WorldWideScience

Sample records for groom mountain range

  1. Himalayan Mountain Range, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

  2. Reciprocation and interchange of grooming, agonistic support, feeding tolerance, and aggression in semi-free-ranging Barbary macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, Charlotte; Wiper, Sue; Semple, Stuart

    2011-11-01

    Evidence from a range of primate species indicates that grooming can be exchanged either for itself or for other rank-related "commodities," such as agonistic support, feeding tolerance, or reduced aggression. Patterns of exchange behavior have been found to vary considerably between species, and understanding the causes of this variation is central to the study of the evolution of primate social systems. It is, therefore, essential that exchange behavior is examined in a wide range of species and settings. This article is the first to explore the reciprocation and interchange of grooming in the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus). We collected focal data on semi-free-ranging adult female Barbary macaques at Trentham Monkey Forest, England, and analyzed dyadic data using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. We found evidence for the reciprocal exchange of grooming and for the interchange of grooming for agonistic support and tolerance while feeding. There was no evidence that grooming was traded for a reduction in aggression; indeed, we found a positive relationship between aggression given and grooming received. This may reflect the "extortion" of grooming from subordinates by dominant animals. These results will facilitate comparative analyses of exchange behavior by adding to the current database a new species, characterized by a different social style from those macaque species previously investigated.

  3. Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Groom Mountain Range, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

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  4. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges

  5. Interference of lee waves over mountain ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Makarenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal waves in the atmosphere and ocean are generated frequently from the interaction of mean flow with bottom obstacles such as mountains and submarine ridges. Analysis of these environmental phenomena involves theoretical models of non-homogeneous fluid affected by the gravity. In this paper, a semi-analytical model of stratified flow over the mountain range is considered under the assumption of small amplitude of the topography. Attention is focused on stationary wave patterns forced above the rough terrain. Adapted to account for such terrain, model equations involves exact topographic condition settled on the uneven ground surface. Wave solutions corresponding to sinusoidal topography with a finite number of peaks are calculated and examined.

  6. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  7. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques.

  8. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds.

  9. Whom to groom and for what? Patterns of grooming in female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubová, Veronika; Konečná, Martina; Šmilauer, Petr; Wallner, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is one of the most conspicuous social interactions among nonhuman primates. The selection of grooming partners can provide important clues about factors relevant for the distribution of grooming within a social group. We analyzed grooming behavior among 17 semi-free ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). We tested whether grooming is related to kinship, rank and friendship. Furthermore, we tested whether grooming is reciprocated or exchanged for rank related benefits (i.e. lower aggression and increased tolerance whilst feeding). We found that in general grooming was reciprocally exchanged, directed up the hierarchy and at the same time affected by friendship and kinship. Grooming was more frequent among individuals with higher friendship values as well as amongst related individuals. We also divided our data set on the basis of rank difference and tested if different power asymmetries between individuals affected the tendency to exchange grooming for rank related benefits and grooming reciprocation. In support of our initial hypothesis our results show that the reciprocation of grooming was a significant predictor of grooming interactions between individuals of similar rank, but not between those individuals more distantly separated in the social hierarchy. However, we did not find any evidence for grooming being exchanged for rank related benefits in either data set. Our results, together with previously published studies, illustrate the behavioral flexibility of macaques. It is clear that multiple studies of the same species are necessary to gather the data required for the solid comparative studies needed to shed light on patterns of grooming behavior in primates.

  10. Climate dominated topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, B. A.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The broad spatial trend in channel steepness values suggests that the locus of high rock uplift rates is coincident with the rugged range core, in a similar position as high temperature and pressure lithologies, but not in the low lying foothills as has been previously suggested by low-temperature thermochronometry. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns. We demonstrate the same topographic effects are recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on topography makes the argument of mountain range steadiness untenable in significantly glaciated settings. Furthermore, our results suggest that most glaciated Cenozoic ranges are likely still in a mode of readjustment as fluvial systems change topography and erosion rates to equilibrate with rock uplift rates.

  11. Glacial reorganization of topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Byron; Ehlers, Todd

    2016-04-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns, and not tectonic rock uplift rates. Alpine glaciers drastically altered the relief structure of the Olympic Mountains. The details of these relief changes are recorded in channel profiles as overdeepenings, reduced slopes, and associated knickpoints. We find the position of these relief changes within the orogen is dependent on the position of the Pleistocene ELA. While alpine glaciers overdeepened valleys in regions near the Pleistocene ELA (which has a tendency to increase relief), headward erosion of west and north flowing glacier systems captured significant area from opposing systems and caused drainage divide lowering. This divide lowering reduced relief throughout the range. We demonstrate similar topographic effects recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on

  12. Social grooming among wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba in the Luo Scientific Reserve, DR Congo, with special reference to the formation of grooming gatherings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki, Tetsuya

    2013-10-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) groom in gatherings in which many individuals may be connected via multiple chains of grooming and they often exchange partners with each other. They sometimes groom another while receiving grooming; that is, one animal can play two roles (i.e., groomer and groomee) simultaneously. Although this feature of chimpanzees is notable from the viewpoint of the evolution of human sociality, information on our other closest living relative, the bonobo (Pan paniscus), is still lacking. In this study, I describe grooming interactions of bonobos at Wamba in the Luo Scientific Reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), with a particular focus on the formation of grooming gatherings. Like chimpanzees, the bonobos also performed mutual grooming (two individuals grooming each other simultaneously) and polyadic grooming (three or more individuals). However, unlike chimpanzees, these sessions lasted for only a short time. Bonobos rarely groomed another while receiving grooming. Because social grooming occurred not only in trees but also in open spaces, including treefall gaps, the conditions did not necessarily limit the opportunity to make multiple chains of grooming. However, bonobos also engaged in social grooming in different ways from chimpanzees; That is, many individuals were involved simultaneously at a site, in which they separated for dyadic grooming. Some cases clearly showed that bonobos preferred a third party not to join while grooming in a dyad, suggesting that bonobos have a preference for grooming in dyads and that immature individuals formed the preference that was shared among adults while growing up. Most members of the study group ranged together during the majority of the study period. Although bonobos show a fission-fusion grouping pattern, when group members frequently encounter one another on a daily basis, they may not be motivated to form multiple grooming chains at this site, as do chimpanzees.

  13. Market powers predict reciprocal grooming in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    Full Text Available Social grooming is a common form of affiliative behavior in primates. Biological market theory suggests that grooming can be traded either for grooming or other social commodities and services. When no other services are exchanged, grooming is predicted to be approximately reciprocated within a dyad. In contrast, the amount of reciprocal grooming should decrease as other offered services increase. We studied grooming patterns between polygamous male and female in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana from the Qinling Mountains of central China and found that about 29.7% of grooming bouts were reciprocated. However, the durations of grooming bouts offered and returned was asymmetrical within dyads. In bisexual dyads, more grooming was initiated by females than males, which became more pronounced as the number of females per one-male unit increased. The rate of copulation per day for each female was positively correlated with the total duration of grooming time females invested in males.. Females without an infant (non-mothers directed more grooming towards females with an infant (mothers and were significantly more likely to be non-reciprocated. There was a significant negative relationship between non-mother and mother grooming duration and the rate of infants per female in each one-male unit. High-ranking females also received more grooming from low-ranking females than vice versa. The rate of food-related aggressive interactions was per day for low-ranking females was negatively correlated with the duration of grooming that low-ranking females gave to high-ranking females. Our results showed that grooming reciprocation in R. roxellana was discrepancy. This investment-reciprocity rate could be explained by the exchange of other social services in lieu of grooming.

  14. Market powers predict reciprocal grooming in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Song-Tao; Zhao, Da-Peng; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Kang; Li, Bao-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Social grooming is a common form of affiliative behavior in primates. Biological market theory suggests that grooming can be traded either for grooming or other social commodities and services. When no other services are exchanged, grooming is predicted to be approximately reciprocated within a dyad. In contrast, the amount of reciprocal grooming should decrease as other offered services increase. We studied grooming patterns between polygamous male and female in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) from the Qinling Mountains of central China and found that about 29.7% of grooming bouts were reciprocated. However, the durations of grooming bouts offered and returned was asymmetrical within dyads. In bisexual dyads, more grooming was initiated by females than males, which became more pronounced as the number of females per one-male unit increased. The rate of copulation per day for each female was positively correlated with the total duration of grooming time females invested in males.. Females without an infant (non-mothers) directed more grooming towards females with an infant (mothers) and were significantly more likely to be non-reciprocated. There was a significant negative relationship between non-mother and mother grooming duration and the rate of infants per female in each one-male unit. High-ranking females also received more grooming from low-ranking females than vice versa. The rate of food-related aggressive interactions was per day for low-ranking females was negatively correlated with the duration of grooming that low-ranking females gave to high-ranking females. Our results showed that grooming reciprocation in R. roxellana was discrepancy. This investment-reciprocity rate could be explained by the exchange of other social services in lieu of grooming.

  15. Local and regional characterisation of the diurnal mountain wind systems in the Guadarrama mountain range (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrillaga, Jon A.; Cano, Darío; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Morales, Gema; Viana, Samuel; Inclán, Rosa M.; Fidel González-Roúco, J.; Santolaria, Edmundo; Durán, Luis; Yagüe, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Diurnal mountain wind systems that develop in the surroundings of the Guadarrama mountain range (Spain) are studied in this work. This area is highly interesting: the city of Madrid is located at approximately 50 km towards the SE; and on the other hand, unlike in other mountainous regions, the summers are characterised to be significantly dry, providing an interesting case study of energy balance in the context of complex orography. Slope and basin circulations formed play an important role in the development of fog and pollution episodes in the whole region. On top of that, when upslope basin winds strengthened by diurnal convection exceed 10 m s-1, the runway configuration at the airport of Madrid needs to be modified. Continuous meteorological data and turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapour, momentum and heat are provided since June 2016 from measurements at a 10 m tower at La Herrería site, which is located at the foot of the Guadarrama mountain range. Besides, a 4 m high portable station is available for complementary measurements. La Herrería is part of the Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet; www.ucm.es/gumnet/), an atmospheric and subsurface observational facility distributed over the Guadarrama mountain range. As a support for the analysis, data from conventional meteorological stations within the region and a wind profiler at the airport are also employed. The wind roses for the period analysed (summer 2016) show how the diurnal cycle of the flows is influenced by local slopes and by the configuration of the basin. The irruption of the downslope flow in the evening produces a significant increase of the turbulence intensity and the eventual breakdown of the surface-based thermal inversion. However, the severe drying out of the soil throughout the summer, evident from the evolution of the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes, seems to play a role in altering the characteristics of the mountain-breeze system and its impact on turbulence

  16. Advice on Good Grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, Carol

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented from parents on how to help children with disabilities (with particular focus on Downs Syndrome) learn good grooming habits in such areas as good health, exercise, cleanliness, teeth and hair care, skin care, glasses and other devices, and social behavior. (CB)

  17. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  18. Understanding Mountain Range Spatial Variability of Surface Hoar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface hoar, once buried often produce a persistent weak layer that is a common instability problem in the snow pack in SW Montana and many other areas around the world. Surface hoar is a common weak layer type in avalanche accidents in a continental and intermountain snowpack. It is however relatively well understood that aspect plays an important role in the spatial location of the growth, and survival of these grain forms, due to the unequal distribution of incoming radiation. However this factor alone does not explain the complex and often confusing spatial pattern of these grains forms throughout the landscape at larger, mountain range spatial scales. In this paper we present a unique data set including over one hundred days of manual observations of surface hoar at sixteen locations on Pioneer Mountain at the Yellowstone Club in southwestern Montana. Using this wealth of observational data located on different aspects, elevations and exposures, coupled with detailed meteorological observations, detailed site scale observations (e.g. Sky view plots) we examine the spatial variability of surface hoar at this scale, and examine the factors that control its spatial distribution. Our results further supports our preliminary work, which shows that small-scale meteorological differences, site scale differences, and local scale lapse rates can greatly influence the spatial variability of surface hoar, over and above that which aspect alone can explain. These results highlight our incomplete understanding of the processes at this large, mountain range scale, and are likely to have implications for both regional and local scale avalanche forecasting in environments where surface hoar cause ongoing instabilities.

  19. The effect of solicitations on grooming exchanges among female Japanese macaques at Katsuyama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    In group-living primates, individuals often exchange grooming with not only kin but also non-kin. We investigated the effect of soliciting behaviors on grooming exchanges in a free-ranging Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) group at Katsuyama. In this study, we used a focal animal sampling method, targeting 14 females. Data were collected for 15.75 ± 2.67 (mean ± SD) hours per focal female. We classified female-female pairs into three pair types: kin pairs, affiliated non-kin pairs, and unaffiliated non-kin pairs. Females received grooming more frequently when they solicited after grooming their partners than when they did not solicit in all pair types. In addition, females received grooming less frequently when they did not groom their unaffiliated non-kin partners before soliciting; prior grooming was not needed to receive grooming from kin or affiliated non-kin partners. The degree of grooming reciprocity did not differ according to the frequency with which females in kin or affiliated non-kin pairs solicited after grooming. On the other hand, grooming reciprocity between unaffiliated non-kin females was more balanced when they solicited frequently after grooming, as compared with when they did not. In conclusion, our study suggests that soliciting behaviors promote grooming exchanges in female Japanese macaques.

  20. Emotional states after grooming interactions in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    In animal societies, the effect of grooming interactions on anxiety reduction is unclear. This study examined the effects of giving and receiving grooming on anxiety reduction in free ranging female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by measuring rates of self-scratching as an index of anxiety. In this study, the authors used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama prefecture, Japan. They evaluated affiliative relationships, which were defined by standard proximity rates, and found that females' self-scratching rates were lower after grooming affiliated partners than during matched-control periods (occurring on another day, beginning at approximately the same time of day as the corresponding postgrooming period) and not after grooming unaffiliated partners. Moreover, regardless of affiliative relationships, self-scratching rates were lower after receiving grooming than during matched-control periods. These findings did not change after excluding data in which groomer and groomee were in proximity after the grooming interaction. In addition, multivariable analysis showed that affiliative relationships, but not kinship or rank distances, were related to differences in the rates of self-scratching between giving grooming and matched-control periods. In contrast, neither affiliative relationships nor kinship nor rank distances affected differences in self-scratching rates between receiving grooming and matched-control periods. Therefore, individuals' anxiety levels decreased both after giving grooming to affiliated partners and after receiving grooming, regardless of affiliative relationships. This is the first empirical study to support the notion that giving grooming to affiliated partners is self-rewarding in Japanese macaques.

  1. Kelvin-Helmholtz waves in extratropical cyclones passing over mountain ranges: KH Waves in Extratropical Cyclones over Mountain Ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Socorro [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Houze, Robert A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Kelvin–Helmholtz billows with horizontal scales of 3–4 km have been observed in midlatitude cyclones moving over the Italian Alps and the Oregon Cascades when the atmosphere was mostly statically stable with high amounts of shear and Ri < 0.25. In one case, data from a mobile radar located within a windward facing valley documented a layer in which the shear between down-valley flow below 1.2 km and strong upslope cross-barrier flow above was large. Several episodes of Kelvin–Helmholtz waves were observed within the shear layer. The occurrence of the waves appears to be related to the strength of the shear: when the shear attained large values, an episode of billows occurred, followed by a sharp decrease in the shear. The occurrence of large values of shear and Kelvin–Helmholtz billows over two different mountain ranges suggests that they may be important features occurring when extratropical cyclones with statically stable flow pass over mountain ranges.

  2. Climate and Floristic Variation in Great Basin Mountain Ranges (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, D. A.; Leary, P.

    2010-12-01

    are 316 in the Snake Range transect, and 425 along the Sheep Range transect. Near the Sheep Range lies the Spring Mountains where 769 samples were obtained. More than 30,000 geo-referenced photographs document the sites, and nearly 1000 vascular plant taxa have been encountered and their distributions documented. Recently completed soil maps, the PRISM precipitation model, and 10m Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of the study areas exist. As a result, many environmental conditions can be explored with multivariate statistical methods. Preliminary results indicate that different kinds of physical data may be appropriate only at certain scales. Most useful for fine-scale investigations on mountains appears to be measures of irradiance at the solstices and equinox derived from the 10m DEM. Past climate in Nevada is readily evident on its landscapes, featuring glacial, periglacial and pluvial features. Pollen and remains left by woodrats provide vegetation records dating up to 40,000 years before present. The vegetation work described here provides a snapshot of biodiversity at fine scale of several mountain ranges. Efforts of the physical scientists and physiologists now, and repeat visits to the sample sites of this study later, will help us track the processes and manifestations of landscape change as responses to climate.

  3. Laughing, grooming, and pub science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provine, Robert R

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of naturalistic observations of people conversing and laughing in pubs, a new study suggests that the 'grooming-at-a-distance' of laughter provides a three-fold increase in grooming group size, potentially explaining how hominins evolved social groups that are considerably larger than those of other primates.

  4. Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model for northwest Himalaya in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Singh; A Ganju

    2008-10-01

    Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model is developed utilizing surface weather observations of reference stations in each mountain range in northwest Himalaya (NW-Himalaya).The model searches past similar cases from historical dataset of reference observatory in each mountain range based on current situation.The searched past similar cases of each mountain range are used to draw weather forecast for that mountain range in operational weather forecasting mode, three days in advance.The developed analog weather forecast model is tested with the independent dataset of more than 717 days (542 days for Pir Panjal range in HP)of the past 4 winters (2003 –2004 to 2006 –2007).Independent test results are reasonably good and suggest that there is some possibility of forecasting weather in operational weather forecasting mode employing analog method over different mountain ranges in NW-Himalaya.Significant difference in overall accuracy of the model is found for prediction of snow day and no-snow day over different mountain ranges, when weather is predicted under snow day and no-snow day weather forecast categories respectively.In the same mountain range,signi ficant difference is also found in overall accuracy of the model for prediction of snow day and no-snow day for different areas.This can be attributed to their geographical position and topographical differences.The analog weather forecast model performs better than persistence and climatological forecast for day-1 predictions for all the mountain ranges except Karakoram range in NW-Himalaya.The developed analog weather forecast model may help as a guidance tool for forecasting weather in operational weather forecasting mode in different mountain ranges in NW-Himalaya.

  5. Grooming patterns in Verreaux's sifaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rebecca J

    2010-03-01

    Lemur grooming has received very little attention in the literature. Nevertheless, allogrooming in lemurs has been suggested to be fundamentally different from the grooming of anthropoids. One reason is that lemurs generally rely on oral rather than manual grooming. Lemur allogrooming has also been suggested to serve less of a social function than has been attributed to anthropoid grooming. I analyzed the allogrooming behaviors of 29 Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) living in five social groups in the Kirindy Forest of Madagascar. Based upon 1,586 observation hours, I found that sifaka, like anthropoids, spend very little time mutual grooming (2+/-3%). Half of all allogrooming involved parts of the body that could have been easily groomed by the recipient, such as the limbs. Even though ectoparasite loads are expected to be greater during the rainy season, allogrooming did not increase during the rainy season. Allogrooming rates were influenced by both rank and sex, and increased by 50-100% during the mating season. The results of this study suggest that allogrooming in Verreaux's sifaka plays an important social function, even though it is performed with a toothcomb.

  6. Grooming-related feeding motivates macaques to groom and affects grooming reciprocity and episode duration in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kenji; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming is considered as an altruistic behavior wherein primates exchange grooming as a tradable commodity for reciprocal grooming or other commodities such as support during aggression and tolerance during co-feeding. First, we report a case of the grooming relationships of the lowest-ranking adult female in a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The female (Lp) had lost a portion of the fur and was groomed by higher-ranking individuals without providing reciprocal grooming or other commodities. The groomers probably fed on lice eggs from the fur of Lp more frequently than from that of other adult groomees. This suggests that grooming-related feeding (GRF) motivated many individuals to groom Lp and influenced grooming reciprocity in dyads. Second, we investigated quantitative grooming data for adult females. A high GRF rate was found to lengthen the duration of grooming, suggesting that GRF motivates groomers to groom. From these results, we proposed 2 possible reasons for groomers' sensitivity to GRF rate: (1) the nutritional benefit from GRF compensates for part of the cost of giving grooming and facilitates giving grooming and (2) groomer's sensitivity to the GRF rate maintains the efficiency of removing lice eggs and ensures the groomee's hygienic benefit in receiving grooming.

  7. Use of curlleaf mountain-mahogany by mule deer on a transition range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Edward Dealy; Paul J. Edgerton; Wayne G. Williams

    1986-01-01

    Using the pellet-group sampling method, we concluded that migrating mule deer showed no preference in use between two ratios of curlleaf mountain-mahogany cover and openings on a northern California transition range. Where there is a need to develop forage openings in transition habitats dominated by dense thickets of curlleaf mountain-mahogany, manipulation of cover...

  8. Neurofibromin Loss of Function Drives Excessive Grooming in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanikea B. King

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis I is a common genetic disorder that results in tumor formation, and predisposes individuals to a range of cognitive/behavioral symptoms, including deficits in attention, visuospatial skills, learning, language development, and sleep, and autism spectrum disorder-like traits. The nf1-encoded neurofibromin protein (Nf1 exhibits high conservation, from the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to humans. Drosophila provides a powerful platform to investigate the signaling cascades upstream and downstream of Nf1, and the fly model exhibits similar behavioral phenotypes to mammalian models. In order to understand how loss of Nf1 affects motor behavior in flies, we combined traditional activity monitoring with video analysis of grooming behavior. In nf1 mutants, spontaneous grooming was increased up to 7x. This increase in activity was distinct from previously described dopamine-dependent hyperactivity, as dopamine transporter mutants exhibited slightly decreased grooming. Finally, we found that relative grooming frequencies can be compared in standard activity monitors that measure infrared beam breaks, enabling the use of activity monitors as an automated method to screen for grooming phenotypes. Overall, these data suggest that loss of nf1 produces excessive activity that is manifested as increased grooming, providing a platform to dissect the molecular genetics of neurofibromin signaling across neuronal circuits.

  9. Significance of grooming behavior in two polygynous groups of western black crested gibbons: Implications for understanding social relationships among immigrant and resident group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhen-Hua; Huang, Bei; Ning, Wen-He; Ni, Qing-Yong; Sun, Guo-Zheng; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2013-12-01

    In primates, grooming is considered among the most common behaviors for maintaining social bonds; however, to date, few studies have examined grooming behavior in gibbon species in detail. We used both a 5-min interval scan method and social network analysis to study grooming in two groups of polygynous western black-crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) in Wuliang Mountain, Central Yunnan, China. Individuals in both groups spent little time in social grooming (1.45% and 1.97% of active time). We compared the two groups' grooming networks and found that the group that maintained a more stable social unit had a more complex grooming network while the group with new immigrants had a grooming network characterized by fewer grooming pairs. Females in both groups played important roles in the grooming network. A newly immigrant female spent the most time grooming others and chose the resident adult female as her main adult grooming partner. Other females from both groups chose the adult male as their primary grooming partner (except their offspring). A sub-adult male who had resided in his natal group for 2 years after maturing into an adult also groomed more and was at the center of the network. This male finally replaced the breeding male in his group 3 years after our data collection period ended. We hypothesize that the immigrant female and the resident young adult male engaged in more extensive grooming interactions as a behavioral strategy to gain tolerance from long-term residents. Our results suggest that female gibbons in polygynous groups actively cooperate in maintaining social relationships rather than co-exist through tolerance or avoidance. Our observations indicate that grooming networks in crested gibbons reflect individual dynamics and partly support the social cohesion hypothesis for primate grooming. In this regard, we suggest that changes in gibbon grooming networks can be used to predict social change.

  10. Effects of winter road grooming on bison in YNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornlie, Daniel D; Garrott, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of winter recreation—specifically snowmobiling—on wildlife in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have become high-profile management issues. The road grooming needed to support oversnow travel in YNP is also being examined for its effects on bison (Bison bison) ecology. Data were collected from November 1997 through May 1998 and from December 1998 through May 1999 on the effects of road grooming on bison in Madison–Gibbon–Firehole (MGF) area of YNP Peak bison numbers occurred during late March—early April and were strongly correlated with the snow water equivalent measurements in the Hayden Valley area (1997–1998: r* = 0.62, p:0.001: 1998–1999: r2 = 0.64, P-0.001). Data from an infrared trail monitor on the Mary Mountain trail between the Hayden and Firehole valleys suggest that this trail is the sole corridor for major bison distributional shifts between these locations. Of the 28,293 observations of individual bison made during the study, 8% were traveling and 69% were foraging. These percentages were nearly identical during the period of winter road grooming (7% and 68%, respectively). During this period, 77% of bison foraging activity and 12% of bison traveling activity involved displacing snow. Most travel took place off roads (Pgrooming, with peak use in April and lowest use during the road-grooming period. Bison in the MGF area of YNF neither seek out nor avoid groomed roads. The minimal use of roads compared to off-road areas, the short distances traveled on the roads, the decreased use of roads during the over snow vehicle (OSV) season, and the increased costs of negative interactions with OSVs suggest that grooming roads during winter does not have a major influence on bison ecology.

  11. USFWS Land Interests Associated with Bull Mountain Game Range [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Bull Mountain Game Range. It was generated from rectified aerial photography, cadastral...

  12. Geospatial Database of Hydroclimate Variables, Spring Mountains and Sheep Range, Clark County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This point feature class contains 81,481 points arranged in a 270-meter spaced grid that covers the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range in Clark County, Nevada. Points...

  13. Landslide Rates in the Eastern Cascade Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, K. J.; Doten, C. O.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2003-12-01

    Assessing landslide rates is an important factor in quantifying sediment generation in mountainous watersheds. Prediction of the role of land cover change, especially forest harvest and fires, on sediment generation is currently a problem of particular interest to forest management agencies. Traditional aerial photograph interpretation techniques have long been used for estimation of failure rates, however to date such data has rarely been used in a predictive modeling context. Furthermore, relatively little quantitative data exist that are applicable to the east slopes of the Cascade Mountains, where recent fires have created an interest in improved prediction techniques that might help better understand the implications of post-fire sediment generation for the health of streams. Using aerial stereo photographs from the years 1970, 1975, 1979, 1985, and 1992, provided by the U.S. Forest Service, landslides were mapped in the Rainy Creek tributary of the Little Wenatchee basin of the northeastern Washington Cascades. The slides were mapped onto digital orthophotos and were categorized by a confidence scheme based on the visible features of a landslide. Slides were further categorized by the land type (forested, harvested, unforested, burned, and road-related) they occurred in, and stream and forest road intersections were also noted. Landslide rates and slide densities were calculated based on the photo record intervals. The volume of removed sediment was also estimated. These rates were compared to precipitation records over the same time period to evaluate the effect of large storms on mass wasting in this region. Estimated slide number and area densities are compared with similar studies elsewhere in the western U.S. Also, predicted and estimated number and area of slides from a numerical model described in a companion paper (Doten et al) are compared with the orthophoto estimates for the 22-years period 1970-92.

  14. Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egholm, David L; Knudsen, Mads F; Sandiford, Mike

    2013-06-27

    An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial. Here we use computational simulations to show that the key to understanding variations in the rate of erosion between tectonically active and inactive mountain ranges may relate to a bidirectional coupling between bedrock river incision and landslides. Whereas fluvial incision steepens surrounding hillslopes and increases landslide frequency, landsliding affects fluvial erosion rates in two fundamentally distinct ways. On the one hand, large landslides overwhelm the river transport capacity and cause upstream build up of sediment that protects the river bed from further erosion. On the other hand, in delivering abrasive agents to the streams, landslides help accelerate fluvial erosion. Our models illustrate how this coupling has fundamentally different implications for rates of fluvial incision in active and inactive mountain ranges. The coupling therefore provides a plausible physical explanation for the preservation of significant mountain-range relief in old orogenic belts, up to several hundred million years after tectonic activity has effectively ceased.

  15. Facing the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains: What other ranges do they look like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creyts, T. T.; Ferraccioli, F.; Bell, R. E.; Wolovick, M.; Corr, H.; Jordan, T. A.; Frearson, N.; Damaske, D.; Rose, K. C.; Braaten, D. A.; Finn, C.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain ranges serve as nucleation sites for continental ice sheets over multiple glacial cycles. During warmer interglacial periods, such ranges provide a toe-hold for snow accumulation and small glaciers that expand as temperatures drop in response to declining carbon dioxide levels. Once an ice sheet grows beyond a critical size, its basal thermal regime favors melting and development of water networks. Studies of deglaciated ice sheet beds indicate a complex thermal regime where cold-based areas are interspersed with warm, temperate areas. The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains are a massive range in central East Antarctica. They are Earth's only completely ice-covered mountain range. Results from ice penetrating radar reveal steep headwalls with semicircular planform lying along high ridges and with peaks above 2500 m in the central mountain core. These likely represent cirque headwalls and provide evidence for widespread mountain glaciers within the Gamburtsevs. Headwalls are often accompanied by discrete overdeepenings that indicate occupation by cirque glaciers, and the cirque elevations are relatively uniform from north to south, spanning a distance of roughly 750 km. Such mountain glacier features have been preserved since the start of continental-scale glaciation (>33.9 Myr ago). Preservation results from freezing conditions beneath the ice sheet that have reduced erosion despite active water networks. Reconstructions of temperature indicate 17.1--19.3 +/- 4 at sea level, consistent with sedimentary proxies from the early Eocene (48--58 Myr ago). Here, we compare the Gamburtsevs to other mountain ranges using statistical tests. We focus on comparisons among mountain hypsometries, or the distributions of area with elevation. We introduce two tests, a decay-length test that relates the form of the peaks of the individual ranges and a χ2 goodness-of-fit test for the overall distribution. Results show that there is a striking similarity to mountains that are

  16. The impact of embedded valleys on daytime pollution transport over a mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Moritz N.; Gohm, Alexander; Wagner, Johannes S.

    2016-04-01

    Idealized large-eddy simulations were performed to investigate the impact of different mountain geometries on daytime pollution transport by thermally driven winds. The main objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the interactions between plain-to-mountain and slope wind systems and (ii) to analyze their influence on daytime pollution distribution over complex terrain. For this purpose, tracer analyses were conducted over a quasi-two-dimensional mountain range with embedded valleys bordered by ridges with different crest heights and a flat foreland in cross-mountain direction. The valley depth was varied systematically. It was found that different flow regimes develop dependent on the valley floor height. In the case of elevated valley floors, the plain-to-mountain wind descends into the potentially warmer valley and replaces the opposing upslope wind. This superimposed plain-to-mountain wind increases the pollution transport towards the main ridge by additional 20 \\unit{%} compared to the regime with a deep valley. Due to mountain and advective venting, a more than threefold increased earth-atmosphere exchange is found over the various mountain geometries when compared to the reference plain simulation. However, the calculated vertical exchange is strongly sensitive to the definition of the convective boundary layer height.

  17. [Grooming and group structure in hamadryas baboons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The results of 3-year observation on coral living hamadryas baboons transported from natural habitat in Tuapse reservation have been presented. Despite of the fact that grooming between males and females accounted for 73% of total cases of grooming in adult individual pairs, only the relationships of males with high-ranked females of their harems fully corresponded to a star-shaped sociogram. The high-ranked females were not different from all the other females either according to a total number of grooming cases with their female partners or according to a proportion of a performed and received grooming. Grooming between the related females was noted predominantly in the cases when they belonged to the same harem. Grooming between the related males accounted for 59% of all the cases of grooming between the male partners.

  18. Wild chimpanzees can perform social grooming and social play behaviors simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masaki

    2013-10-01

    Reliable evidence was obtained of the simultaneous performance of social grooming and social play behaviors by individuals among wild chimpanzees of the M group in Mahale Mountains National Park. I observed three cases of this performance: in an old female, a young female, and an adult male. While the agent was grooming the back of an adult bimanually, an infant or a juvenile approached the agent. The agent then started playing with the infant/juvenile using only the right hand, while simultaneously grooming the back of the adult with the left hand. In one case, an old female continued the simultaneous performance for about 1 min. Such performances probably occur at low frequency because they are not often required. The similarity in the neurobiological bases and the functions of social grooming and social play behaviors, both of which include repetitive contact with the body of another individual, may facilitate their simultaneous performance.

  19. Flat-topped mountain ranges: Their global distribution and value for understanding the evolution of mountain topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Marc; Gunnell, Yanni; Farines, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Extensive tracts of low-gradient topography in steep mountain ranges, either forming rangetop plateaus or terraced pediments on range flanks, are widely distributed in mountain belts around the world. Before the advent of plate tectonics, such populations of planar landforms were interpreted as vestiges of a post-orogenic raised peneplain, i.e., a low-gradient land surface resulting from the decay, during long intervals of base-level stability, of a previous mountain range that was subsequently raised once again to great elevations-thus forming a new mountain range. This two-stage model has been challenged by theories that advocate continuity in tectonic processes and more gradual changes in base level, and thus expect a more immediate and proportionate response of geomorphic systems. Here we present a global survey of erosion surfaces in mountain ranges and put existing theories and empirical evidence into a broad perspective calling for further research into the rates and regimes of long-term mountain evolution. The resulting library of case studies provides opportunities for comparative analysis and helps to classify the landform mosaics that are likely to arise from the interplay between (i) crustal regimes, which at convergent plate margins need be neither uniform nor steady at all times; (ii) radiation-driven and gravity-driven geomorphic regimes, which are mainly determined by crustal boundary conditions and climate; and (iii) paleogeography, through which clues about base-level changes can be obtained. We examine intracratonic and plate-margin settings, with examples from thin-skinned fold belts, thick-skinned fold belts, island-arc and other subduction-related settings, and bivergent collisional orogens. Results reveal that the existence of erosion surfaces is not a simple function of geodynamic setting. Although some erosion surfaces are pre-orogenic, evidence about their predominantly post-orogenic age is supported by apatite fission-track and helium

  20. Hydroclimate of the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreo, Michael T.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Flint, Alan L.; Damar, Nancy A.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Hurja, James

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and actual evapotranspiration often are used to characterize the hydroclimate of a region. Quantification of these parameters in mountainous terrains is difficult because limited access often hampers the collection of representative ground data. To fulfill a need to characterize ecological zones in the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range of southern Nevada, spatially and temporally explicit estimates of these hydroclimatic parameters are determined from remote-sensing and model-based methodologies. Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation estimates for this area ranges from about 100 millimeters (mm) in the low elevations of the study area (700 meters [m]) to more than 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains (> 2,800 m). The PRISM model underestimates precipitation by 7–15 percent based on a comparison with four high‑elevation precipitation gages having more than 20 years of record. Precipitation at 3,000-m elevation is 50 percent greater in the Spring Mountains than in the Sheep Range. The lesser amount of precipitation in the Sheep Range is attributed to partial moisture depletion by the Spring Mountains of eastward-moving, cool-season (October–April) storms. Cool-season storms account for 66–76 percent of annual precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration estimates by the Basin Characterization Model range from about 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains to 1,600 mm in the low elevations of the study area. The model realistically simulates lower potential evapotranspiration on northeast-to-northwest facing slopes compared to adjacent southeast-to-southwest facing slopes. Actual evapotranspiration, estimated using a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer based water-balance model, ranges from about 100 to 600 mm. The magnitude and spatial variation of simulated, actual evapotranspiration was validated by comparison to PRISM precipitation

  1. Studying of tritium content in snowpack of Degelen mountain range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchenko, D V; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O; Lyakhova, O N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of tritium content in the layers of snow located in the streambeds of the "Degelen" massif contaminated with tritium. The objects of investigation were selected watercourses Karabulak, Uzynbulak, Aktybai located beyond the "Degelen" site. We studied the spatial distribution of tritium relative to the streambed of watercourses and defined the borders of the snow cover contamination. In the centre of the creek watercourses the snow contamination in the surface layer is as high as 40 000 Bq/L. The values of the background levels of tritium in areas not related to the streambed, which range from 40 to 50 Bq/L. The results of snow cover measurements in different seasonal periods were compared. The main mechanisms causing tritium transfer in snow were examined and identified. The most important mechanism of tritium transfer in the streams is tritium emanation from ice or soil surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of Grooming in Reducing Tick Load in Wild Baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyi, Mercy Y; Tung, Jenny; Jeneby, Maamun; Patel, Nilesh B; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2013-03-01

    Nonhuman primate species spend a conspicuous amount of time grooming during social interactions, a behavior that probably serves both social and health-related functions. While the social implications of grooming have been relatively well studied, less attention has been paid to the health benefits, especially the removal of ectoparasites, which may act as vectors in disease transmission. In this study, we examined the relationship between grooming behavior, tick load (number of ticks), and haemoprotozoan infection status in a population of wild free-ranging baboons (Papio cynocephalus). We found that the amount of grooming received was influenced by an individual's age, sex and dominance rank. The amount of grooming received, in turn, affected the tick load of an individual. Baboons with higher tick loads had lower packed red cell volume (PCV or haematocrit), one general measure of health status. We detected a tick-borne haemoprotozoan, Babesia microti, but its low prevalence in the population precluded identifying sources of variance in infection.

