer Pheasant is sustaining well and does not exhibit signatures of inbreeding. Conversely, inbreeding is strongly evident in Western Tragopan population. Our study adds new dimensions to the captive management of Cheer Pheasant and Western Tragopan populations and contradicts with a previous study conducted on the same Western Tragopan population of Sarahan Pheasantry using studbook data. This study demonstrates strong evidence for retaining genetic assessment as an integral part to formulate policies/strategies for conservation breeding projects and proposes refining existing studbook records by incorporating microsatellites data and genetic analyses. Zoo Biol. 35:269-273, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A systematic review of the subfamily Syringophilinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) of the Nearctic region. Part 1: quill mites associated with passerines (Aves: Passeriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Spicer, Greg S; Oconnor, Barry M

    2016-02-29

    Quill mites belonging to the subfamily Syringophilinae Lavoipierre, 1953 associated with the Nearctic passeriform birds are revised. All of the 49 known species, which are grouped in seven genera, are recorded. Among them, four new species are described: Syringophiloidus audubioni sp. nov. from Spizella breweri (Cassini) (Emberizidae), Syringophilopsis catesbyi sp. nov. from Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus) (Vireonidae), S. wilsoni sp. nov. from Pheucticus melanocephalus (Swainson) (Cardinalidae), and S. bartrami sp. nov. from Spizella passerina (Bechstein) (Emberizidae). The species Syringophilopsis hylocichlae Clark, 1964 syn. nov. is synonymized with Syringophilopsis turdus (Fritsch, 1958), and Syringophiloidus zonotrichia syn. nov. is synonymized with Betasyringophiloidus seiuri (Clark, 1964) comb. nov. Six species are recorded from the Nearctic region for the first time: Syringophiloidus delichonum Bochkov, 2001, S. glandarii (Fritsch, 1958), S. weiszii Skoracki et al., 2001, S. bombycillae Skoracki, 2002, Syringophilopsis mimidus Sikora et al., 2011, and Torotrogla merulae Skoracki et al., 2000. Data on Nearctic syringophiline species, their hosts and distribution are summarized and the keys to all species are constructed.

  10. Differences in breeding bird assemblages related to reed canary grass cover cover and forest structure on the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Gray, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    Floodplain forest of the Upper Mississippi River provides habitat for an abundant and diverse breeding bird community. However, reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea invasion is a serious threat to the future condition of this forest. Reed canary grass is a well-known aggressive invader of wetland systems in the northern tier states of the conterminous United States. Aided by altered flow regimes and nutrient inputs from agriculture, reed canary grass has formed dense stands in canopy gaps and forest edges, retarding tree regeneration. We sampled vegetation and breeding birds in Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest edge and interior areas to 1) measure reed canary grass cover and 2) evaluate whether the breeding bird assemblage responded to differences in reed canary grass cover. Reed canary grass was found far into forest interiors, and its cover was similar between interior and edge sites. Bird assemblages differed between areas with more or less reed canary grass cover (.53% cover breakpoint). Common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, black-capped chickadee Parus atricapillus, and rose-breasted grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus were more common and American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, great crested flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus, and Baltimore oriole Icterus galbula were less common in sites with more reed canary grass cover. Bird diversity and abundance were similar between sites with different reed canary grass cover. A stronger divergence in bird assemblages was associated with ground cover ,15%, resulting from prolonged spring flooding. These sites hosted more prothonotary warbler Protonotaria citrea, but they had reduced bird abundance and diversity compared to other sites. Our results indicate that frequently flooded sites may be important for prothonotary warblers and that bird assemblages shift in response to reed canary grass invasion.

  11. Defining a monophyletic Cardinalini: a molecular perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klicka, John; Burns, Kevin; Spellman, Garth M

    2007-12-01

    Within the New World nine-primaried oscine assemblage, feeding morphology and behavior have long been used as a guideline for assigning membership to subgroups. For example, birds with stout, conical bills capable of crushing heavy seeds have generally been placed within the tribe Cardinalini (cardinal-grosbeaks). Many workers have tried to characterize this group more definitively, using a variety of morphological characters; however, the characters used often conflicted with one another. Previous molecular studies addressing the monophyly of Cardinalini have had only limited sampling within the group. In this study, we analyze mtDNA sequence data from all genera and 34 of the 42 Cardinalini species (sensu [Sibley, C.G., Monroe, B.L., 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of the Birds of the World, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT]) to address the monophyly of the group and to reconstruct the most complete phylogeny of this tribe published to date. We found strong support for a redefined Cardinalini that now includes some members previously placed within Thraupini (tanagers; the genera Piranga, Habia, Chlorothraupis, and Amaurospiza) and some members previously placed within the Parulini (wood-warblers; the genus Granatellus). In addition, some genera traditionally considered members of the Cardinalini are shown to have affinities with other groups (the genera Porphyrospiza, Parkerthraustes, and Saltator). Our redefined Cardinalini contains 48 species, six more than are listed in Sibley and Monroe's (1990) taxonomy of the group. Within the nine-primaried oscine assemblage, the Cardinalini are more closely related to the Thraupini (tanagers) than they are to the Emberizini (sparrows), Parulini (wood-warblers), or Icterini (blackbirds), consistently forming a monophyletic group with Thraupini across all analyses. The reconfigured Cardinalini is comprised of five well-supported, major clades: (1) a "masked" clade (Piranga, Cardinalis, Caryothraustes, Periporphyrus, and

  12. 川中丘陵地区黑尾蜡嘴雀繁殖期声行为的初步研究%The preliminary Study of the Vocal Behavior of Yellow-billed Grosbeak (Eophona migratoria) during Breeding Season in Sichuan Hilly Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨承忠; 郭延蜀; 宁继祖

    2009-01-01

    2008年3-8月,在四川省南充市郊通过野外观察、录音、室内计算机处理及声谱分析对黑尾蜡嘴雀繁殖期的行为和鸣声之间的联系做了初步研夯.黑尾蜡嘴雀有占区、驱逐、求偶、报警、屈服、飞行、采食、召唤等鸣声,结合鸣声和行为之间的联系确定了每种鸣声的生物学意义.通过对862组鸣声样本8种鸣声的声学特征进行统计、对比和分析,发现黑尾蜡嘴雀的鸣声结构简单音节类型较少,呜叫过程中往往出现高度的音节重复现象,并多有谐波;各类鸣声在声学特征的各个方面都存在不同程度的差异.

  13. Salmonellosis in passerine birds in Maryland and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Shillinger, R.B.; Jareed, T.

    1973-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium was responsible for a die-off of evening grosbeaks (Hesperiphona vespertina) at Elkins, West Virginia, and was isolated from a pine siskin (Spinus pinus) collected at the site of a die-off near Baltimore, Maryland.