  3. Dominance hierarchy and social grooming in female lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) in the Western Ghats, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mridula Singh; B A Krishna; Mewa Singh

    2006-09-01

    This article reports the structure of dominance and its relationship with social grooming in wild lion-tailed macaque females. The strength of dominance hierarchy was 0.79 on a scale of 0 to 1 indicating a moderate linearity in the ranking system. Dominance scores were converted into an ordinal as well as an interval scale. Grooming scores were also converted into interval scales using standard scores. Grooming received and grooming given correlated positively and negatively respectively with dominance ranks indicating that high ranking females received more and gave less grooming. Grooming was also positively related to encounter rates for dyads of females. More grooming among adjacent ranks, and grooming being more reciprocal, occurred only in the case of dominant females. The grooming patterns, therefore, appeared to be more of despotic than egalitarian nature. While ranking macaques into different Grades of social systems ranging from despotic to egalitarian, Thierry (2004) has placed lion-tailed macaques in Grade 3 corresponding to the ‘relaxed’ social system. Our results indicate that the grooming and dominance relationships in this species are more despotic, and hence, the Grade for this species requires to be shifted toward 2 or 1.

  4. Long-range atmospheric transport and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Changbai Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangai; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Zhu, Weihong; Kannan, Narayanan; Li, Donghao

    2015-01-01

    The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping.

  5. Stream-power incision model in non-steady-state mountain ranges: An empirical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yen-Chieh; SUNG Quocheng; CHEN Chao-Nan

    2006-01-01

    Stream-power incision model has always been applied to detecting the steady-state situation of ranges. Oblique arc-continent collision occurring during the period of Penglai Orogeny caused the Taiwan mountain belt to develop landscape of three evolution stages, namely stages of pre-steady-state (growing ranges in southern Taiwan), steady-state (ranges in central Taiwan) and post-steady-state (decaying ranges in northern Taiwan). In the analysis on streams of the Taiwan mountain belt made by exploring the relationship between the slope of bedrock channel (S) and the catchment area (A), the topographic features of the ranges at these three stages are acquired. The S-A plot of the steady-state ranges is in a linear form, revealing that the riverbed height of bedrock channel does not change over time (dz/dt =0). The slope and intercept of the straight line S-A are related to evolution time of steady-state topography and tectonic uplift rate respectively. The S-A plots of the southern and northern ranges of Taiwan mountain belt appear to be in convex and concave forms respectively, implying that the riverbed height of bedrock channel at the two ranges rises (dz/dt>0)and falls (dz/dt<0) over time respectively. Their tangent intercept can still reflect the tectonic uplift rate.This study develops an empirical stream-power eresion model of pre-steady-state and post-steady-state topography.

  6. A Palaeoenvironmental contribution to the study of trashumance in the Gredos Mountain Range (Ávila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio López Sáez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Avilan sector of the Gredos Mountain Range represents one of the Iberian Peninsula’s most valuable cultural landscapes. From Prehistory to the present, the importance of trashumance in this region has played a key role in shaping its ecosystyems. Using pollen analysis to examine historical transformations in the region’s ecology, both those engendered by human activity and those relating to palaeoclimatic dynamics, this paper examines the diachronic evolution of the vegetation of the Serranillos Mountain Pass during the Late Holocene.

  7. Turkish Children's Drawing of Nature in a Certain Way: Range of Mountains in the Back, the Sun, Couple of Clouds, a River Rising from the Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Riza

    2012-01-01

    This study reveals that Turkish kindergarten through 8th Grade (K-8) students draw nature pictures in a certain way; range of mountains in the background, a sun, a couple of clouds, a river rising from the mountains. There are similarities in the K-8 students' nature drawings in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper. We…

  8. Flight Period of Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in its Recently Expanded Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiker, K P; Van Hezewijk, B H

    2016-12-01

    The ability to predict key phenological events, such as the timing of flight periods, is useful for the monitoring and management of insect pests. We used empirical data to describe the flight period of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in its recently expanded range east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and developed a degree-day model based on the number of trapped beetles. Data were collected over four degrees of latitude and six years. The main flight period, when the middle 70% of the total number of beetles were caught, started during the second or third week of July, lasted 26 d, and peaked within 2 wk of starting. The best model accounted for 89% of the variation in the data. Mountain pine beetle's flight tended to start later and be more contracted at higher latitudes. The synchrony of mountain pine beetle's flight period in the expanded range appears to be comparable to the limited reports from the historic range, although it may start earlier. This suggests that conditions in the new range are suitable for a coordinated dispersal flight, which is critical for the beetle's strategy of overwhelming tree defenses by attacking en masse. Forest managers can use the model to support operational decisions, e.g., when to impose hauling restrictions to reduce the risk of spread through the transport of infested material, or the time frame for control programs. Understanding the flight period may also improve our ability to assess the response of mountain pine beetle to novel and changing climates in the future.

  9. Grooming behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de

    1987-01-01

    In an open field spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibited lower scores for grooming when compared to their normotensive controls, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After i.c.v. injection of 1 μg ACTH1–24 cumulative 50-min grooming scores were lower in SHR. Analysis of subscores indicated that the

  10. Glacial Ice Velocity Determination and Correlation from Different Mountain Ranges Using Aster Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleasants, M.; Haritashya, U. K.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers make good indicators of even slight changes in climatic conditions because of their sensitivity to temperature and other environmental changes. Due to the inaccessibility of most mountain glaciers, field based measurements of glacier dynamics, especially ice velocities, has proved to be difficult and unrealistic. Because of this, evaluation of satellite imagery has become useful in the determination of glacial ice velocities and production of ice flow models. The calculation and comparison of ice velocities from three glaciated regions (the Southern Alps of New Zealand, the North-east Nepali Himalaya, and the south-eastern Chugach Mountains of Alaska) is presented here. This study was completed to establish the accuracy and global applicability of the method of precise orthorectification, co-registration, and correlation using the software COSI-Corr and in-house filtering techniques. We chose glaciers from different mountain ranges that present different dynamics to establish a specific ice velocity method. Advanced Spacebourne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) L1A images were chosen as close to annual pairs as possible from the available data at the USGS Global Visualization Viewer (GloVis). This study focuses on the Tasman glacier in New Zealand, the Khumbu glacier in the Himalayas, the previously unstudied Scott glacier in Alaska, and the comparison of these ice velocities to climate data for each region compiled from numerous sources in an attempt to draw conclusions of the behavior of these glaciers in response to current climatic changes.

  11. A geochemical perspective of Red Mountain: an unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Stuart A.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has investigated the environmental geochemistry of a group of unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits in the Bonnifield mining district, Alaska Range, east-central Alaska. The spectacularly colored Red Mountain deposit is the best exposed of these and provides excellent baseline geochemical data for natural environmental impacts of acidic rock drainage, metal dissolution and transport, and acidic salt and metal precipitation from an exposed and undisturbed VMS deposit.

  12. Tectonic uplift, threshold hillslopes, and denudation rates in a developing mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, S.A.; Phillips, W.M.; Summerfield, M.A.; Fifield, L.K.

    2007-01-01

    Studies across a broad range of drainage basins have established a positive correlation between mean slope gradient and denudation rates. It has been suggested, however, that this relationship breaks down for catchments where slopes are at their threshold angle of stability because, in such cases, denudation is controlled by the rate of tectonic uplift through the rate of channel incision and frequency of slope failure. This mechanism is evaluated for the San Bernardino Mountains, California, a nascent range that incorporates both threshold hill-slopes and remnants of pre-uplift topography. Concentrations of in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be in alluvial sediments are used to quantify catchment-wide denudation rates and show a broadly linear relationship with mean slope gradient up to ???30??: above this value denudation rates vary substantially for similar mean slope gradients. We propose that this decoupling in the slope gradient-denudation rate relationship marks the emergence of threshold topography and coincides with the transition from transport-limited to detachment-limited denudation. The survival in the San Bernardino Mountains of surfaces formed prior to uplift provides information on the topographic evolution of the range, in particular the transition from slope-gradient-dependent rates of denudation to a regime where denudation rates are controlled by rates of tectonic uplift. This type of transition may represent a general model for the denudational response to orogenic uplift and topographic evolution during the early stages of mountain building. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  13. Noninvasive saliva collection techniques for free-ranging mountain gorillas and captive eastern gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Tierra; Spelman, Lucy; Lukasik-Braum, Magdalena; Mukherjee, Jean; Kaufman, Gretchen; Akiyoshi, Donna E; Cranfield, Michael

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to develop a simple, noninvasive method for saliva collection: a first step toward developing new diagnostic tests to survey gorillas for infectious diseases. The subjects included free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda, and a group of orphan mountain and Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla heringei graueri) housed nearby in a temporary holding facility. Three collection methods were used to recover saliva from discarded forest food: swabbing, soaking, and washing. Saliva was also collected from orphan gorillas maintained in a captive setting by using dental ropes inside mesh bags. The presence of gorilla saliva in each sample was confirmed by using a salivary s-amylase assay and forensic press test paper. The recovery of gorilla DNA was verified by polymerase chain reaction by using primers specific to mountain and Grauer's gorillas. Of the three collection techniques used to recover saliva from forest food, directly swabbing plant bite marks was the most effective. Wild celery (Peucedanum linderi) provided for the most consistent saliva recovery and is eaten year round by mountain gorillas in Rwanda. This study shows that gorilla saliva can be recovered easily and noninvasively from known individual free-ranging gorillas by collecting pieces of wild celery discarded as the gorillas forage and from captive gorillas by offering them juice-soaked dental ropes inside mesh bags. Both methods can be used to recover gorilla DNA for genetic studies. Saliva collected from free-ranging and captive gorillas may prove to be a useful biologic sample for the development of new diagnostic tests and hormonal analysis.

  14. Campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, and shigellosis in free-ranging human-habituated mountain gorillas of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizeyi, J B; Innocent, R B; Erume, J; Kalema, G R; Cranfield, M R; Graczyk, T K

    2001-04-01

    For conservation purposes and due to growing ecotourism, free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) have been habituated to humans. Fecal specimens (n = 62) collected in January 1999 from mountain gorillas of the Bwindi and Mgahinga National Parks, Uganda, were tested for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp., and the overall prevalence of infection was 19%, 13%, and 6%, respectively. The prevalence of positive specimens was not related to the year of habituation of a gorilla group to humans. Campylobacter spp., Salmonella, and Shigella spp. infections were not distributed equally among the age classes of gorillas; most of the enteropathogens (80%), and all Shigella spp. organisms, S. sonnei, S. boydii, and S. flexneri, were isolated from subadults and adult gorillas with ages ranging from 6.0 to 11.9 yr. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. infections among human-habituated gorillas has doubled during the last 4 yr, and isolation of Shigella spp. for the first time from mountain gorillas, may indicate enhanced anthropozoonotic transmission of these enteropathogens.

  15. Sexual Grooming of Children: Review of Literature and Theoretical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Samantha; Brown, Sarah; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The current review aims to outline the existing understanding of sexual grooming. Issues of poor definition, the adoption of the term "grooming" and the prevalence of sexual grooming will be discussed. Consideration will be given to how prominent theories of child sexual abuse often neglect sexual grooming. This will be followed by a detailed…

  16. An inventory of epigeal ants of the western Soutpansberg Mountain Range, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinandavha C. Munyai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution, abundance and sensitivity invertebrates to habitat change are largely unknown. Long-term monitoring of ecological gradients with standardised and comparable protocols can form the basis of a better understanding. Altitudinal gradients are particularly relevant within this context. Here we provide a check list and baseline data for ant species collected over a 5-year period across the Soutpansberg Mountain Range, South Africa. Standardised pitfall surveys across 11 sites yielded a total of 133 species in 38 genera and 6 subfamilies. Sample coverage of epigeal ants was 0.98 for the transect as a whole. Of these species, 21% were restricted to the southern slope of the mountain and 14% to the northern slope. Extrapolated richness estimates reached an asymptote for all, except for three sites. These were the only sites impacted by bush encroachment. Observed richness was the highest at a low-altitude mesic site that is exposed to considerable disturbance by megaherbivores and mechanical clearing of woody vegetation. Structural classification of vegetation was predictive of a broad-scale ant assemblage structure. On a smaller scale, however, structure was a function of elevation, space and temperature.Conservation implications: Future monitoring should target indicator taxa associated with bush encroachment, particularly with reference to their impacts on grasslands. Bush encroachment could endanger several ant species associated with mesic grasslands and woodlands on the mountain, as well as ant diversity, as these were the habitats with the highest ant diversity.

  17. Evolution of basin and range structure in the Ruby Mountains and vicinity, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, D. D.; Reese, N. M.; Kelley, S. A.

    Results from various age dating techniques, seismic reflection profiling hydrocarbon maturation studies, and structural analysis were used to evaluate the Cenozoic deformation in the Ruby Mountains and adjoining ranges (pinyon Range and Cortez Range) in Elko and Eureka Counties, Nevada. Age dating techniques used include potassium-argon ages of biotites from granites published by Kistler et al. (1981) and fission track ages from apatite and zircon. Fission track ages from apatite reflect a closing temperature of 100 plus or minus 20 deg C. Zircon fission track ages reflect a closing temperature of 175 plus or minus 25 deg C and potassium-argon ages from brotite reflect a closing temperature of 250 plus or minus 30 deg C. Thus these results allow a reasonably precise tracking of the evolution of the ranges during the Cenozoic. Seismic reflection data are available from Huntington Valley. Access to seismic reflection data directly to the west of the Harrison Pass Pluton in the central Ruby Mountains was obtained. In addition results are available from several deep exploration holes in Huntington Valley.

  18. Small fishes crossed a large mountain range: Quaternary stream capture events and freshwater fishes on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daemin; Hirt, M Vincent; Simons, Andrew M; Won, Yong-Jin

    2016-08-31

    The Taebaek Mountains in South Korea serves as the most apparent biogeographic barrier for South Korean freshwater fishes, resulting in two distinct ichthyofaunal assemblages on the eastern (East/Japan Sea slope) and western (Yellow Sea and Korea Strait slopes) sides of the mountain range. Of nearly 100 species of native primary freshwater fishes in South Korea, only 18 species occur naturally on both sides of the mountain range. Interestingly, there are five rheophilic species (Phoxinus phoxinus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Ladislavia taczanowskii, Iksookimia koreensis and Koreocobitis rotundicaudata) found on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains that are geographically restricted to the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers, for L. taczanowskii and I. koreensis) on the eastern side of the mountain range. The Osip River and its neighboring rivers also shared a rheophilic freshwater fish, Liobagrus mediadiposalis, with the Nakdong River on the western side of the mountain range. We assessed historical biogeographic hypotheses on the presence of these rheophilic fishes, utilizing DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results of our divergence time estimation indicate that ichthyofaunal transfers into the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers in East Sea slope) have occurred from the Han (Yellow Sea slope) and Nakdong (Korea Strait slope) rivers since the late-Pleistocene. The inferred divergence times for the ichthyofaunal transfer across the Taebaek Mountains were consistent with the timing of hypothesized multiple reactivations of the Osip River Fault (late-Pleistocene), suggesting that the Osip River Fault reactivations may have caused stream capture events, followed by ichthyofaunal transfer, not only between the Osip and Nakdong rivers, but also between the Osip and Han rivers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-Temporal Monitoring of Slow Moving Landslides in South Pindus Mountain Range, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychogyiou, Christina; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Kontoes, Charalambos; Poyiadji, Eleftheria; Spanou, Natalia; Klimis, Nikolaos

    2015-05-01

    The high frequency of landslide occurrences in Central and Western Greece, part of the Pindus mountain range, is now approached by exploiting the high temporal sampling rate of historical ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT SAR imagery in combination with the Multi Temporal Interferometry (MTI) technique. An existing well-established ground truth dataset is updated and enriched with the diachronic MTI results. Critical areas prone to slide are evaluated through susceptibility assessment and mapping taking into consideration the challenging environmental factors which dominate at the area of interest. A set of supplementary interesting geophysical and structural MTI detections at the region of analysis are additionally discussed.

  20. Soil chemical fertility in dairy farms of the Guanacaste volcanic mountain range, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Saborío-Montero, Alejandro; Marín-Taylor, Osvaldo; Arguedas-Sánchez, Randall; Ramírez-Fallas, Sinaí

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the fertility of soils of dairy farms at four zones of the Guanacaste volcanic mountain range. The study was conducted during a two-year period (2009-2010) in farms of Guayabo (Bagaces) and Nubes, San Ramón and Florida (Quebrada Grande, Tilarán). A total of 40 soil samples were collected, each one was composed by 20 sub- samples. The results revealed that soil pH in Guayabo tended to be lower (p=0.0539) than in Nubes, San Ramón and Florida. Guayabo so...

  1. GPS and gravity constraints on continental deformation in the Alborz mountain range, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamour, Yahya; Vernant, Philippe; Bayer, Roger; Nankali, Hamid Reza; Ritz, Jean-François; Hinderer, Jacques; Hatam, Yaghoub; Luck, Bernard; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Sedighi, Morteza; Khorrami, Fateme

    2010-12-01

    A network of 54 survey GPS sites, 28 continuous GPS stations and three absolute gravity (AG) observation sites have been set up in the Alborz mountain range to quantify the present-day kinematics of the range. Our results allow us to accurately estimate the motion of the South Caspian block (SCB) for the first time, and indicate rotation of the SCB relative to Eurasia, accounting for the left lateral motion in the Alborz range. In light of these new results, it clearly appears that deformation rates vary along the range, the eastern part accommodating mainly left lateral strike slip (2 mm yr-1 south of the range and 5 mm yr-1 north of the range) with a very low range normal shortening rate on the Khazar thrust fault (~2 mm yr-1), and the western part accommodating range normal shortening (~6 mm yr-1) on the Khazar thrust fault with a left lateral component of ~2 mm yr-1 north of the range and 1 mm yr-1 south of the range. These present-day kinematics agree with geomorphologic estimated slip rates, but not the long-term deformation, corroborating the idea that the kinematics of the range have changed recently due to the change of SCB motion. Modelling of the interseismic deformation suggests a deep locking depth on the central-western segment of the Khazar fault (~30 km) in agreement with the Baladeh earthquake rupture and aftershock ranging between 10 and 30 km. Given this unusual deep locking depth and the 34° dip of the thrust, a large part of the Alborz range is located above the seismically coupled part of the fault. Based on our AG measurements this part of the range seems to uplift at a rate of 1-5 mm yr-1, in agreement with terrace uplift.

  2. Atmospheric CO2 Consumption in Uplifting Mountain Ranges: New Insight From the New Zealand Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A. D.; Blum, J. D.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2004-12-01

    Rates of physical erosion and chemical weathering in uplifting mountain ranges are generally higher than the rates observed in tectonically stable regions. This observation has led to the hypothesis that orogenic events lead to global cooling over geologic time scales by accelerating the rate of atmospheric CO2 drawdown from silicate weathering. However, recent studies of rivers draining the rapidly uplifting Himalaya Mountains have demonstrated that much of the chemical weathering flux is dominated by carbonate dissolution, which does not influence long-term atmospheric CO2 levels. To examine if carbonate weathering dominates in other orogenic environments, we have undertaken investigations of rivers draining the New Zealand Southern Alps, which present a largely unexplored setting for systematically examining tectonic controls on the carbon cycle. In particular, we quantified rates of physical erosion and both silicate and carbonate weathering across a gradient of variable uplift rates but constant bedrock composition. We also compared the findings to global mean values as well as to data for major world rivers in other tectonic and climatic settings. Rapid uplift in the western Southern Alps elevates mechanical erosion rates by a factor of ~13 relative to those on the tectonically stable eastern side. Similarly, the average chemical weathering rate is ~5 times higher on the western compared to eastern side of the mountain range. However, because the proportion of stream-water Ca2+ and Mg2+ from the weathering of trace hydrothermal calcite increases as the rate of mechanical erosion increases, the long-term atmospheric CO2 consumption rate on the western side is only ~2 times higher than that on the eastern side and only ~1.5 times higher than the global mean value. These data demonstrate that tectonic uplift in the New Zealand Southern Alps accelerates physical erosion and chemical weathering rates but does not greatly enhance the rate of long-term atmospheric

  3. Stream flow regime of springs in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region, Minas Gerais State

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    Alisson Souza de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The stream flow regime of four springs located in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region (MG was evaluated and correlated to the respective recharge area, relief characteristics, land cover and physical and hydrologic soil characteristics. The streamflow regime was characterized by monitoring of discharges, calculating the surface runoff and specific discharge and by modeling the discharge over the recession period using the Maillet method. As all recharge areas have similar relief the effect of it on the streamflow was not possible to identify. Analysis included determining the effect of drainage area size, soil characteristics and land cover on the indicators of the streamflow regime. Size of the recharge area had a positive influence on the indicators mean discharge and surface runoff volume and on the regulation of the streamflow regime (springs L4 and L1. The spring under the smallest area of influence provided the worst results for the above mentioned indicators (spring L3. The effect of forest cover (natural and planted, associated with soil characteristics, was evidenced by the indicators surface runoff (in depth and specific yield, both independent of the recharge area size (springs L4 and L2. The interaction of area size, soil characteristics and forest cover (natural and planted provided the best results for all indicators of streamflow regime in the springs studied in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range (spring L4.

  4. Landscape and Astronomy in Megalithic Portugal: the Carregal do Sal Nucleus and Star Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Central Portugal, delimited by the Douro river to the north and the Mondego to the south, is the second densest region of megalithic monuments in the country. The Neolithic archaeological record indicates seasonal transhumance between higher pastures in the summer and lower grounds in the winter. The monuments are found in lower ground and it has been suggested that they were built during the winter occupation of their surroundings. The astronomical orientation of their entrances lends further support to this hypothesis. A recent survey of the orientation of the chambers and corridors of these dolmens, conducted by the author, found good agreement with prior surveys, but also demonstrated that other interpretations are possible. This paper presents an update on the survey, including extra sites surveyed in the spring of 2011, as well as the GIS confirmation of all horizon altitudes that couldn’t be empirically measured. The megalithic nucleus of Carregal do Sal, on the Mondego valley, is then looked at in more detail. It is found that there is a preference for the orientation of dolmens towards Star Mountain Range in-line with the topographic arguments of landscape archaeology. In addition, it was found that the topography also marks the rise of particular red stars, Betelgeuse and Aldebaran, during the period of megalithic building, at the onset of spring marking the transition from low ground to the high pastures. This hypothesis finds further support from toponymic folktales that explain the origin of the name of the mountain range.

  5. Mountaineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘步东

    2005-01-01

    Most young people enjoy some forms of physical activities.It may be walking,cycling or swimming,or in wither,skating or skiing.It may be a game of some kind,football,hockey(曲棍球),golf,or tennis.Perhaps it may be mountaineering.

  6. Mountain gorilla ranging patterns: influence of group size and group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, Damien; Ndagijimana, Felix; Giarrusso, Anthony J; Vecellio, Veronica; Stoinski, Tara S

    2014-08-01

    Since the 1980s, the Virunga mountain gorilla population has almost doubled, now reaching 480 individuals living in a 430-km(2) protected area. Analysis of the gorillas' ranging patterns can provide critical information on the extent and possible effects of competition for food and space. We analyzed 12 years of daily ranging data and inter-group encounter data collected on 11 gorilla groups monitored by the Karisoke Research Center in Rwanda. During that period, the study population increased in size by almost 50% and the number of groups tripled. Groups had small yearly home ranges compared to other known gorilla populations, with an average 90% kernel density estimate of 8.07 km2 and large between-group variations (3.17-23.59 km2). Most groups had consistent home range location over the course of the study but for some, we observed gradual range shifts of up to 4 km. Neighboring groups displayed high home range overlap, which increased dramatically after the formation of new groups. On average, each group used only 28.6% of its 90% kernel home range exclusively, and in some areas up to six different groups had overlapping home ranges with little or no exclusive areas. We found a significant intra-group positive relationship between the number of weaned individuals in a group and the home range size, but the fitted models only explained 17.5% and 13.7% of the variance in 50% and 90% kernel home range size estimates, respectively. This suggests that despite the increase in size, the study population is not yet experiencing marked effects of feeding competition. However, the increase in home range overlap resulting from the formation of new groups led to a sixfold increase in the frequency of inter-group encounters, which exposes the population to elevated risks of fight-related injuries and infanticide.

  7. Home range characteristics of Mexican Spotted Owls in the Rincon Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David W.; Van Riper, Charpes III

    2014-01-01

    We studied a small isolated population of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) from 1996–1997 in the Rincon Mountains of Saguaro National Park, southeastern Arizona, USA. All mixed-conifer and pine-oak forest patches in the park were surveyed for Spotted Owls, and we located, captured, and radio-tagged 10 adult birds representing five mated pairs. Using radio-telemetry, we examined owl home range characteristics, roost habitat, and monitored reproduction within these five territories. Breeding season (Mar–Sep) home range size for 10 adult owls (95% adaptive kernel isopleths) averaged 267 ha (±207 SD), and varied widely among owls (range 34–652 ha). Mean home range size for owl pairs was 478 ha (±417 ha SD), and ranged from 70–1,160 ha. Owls that produced young used smaller home ranges than owls that had no young. Six habitat variables differed significantly between roost and random sites, including: percent canopy cover, number of trees, number of vegetation layers, average height of trees, average diameter of trees, and tree basal area. Radio-marked owls remained in their territories following small prescribed management fires within those territories, exhibiting no proximate effects to the presence of prescribed fire.

  8. A statistical approach to modelling permafrost distribution in the European Alps or similar mountain ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Boeckli

    2012-01-01

    explanatory variables are MAAT and PISR. The linear regression achieves a root mean square error (RMSE of 1.6 °C. The final model combines the two sub-models and accounts for the different scales used for model calibration.

    The modelling approach provides a theoretical basis for estimating mountain permafrost distribution over larger mountain ranges and can be expanded to more surface types and sub-models than considered, here. The analyses performed with the Alpine data set further provide quantitative insight into larger-area patterns as well as the model coefficients for a later spatial application. The transfer into a map-based product, however, requires further steps such as the definition of offset terms that usually contain a degree of subjectivity.

  9. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (Lepus timidus in the Swiss Alps

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    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (Lepus timidus. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (Lepus timidus nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (Lepus timidus sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'home range è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli home range (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell home range non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (core area ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  10. Insights into the evolution of tectonically-active glaciated mountain ranges from digital elevation model analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, S. H.; Whipple, K. X.

    2003-12-01

    Glaciers have played an important role in the development of most active mountain ranges around the world during the Quaternary, but the interaction between glacial erosion (as modulated by climate change) and tectonic processes is poorly understood. The so-called glacial buzzsaw hypothesis (Brozovic et al., 1997) proposes that glaciers can incise as rapidly as the most rapid rock uplift rates, such that glaciated landscapes experiencing different rock uplift rates but the same snowline elevation will look essentially the same, with mean elevations close to the snowline. Digital elevation model-based analyses of the glaciated landscapes of the Nanga Parbat region, Pakistan, and the Southern Alps, New Zealand, lend some support to this hypothesis, but also reveal considerably more variety to the landscapes of glaciated, tectonically-active mountain ranges. Larger glaciers in the Nanga Parbat region maintain a low downvalley gradient and valley floor elevations close to the snowline, even in the face of extremely rapid rock uplift. However, smaller glaciers steepen in response to rapid uplift, similar to the response of rivers. A strong correlation between the height of hillslopes rising from the cirque floors and rock uplift rates implies that erosion processes on hillslopes cannot initially keep up with more rapid glacial incision rates. It is these staggering hillslopes that permit mountain peaks to rise above 8000m. The glacial buzzsaw hypothesis does not describe the evolution of the Southern Alps as well, because here mean elevations rise in areas of more rapid rock uplift. The buzzsaw hypothesis may work well in the Nanga Parbat region because the zone of rapid rock uplift is structurally confined to a narrow region. Alternatively, the Southern Alps may not have been rising sufficiently rapidly or sufficiently long for the glacial buzzsaw to be imposed outside the most rapidly uplifting region, around Mount Cook. The challenge now is to understand in detail

  11. Scientific Yield of Meteorites Recovered from the Dominion Range, Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Satterwhite, C.; Funk, R.; Harrington, R.

    2017-01-01

    The US Antarctic Meteorite Program has visited the Dominion Range in the Transantarctic Mountains during several different seasons, including the 1985, 2003, 2008, 2010, and 2014 seasons. Total recovered meteorites from this region is over 2000. The 1985 (11 samples), 2003 (141 samples), 2008 (521) and 2010 (901 samples) seasons have been fully classified, and the 2014 samples (562) are in the process of being classified and characterized. Given that close to 1500 samples have been classified so far, it seems like a good opportunity to summarize the state of the collection. Here we describe the significant samples documented from this area, as well as a large meteorite shower that dominates the statistics of the region.

  12. Bryconamericus macarenae n. sp. (Characiformes, Characidae from the Güejar River, Macarena mountain range, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román-Valencia, C.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on 174 specimens, using morphometric, meristic and osteological characters, we describe a new species: Bryconamericus macarenae from the Güejar River in La Macarena mountain range, Orinoco Basin, Colombia. It differs from congeners in having: an incomplete lateral line (vs. complete lateral line in all except B. delta and fewer and less conspicuous perforations in the latero-sensorial canal of the extrascapular bone (vs. conspicuous latero-sensorial canal perforation. It has four or fewer unbranched anal-fin rays (vs. five or more unbranched anal-fin rays, a short, thickened extrascapular bone without projections from the posterior margin, or with only a reduced apophysis (vs. extrascapular long, irregular, bony projections on its margins, and with a large undulated apophysis on its posterior margin. It also differs in live coloration. A key of species of Bryconamericus known from the Orinoco Basin and the Catatumbo River is included.

  13. New constraints on Holocene uplift rates for the Baudo Mountain Range, northwestern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan L.; Shen, Zhixiong; Mauz, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    A beach deposit on the southern end of the Baudo Mountain Range, at an elevation of ˜2.0 m above the backshore of the modern beach, was dated at ˜2870 years using optically stimulated luminescence dating. The calculated average uplift rate necessary to raise this deposit is 0.7 mm/yr. This rate combines the long-term regional deformation associated with the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate and the collision of the Choco Block microplate against the South American continent, as well as uplift from local faults. We propose that rapid emergence probably as several pulses, each involving decimeter scale coseismic uplift, is likely to have occurred to elevate the beach above the intertidal zone and offset destructive wave erosion.

  14. Grooms receives 2011 Donald L. Turcotte Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Ian Grooms has been awarded the AGU Donald L. Turcotte Award, given annually to recent Ph.D. recipients for outstanding dissertation research that contributes directly to the field of nonlinear geophysics. Grooms's thesis is entitled “Asymptotic and numerical methods for rapidly rotating buoyant flow.” He presented an invited talk and was formally presented with the award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. Grooms received his B.S. in mathematics from the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va., in 2005. He received a Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 2011 under the supervision of Keith Julien at the University of Colorado at Boulder. His research interests include asymptotic and numerical methods for multiscale problems in geophysical fluid dynamics.

  15. Landscape development under human influence - a case study from the low mountain range Spessart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Annegret; Bork, Hans-Rudolf; Nelle, Oliver; Müller, Ulrich; Fuchs, Markus; Fülling, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Little is known about human settlement in prehistoric times in the low mountain ranges in central Germany. One of these ranges, the Spessart mountains, are known from written sources of the 1850s to have been a very poor area, where people suffered from starvation and numerous diseases. New interdisciplinary research in one catchment provides evidence that the region has first been settled during Neolithic times and provided a much higher soil fertility until early / high medieval times. Soil erosion due to extreme rainfall events and agricultural land use removed the thin fertile loess cover from the slopes of the catchment combined with gully incision. At the intersection of the catchment fan and the alluvial plain of the Elsava River, a high to late medieval archaeological moated site was excavated in 2008 and 2009. Detailed stratigraphy of the sediments in the moat enabled an environmental reconstruction of the area and in particular showed the beginnings of instability within the catchment. This instability continued presumably until ~ 1900 AD, and this persistence was caused by different land use techniques that could be reconstructed from various geomorphological features. Initial results indicate a rotating wood - pasture - agriculture cultivation system that was used within the catchment on slopes with a north west aspect. The intense charcoal production associated with this cultivation system enables anthracological investigations which provides the opportunity for reconstruction of the vegetation composition on a local scale at a high temporal and spatial resolution. This is then combined with paleobotanical macro remains and pollen analysis to enable a comprehensive palaeoenvironmental context for this poorly studied archaeological landscape. By quantifiying sediment flux, these landscape reconstruction results provide a foundation for archaeological and geomorphological research in a wider context throughout central Germany.

  16. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants.

  17. Integrating soils and geomorphology in mountains - An example from the Front Range of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, P.W.; Shroba, R.R.; Burns, S.F.; Price, A.B.; Tonkin, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Soil distribution in high mountains reflects the impact of several soil-forming factors. Soil geomorphologists use key pedological properties to estimate ages of Quaternary deposits of various depositional environments, estimate long-term stability and instability of landscapes, and make inferences on past climatic change. Once the influence of the soil-forming factors is known, soils can be used to help interpret some aspects of landscape evolution that otherwise might go undetected. The Front Range of Colorado rises from the plains of the Colorado Piedmont at about 1700 m past a widespread, dissected Tertiary erosion surface between 2300 and 2800 m up to an alpine Continental Divide at 3600 to over 4000 m. Pleistocene valley glaciers reached the western edge of the erosion surface. Parent rocks are broadly uniform (granitic and gneissic). Climate varies from 46 cm mean annual precipitation (MAP) and 11 ??C mean annual temperature (MAT) in the plains to 102 cm and -4 ??C, respectively, near the range crest. Vegetation follows climate with grassland in the plains, forest in the mountains, and tundra above 3450 m. Soils reflect the bioclimatic transect from plains to divide: A/Bw or Bt/Bk or K (grassland) to A/E/Bw or Bt/C (forest) to A/Bw/C (tundra). Corresponding soil pH values decrease from 8 to less than 5 with increasing elevation. The pedogenic clay minerals dominant in each major vegetation zone are: smectite (grassland), vermiculite (forest), and 1.0-1.8 nm mixed-layer clays (tundra). Within the lower forested zone, the topographic factor (aspect) results in more leached, colder soils, with relatively thin O horizons, well-expressed E horizons and Bt horizons (Alfisols) on N-facing slopes, whereas soils with thicker A horizons, less developed or no E horizons, and Bw or Bt horizons (Mollisols) are more common on S-facing slopes. The topographic factor in the tundra results in soil patterns as a consequence of wind-redistributed snow and the amount of time it

  18. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the western United States mountain ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are an important source to carbonaceous aerosols in the western United States (WUS. We quantify the relative contribution of biomass burning to black carbon (BC in the WUS mountain ranges by analyzing surface BC observations for 2006 from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE network using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Observed surface BC concentrations show broad maxima during late June to early November. Enhanced potassium concentrations and potassium/sulfur ratios observed during the high-BC events indicate a dominant biomass burning influence during the peak fire season. Model surface BC reproduces the observed day-to-day and synoptic variabilities in regions downwind of and near urban centers. Major discrepancies are found at elevated mountainous sites during the July–October when simulated BC concentrations are biased low by a factor of two. We attribute these biases largely to the underestimated and temporally misplaced biomass burning emissions of BC in the model. Additionally, we find that the biomass burning contribution to surface BC concentrations in the US likely was underestimated in a previous study using GEOS-Chem (Park et al., 2003, because of the unusually low planetary boundary layer (PBL heights and weak precipitation in the GEOS-3 meteorological reanalysis data used to drive the model. PBL heights from GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 reanalysis data are comparable to those from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR. Model simulations show improved agreements with the observations when driven by GEOS-5 reanalysis data, but model results are still biased low. The use of biomass burning emissions with diurnal cycle, synoptic variability, and plume injection has relatively small impact on the simulated surface BC concentrations in the WUS.

  19. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Mao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are an important source to carbonaceous aerosols in the Western United States (WUS. We quantify the relative contribution of biomass burning to black carbon (BC in the WUS mountain ranges by analyzing surface BC observations for 2006 from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE network using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Observed surface BC concentrations show broad maxima during late June to early November. Enhanced potassium concentrations and potassium/sulfur ratios observed during the high-BC events indicate a dominant biomass burning influence during the peak fire season. Model surface BC reproduces the observed day-to day and synoptic variabilities in regions downwind of but near urban centers. Major discrepancies are found at elevated mountainous sites during the July-October fire season when simulated BC concentrations are biased low by a factor of two. We attribute these low biases largely to the underestimated (by more than a factor of two and temporally misplaced biomass burning emissions of BC in the model. Additionally, we find that the biomass burning contribution to surface BC concentrations in the USA likely was underestimated in a previous study using GEOS-Chem (Park et al., 2003, because of the unusually low planetary boundary layer (PBL heights in the GEOS-3 meteorological reanalysis data used to drive the model. PBL heights from GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 reanalysis data are comparable to those from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR. Model simulations show slightly improved agreements with the observations when driven by GEOS-5 reanalysis data, but model results are still biased low. The use of biomass burning emissions with diurnal cycle, synoptic variability, and plume injection has relatively small impact on the simulated surface BC concentrations in the WUS.

  20. Molecular transduction mechanisms in ACTH-induced grooming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Colbern, D.; Spruijt, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Intraventricular administration of ACTH1-24 induces excessive grooming in the rat. Ethogram analysis shows that the peptide does not alter grooming behavior seen in a novel box, but that it prolongs the duration of the grooming bout. Extensive structure-activity studies have been performed which sug

  1. [The parameters of grooming in the ontogeny of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepekhina, L M

    1993-08-01

    The grooming behaviour of rats includes different kinds of movements: scratching, licking, washing, shaking down, stinging out. All the parameters of these movements (their quantity, duration, and rhythm) were registered by graphic recording and may be objective indices of ontogenic development of grooming and the basis for the study of the mechanisms of grooming regulation.

  2. Grooming and cultural socialization: a mixed method study of caregiving practices in Burma (Myanmar) and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Lemelson, Seinenu M

    2015-02-01

    Grooming behaviours are thought to be a crucial aspect of parenting and integral to the sociality of non-human mammals, but there have been few empirical studies on how grooming might be relevant to parenting and socialization processes in humans. Study 1 is a quantitative cross-cultural comparison of grooming practices in two cultural settings: an urban centre in Burma (Myanmar) and an urban centre in the United States. The study uses naturalistic video data of 57 families to analyse grooming behaviours directed at children. A broad range of ages was sampled in each culture to examine the developmental trajectory of grooming behaviours. Results indicate that significant cultural differences exist between Burma and the United States, with Burmese children being groomed by their caregivers more often than U.S. children. Results also indicate that cultural differences in grooming practices begin early and remain constant across age. An unexpected finding was that Burmese families were more variable in their behaviour than U.S. families. Study 2 attempts to explain this variability by using ethnography to describe how sociodemographic changes in Burma are leading to changes in parental values and socialization practices in the schools, but how embodied primary care in the homes appear resistant to change.

  3. Global Trends in Glacial Cirque Floor Altitudes and Their Relationships with Climate, Equilibrium Line Altitudes, and Mountain Range Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S. G.; Humphries, E.

    2013-12-01

    Glacial erosion at the base of cirque headwalls and the creation of threshold slopes above cirque floors may contribute to the 'glacial buzzsaw' effect in limiting the altitude of some mountain ranges. Since glacial extent and therefore glacial erosion rate depends on the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of a region, the altitude of cirque formation should be a function of the ELA. Several regional studies have shown that cirque floors form at an altitude approximating average Quaternary ELAs in some mountain ranges, but a global correlation has not yet been demonstrated. We examined the correlation between cirque altitudes and global ELA trends by compiling existing and new cirque altitude and morphometry data from > 30 mountain ranges at a wide range of latitudes. Where available, we calculate or present the average cirque altitude, relief, and latitude. We compared these altitudes to both the global East Pacific ELA and local ELAs where available. For the locations analyzed, the majority of average cirque altitudes fall between the Eastern Pacific modern and LGM ELAs, and mountain range height is typically limited to cirque formation is dependent upon the ELA, and that cirques likely form as a result of average, rather than extreme, glacial conditions. Furthermore, the correlation between cirque altitude and ELA, along with the restricted window of relief, implies that cirque formation is a factor in limiting peak altitude in ranges that rise above the ELA.

  4. Morphotectonic architecture of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains based on geomorphic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyanick, Elizabeth; Wilson, Terry J.

    2007-01-01

    Extensional forces within the Antarctic Plate have produced the Transantarctic Mountains rift-flank uplift along the West Antarctic rift margin. Large-scale linear morphologic features within the mountains are controlled by bedrock structure and can be recognized and mapped from satellite imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs). This study employed the Antarctic Digital Database DEM to obtain slope steepness and aspect maps of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains, allowing definition of the position and orientation of the morphological axis of the rift-flank. The TAM axis, interpreted as a fault-controlled escarpment formed by coast-parallel retreat, provides a marker for the orientation of the faulted boundary between the TAM and the rift system. Changes in position and orientation of the TAM axis suggests the rift flank is segmented into tectonic blocks bounded by relay ramps and transverse accommodation zones. The transverse boundaries coincide with major outlet glaciers, supporting interpretation of rift structures between them. The pronounced morphological change across Byrd Glacier points to control by structures inherited from the Ross orogen.

  5. Eluvial gold placer formation on actively rising mountain ranges, Central Otago, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craw, D.; Youngson, J. H.

    1993-05-01

    Eluvial gold deposits in Central Otago, New Zealand, have formed and are still forming on the flanks of actively rising antiformal mountain ranges. These gold deposits are derived mainly by erosion and concentration of fine-grained ( soil and sequences (up to 60 m thick) of poorly sorted immature schist gravels. The gravel sequences consist mainly of matrix-supported mass flow deposits and channellised proximal fan deposits, intercalated on a 1-10 m scale. Gold is concentrated in coarse lag gravels (up to 40 cm clasts) at channel bases. Topographic slopes on the rising ranges show an evolutionary trend in space and time, from gentle weakly dissected surfaces, through slightly degraded but convex slopes, to deeply incised convex streams. Eluvial gold occurs sporadically on the gentle slopes, but the most efficient concentration processes occurred where steeper convex slopes yielded an apron of fan sediments. Gold concentration at these sites resulted from selective and localized removal ("winnowing") of most schist debris, leaving coarse lag gravels and gold. The combination of authigenic grain size increase and residual concentration ensures that the eluvial deposits retain coarse-grained gold, and that only fine-grained gold is released to the alluvial systems downstream.

  6. Snow algal communities on glaciers in the Suntar-Khayata Mountain Range in eastern Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sota; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Miyairi, Masaya; Fujisawa, Yuta; Kadota, Tsutomu; Shirakawa, Tatsuo; Kusaka, Ryo; Takahashi, Shuhei; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Ohata, Tetsuo; Yabuki, Hironori; Konya, Keiko; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    Snow and ice algal communities were investigated on four glaciers in the Suntar-Khayata Mountain Range in eastern Siberia in Russia over three melting seasons from 2012 to 2014. Two taxa of green algae and five taxa of cyanobacteria were observed on the glaciers. The algal community was dominated by green algae: Ancylonema nordenskioldii in the lower bare ice area and Chloromonas sp. in the upper snow area. The total algal bio-volume showed altitudinal variation, ranging from 0.03 to 4.0 mL m-2, and was greatest in the middle of the glaciers. The altitudinal variations in the algal community were similar on all studied glaciers, suggesting that they are typical in this region. Observations over the three years revealed that there was no significant change in the community structure, but a significant change in the total biomass. Since the mean summer air temperature was significantly higher in 2012 when algal biomass was greater, the difference in algal biomass among the years is probably due to the duration of surface melting. The community structure on the studied glaciers is similar to those on glaciers in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.

  7. Grooming. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on grooming. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to students as an…

  8. Survivable Impairment-Aware Traffic Grooming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshir, A.; Nuijts, R.; Malhotra, R.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic grooming allows efficient utilization of network capacity by aggregating several independent traffic streams into a wavelength. In addition, survivability and impairment-awareness (i.e., taking into account the effect of physical impairments) are two important issues that have gained a lot o

  9. Are there signs of acidification reversal in freshwaters of the low mountain ranges in Germany?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alewell

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The reversal of freshwater acidification in the low mountain ranges of Germany is of public, political and scientific concern, because these regions are near natural ecosystems and function as an important drinking water supply. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status and trends of acidification reversal after two decades of reduced anthropogenic deposition in selected freshwaters of the low mountain ranges in the Harz, the Fichtelgebirge, the Bavarian Forest, the Spessart and the Black Forest. In response to decreased sulphate deposition, seven out of nine streams investigated had significantly decreasing sulphate concentrations (all trends were calculated with the Seasonal Kendall Test. The decrease in sulphate concentration was only minor, however, due to the release of previously stored soil sulphur. No increase was found in pH and acid neutralising capacity (defined by Reuss and Johnson, 1986. Aluminum concentrations in the streams did not decrease. Thus, no major acidification reversal can currently be noted in spite of two decades of decreased acid deposition. Nevertheless, the first signs of improvement in water quality were detected as there was a decrease in the level and frequency of extreme values of pH, acid neutralising capacity and aluminium concentrations in streams. With respect to nitrogen, no change was determined for either nitrate or ammonium concentrations in precipitation or stream water. Base cation fluxes indicate increasing net loss of base cations from all ecosystems investigated, which could be interpreted as an increase in soil acidification. The latter was due to a combination of continued high anion leaching and significant reduction of base cation deposition. No major improvement was noted in biological recovery, however, initial signs of recovery were detectable as there was re-occurrence of some single macroinvertebrate species which were formerly extinct. The results of this study have important

  10. Structure and floristic similarities of upper montane forests in Serra Fina mountain range, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dias Meireles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper montane forests in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil have an unusual and discontinuous geographic distribution at the top of the Atlantic coastal mountain ranges. To describe the floristic composition and structure of the Atlantic Forest near its upper altitudinal limit in southeastern Brazil, 30 plots with 10 × 10 m were installed in three forest sites between 2,200 and 2,300 m.a.s.l. at Serra Fina. The floristic composition and phytosociological structure of this forest were compared with other montane and upper montane forests. In total, 704 individuals were included, belonging to 24 species, 15 families, and 19 genera. Myrsinaceae, Myrtaceae, Symplocaceae, and Cunoniaceae were the most important families, and Myrsine gardneriana, Myrceugenia alpigena, Weinmannia humilis, and Symplocos corymboclados were the most important species. The three forest sites revealed differences in the abundance of species, density, canopy height, and number of stems per individual. The upper montane forests showed structural similarities, such as lower richness, diversity, and effective number of species, and they tended to have higher total densities and total dominance per hectare to montane forests. The most important species in these upper montane forests belong to Austral-Antartic genera or neotropical and pantropical genera that are typical of montane areas. The high number of species shared by these forests suggests past connections between the vegetation in southern Brazilian high-altitude areas.

  11. Distributional changes and range predictions of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) in Rocky Mountain National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, J.E.; Kumar, S.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive winter annual grass, may be increasing in extent and abundance at high elevations in the western United States. This would pose a great threat to high-elevation plant communities and resources. However, data to track this species in high-elevation environments are limited. To address changes in the distribution and abundance of downy brome and the factors most associated with its occurrence, we used field sampling and statistical methods, and niche modeling. In 2007, we resampled plots from two vegetation surveys in Rocky Mountain National Park for presence and cover of downy brome. One survey was established in 1993 and had been resampled in 1999. The other survey was established in 1996 and had not been resampled until our study. Although not all comparisons between years demonstrated significant changes in downy brome abundance, its mean cover increased nearly fivefold from 1993 (0.7%) to 2007 (3.6%) in one of the two vegetation surveys (P = 0.06). Although the average cover of downy brome within the second survey appeared to be increasing from 1996 to 2007, this slight change from 0.5% to 1.2% was not statistically significant (P = 0.24). Downy brome was present in 50% more plots in 1999 than in 1993 (P = 0.02) in the first survey. In the second survey, downy brome was present in 30% more plots in 2007 than in 1996 (P = 0.08). Maxent, a species-environmental matching model, was generally able to predict occurrences of downy brome, as new locations were in the ranges predicted by earlier generated models. The model found that distance to roads, elevation, and vegetation community influenced the predictions most. The strong response of downy brome to interannual environmental variability makes detecting change challenging, especially with small sample sizes. However, our results suggest that the area in which downy brome occurs is likely increasing in Rocky Mountain National Park through increased frequency and cover

  12. Frequency of removal movements during social versus self-grooming among wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamma, Koichiro

    2011-10-01

    Grooming was observed in 11 wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale, Tanzania, and the number of removal and stroke movements and grooming duration were recorded. Removal movements were more frequent during social grooming than during self-grooming. Chimpanzees used one or both hands for grooming, and grooming using both hands was more efficient for removing small objects. Due to physical constraints, self-grooming of the arms was almost always done using only one hand. The removal movement frequency during arm grooming was lower when self-grooming than when grooming another. They were more likely to use both hands during grooming another than during self-grooming, and fewer physical constraints during social grooming enabled a higher level of hygienic grooming.

  13. Overview of efforts to expand the range of the Rocky Mountain population of trumpeter swans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Near extinction in 1900, by 1992 the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP) of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) contained +2200 swans. The foremost problem facing the...

  14. The Significance of High, Isolated, Low-relief Surfaces in Glaciated Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The highest regions of glaciated mountain ranges are characterised by cirques, arêtes and steep hillslopes. In addition, though, many ranges exhibit high, isolated, low-relief surfaces, which may provide an important record of landscape evolution. Broad, low-curvature surfaces, for example in the Laramide Ranges of the western United States, reflect periglacial regolith production and transport (e.g., Anderson, 2002). Here, the focus is on smaller surfaces that appear to be out of equilibrium with current/recent surface processes, and are interpreted as former glacial valley floors isolated from the current valley network. The low-relief surfaces at the crest of the Sierra Nevada, California, are diamict covered. The top of Sardine Canyon is a beheaded cirque, while the cirque on the western side of Baxter Pass is in the process of being beheaded. Meanwhile, the isolated patch of diamict on the northeastern ridge of University Peak is surrounded on all sides by steep cliffs, and presumably represents a more evolved surface. It is inferred that the glaciated eastern Sierra Nevada is subject to a cycle of drainage capture and relief inversion, driven by headward erosion by cirque glaciers. The central Himalaya contains a number of low-relief, ice-covered surfaces far above the rest of the glacial valley network (e.g., the Sakyetang Glacier, >6,600m, above the Kazhen Glacier, 6,000m is frozen to the bedrock, so sub-glacial erosion will be outpaced by rock uplift. The extreme relief and active tectonics of the central Himalaya mean that drainage capture is not necessarily required in the generation of high, isolated, low-relief surfaces; glacial steps can become exaggerated to form reconstituted glaciers. High, isolated, low-relief surfaces are found across the Southern Alps, New Zealand, from Miserable Ridge and Kelly Saddle close to the western range front, through Urquhart Peak and Lake Browning near the Main Divide, to Kaimakamaka Peaks east of the Main Divide. As

  15. Dynamic multicast traffic grooming in WDM networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xiao-jun; GE Ning; FENG Chong-xi

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic multicast traffic grooming in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks was analyzed to minimize networkwide costs and to increase the network resource utilization.A network model was developed for dynamic multicast traffic grooming with resource constraints and an algorithm that can provide quality of service (QoS)was proposed.The QoS is measured by the maximum number of lightpaths passing between the source and the destinations.The blocking probability of the algorithm was assessed in simulations.The results show that a higher QoS requirement results in higher blocking probability,and when the QoS requirement is low,changes in the QoS requirements have only small effects on the blocking probability.

  16. Abnormal grooming activity in Dab1(scm) (scrambler) mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazielle, C; Lefevre, A; Jacquelin, C; Lalonde, R

    2012-07-15

    Dab1(scm) mutant mice, characterized by cell ectopias and degeneration in cerebellum, hippocampus, and neocortex, were compared to non-ataxic controls for different facets of grooming caused by brief water immersions, as well as some non-grooming behaviors. Dab1(scm) mutants were strongly affected in their quantitative functional parameters, exhibiting higher starting latencies before grooming relative to non-ataxic littermates of the A/A strain, fewer grooming bouts, and grooming components of shorter duration, with an unequal regional distribution targeting almost totally the rostral part (head washing and forelimb licking) of the animal. Only bouts of a single grooming element were preserved. The cephalocaudal order of grooming elements appeared less disorganized, mutant and control mice initiating the grooming with head washing and forelimb licking prior to licking posterior parts. However, mutants differed from controls in that all their bouts were incomplete but uninterrupted, although intergroup difference for percentage of the incorrect transitions was not significant. In contrast to grooming, Dab1(scm) mice ambulated for a longer time. During walking episodes, they exhibited more body scratching than controls, possibly to compensate for the lack of licking different body parts. In conjunction with studies with other ataxic mice, these results indicate that the cerebellar cortex affects grooming activity and is consequently involved in executing various components, but not in its sequential organization, which requires other brain regions such as cerebral cortices or basal ganglia.

  17. Dynamics of erosion in a compressional mountain range revealed by 10Be paleoerosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, P.; Hoke, G. D.; Fosdick, J. C.; Wittmann, H.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution of erosion over million-year timescales is key to understanding the evolution of mountain ranges and adjacent fold-and-thrust belts. While models of orogenic wedge evolution predict an instantaneous response of erosion to pulses of rock uplift, stream-power based landscape evolution models predict catchment-wide erosion maxima that lag behind a rock uplift pulse. Here, we explore the relationships between rock uplift, erosion, and sediment deposition in the Argentine Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt at 30°S where extensive previous work documents deformation, climate and sediment accumulation histories. Sandstone samples spanning 8.8 to 1.8 Ma were collected from the previously dated wedge-top (Iglesia) and foredeep basins (Bermejo) for quartz purification and 10Be extraction. 10Be concentrations due to burial and exhumation were estimated and subtracted from the measured concentrations and yielded the inherited 10Be concentrations, which were then corrected for sample magnetostratigraphic age. The inherited concentrations were then used to calculate paleoerosion rates. We modeled various pre-burial and post-burial exposure scenarios in order to assess potential sources of uncertainty in the recovered paleoerosion rates. The modeling results reveal that pre-burial and post-burial exposure periods only marginally affect our results. By combining the 10Be-derived paleoerosion rates and geomorphic observations with detrital zircon provenance, we document the isolation of the wedge-top basin, which was later reconnected by an upstream migrating pulse of erosion in a process that was directly controlled by thrust activity and base level. The data further indicate that the attainment of maximum upland erosion rates lags maximum rates of deformation and subsidence over million-year timescales. The magnitudes and causes of the erosional delays shed new light on the catchment erosional response to tectonic deformation and rock uplift in orogenic

  18. The vortex moving toward Taiwan and the influence of the central mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Yih

    2016-12-01

    Surface friction is important to a vortex moving toward Taiwan but was ignored in several previous studies. The change of the potential vorticity comes from friction in the shallow-water equation, hence, it was applied to study the westbound vortex influenced by the central mountain range (CMR) blocking and surface friction, which is defined as friction coefficient multiplied by the square root of topographic elevation. Without surface friction, the movement of vortex is not affected by the CMR due to the conservation of potential vorticity. With small surface friction, the simulated vortex first deflects southward slightly, then rebounds gently north due to the effect of channel flow, as the previous studies. With moderate or large surface friction, when the vortex approaching Taiwan, it deforms and creates two wind maxima; one due to effect of channel flow and the other on the east of the vortex, because the slowdown vortex is pushed by the mean easterly flow behind. Meanwhile, the vortex and two wind maxima rotate cyclonically. Hence, the vortex can deflect north or south, or form a loop, that depends on the strength and location of the wind maxima. If the circulation of the vortex moves around the northern tip of Taiwan, it can induce a significant secondary vortex on the lee side. On the other hand, the secondary vortex, triggered by the flow passing over the CMR, is rather weak. This paper may provide the formation of asymmetric inner flow and the deflection of the vortex, which may be difficult to define in a more complicated atmospheric model.

  19. Carbon balance of rewetted peatland forests in low mountain range areas, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jan Paul; Dotterweich, Markus; Kopf, Christoph; Schüler, Gebhard; Scherzer, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Peatland soils store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Drainage of peatlands, for agricultural or forestry usage, leads to a loss of carbon from the soil to the atmosphere and the former carbon sink becomes a carbon source. Peatland rewetting has become a well applicable management tool to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from peatland soils. However, the impact of rewetting on the carbon balance of drained peatland forest in low mountain range is rare. The aim of this project is to quantify the carbon balance of rewetted peatlands in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park. Worth protecting peatland's with forest called "Brücher" are characteristic of nature in the Hunsrück. Since the 19th century these peatlands have been drained by ditches for spruce forests. The survey of surface area of the peatlands is the first important part of the project. Furthermore, a peatland land register for the national park and adjacent areas will be developed. Based on peatland area and carbon stocks the carbon pools of different degradation stages of these peatland can be investigated. Furthermore, terrestrial laser scan data and geoelectrical measurements will be applied for estimating the carbon pool of the vegetation and the soil. This approach enables us to quantify the whole ecosystem carbon pool. A space-for-time substitution allows for a first estimation of the carbon balance of the rewetted peatlands in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park. The main aim of a comprehensive carbon balancing will be achieved based upon the peatland characteristics and upscaling of carbon stocks from peatlands with different restoration/degradation scenarios. Moreover, the obtained data will be used for a long-term carbon balance monitoring of the rewetted peatlands in this region.

  20. Grooming, rank, and agonistic support in tufted capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Studies investigating the relation between allogrooming and social rank in capuchin monkeys (genus Cebus) have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, we investigated the relation between grooming, agonistic support, aggression and social rank in a captive group of tufted capuchin monkeys (C. apella). Differently from most previous studies, we based our analyses on a relatively large database and studied a group with known genealogical relationships. Tufted capuchin females did not exchange grooming for rank-related benefits such as agonistic support or reduced aggression. Coherently with this picture, they did not groom up the hierarchy and did not compete for accessing high-ranking grooming partners. It is suggested that a small group size, coupled with a strong kin bias, may make the exchange of grooming for rank-related benefits impossible or unprofitable, thus eliminating the advantages of grooming up the hierarchy. We provide several possible explanations for the heterogeneity of results across capuchin studies that have addressed similar questions.

  1. Focused grooming networks and stress alleviation in wild female baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Roman M; Crockford, Catherine; Lehmann, Julia; Whitten, Patricia L; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2008-06-01

    We examine the relationship between glucocorticoid (GC) levels and grooming behavior in wild female baboons during a period of instability in the alpha male rank position. All females' GC levels rose significantly at the onset of the unstable period, though levels in females who were at lower risk of infanticide began to decrease sooner in the following weeks. Three factors suggest that females relied on a focused grooming network as a coping mechanism to alleviate stress. First, all females' grooming networks became less diverse in the weeks following the initial upheaval. Second, females whose grooming had already focused on a few predictable partners showed a less dramatic rise in GC levels than females whose grooming network had been more diverse. Third, females who contracted their grooming network the most experienced a greater decrease in GC levels in the following week. We conclude that close bonds with a few preferred partners allow female baboons to alleviate the stress associated with social instability.

  2. Strong effect of climate on ectomycorrhizal fungal composition: evidence from range overlap between two mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Sakai, Atsushi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2015-08-01

    Separating the effects of environmental factors and spatial distance on microbial composition is difficult when these factors covary. We examined the composition of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi along elevation gradients on geographically distant mountains to clarify the effect of climate at the regional scale. Soil cores were collected from various forest types along an elevation gradient in southwestern Japan. Fungal species were identified by the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA using direct sequencing. The occurrence of fungal species in this study was compared with a previous study conducted on a mountain separated by ∼550 km. In total, we recorded 454 EM fungi from 330 of 350 soil cores. Forty-seven fungal species (∼20% of the total excluding singletons) were shared between two mountains, mostly between similar forest types on both mountains. Variation partitioning in redundancy analysis revealed that climate explained the largest variance in EM fungal composition. The similarity of forest tree composition, which is usually determined by climatic conditions, was positively correlated with the similarity of the EM fungal composition. However, the lack of large host effects implied that communities of forest trees and EM fungi may be determined independently by climate. Our data provide important insights that host plants and mutualistic fungi may respond to climate change idiosyncratically, potentially altering carbon and nutrient cycles in relation to the plant-fungus associations.

  3. The representatives of Gentianaceae L. family in the flora of the watershed mountain range in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віра Іванівна Буняк

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the ecological and biological peculiarities of Gentianaceae family representatives spreading in the Watershed mountain range phytocenosis. 8 species of Gentianaceae family, that belong to three genera, were found on the studied territory The botanical and morphological characteristics, phenological phases of rare species and their role in floristic diversity of the meadow associations are presented too. The studied species are the valuable herbs and decorative plants

  4. Millennial-scale Denudation Rates of the Santa Lucia Mountains, CA: Implications for Landscape Thresholds from a Steep, High Relief, Coastal Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.; Hilley, G. E.; Kiefer, K.; Blisniuk, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new, 10-Be-derived denudation rates measured from river sands in basins of the Santa Lucia Range, central California. The Santa Lucia Mountains of the California Coast Range are an asymmetrical northwest-southeast trending range bounded by the San Gregorio-Hosgri (SG-HFZ ) and Rinconada-Reliz faults. This area provides an additional opportunity to analyze the relationships between topographic form, denudation rates, and mapped underlying geologic substrate in an actively deforming landscape. Analysis of in situ-produced 10-Be from alluvial sand samples collected in the Santa Lucia Mountains has yielded measurements of spatially varying basin-scale denudation rates. Despite the impressive relief of the Santa Lucia's, denudation rates within catchments draining the coastal side of the range are uniformly low, generally varying between ~90 m/Myr and ~350 m/Myr, with one basin eroding at ~500 m/Myr. Preliminary data suggest the lowest erosion rates are located within the northern interior of the range in sedimentary and granitic lithologies, while higher rates are located directly along the coast in metasedimentary bedrock. This overall trend is punctuated by a single high denudation rate, which is hosted by a watershed whose geometry suggests that it previously has, and continues to experience divide migration as it captures the adjacent watershed's area. Spatial distribution of basins with higher denudation rates is inferred to indicate a zone of uplift adjacent to the SG-HFZ. We compare erosion rates to basin mean channel steepness index, extracted from a 10 m digital elevation model. Denudation rate generally increases with channel steepness index until ~250 m/Myr, at which point the relationship becomes invariant, suggesting a non-linear erosion model may best characterize this region. These hypotheses will be tested further as additional denudation rate results are analyzed.

  5. The expression and impact of antifungal grooming in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, A; Purcell, J; Buechel, S D; Buri, P; Chapuisat, M

    2011-05-01

    Parasites can cause extensive damage to animal societies in which many related individuals frequently interact. In response, social animals have evolved diverse individual and collective defences. Here, we measured the expression and efficiency of self-grooming and allo-grooming when workers of the ant Formica selysi were contaminated with spores of the fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae. The amount of self-grooming increased in the presence of fungal spores, which shows that the ants are able to detect the risk of infection. In contrast, the amount of allo-grooming did not depend on fungal contamination. Workers groomed all nestmate workers that were re-introduced into their groups. The amount of allo-grooming towards noncontaminated individuals was higher when the group had been previously exposed to the pathogen. Allo-grooming decreased the number of fungal spores on the surface of contaminated workers, but did not prevent infection in the conditions tested (high dose of spores and late allo-grooming). The rate of disease transmission to groomers and other nestmates was extremely low. The systematic allo-grooming of all individuals returning to the colony, be they contaminated or not, is probably a simple but robust prophylactic defence preventing the spread of fungal diseases in insect societies.

  6. Alpha male chimpanzee grooming patterns: implications for dominance "style".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M W; Gilby, I C; Murray, C M; Johnson, A; Wroblewski, E E; Pusey, A E

    2009-02-01

    In social primates, individuals use various tactics to compete for dominance rank. Grooming, displays and contact aggression are common components of a male chimpanzee's dominance repertoire. The optimal combination of these behaviors is likely to differ among males with individuals exhibiting a dominance "style" that reflects their tendency to use cooperative and/or agonistic dominance tactics. Here, we examine the grooming behavior of three alpha male chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We found that (1) these males differed significantly in their tendency to groom with other males; (2) each male's grooming patterns remained consistent before, during and after his tenure as alpha, and (3) the three males tended to groom with high- middle- and low-ranking partners equally. We suggest that body mass may be one possible determinant of differences in grooming behavior. The largest male exhibited the lowest overall grooming rates, whereas the smallest male spent the most time grooming others. This is probably because large males are more effective at physically intimidating subordinates. To achieve alpha status, a small male may need to compensate for reduced size by investing more time and energy in grooming, thereby ensuring coalitionary support from others. Rates of contact aggression and charging displays conformed to this prediction, suggesting that each male exhibited a different dominance "style."

  7. [Asymmetry of antennal grooming in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the key features of antennal grooming of male American cockroaches in neutral circumstances. It was shown for the first time that the right antenna was cleaned significantly more often than the left one, which indicates the presence of functional asymmetry of antennal grooming in this insect species. At the same time, no statistically significant asymmetry was found for grooming of antennal bases and legs. Morphological asymmetries of antennae and legs and/or brain lateralization are the plausible sources of observed behavioral asymmetry in antennal grooming.

  8. Historical biogeography of Asteraceae from Tandilia and Ventania mountain ranges (Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisci V. Jorge

    2001-07-01

    have a high taxa diversity and endemicity. A historical biogeographic analysis was carried out on the basis of distributional patterns of species and infraspecific taxa of Asteraceae inhabiting Tandilia and Ventania in orderto establish the relationships ofthese mountain ranges with other areas. Two methods were applied for the analysis: panbiogeography using the compatibility track method and parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE. Thirteen areas were delimited for the study: Southern North America and Central América, Southern Brazil, Uruguay, Pampa, Tandilia, Ventania, Chaco, Sierras Pampeanas, Sierras Subandinas, Mahuidas, Patagonia, Central Chile, and Northern Andes. The units of the study were 112 taxa inhabiting Tandilia and Ventania (endernic, naturalized, and adventicious species were not included. Both methods connect southern Brazil, Uruguay, Pampa, Tandilia, Ventania, and Sierras Pampeanas, showing that the Asteraceae biota ofTandilia and Ventania have closer relationships with the biota ofthese are as rather than with that of Sierras Subandinas, North Andean, Chaco, Patagonia, Mahuidas, and Central Chile. The Asteraceae ofCentral and North America appear less related to Tandilia and Ventania in regard of the rest ofthe areas. The evolution of Asteraceae in Tandilia and Ventania and related areas is hypothetized to have been affected mainly by Tertiary and Quaternary geologic events. The discontinuous pattern found, occurring mostly in elevated areas, is explained principally by vicariance under dry conditions.

  9. Preliminary notes on 'Grooming the Object'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Lundsgaard, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the use of a particular gesture during the presentation of an architectural drawing – a gesture, which we refer to as ‘grooming the drawing’. On the one hand, it is related to a practical concern of the activity at hand; during the presentation the architect works...... sure that the manifold paper doesn’t move relative to the drawing underneath. He therefore often ‘grooms’ the manifold paper to straighten it out. On the other hand, the analysis reveals that although this (also) is of a practical purpose it occurs in specific positions and to serve an interactional...

  10. Myrtaceae throughout the Espinhaço Mountain Range of centraleastern Brazil: floristic relationships and geoclimatic controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Oliveira Bünger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although biological surveys and taxonomic revisions provide key information to ecological and evolutionary studies, there is a clear lack of floristic and phytogeographic studies of the mountainous regions of Brazil, which harbor some of the most threatened plant ecosystems on the planet. Myrtaceae has been reported to be one of the most important families in the upland areas of Brazil, as well as in the Atlantic Forest Domain. In this study, we investigated the floristic composition of Myrtaceae throughout the Espinhaço Mountain Range and adjacent highlands of central-eastern Brazil, testing the following hypotheses: floristic similarity increases with geographic proximity; and species distribution is affected by geoclimatic variables. We performed statistical analyses using a database containing records of 199 species in 19 areas and of their respective geoclimatic variables. We also performed ordination analysis using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS, the first and second axes of which explained 69% and 78% of the variation, respectively. The NMDS analysis demonstrated that variations in the Myrtaceae flora are highly sensitive to geoclimatic variables and geographic proximity. The NMDS ordination also showed a predominantly south-north gradient, as did the cluster analysis. This gradient was highly correlated with variations in rainfall and temperature, which are also associated with the three domains that coincide with the Espinhaço Mountain Range.

  11. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  12. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Carter

    Full Text Available Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%, whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  13. Grooming reciprocation among female primates: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Aureli, Filippo

    2008-02-23

    The theory of reciprocal altruism offers an explanation for the evolution of altruistic behaviours among unrelated animals. Among primates, grooming is one of the most common altruistic behaviours. Primates have been suggested to exchange grooming both for itself and for rank-related benefits. While previous meta-analyses have shown that they direct their grooming up the hierarchy and exchange it for agonistic support, no comprehensive evaluation of grooming reciprocation has been made. Here we report on a meta-analysis of grooming reciprocation among female primates based on 48 social groups belonging to 22 different species and 12 genera. The results of this meta-analysis showed that female primates groom preferentially those group mates that groom them most. To the extent allowed by the availability of kinship data, this result holds true when controlling for maternal kinship. These results, together with previous findings, suggest that primates are indeed able to exchange grooming both for itself and for different rank-related benefits.

  14. Third-party grooming in a captive chimpanzee group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Yvan I

    2010-01-01

    Social grooming is ubiquitous among the captive chimpanzees at Chester Zoo. Seven individuals were chosen here for a study of third-party social dynamics. The grooming decisions of five adult males were analysed, but only insofar as they directed attention to a mother-daughter pair. Uniquely, the daughter was an unpopular and physically disabled subadult whose congenital motor impairments prevented her from grooming others effectively. The impetus for this study was the observation that some males increased their grooming towards the disabled daughter during days when the mother had a tumescent anogenital swelling (sexually attractive to males) compared to days when the mother was not tumescent (less attractive). Apparently, males were grooming the daughter with no possibility of payback (because the daughter could never "return the favour"). A "grooming rate" (avg. grooming time/hour) was calculated that showed the grooming efforts of all five males towards both mother and daughter. These rates were compared on days when (1) the mother's anogenital swelling was tumescent, and (2) days when the swelling was not tumescent. Each male showed a different pattern of behaviour. Two males groomed the daughter significantly more when the mother was tumescent. Results for all males were graphed against the quality of the social relationship between each male and the mother. Apparently, only males that had a weaker relationship to the mother groomed the daughter more when the mother was tumescent. This pattern did not exist for males with a stronger relationship to the mother. Possibly, the insecure males were using the disabled daughter as a way to curry favour with the attractive mother. If this is confirmed, then this type of triadic situation is a possible setting for indirect reciprocity to occur.

  15. Dopaminergic modulation of grooming behavior in virgin and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Serafim

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine receptors are involved in the expression of grooming behavior. The pregnancy-induced increase in self-licking observed in rats is important for mammary gland development and lactation. This study focuses on the role of dopamine receptor subtypes in grooming behavior of virgin and pregnant female rats. General and mammary gland grooming were measured in virgin rats treated with 0.25 mg/kg of the D1-like agonist SKF-81297 and antagonist SKF-83566 and the D2-like agonist lisuride and antagonist sulpiride. The effects of 0.01 and 0.25 mg/kg doses of the same agonists and antagonists were evaluated in pregnant rats as well. In virgin animals both SKF-83566 and sulpiride treatments significantly reduced the time spent in general grooming, while none of the dopamine agonists was able to significantly change any parameter of general grooming. Time spent in grooming directed at the mammary glands was not affected significantly by any of the drug treatments in virgin rats. All drugs tested significantly decreased the frequency of and the time spent with general grooming, while SKF-81297 treatment alone did not significantly reduce the duration of mammary gland grooming in pregnant rats. These data show that in female rats the behavioral effects of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptor stimulation and blockade differ according to physiological state. The results suggest that dopamine receptors may play specific roles modulating grooming behavior in pregnant rats. Since grooming of the mammary gland during pregnancy may influence lactation, this aspect is relevant for studies regarding the perinatal use of dopamine-related drugs.