  14. Applying an Avian Index of Biological Integrity to Assess and Monitor Arid and Semi-arid Riparian Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Introduced Cliff Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura Resident Granivore Ground Non-Dependent Native Tree Common Ground-Dove Columbina passerina Resident...Resident Omnivore Ground Non-Dependent Native Ground Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina Resident Omnivore Ground Non-Dependent Native Coniferous Tree...Blue Grosbeak Guiraca caerulea Neotropical Omnivore Ground Obligate Native Shrub Lazuli Bunting Passerina amoena Neotropical Omnivore Ground PIF 1

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment Sandia Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    Indigo Bunting ( Passerina cyanea) 102. Lazuli Bunting ( Passerina amoena) 103. Evening Grosbeak (Hesperiphona vespertina) 104. Cassin’s Finch...Junco caniceps) 119. Dark-eyed (Oregon) Junco-(Junco hyemalis)----.. 120. Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina ) 121. Brewer’s Sparrow (Spizella

  16. The first records of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) from trogoniform birds (Aves: Trogoniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae parasitising trogoniform birds (Trogoniformes: Trogonidae) are described: Syringophiloidus quetzali sp. nov. from Pharomachrus mocinno Llave and Ph. antisianus (Orbigny); and Syringophilopsis trogoni sp. nov. from Trogon citreolus Gould and T. melanocephalus Gould. These findings are the first records of syringophilids associated with trogoniform birds.

  17. The Bear Facts: Implications of Whitebark Pine Loss for Yellowstone Grizzlies

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Louisa

    2009-01-01

    Whitebark pine is a foundation species, and barometer of the health of high elevation forests ecosystems in the West. It provides food and cover for numerous wildlife species, including the Clark’s nutcracker, crossbill, grosbeak, red squirrel and chipmunk. Whitebark pine is particularly important in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), where it provides an essential food source for the imperiled Yellowstone grizzly bear. We will review the current scientific knowledge about the relations...

  18. The Importance of Agriculture-Dominated Landscapes and Lack of Field Border Effect for Early-Succession Songbird Nest Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D. Riddle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, many early-succession songbird species have experienced severe and widespread declines, which often are related to habitat destruction. Field borders create additional or enhance existing early-succession habitat on farmland. However, field border shape and the landscape context surrounding farms may influence the effectiveness of field borders in contributing to the stabilization or increase of early-succession bird populations. We examined the influence of linear and nonlinear field borders on farms in landscapes dominated by either agriculture or forests on nest success and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater brood parasitism of Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea and Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea nests combined. Field border establishment did not affect nest survival probability and brood parasitism frequency of Indigo Bunting and Blue Grosbeak nests. Indigo Bunting/Blue Grosbeak nest success probability was more than twice as high in agriculture-dominated landscapes (39% than in forested landscapes (17%, and brood parasitism frequency was high (33% but did not differ between landscapes. Edges in agriculture-dominated landscapes can be higher-quality habitats for early-succession birds than edges in forest-dominated landscapes, but our field border treatments did not enhance nest success for these birds on farms in either landscape.

  19. Interspecific variation of thermoregulation between small migratory and resident passerines in Wenzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qing-Gang; Liang, Hong-Ji; Bai, Min-Lan; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Liu, Jin-Song

    2016-05-18

    Physiological adaptation arises from several fundamental sources of phenotypic variation. Most analyses of metabolic adaptation in birds have focused on the basal metabolic rate (BMR), the lower limit of avian metabolic heat production. In this study, we investigated thermoregulation in three passerine species; the yellow-billed grosbeak Eophona migratoria, white-rumped munia Lonchura striata and black-throated bushtit Aegithalos concinnus, in Wenzhou, China. Metabolic rate was measured using the closed-circuit respirometer containing 3.5 L animal chambers. Body temperature (Tb) was measured during metabolic measurements using a lubricated thermocouple. The minimum thermal conductance of these species was calculated by measuring their Tb and metabolic rates. The yellow-billed grosbeak remained largely normothermic, and the white-rumped munia and black-throated bushtit exhibited variable Tb at ambient temperatures (Ta). Mean metabolic rates within thermal neutral zone were 2.48±0.09 O2(mL)/g/h for yellow-billed grosbeaks, 3.44±0.16 O2(mL)/g/h for white-rumped munias, and 3.55±0.20 O2(mL)/g/h for black-throated bushtits, respectively. Minimum thermal conductance of yellow-billed grosbeak, white-rumped munia and black-throated bushtit were 0.13±0.00, 0.36±0.01, and 0.37±0.01 O2(mL)/g/h/℃, respectively. The ecophysiological characteristics of these species were:(1) the yellowbilled grosbeak had relatively high Tb and BMR, a low lower critical temperature and thermal conductance, and a metabolic rate that was relatively insensitive to variation in Ta; all of which are typical of cold adapted species and explain its broader geographic distribution; (2) the white-rumped munia and blackthroated bushtit had high thermal conductance, lower critical temperature, and relatively low BMR, all which are adapted to warm environments where there is little selection pressure for metabolic thermogenesis. Taken together, these data illustrate small migratory and resident

  20. Five new species of Baeus Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea: Scelioninae) from Brazil with an updated key to Neotropical species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Rodrigo De Oliveira; Vivallo, Felipe; Araujo, Cristina De Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The species of the genus Baeus are small endoparasitoids wasps that attack spiders' egg sacs. Although there are data of occurrence in several biogeographical regions, their distribution records are scarce, especially due to their small size, mak- ing difficult to collect them in natural environments. In this paper, five new species of Baeus are described as results of collections made in southeastern Brazil: Baeus fluminensis new species, B. itatiaiaensis new species, B. leucophthalmus new species, B. melanocephalus new species and B. morenus new species. An updated key to the known Neotropical spe- cies of the genus is also provided.

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with hepatitis E virus infection in three species of pet birds in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Wu-Wen; Qin, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Huang, Si-Yang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been reported in a wide variety of animals, including birds, but little is known of HEV infection in pet birds in northwest China. The objective of the present investigation was to examine HEV seroprevalence in three species of pet birds, namely, Eurasian siskin, Oriental skylark, and black-tailed grosbeak from Gansu. Serum samples collected from 685 pet birds from August 2011 to September 2012 were examined independently for the presence of antibodies against HEV. A total of 59 (8.31%) pet birds were tested positive for HEV antibodies by the commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits. Of these, the seroprevalence was diverse in different species pet birds; the most frequent level was 10.83% (39/360) in Eurasian siskin, followed by 6.57% (19/289) in Oriental skylark, and 2.29% (1/36) in black-tailed grosbeak. Age and collecting region of pet birds were the main risk factors associated with HEV infection. The present study firstly revealed the seroprevalence of HEV infection in three species of pet birds in northwest China, which provided the baseline data for taking comprehensive countermeasures and measures for effectively preventing and controlling HEV infection in birds.