  16. Estimating the age of rock glaciers from weathering rind thickness in the yari-hotaka mountain range, northern japanese alps

    OpenAIRE

    AOYAMA, Masafumi

    2001-01-01

    Formative periods of rock glaciers distributed in the Yari-Hotaka Mountain Range, northern Japanese Alps, were estimated from weathering rind thickness. The results suggest that the age of rock glaciers in the Minamisawa-Kita cirque and the most headward of the Tenguppara cirque is between the age of Early Yarisawa Stage II moraines and the Late Yarisawa Stage II moraines, and the age of rock glaciers in the northern part of the Tenguppara cirque and Ohkiretto cirque is same or younger than t...

  17. Map showing mineral-resource potential of the King Range and Chemise Mountain Instant Study Areas, Humboldt and Mendocino counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sorg, D.H.; Ohlin, H.N.; Beutner, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    The potential for economic development of energy-related or metallic mineral resources in the King Range and Chemise Mountain Instant Study Areas is low to moderate as indicated by geologic, geophysical, and geochemical investigations.

  18. MICROMORPHOLOGY AND PEDOGENESIS OF MOUNTAINOUS INCEPTISOLS IN THE MANTIQUEIRA RANGE (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Campos Pinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTUnderstanding soil formation processes across different landscapes is needed to predict how soil properties will respond to land use change. This study aimed to characterize mountainous Inceptisols (Cambisols under high altitude subtropical climate in southeastern Brazil, by soil physical, chemical and micromorphological analyses, under native forest and pasture. The soil under pasture had a greater bulk density than under forest, resulting in a severe reduction of macroporosity. At two depths, coarse quartz grains are angular, suggesting absence of transportational processes, thus confirming an autochthonous pedogenesis from the underlying gneissic rock. Most feldspars were weathered beyond recognition, but mineral alteration was commonly seen across cleavage plans and edges of micas. The micromorphological results suggest an intermediate stage of mineral weathering and soil development, which is in accordance with properties expected to be found in Inceptisols.

  19. Grooming up the hierarchy: the exchange of grooming and rank-related benefits in a new world primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiddi, Barbara; Aureli, Filippo; Schino, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Seyfarth's model assumes that female primates derive rank-related benefits from higher-ranking females in exchange for grooming. As a consequence, the model predicts females prefer high-ranking females as grooming partners and compete for the opportunity to groom them. Therefore, allogrooming is expected to be directed up the dominance hierarchy and to occur more often between females with adjacent ranks. Although data from Old World primates generally support the model, studies on the relation between grooming and dominance rank in the New World genus Cebus have found conflicting results, showing considerable variability across groups and species. In this study, we investigated the pattern of grooming in wild tufted capuchin females (Cebus apella nigritus) in Iguazú National Park, Argentina by testing both the assumption (i.e., that females gain rank-related return benefits from grooming) and predictions (i.e., that females direct grooming up the dominance hierarchy and the majority of grooming occurs between females with adjacent ranks) of Seyfarth's model. Study subjects were 9 adult females belonging to a single group. Results showed that grooming was given in return for tolerance during naturally occurring feeding, a benefit that higher-ranking females can more easily grant. Female grooming was directed up the hierarchy and was given more often to partners with similar rank. These findings provide supporting evidence for both the assumption and predictions of Seyfarth's model and represent, more generally, the first evidence of reciprocal behavioural interchanges driven by rank-related benefits in New World female primates.

  20. Treeline advances along the Urals mountain range - driven by improved winter conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Frank; Shiyatov, Stepan G; Mazepa, Valeriy S; Devi, Nadezhda M; Grigor'ev, Andrey A; Bartysh, Alexandr A; Fomin, Valeriy V; Kapralov, Denis S; Terent'ev, Maxim; Bugman, Harald; Rigling, Andreas; Moiseev, Pavel A

    2014-11-01

    High-altitude treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, but little quantitative evidence exists about the impact of climate change on treelines in untouched areas of Russia. Here, we estimated how forest-tundra ecotones have changed during the last century along the Ural mountains. In the South, North, Sub-Polar, and Polar Urals, we compared 450 historical and recent photographs and determined the ages of 11,100 trees along 16 altitudinal gradients. In these four regions, boundaries of open and closed forests (crown covers above 20% and 40%) expanded upwards by 4 to 8 m in altitude per decade. Results strongly suggest that snow was an important driver for these forest advances: (i) Winter precipitation has increased substantially throughout the Urals (~7 mm decade(-1) ), which corresponds to almost a doubling in the Polar Urals, while summer temperatures have only changed slightly (~0.05°C decade(-1) ). (ii) There was a positive correlation between canopy cover, snow height and soil temperatures, suggesting that an increasing canopy cover promotes snow accumulation and, hence, a more favorable microclimate. (iii) Tree age analysis showed that forest expansion mainly began around the year 1900 on concave wind-sheltered slopes with thick snow covers, while it started in the 1950s and 1970s on slopes with shallower snow covers. (iv) During the 20th century, dominant growth forms of trees have changed from multistemmed trees, resulting from harsh winter conditions, to single-stemmed trees. While 87%, 31%, and 93% of stems appearing before 1950 were from multistemmed trees in the South, North and Polar Urals, more than 95% of the younger trees had a single stem. Currently, there is a high density of seedlings and saplings in the forest-tundra ecotone, indicating that forest expansion is ongoing and that alpine tundra vegetation will disappear from most mountains of the South and North Urals where treeline is already close to the highest peaks.

  1. Traffic Grooming in Bidirectional WDM Ring Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bermond, Jean-Claude; Valls, Ignasi Sau

    2009-01-01

    We study the minimization of ADMs (Add-Drop Multiplexers) in optical WDM bidirectional rings considering symmetric shortest path routing and all-to-all unitary requests. We precisely formulate the problem in terms of graph decompositions, and state a general lower bound for all the values of the grooming factor $C$ and $N$, the size of the ring. We first study exhaustively the cases C=1, $C = 2$, and C=3, providing improved lower bounds, optimal constructions for several infinite families, as well as asymptotically optimal constructions and approximations. We then study the case $C>3$, focusing specifically on the case $C = k(k+1)/2$ for some $k \\geq 1$. We give optimal decompositions for several congruence classes of $N$ using the existence of some combinatorial designs. We conclude with a comparison of the cost functions in unidirectional and bidirectional WDM rings.

  2. Distress prevention by grooming others in crested black macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Filippo; Yates, Kerrie

    2010-02-23

    Allogrooming is probably one of the most common and most studied social behaviours in a variety of animals. Whereas the short-term benefits for the groomee have often been investigated, little is known about the effects for the groomer. Our study focused on the short-term effects of grooming another group member in seven adult female crested black macaques (Macaca nigra). We found reductions in self-directed behaviour, an indicator of anxiety, and aggressive tendencies soon after grooming, when compared to matched-control periods. These findings can be interpreted as evidence of distress prevention, possibly mediated by an increase in tolerance. Indeed, a former groomee was more likely to be the nearest neighbour of the former groomer in the 10 min after grooming ended. Thus, the role of grooming in short-term distress alleviation can be applicable to the groomer as well as the groomee. These short-term effects, together with the longer-term effects of large and/or strong grooming networks confirm that grooming, as well as receiving grooming, has great importance for social dynamics.

  3. Gastrointestinal parasites of Howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) inhabiting the fragmented landscape of the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino, Carolina; Rico-Hernández, Guillermo; Mandujano, Salvador

    2010-06-01

    In recent years populations of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in southeastern Mexico have decreased substantially due to the transformation and loss of natural habitats. This is especially evident in the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico where several studies have evaluated the impact of fragmentation on howler monkey populations in order to propose management programs for their conservation. The conditions generated by fragmentation likely change the rates of parasitic infection and could decrease howler survival. In this study, gastrointestinal parasite species richness, prevalence, and egg density of infection were determined in howler groups inhabiting five forest fragments at the Santa Marta mountain range. Two hundred and seventy-eight fresh fecal samples were collected between October 2002 and April 2003. Three parasite species were found during the dry and the wet season in all forest fragments sampled: one unidentified species of Eimeriidae; Trypanoxyuris minutus (Oxyuridae); and Controrchis biliophilus (Dicrocoeliidae). Both the prevalence of T. minutus and infection density for all parasites differed between seasons and fragments (the largest fragment consistently differed from other fragments). Host density, distance to the nearest town, fragment size, fragment shape, and total basal area of food trees explained parasite prevalence, but each species had a different pattern. Although parasite richness was lower, prevalence and density were higher than values reported for howlers in conserved forests. These results suggest that the establishment of biological corridors and animal translocation programs must take into account the parasite ecology of each fragment to avoid higher infection rates and preclude potential consequent mortality.

  4. Mountain Meadows Dacite: Oligocene intrusive complex that welds together the Los Angeles Basin, northwestern Peninsular Ranges, and central Transverse Ranges, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, Thane H.; Beyer, Larry A.; Morin, Ronald W.

    2001-01-01

    Dikes and irregular intrusive bodies of distinctive Oligocene biotite dacite and serially related hornblende latite and felsite occur widely in the central and eastern San Gabriel Mountains, southern California, and are related to the Telegraph Peak granodiorite pluton. Identical dacite is locally present beneath Middle Miocene Topanga Group Glendora Volcanics at the northeastern edge of the Los Angeles Basin, where it is termed Mountain Meadows Dacite. This study mapped the western and southwestern limits of the dacite distribution to understand the provenance of derived redeposited clasts, to perceive Neogene offsets on several large strike-slip faults, to test published palinspastic reconstructions, and to better understand the tectonic boundaries that separate contrasting pre-Tertiary rock terranes where the Peninsular Ranges meet the central and western Transverse Ranges and the Los Angeles Basin. Transported and redeposited clasts of dacite-latite occur in deformed lower Miocene and lower middle Miocene sandy conglomerates (nonmarine, nearshore, and infrequent upper bathyal) close to the northern and northeastern margins of the Los Angeles Basin for a distance of nearly 60 km. Tie-lines between distinctive source suites and clast occurrences indicate that large tracts of the ancestral San Gabriel Mountains were elevated along range-bounding faults as early as 16–15 Ma. The tie-lines prohibit very large strike-slip offsets on those faults. Transport of eroded dacite began south of the range as early as 18 Ma. Published and unpublished data about rocks adjacent to the active Santa Monica-Hollywood-Raymond oblique reverse left-lateral fault indicate that cumulative left slip totals 13–14 km and total offset postdates 7 Ma. This cumulative slip, with assembly of stratigraphic and paleogeographic data, invalidates prior estimates of 60 to 90 km of left slip on these faults beginning about 17–16 Ma. A new and different palinspastic reconstruction of a region

  5. An empirical law for wavelet maxima interpretation of potential fields: Application to the Uinta Mountains range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier, Paul; Baghai-Wadji, Alireza; Poprawski, Yohann; Inggs, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Wavelet methods have been used in potential fields study to estimate source properties such as depth or structural index, through the analysis of Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima Lines (WTMML) intersections and slopes at high scales. Little has been done on the study of maximum points of the wavelet diagram, that we call here Maximum Wavelet Coefficient Scales (MWCS). Previous works have shown interesting correlations between MWCS and source depths, depending on the wavelet used in regards to the source nature and the data derivative order. In this paper, we introduce an empirical law involving spectral parameters that have not been studied so far, which allows analytical calculation of the MWCS, knowing the source characteristics and using certain wavelets. In return, the study of MWCS allows recovering source characteristics from the use of a single wavelet, without prior knowledge on the source. We demonstrate through synthetic models that the new capability of predicting the source type and depth according to the wavelet coefficient behaviour allows new ways of potential fields' sources characterization and identification. We show an application of the formula on a real case example in the Uinta Mountains (Utah, USA).

  6. Simulation of heavy, long-term rainfall over low mountain ranges; Simulation von Starkniederschlaegen mit langer Andauer ueber Mittelgebirgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, M.

    2003-03-01

    A diagnostic model for the estimation of orographic precipitation during large-scale upslide motions is presented. It is based on linear theory for 3-D mountain overflow. From the simulated vertical velocities rain intensities at the ground are calculated using a model for precipitation formation. Due to the small number of free parameters and because of the simple initialisation method, e.g. with single radiosonde data, the model is used for regionalisation of precipitation from rain gauge observations as well as for deriving its statistics under dynamical constraints. For Southwest Germany and Eastern France, with the low mountain ranges of the Vosges, Black Forest and Swabian Alb, model simulations are performed for individual events with heavy rainfall. Thereby it is evaluated, how realistic rainfall patterns can be obtained with a combination of model simulations and measurement data. Mean rainfall distributions are derived from simulations of all extreme events with 24-h totals over 60 mm at selected rain gauge stations between 1971 and 2000. Furthermore the calculation of rain sums for different return periods is performed using extreme value statistics. So it is possible to quantify the hazard potential of heavy rainfall, which may cause flooding or landslides, in high spatial resolution (2.5 x 2.5 km). (orig.)

  7. A neural command circuit for grooming movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Stefanie; Franconville, Romain; Simpson, Julie H; Seeds, Andrew M

    2015-09-07

    Animals perform many stereotyped movements, but how nervous systems are organized for controlling specific movements remains unclear. Here we use anatomical, optogenetic, behavioral, and physiological techniques to identify a circuit in Drosophila melanogaster that can elicit stereotyped leg movements that groom the antennae. Mechanosensory chordotonal neurons detect displacements of the antennae and excite three different classes of functionally connected interneurons, which include two classes of brain interneurons and different parallel descending neurons. This multilayered circuit is organized such that neurons within each layer are sufficient to specifically elicit antennal grooming. However, we find differences in the durations of antennal grooming elicited by neurons in the different layers, suggesting that the circuit is organized to both command antennal grooming and control its duration. As similar features underlie stimulus-induced movements in other animals, we infer the possibility of a common circuit organization for movement control that can be dissected in Drosophila.

  8. Development of the archean crust in the medina mountain area, wind river range, wyoming (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesterer, M.E.; Frost, C.D.; Frost, B.R.; Hulsebosch, T.P.; Bridgwater, D.; Worl, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for an extensive Archean crustal history in the Wind River Range is preserved in the Medina Mountain area in the west-central part of the range. The oldest rocks in the area are metasedimentary, mafic, and ultramafic blocks in a migmatite host. The supracrustal rocks of the Medina Mountain area (MMS) are folded into the migmatites, and include semi-pelitic and pelitic gneisses, and mafic rocks of probable volcanic origin. Mafic dikes intrude the older migmatites but not the MMS, suggesting that the MMS are distinctly younger than the supracrustal rocks in the migmatites. The migmatites and the MMS were engulfed by the late Archean granite of the Bridger, Louis Lake, and Bears Ears batholiths, which constitutes the dominant rock of the Wind River Range. Isotopic data available for the area include Nd crustal residence ages from the MMS which indicate that continental crust existed in the area at or before 3.4 Ga, but the age of the older supracrustal sequence is not yet known. The upper age of the MMS is limited by a 2.7 Ga RbSr age of the Bridger batholith, which was emplaced during the waning stages of the last regional metamorphism. The post-tectonic Louis Lake and Bears Ears batholiths have ages of 2.6 and 2.5 Ga, respectively (Stuckless et al., 1985). At least three metamorphic events are recorded in the area: (1) an early regional granulite event (M1) that affected only the older inclusions within the migmatites, (2) a second regional amphibolite event (M2) that locally reached granulite facies conditions, and (3) a restricted, contact granulite facies event (M3) caused by the intrusion of charnockitic melts associated with the late Archean plutons. Results from cation exchange geobarometers and geothermometers yield unreasonablu low pressures and temperatures, suggesting resetting during the long late Archean thermal evenn. ?? 1987.

  9. Cenozoic volcanic geology and probable age of inception of basin-range faulting in the southeasternmost Chocolate Mountains, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1978-02-01

    A complex sequence of Oligocene-age volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks form a major volcanic center in the Picacho area of the southeasternmost Chocolate Mountains, Imperial County, California. Basal-volcanic rocks consist of lava flows and flow breccia of trachybasalt, pyroxene rhyodacite, and pyroxene dacite (32 My old). These volcanic rocks locally overlie fanglomerate and rest unconformably on pre-Cenozoic basement rocks. South and southeast of a prominent arcuate fault zone in the central part of the area, the rhyolite ignimbrite (26 My old) forms a major ash-flow sheet. In the southwestern part of the Picacho area the rhyolite ignimbrite interfingers with and is overlain by dacite flows and laharic breccia. The rhyolite ignimbrite and the dacite of Picacho Peak are overlapped by lava flows and breccia of pyroxene andesite (25 My old) that locally rest on pre-Cenozoic basement rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Picacho area form a slightly bimodal volcanic suite consisting chiefly of silicic volcanic rocks with subordinate andesite. Late Miocene augite-olivine basalt is most similar in major-element abundances to transitional alkali-olivine basalt of the Basin and Range province. Normal separation faults in the Picacho area trend northwest and north parallel to major linear mountain ranges in the region. The areal distribution of the 26-My-old rhyolite ignimbrite and the local presence of megabreccia and fanglomerate flanking probable paleohighs suggest that the ignimbrite was erupted over irregular topography controlled by northwest- and north-trending probable basin-range faults. These relations date the inception of faulting in southeasternmost California at pre-26 and probably pre-32 My ago. A transition of basaltic volcanism in the area is dated at 13 My ago. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Reproductive experience influences grooming behavior during pregnancy in rats

    OpenAIRE

    A.P. Serafim; Felicio,L.F.

    2002-01-01

    The pregnancy-induced increase in self-licking observed in rats is important for mammary gland development and lactation. Reproductive experience has epidemiologial implications such as a decrease in the incidence of mammary gland cancer in women and it also influences various behavioral, neurochemical and endocrine parameters. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of reproductive experience on grooming behavior patterns during pregnancy in rats. Self-grooming behavior...

  11. Reproductive experience influences grooming behavior during pregnancy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafim A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The pregnancy-induced increase in self-licking observed in rats is important for mammary gland development and lactation. Reproductive experience has epidemiologial implications such as a decrease in the incidence of mammary gland cancer in women and it also influences various behavioral, neurochemical and endocrine parameters. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of reproductive experience on grooming behavior patterns during pregnancy in rats. Self-grooming behavior was measured in age-matched virgin, primi- and multigravid (days 7, 8, 9, 19, and 20 of pregnancy rats. General grooming (head, forelimbs and shoulders was not significantly different among virgin, primi- and multigravid rats during pregnancy. Confirming previous work, pregnant rats spent significantly more time in specific grooming (mammary glands, nipple lines, genital and pelvic regions than did virgin animals. In addition, self- licking of mammary glands was significantly increased in multi- as compared to primigravid rats on days 8, 9, 19 and 20 of pregnancy. The increase in mammary gland grooming observed in multigravid rats appears to be a consequence of previous reproductive experience. These data show that reproductive experience modulates mammary gland grooming during pregnancy, possibly contributing to successful reproduction.

  12. Natural regeneration of deforested areas dominated by Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn located in the serra da mantiqueira mountain range

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    Selma Cristina Ribeiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was set out with the objective of analyzing successional process in areas which are deforested and dominated by Pteridium aquilinum in the Serra da Mantiqueira mountain range, by researching the natural regeneration of shrub and tree species and evaluating both disturbance history and the edaphic conditions on the natural regeneration community. This research investigated two abandoned pasture areas in Bocaina de Minas county exposed to natural regeneration intervals ranging from six years (area named 6A to twenty years (area named 20A. The inventory occurred from sixty plots of 10 m², where all samples surveyed were between 0.15 m and 3 m high. All samples were identified and both the diameter in ground level and total height of the specimens were measured. The survey totaled 1,159 samples and 53 species. Melastomataceae was registered with the highest species richness and the highest specimen abundance. The two sampled areas showed species composition differences, with Jaccard similarity coefficient equal to 3.7%. The canonical correspondence analysis showed the correlations between natural regeneration stratum and non-labile phosphorus and clay in the 6A area. On the other hand, the 20A area showed correlations between plant regeneration and the K, P, Ca²+, Al³+ levels, with higher pH levels, and with the sum of exchangeable bases. In addition, the vegetation surveyed in area 20A was correlated with higher Pteridium population density. The results showed that the dominance of Pteridium aquilinum leads to successional process under inhibition, in which the ferns act negatively on the richness and abundance of shrub populations. It was also confirmed the Pteridium's affinity to steep areas, mainly in higher altitudes, where the soil is acid, as well as its preference to disturbed areas. Moreover, we highlight the fragilities of the mountain environments and the importance of preserving natural vegetation, as well as the bracken

  13. Elevation-dependent temperature trends in the Rocky Mountain Front Range: changes over a 56- and 20-year record.

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    Chris R McGuire

    Full Text Available Determining the magnitude of climate change patterns across elevational gradients is essential for an improved understanding of broader climate change patterns and for predicting hydrologic and ecosystem changes. We present temperature trends from five long-term weather stations along a 2077-meter elevational transect in the Rocky Mountain Front Range of Colorado, USA. These trends were measured over two time periods: a full 56-year record (1953-2008 and a shorter 20-year (1989-2008 record representing a period of widely reported accelerating change. The rate of change of biological indicators, season length and accumulated growing-degree days, were also measured over the 56 and 20-year records. Finally, we compared how well interpolated Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM datasets match the quality controlled and weather data from each station. Our results show that warming signals were strongest at mid-elevations over both temporal scales. Over the 56-year record, most sites show warming occurring largely through increases in maximum temperatures, while the 20-year record documents warming associated with increases in maximum temperatures at lower elevations and increases in minimum temperatures at higher elevations. Recent decades have also shown a shift from warming during springtime to warming in July and November. Warming along the gradient has contributed to increases in growing-degree days, although to differing degrees, over both temporal scales. However, the length of the growing season has remained unchanged. Finally, the actual and the PRISM interpolated yearly rates rarely showed strong correlations and suggest different warming and cooling trends at most sites. Interpretation of climate trends and their seasonal biases in the Rocky Mountain Front Range are dependent on both elevation and the temporal scale of analysis. Given mismatches between interpolated data and the directly measured station data

  14. 3D Virtual Reality Applied in Tectonic Geomorphic Study of the Gombori Range of Greater Caucasus Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhishvili, Lasha; Javakhishvili, Zurab

    2016-04-01

    Gombori Range represents the southern part of the young Greater Caucasus Mountains and stretches from NW to SE. The range separates Alazani and Iori basins within the eastern Georgian province of Kakheti. The active phase of Caucasian orogeny started in the Pliocene, but according to alluvial sediments of Gombori range (mapped in the Soviet geologic map), we observe its uplift process to be Quaternary event. The highest peak of the Gombori range has an absolute elevation of 1991 m, while its neighboring Alazani valley gains only 400 m. We assume the range has a very fast uplift rate and it could trigger streams flow direction course reverse in Quaternary. To check this preliminary assumptions we are going to use a tectonic and fluvial geomorphic and stratigraphic approaches including paleocurrent analyses and various affordable absolute dating techniques to detect the evidence of river course reverses and date them. For these purposes we have selected river Turdo outcrop. The river itself flows northwards from the Gombori range and nearby region`s main city of Telavi generates 30-40 m high continuous outcrop along 1 km section. Turdo outcrop has very steep walls and requires special climbing skills to work on it. The goal of this particularly study is to avoid time and resource consuming ground survey process of this steep, high and wide outcrop and test 3D aerial and ground base photogrammetric modelling and analyzing approaches in initial stage of the tectonic geomorphic study. Using this type of remote sensing and virtual lab analyses of 3D outcrop model, we roughly delineated stratigraphic layers, selected exact locations for applying various research techniques and planned safe and suitable climbing routes for getting to the investigation sites.

  15. Antagonistic control of social versus repetitive self-grooming behaviors by separable amygdala neuronal subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Weizhe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, David J

    2014-09-11

    Animals display a range of innate social behaviors that play essential roles in survival and reproduction. While the medial amygdala (MeA) has been implicated in prototypic social behaviors such as aggression, the circuit-level mechanisms controlling such behaviors are not well understood. Using cell-type-specific functional manipulations, we find that distinct neuronal populations in the MeA control different social and asocial behaviors. A GABAergic subpopulation promotes aggression and two other social behaviors, while neighboring glutamatergic neurons promote repetitive self-grooming, an asocial behavior. Moreover, this glutamatergic subpopulation inhibits social interactions independently of its effect to promote self-grooming, while the GABAergic subpopulation inhibits self-grooming, even in a nonsocial context. These data suggest that social versus repetitive asocial behaviors are controlled in an antagonistic manner by inhibitory versus excitatory amygdala subpopulations, respectively. These findings provide a framework for understanding circuit-level mechanisms underlying opponency between innate behaviors, with implications for their perturbation in psychiatric disorders.

  16. The use of remote sensing to quantify wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range, Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teferi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands provide multiple ecosystem services such as storing and regulating water flows and water quality, providing unique habitats to flora and fauna, and regulating micro-climatic conditions. Conversion of wetlands for agricultural use is a widespread practice in Ethiopia, particularly in the southwestern part where wetlands cover large areas. Although there are many studies on land cover and land use changes in this region, comprehensive studies on wetlands are still missing. Hence, extent and rate of wetland loss at regional scales is unknown. The objective of this paper is to quantify wetland dynamics and estimate wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range (area covering 17 443 km2 in the Upper Blue Nile basin, a key headwater region of the river Nile. Therefore, satellite remote sensing imagery of the period 1986–2005 were considered. To create images of surface reflectance that are radiometrically consistent, a combination of cross-calibration and atmospheric correction (Vogelman-DOS3 methods was used. A hybrid supervised/unsupervised classification approach was used to classify the images. Overall accuracies of 94.1% and 93.5% and Kappa Coefficients of 0.908 and 0.913 for the 1986 and 2005 imageries, respectively were obtained. The results showed that 607 km2 of seasonal wetland with low moisture and 22.4 km2 of open water are lost in the study area during the period 1986 to 2005. The current situation in the wetlands of Choke Mountain is characterized by further degradation which calls for wetland conservation and rehabilitation efforts through incorporating wetlands into watershed management plans.

  17. The use of remote sensing to quantify wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range, Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teferi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands provide multiple ecosystem services such as storing and regulating water flows and water quality, providing unique habitats to flora and fauna, and regulating micro-climatic conditions. Conversion of wetlands for agricultural use is a widespread practice in Ethiopia, particularly in the southwestern part where wetlands cover large areas. Although there are many studies on land cover and land use changes in this region, comprehensive studies on wetlands are still missing. Hence, extent and rate of wetland loss at regional scale is unknown. The objective of this paper is to quantify wetland dynamics and estimate wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range (area covering 17 443 km2 in the Upper Blue Nile basin, a key headwater region of the river Nile. Therefore, satellite remote sensing images of the period 1986–2005 were considered. To create images of surface reflectance that are radiometrically consistent, a combination of cross-calibration and atmospheric correction (Vogelman-DOS3 methods was used. A hybrid supervised/unsupervised classification approach was used to classify the images. Overall accuracies of 94.1% and 93.5% and Kappa Coefficients of 0.908 and 0.913 for the 1986 and 2005 imageries, respectively were obtained. The results showed that 607 km2 of seasonal wetland with low moisture and 22.4 km2 of open water are lost in the study area during the period 1986 to 2005. The current situation in the wetlands of Choke Mountain is characterized by further degradation which calls for wetland conservation and rehabilitation efforts through incorporating wetlands into watershed management plans.

  18. Human-climate-environment interactions during the past 4000 years in the Taurus Mountain Range, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Van Loo, Maarten; Poblome, Jeroen; Degryse, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean has been an area of intense human occupation since the early Neolithic. However, contrary to many temperate environments in NW Europe, human pressure on the landscape did not follow a linear trajectory from the Neolithic to the present, but is rather characterised by cycles of land cover expansion and contraction. Here, we provide a synthesis of human-climate-environment interactions in the region of the antique city of Sagalassos in the Taurus mountain range of SW Turkey. The combination of archaeological, palynological and geomorphological data, together with geochemical sediment provenancing and spatial modelling techniques, enabled to reconstruct the relative importance of anthropogenic pressure and climatic changes on the environment. The sensitivity of the landscape towards anthropogenic disturbance is strongly controlled by the geomorphic-tectonic setting, as well as by important feedback mechanisms in the soil system. The first major clearing of the landscape in the Iron Age led to a peak in soil erosion, but also to soil exhaustion limiting erosion rates in subsequent periods. Soil erosion and sediment delivery is more limited during the main occupation phases of the Roman Imperial Period. Periods with more favorable climate in the Roman and Mid-Byzantine periods resulted in the occupation of more isolated parts of the territory (i.e. higher up in the mountains), whilst a decrease in human pressure can be observed during the Early Byzantine and Ottoman periods related to less favorable conditions. Such smaller and short-lasting bursts of human occupation did not significanlty impact the environment. Only in the last two hundred years, human pressure reached similar values as those encountered in the classical period.

  19. Predicting aquatic macrophyte occurrence in soft-water oligotrophic lakes (Pyrenees mountain range

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    Cristina Pulido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of aquatic macrophytes in lakes is related to geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables as well as human impacts, which modify the original environment. Here, we aim at building statistical models to establish the ecological niches of 11 aquatic macrophytes (10 different phanerogams and the genus Nitella from oligotrophic soft-water lakes and infer their ecological requirements and environmental constraints at the southernmost limit of their distribution. Macrophyte occurrence and environmental variables were obtained from 86 non-exploited oligotrophic soft-water lakes from the Pyrenees (Southern Europe; 42º50´N, 1º00´E; macrophytes inhabited 55 of these lakes. Optimum ranges and macrophyte occurrence were predicted in relation to 18 geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables using univariate and multivariate logistic models. Lakes at low altitude, in vegetated catchments and with low water concentration of NO3- and SO4-2, were the most suitable to host macrophytes. In general, individual species of aquatic macrophytes showed clear patterns of segregation along conductivity and pH gradients, although the specific combination of variables selected in the best models explaining their occurrence differed among species.  Based on the species response to pH and conductivity, we found Isoetes lacustris have its optimum in waters with low conductivity and pH (i.e. negative monotonic response. In contrast, Callitriche palustris, Ranunculus aquatilis, Subularia aquatica, Nitella spp., and Myriophyllum alterniflorum showed an optimum at intermediate values (i.e. unimodal response, whereas Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton alpinus, and Ranunculus trichophyllus as species had their optimum at relatively high water pH and conductivity (i.e. positive monotonic response. This pattern has been observed in other regions for the same species, although with different optima and tolerance

  20. Present-day changes of mountain glaciers on the southern slope of the Dzhungarian Alatau range

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    A. L. Kokarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glacierization of southern slope of the Dzhungarian (Zhetysu Alatau range was estimated by means of data obtained by operational satellite Landsat 7 surveys on August 19 and September 2011 (sensors ETM+ with the use of digital relief models (ASTER GDEM. Analysis of these materials by means of computer programs ENVI, ERDAS Imagine, MapInfo, and ArcGIS made it possible to obtain a spatial information of glacier systems of the territory under investigation and to define morphological characteristics of glaciers, present-day moraine complexes, glacier lakes as well as other elements of glacial monitoring at the survey moments. To estimate changes of the glacierization the data from previous Inventories of this glacier system as of 1956 and 1972 (P.A. Cherkasov, 1990 and 2000 (authors of this article were used. 30 glaciers being now located on the Chine territory but included into the Inventories of 1956 and 1972 (because the boundaries were changed after 1990 were included into new Inventory.As of 2011, 500 glaciers with total area of their open parts 120.12 km2 were registered in Southern Dzhungaria. 124 glaciers (57% of total number cover area less 0.1 km2 each, and their total area is equal to 9.01 km2 (8% of total area of the glacierization.Total area of the moraines reached 105.6 km2. Volume of open ice calculated by formulas was estimated 4.6 km3. According to calculations, the firn line altitude of the glaciers on the southern slope was equal to 3685 m. As compared to 1956 (3645 m this line lifted by 40 m. 190 glacier lakes with total area 6.0 km2 were found on this territory, among them 19 lakes were classified as especially dangerous for outbursting (their total area – 2.5 km2.For the last 55 years the glacierization area in the Southern Dzhungaria was reduced by 47.4% or, on the average, by 0.86% in every year. It should be noted that for the several last years, the rate of degradation decreased almost twice as compared to earlier years

  1. Noise impacts from professional dog grooming forced-air dryers

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    Peter M Scheifele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to measure the sound output of four commonly used brands of forced-air dryers used by dog groomers in the United States. Many dog groomers have questions about the effect of this exposure on their hearing, as well as on the hearing of the dogs that are being groomed. Readings taken from each dryer at 1 meter (the likely distance of the dryer from the groomer and the dog showed average levels ranging from 105.5 to 108.3 dB SPL or 94.8 to 108.0 dBA. Using the 90 dBA criterion required by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration, dog groomers/bathers are at risk if exposure to the lowest intensity dryer (94.8 dBA exceeds 4 hours per day. If the more stringent 85 dBA criterion and 3 dB tradeoff is applied, less than one hour of exposure is permissible in an 8 hour day. Cautions are recommended for any persons exposed to noise from forced-air dryers.

  2. The effect of impurities on the surface melt of a glacier in the Suntar Khayata Mountain Range, Russian Siberia

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    Nozomu eTakeuchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated characteristics of impurities and their impact on the ablation of Glacier No.31 in the Suntar-Khayata Mountain Range in Russian Siberia during summer 2014. Positive degree-day factors (PDDFs obtained from 20 stake measurements distributed across the glacier’s ablation area varied from 3.00 to 8.55 mm w.e. K-1 day-1. The surface reflectivity measured with a spectrometer as a proxy for albedo, ranged from 0.09 to 0.62, and was negatively correlated with the PDDF, suggesting that glacier ablation is controlled by surface albedo on the studied glacier. Mass of total insoluble impurities on the ice surface varied from 0.1 to 45.2 g m-2 and was not correlated with surface reflectivity, suggesting that albedo is not directly conditioned by the mass of the impurities. Microscopy of impurities revealed that they comprised mineral particles, cryoconite granules, and ice algal cells filled with dark-reddish pigments (Ancylonema nordenskioldii. There was a significant negative correlation between surface reflectivity and algal biomass or organic matter, suggesting that the ice algae and their products are the most effective constituents in defining glacier surface albedo. Our results suggest that the melting of ice surface was enhanced by the growth of ice algae, which increased the melting rate 1.6 - 2.6 times greater than that of the impurity free bare-ice.

  3. Modeling Potential Climatic Treeline of Great Basin Bristlecone Pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, J. M.; Tran, T. J.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a valuable paleoclimate resource due to the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Recent work has shown that low growing season temperatures limit tree growth at the upper treeline ecotone. The presence of precisely dated remnant wood above modern treeline shows that this ecotone shifts at centennial timescales; in some areas during the Holocene climatic optimum treeline was 100 m higher than at present. A recent model from Paulsen and Körner (2014, doi:10.1007/s00035-014-0124-0) predicts global potential treeline position as a function of climate. The model develops three parameters necessary to sustain a temperature-limited treeline; a growing season longer than 94 days, defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C, and a mean temperature of 6.4 °C across the entire growing season. While maintaining impressive global accuracy in treeline prediction, these parameters are not specific to the semi-arid Great Basin bristlecone pine treelines in Nevada. In this study, we used 49 temperature sensors arrayed across approximately one square kilometer of complex terrain at treeline on Mount Washington to model temperatures using topographic indices. Results show relatively accurate prediction throughout the growing season (e.g., July average daily temperatures were modeled with an R2 of 0.80 and an RMSE of 0.29 °C). The modeled temperatures enabled calibration of a regional treeline model, yielding different parameters needed to predict potential treeline than the global model. Preliminary results indicate that modern Bristlecone pine treeline on and around Mount Washington occurs in areas with a longer growing season length (~160 days defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C) and a warmer seasonal mean temperature (~9 °C) than the global average. This work will provide a baseline data set on treeline position in the Snake Range derived only from parameters physiologically relevant to

  4. Reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPÉ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenni, A. J.; Benedict, K. B.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Zhou, Y.; Sullivan, A.; Day, D.; Sive, B. C.; Zondlo, M. A.; Schichtel, B. A.; Vimont, J.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) took place in July-August 2014. This collaborative study was aimed at characterizing those processes which control air quality along Colorado's Front Range. Although the study was largely focused on ozone, an additional goal of the study included characterizing contributions from Front Range sources and long-range transport to total reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). Import of reactive nitrogen into ROMO and other pristine, high elevation areas has the potential to negatively impact terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We present measurements of reactive nitrogen species measured within ROMO during FRAPPÉ, and compare these data to measurements made in the surrounding areas. At our monitoring site in ROMO, co-located with IMPROVE and CASTNet monitoring, measurements of NO, NO2, NOx, NOy, NH3, and total reactive nitrogen (TNx) were made at high time resolution. Additional measurements of NH3, HNO3 and PM2.5 ions were made at hourly resolution using a MARGA and also at 24-hour time resolution using URG denuder-filter pack sampling. Precipitation samples also were collected to quantify wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen. Finally, measurements of organic gases were made using online gas chromatography and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. Preliminary results for ammonia show both a diel pattern, with concentrations increasing each morning, and a strong dependence on wind direction, implicating the importance of transport. Higher concentrations of NOx and NOy also were observed in the daytime, but in general these patterns differed from that of ammonia. Several upslope events were observed during the measurement period during which NOx, NH3, 2-propylnitrate, 2-butylnitrate, ethane, butane, and pentane were observed to increase in concentration along with ozone.

  5. Weeding and grooming of pathogens in agriculture by ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, C R; Stuart, A E

    2001-05-22

    The ancient mutualism between fungus-growing ants and the fungi they cultivate for food is a textbook example of symbiosis. Fungus-growing ants' ability to cultivate fungi depends on protection of the garden from the aggressive microbes associated with the substrate added to the garden as well as from the specialized virulent garden parasite Escovopsis. We examined ants' ability to remove alien microbes physically by infecting Atta colombica gardens with the generalist pathogen Trichoderma viride and the specialist pathogen Escovopsis. The ants sanitized the garden using two main behaviours: grooming of alien spores from the garden (fungus grooming) and removal of infected garden substrate (weeding). Unlike previously described hygienic behaviours (e.g. licking and self-grooming), fungus-grooming and garden-removal behaviours are specific responses to the presence of fungal pathogens. In the presence of pathogens, they are the primary activities performed by workers, but they are uncommon in uninfected gardens. In fact, workers rapidly eliminate Trichoderma from their gardens by fungus grooming and weeding, suggesting that these behaviours are the primary method of garden defence against generalist pathogens. The same sanitary behaviours were performed in response to the presence of the specialist pathogen Escovopsis. However, the intensity and duration of these behaviours were much greater in this treatment. Despite the increased effort, the ants were unable to eliminate Escovopsis from their gardens, suggesting that this specialized pathogen has evolved counter-adaptations in order to overcome the sanitary defences of the ants.

  6. Chytridiomycosis in endemic amphibians of the mountain tops of the Córdoba and San Luis ranges, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Julián N; Longo, Silvana; Robledo, Gerardo

    2013-02-28

    Chytridiomycosis is a major threat to amphibian conservation. In Argentina, the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been recorded in several localities, and recently, it was registered in amphibians inhabiting low-elevation areas of mountain environments in Córdoba and San Luis provinces. In the present study, we searched for B. dendrobatidis in endemic and non-endemic amphibians on the mountain tops of Córdoba and San Luis provinces. We collected dead amphibians in the upper vegetation belt of the mountains of Córdoba and San Luis. Using standard histological techniques, the presence of fungal infection was confirmed in 5 species. Three of these species are endemic to the mountain tops of both provinces. Although there are no reported population declines in amphibians in these mountains, the presence of B. dendrobatidis in endemic species highlights the need for long-term monitoring plans in the area.

  7. Bit Grooming: statistically accurate precision-preserving quantization with compression, evaluated in the netCDF Operators (NCO, v4.4.8+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, Charles S.

    2016-09-01

    Geoscientific models and measurements generate false precision (scientifically meaningless data bits) that wastes storage space. False precision can mislead (by implying noise is signal) and be scientifically pointless, especially for measurements. By contrast, lossy compression can be both economical (save space) and heuristic (clarify data limitations) without compromising the scientific integrity of data. Data quantization can thus be appropriate regardless of whether space limitations are a concern. We introduce, implement, and characterize a new lossy compression scheme suitable for IEEE floating-point data. Our new Bit Grooming algorithm alternately shaves (to zero) and sets (to one) the least significant bits of consecutive values to preserve a desired precision. This is a symmetric, two-sided variant of an algorithm sometimes called Bit Shaving that quantizes values solely by zeroing bits. Our variation eliminates the artificial low bias produced by always zeroing bits, and makes Bit Grooming more suitable for arrays and multi-dimensional fields whose mean statistics are important. Bit Grooming relies on standard lossless compression to achieve the actual reduction in storage space, so we tested Bit Grooming by applying the DEFLATE compression algorithm to bit-groomed and full-precision climate data stored in netCDF3, netCDF4, HDF4, and HDF5 formats. Bit Grooming reduces the storage space required by initially uncompressed and compressed climate data by 25-80 and 5-65 %, respectively, for single-precision values (the most common case for climate data) quantized to retain 1-5 decimal digits of precision. The potential reduction is greater for double-precision datasets. When used aggressively (i.e., preserving only 1-2 digits), Bit Grooming produces storage reductions comparable to other quantization techniques such as Linear Packing. Unlike Linear Packing, whose guaranteed precision rapidly degrades within the relatively narrow dynamic range of values that

  8. Energy efficiency of optical grooming of QAM optical transmission channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopalwala, Mariya; Rastegarfar, Houman; Kilper, Daniel C; Wang, Michael; Bergman, Keren

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the energy use for optical grooming of quadrature amplitude modulated signals in optical transmission systems is used to determine the potential efficiency benefits. An energy model is developed for both optical and electronic grooming and used to study the relative efficiency for three different network scenarios. The energy efficiency is evaluated considering both coherent and direct detection transceivers including power management strategies. Results indicate efficiency improvements up to an order of magnitude may be possible for 100 GBaud rates and 25-30 GBaud is a critical point at which optical grooming becomes the more efficient approach. These results are further shown to apply for the case of projected efficiency improvements in the underlying device technologies.

  9. New Mexico Mountain Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  10. Increasing risks related to landslides from degrading permafrost into new lakes in de-glaciating mountain ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, Wilfried; Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian

    2017-09-01

    While glacier volumes in most cold mountain ranges rapidly decrease due to continued global warming, degradation of permafrost at altitudes above and below glaciers is much slower. As a consequence, many still existing glacier and permafrost landscapes probably transform within decades into new landscapes of bare bedrock, loose debris, sparse vegetation, numerous new lakes and steep slopes with slowly degrading permafrost. These new landscapes are likely to persist for centuries if not millennia to come. During variable but mostly extended future time periods, such new landscapes will be characterized by pronounced disequilibria within their geo- and ecosystems. This especially involves long-term stability reduction of steep/icy mountain slopes as a slow and delayed reaction to stress redistribution following de-buttressing by vanishing glaciers and to changes in mechanical strength and hydraulic permeability caused by permafrost degradation. Thereby, the probability of far-reaching flood waves from large mass movements into lakes systematically increases with the formation of many new lakes and systems of lakes in close neighborhood to, or even directly at the foot of, so-affected slopes. Results of recent studies in the Swiss Alps are reviewed and complemented with examples from the Cordillera Blanca in Peru and the Mount Everest region in Nepal. Hot spots of future hazards from potential flood waves caused by large rock falls into new lakes can already now be recognized. To this end, integrated spatial information on glacier/permafrost evolution and lake formation can be used together with scenario-based models for rapid mass movements, impact waves and flood propagation. The resulting information must then be combined with exposure and vulnerability considerations related to settlements and infrastructure. This enables timely planning of risk reduction options. Such risk reduction options consist of two components: Mitigation of hazards, which in the present

  11. A Routing Algorithm in WDM Mesh Networks with Grooming Capacities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang-min; RONG Meng-tian; ZHU Hong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Most of the work in traffic grooming has been in the area of providing efficient network designs in Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). The objective of these traffic grooming algorithms is to reduce the cost of overall networks.In this paper, a routing algorithm based on transiently chaotic neural network is proposed to solve the problem in WDM logical topology. The objectives of the routing algorithm are accommodating all traffic requirements and using less network resource. The simulation shows that the proposed algorithm is efficient in the routing selection, meanwhile the algorithm can use less network resource.

  12. Tree demography suggests multiple directions and drivers for species range shifts in mountains of Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wason, Jay W; Dovciak, Martin

    2016-12-09

    Climate change is expected to lead to upslope shifts in tree species distributions, but the evidence is mixed partly due to land-use effects and individualistic species responses to climate. We examined how individual tree species demography varies along elevational climatic gradients across four states in the northeastern United States to determine whether species elevational distributions and their potential upslope (or downslope) shifts were controlled by climate, land-use legacies (past logging), or soils. We characterized tree demography, microclimate, land-use legacies, and soils at 83 sites stratified by elevation (~500 to ~1200 m above sea level) across 12 mountains containing the transition from northern hardwood to spruce-fir forests. We modeled elevational distributions of tree species saplings and adults using logistic regression to test whether sapling distributions suggest ongoing species range expansion upslope (or contraction downslope) relative to adults, and we used linear mixed models to determine the extent to which climate, land use, and soil variables explain these distributions. Tree demography varied with elevation by species, suggesting a potential upslope shift only for American beech, downslope shifts for red spruce (more so in cool regions) and sugar maple, and no change with elevation for balsam fir. While soils had relatively minor effects, climate was the dominant predictor for most species and more so for saplings than adults of red spruce, sugar maple, yellow birch, cordate birch, and striped maple. On the other hand, logging legacies were positively associated with American beech, sugar maple, and yellow birch, and negatively with red spruce and balsam fir - generally more so for adults than saplings. All species exhibited individualistic rather than synchronous demographic responses to climate and land use, and the return of red spruce to lower elevations where past logging originally benefited northern hardwood species indicates

  13. Shallow seismic reflection profiling over a Mylonitic Shear Zone, Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range Metamorphic Core Complex, NE Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawman, Robert B.; Ahmed, Hishameldin O.

    Seismic reflection profiling carried out with a sledgehammer source has imaged Tertiary extensional structures over a depth range of 45-500 m within lower plate rocks of the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range metamorphic core complex. The 400-m CMP profile straddles an exposed contact between tectonic slices of dolomitic marble and metaquartzite emplaced by low-angle ductile-brittle normal faulting. Subhorizontal reflections from layering within the tectonic slices give way at 160 ms (160-220 m depth) to reflections that dip 15-45° to the east, in contrast with dips indicated in a poorly imaged segment of a coincident regional seismic line but in agreement with dips of foliation mapped for nearby up-plunge exposures of a late Proterozoic - early Cambrian sequence of metaquartzites, marbles, schists, and granitic rocks that forms the bulk of the underlying shear zone. Differences with the regional profile are attributed to the higher frequencies (30-100 Hz) generated by the smaller hammer source and the enhanced lateral resolution provided by the straighter profile and much smaller shot-receiver offsets (46-157 m) contributing to the stack for each CMP. The results suggest that the near-surface, east-dipping component of the anastomozing shear zone extends at least 2 km farther east than previously interpreted. Rough estimates of interval velocities (1500-4500 m/s) inferred from stacking velocities are consistent with velocities of mylonitic rocks measured perpendicular to foliation at low confining pressures when the effects of macroscopic fractures and joints are taken into account. Peaks in amplitude spectra of stacked traces suggest long-wavelength components of layering resolved at scales from 5-8 m (depth: 50 m) to 15-25 m (depth: 500 m).

  14. In utero transmission and tissue distribution of chronic wasting disease-associated prions in free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selariu, Anca; Powers, Jenny G; Nalls, Amy; Brandhuber, Monica; Mayfield, Amber; Fullaway, Stephenie; Wyckoff, Christy A; Goldmann, Wilfred; Zabel, Mark M; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Mathiason, Candace K

    2015-11-01

    The presence of disease-associated prions in tissues and bodily fluids of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-infected cervids has received much investigation, yet little is known about mother-to-offspring transmission of CWD. Our previous work demonstrated that mother-to-offspring transmission is efficient in an experimental setting. To address the question of relevance in a naturally exposed free-ranging population, we assessed maternal and fetal tissues derived from 19 elk dam-calf pairs collected from free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk from north-central Colorado, a known CWD endemic region. Conventional immunohistochemistry identified three of 19 CWD-positive dams, whereas a more sensitive assay [serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA)] detected CWD prion seeding activity (PrPCWD) in 15 of 19 dams. PrPCWD distribution in tissues was widespread, and included the central nervous system (CNS), lymphoreticular system, and reproductive, secretory, excretory and adipose tissues. Interestingly, five of 15 sPMCA-positive dams showed no evidence of PrPCWD in either CNS or lymphoreticular system, sites typically assessed in diagnosing CWD. Analysis of fetal tissues harvested from the 15 sPMCA-positive dams revealed PrPCWD in 80 % of fetuses (12 of 15), regardless of gestational stage. These findings demonstrated that PrPCWD is more abundant in peripheral tissues of CWD-exposed elk than current diagnostic methods suggest, and that transmission of prions from mother to offspring may contribute to the efficient transmission of CWD in naturally exposed cervid populations.

  15. Testing the Climate Sensitivity of Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) Near the Southern Limit of Its Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, S.; St George, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the climate sensitivity of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) near the southern limit of its range, tests the stability of its climate-tree relations over the last few decades, and explores its potential as a hydroclimatic proxy for Crater Lake National Park. We collected tree cores at seven locations around the caldera rim, focusing on hemlock growing at higher elevations (2000-2400 masl). The median length of all ring-width series is 283 years, and the oldest hemlock sample extends back to C.E. 1450. Several types of anatomical anomalies, including frost rings, traumatic resin ducts, false rings, and light late-wood bands were observed within the specimens, the most common feature being a false ring in C.E. 1810. Each set of standardized ring-width measurements has a strong common signal, with between-tree correlations (r-bar) ranging from 0.31 to 0.49. Preliminary analysis suggests hemlock growth across the park is strongly and inversely related to total cool-season precipitation, and is also influenced positively (albeit more weakly) by mean summer temperature. Most sites are significantly and negatively correlated with total December-to-February precipitation (r = -0.41) and total precipitation from December to August (r = -0.48). Compared to other ring-width records exhibiting similar negative responses to winter precipitation, these hemlocks appear to track that specific signal quite clearly and, as a result, these data may be suitable to reconstruct past changes in cool-season moisture in Crater Lake National Park and across the broader southern Cascades.

  16. Grooming behavior in American cockroach is affected by novelty and odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskaya, Marianna I

    2014-01-01

    The main features of grooming behavior are amazingly similar among arthropods and land vertebrates and serve the same needs. A particular pattern of cleaning movements in cockroaches shows cephalo-caudal progression. Grooming sequences become longer after adaptation to the new setting. Novelty related changes in grooming are recognized as a form of displacement behavior. Statistical analysis of behavior revealed that antennal grooming in American cockroach, Periplaneta americana L., was significantly enhanced in the presence of odor.

  17. Rank-dependent grooming patterns and cortisol alleviation in Barbary macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnweber, Ruth S; Ravignani, Andrea; Stobbe, Nina; Schiestl, Gisela; Wallner, Bernard; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-06-01

    Flexibly adapting social behavior to social and environmental challenges helps to alleviate glucocorticoid (GC) levels, which may have positive fitness implications for an individual. For primates, the predominant social behavior is grooming. Giving grooming to others is particularly efficient in terms of GC mitigation. However, grooming is confined by certain limitations such as time constraints or restricted access to other group members. For instance, dominance hierarchies may impact grooming partner availability in primate societies. Consequently specific grooming patterns emerge. In despotic species focusing grooming activity on preferred social partners significantly ameliorates GC levels in females of all ranks. In this study we investigated grooming patterns and GC management in Barbary macaques, a comparably relaxed species. We monitored changes in grooming behavior and cortisol (C) for females of different ranks. Our results show that the C-amelioration associated with different grooming patterns had a gradual connection with dominance hierarchy: while higher-ranking individuals showed lowest urinary C measures when they focused their grooming on selected partners within their social network, lower-ranking individuals expressed lowest C levels when dispersing their grooming activity evenly across their social partners. We argue that the relatively relaxed social style of Barbary macaque societies allows individuals to flexibly adapt grooming patterns, which is associated with rank-specific GC management.

  18. Excessive grooming induced by somatostatin or its analog SMS 201-995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van; Maigret, C.; Krechting, B.

    1987-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of somatostatin or SMS 201-995 induces excessive grooming behavior in rats. The grooming inducing effect of somatostatin is rather weak, as doses of 300 ng or less did not result in increased total grooming scores. In contrast a dose of 10 ng SMS 201-9

  19. Lithostratigraphy, microlithofacies, and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), eastern Sadlerochit Mountains, Northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhardt, A.P.; Harris, A.G.; Watts, K.F. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Lisburne Group (chiefly Carboniferous) is a wide-spread succession of platform carbonate rocks that apparently developed along a south-facing passive continental margin in northern Alaska. Marine transgressions onlapped northward across northeast Alaska allowing the Lisburne platform to extend over terrigenous deposits of the Endicott Group and local pre-Mississippian paleotopographic highs. The Wahoo Limestone is the youngest formation of the Lisburne Group in northeasternmost Alaska, ranging from latest Mississippian (latest Chesterian) to Middle Pennsylvanian (at least early Atokan) in age. The Wahoo Limestone was systematically sampled for lithostratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies at a relatively continuous section (about 262 m in thickness) in the eastern Sadlerochit Mountains. Existing Carboniferous conodont zonations could not be readily applied to the study section because most zonal indicators are absent. Species diversity is low for a section that spans at least 10 million years. Twenty-four species, distributed among 14 genera, were identified in 72 productive samples; no new species were distinguished. The following biostratigraphic zones and faunal intervals were recognized: Upper muricatus Subzone (latest Chesterian); noduliferus-primus Zone (earliest Morrowan); minutus Fauna (Morrowan) containing a lower subdivision (lower minutus Fauna of early to middle? Morrowan age); and an Idiognathodus Fauna (Morrowan? to early Atokan). The presence of Idiognathodus incurvus? and Rhachistognathus minutus subspp. above the first occurrence of the foraminifer Pseudostaffella sp. in the uppermost part of the Wahoo Limestone indicates that the youngest beds are early Atokan in age. The Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary is placed at 56 m above the base of the lower member of the Wahoo Limestone on the basis of the lowest occurrence of Declinognathodus noduliferus japonicus above forms transitional from Gnathodus girtyl simplex.

  20. Deglaciation and postglacial environmental changes in the Teton Mountain Range recorded at Jenny Lake, Grand Teton National Park, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Darren J.; Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Abbott, Mark B.; Ofstun, Adam R.

    2016-04-01

    Sediments contained in lake basins positioned along the eastern front of the Teton Mountain Range preserve a continuous and datable record of deglaciation and postglacial environmental conditions. Here, we develop a multiproxy glacier and paleoenvironmental record using a combination of seismic reflection data and multiple sediment cores recovered from Jenny Lake and other nearby lakes. Age control of Teton lake sediments is established primarily through radiocarbon dating and supported by the presence of two prominent rhyolitic tephra deposits that are geochemically correlated to the widespread Mazama (∼7.6 ka) and Glacier Peak (∼13.6 ka) tephra layers. Multiple glacier and climate indicators, including sediment accumulation rate, bulk density, clastic sediment concentration and flux, organic matter (concentration, flux, δ13C, δ15N, and C/N ratios), and biogenic silica, track changes in environmental conditions and landscape development. Sediment accumulation at Jenny Lake began centuries prior to 13.8 ka and cores from three lakes demonstrate that Teton glacier extents were greatly reduced by this time. Persistent ice retreat in Cascade Canyon was slowed by an interval of small glacier activity between ∼13.5 and 11.5 ka, prior to the end of glacial lacustrine sedimentation ∼11.5 ka. The transition to non-glacial sediments marks the onset of Holocene conditions at Jenny Lake and reflects a shift toward warmer summers, increased vegetation cover, and landscape stability in the Tetons. We discuss the Teton lake sediment records within the context of other regional studies in an effort to construct a comprehensive overview of deglaciation and postglacial environmental conditions at Grand Teton National Park.

  1. Grooming Cybervictims: The Psychosocial Effects of Online Exploitation for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Ilene R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an overview of the benefits and risks of Web-based interactions for youth. Discusses, as an illustrative example, the psychosocial effects of online "grooming" practices that are designed to lure and exploit children by enticing them, typically in a nonsexual way, toward a sexual encounter. Suggests constructive solutions and a plan for…

  2. Pollen processing behavior of Heliconius butterflies: a derived grooming behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W

    2011-01-01

    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles.

  3. Grooming: over meerderjarigen die internet en jeugdigen misbruiken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Betoogd wordt dat de intentie van de dader bij grooming een nadrukkelijker rol zou moeten spelen dan thans het geval is. Het internet is voor jong en oud een plek waar veel tijd wordt doorgebracht. Zoals bekend beperken internetgebruikers zich niet tot goedaardige mensen, maar wordt cyberspace ook b

  4. Students' Rights in Mississippi on Matters of Dress and Grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Jerry H.

    In the past few years numerous cases have appeared before the courts concerning the dress and grooming of students. In many of these cases, the issue has been related to male students' hair length. Throughout the nation, conflicting trends have emerged from a legal point of view, and the issues remain largely unresolved. This paper discusses the…

  5. Assessing grooming behavior of Russian honey bees toward Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grooming behavior of Russian bees was compared to Italian bees. Overall, Russian bees had significantly lower numbers of mites than the Italian bees with a mean of 1,937 ± 366 and 5,088 ± 733 mites, respectively. This low mite population in the Russian colonies was probably due to the increased ...

  6. Pollen Processing Behavior of Heliconius Butterflies: A Derived Grooming Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles. PMID:22208893

  7. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Wernicke, B.P. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences

    1996-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections 3.2.1.5 through 3.2.1.9 and 3.2.2.8). These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses` ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

  8. 8-OH-DPAT inhibits both prandial and waterspray-induced grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, J E; Montgomery, A M J

    2008-09-01

    The effects of 8-OH-DPAT treatment on rat grooming behaviour, elicited either prandially or in response to spraying with water were investigated. Dose (grooming, body grooming, genital-grooming and resting) at 15 s intervals. In non-deprived rats, tested with wet mash available, feeding and activity frequencies were increased, but resting and total grooming were inhibited by 8-OH-DPAT. Face-, body- and genital-grooming occurred at higher levels than scratching, but all categories were reduced with reductions in scratching occurring at a lower dose (0.01 mg/kg). Misting rats with a fine water spray selectively increased body grooming and decreased activity without altering feeding, while 8-OH-DPAT increased feeding and reduced face-, body- and genital-grooming, without affecting already low levels of scratching. In misted rats, tested without food, 8-OH-DPAT reduced face-, body- and genital-grooming and increased resting. These results confirm i) that the water spray technique is a useful method for increasing grooming and ii) that 8-OH-DPAT has a suppressant effect on grooming independent of response competition from enhanced feeding.

  9. Grooming analysis algorithm: use in the relationship between sleep deprivation and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel N; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2013-03-01

    Increased anxiety is a classic effect of sleep deprivation. However, results regarding sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior are contradictory in rodent models. The grooming analysis algorithm is a method developed to examine anxiety-like behavior and stress in rodents, based on grooming characteristics and microstructure. This study evaluated the applicability of the grooming analysis algorithm to distinguish sleep-deprived and control rats in comparison to traditional grooming analysis. Forty-six animals were distributed into three groups: control (n=22), paradoxical sleep-deprived (96 h, n=10) and total sleep deprived (6 h, n=14). Immediately after the sleep deprivation protocol, grooming was evaluated using both the grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures (grooming latency, frequency and duration). Results showed that both paradoxical sleep-deprived and total sleep-deprived groups displayed grooming in a fragmented framework when compared to control animals. Variables from the grooming analysis algorithm were successful in distinguishing sleep-deprived and normal sleep animals regarding anxiety-like behavior. The grooming analysis algorithm and traditional measures were strongly correlated. In conclusion, the grooming analysis algorithm is a reliable method to assess the relationship between anxiety-like behavior and sleep deprivation.

  10. Captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) arm-raise to solicit allo-grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H; Edwards, Dori

    2012-03-01

    Old World monkeys solicit allo-grooming from conspecifics. However, there are relatively few studies of allo-grooming among spider monkeys, and descriptions of allo-grooming solicitation among spider monkeys are anecdotal. In this study, eighty-one hours of video, shot over eight weeks, captured 271 allo-grooming bouts among small groups of captive spider monkeys. Six of eight monkeys made heretofore unreported arm-raises that solicited higher than normal rates of allo-grooming. Allo-grooming bout durations following arm-raises also tended to be longer than bouts not preceded by arm-raises. The efficacy of the arm-raise at soliciting allo-grooming suggests spider monkeys are capable of intentional communication.

  11. The trade balance of grooming and its coordination of reciprocation and tolerance in Indonesian long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumert, Michael D; Ho, Moon-Ho R

    2008-07-01

    We collected data on grooming, proximity, and aggression in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan, Indonesia. We used this data to study how grooming influenced a receiver's (B) behavior towards the bout's initiator (A). In our first analysis, post-grooming samples were collected after A groomed B. These were compared to matched-control samples of similar conditions but A had not previously groomed B. This comparison was performed on 26 individuals (16 female, 3 male, 7 immature) and tested whether A's initial act of grooming increased the pair's time in proximity and the amount of time B groomed A. We also tested if A's grooming decreased B's aggression towards A per time in proximity. Rates of B-->A aggression per time in proximity with A for 39 individuals (18 female, 5 male, 16 immature) were compared between post-grooming and focal sample data. Finally, we studied 248 grooming bouts to test if the first two grooming episodes were time matched. We assessed the influence of age, sex, rank and inferred kinship on time matching, and controlled for individual variation and tendency to groom using a general linear mixed model. Our results showed that A-->B grooming acted to increase B-->A grooming and the pair's proximity, while lowering B-->A aggression. Despite these effects, episodes in grooming bouts were generally not matched, except weakly among similar partners (i.e., female pairs and immature pairs). Grooming imbalance was greatest across age-sex class (i.e., male-female and adult-immature pairs). In similar pairs, grooming duration was skewed in favor of high-ranking individuals. We conclude grooming established tolerance and increased the likelihood that grooming reciprocation would occur, but grooming durations were not typically matched within bouts. Lack of time matching may be the result of grooming that is performed to coordinate interchanges of other social services.

  12. The pivotal role of rank in grooming and support behaviour in a captive group of bonobos (Pan paniscus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaecke, H.; Vries, Han de; Elsacker, Linda van

    2000-01-01

    We investigated dyadic grooming relationships in a captive group of bonobos (Pan paniscus) and questioned what social function grooming fulfils in the ‘market of services and favors’. Hereto we examined which of two theoretical models - grooming for support (Seyfarth, 1977, 1980) or grooming accordi

  13. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren VanMaurik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM, orange-clawed males (OC and blue-clawed males (BC. The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which M. rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present.

  14. Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, E.A.; Tausch, R.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Although free-roaming equids occur on all of the world's continents except Antarctica, very few studies (and none in the Great Basin, USA) have either investigated their grazing effects on vegetation at more than one spatial scale or compared characteristics of areas from which grazing has been removed to those of currently grazed areas. We compared characteristics of vegetation at 19 sites in nine mountain ranges of the western Great Basin; sites were either grazed by feral horses (Equus caballus) or had had horses removed for the last 10-14 years. We selected horse-occupied and horse-removed sites with similar aspect, slope, fire history, grazing pressure by cattle (minimal to none), and dominant vegetation (Artemisia tridentata). During 1997 and 1998, line-intercept transects randomly located within sites revealed that horse-removed sites exhibited 1.1-1.9 times greater shrub cover, 1.2-1.5 times greater total plant cover, 2-12 species greater plant species richness, and 1.9-2.9 times greater cover and 1.1-2.4 times greater frequency of native grasses than did horse-occupied sites. In contrast, sites with horses tended to have more grazing-resistant forbs and exotic plants. Direction and magnitude of landscape-scale results were corroborated by smaller-scale comparisons within horse-occupied sites of horse-trail transects and (randomly located) transects that characterized overall site conditions. Information-theoretic analyses that incorporated various subsets of abiotic variables suggested that presence of horses was generally a strong determinant of those vegetation-related variables that differed significantly between treatments, especially frequency and cover of grasses, but also species richness and shrub cover and frequency. In contrast, abiotic variables such as precipitation, site elevation, and soil erodibility best predicted characteristics such as forb cover, shrub frequency, and continuity of the shrub canopy. We found species richness of plants

  15. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain basin and range. Final technical report, January 1980-March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  16. Evolution of fold-thrust belts and Cenozoic uplifting of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the Kuqa region, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lei; Li, Yue-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Ya; Tian, Zuo-Ji; Peng, Geng-Xin; Qiu, Bin; Huang, Zhi-Bin; Luo, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of the Kuqa fold-thrust belt is accompanied with the Cenozoic uplifting of South Tianshan Mountain range. The critical Coubomb wedge theory can be well applied to the structural evolution of the Kuqa fold-thrust belt where the décollement structures are well developed. Following the initial hypotheses of this theory, with the base of the taper wedge (not the sea level) as the reference level, we propose a geometric relationship between the evolution of fold-thrust belt and tectonic uplifting of orogen, and deduce a calculation formula between orogen tectonic uplifting amount (very different from the topographic uplifting) (∂H), fold-thrust belt extending distance (∂S) and crustal shortening amount (∂L): ∂H = (∂S - ∂L) ∗ tan(α + ∂α) + [tan(α + ∂α)/tanα - 1] ∗ H0. In this paper we select two representative seismic profiles across the Kuqa fold-thrust belt to reconstruct the structural evolution, and use the calculation formula to get the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in Kuqa region during two geological periods. The results showed: during the end of Miocene to the end of Pliocene, the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the middle segment of Kuqa (∂HM1) is 4.1 km; during the end of Pliocene to the present, the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the middle segment of Kuqa (∂HM2) is 4.7 km, and in the east segment of Kuqa (∂HE) is 5.0 km.

  17. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historica...

  18. Depositional framework and regional correlation of pre-Carboniferous metacarbonate rocks of the Snowden Mountain area, central Brooks Range, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Harris, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes lithofacies, conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies, and depositional environments of Proterozoic(?) through Devonian metacarbonate rocks in the Snowden Mountain area. These rocks are correlated with successions on the Seward Peninsula and across the Brooks Range. Lithologic and paleobiogeographic data suggest that these successions formed along a single continental margin which had faunal exchange with both North America and Siberia, rather than on a series of discrete platforms juxtaposed by later tectonic events.

  19. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  20. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  1. MODUS OPERANDI OF SEXUAL ABUSERS AND THEIR GROOMING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miraç Burak GÖNÜLTAŞ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse has detrimental effects on both psychological and sociological development of children. In recent years, attention of sexual abuse and abuser has increased because of missing and abducted children. According to literature, sexual abusers are more opportunist and agile than offenders of other crime types. Academic researches related to sexual absusers aim to understand how to sexual abusers groom children and their methods. Therefore these studies intend to prevent sexual abuse, because sexual abuse harms victim seriously and irreversibly. The present study is compilation in that the researches conducted in this field are gathered in context to modus operandi and sexual grooming. Thus, it aims to remark attention to this field and to present some proposal for the prevention of sexual abuse in our country

  2. Sex preferences in Jeju pony foals (Equus caballus) for mutual grooming and play-fighting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Jeong Rae; Srygley, Robert Baxter; Choe, Jae Chun

    2007-08-01

    We investigated mutual grooming by Jeju pony (Equus caballus) foals to determine whether male foals preferentially interact with potential future sexual partners or competitors. We predicted that relative to female foals, male foals would exchange grooming more frequently with young mares and that in general, foals would mutually groom more frequently with the opposite sex rather than the same sex. Observing 53 foals between April and October 1998, we recorded 113 mutual grooming events. Male foals exchanged grooming with yearling mares more frequently than with their mother, while female foals exchanged grooming with their mother more frequently than with yearling mares. Contrary to the prediction, foals were not more likely to mutually groom with a foal of the opposite sex than with a foal of the same sex. In our study, 21 instances of play-fighting behavior followed mutual grooming between peers. Relative to intersexual grooming events, play-fighting was more likely to follow intrasexual mutual grooming, and male foals were much more likely to play fight than female foals. These results provide evidence that Jeju pony foals develop and maintain social relationships at the earliest stage of their lives. We suggest that early social experiences might influence social bonding later when the male foal begins to form a harem after separation from its mother.

  3. M-Track: A New Software for Automated Detection of Grooming Trajectories in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Grooming is a complex and robust innate behavior, commonly performed by most vertebrate species. In mice, grooming consists of a series of stereotyped patterned strokes, performed along the rostro-caudal axis of the body. The frequency and duration of each grooming episode is sensitive to changes in stress levels, social interactions and pharmacological manipulations, and is therefore used in behavioral studies to gain insights into the function of brain regions that control movement execution and anxiety. Traditional approaches to analyze grooming rely on manually scoring the time of onset and duration of each grooming episode, and are often performed on grooming episodes triggered by stress exposure, which may not be entirely representative of spontaneous grooming in freely-behaving mice. This type of analysis is time-consuming and provides limited information about finer aspects of grooming behaviors, which are important to understand movement stereotypy and bilateral coordination in mice. Currently available commercial and freeware video-tracking software allow automated tracking of the whole body of a mouse or of its head and tail, not of individual forepaws. Here we describe a simple experimental set-up and a novel open-source code, named M-Track, for simultaneously tracking the movement of individual forepaws during spontaneous grooming in multiple freely-behaving mice. This toolbox provides a simple platform to perform trajectory analysis of forepaw movement during distinct grooming episodes. By using M-track we show that, in C57BL/6 wild type mice, the speed and bilateral coordination of the left and right forepaws remain unaltered during the execution of distinct grooming episodes. Stress exposure induces a profound increase in the length of the forepaw grooming trajectories. M-Track provides a valuable and user-friendly interface to streamline the analysis of spontaneous grooming in biomedical research studies. PMID:27636358

  4. M-Track: A New Software for Automated Detection of Grooming Trajectories in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon L Reeves

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Grooming is a complex and robust innate behavior, commonly performed by most vertebrate species. In mice, grooming consists of a series of stereotyped patterned strokes, performed along the rostro-caudal axis of the body. The frequency and duration of each grooming episode is sensitive to changes in stress levels, social interactions and pharmacological manipulations, and is therefore used in behavioral studies to gain insights into the function of brain regions that control movement execution and anxiety. Traditional approaches to analyze grooming rely on manually scoring the time of onset and duration of each grooming episode, and are often performed on grooming episodes triggered by stress exposure, which may not be entirely representative of spontaneous grooming in freely-behaving mice. This type of analysis is time-consuming and provides limited information about finer aspects of grooming behaviors, which are important to understand movement stereotypy and bilateral coordination in mice. Currently available commercial and freeware video-tracking software allow automated tracking of the whole body of a mouse or of its head and tail, not of individual forepaws. Here we describe a simple experimental set-up and a novel open-source code, named M-Track, for simultaneously tracking the movement of individual forepaws during spontaneous grooming in multiple freely-behaving mice. This toolbox provides a simple platform to perform trajectory analysis of forepaw movement during distinct grooming episodes. By using M-track we show that, in C57BL/6 wild type mice, the speed and bilateral coordination of the left and right forepaws remain unaltered during the execution of distinct grooming episodes. Stress exposure induces a profound increase in the length of the forepaw grooming trajectories. M-Track provides a valuable and user-friendly interface to streamline the analysis of spontaneous grooming in biomedical research studies.

  5. Friction force reduction triggers feet grooming behaviour in beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Naoe; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2011-06-01

    In insects, cleaning (grooming) of tarsal attachment devices is essential for maintaining their adhesive ability, necessary for walking on a complex terrain of plant surfaces. How insects obtain information on the degree of contamination of their feet has remained, until recently, unclear. We carried out friction force measurements on walking beetles Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and counted grooming occurrence on stiff polymer substrata with different degrees of nanoroughness (root mean square: 28-288 nm). Since nanoscopically, rough surfaces strongly reduced friction and adhesion without contaminating feet, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that friction force between tarsal attachment pads and the substrate provides an insect with information on the degree of contamination of its attachment structures. We have shown that foot grooming occurrence correlates not only with the degree of contamination but also with the decrease of friction force. This result indicates that insects obtain information about the degree of contamination, not statically but rather dynamically and, presumably, use mechanoreceptors monitoring either tensile/compressive forces in the cuticle or tensile forces between leg segments.

  6. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  7. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace M Meyer

    Full Text Available The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May and summer (September 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1 beetles (Coleoptera, (2 spiders (Araneae, (3 grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera, and (4 millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species and 76% (254 species of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests. Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon, significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  8. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve;

    2011-01-01

    , should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found...... that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous...... females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility...