  2. Lytopylus Förster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae species from Costa Rica, with an emphasis on specimens reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sharkey

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of Costa Rican Lytopylus are treated; these include all species reared from Lepidoptera caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica, over 32 years of caterpillar inventory, as well as two species recorded in the literature as occurring in Costa Rica. Ten new species are described, i.e., Lytopylus bradzlotnicki, Lytopylus colleenhitchcockae, Lytopylus gregburtoni, Lytopylus jessicadimauroae, Lytopylus jessiehillae, Lytopylus mingfangi, Lytopylus rebeccashapleyae, Lytopylus robpringlei, Lytopylus sandraberriosae, Lytopylus vaughntani. The following species are transferred to Lytopylus: Metriosoma flavicalcar Enderlein 1920 to Lytopylus flavicalcar comb. n.; Bassus macadamiae Briceño and Sharkey 2000 to Lytopylus macadamiae comb. n.; Metriosoma bicarinatum Enderlein 1920 to Lytopylus bicarinatum comb. n.; Metriosoma brasiliense Enderlein 1920 to Lytopylus brasiliense comb. n.; Bassus tayrona Campos 2007 to Lytopylus tayrona comb. n.; Microdus femoratus Cameron 1887 to Lytopylus femoratus comb. n.; Microdus melanocephalus Cameron 1887 to Lytopylus melanocephalus comb. n.; Bassus pastranai Blanchard 1952 to Lytopylus pastranai comb. n.; Agathis nigrobalteata Cameron 1911 to Lytopylus nigrobalteatus comb. n. Two keys to species of Lytopylus are presented, one interactive and the other static.

  3. Phylogeny of the genus Rhynchocalamus (Reptilia; Colubridae) with a first record from the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmíd, Jiří; Martínez, Gabriel; Gebhart, Jurgen; Aznar, Javier; Gállego, Javier; Göçmen, Bayram; De Pous, Philip; Tamar, Karin; Carranza, Salvador

    2015-10-23

    The genus Rhynchocalamus comprises three species distributed in Southwest Asia. Little is known about them, most probably because of their secretive fossorial lifestyle. The poor knowledge of the genus is even underscored by the fact that its phylogenetic affinities remained unclear until very recently. The least known of the species, Rhynchocalamus arabicus, is known only from the holotype collected in Aden, Yemen, and it has not been observed since its description in 1933. Here we provide a second record for this species, which represents the first record of this genus for Oman. This extends its range in southern Arabia by more than 1000 km. The observed specimen was determined as R. arabicus on the basis of its similarity in size, color, and scalation with the holotype. Furthermore, we sequenced three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, cytb) and one nuclear (cmos) genes for R. arabicus and for two individuals of R. melanocephalus and one R. satunini and inferred the phylogenetic relationships of all currently recognized species of the genus for the first time. The results of our phylogenetic analyses indicate that Rhynchocalamus is a member of the Western Palearctic clade of Colubrinae and is sister to Lytorhynchus, with which it forms a very well supported clade and shares some morphological characters. As our results show, R. satunini is the basal lineage of the genus and R. melanocephalus is sister to R. arabicus.

  4. An integrative systematic revision and biogeography of Rhynchocalamus snakes (Reptilia, Colubridae) with a description of a new species from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamar, Karin; Šmíd, Jiří; Göçmen, Bayram; Meiri, Shai; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The colubrid snakes of the genus Rhynchocalamus are seldom studied and knowledge of their ecology and life history is scarce. Three species of Rhynchocalamus are currently recognized, R. satunini (from Turkey eastwards to Iran), R. arabicus (Yemen and Oman), and R. melanocephalus (from the Sinai Peninsula northwards to Turkey). All are slender, secretive, mainly nocturnal and rare fossorial snakes. This comprehensive study is the first to sample all known Rhynchocalamus species in order to review the intra-generic phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of the genus. We revised the systematics of Rhynchocalamus using an integrative approach and evaluated its phylogeography. The phylogenetic position within the Colubridae and the phylogenetic relationships within the genus were inferred using 29 individuals belonging to the three known species, with additional sampling of two other closely-related genera, Muhtarophis and Lytorhynchus. We analysed three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, cytb) and one nuclear (c-mos) gene fragments. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods; the latter method also used to provide the first time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus. We generated a nuclear network and carried out a topology test and species delimitation analysis. Morphological comparisons were used to differentiate among species and to describe a new species from Israel. The studied material was comprised of 108 alcohol-preserved specimens, 15 photographs, and data from the literature for the examination of 17 mensural, 14 meristic, and two categorical characters. The molecular results support Rhynchocalamus as monophyletic, and as having split from its sister genus Lytorhynchus during the Late Oligocene. The three recognized species of Rhynchocalamus comprise four independently evolving groups. The molecular results reveal that the genus began to diverge during the Middle Miocene. We revealed that the

  5. An integrative systematic revision and biogeography of Rhynchocalamus snakes (Reptilia, Colubridae with a description of a new species from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Tamar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The colubrid snakes of the genus Rhynchocalamus are seldom studied and knowledge of their ecology and life history is scarce. Three species of Rhynchocalamus are currently recognized, R. satunini (from Turkey eastwards to Iran, R. arabicus (Yemen and Oman, and R. melanocephalus (from the Sinai Peninsula northwards to Turkey. All are slender, secretive, mainly nocturnal and rare fossorial snakes. This comprehensive study is the first to sample all known Rhynchocalamus species in order to review the intra-generic phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of the genus. Methods We revised the systematics of Rhynchocalamus using an integrative approach and evaluated its phylogeography. The phylogenetic position within the Colubridae and the phylogenetic relationships within the genus were inferred using 29 individuals belonging to the three known species, with additional sampling of two other closely-related genera, Muhtarophis and Lytorhynchus. We analysed three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, cytb and one nuclear (c-mos gene fragments. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods; the latter method also used to provide the first time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus. We generated a nuclear network and carried out a topology test and species delimitation analysis. Morphological comparisons were used to differentiate among species and to describe a new species from Israel. The studied material was comprised of 108 alcohol-preserved specimens, 15 photographs, and data from the literature for the examination of 17 mensural, 14 meristic, and two categorical characters. Results The molecular results support Rhynchocalamus as monophyletic, and as having split from its sister genus Lytorhynchus during the Late Oligocene. The three recognized species of Rhynchocalamus comprise four independently evolving groups. The molecular results reveal that the genus began to diverge during

  6. Recent rapid speciation and ecomorph divergence in Indo-Australian sea snakes. Molecular Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Kate L.; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Mumpuni;

    2013-01-01

    The viviparous sea snakes (Hydrophiinae) are a young radiation of at least 62 species that display spectacular morphological diversity and high levels of local sympatry. To shed light on the mechanisms underlying sea snake diversification, we investigated recent speciation and eco-morphological d......The viviparous sea snakes (Hydrophiinae) are a young radiation of at least 62 species that display spectacular morphological diversity and high levels of local sympatry. To shed light on the mechanisms underlying sea snake diversification, we investigated recent speciation and eco...... developed microsatellites separated co-distributed specimens into four significantly differentiated clusters corresponding to morphological species designations, indicating limited recent gene flow and progress towards speciation. A coalescent species tree (based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences....... melanocephalus appear to have diverged very recently and rapidly, resulting in major phenotypic differences and restriction of gene flow in sympatry. These results highlight the viviparous sea snakes as a promising system for speciation studies in the marine environment....