  9. The effects of chronic social defeat stress on mouse self-grooming behavior and its patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Ashley; Tien, David; Wong, Keith; Chung, Amanda; Cachat, Jonathan; Goodspeed, Jason; Grimes, Chelsea; Elegante, Marco; Suciu, Christopher; Elkhayat, Salem; Bartels, Brett; Jackson, Andrew; Rosenberg, Michael; Chung, Kyung Min; Badani, Hussain; Kadri, Ferdous; Roy, Sudipta; Tan, Julia; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Stewart, Adam; Zapolsky, Ivan; Gilder, Thomas; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-04-01

    Stress induced by social defeat is a strong modifier of animal anxiety and depression-like phenotypes. Self-grooming is a common rodent behavior, and has an ordered cephalo-caudal progression from licking of the paws to head, body, genitals and tail. Acute stress is known to alter grooming activity levels and disrupt its patterning. Following 15-17 days of chronic social defeat stress, grooming behavior was analyzed in adult male C57BL/6J mice exhibiting either dominant or subordinate behavior. Our study showed that subordinate mice experience higher levels of anxiety and display disorganized patterning of their grooming behaviors, which emerges as a behavioral marker of chronic social stress. These findings indicate that chronic social stress modulates grooming behavior in mice, thus illustrating the importance of grooming phenotypes for neurobehavioral stress research.

  10. Is human conversation more efficient than chimpanzee grooming? : Comparison of clique sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M

    2000-09-01

    Clique sizes for chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) grooming and for human conversation are compared in order to test Robin Dunbar's hypothesis that human language is almost three times as efficient a bonding mechanism as primate grooming. Recalculation of the data provided by Dunbar et al. (1995) reveals that the average clique size for human conversation is 2.72 whereas that of chimpanzee grooming is shown to be 2.18. The efficiency of human conversation and actual chimpanzee grooming over Dunbar's primate grooming model (always one-to-one and a one-way interaction) is 1.27 and 1.25, respectively, when we take role alternation into account. Chimpanzees can obtain about the same efficiency as humans in terms of quantity of social interactions because their grooming is often mutual and polyadic.

  11. A Grooming Nodes Optimal Allocation Method for Multicast in WDM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengying Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The grooming node has the capability of grooming multicast traffic with the small granularity into established light at high cost of complexity and node architecture. In the paper, a grooming nodes optimal allocation (GNOA method is proposed to optimize the allocation of the grooming nodes constraint by the blocking probability for multicast traffic in sparse WDM networks. In the proposed GNOA method, the location of each grooming node is determined by the SCLD strategy. The improved smallest cost largest degree (SCLD strategy is designed to select the nongrooming nodes in the proposed GNOA method. The simulation results show that the proposed GNOA method can reduce the required number of grooming nodes and decrease the cost of constructing a network to guarantee a certain request blocking probability when the wavelengths per fiber and transmitter/receiver ports per node are sufficient for the optical multicast in WDM networks.

  12. Unilateral Lesion of Dopamine Neurons Induces Grooming Asymmetry in the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Assunta; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Hervé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Grooming behaviour is the most common innate behaviour in animals. In rodents, it consists of sequences of movements organized in four phases, executed symmetrically on both sides of the animal and creating a syntactic chain of behavioural events. The grooming syntax can be altered by stress and novelty, as well as by several mutations and brain lesions. Grooming behaviour is known to be affected by alterations of the dopamine system, including dopamine receptor modulation, dopamine alteration in genetically modified animals, and after brain lesion. While a lot is known about the initiation and syntactic modifications of this refined sequence of movements, effects of unilateral lesion of dopamine neurons are unclear particularly regarding the symmetry of syntactic chains. In the present work we studied grooming in mice unilaterally lesioned in the medial forebrain bundle by 6-hydroxydopamine. We found a reduction in completion of grooming bouts, associated with reduction in number of transitions between grooming phases. The data also revealed the development of asymmetry in grooming behaviour, with reduced tendency to groom the contralateral side to the lesion. Symmetry was recovered following treatment with L-DOPA. Thus, the present work shows that unilateral lesion of dopamine neurons reduces self-grooming behaviour by affecting duration and numbers of events. It produces premature discontinuation of grooming chains but the sequence syntax remains correct. This deficient grooming could be considered as an intrinsic symptom of Parkinson's disease in animal models and could present some similarities with abnormalities of motor movement sequencing seen in patients. Our study also suggests grooming analysis as an additional method to screen parkinsonism in animal models.

  13. Short-term costs and benefits of grooming in Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Alessandrini, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the short-term consequences of giving grooming in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in order to obtain information on its immediate costs and benefits. Giving grooming was associated with increased aggression received from groomees and decreased aggression received from third parties (but only as long as the groomer maintained proximity to the groomee). Grooming was also associated with decreased scratching rates. These results emphasize the unpredictable outcome of individual grooming interactions and the difficulties of social decision-making for monkeys living in despotic societies.

  14. Exchanging grooming, but not tolerance and aggression in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Manciocco, Arianna; Vitale, Augusto; Schino, Gabriele

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the reciprocal exchanges of grooming, tolerance and reduced aggression in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), a cooperatively breeding primate whose groups are typically characterized by uniformly high genetic relatedness and high interdependency between group members. Both partner control and partner choice processes played a role in the reciprocal exchanges of grooming. In contrast, we did not find any evidence of reciprocity between grooming and tolerance over a preferred food source or between grooming and reduced aggression. Thus, reciprocity seems to play a variable role in the exchange of cooperative behaviors in marmosets.

  15. Grooming network cohesion and the role of individuals in a captive chimpanzee group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Sueur, Cédric; Riedl, Katrin; Grossmann, Johannes; Call, Josep

    2011-08-01

    Social network analysis offers new tools to study the social structure of primate groups. We used social network analysis to investigate the cohesiveness of a grooming network in a captive chimpanzee group (N = 17) and the role that individuals may play in it. Using data from a year-long observation, we constructed an unweighted social network of preferred grooming interactions by retaining only those dyads that groomed above the group mean. This choice of criterion was validated by the finding that the properties of the unweighted network correlated with the properties of a weighted network (i.e. a network representing the frequency of grooming interactions) constructed from the same data. To investigate group cohesion, we tested the resilience of the unweighted grooming network to the removal of central individuals (i.e. individuals with high betweenness centrality). The network fragmented more after the removal of individuals with high betweenness centrality than after the removal of random individuals. Central individuals played a pivotal role in maintaining the network's cohesiveness, and we suggest that this may be a typical property of affiliative networks like grooming networks. We found that the grooming network correlated with kinship and age, and that individuals with higher social status occupied more central positions in the network. Overall, the grooming network showed a heterogeneous structure, yet did not exhibit scale-free properties similar to many other primate networks. We discuss our results in light of recent findings on animal social networks and chimpanzee grooming.

  16. Self-grooming induced by sexual chemical signals in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Honghao; Yue, Pengpeng; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Xinquan

    2010-03-01

    Sniffing is one-way animals collect chemical signals, and many males self-groom when they encounter the odor of opposite-sex conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas). Specifically, we investigated the sniffing pattern of male root voles in response to odors from the head, trunk, and tail areas of lactating and non-lactating females. The self-grooming behavior of males in response to female individual odorant stimuli was documented, and the relationship between self-grooming and sniffing of odors from the head, trunk, and tails areas were analyzed. Sniffing pattern results showed that males are most interested in odors from the head area, and more interested in odors from the tail as compared to the trunk area. Males displayed different sniffing and self-grooming behaviors when they were exposed to odors from lactating females as compared to non-lactating females. Males also spent more time sniffing and engaged in more sniffing behaviors in response to odors from the lactating females' tail area as compared to the same odors from non-lactating females. Similarly, males spent more time self-grooming and engaged in more self-grooming behaviors in the presence of individual odors from lactating females as compared to individual odors from non-lactating females. Partial correlation analyses revealed that the frequency of self-grooming was significantly correlated with the frequency of tail area sniffs. Results from this experiment suggest that sexual attractiveness of lactating females is stronger than that of non-lactating females. Furthermore, the partial correlation analysis demonstrated that self-grooming in males is induced by odors from the tail area of females. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles. Self-grooming may also reflect the

  17. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALYA SUBASINGHE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five habitat types (two natural habitats: Sub-montane forest and Pitawala Patana grassland; three modified habitats: cardamom, pinus and abandoned tea plantations in Northern Flank of KMFR using birds as the indicator group. Bird communities were surveyed using point count method. A total of 1,150 individuals belonging to 56 species were observed. The highest species richness was reported from the cardamom plantation where as sub-montane forest had the highest feeding guild diversity in terms of Shannon Weiner index. The abandoned tea plantation and the Pitawala Patana grasslands with fairly open habitats, showed relatively lower levels of feeding guild diversities. It is clear that the structurally complex habitats contribute more to the area’s biological and functional diversities and need to be taken into consideration when developing conservation plans.

  18. Rank and grooming reciprocity among females in a mixed-sex group of captive hamadryas baboons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinfelder, I.; Vries, Han de; Deleu, R.; Nelissen, M.

    2001-01-01

    In a mixed-sex, captive group of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) we investigated whether female grooming relationships are affected by their dominance ranks. Seyfarths [1977] grooming for support model and Barrett et al.s [1999] biological market model both predict that in primate grou

  19. Wild Vervet Monkeys Trade Tolerance and Specific Coalitionary Support for Grooming in Experimentally Induced Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgeaud, Christèle; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-11-16

    Grooming is a key social behavior in many primate species. Research has focused on three important aspects: the short- and long-term trading patterns of grooming for itself and/or for other commodities like tolerance or coalitionary support, the issue of whether exchanges are a convincing example for reciprocity, and what decision rules underlie trading. These issues remain largely unresolved due to the correlative nature of observational studies and the rarity of experimental studies. Here, we present a new experimental paradigm to address these questions in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). Adult females were first trained to approach a personal box, identifiable by unique color patterns, to access high-quality food. During the experiments, two boxes were placed next to each other to induce conflict through forced proximity. We found that while dominants were generally more tolerant toward bonded individuals, recent grooming increased tolerance independently of relationship quality. The latter result shows that vervet monkeys traded grooming for short-term tolerance, where dominants used a direct-reciprocity decision rule. In contrast, females invariably supported the higher-ranking opponent in a conflict, independently of who was the recent grooming partner. Nevertheless, recent grooming increased the probability that a female supported the partner during conflicts with a low-ranking third party. Thus, females' decisions about coalitionary support seem to integrate information about the current social hierarchy with recent grooming events. In conclusion, decision rules underlying trading of grooming for other commodities involve a variety of timescales and factors.

  20. Potential translational targets revealed by linking mouse grooming behavioral phenotypes to gene expression using public databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Andrew; Kyzar, Evan J; Cachat, Jonathan; Stewart, Adam Michael; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; O'Leary, Timothy P; Tabakoff, Boris; Brown, Richard E; Kalueff, Allan V

    2013-01-10

    Rodent self-grooming is an important, evolutionarily conserved behavior, highly sensitive to pharmacological and genetic manipulations. Mice with aberrant grooming phenotypes are currently used to model various human disorders. Therefore, it is critical to understand the biology of grooming behavior, and to assess its translational validity to humans. The present in-silico study used publicly available gene expression and behavioral data obtained from several inbred mouse strains in the open-field, light-dark box, elevated plus- and elevated zero-maze tests. As grooming duration differed between strains, our analysis revealed several candidate genes with significant correlations between gene expression in the brain and grooming duration. The Allen Brain Atlas, STRING, GoMiner and Mouse Genome Informatics databases were used to functionally map and analyze these candidate mouse genes against their human orthologs, assessing the strain ranking of their expression and the regional distribution of expression in the mouse brain. This allowed us to identify an interconnected network of candidate genes (which have expression levels that correlate with grooming behavior), display altered patterns of expression in key brain areas related to grooming, and underlie important functions in the brain. Collectively, our results demonstrate the utility of large-scale, high-throughput data-mining and in-silico modeling for linking genomic and behavioral data, as well as their potential to identify novel neural targets for complex neurobehavioral phenotypes, including grooming.

  1. Grooming relationships between breeding females and adult group members in cooperatively breeding moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löttker, Petra; Huck, Maren; Zinner, Dietmar P; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2007-10-01

    Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. In this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also helpers profit from staying in a group and assisting in infant care due to the accumulation of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We examined grooming relationships of breeding females with three classes of partners (breeding males, potentially breeding males, (sub)adult non-breeding offspring) during three reproductive phases (post-partum ovarian inactivity, ovarian activity, pregnancy) in two groups of wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). We investigated whether grooming can be used to regulate group size by either "pay-for-help" or "pay-to-stay" mechanisms. Grooming of breeding females with breeding males and non-breeding offspring was more intense and more balanced than with potentially breeding males, and most grooming occurred during the breeding females' pregnancies. Grooming was skewed toward more investment by the breeding females with breeding males during the phases of ovarian activity, and with potentially breeding males during pregnancies. Our results suggest that grooming might be a mechanism used by female moustached tamarins to induce mate association with the breeding male, and to induce certain individuals to stay in the group and help with infant care.

  2. Female snub-nosed monkeys exchange grooming for sex and infant handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    Full Text Available Allogrooming in primates has acquired an important social function beyond its original hygienic function and can be exchanged either for itself or used as a currency to obtain other benefits such as copulations, access to infants or agonistic support. We explore the strategic use of grooming as a social tool in semi-wild golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana in central China, a species where two desirable resources, viz. reproductive males and infants, are restricted to the mating and birth season, respectively. We predict that females expend their grooming selectively to different individuals according to their "value". Our results show that in the mating season, females devoted more grooming to the resident male than in the birth season, and this effect was particularly strong in non-mothers (females without newborn infants. Moreover, females were more likely to groom the resident male after copulation than during baseline social conditions. In the birth season, females devoted more grooming to other females than in the mating season, and mothers (females with newborn infants were the most valuable grooming partners. The mean rate of contact by non-mothers toward infants of other females was significantly higher after grooming the mothers than in baseline social conditions. In conclusion, our findings lend credence to the notion that primate females use grooming as a strategic tool to obtain limited resources such as males and infants and vary preference for particular individuals depending on the seasonal availability of valuable resources.

  3. Female snub-nosed monkeys exchange grooming for sex and infant handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Yao, Hui; Grueter, Cyril C; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming in primates has acquired an important social function beyond its original hygienic function and can be exchanged either for itself or used as a currency to obtain other benefits such as copulations, access to infants or agonistic support. We explore the strategic use of grooming as a social tool in semi-wild golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in central China, a species where two desirable resources, viz. reproductive males and infants, are restricted to the mating and birth season, respectively. We predict that females expend their grooming selectively to different individuals according to their "value". Our results show that in the mating season, females devoted more grooming to the resident male than in the birth season, and this effect was particularly strong in non-mothers (females without newborn infants). Moreover, females were more likely to groom the resident male after copulation than during baseline social conditions. In the birth season, females devoted more grooming to other females than in the mating season, and mothers (females with newborn infants) were the most valuable grooming partners. The mean rate of contact by non-mothers toward infants of other females was significantly higher after grooming the mothers than in baseline social conditions. In conclusion, our findings lend credence to the notion that primate females use grooming as a strategic tool to obtain limited resources such as males and infants and vary preference for particular individuals depending on the seasonal availability of valuable resources.

  4. [Graphic registration of grooming behavior and its parameters in rat ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepekhina, L M; Voskresenskiĭ, V O

    1991-10-01

    Ontogenic development of grooming behaviour (washing, scratching, lacking, shake down) by using precise graphic recording was studied. For this reason actograph with crystal pickup and electroencephalograph were used. A rhythmic phase of grooming behaviour is formed gradually, reaching the adult level up to the period in 16-17 days.

  5. Differential gene expression associated with honey bee grooming behavior in response to varroa mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) grooming behavior is an important mechanism of resistance against the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. This research was conducted to study associations between grooming behavior and the expression of selected immune, neural, detoxification, developmental and health-relat...

  6. Contributions of local sources, long-range and mountain wind transport for aerosols over an eastern Himalayan high-altitude station in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Singh, Ajay; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Das, Sanat

    A long-term study (2010-2013) on aerosols mass concentrations (PM2.5), number concentrations of size segregated aerosols and mass concentration of total suspended black carbon aerosols has been made over Darjeeling (27.01 N, 88.15 E), a high altitude (2200 m asl) station at eastern Himalaya in India. Seasonal and diurnal variation of all types of aerosols, their chemical composition and source apportionment revealed that aerosols over this part of Himalaya are mainly of two types; locally generated and long-range transported aerosols. The diurnal variation of aerosols including black carbon showed distinct feature of up-slope mountain wind transport mainly during premonsoon (Mar-May) which brings aerosol particles from low land regions. This present study focuses on the estimation of the individual contributions from local emissions (LE), long-range transport (LRT) and mountain wind transport (MWT) towards the total aerosol loading over Darjeeling. Several strike events (called by local political party) were observed at Darjeeling over the entire period of study (2008-2013) when all the local activities (schools, colleges, offices, vehicular, industrial etc) were stopped fully. Most of the strike events occurred during premonsoon. We have observed three types of events during premonsoon over the entire study period; 1) strike events with the contribution of LRT+MWT with zero local emissions (LE=0), 2) normal days with the contribution of LE+LRT+MWT, 3) normal days with the contribution of LE+MWT with zero long-range contribution (LRT=0). On normal days, the diurnal variation of aerosols during premonsoon showed sharp morning and evening peaks associated to local anthropogenic activities with the effect of up-slope mountain wind during afternoon. During strike events, the morning and evening peaks were absent but a broad peak was observed during afternoon associated to up-slope mountain wind. The increase in aerosol concentrations during afternoon on strike days

  7. Grooming-at-a-distance by exchanging calls in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlet, Malgorzata; Jubin, Ronan; Masataka, Nobuo; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-10-01

    The 'social bonding hypothesis' predicts that, in large social groups, functions of gestural grooming should be partially transferred to vocal interactions. Hence, vocal exchanges would have evolved in primates to play the role of grooming-at-a-distance in order to facilitate the maintenance of social cohesion. However, there are few empirical studies testing this hypothesis. To address this point, we compared the rate of contact call exchanges between females in two captive groups of Japanese macaques as a function of female age, dominance rank, genetic relatedness and social affinity measured by spatial proximity and grooming interactions. We found a significant positive relationship between the time spent on grooming by two females and the frequency with which they exchanged calls. Our results conform to the predictions of the social bonding hypothesis, i.e. vocal exchanges can be interpreted as grooming-at-a-distance.

  8. [Relationships between ectoparasites and grooming behavior of Tylonycteris pachypus and T. robustula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Biao; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Tang, Zhan-Hui; Hong, Ti-Yu

    2013-12-01

    Grooming behavior is evolved in animals in response to the costs associated with ectoparasites. In this study, ecotparasite densities and grooming behavior-including licking and scratching-of wild-caught lesser bamboo bat (Tylonycteris pachypus) and greater bamboo bat (T. robustula) were analyzed. The results indicated that both the frequencies and durations of licking were higher than those of scratching in both bat species, though T. pachypus licked more but scratched less than T. robustula. There were no difference in the durations of licking and scratching between the two bat species, and the durations and frequencies of grooming behavior of the two bat species were irrelevant with ectoparasite densities. These findings suggest that the grooming behavior of T. pachypus and T. robustula might be modulated by both the central control (programmed grooming) model and the peripheral stimulation (stimulus driven) model.

  9. Male-driven grooming bouts in mixed-sex dyads of Kinda baboons (Papio kindae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyher, Anna H; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Fourrier, Marc S; Jolly, Clifford J

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the Central African Kinda baboon (Papio kindae) is not well documented. Having previously noted distinctive grooming behavior in several Kinda baboon populations, we investigated the topic more systematically in the Kafue National Park, Zambia. We recorded the duration and details of male-female dyadic interactions (approaches, withdrawals and time spent grooming) in the early morning and late afternoon. Such interactions were more often initiated by the male and terminated by the female partner. The male groomed the female more often, and longer, than she groomed him, regardless of the female's reproductive state or the presence of an infant. The bias towards male grooming was stronger in morning than evening interactions. These behaviors, whose function is not immediately obvious, and which are unlike those previously reported in baboons, further exemplify the distinctiveness of the taxon.

  10. The effects of grooming on a copper ablative coating: a six year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribou, Melissa; Swain, Geoffrey

    2017-07-01

    More than 90% of US Navy Ships are coated with copper ablative paint. These ships may spend long periods of time pier-side, which makes them vulnerable to fouling. Hull grooming has been proposed as a means of maintaining the coatings in an operational condition. This study investigated the effect of grooming on a copper ablative coating exposed statically for six years. Grooming was performed weekly or monthly with controls left ungroomed. The fouling community was visually assessed, dry film thickness measurements were taken to monitor coating loss, and the copper leaching rates were measured. It was found that weekly and monthly groomed surfaces reduced fouling, and the ungroomed surfaces became fully fouled. Coating loss was similar for weekly, monthly and ungroomed surfaces. The results suggest that grooming is a viable method for maintaining copper ablative coatings in a fouling-free condition without adverse increases in the total copper output.

  11. Neurobiology of rodent self-grooming and its value for translational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V; Stewart, Adam Michael; Song, Cai; Berridge, Kent C; Graybiel, Ann M; Fentress, John C

    2016-01-01

    Self-grooming is a complex innate behaviour with an evolutionarily conserved sequencing pattern and is one of the most frequently performed behavioural activities in rodents. In this Review, we discuss the neurobiology of rodent self-grooming, and we highlight studies of rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders--including models of autism spectrum disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder--that have assessed self-grooming phenotypes. We suggest that rodent self-grooming may be a useful measure of repetitive behaviour in such models, and therefore of value to translational psychiatry. Assessment of rodent self-grooming may also be useful for understanding the neural circuits that are involved in complex sequential patterns of action.

  12. Effect of serotonergic and catecholaminergic antagonists on mild-stress-induced excessive grooming in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Echandía, E L; Broitman, S T; Fóscolo, M R

    1983-12-01

    Excessive grooming was induced in male rats by two ip injections of physiological saline. This mild stressful procedure did not modify open-field locomotion in 5-min trials. Methysergide (15 mg/kg) and pizotifene (5 mg/kg), serotonergic blockers, selectively prevented the grooming response to saline without affecting locomotion. Haloperidol (.4 mg/kg) also prevented the excessive grooming. However, this dopaminergic blocker impaired locomotion. The alpha- or beta-adrenoceptor antagonists phentolamine (20 mg/kg) and l-propranolol (20 mg/kg) did not prevent the excessive grooming in response to saline and did not affect locomotion. The results suggest that some serotonergic pathways in the brain are involved in the grooming response to a mild stress and support previous findings on the role of dopaminergic systems on this activity.

  13. Exploitability of construction materials in the calcareous dorsal of the Haouz Mountain range in the region of Tangier-Tetouan, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellero, Hatim; El Kharim, Younes

    2017-05-01

    This study constitutes a geospatial approach to determining the exploitability of the carbonate formations of the Haouz Mountain range in the Tangier-Tetouan region of northern Morocco, for the purpose of the production of construction material, using geographic information system (GIS) tools. The method employed in this study starts by outlining the limits of the study area, based on the geological character of the exploitable deposits. Then, we proceeded to identify the environmental and land use factors that would normally constrict the quarrying activity. The idea is to create multiple ;constraint maps;, one for each related group of element that can hinder that type of activity, with various degrees of impact for each map. Finally we opted to weigh these constraint maps and combine them in order to produce one simplistic ;exploitability map; for the aggregate exploration industries in the area. The resulting map can be utilised in the future as base for the creation of a management plan for the mining industries in the sector of the Haouz Mountains.

  14. Mouthpart grooming behavior in honeybees: Kinematics and sectionalized friction between foreleg tarsi and proboscises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linghu, Zelin; Wu, Jianing; Wang, Changlong; Yan, Shaoze

    2015-11-01

    The mouthpart of a honeybee is prone to contamination by granular particles such as pollen or dirt from the field. To clean the contaminated mouthparts, a honeybee swings its foreleg tarsi forward and backward to brush the proboscis continuously, sweeping the contaminant from the surfaces of the labial palpi, galeae, and bushy haired tongue (glossa). This grooming behavior has been documented but the dynamic characteristics therein have not been investigated yet. We quantified the grooming behavior of a honeybee from the perspective of kinematic and tribological properties. We captured high-speed videos that recorded the mouthpart grooming patterns of honeybees from the front and side views and measured the friction on the grooming surfaces using a precision dynamometer. During grooming, a honeybee first positions the mouthpart and then places a pair of foreleg tarsi to the tubular-folded galea. The tarsi press the galea and labial palpi and slide downward while keeping close contact with the galea. Then, the hairy glossa stretches out of the temporary tube with the glossa setae erected. The tarsi slowly slide down when grooming the glossa. In the return stroke of grooming, the foreleg tarsi detach from the mouthpart and retreat swiftly. Friction analysis shows that the honeybees can coordinate the velocity of the foreleg tarsi to the sectionalized tribological property of the tarsus-mouthpart interface. The specific grooming pattern enables honeybees to save energy and resist wear, resulting in a possible highly evolved grooming strategy. These findings lead to further understanding of the honeybee's grooming behavior facilitated by the special motion kinematics and friction characteristics.

  15. Water spray-induced grooming is negatively correlated with depressive behavior in the forced swimming test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Noboru; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Masuda, Akira; Aou, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    Rodents show grooming, a typical self-care behavior, under stress and non-stress conditions. Previous studies revealed that grooming under stress conditions such as the open-field test (OFT) or the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) is associated with anxiety, but the roles of grooming under non-stress conditions are not well understood. Here, we examined spray-induced grooming as a model of grooming under a non-stress condition to investigate the relationship between this grooming and depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test, and we compared spray-induced grooming with OFT- and EPM-induced grooming. The main finding was that the duration of spray-induced grooming, but not that of OFT/EPM-induced grooming, was negatively correlated with the duration of immobility in the FST, an index of depression-like behavior. The results suggest that spray-induced grooming is functionally different from the grooming in the OFT and EPM and is related to reduction of depressive behavior.

  16. Use of past precipitation data for regionalisation of hourly rainfall in the low mountain ranges of Saxony, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pluntke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of flood forecasting we deal with the improvement of regionalisation methods for the generation of highly resolved (1 h, 1×1km2 precipitation fields, which can be used as input for rainfall-runoff models or for verification of weather forecasts. Although radar observations of precipitation are available in many regions, it might be necessary to apply regionalisation methods near real-time for the cases that radar is not available or observations are of low quality.

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether past precipitation information can be used to improve regionalisation of rainfall. Within a case study we determined typical precipitation Background-Fields (BGF for the mountainous and hilly regions of Saxony using hourly and daily rain gauge data. Additionally, calibrated radar data served as past information for the BGF generation. For regionalisation of precipitation we used de-trended kriging and compared the results with another kriging based regionalisation method and with Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW. The performance of the methods was assessed by applying cross-validation, by inspection and by evaluation with rainfall-runoff simulations.

    The regionalisation of rainfall yielded better results in case of advective events than in case of convective events. The performance of the applied regionalisation methods showed no significant disagreement for different precipitation types. Cross-validation results were rather similar in most cases. Subjectively judged, the BGF-method reproduced best the structures of rain cells. Precipitation input derived from radar or kriging resulted in a better matching between observed and simulated flood hydrographs. Simple techniques like IDW also deliver satisfying results in some occasions. Implementation of past radar data into the BGF-method rendered no improvement, because of data shortages. Thus, no method proved to outperform the others

  17. Survey of foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eTaft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine’s distribution, (‒:(+-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine’s range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  18. Alternate Routing in Tandem Traffic-Groomed Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Nicki Washington

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in telecommunication networks have allowed WDM to emerge as a viable solution to the ever-increasing demands of the Internet. Because these networks carry large amounts of traffic, alternate routing methods are designed in order to allow traffic to be properly re-routed from source to destination in the event of certain events, such as link blocking or failure. In this paper, we consider a tandem traffic-groomed optical network, modeled as a multi-level overflow system, where each level represents a wavelength between adjacent nodes. The queueing network is analyzed using a combination of methods. As will be shown, the decomposition method provides a good approximate analysis of large overflow systems supporting traffic from multiple sources.

  19. ATLAS Standard Model Measurements Using Jet Grooming and Substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Ucchielli, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Boosted topologies allow to explore Standard Model processes in kinematical regimes never tested before. In such LHC challenging environments, standard reconstruction techniques quickly hit the wall. Targeting hadronic final states means to properly reconstruct energy and multiplicity of the jets in the event. In order to be able to identify the decay product of boosted objects, i.e. W bosons, $t\\bar{t}$ pairs or Higgs produced in association with $t\\bar{t}$ pairs, ATLAS experiment is currently exploiting several algorithms using jet grooming and jet substructure. This contribution will mainly cover the following ATLAS measurements: $t\\bar{t}$ differential cross section production and jet mass using the soft drop procedure. Standard Model measurements offer the perfect field to test the performances of new jet tagging techniques which will become even more important in the search for new physics in highly boosted topologies.”

  20. Melanocortin MC(4) receptor-mediated feeding and grooming in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Joram D; Spruijt, Berry M; Brakkee, Jan H; Adan, Roger A H

    2013-11-01

    Decades ago it was recognized that the pharmacological profile of melanocortin ligands that stimulated grooming behavior in rats was strikingly similar to that of Xenopus laevis melanophore pigment dispersion. After cloning of the melanocortin MC1 receptor, expressed in melanocytes, and the melanocortin MC4 receptor, expressed mainly in brain, the pharmacological profiles of these receptors appeared to be very similar and it was demonstrated that these receptors mediate melanocortin-induced pigmentation and grooming respectively. Grooming is a low priority behavior that is concerned with care of body surface. Activation of central melanocortin MC4 receptors is also associated with meal termination, and continued postprandial stimulation of melanocortin MC4 receptors may stimulate natural postprandial grooming behavior as part of the behavioral satiety sequence. Indeed, melanocortins fail to suppress food intake or induce grooming behavior in melanocortin MC4 receptor-deficient rats. This review will focus on how melanocortins affect grooming behavior through the melanocortin MC4 receptor, and how melanocortin MC4 receptors mediate feeding behavior. This review also illustrates how melanocortins were the most likely candidates to mediate grooming and feeding based on the natural behaviors they induced.

  1. Anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats: grooming microstructure and elevated plus maze tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nin, Maurício S; Couto-Pereira, Natividade S; Souza, Marilise F; Azeredo, Lucas A; Ferri, Marcelo K; Dalprá, Walesca L; Gomez, Rosane; Barros, Helena M T

    2012-06-01

    Grooming behavior is an adaptation to a stressful environment that can vary in accordance with stress intensity. Direct and indirect GABA(A) receptor agonists decrease duration, frequency, incorrect transitions and uninterrupted bouts of grooming. Hormonal variation during the different phases of the estrous cycle of female rats also changes the grooming behavior. It is known that GABA(A) agonists and endogenous hormones change anxiety-like behaviors observed in the elevated plus maze test, a classical animal model of anxiety. This study was designed to determine the anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats in different estrous phases and to correlate anxiety behaviors in the elevated plus maze and grooming microstructure tests. Our results show that female rats displayed higher anxiety-like behavior scores during the estrus and proestrus phases in the elevated plus maze and that clonazepam (0.25 mg/kg; i.p.) had an anxiolytic effect that was independent of the estrous phase. Grooming behaviors were higher in the proestrus phase but were decreased by clonazepam administration, independent of the estrous phase, demonstrating the anxiolytic effect of this drug in both animal models. Grooming behaviors were moderately associated with anxiolytic-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze test. Here, we describe the anxiolytic effect of clonazepam and the influence of estrous phase on anxiety. Moreover, we show that the grooming microstructure test is a useful tool for detecting anxiolytic-like behaviors in rats.

  2. Automated classification of self-grooming in mice using open-source software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boom, Bastijn J G; Pavlidi, Pavlina; Wolf, Casper J H; Mooij, Adriana H; Willuhn, Ingo

    2017-09-01

    Manual analysis of behavior is labor intensive and subject to inter-rater variability. Although considerable progress in automation of analysis has been made, complex behavior such as grooming still lacks satisfactory automated quantification. We trained a freely available, automated classifier, Janelia Automatic Animal Behavior Annotator (JAABA), to quantify self-grooming duration and number of bouts based on video recordings of SAPAP3 knockout mice (a mouse line that self-grooms excessively) and wild-type animals. We compared the JAABA classifier with human expert observers to test its ability to measure self-grooming in three scenarios: mice in an open field, mice on an elevated plus-maze, and tethered mice in an open field. In each scenario, the classifier identified both grooming and non-grooming with great accuracy and correlated highly with results obtained by human observers. Consistently, the JAABA classifier confirmed previous reports of excessive grooming in SAPAP3 knockout mice. Thus far, manual analysis was regarded as the only valid quantification method for self-grooming. We demonstrate that the JAABA classifier is a valid and reliable scoring tool, more cost-efficient than manual scoring, easy to use, requires minimal effort, provides high throughput, and prevents inter-rater variability. We introduce the JAABA classifier as an efficient analysis tool for the assessment of rodent self-grooming with expert quality. In our "how-to" instructions, we provide all information necessary to implement behavioral classification with JAABA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Egalitarian despots: hierarchy steepness, reciprocity and the grooming-trade model in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2015-01-01

    Biological market theory models the action of natural selection as a marketplace in which animals are viewed as traders with commodities to offer and exchange. Studies of female Old World monkeys have suggested that grooming might be employed as a commodity to be reciprocated or traded for alternative services, yet previous tests of this grooming-trade model in wild adult male chimpanzees have yielded mixed results. Here we provide the strongest test of the model to date for male chimpanzees: we use data drawn from two social groups (communities) of chimpanzees from different populations and give explicit consideration to variation in dominance hierarchy steepness, as such variation results in differing conditions for biological markets. First, analysis of data from published accounts of other chimpanzee communities, together with our own data, showed that hierarchy steepness varied considerably within and across communities and that the number of adult males in a community aged 20-30 years predicted hierarchy steepness. The two communities in which we tested predictions of the grooming-trade model lay at opposite extremes of this distribution. Second, in accord with the grooming-trade model, we found evidence that male chimpanzees trade grooming for agonistic support where hierarchies are steep (despotic) and consequent effective support is a rank-related commodity, but not where hierarchies are shallow (egalitarian). However, we also found that grooming was reciprocated regardless of hierarchy steepness. Our findings also hint at the possibility of agonistic competition, or at least exclusion, in relation to grooming opportunities compromising the free market envisioned by biological market theory. Our results build on previous findings across chimpanzee communities to emphasize the importance of reciprocal grooming exchanges among adult male chimpanzees, which can be understood in a biological markets framework if grooming by or with particular individuals is a

  4. Spatiotemporal characteristics and synchronization of extreme rainfall in South America with focus on the Andes Mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Niklas; Bookhagen, Bodo; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The South American Andes are frequently exposed to intense rainfall events with varying moisture sources and precipitation-forming processes. In this study, we assess the spatiotemporal characteristics and geographical origins of rainfall over the South American continent. Using high-spatiotemporal resolution satellite data (TRMM 3B42 V7), we define four different types of rainfall events based on their (1) high magnitude, (2) long temporal extent, (3) large spatial extent, and (4) high magnitude, long temporal and large spatial extent combined. In a first step, we analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of these events over the entire South American continent and integrate their impact for the main Andean hydrologic catchments. Our results indicate that events of type 1 make the overall highest contributions to total seasonal rainfall (up to 50 %). However, each consecutive episode of the infrequent events of type 4 still accounts for up to 20 % of total seasonal rainfall in the subtropical Argentinean plains. In a second step, we employ complex network theory to unravel possibly non-linear and long-ranged climatic linkages for these four event types on the high-elevation Altiplano-Puna Plateau as well as in the main river catchments along the foothills of the Andes. Our results suggest that one to two particularly large squall lines per season, originating from northern Brazil, indirectly trigger large, long-lasting thunderstorms on the Altiplano Plateau. In general, we observe that extreme rainfall in the catchments north of approximately 20°S typically originates from the Amazon Basin, while extreme rainfall at the eastern Andean foothills south of 20°S and the Puna Plateau originates from southeastern South America.

  5. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  6. An expeditious risk analysis of intense rainfall events in low mountain ranges of Central German Uplands under the aspect of a sustainable and decentralised flood retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertermann, D.; Bialas, C.; Zacherl, A.