  7. First Record of Laticauda semifasciata (Reptilia: Squamata: Elapidae: Laticaudinae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park, Jaejin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese sea snake Laticauda semifasciata (Reinwardt in Schlegel, 1837 is newly reported from Korean waters based on three specimens collected from Jeju Island, Korea, in August, September, and November 2015. This is the first time that the genus Laticauda and subfamily Laticaudinae has been reported from Korean waters. The subfamily Laticaudinae has ventrals that are four to five times wider than the adjacent dorsals, which are unlike the ventrals that are similar or up to two times wider than adjacent dorsals in the subfamily Hydrophiinae. Laticauda semifasciata is distinct from other species because it has three prefrontals and its rostrals are horizontally divided into two. As the result of this report, four species (L. semifasciata, Hydrophis (Pelamis platurus, Hydrophis cyanocinctus, and H. melanocephalus of sea snakes have been reported in Korean waters.

  8. Prevalence of blood parasites in Japanese wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Koichi

    2002-09-01

    The prevalence of blood parasites was investigated in 701 Japanese wild birds for 13 years from January, 1988 to March, 2001. Most of the injured or sick birds were caught in the suburbs of Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture and brought to the zoo for clinical care. Among all the birds examined, 10.6% were infected with hematozoa belonging to three genera as Plasmodium (1.7% of the samples), Haemoproteus (5.1% of the samples) and Leucocytozoon (4.6% of the samples), and two birds (0.29% of the samples), a Japanese grosbeak (Coccothraustes personatus) and a dusky thrush (Turdus naumanni), were infected with microfilariae. Mixed infection with Leucocytozoon sp. and Haemoproteus sp. was observed in 6 individuals of 4 species and that with Leucocytozoon sp. and microfilariae was observed in 2 individuals of 2 species of bird. Relatively high positive rates were 75%(3/4) in the scops owl (Otus scops), 71.4% (10/14) in the ural owl (Strix uralensis), 57.7% (15/26) in the jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos), 57.1% (4/7) in the black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), 55.6% (5/9) in the brown hawk owl (Ninox scutulata), 41% (16/39) in the carrion crow (Corvus corone) and 24.1% (7/29) in the night heron (Nycticorax nicticorax).

  9. Phylogenetic comparison of Leucocytozoon spp. from wild birds of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukita; Hagihara, Mio; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yukawa, Masayoshi; Murata, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    Eight species of Japanese birds were found to be infected with Leucocytozoon species using microscopic analysis. We used PCR and sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt b) to compare the genetic background among these detected protozoa species. In 20 individuals of 22 samples, a single amplified band was detected from 6 of 8 bird species; 9 Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus), 4 large-billed crows (Corvus macrorhynchos), 2 carrion crows (C. corone), 2 scops owls (Otus scops), 1 Japanese grosbeak (Eophona personata), and 2 brown-eared bulbuls (Hypsipetes amaurotis), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial cyt b sequences revealed that all Leucocytozoon isolates in Japan closely grouped with other Leucocytozoon species previously reported in the literature. Among the Japanese isolates, the phylogenetic tree suggested that L. lovati from the Japanese rock ptarmigan may be basal to the parasites found in other bird species. Our study is the first to identify the molecular relationships among Leucocytozoon parasites in the avifauna of Japan.

  10. House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) Conjunctivitis, and Mycoplasma spp. Isolated from North American Wild Birds, 1994-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, David H; Hawley, Dana M; Geary, Steven J; Dhondt, André A

    2016-07-01

    Sampling wild birds for mycoplasma culture has been key to the study of House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) conjunctivitis, yielding isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum spanning the temporal and geographic ranges of disease from emergence to endemicity. Faced with the challenges and costs of sample collection over time and from remote locations for submission to our laboratory for mycoplasma culture, protocols evolved to achieve a practical optimum. Herein we report making M. gallisepticum isolates from House Finches almost every year since the disease emerged in 1994, and we now have 227 isolates from 17 states. Our wild bird host range for M. gallisepticum isolates includes Blue Jay ( Cyanocitta cristata ), American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis), Lesser Goldfinch (Spinus psaltria), Purple Finch (Haemorhous purpureus), Evening Grosbeak ( Coccothraustes vespertinus ), and herein first reports for Western Scrub-jay ( Aphelocoma californica ), and American Crow ( Corvus brachyrhynchos ). By collecting and identifying isolates from birds with clinical signs similar to those of House Finch conjunctivitis, we also expanded the known host range of Mycoplasma sturni and obtained isolates from additional wild bird species. Accumulating evidence shows that a diverse range of wild bird species may carry or have been exposed to M. gallisepticum in the US, as in Europe and Asia. Therefore, the emergence of a pathogenic M. gallisepticum strain in House Finches may actually be the exception that has allowed us to identify the broader epidemiologic picture.