    2012-04-01

    Due to increasing settlement pressure, intensifying pressure as a result of the utilisation of flood-threatened surfaces and also in consequence of the climate change with its effects even on local scales an accumulation of flood events is to be expected. Areas that have not been influenced by flood events in the past, like low mountain ranges, can certainly be affected in the near future. Against this background applicable solution and adjustment strategies are required in practice to mitigate such events or to even prevent them. The key aim of the research activities is the development of a standardised and expeditious risk analysis of intense rainfall events in low mountain ranges of Central German Uplands under the aspect of sustainable and decentralised flood retention and protection. Hydrologic characteristics, expressed by the 'run-off-coefficient' and the 'surface roughness', for clearly defined biotope types of German low mountain ranges should be derived with the help of already existing standardised soil/utilisation/vegetation units. According to the current state-of-the-art of flood models land use changes do not have great impact on the slow-flowing, large flood events in widespread watersheds. On the contrary, small, swift-flowing floods in small watersheds can be influenced by land use or management changes. Thus, the focus of the research work is aimed on these small quick flood events. However, also differentiated information for the solution of flood problems in large watersheds can be reached by the summation of statements about small watersheds. The development of a standardised planning method (incl. the GI-System implementation) for the optimization of the drain regulation serves for the reduction of the flood danger. Land use and vegetation is so optimised in adaptation to soil and land management and by taking into account prevailing drain roads that an essential contribution to the regulation of the surface run-off can be performed. The

  7. Distributed Grooming in Multi-Domain IP/MPLS-DWDM Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qing [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This paper studies distributed multi-domain, multilayer provisioning (grooming) in IP/MPLS-DWDM networks. Although many multi-domain studies have emerged over the years, these have primarily considered 'homogeneous' network layers. Meanwhile, most grooming studies have assumed idealized settings with 'global' link state across all layers. Hence there is a critical need to develop practical distributed grooming schemes for real-world networks consisting of multiple domains and technology layers. Along these lines, a detailed hierarchical framework is proposed to implement inter-layer routing, distributed grooming, and setup signaling. The performance of this solution is analyzed in detail using simulation studies and future work directions are also high-lighted.

  8. [The development of grooming in the ontogeny of rats and mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviderskaia, G E; Dmitrieva, L E

    1993-01-01

    Experiments have been made on rats and mice within the first month of postnatal life. Common age dynamics of grooming reactions for these animals was shown which consists of a sharp intensification of grooming movements at the 3rd week, i.e. at the period of "behavioral arousal", as well as of heterochronous onset of different types of movements which results from successive maturation of the brain structures in which rhythmic centres of these movements are located. Quantitative differences in grooming of rats and mice are presumably due to ecological peculiarities of these animals. Periodic pattern of realization of grooming, as well as the parameters of its rhythmic components suggests that stereotype behavioural reactions are governed by mechanisms of autorhythmic excitation which are typical for the early stages of the development of the nervous system.

  9. Beta-endorphin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of monkeys are influenced by grooming relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keverne, E B; Martensz, N D; Tuite, B

    1989-01-01

    Social relationships are integral to the behaviour of many mammalian species. Primates are unusual in that their social relationships are extensive within groups, which often contain many reproductively active males and females. Several hypotheses have been forwarded to explain the ultimate causation of primate sociality. While attention has focused on grooming as a proximate factor influencing social relationships, the neural basis of such behaviour has not been investigated in monkeys. This report presents changes in the brain's opioid system contingent on grooming in monkeys. Opiates themselves have a feedback interaction with grooming behaviour, as revealed from the administration of opiate agonists and antagonists. Opiate receptor blockade increases the motivation to be groomed, while morphine administration decreases it. These data support the view that brain opioids play an important role in mediating social attachment and may provide the neural basis on which primate sociality has evolved.

  10. Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nízke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak K.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the Nízke Tatry Mountains(Slovakia, is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within anarrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontalcave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surroundingthe cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the Nízke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, wasuplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation ofnumerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout theQuaternary.In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonateranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C andO stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (δ13C: 0.72 to 6.34 ‰, δ18O: –22.61 to –13.68 ‰ V-PDB and the negative relationbetween δ13C and δ18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC. Publishedmodels suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably duringtransitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in thesequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.7±2.3, 104.0±2.9, and180.0±6.3 ka are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one caveduring two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian.

  11. Group size, grooming and fission in primates: a modeling approach based on group structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Petit, Odile; Couzin, Iain D

    2011-03-21

    In social animals, fission is a common mode of group proliferation and dispersion and may be affected by genetic or other social factors. Sociality implies preserving relationships between group members. An increase in group size and/or in competition for food within the group can result in decrease certain social interactions between members, and the group may split irreversibly as a consequence. One individual may try to maintain bonds with a maximum of group members in order to keep group cohesion, i.e. proximity and stable relationships. However, this strategy needs time and time is often limited. In addition, previous studies have shown that whatever the group size, an individual interacts only with certain grooming partners. There, we develop a computational model to assess how dynamics of group cohesion are related to group size and to the structure of grooming relationships. Groups' sizes after simulated fission are compared to observed sizes of 40 groups of primates. Results showed that the relationship between grooming time and group size is dependent on how each individual attributes grooming time to its social partners, i.e. grooming a few number of preferred partners or grooming equally or not all partners. The number of partners seemed to be more important for the group cohesion than the grooming time itself. This structural constraint has important consequences on group sociality, as it gives the possibility of competition for grooming partners, attraction for high-ranking individuals as found in primates' groups. It could, however, also have implications when considering the cognitive capacities of primates.

  12. RESEARCHES ON GROOMING BEHAVIOR OF THE DAMCALF COUPLE DURING THE FIRST WEEK AFTER CALVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. TRIPON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the maternal behavior during the first week after calving. Researches were carried out during the winter season on Romanian Black and White breed dam-calf couples. The behavior of calves and their mothers was nonstop video recorded during the first, second and seventh day after calving. For a better interpretation the recorded material was divided in three periods for every 24 hours of surveillance: 07:00 to 15:00, 15:00 to 23:00, and 23:00 to 07:00. Calves received attention from their mothers in 18 to 33 grooming periods during the first day after calving. The number of grooming periods decreased to 6 – 15 periods per day in the seventh day after calving. The total length of grooming periods also decreased from the first day to the seventh day after calving from 26.5 minutes to 7.4 minutes on each 8-hour time frame. There were also contacts between mother cows and their calves that were not followed by grooming (sniffing. The number of contacts without grooming was higher during the first two days after calving and decreased on the seventh day after calving. During the first week of life calves received, 55.6 minutes per day of care from their mothers, and there were, on average, 8.1 contacts without grooming between mothers and calves.

  13. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success.

  14. The mouse who couldn't stop washing: pathologic grooming in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feusner, Jamie D; Hembacher, Emily; Phillips, Katharine A

    2009-09-01

    The basic science literature is replete with descriptions of naturally occurring or experimentally induced pathological grooming behaviors in animals, which are widely considered animal models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These animal models rely largely on observed similarities between animal behaviors and human OCD behaviors, and on studies of animal pathological grooming disorders that respond to serotonin enhancing drugs. However, current limitations in assessment of complex cognition and affect in animals precludes the field's ability to match the driving primary processes behind observable phenomenology in animal "OCD" with human behavioral disorders. We propose that excessive grooming behaviors in animals may eventually prove to be equally, or possibly more relevant to, other conditions in humans that involve pathological grooming or grooming-like behaviors, such as trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder, olfactory reference syndrome, compulsive skin-picking, and onychophagia. Research is needed to better understand pathological grooming behaviors in both humans and animals, as animal models have the potential to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and inform the treatment of these psychiatric conditions in humans.

  15. Collisional Grooming Models of the Kuiper Belt Dust Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, Marc J

    2010-01-01

    We modeled the 3-D structure of the Kuiper Belt dust cloud at four different dust production rates, incorporating both planet-dust interactions and grain-grain collisions using the collisional grooming algorithm. Simulated images of a model with a face-on optical depth of ~10^-4 primarily show an azimuthally-symmetric ring at 40-47 AU in submillimeter and infrared wavelengths; this ring is associated with the cold classical Kuiper Belt. For models with lower optical depths (10^-6 and 10^-7), synthetic infrared images show that the ring widens and a gap opens in the ring at the location of of Neptune; this feature is caused by trapping of dust grains in Neptune's mean motion resonances. At low optical depths, a secondary ring also appears associated with the hole cleared in the center of the disk by Saturn. Our simulations, which incorporate 25 different grain sizes, illustrate that grain-grain collisions are important in sculpting today's Kuiper Belt dust, and probably other aspects of the Solar System dust c...

  16. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  17. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  18. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  19. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafe Brown

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces, northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province, as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province, combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%. The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning. This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  20. Chemical similarity between historical and novel host plants promotes range and host expansion of the mountain pine beetle in a naïve host ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Ma, Cary; Whitehouse, Caroline; Shan, Bin; Najar, Ahmed; Evenden, Maya

    2014-02-01

    Host plant secondary chemistry can have cascading impacts on host and range expansion of herbivorous insect populations. We investigated the role of host secondary compounds on pheromone production by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) and beetle attraction in response to a historical (lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and a novel (jack pine, Pinus banksiana) hosts, as pheromones regulate the host colonization process. Beetles emit the same pheromones from both hosts, but more trans-verbenol, the primary aggregation pheromone, was emitted by female beetles on the novel host. The phloem of the novel host contains more α-pinene, a secondary compound that is the precursor for trans-verbenol production in beetle, than the historical host. Beetle-induced emission of 3-carene, another secondary compound found in both hosts, was also higher from the novel host. Field tests showed that the addition of 3-carene to the pheromone mixture mimicking the aggregation pheromones produced from the two host species increased beetle capture. We conclude that chemical similarity between historical and novel hosts has facilitated host expansion of MPB in jack pine forests through the exploitation of common host secondary compounds for pheromone production and aggregation on the hosts. Furthermore, broods emerging from the novel host were larger in terms of body size.

  1. Chemical composition and aerosol size distribution of the middle mountain range in the Nepal Himalayas during the 2009 pre-monsoon season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shrestha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particle number size distribution and chemical composition were measured at two low altitude sites, one urban and one relatively pristine valley, in Central Nepal during the 2009 pre-monsoon season (May–June. This is the first time that aerosol size distribution and chemical composition were measured simultaneously at lower elevation in the Middle Himalayan region in Nepal. The aerosol size distribution was measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, 14~340 nm, and the chemical composition of the filter samples collected during the field campaign was analyzed in the laboratory. Teflon membrane filters were used for ion chromatography (IC and water-soluble organic carbon and nitrogen analysis. Quartz fiber filters were used for organic carbon and elemental carbon analysis. Multi-lognormal fits to the measured aerosol size distribution indicated a consistent larger mode around 100 nm which is usually the oldest, most processed background aerosol. The smaller mode was located around 20 nm, which is indicative of fresh but not necessarily local aerosol. The diurnal cycle of the aerosol number concentration showed the presence of two peaks (early morning and evening, during the transitional period of boundary layer growth and collapse. The increase in number concentration during the peak period was observed for the entire size distribution. Although the possible contribution of local emissions in size ranges similar to the larger mode cannot be completely ruled out, another plausible explanation is the mixing of aged elevated aerosol in the residual layer during the morning period as suggested by previous studies. Similarly, the evening time concentration peaks when the boundary layer becomes shallow concurrent with increase in local activity. A decrease in aerosol number concentration was observed during the nighttime with the development of cold (downslope mountain winds that force the low level warmer air in the valley to

  2. Sediment delivery and lake dynamics in a Mediterranean mountain watershed: Human-climate interactions during the last millennium (El Tobar Lake record, Iberian Range, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Brown, Erik; Moreno, Ana; Morellón, Mario; Abbott, Mark; Hillman, Aubrey; Giralt, Santiago; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2015-11-15

    Land degradation and soil erosion are key environmental problems in Mediterranean mountains characterized by a long history of human occupation and a strong variability of hydrological regimes. To assess recent trends and evaluate climatic and anthropogenic impacts in these highly human modified watersheds we apply an historical approach combining lake sediment core multi-proxy analyses and reconstructions of past land uses to El Tobar Lake watershed, located in the Iberian Range (Central Spain). Four main periods of increased sediment delivery have been identified in the 8m long sediment sequence by their depositional and geochemical signatures. They took place around 16th, late 18th, mid 19th and early 20th centuries as a result of large land uses changes such as forest clearing, farming and grazing during periods of increasing population. In this highly human-modified watershed, positive synergies between human impact and humid periods led to increased sediment delivery periods. During the last millennium, the lake depositional and geochemical cycles recovered quickly after each sediment delivery event, showing strong resilience of the lacustrine system to watershed disturbance. Recent changes are characterized by large hydrological affections since 1967 with the construction of a canal from a nearby reservoir and a decreased in anthropic pressure in the watershed as rural areas were abandoned. The increased fresh water influx to the lake has caused large biological changes, leading to stronger meromictic conditions and higher organic matter accumulation while terrigenous inputs have decreased. Degradation processes in Iberian Range watersheds are strongly controlled by anthropic activities (land use changes, soil erosion) but modulated by climate-related hydrological changes (water availability, flood and runoff frequency).

  3. Alterations in grooming activity and syntax in heterozygous SERT and BDNF knockout mice: the utility of behavior-recognition tools to characterize mutant mouse phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Pham, Mimi; Roth, Andrew; Cachat, Jonathan; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are key modulators of molecular signaling, cognition and behavior. Although SERT and BDNF mutant mouse phenotypes have been extensively characterized, little is known about their self-grooming behavior. Grooming represents an important behavioral domain sensitive to environmental stimuli and is increasingly used as a model for repetitive behavioral syndromes, such as autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The present study used heterozygous ((+/-)) SERT and BDNF male mutant mice on a C57BL/6J background and assessed their spontaneous self-grooming behavior applying both manual and automated techniques. Overall, SERT(+/-) mice displayed a general increase in grooming behavior, as indicated by more grooming bouts and more transitions between specific grooming stages. SERT(+/-) mice also aborted more grooming bouts, but showed generally unaltered activity levels in the observation chamber. In contrast, BDNF(+/-) mice displayed a global reduction in grooming activity, with fewer bouts and transitions between specific grooming stages, altered grooming syntax, as well as hypolocomotion and increased turning behavior. Finally, grooming data collected by manual and automated methods (HomeCageScan) significantly correlated in our experiments, confirming the utility of automated high-throughput quantification of grooming behaviors in various genetic mouse models with increased or decreased grooming phenotypes. Taken together, these findings indicate that mouse self-grooming behavior is a reliable behavioral biomarker of genetic deficits in SERT and BDNF pathways, and can be reliably measured using automated behavior-recognition technology.

  4. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with a long-range transported biomass burning plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L. J.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2015-05-01

    Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m above mean sea level on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory is located ~ 3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon, and inorganic ions. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 ± 0.7 μg m-3. On average, organic aerosol components represent the largest mass fraction of the total measured aerosol (60 ± 51%), followed by sulfate (23 ± 28%), nitrate (13 ± 10%), chloride (2 ± 3%), and elemental carbon (2 ± 2%). Water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas had unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. FLEXPART retroplume analyses showed the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). These aged aerosol WSOM compounds had an average O/C ratio of ~ 0.45, which is relatively low compared to O/C ratios of other aged aerosol. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in the WSOM and with the morphology and mixing state of particles as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of markers characteristic of aqueous-phase reactions of phenolic species suggests

  5. Measurement of groomed jet mass in PbPb and pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the groomed jet mass ($M_g$) normalized by the jet transverse momentum ($p_\\text{T}^\\text{jet}$) for anti-$k_\\text{T}$ jets with the radius parameter $0.4$ in PbPb and pp collisions at a center of mass energy of $5.02\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ per nucleon pair is presented. The jet grooming algorithm is a recursive procedure which sequentially removes soft constituents of a jet until a pair of hard subjets is found. The results of this grooming can be used to study modifications to partons and their evolution while traversing the hot and dense medium created in heavy ion collisions, via small angle splitting of quarks and gluons insie the jet cores. The CMS detector at the LHC is used to perform this analysis for $p_\\text{T}^\\text{jet}$ between 140 and $300\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$ and pseudo-rapidity less than 1.3 in both PbPb and pp collisions, and for a range of PbPb collision centralities. The measurements in pp collisions are compared to predictions from the PYTHIA and HERWIG++ event generators and agreement...

  6. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with long range transported biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dzepina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m a.m.s.l. on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory (38°28'15'' N; 28°24'14'' W is located ∼3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances, mainly from North America. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon and inorganic ion species. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 μg m−3; on average organic aerosol contributes the majority of mass (57%, followed by sulfate (21% and nitrate (17%. Filter-collected aerosol measurements were positively correlated (with an r2 ≥ 0.80 with continuous aerosol measurements of black carbon, aerosol light scattering and number concentration. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC species extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25 collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. FLEXPART retroplume analysis shows the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days. Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100–1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas have unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. These aged WSOC compounds have an average O / C ratio of ∼0.45, which is relatively low compared to O / C ratios of other aged aerosol and might be the result of evaporation and increased fragmentation during long-range transport. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers

  7. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with long range transported biomass burning plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2014-09-01

    Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m a.m.s.l. on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory (38°28'15'' N; 28°24'14'' W) is located ∼3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances, mainly from North America. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon and inorganic ion species. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 μg m-3; on average organic aerosol contributes the majority of mass (57%), followed by sulfate (21%) and nitrate (17%). Filter-collected aerosol measurements were positively correlated (with an r2 ≥ 0.80) with continuous aerosol measurements of black carbon, aerosol light scattering and number concentration. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) species extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. FLEXPART retroplume analysis shows the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas have unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. These aged WSOC compounds have an average O / C ratio of ∼0.45, which is relatively low compared to O / C ratios of other aged aerosol and might be the result of evaporation and increased fragmentation during long-range transport. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in

  8. Differentiation in stag beetles, Neolucanus swinhoei complex (Coleoptera: Lucanidae): four major lineages caused by periodical Pleistocene glaciations and separation by a mountain range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Lung; Wan, Xia; Yeh, Wen-Bin

    2014-09-01

    Taxonomic debates on Neolucanus swinhoei complex consisting of N. swinhoei, N. doro doro, N. doro horaguchii, and N. euganiae, distributed exclusively in Taiwan, have been ongoing for several decades because of their overlapping morphological characters. To clarify their taxonomic status and phylogeographical history, we analyzed nine morphological characteristics and four molecular amplicons. Phylogenetic inferences based on COI+16S rDNA+wingless showed one eastern and three western lineages, with the latter consisting of one low-hill and two montane lineages. Intermingled DNA sequences from different populations within each lineage, many low FST values, and a high variance component between lineages indicate the possibility of gene flow among populations. However, positive relationships were observed between the genetic divergences of 16S rDNA and its FST values with geographic distance. A divergence estimation based on COI+16S revealed that these beetles might have originated from Asian mainland and differentiated into western and eastern lineages ca. 1Mya, with the differentiation of the western lineages occurring approximately 0.50-0.75Mya. Isolation by mountain ranges and limited flying capability of these beetles as well as populations retreat to and expansion from refugia in response to glaciation cycles have resulted in the current distribution of N. swinhoei complex. Although most morphological characters are variable and undistinguishable, multi-dimensional scaling analysis based on measurable characteristics could recognize hill N. swinhoei as a cluster distinct from the others. However, based on the realities of genetic admixture, shared phylogeographical history and overlapping characteristics, all of these stag beetles should be regarded as Neolucanus swinhoei Bates, 1866.

  9. Reactivity, interactions and transport of trace elements, organic carbon and particulate material in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point, David; Bareille, Gilles; Amouroux, David; Etcheber, Henri; Donard, Olivier F X

    2007-02-01

    The background levels, variability, partitioning and transport of eleven trace elements-Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and U-were investigated in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France). This particular river system displayed a turbulent hydrodynamic regime, characterized by flash-transient discharge conditions leading to fast shifts in suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations as high as two orders of magnitude (12 to 600 mg l(-1)). The distribution of SPM was accurately predicted with a "hysteresis" transport model, indicating that about 75% of the annual solids load was exported within 20 to 40 days. Dissolved and particulate concentrations of most trace elements were low compared to their concentrations in other reference river systems expect for Pb and Cr, associated with historical anthropogenic activities. Although dissolved and particulate metal concentrations were steady for most elements during low and average discharge conditions, significant changes were observed with increasing river discharge. The changes in trace element concentrations in the two compartments was found to induce a partitioning anomaly referred to as the particulate concentration effect. This anomaly was significant for Cr, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu and organic carbon (p < 0.03). The processes driving this anomaly were possibly linked to the modification and/or increase of colloidal organic and inorganic vectors, suggested by the significant increase of DOC (p < 0.001) and dissolved Al concentrations (p < 0.05) during flood conditions. A complementary process linked to the influence of coarse particles of low complexation capacity and transported mainly during high discharge may also effect trace element concentrations. Annual metal fluxes transported by this river system were estimated using the hysteresis SPM model with consideration of these fate processes. Metals in the Adour River system are primarily exported into the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean).

  10. Mineral and Vegetation Maps of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada, Generated from ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2010-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were analyzed to identify and map minerals, vegetation groups, and volatiles (water and snow) in support of geologic studies of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada. Digital mineral and vegetation mapping results are presented in both portable document format (PDF) and ERDAS Imagine format (.img). The ERDAS-format files are suitable for integration with other geospatial data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. The ERDAS files showing occurrence of 1) iron-bearing minerals, vegetation, and water, and 2) clay, sulfate, mica, carbonate, Mg-OH, and hydrous quartz minerals have been attributed according to identified material, so that the material detected in a pixel can be queried with the interactive attribute identification tools of GIS and image processing software packages (for example, the Identify Tool of ArcMap and the Inquire Cursor Tool of ERDAS Imagine). All raster data have been orthorectified to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection using a projective transform with ground-control points selected from orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper data and a digital elevation model from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (1/3 arc second, 10 m resolution). Metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standards for all ERDAS-format files have been included, and contain important information regarding geographic coordinate systems, attributes, and cross-references. Documentation regarding spectral analysis methodologies employed to make the maps is included in these cross-references.

  11. Cluster analyses of 20th century growth patterns in high elevation Great Basin bristlecone pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T. J.; Bruening, J. M.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a useful climate proxy because of the species' long lifespan (up to 5000 years) and the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Past studies have shown that growth of individual trees can be limited by temperature, soil moisture, or a combination of the two depending on biophysical setting at the scale of tens of meters. We extend recent research suggesting that trees vary in their growth response depending on their position on the landscape to analyze how growth patterns vary over time. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to examine the growth of 52 bristlecone pine trees near the treeline of Mount Washington, Nevada, USA. We classified growth of individual trees over the instrumental climate record into one of two possible scenarios: trees belonging to a temperature-sensitive cluster and trees belonging to a precipitation-sensitive cluster. The number of trees in the precipitation-sensitive cluster outnumbered the number of trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster, with trees in colder locations belonging to the temperature-sensitive cluster. When we separated the temporal range into two sections (1895-1949 and 1950-2002) spanning the length of the instrumental climate record, we found that most of the 52 trees remained loyal to their cluster membership (e.g., trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster in 1895-1949 were also in the temperature sensitive cluster in 1950-2002), though not without exception. Of those trees that do not remain consistent in cluster membership, the majority changed from temperature-sensitive to precipitation-sensitive as time progressed. This could signal a switch from temperature limitation to water limitation with warming climate. We speculate that topographic complexity in high mountain environments like Mount Washington might allow for climate refugia where growth response could remain constant over the Holocene.

  12. Yew matriarchies of the Sierra de Francia. Dynamics and ecology of recently identified Yew populations in the Central Iberian Mountain Range (Sistema Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudencio Fernández-González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Our study design presents two main objectives: 1 to create a census that details the number of yew individuals and their geographic distribution, and 2 to attempt to unravel possible reproductive relationships and their connection between true population nuclei and meta-population models.Area of study: Recently identified yew populations (Taxus baccata L. were studied in the western sector of the Sistema Central mountain range of theIberian Peninsula, known as the Sierra de Francia. The study was carried out in five watersheds within Las Batuecas-Sierra de Francia Natural Park.Material and Methods: All yew specimens were counted and assigned to age groups. The notable differences observed in regeneration aof these communities propitiates population analysis aimed at explaining the landscape connectivity relationships between the different population nuclei and the possibility of defining the meta-population set. Ecological niche models were also created to define the main ecological characteristics of the different subpopulations studied, and to compare them.Main results: Yew in the Sierra de Francia live in an array of different Mediterranean forests, indicative of species dynamics in theIberian Peninsula. 2,450 specimens were recorded and classified into the three types of yew forest population dynamics: regressional-, naturally regenerating-, and incipient- (i.e.  colonizing new territories.Research highlights: The essential role of connectivity between populations was recognized and confirmed in this study, specifically among the large female trees located at the headwaters. Based on the role of these female trees, we have created a model called “yew matriarchies”, which serves to express the relevance of large female yew trees in population dynamics.Keywords: Taxus baccata; census; connectivity; seed dispersal.

  13. Understand mountain studies from earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Sichuan earthquake on 12 May was the most devastating one to hit China over the past 60 years or so. As the affected were mostly mountainous areas, serious damages were caused by various secondary disasters ranging from mountain collapse to the formation of quake lakes. This leaves Prof. DENG Wei, director-general of the Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS, much to think about, and he is calling for strengthening studies on mountain science.

  14. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonellakoehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W; Borgo, Gina M; Stuckey, Matthew J; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-Chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined.

  15. A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Andrew M; Ravbar, Primoz; Chung, Phuong; Hampel, Stefanie; Midgley, Frank M; Mensh, Brett D; Simpson, Julie H

    2014-08-19

    Motor sequences are formed through the serial execution of different movements, but how nervous systems implement this process remains largely unknown. We determined the organizational principles governing how dirty fruit flies groom their bodies with sequential movements. Using genetically targeted activation of neural subsets, we drove distinct motor programs that clean individual body parts. This enabled competition experiments revealing that the motor programs are organized into a suppression hierarchy; motor programs that occur first suppress those that occur later. Cleaning one body part reduces the sensory drive to its motor program, which relieves suppression of the next movement, allowing the grooming sequence to progress down the hierarchy. A model featuring independently evoked cleaning movements activated in parallel, but selected serially through hierarchical suppression, was successful in reproducing the grooming sequence. This provides the first example of an innate motor sequence implemented by the prevailing model for generating human action sequences.

  16. The critical effect of social grooming costs on structures of social relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    The number of possible social relationships a single human being can be involved in is limited, and the distribution of strengths of such relationships show significant skew. This skewness suggests that costs and benefits of the social interactions required to bond with others (social grooming) depend on the strength of the social relationships: if it involved uniform costs and benefits, the distribution would not be skew. In this paper, we show that the cost of social grooming increases with the strength of social relationships, and its gradient increases the width and shallowness of these relationships as evident from an analysis of data from six communication systems. We show that narrow and deep social relationships require higher costs per relationship than do wide and shallow ones, using a comparison with a null model where social grooming costs were assumed to be independent of the strength of social relationships. This may be due to increase in communication volumes, such as number of characters and d...

  17. Dynamic Protection-at-Lightpath Algorithms in Traffic-Grooming WDM Mesh Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HERongxi; WENHaibo; LILemin

    2005-01-01

    Under the constraints of the number of transceivers per node and wavelength continuity, we investigate the problem of provisioning Protection-at-lightpath (PAL) level for connections with different bandwidth granularities in traffic-grooming WDM mesh networks. We first develop a new Protection graph model (PGM) to represent current state of the network, i.e., the information about transceivers, wavelengths, protected lightpath, bandwidth, etc. We then present two grooming policies for PAL, which are called Minimal wavelength-link policy (MWP) and Minimal transceiver policy (MTP). Based on the PGM, we propose two dynamic PAL algorithms with MWP and MTP respectively, which are called Minimal wavelength-link method (MWM) and Minimal transceiver method (MTM). At last we compare the performance of MWM and MTM with other methods utilizing different grooming policies presented in previous literatures via simulations. Our results show that MWM and MTM outperform other methods significantly and MWM has a better performance than MTM.

  18. Analysis of single-hop traffic grooming in mesh WDM optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chunsheng; Qiao, Chunming; Dixit, Sudhir

    2003-10-01

    Traffic grooming is a significant task in internetworking between an optical wavelength-routed core network that supplies "pipes" at the wavelength-granularity, and the attached client (e.g., IP) networks that usually require connections of sub-wavelength granularity. The focus of this study is to develop a theoretical performance analysis model for online traffic grooming in mesh optical networks. This paper first briefly discusses the difficulty in applying the analytic models developed for circuit-switched networks (including wavelength-routed optical networks) to the traffic grooming problem. It then develops a link blocking model based on the continuous time Markov chain and queueing theory, and finally conducts end-to-end performance analysis based on the Erlang fixed-point approximation. The results obtained from the analytic model are shown to match well with numerical results obtained from simulations.

  19. Judgement bias in goats (Capra hircus): investigating the effects of human grooming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Animal emotional states can be investigated by evaluating their impact on cognitive processes. In this study, we used a judgement bias paradigm to determine if short-term positive human-animal interaction (grooming) induced a positive affective state in goats. We tested two groups of goats and trained them to discriminate between a rewarded and a non-rewarded location over nine training days. During training, the experimental group (n = 9) was gently groomed by brushing their heads and backs for five min over 11 days (nine training days, plus two testing days, total time 55 min). During training, the control group (n = 10) did not experience any direct interaction with the experimenter, but was kept unconstrained next to him for the same period of time. After successful completion of the training, the responses (latency time) of the two groups to reach ambiguous locations situated between the two reference locations (i.e., rewarded/non-rewarded) were compared over two days of testing. There was not a positive bias effect after the animals had been groomed. In a second experiment, 10 goats were tested to investigate whether grooming induced changes in physiological activation (i.e., heart rate and heart rate variability). Heart rate increased when goats were groomed compared to the baseline condition, when the same goats did not receive any contact with the experimenter. Also, subjects did not move away from the experimenter, suggesting that the grooming was positively accepted. The very good care and the regular positive contacts that goats received from humans at the study site could potentially account for the results obtained. Good husbandry outcomes are influenced by animals’ perception of the events and this is based on current circumstances, past experiences and individual variables. Taking into account animals’ individual characteristics and identifying effective strategies to induce positive emotions could increase the understanding and reliability of

  20. Zfp462 deficiency causes anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Zheng, Y; Shi, H; Du, X; Zhang, Y; Wei, B; Luo, M; Wang, H; Wu, X; Hua, X; Sun, M; Xu, X

    2017-02-01

    Zfp462 is a newly identified vertebrate-specific zinc finger protein that contains nearly 2500 amino acids and 23 putative C2H2-type zinc finger domains. So far, the functions of Zfp462 remain unclear. In our study, we showed that Zfp462 is expressed predominantly in the developing brain, especially in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions from embryonic day 7.5 to early postnatal stage. By using a piggyBac transposon-generated Zfp462 knockout (KO) mouse model, we found that Zfp462 KO mice exhibited prenatal lethality with normal neural tube patterning, whereas heterozygous (Het) Zfp462 KO (Zfp462(+/-) ) mice showed developmental delay with low body weight and brain weight. Behavioral studies showed that Zfp462(+/-) mice presented anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming and hair loss, which were similar to the pathological grooming behaviors in Hoxb8 KO mice. Further analysis of grooming microstructure showed the impairment of grooming patterning in Zfp462(+/-) mice. In addition, the mRNA levels of Pbx1 (pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 1, an interacting protein of Zfp462) and Hoxb8 decreased in the brains of Zfp462(+/-) mice, which may be the cause of anxiety-like behaviors. Finally, imipramine, a widely used and effective anti-anxiety medicine, rescued anxiety-like behaviors and excessive self-grooming in Zfp462(+/-) mice. In conclusion, Zfp462 deficiency causes anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming in mice. This provides a novel genetic mouse model for anxiety disorders and a useful tool to determine potential therapeutic targets for anxiety disorders and screen anti-anxiety drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  1. Judgement bias in goats (Capra hircus): investigating the effects of human grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciadonna, Luigi; Nawroth, Christian; McElligott, Alan G

    2016-01-01

    Animal emotional states can be investigated by evaluating their impact on cognitive processes. In this study, we used a judgement bias paradigm to determine if short-term positive human-animal interaction (grooming) induced a positive affective state in goats. We tested two groups of goats and trained them to discriminate between a rewarded and a non-rewarded location over nine training days. During training, the experimental group (n = 9) was gently groomed by brushing their heads and backs for five min over 11 days (nine training days, plus two testing days, total time 55 min). During training, the control group (n = 10) did not experience any direct interaction with the experimenter, but was kept unconstrained next to him for the same period of time. After successful completion of the training, the responses (latency time) of the two groups to reach ambiguous locations situated between the two reference locations (i.e., rewarded/non-rewarded) were compared over two days of testing. There was not a positive bias effect after the animals had been groomed. In a second experiment, 10 goats were tested to investigate whether grooming induced changes in physiological activation (i.e., heart rate and heart rate variability). Heart rate increased when goats were groomed compared to the baseline condition, when the same goats did not receive any contact with the experimenter. Also, subjects did not move away from the experimenter, suggesting that the grooming was positively accepted. The very good care and the regular positive contacts that goats received from humans at the study site could potentially account for the results obtained. Good husbandry outcomes are influenced by animals' perception of the events and this is based on current circumstances, past experiences and individual variables. Taking into account animals' individual characteristics and identifying effective strategies to induce positive emotions could increase the understanding and reliability of using

  2. Judgement bias in goats (Capra hircus: investigating the effects of human grooming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Baciadonna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal emotional states can be investigated by evaluating their impact on cognitive processes. In this study, we used a judgement bias paradigm to determine if short-term positive human-animal interaction (grooming induced a positive affective state in goats. We tested two groups of goats and trained them to discriminate between a rewarded and a non-rewarded location over nine training days. During training, the experimental group (n = 9 was gently groomed by brushing their heads and backs for five min over 11 days (nine training days, plus two testing days, total time 55 min. During training, the control group (n = 10 did not experience any direct interaction with the experimenter, but was kept unconstrained next to him for the same period of time. After successful completion of the training, the responses (latency time of the two groups to reach ambiguous locations situated between the two reference locations (i.e., rewarded/non-rewarded were compared over two days of testing. There was not a positive bias effect after the animals had been groomed. In a second experiment, 10 goats were tested to investigate whether grooming induced changes in physiological activation (i.e., heart rate and heart rate variability. Heart rate increased when goats were groomed compared to the baseline condition, when the same goats did not receive any contact with the experimenter. Also, subjects did not move away from the experimenter, suggesting that the grooming was positively accepted. The very good care and the regular positive contacts that goats received from humans at the study site could potentially account for the results obtained. Good husbandry outcomes are influenced by animals’ perception of the events and this is based on current circumstances, past experiences and individual variables. Taking into account animals’ individual characteristics and identifying effective strategies to induce positive emotions could increase the understanding and

  3. An auxiliary graph based dynamic traffic grooming algorithm in spatial division multiplexing enabled elastic optical networks with multi-core fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Tian, Rui; Yu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jiawei; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-01

    A proper traffic grooming strategy in dynamic optical networks can improve the utilization of bandwidth resources. An auxiliary graph (AG) is designed to solve the traffic grooming problem under a dynamic traffic scenario in spatial division multiplexing enabled elastic optical networks (SDM-EON) with multi-core fibers. Five traffic grooming policies achieved by adjusting the edge weights of an AG are proposed and evaluated through simulation: maximal electrical grooming (MEG), maximal optical grooming (MOG), maximal SDM grooming (MSG), minimize virtual hops (MVH), and minimize physical hops (MPH). Numeric results show that each traffic grooming policy has its own features. Among different traffic grooming policies, an MPH policy can achieve the lowest bandwidth blocking ratio, MEG can save the most transponders, and MSG can obtain the fewest cores for each request.

  4. Towards high-throughput phenotyping of complex patterned behaviors in rodents: focus on mouse self-grooming and its sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Roth, Andrew; Green, Jeremy; Pham, Mimi; Stewart, Adam; Liang, Yiqing; Kobla, Vikrant; Kalueff, Allan V

    2011-12-01

    Increasingly recognized in biological psychiatry, rodent self-grooming is a complex patterned behavior with evolutionarily conserved cephalo-caudal progression. While grooming is traditionally assessed by the latency, frequency and duration, its sequencing represents another important domain sensitive to various experimental manipulations. Such behavioral complexity requires novel objective approaches to quantify rodent grooming, in addition to time-consuming and highly variable manual observation. The present study combined modern behavior-recognition video-tracking technologies (CleverSys, Inc.) with manual observation to characterize in-depth spontaneous (novelty-induced) and artificial (water-induced) self-grooming in adult male C57BL/6J mice. We specifically focused on individual episodes of grooming (paw licking, head washing, body/leg washing, and tail/genital grooming), their duration and transitions between episodes. Overall, the frequency, duration and transitions detected using the automated approach significantly correlated with manual observations (R=0.51-0.7, pgrooming, also indicating that behavior-recognition tools can be applied to characterize both the amount and sequential organization (patterning) of rodent grooming. Together with further refinement and methodological advancement, this approach will foster high-throughput neurophenotyping of grooming, with multiple applications in drug screening and testing of genetically modified animals.