  11. Working with what you've got: unattractive males show greater mate-guarding effort in a duetting songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jenélle; Webster, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    When mates are limited, individuals should allocate resources to mating tactics that maximize fitness. In species with extra-pair paternity (EPP), males can invest in mate guarding, or, alternatively, in seeking EPP. Males should optimize fitness by adjusting investment according to their attractiveness to females, such that attractive males seek EPP, and unattractive males guard mates. This theory has received little empirical testing, leaving our understanding of the evolution of mating tactics incomplete; it is unclear how a male's relative attractiveness influences his tactics. We conducted observations and experiments on red-backed fairy-wrens (Malurus melanocephalus) to address this question. We found that older, more attractive (red-black) males sought EPP, whereas unattractive (brown) males invested in alternative tactics-physical and acoustic mate guarding. Younger red-black males used intermediate tactics. This suggests that males adopt mating tactics appropriate to their attributes. Males obtained similar reproductive success, suggesting these alternative tactics may maximize each male's paternity gain. Though it is likely that female choice also determines paternity, rather than just male tactics, we establish that the many interconnected components of a male's sexual phenotype influence the evolution of his decision-making rules, deepening our understanding of how mating tactics evolve under sexual selection. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Two new species of Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera, Philopteridae parasitic on Neotropical trogons (Aves, Trogoniformes

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    Michel Valim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Brueelia are described and illustrated. These new species and their type hosts are: Brueelia sueta ex Pharomachrus pavoninus (Spix, 1824, the Pavonine Quetzal and Brueelia cicchinoi ex Trogon viridis Linnaeus, the White-tailed Trogon. Both new species differ from the only Brueelia described on Trogon mexicanus by many morphological features, including those present in the male genitalia and female vulvar margin. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene for these two new species differ from one another by 13.6% uncorrected p-distance. Whereas B. cicchinoi is only 0.3% divergent from previously published COI sequences identified as Brueelia sp. from the Mexican T. melanocephalus Gould, 1936 and T. massena Gould, 1938. We also found B. cicchinoi on T. melanurus, T. collaris and Pharomachrus pavoninus. Thus B. cicchinoi is found on multiple trogoniform hosts across an extremely large geographic distribution and has one of the largest number of host associations among Brueelia species.

  13. Two new species of Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera, Philopteridae) parasitic on Neotropical trogons (Aves, Trogoniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Michel P; Weckstein, Jason D

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of Brueelia are described and illustrated. These new species and their type hosts are: Brueelia sueta ex Pharomachrus pavoninus (Spix, 1824), the Pavonine Quetzal and Brueelia cicchinoi ex Trogon viridis Linnaeus, the White-tailed Trogon. Both new species differ from the only Brueelia described on Trogon mexicanus by many morphological features, including those present in the male genitalia and female vulvar margin. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene for these two new species differ from one another by 13.6% uncorrected p-distance. Whereas Brueelia cicchinoi is only 0.3% divergent from previously published COI sequences identified as Brueelia sp. from the Mexican Trogon melanocephalus Gould, 1936 and Trogon massena Gould, 1938. We also found Brueelia cicchinoi on Trogon melanurus, Trogon collaris and Pharomachrus pavoninus. Thus Brueelia cicchinoi is found on multiple trogoniform hosts across an extremely large geographic distribution and has one of the largest number of host associations among Brueelia species.

  14. Revision of Campsurus violaceus species group (Ephemeroptera: Polymitarcyidae) with new synonymies and nomina dubia in Campsurus Eaton, 1868.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineri, C; Salles, F F; Emmerich, D

    2015-02-19

    The violaceus species group (formerly notatus species group) of Campsurus Eaton is revised. All the species in the violaceus group are diagnosed. A new species, C. molinai sp. nov. is described based on male imagos from Bolivia, characterized by their large and sclerotized penes. The violaceus group is proposed to include the following species: C. assimilis Traver, C. truncatus Ulmer (=C. mahunkai Puthz = C. melanocephalus Pereira & da Silva, new synonyms), C. violaceus Needham & Murphy (= C. meyeri Navás = C. notatus Needham & Murphy = C. paranensis Navás, new synonyms), C. emersoni Traver, C. decoloratus (Hagen), and C. molinai sp.nov. Additionally we consider the following species as nomina dubia: C. longicauda Navás, C. pfeifferi Navás, C. zikani Navás, C. albicans (orig. Ephemera albicans Percheron in Guerin & Percheron), C. burmeisteri Ulmer, C. dallasi Navás, C. quadridentatus Eaton, C. claudus Needham & Murphy, C. corumbanus Needham & Murphy, C. dorsalis (Burmeister), C. mutilus Needham & Murphy, and C. striatus Needham & Murphy. Given the results presented herein (five species synonymized and 12 proposed as nomina dubia), only 28 valid species remain in the genus Campsurus. Additionally, the nymphal stages of C. violaceus and C. truncatus are described and illustrated. Female adult genitalia (sockets) and eggs of C. decoloratus are described for the first time. Diagnoses, new country records, and redescriptions of selected characters of the imagos for the species of the violaceus group are given.

  15. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus,Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62). The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates. PMID:21637455

  16. A comparison of avian communities and habitat characteristics in floodplain forests associated with valley plugs and unchannelized streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A.R.; King, Sammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Channelization of streams associated with floodplain forested wetlands has occurred extensively throughout the world and specifically in the southeastern United States. Channelization of fluvial systems alters the hydrologic and sedimentation processes that sustain these systems. In western Tennessee, channelization and past land-use practices have caused drastic geomorphic and hydrologic changes, resulting in altered habitat conditions that may affect avian communities. The objective of this study was to determine if there were differences in avian communities utilizing floodplain forests along unchannelized streams compared to channelized streams with valley plugs, areas where sediment has completely filled the channel. During point count surveys, 58 bird species were observed at unchannelized sites and 60 species were observed at valley plug sites. Species associated with baldcypress-tupelo (Taxodium-Nyssa) swamps (e.g. Great Egret (Ardea albus) and Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)) and mature hardwood forests with open midstories (e.g. Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens), Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons), Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) and Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea)) were either only found at unchannelized sites or were more abundant at unchannelized sites. Conversely, species associated with open and early successional habitats (e.g. Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) and Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea)) were either only found at valley plug sites or were more abundant at valley plug sites. Results of habitat modelling suggest that the habitat characteristics of floodplain forests at unchannelized sites are more suitable for Neotropical migrant bird species of conservation concern in the region than at valley plug sites. This study, in combination with previous research, demonstrates the ecological impacts of valley plugs span across abiotic and biotic processes and tropic

  17. Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Soft Tissue Tumours in Snakes: A Retrospective Study of 33 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, J; Heckers, K O; Aupperle, H; Pees, M

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous and subcutaneous soft tissue tumours have been rarely described in detail in snakes. Several malignant entities show strikingly similar histological patterns and therefore the term soft tissue sarcoma (STS) has become a standard histopathological diagnosis. The present study characterizes soft tissue tumours in 33 snakes. Samples included 29 surgically excised masses and four carcasses. Additionally, six animals were humanely destroyed and submitted for necropsy examination following tumour recurrence. Benign neoplasms (n = 8) were described as lipomas of varying differentiation. Recurrence was observed in two of five snakes in which the clinical course was recorded. Malignant neoplasms (n = 25) were diagnosed as STS and graded according to a three-point system previously applied to canine STS. Five (20%) of the primary tumours were classified as grade 1, eleven (44%) as grade 2 and nine (36%) as grade 3 sarcomas. Clinically, recurrence of STS was observed in 11 of 17 cases with available follow-up information. Pathologically, multiple cutaneous metastases were found in one grass snake (Natrix natrix), while visceral metastases were observed in one carpet python (Morelia spilota) and two corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus). Metastatic risk appears to increase with histological grade. Surgical excision generally represents the current therapy of choice for STS. This study includes the first reports of conventional lipomas in a ribbon snake (Thamnophis radix), angiolipomas in a black-headed python (Aspidites melanocephalus) and a corn snake as well as of STS in a Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus), emerald tree boa (Corallus caninus), grass snake (N. natrix), African house snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus), California kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula californiae) and common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis).

  18. Patterns of postnatal ontogeny of the skull and lower jaw of snakes as revealed by micro-CT scan data and three-dimensional geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palci, Alessandro; Lee, Michael S Y; Hutchinson, Mark N

    2016-12-01

    We compared the head skeleton (skull and lower jaw) of juvenile and adult specimens of five snake species [Anilios (=Ramphotyphlops) bicolor, Cylindrophis ruffus, Aspidites melanocephalus, Acrochordus arafurae, and Notechis scutatus] and two lizard outgroups (Ctenophorus decresii, Varanus gilleni). All major ontogenetic changes observed were documented both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative comparisons were based on high-resolution micro-CT scanning of the specimens, and detailed quantitative analyses were performed using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Two sets of landmarks were used, one for accurate representation of the intraspecific transformations of each skull and jaw configuration, and the other for comparison between taxa. Our results document the ontogenetic elaboration of crests and processes for muscle attachment (especially for cervical and adductor muscles); negative allometry in the braincase of all taxa; approximately isometric growth of the snout of all taxa except Varanus and Anilios (positively allometric); and positive allometry in the quadrates of the macrostomatan snakes Aspidites, Acrochordus and Notechis, but also, surprisingly, in the iguanian lizard Ctenophorus. Ontogenetic trajectories from principal component analysis provide evidence for paedomorphosis in Anilios and peramorphosis in Acrochordus. Some primitive (lizard-like) features are described for the first time in the juvenile Cylindrophis. Two distinct developmental trajectories for the achievement of the macrostomatan (large-gaped) condition in adult snakes are documented, driven either by positive allometry of supratemporal and quadrate (in pythons), or of quadrate alone (in sampled caenophidians); this is consistent with hypothesised homoplasy in this adaptive complex. Certain traits (e.g. shape of coronoid process, marginal tooth counts) are more stable throughout postnatal ontogeny than others (e.g. basisphenoid keel), with implications for their

  19. Recent rapid speciation and ecomorph divergence in Indo-Australian sea snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kate L; Rasmussen, Arne R; Mumpuni; Elmberg, Johan; de Silva, Anslem; Guinea, Michael L; Lee, Michael S Y

    2013-05-01

    The viviparous sea snakes (Hydrophiinae) are a young radiation of at least 62 species that display spectacular morphological diversity and high levels of local sympatry. To shed light on the mechanisms underlying sea snake diversification, we investigated recent speciation and eco-morphological differentiation in a clade of four nominal species with overlapping ranges in Southeast Asia and Australia. Analyses of morphology and stomach contents identified the presence of two distinct ecomorphs: a 'macrocephalic' ecomorph that reaches >2 m in length, has a large head and feeds on crevice-dwelling eels and gobies; and a 'microcephalic' ecomorph that rarely exceeds 1 m in length, has a small head and narrow fore-body and hunts snake eels in burrows. Mitochondrial sequences show a lack of reciprocal monophyly between ecomorphs and among putative species. However, individual assignment based on newly developed microsatellites separated co-distributed specimens into four significantly differentiated clusters corresponding to morphological species designations, indicating limited recent gene flow and progress towards speciation. A coalescent species tree (based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences) and isolation-migration model (mitochondrial and microsatellite markers) suggest between one and three transitions between ecomorphs within the last approximately 1.2 million to approximately 840,000 years. In particular, the macrocephalic 'eastern' population of Hydrophis cyanocinctus and microcephalic H. melanocephalus appear to have diverged very recently and rapidly, resulting in major phenotypic differences and restriction of gene flow in sympatry. These results highlight the viviparous sea snakes as a promising system for speciation studies in the marine environment. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Assessment of Wetland Water Quality and Avian Diversity of a Human-Modified Floodplain Wetland on River Yamuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma MANRAL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Okhla Bird Sanctuary (OBS is an Important Bird Area, which comes under the protected area network of Uttar Pradesh with one-third area lying in the state of Delhi (India. OBS has widest flood plains along the Delhi stretch of river Yamuna and is important in conserving the ecological wealth of floodplains of the river. Rapid urbanization and industrialization and discharge of untreated wastewater into the river have resulted in deteriorated water quality. The present study focused on assessment of water quality, aquatic flora and avifaunal diversity in the OBS. Water quality was analyzed following methods of APHA. For vegetation analysis, sub-merged and free-floating plants were scooped up from five randomly selected sites. Total bird counts were conducted for water birds and species richness, evenness and Shannon-Weaver species diversity indices were calculated. Results indicate that the organic load is very high in the wetland as evident from low levels of dissolved oxygen (2.26 ± 1.62 mg/l and high Biological and Chemical Oxygen Demands (15.20 ± 3.75 mg/l, 44.60 ± 12.07 mg/l. Nine species of free-floating and submerged plants were recorded; Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria spiralis, Azolla pinnata and Ceratophyllum demersum dominated both deep and shallow water areas. 52 species of waterbirds including four near-threatened species viz., Anhinga melanogaster, Mycteria leucocephala, Threskiornis melanocephalus and Aythya nyroca were recorded. OBS provides opportunities for conservation in a metropolitan area, thus, appropriate measures should be taken to maintain its ecological integrity.

  1. Annual changes in fecal sex hormones with corresponding changes in reproductive behaviors in Thai sarus crane, black-headed Ibis, and Lesser Adjutant Stork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkiratiwong, Panas; Poothong, Songklod; Taksintum, Wut; Suekkhachat, Hataitip; Kanchanabanca, Pongvarut; Suwapat, Phongpipat

    2013-12-01

    We monitored annual fecal sex hormones and reproductive displays of five individuals of males and females Thai sarus crane (Grus antigone sharpii), a flock of five males and females black-headed Ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus), and five pair bonded lesser adjutant stork (Leptoptilos javanicus), all maintained in captivity at Bangprha Waterbird Breeding Research Center. Reproductive behaviors were observed during 0600-1800 h, for four days during the second week of each month and feces were collected monthly to determine annual male total testosterone (mTT) and female estradiol (fE2) levels by radioimmunoassay. Thai sarus crane exhibited a peak mTT in August following a fE2, with a surge in July. Black-headed ibis demonstrated a peak mTT in January prior to a fE2 with a surge in March. Lesser adjutant stork showed a maximal mTT coincidently with fE2 with a surge in October. Thai sarus crane frequently displayed courtship in May-October, corresponding well with higher mTT rather than fE2 levels. Black-headed ibis showed courtship-copulation displays in January, simultaneously with mTT, but not with fE2 surge. Lesser adjutant stork often displayed courtship-copulation in October-January, seemingly corresponded with higher mTT and fE2 levels during October-December and October-November, respectively. Male and female lesser adjutant stork displayed egg-incubation and chick-rearing behaviors in November-January and December-June, respectively. We suggest that mTT and/or fE2 apparently played an important role in regulation of courtship-copulation displays but did not relate to both egg-incubation and chickrearing behaviors.

  2. Can establishment success be determined through demographic parameters? A case study on five introduced bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Aguilar

    Full Text Available The dominant criterion to determine when an introduced species is established relies on the maintenance of a self-sustaining population in the area of introduction, i.e. on the viability of the population from a demographic perspective. There is however a paucity of demographic studies on introduced species, and establishment success is thus generally determined by expert opinion without undertaking population viability analyses (PVAs. By means of an intensive five year capture-recapture monitoring program (involving >12,000 marked individuals we studied the demography of five introduced passerine bird species in southern Spain which are established and have undergone a fast expansion over the last decades. We obtained useful estimates of demographic parameters (survival and reproduction for one colonial species (Ploceus melanocephalus, confirming the long-term viability of its local population through PVAs. However, extremely low recapture rates prevented the estimation of survival parameters and population growth rates for widely distributed species with low local densities (Estrilda troglodytes and Amandava amandava but also for highly abundant yet non-colonial species (Estrilda astrild and Euplectes afer. Therefore, determining the establishment success of introduced passerine species by demographic criteria alone may often be troublesome even when devoting much effort to field-work. Alternative quantitative methodologies such as the analysis of spatio-temporal species distributions complemented with expert opinion deserve thus their role in the assessment of establishment success of introduced species when estimates of demographic parameters are difficult to obtain, as is generally the case for non-colonial, highly mobile passerines.

  3. Can establishment success be determined through demographic parameters? A case study on five introduced bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Anadón, José D; Edelaar, Pim; Carrete, Martina; Tella, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    The dominant criterion to determine when an introduced species is established relies on the maintenance of a self-sustaining population in the area of introduction, i.e. on the viability of the population from a demographic perspective. There is however a paucity of demographic studies on introduced species, and establishment success is thus generally determined by expert opinion without undertaking population viability analyses (PVAs). By means of an intensive five year capture-recapture monitoring program (involving >12,000 marked individuals) we studied the demography of five introduced passerine bird species in southern Spain which are established and have undergone a fast expansion over the last decades. We obtained useful estimates of demographic parameters (survival and reproduction) for one colonial species (Ploceus melanocephalus), confirming the long-term viability of its local population through PVAs. However, extremely low recapture rates prevented the estimation of survival parameters and population growth rates for widely distributed species with low local densities (Estrilda troglodytes and Amandava amandava) but also for highly abundant yet non-colonial species (Estrilda astrild and Euplectes afer). Therefore, determining the establishment success of introduced passerine species by demographic criteria alone may often be troublesome even when devoting much effort to field-work. Alternative quantitative methodologies such as the analysis of spatio-temporal species distributions complemented with expert opinion deserve thus their role in the assessment of establishment success of introduced species when estimates of demographic parameters are difficult to obtain, as is generally the case for non-colonial, highly mobile passerines.

  4. Birds of sacred groves of northern Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Jyothi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sacred groves are patches of vegetation preserved due to  religious or cultural tradition.  They are protected through spiritual beliefs.  Sacred groves provide an excellent abode to the biodiversity of the region where they are located.   Scientific exploration of fauna from sacred groves of India is few and far between.  The present study was conducted to explore the bird diversity and abundance in 15 selected sacred groves of northern Kerala, eight from Kannur District and seven from Kasargod District each.  A total of 111 bird species were observed belonging to 49 families and 16 orders.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala support many of the ‘forest-birds’ such as the Grey Junglefowl Gallus sonneratii, Asian Fairy-bluebird Irena puella, Tickell’s Blue-flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae, Malabar Trogon Harpactes fasciatus, Heart-spotted Woodpecker Hemicircus canente, Malabar Whistling-Thrush Myophonus horsfieldii, Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra, etc.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala also support two endemic bird species of the Western Ghats, such as the Malabar Grey Hornbill Ocyceros griseus and Rufous Babbler Turdoides subrufa. Five species of raptors and four owl species were reported from the sacred groves of north Kerala during the present study.  The breeding of the White-bellied Sea-Eagle has been reported at Edayilakadu Kavu, a sacred grove in Kasargod District.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala also supported 17 species of long distant migratory birds.  Thazhe Kavu, recorded the Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus, a Near-Threatened bird according to IUCN. 

  5. Wildlife effects of DDT dust used for tick control on a Texas prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J.L.; Stickel, W.H.

    1949-01-01

    SUMMARY The effect of DDT dust on wildlife was studied at Camp Bullis, Bexar County, Texas, in the summer of 1947. Studies were made on a 206.6 acre plot that was treated with DDT for experimental control of the Lone Star tick (Amblyomrna americanum). A dust consisting of one part of DDT to nine parts of pyrophyllite was applied at an average rate of 4.4 pounds of DDT per acre. The limits of DDT concentration that affected wildlife cannot be stated exactly because of a heavy rain that fell near the end of the dusting, and because of irregularity in DDT deposition. Since absolute uniformity of dusting could not be expected in any large scale DDT application, the effects observed in these trials were probably fairly representative. However, continued dry weather would have permitted longer exposure to DDT, possibly with more severe effects than those found in this study. The vegetation of the experimental area was roughly 70 percent ungrazed tall-grass prairie and 30 percent trees and shrubs. Ground and bush feeding birds were severely affected. Cardinals, lark sparrows, field sparrows, Bewick's wrens, Carolina wrens, Kentucky warblers, yellow-breasted chats, blue grosbeaks, and painted buntings were nearly or entirely eliminated from the treated area. Birds affected, but less drastically reduced in numbers, were yellow-billed cuckoo, black and white warbler, yellow-throated vireo, and white-eyed vireo. Birds found dead in the DDT area were 9 cardinals, 2 painted buntings, 2 lark sparrows, 1 yellow-breasted chat, and 1 white-eyed vireo. Bird mortality had begun by the day after dusting and was largely over by the end of the fifth day. Census of deer in DDT and check areas before and after treatment showed no reduction in deer numbers and no diminution in use of the DDT area. No deer or fawns were found dead or affected. Box-trapping of raccoons in DDT and check areas before and after treatment showed no effects that could be attributed to DDT. Limited observations on

  6. Lake Erie walleyes--again on the upswing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldon, Charles P.; Van Meter, Harry D.

    1960-01-01

    SUMMARY The effect of DDT dust on wildlife was studied at Camp Bullis, Bexar County, Texas, in the summer of 1947. Studies were made on a 206.6 acre plot that was treated with DDT for experimental control of the Lone Star tick (Amblyomrna americanum). A dust consisting of one part of DDT to nine parts of pyrophyllite was applied at an average rate of 4.4 pounds of DDT per acre. The limits of DDT concentration that affected wildlife cannot be stated exactly because of a heavy rain that fell near the end of the dusting, and because of irregularity in DDT deposition. Since absolute uniformity of dusting could not be expected in any large scale DDT application, the effects observed in these trials were probably fairly representative. However, continued dry weather would have permitted longer exposure to DDT, possibly with more severe effects than those found in this study. The vegetation of the experimental area was roughly 70 percent ungrazed tall-grass prairie and 30 percent trees and shrubs. Ground and bush feeding birds were severely affected. Cardinals, lark sparrows, field sparrows, Bewick's wrens, Carolina wrens, Kentucky warblers, yellow-breasted chats, blue grosbeaks, and painted buntings were nearly or entirely eliminated from the treated area. Birds affected, but less drastically reduced in numbers, were yellow-billed cuckoo, black and white warbler, yellow-throated vireo, and white-eyed vireo. Birds found dead in the DDT area were 9 cardinals, 2 painted buntings, 2 lark sparrows, 1 yellow-breasted chat, and 1 white-eyed vireo. Bird mortality had begun by the day after dusting and was largely over by the end of the fifth day. Census of deer in DDT and check areas before and after treatment showed no reduction in deer numbers and no diminution in use of the DDT area. No deer or fawns were found dead or affected. Box-trapping of raccoons in DDT and check areas before and after treatment showed no effects that could be attributed to DDT. Limited observations on

  7. Avian Assemblages Differ between Old-Growth and Mature White Pine Forests of Ontario, Canada: A Role for Supercanopy Trees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Anthony. Kirk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We predicted that bird diversity and abundance of some bird species would be higher in old-growth stands than in mature pine stands because of the greater structural diversity in old growth. We also predicted that patch size of stands should be influential. To test these predictions, we modeled counts of 79 bird species from 52 stands in 5 regions in the province of Ontario, Canada in relation to habitat at the local and landscape extents. Neither total species richness nor abundance differed between stand types. No significant difference was found in bird assemblages between stand types using ordination analysis. However, more Neotropical migrants were found in old-growth stands than in mature stands, while the reverse was true for short-distance migrants. Twenty-five species had higher counts in old-growth stands - three significantly so: Brown Creeper Certhia americana, Northern Parula Setophaga americana, and Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea. Supercanopy pine (> 60 cm dbh was a significant (P 40 cm/dbh was a significant positive predictor for Brown Creeper, Pine Warbler Setophaga pinus, and total species richness. The density of supercanopy and medium/large pine explained a small but significant amount of variation in bird assemblages (1%, after considering age, other tree variables (9%, and landscape metrics. Patch size was significant for Evening Grosbeak Coccothraustes vespertinus and total abundance. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC thresholds, Brown Creeper required a minimum of 62 stems/ha of medium/large pine. Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus and Black-throated Green Warbler required a minimum of 14 and 23 stems/ha of supercanopy pine, respectively. Blackburnian Warbler Setophaga fusca required a minimum stand age of 66 years. Current targets in shelterwood seed cuts for pine appear to be just within range for Brown Creeper - at least for the first cut, but not for subsequent cuts. We recommend that forest

  8. Isospora streperae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from a grey currawong (Strepera versicolour plumbea) (Passeriformes: Artamidae) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Habsi, Khalid Al; Elliot, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Isospora streperae n. sp., (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from a single grey currawong bird (Strepera versicolour) (subspecies S. v. plumbea) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts (n = 32) are spherical to subspherical, with smooth colourless bilayered oocyst wall, 1.0 µm thick (outer layer 0⋅8 µm, inner 0.2 µm thick). Oocyst with a polar granule, an oocyst residuum and two spheroidal to subspheroidal sporocysts. Oocyst length, 23.8 (20.4-25.0) µm; oocyst width, 22.5 (20.0-24.6) µm; a shape index of 1.06, with Stieda, substieda bodies. Micropyle is absent. Sporocysts with compressed sporocyst residuum and four sporozoites. Sporocyst length, 14.4 (12.5-15.2) µm; sporocyst width, 11.2 (10.6-14.0) µm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 1.29. Necropsy of the bird identified haemorrhaging along the ileum and jejunum, which is where Isospora oocysts were also mostly detected. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S, 28S ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene. At the 18S locus, I. streperae n. sp. exhibited 99.5% and 99.4% similarity respectively to an Isospora sp. (MS-2003) from a Southern cape sparrow (Passer melanurus melanurus) and Isospora dovati from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). At the 28S locus, I. streperae n. sp. exhibited 96.9% similarity to an Isospora sp. (MS-2003) from a grosbeak starling (Scissirostrum dubium) and 95.8% similarity with the Isospora sp. (MS-2003) from a Southern cape sparrow. At the COI locus, I. streperae n. sp. exhibited 95.0% similarity to Isospora sp. from a yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) from the Czech Republic. Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of Isospora, which is named Isospora streperae n. sp. after its host, the grey currawong (Strepera versicolour plumbea). Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 燕雀亚科鸟类的贝叶斯系统发生:非洲鹂雀的分类地位及朱雀属的进化与异质起源%Bayesian phylogeny of Fringillinae birds: status of the singular African oriole finch Linurgus olivaceus and evolution and heterogeneity of the genus Carpodacus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio ARNAIZ-VILLENA; Juan MOSCOSO; Valentin RUIZ.DEL.VALLE; Javier GONZAI,EZ; Raquel REGUERA; Michael WINK; Juan I.SERRANOVELA

    2007-01-01

    (genus Serinus), goldfinches and siskins (genus Carduelis) and crossbills (genus Loxia). The oriole finch appears to be a basal single species that has evolved together with (and separately from) other Serinus and Carduelis species. Extinct species lacking in the analysis may have existed that were genetically closer to Linurgus olivaceus. On the other hand, the hawfinch Coccotharustes coccothraustes is definitively included within Eurasian grosbeaks (genera Eophona and Mycerobas), and the American Carpodacus species seem to be an evolutionary radiation apart from the Asian ones.