  5. Morphological correlates of the grooming claw in distal phalanges of platyrrhines and other primates: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Stephanie; Boyer, Doug M; Rosenberger, Alfred

    2011-12-01

    Grooming claws are present on the second pedal digits of strepsirhines and on the second and third pedal digits of tarsiers. However, their presence in New World monkeys is often overlooked. As such, the absence of a grooming claw is generally considered an anthropoid synapomorphy. This study utilizes a quantitative multivariate analysis to define grooming claw morphology and document its presence in platyrrhine monkeys. Our results show that owl monkeys possess grooming claws similar to those of strepsirhines, while titi monkeys possess grooming claw-like morphology. Therefore, we conclude that anthropoids are not clearly united by the absence of a grooming claw. Furthermore, due to their presence in three major primate clades, we infer that it is likely that a grooming claw was present on the second pedal digit of the ancestor of living primates. Therefore, we advise the reassessment of fossil adapids in light of the anatomical correlates described here. This should increase resolution on the homology and polarity of grooming claw morphology, and, therefore, will help provide a sharper picture of primate evolution.

  6. Multidisciplinary approach for the characterization of landslides in volcanic areas - a case study from the Palma Sola-Chiconquiaco Mountain Range, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Martina; Rodríguez Elizarrarás, Sergio R.; Morales Barrera, Wendy V.; Schwindt, Daniel; Bücker, Matthias; Flores Orozco, Adrián; García García, Emilio; Pita de la Paz, Carlos; Terhorst, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    The Palma Sola-Chiconquiaco mountain range, situated in the State of Veracruz, Mexico, is highly susceptible to landslides, which is evidenced by the high frequency of landslide events of different sizes. The study area is located near the Gulf of Mexico coastline in the eastern sector of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. There, landslide triggers are intense rainfalls related to tropical storms and hurricanes. Steeper slopes are commonly affected by rockfalls, whereas moderate slopes, covered by massive slope deposits, are affected by shallow as well as deep seated landslides. Some of the landslides in the slope deposits reach dimensions of more than 1000 m in length and depths of over 30 m. The heterogeneous parent material as well as older slide masses hamper the detailed characterization of the involved materials. Therefore, in this study, a multidisciplinary approach is applied that integrates geomorphological, geological, and geophysical data. The aim is the reconstruction of process dynamics by analyzing the geomorphological situation and subsurface conditions before and after the event. The focus lies on the identification of past landslide areas, which represent areas with high susceptibility for the reactivation of old slide masses. Furthermore, the analysis of digital terrain models, generated before the landslide event, indicate initial movements like extension cracks, which are located close to the current scarp area. In order to characterize the subsurface of slide masses geophysical investigations are applied. The geophysical survey consists of a total of nine profiles covering relevant key features of the large affected area. Along these profiles, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and seismic refraction tomography (SRT) data were collected. Both, electrical and seismic images reveal a sharp contrast between relatively loose and dry material of the slide mass (high resistivities and low seismic velocities) and the former land surface that is

  7. A traffic model of optical networks based on time-space complexity and traffic grooming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yongli; Zhang Jie; Han Dahai; Wang Lei; Chen Xiuzhong; Gu Wanyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper researched the traffic of optical networks in time-space complexity, proposed a novel traffic model for complex optical networks based on traffic grooming, designed a traffic generator GTS (generator based on time and space) with "centralized + distributed" idea, and then made a simulation in C language. Experiments results show that GTS can produce the virtual network topology which can change dynamically with the characteristic of scaling-free network. GTS can also groom the different traffic and trigger them under real-time or scheduling mechanisms, generating different optical connections. This traffic model is convenient for the simulation of optical networks considering the traffic complexity.

  8. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of behavioral responses has been previously established. In the brain, M2 receptors are found predominantly in presynaptic cholinergic neurons as autoreceptors, and in dopaminergic neurons as heteroceptors, suggesting a control role of acetylcholine and dopamine release, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the role of M2 receptors on the yawning and genital grooming of rats induced by apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist, focusing on the interaction between cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Initially, the effect of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, on yawning and genital grooming induced by apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.) was analyzed. Atropine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before induction of the behavioral responses by apomorphine. Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were quantified over a 60 min period. Apomorphine-induced yawning was increased by low dose (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but not by high doses (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) of atropine. Genital grooming was antagonized by 2 mg/kg i.p. of atropine and showed no changes at the other doses tested. Tripitramine, a selective M2 cholinergic antagonist, was used as a tool for distinguishing between M2 and all other muscarinic receptor subtypes in yawning and genital grooming. Tripitramine doses of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 μmol/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.). Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were also quantified over a 60 min period. Tripitramine 0.01 μmol/kg increased all parameters. Higher doses, which possibly block all subtypes of muscarinic receptor, did not modify the response of apomorphine, suggesting a non-selective effect of tripitramine at these doses. Given that low doses of tripitramine increased the behavioral responses induced by apomorphine and that the main distribution of the M2

  9. Isolation of mutations affecting neural circuitry required for grooming behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillis, R W; Bramlage, A T; Wotus, C; Whittaker, A; Gramates, L S; Seppala, D; Farahanchi, F; Caruccio, P; Murphey, R K

    1993-03-01

    We have developed a screen for the isolation of mutations that produce neural defects in adult Drosophila melanogaster. In this screen, we identify mutants as flies unable to remove a light coating of applied dust in a 2-hr period. We have recovered and characterized six mutations and have found that they produce coordination defects and some have reduced levels of reflex responsiveness to the stimulation of single tactile sensory bristles. The grooming defects produced by all six of the mutations are recessive, and each of the mutations has been genetically mapped. We have also used our assay to test the grooming ability of stocks containing mutations that produce known neural defects.

  10. TranSCorBe Project: A high-resolution seismic-passive profile to study the variation of the crustal and upper mantle structures under the Betic mountain ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, José; Martín, Rosa; Stich, Daniel; Heit, Benjamín; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mancilla, Flor; Benito, José; Carrion, Francisco; Serrano, Inmaculada; López-Comino, Jose Angel; Abreu, Rafael; Alguacil, Gerardo; Almendros, Javier; Carmona, Enrique; Ontiveros, Alfonso; García-Quiroga, Daniel; García-Jerez, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this project is to study the crustal and upper mantle structures under the Betic mountain ranges and their variations between the different geological domains. We deployed 50 broadband and short period seismic stations during 18 months following two profiles. We collect teleseismic events to perform a high-resolution P-to-S and S-to-P receiver function analysis. The main profile (TranSCorBe), of 160 km length, starts near the coast in Mazarrón (Murcia) and follows a NW-SE direction, crossing the Cazorla mountain range. It probes, from south to north, the Alboran domain (metamorphic rocks), the External zones (sedimentary rocks) and the Variscan terrains of the Iberian Massif. The spacing between stations is around 3-4 km. This inter-station distance allows us mapping with high accuracy the variations of the crust and upper mantle discontinuities in the Betic Range and their transition to the Iberian Massif. A second profile (HiRe II) with a larger spacing between seismic stations, is a continuation of a previously installed HiRe I profile, a NS profile starting near the Mediterranean coast in Adra (Almería) through Sierra Nevada Mountains. HiRe II profile prolongs HiRe I profile until the Variscan intersecting with TranSCorBe profile near Cazorla.

  11. Drop cost and wavelength optimal two-period grooming with ratio 4

    CERN Document Server

    Bermond, Jean-Claude; Gionfriddo, Lucia; Quattrocchi, Gaetano; Valls, Ignasi Sau

    2009-01-01

    We study grooming for two-period optical networks, a variation of the traffic grooming problem for WDM ring networks introduced by Colbourn, Quattrocchi, and Syrotiuk. In the two-period grooming problem, during the first period of time, there is all-to-all uniform traffic among $n$ nodes, each request using $1/C$ of the bandwidth; and during the second period, there is all-to-all uniform traffic only among a subset $V$ of $v$ nodes, each request now being allowed to use $1/C'$ of the bandwidth, where $C' < C$. We determine the minimum drop cost (minimum number of ADMs) for any $n,v$ and C=4 and $C' \\in \\{1,2,3\\}$. To do this, we use tools of graph decompositions. Indeed the two-period grooming problem corresponds to minimizing the total number of vertices in a partition of the edges of the complete graph $K_n$ into subgraphs, where each subgraph has at most $C$ edges and where furthermore it contains at most $C'$ edges of the complete graph on $v$ specified vertices. Subject to the condition that the two-p...

  12. Opioid modulation of facial itch- and pain-related responses and grooming behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Jessica M; Davoodi, Auva; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, Earl

    2012-09-01

    Intradermal facial injections of pruritogens or algogens elicit distinct behavioral hindlimb scratch or forelimb wiping responses in rodents. We systematically investigated the parameters and opioid modulation of these evoked behaviors and spontaneous facial grooming in rats. Serotonin (5-HT) elicited hindlimb scratch bouts with few wipes. Scratching was attenuated by the µ-opiate antagonist naltrexone but not morphine. In contrast, cheek injection of mustard oil (allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC)) elicited ipsilateral forelimb wipes but little hindlimb scratching. AITC-evoked wiping was significantly attenuated by morphine but not naltrexone. Spontaneous facial grooming by the forepaws was attenuated by naltrexone, whereas morphine did not affect grooming behavior before or after cheek injections of 5-HT or AITC. These data validate that the rodent "cheek" model discriminates between itch- and pain-related behaviors. Naltrexone sensitivity of facial grooming and 5-HT-evoked scratch-ing suggests a common functionality. Forelimb wipes may represent a nocifensive response akin to rubbing an injury to relieve pain.

  13. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Maria J; de Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to Varroa mites of different ages and reproductive statuses in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four classes of mites: gravid, phoretic foundresses, phoretic daughters and a combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites. Each cage received 20 mites belonging to one of these classes. Our results showed that, 1 day after mite inoculation, phoretic daughter mites were the most prone to grooming by honey bees with an average mite drop of 49.8 ± 2.6 %. The lowest mite drop was recorded for bees inoculated with phoretic foundresses (30.3 ± 3.6 %) but was comparable to bees inoculated with gravid mites (31.8 ± 3.8 %) and the combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites (34.2 ± 3.2 %). No differences among mite types were detected during the second and third days of observation. Regardless of mite type, the highest mite drop was recorded on the first day (35 ± 2.1 %) compared to the drop for any subsequent day (grooming behaviour may increase our insight into the importance of grooming in mite resistance.

  14. Grooming coercion and the post-conflict trading of social services in wild Barbary macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Richard; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2011-01-01

    In animal and human societies, social services such as protection from predators are often exchanged between group members. The tactics that individuals display to obtain a service depend on its value and on differences between individuals in their capacity to aggressively obtain it. Here we analysed the exchange of valuable social services (i.e. grooming and relationship repair) in the aftermath of a conflict, in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). The relationship repair function of post-conflict affiliation (i.e. reconciliation) was apparent in the victim but not in the aggressor. Conversely, we found evidence for grooming coercion by the aggressor; when the victim failed to give grooming soon after a conflict they received renewed aggression from the aggressor. We argue that post-conflict affiliation between former opponents can be better described as a trading of social services rather than coercion alone, as both animals obtain some benefits (i.e. grooming for the aggressor and relationship repair for the victim). Our study is the first to test the importance of social coercion in the aftermath of a conflict. Differences in competitive abilities can affect the exchange of services and the occurrence of social coercion in animal societies. This may also help explain the variance between populations and species in their social behaviour and conflict management strategies.

  15. Grooming coercion and the post-conflict trading of social services in wild Barbary macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McFarland

    Full Text Available In animal and human societies, social services such as protection from predators are often exchanged between group members. The tactics that individuals display to obtain a service depend on its value and on differences between individuals in their capacity to aggressively obtain it. Here we analysed the exchange of valuable social services (i.e. grooming and relationship repair in the aftermath of a conflict, in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus. The relationship repair function of post-conflict affiliation (i.e. reconciliation was apparent in the victim but not in the aggressor. Conversely, we found evidence for grooming coercion by the aggressor; when the victim failed to give grooming soon after a conflict they received renewed aggression from the aggressor. We argue that post-conflict affiliation between former opponents can be better described as a trading of social services rather than coercion alone, as both animals obtain some benefits (i.e. grooming for the aggressor and relationship repair for the victim. Our study is the first to test the importance of social coercion in the aftermath of a conflict. Differences in competitive abilities can affect the exchange of services and the occurrence of social coercion in animal societies. This may also help explain the variance between populations and species in their social behaviour and conflict management strategies.

  16. Dynamic traffic grooming in distributed-controlled IP/WDM optical mesh networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jun; Zeng Qingji; Liu Jimin; Xiao Pengcheng; Liu Hua; Xiao Shilin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the study was devoted to the traffic-grooming problem in a distributed-controlled WDM mesh network. We studied the optimization of the maximal number of ports configured at each node in the network. We gave the maximumnumber simulation results in different network environment, which could be taken as a reference for network design.

  17. Sexual Abuse and the Grooming Process in Sport: Learning from Bella's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owton, Helen; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Through a process of collaborative autoethnography, we explore the experiences of one female athlete named Bella who was groomed and then sexually abused by her male coach. Bella's story signals how the structural conditions and power relationships embedded in competitive sporting environments, specifically the power invested in the coach, provide…

  18. Pharmacokinetics and anthelmintic efficacy of topical eprinomectin in goats prevented from grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Steffen; Kellermann, Michael; Wehner, Teresa A

    2014-11-01

    Pharmacokinetics and anthelmintic activity of topical eprinomectin in goats prevented from physical contact to others and self-grooming were studied. Sixteen approximately 7 months old male castrated German White Noble goats harbouring induced infections of gastrointestinal nematode parasites were included in the study. They were blocked based on pre-treatment body weight (range 22.4 to 36.4 kg) and then randomly allocated to the untreated control group or the group treated with topical 0.5% w/v eprinomectin (EPRINEX Pour-on, Merial) at 1 mg/kg body weight. Plasma samples were collected prior to and at intervals up to 14 days following treatment and analyzed to determine the concentrations of eprinomectin (B1a component). Parasites were recovered, identified, and counted following necropsy 14 days after treatment. Goats treated with topical eprinomectin had significantly fewer (≥99% reduction, p < 0.01) adult Cooperia curticei, Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus battus, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Ostertagia circumcincta, and Trichostrongylus colubriformis than the untreated controls. Basic pharmacokinetic parameters for eprinomectin B1a were AUCinfinity, 37.1 ± 15.2 day ng/mL; T½, 5.11 ± 2.83 days; and Cmax, 5.93 ± 1.87 ng/mL; individual maximal concentrations were observed 1 or 2 days after treatment. Results of this study indicate that oral ingestion is not required to achieve adequate exposure for excellent anthelmintic efficacy following topical administration of eprinomectin at 1 mg/kg body weight to goats.

  19. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Stephanie; Boyer, Doug M; Bloch, Jonathan I; Gilbert, Christopher C; Groenke, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans). Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21), tegulae (n = 4), and grooming claws (n = 10), and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7). Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae) and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.

  20. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Maiolino

    Full Text Available Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans. Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21, tegulae (n = 4, and grooming claws (n = 10, and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7. Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.

  1. Production of grooming-associated sounds by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo: variation, social learning, and possible functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, David P

    2016-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use some communicative signals flexibly and voluntarily, with use influenced by learning. These signals include some vocalizations and also sounds made using the lips, oral cavity, and/or teeth, but not the vocal tract, such as "attention-getting" sounds directed at humans by captive chimpanzees and lip smacking during social grooming. Chimpanzees at Ngogo, in Kibale National Park, Uganda, make four distinct sounds while grooming others. Here, I present data on two of these ("splutters" and "teeth chomps") and consider whether social learning contributes to variation in their production and whether they serve social functions. Higher congruence in the use of these two sounds between dyads of maternal relatives than dyads of non-relatives implies that social learning occurs and mostly involves vertical transmission, but the results are not conclusive and it is unclear which learning mechanisms may be involved. In grooming between adult males, tooth chomps and splutters were more likely in long than in short bouts; in bouts that were bidirectional rather than unidirectional; in grooming directed toward high-ranking males than toward low-ranking males; and in bouts between allies than in those between non-allies. Males were also more likely to make these sounds while they were grooming other males than while they were grooming females. These results are expected if the sounds promote social bonds and induce tolerance of proximity and of grooming by high-ranking males. However, the alternative hypothesis that the sounds are merely associated with motivation to groom, with no additional social function, cannot be ruled out. Limited data showing that bouts accompanied by teeth chomping or spluttering at their initiation were longer than bouts for which this was not the case point toward a social function, but more data are needed for a definitive test. Comparison to other research sites shows that the possible existence of grooming

  2. Analysis of long-term mechanical grooming on large-scale test panels coated with an antifouling and a fouling-release coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearin, John; Hunsucker, Kelli Z; Swain, Geoffrey; Stephens, Abraham; Gardner, Harrison; Lieberman, Kody; Harper, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Long-term grooming tests were conducted on two large-scale test panels, one coated with a fluorosilicone fouling-release (FR) coating, and one coated with a copper based ablative antifouling (AF) coating. Mechanical grooming was performed weekly or bi-weekly using a hand operated, electrically powered, rotating brush tool. The results indicate that weekly grooming was effective at removing loose or heavy biofilm settlement from both coatings, but could not prevent the permanent establishment of low-profile tenacious biofilms. Weekly grooming was very effective at preventing macrofouling establishment on the AF coating. The effectiveness of weekly grooming at preventing macrofouling establishment on the FR coating varied seasonally. The results suggest that frequent mechanical grooming is a viable method to reduce the fouling rating of ships' hulls with minimal impact to the coating. Frequent grooming could offer significant fuel savings while reducing hull cleaning frequencies and dry dock maintenance requirements.

  3. Evidence of climate-induced range contractions in bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in a Rocky Mountain watershed, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Eby

    Full Text Available Many freshwater fish species are considered vulnerable to stream temperature warming associated with climate change because they are ectothermic, yet there are surprisingly few studies documenting changes in distributions. Streams and rivers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have been warming for several decades. At the same time these systems have been experiencing an increase in the severity and frequency of wildfires, which often results in habitat changes including increased water temperatures. We resampled 74 sites across a Rocky Mountain watershed 17 to 20 years after initial samples to determine whether there were trends in bull trout occurrence associated with temperature, wildfire, or other habitat variables. We found that site abandonment probabilities (0.36 were significantly higher than colonization probabilities (0.13, which indicated a reduction in the number of occupied sites. Site abandonment probabilities were greater at low elevations with warm temperatures. Other covariates, such as the presence of wildfire, nonnative brook trout, proximity to areas with many adults, and various stream habitat descriptors, were not associated with changes in probability of occupancy. Higher abandonment probabilities at low elevation for bull trout provide initial evidence validating the predictions made by bioclimatic models that bull trout populations will retreat to higher, cooler thermal refuges as water temperatures increase. The geographic breadth of these declines across the region is unknown but the approach of revisiting historical sites using an occupancy framework provides a useful template for additional assessments.

  4. Remains of mining in the territory of villages´ Červenica and Zlatá Baňa in the mountain range of Slanské vrchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Magula

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the territory that is recondite for mining activities. It is situated in a north part of the mountain range of Slanské vrchy. There are villages that were known as mining villages in the past. The mining activities for gold, silver and mercury had only a local economical importance, beside of the output or production of opal. The output of opal on this territory was world noted, in the past. The aim of this article is to remit at some historical facts about former mines and to draw our attention to some attempts for building up, the educational and touristic path on this territory.

  5. Methane production from coal seams and CO2 uptake capability of the Mecsek mountain range, Hungary; Die Methangewinnung aus Kohlefloezen und das CO{sub 2}-Aufnahmevermoegen des Mecsek-Gebirges in Ungarn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Z.N. [Univ. Miskolc (Hungary); Lakatos, I. [Forschungsinstitut der angewandten Chemie (Hungary); Foeldessy, J.; Toth, J.; Fodor, B.; Csecsei, T. [Ungarischer Geologischer Dienst, Rotaqua KFT (Hungary)

    2006-06-15

    Methane from the Mecsek mountain range coal seams is of vast economic importance. Modified geological models focusing on zones of enhanced permeability may be useful in the development of practicable winning technologies. High gas volumes are assumed in stowed material, which may be recovered by a simple technology. There is a power station in the vicinity which produces waste gases that may be used for injection, so the Mecsek region offers promising conditions for CO2 CBM production. The same power plant is also a potential consumer of the recovered methane. (orig.)

  6. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  7. MOUNTAINS UNITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Dovbenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Schools in the Ukrainian Carpathian mountain region work in specific conditions. They have original traditions, a special nature of learning and work. Indeed, because of a remote location mountain village school becomes the center for a cultural and spiritual life. Of course, it is related to a present social and economic situation in the country and a slow progress of society. Therefore, we need to look at mountain school with a broader angle, help it in comprehensive development of an individual and ensure an availability of quality education for children living in mountainous areas. Here we should talk about learning as well as laying the foundations for a life success. The international research project Mountain School. Status. Problems. Prospects for Development. Is established to help solve these problems. Precarpathian National University is an active member of the project.

  8. Ozone levels in the Spanish Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range are above the thresholds for plant protection: analysis at 2262, 1850, and 995 m a.s.l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, S; González-Fernández, I; Alonso, R; Sanz, J; Bermejo-Bermejo, V

    2016-10-01

    The Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range, located at 60 km from Madrid City (Spain), includes high valuable ecosystems following an altitude gradient, some of them protected under the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park. The characteristic Mediterranean climatic conditions and the precursors emitted from Madrid favor a high photochemical production of ozone (O3) in the region. However, very little information is available about the patterns and levels of O3 and other air pollutants in the high elevation areas and their potential effects on vegetation. Ozone levels were monitored at three altitudes (2262, 1850, and 995 m a.s.l.) for at least 3 years within the 2005-2011 period. NO x and SO2 were also recorded at the highest and lowest altitude sites. Despite the inter-annual and seasonal variations detected in the O3 concentrations, the study revealed that SG is exposed to a chronic O3 pollution. The two high elevation sites showed high O3 levels even in winter and at nighttime, having low correlation with local meteorological variables. At the lower elevation site, O3 levels were more related with local meteorological and pollution conditions. Ozone concentrations at the three sites exceeded the thresholds for the protection of human health and vegetation according to the European Air Quality Directive (EU/50/2008) and the thresholds for vegetation protection of the CLRTAP. Ozone should be considered as a stress factor for the health of the Sierra de Guadarrama mountain ecosystems. Furthermore, since O3 levels at foothills differ from concentration in high elevation, monitoring stations in mountain ranges should be incorporated in regional air quality monitoring networks.

  9. Factorization for groomed jet substructure beyond the next-to-leading logarithm

    CERN Document Server

    Frye, Christopher; Schwartz, Matthew D; Yan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Jet grooming algorithms are widely used in experimental analyses at hadron colliders to remove contaminating radiation from within jets. While the algorithms perform a great service to the experiments, their intricate algorithmic structure and multiple parameters has frustrated precision theoretic understanding. In this paper, we demonstrate that one particular groomer called soft drop actually makes precision jet substructure easier. In particular, we derive a factorization formula for a large class of soft drop jet substructure observables, including jet mass. The essential observation that allows for this factorization is that, without the soft wide-angle radiation groomed by soft drop, all singular contributions are collinear. The simplicity and universality of the collinear limit in QCD allows us to show that to all orders, the normalized differential cross section has no contributions from non-global logarithms. It is also independent of process, up to the relative fraction of quark and gluon jets. In f...

  10. Improved jet substructure methods: Y-splitter and variants with grooming

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Mrinal; Schunk, Lais; Soyez, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated with Monte Carlo studies that combining the well-known Y-splitter and trimming techniques gives rise to important gains in the signal significance achievable for boosted electroweak boson tagging at high $p_t$. Here we carry out analytical calculations that explain these findings from first principles of QCD both for grooming via trimming and via the modified mass-drop tagger (mMDT). We also suggest modifications to Y-splitter itself, which result in great simplifications to the analytical results both for pure Y-splitter as well as its combination with general grooming methods. The modifications also lead to further performance gains, while making the results largely independent of choice of groomer. We discuss the implications of these findings in the broader context of optimal methods for boosted object studies at hadron colliders.

  11. Adaptation for rodent pollination in Leucospermum arenarium (Proteaceae) despite rapid pollen loss during grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher Michael; Pauw, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Plants are adapted for rodent pollination in diverse and intricate ways. This study explores an extraordinary example of these adaptations in the pincushion Leucospermum arenarium (Proteaceae) from South Africa. Live trapping and differential exclusion experiments were used to test the role of rodents versus birds and insects as pollinators. To explore the adaptive significance of geoflory, inflorescences were raised above ground level and seed production was compared. Captive rodents and flowers with artificial stigmas were used to test the effect of grooming on the rate of pollen loss. Microscopy, nectar composition analysis and manipulative experiments were used to investigate the bizarre nectar production and transport system. Differential exclusion of rodents, birds and insects demonstrated the importance of rodents in promoting seed production. Live trapping revealed that hairy-footed gerbils, Gerbillurus paeba, and striped field mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, both carried L. arenarium pollen on their forehead and rostrum, but much larger quantities ended up in faeces as a result of grooming. Terrarium experiments showed that grooming exponentially diminished the pollen loads that they carried. The nectar of L. arenarium was found to be unusually viscous and to be presented in a novel location on the petal tips, where rodents could access it without destroying the flowers. Nectar was produced inside the perianth, but was translocated to the petal tips via capillary ducts. In common with many other rodent-pollinated plants, the flowers are presented at ground level, but when raised to higher positions seed production was not reduced, indicating that selection through female function does not drive the evolution of geoflory. Despite the apparent cost of pollen lost to grooming, L. arenarium has evolved remarkable adaptations for rodent pollination and provides the first case of this pollination system in the genus.

  12. Isolation of Mutations Affecting Neural Circuitry Required for Grooming Behavior in Drosophila Melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a screen for the isolation of mutations that produce neural defects in adult Drosophila melanogaster. In this screen, we identify mutants as flies unable to remove a light coating of applied dust in a 2-hr period. We have recovered and characterized six mutations and have found that they produce coordination defects and some have reduced levels of reflex responsiveness to the stimulation of single tactile sensory bristles. The grooming defects produced by all six of the muta...

  13. Prevention by All Means?A Legal Comparison of the Criminalization of Online Grooming and its Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Kool

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The obligation to criminalise online grooming, recently prescribed by the Council of Europe in the Treaty of Lanzarote, illustrates modern citizens' fears of external dangers, especially towards the sexual abuse of minors. The authorities' image of online grooming being unclear, the penalisatiom tends to be of a symbolic nature, implying false prophecies of legal protection. Moreover, the penalisation of online grooming indicates a precautionary use of the criminal law, so its justification lies within the perpertrators' objectionable motive, the latter violating basic assumptions of criminal law. Next to theoretical objections, practical issues are to be foreseen, as the criminal investigation of online grooming indicates the use of undercover tactics, which has a bearing on the procedural risk, e.g. the entrapment defence. Nevertheless, the British authorities have been able to penalise online grooming rather successfully. The Netherlands having recently (in July 2010 introduced a similar provision, this calls for a comparative analysis. Does the penalisation of online grooming have any added value, especially in light of the tendency towards a precautionary use of the criminal law, and what features are apparent in the British success?

  14. Prevention by All Means?
    A Legal Comparison of the Criminalization of Online Grooming and its Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Kool

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The obligation to criminalise online grooming, recently prescribed by the Council of Europe in the Treaty of Lanzarote, illustrates modern citizens' fears of external dangers, especially towards the sexual abuse of minors. The authorities' image of online grooming being unclear, the penalisatiom tends to be of a symbolic nature, implying false prophecies of legal protection. Moreover, the penalisation of online grooming indicates a precautionary use of the criminal law, so its justification lies within the perpertrators' objectionable motive, the latter violating basic assumptions of criminal law. Next to theoretical objections, practical issues are to be foreseen, as the criminal investigation of online grooming indicates the use of undercover tactics, which has a bearing on the procedural risk, e.g. the entrapment defence. Nevertheless, the British authorities have been able to penalise online grooming rather successfully. The Netherlands having recently (in July 2010 introduced a similar provision, this calls for a comparative analysis. Does the penalisation of online grooming have any added value, especially in light of the tendency towards a precautionary use of the criminal law, and what features are apparent in the British success?

  15. Comparative analysis of the evaluation of the intrinsic vulnerability in carbonate aquifers (Canete Mountain Range, province of Malaga); Analisis comparativo de la evaluacion de la vulnerabilidad intrinseca de acuiferos carbonaticos (Sierra de Canete, provincia de Malaga)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Madrid, A.; Carrasco Cantos, F.; Martinez Navarrete, C.

    2009-07-01

    Groundwater of the carbonate aquifers of Canete Mountain Range constitute a basic source for water supply to different populations. Vulnerability intrinsic assesment is one of the most useful tools for the protection of the groundwater bodies, for this reason, this area has been chosen, to realize a comparative analysis, by means of the use of tools of spatial analysis and technical statistics of a Geographical Information System. In this work, Reduced DRASTIC, COP and RISK method have been applied, due to the fact that they are the methods used by Spain, both first ones, to evaluate the vulnerability of the groundwater bodies in the inter communal basins of the whole national territory, and for BRGM of France, the last one, to approach the carbonate aquifers protection. The obtained results show as the COP and RISK methods, specifics of carbonate aquifers, there show results more according to the characteristics of Canete Mountain Range that the obtained ones with Reduced DRASTIC, which unsaturated zone valuation causes an undervaluing the results of vulnerability obtained. (Author) 35 refs.

  16. Central amygdalar nucleus treated with orexin neuropeptides evoke differing feeding and grooming responses in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alò, Raffaella; Avolio, Ennio; Mele, Maria; Di Vito, Anna; Canonaco, Marcello

    2015-04-15

    Interaction of the orexinergic (ORXergic) neuronal system with the excitatory (glutamate, l-Glu) or the inhibitory (GABA) neurosignaling complexes evokes major homeostatic physiological events. In this study, effects of the two ORXergic neuropeptides (ORX-A/B) on their receptor (ORX-2R) expression changes were correlated to feeding and grooming actions of the hibernating hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Infusion of the central amygdala nucleus (CeA) with ORX-A caused hamsters to consume notable quantities of food, while ORX-B accounted for a moderate increase. Interestingly the latter neuropeptide was responsible for greater frequencies of grooming with respect to both controls and the hamsters treated with ORX-A. These distinct behavioral changes turned out to be even greater in the presence of l-Glu agonist (NMDA) while the α1 GABAA receptor agonist (zolpidem, Zol) greatly reduced ORX-A-dependent feeding bouts. Moreover, ORX-A+NMDA mainly promoted greater ORX-2R expression levels with respect to ORX-A-treated hamsters while ORX-B+Zol was instead largely responsible for a down-regulatory trend. Overall, these features point to CeA ORX-2R sites as key sensory limbic elements capable of regulating eating and grooming responses, which may provide useful insights regarding the type of molecular mechanism(s) operating during feeding bouts.

  17. Behavioural processes in social context: female abductions, male herding and female grooming in hamadryas baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power.

  18. Effects of LSD on grooming behavior in serotonin transporter heterozygous (Sert⁺/⁻) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays a crucial role in the brain, modulating mood, cognition and reward. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for the reuptake of 5-HT from the synaptic cleft and regulates serotonin signaling in the brain. In humans, SERT genetic variance is linked to the pathogenesis of various psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Rodent self-grooming is a complex, evolutionarily conserved patterned behavior relevant to stress, ASD and OCD. Genetic ablation of mouse Sert causes various behavioral deficits, including increased anxiety and grooming behavior. The hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent serotonergic agonist known to modulate human and animal behavior. Here, we examined heterozygous Sert(+/-) mouse behavior following acute administration of LSD (0.32 mg/kg). Overall, Sert(+/-) mice displayed a longer duration of self-grooming behavior regardless of LSD treatment. In contrast, LSD increased serotonin-sensitive behaviors, such as head twitching, tremors and backwards gait behaviors in both Sert(+/+) and Sert(+/-) mice. There were no significant interactions between LSD treatment and Sert gene dosage in any of the behavioral domains measured. These results suggest that Sert(+/-) mice may respond to the behavioral effects of LSD in a similar manner to wild-type mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Breath of Mountain Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU LINTAO

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are everywhere,and rivers flow in almost every valley.This is the Qinling Mountains,a major eastto-west range in southern Shaanxi Province,bordering Hubei and Henan provinces.Because of its huge forest coverage,the Qinling Mountains are also known as one of the lungs of China.Expectations for travelling are changing in China as the lifestyle of city dwellers has become fast-paced and demanding.That provides the Qirding Mountain area a great opportunity to develop leisure tourism.

  20. Mountaineering Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Maher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountaineering Tourism Edited by Ghazali Musa, James Higham, and Anna Thompson-Carr. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2015. xxvi + 358 pp. Hardcover. US$ 145.00. ISBN 978-1-138-78237-2.

  1. Microbial ecology of á-Proteobacteria ammonia-oxidizers along a concentration gradient of dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the San Bernadino Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, F. L.; Fenn, M. E.; Stein, L. Y.

    2002-12-01

    The fate of atmospherically-deposited nitrogen from industrial pollution is of major concern in the montane ecosystems bordering the South Coast California Air Basin. Nitrogen deposition rates in the more exposed regions of the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM) are among the highest in North America often exceeding 40 kg ha-1 year-1 in throughfall deposition of nitrate and ammonium (Fenn and Poth, 1999). Forest ecosystems with elevated N deposition generally exhibit elevated accumulation of soil nitrate, leaching and runoff, elevated emissions of nitrogenous gases, increased nitrification, and decreased litter decomposition rates. The role of nitrifying microbial populations, especially those taxonomically associated with the beta-Proteobacteria ammonia-oxidizers (AOB), will provide insight into nitrogen-cycling in these extremely N-saturated environments. Using 16S ribosomal DNA-based molecular techniques (16S rDNA clone library construction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism), we are comparing AOB community diversity at 3 different locations along a natural atmospheric N-deposition concentration gradient in the SBM: from high at Camp Paviaka (CP), medium at Strawberry Peak (SP) to low at Dogwood (DW). As observed for wet N-deposition systems on the east coast, we hypothesized a negative correlation between AOB community diversity, abundance and function with nitrogen loading in the dry N deposition system of SBM. Nitrification potentials determined for the 3 sites along the N-deposition gradient were in the order of CP less than SP less than DW. Preliminary results indicate no correlation between diversity of AOB and increased nitrogen loading. Shannon-Weiner diversity indices calculated for ammonia-oxidizer RFLP group units were 2.22, 2.66 and 1.80 for CP, SP and DW, respectively.

  2. Characterization, Long-Range Transport and Source Identification of Carbonaceous Aerosols during Spring and Autumn Periods at a High Mountain Site in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-yan Jia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PM10 (particulate matter samples were collected at Mount Lu, a high elevation mountain site in south China (August and September of 2011; and March, April and May of 2012. Eight carbonaceous fractions of particles were analyzed to characterize the possible carbonaceous emission sources. During the sampling events, daily average concentrations of PM10 at Mount Lu were 97.87 μg/m3 and 73.40 μg/m3 in spring and autumn, respectively. The observed mean organic carbon (OC and element carbon (EC concentrations during spring in PM10 were 10.58 μg/m3 and 2.58 μg/m3, respectively, and those in autumn were 6.89 μg/m3 and 2.40 μg/m3, respectively. Secondary organic carbon concentration was 4.77 μg/m3 and 2.93 μg/m3 on average, accounting for 28.0% and 31.0% of the total OC in spring and autumn, respectively. Relationships between carbonaceous species and results of principal component analysis showed that there were multiple sources contributing to the carbonaceous aerosols at the observation site. Through back trajectory analysis, it was found that air masses in autumn were mainly transported from the south of China, and these have the highest OC but lowest EC concentrations. Air masses in spring transported from northwest China bring 7.77 μg/m3 OC and 2.28 μg/m3 EC to the site, with lower levels coming from other sites. These air mass sources were featured by the effective carbon ratio (ECR.

  3. Changes in home range of breeding and post-breeding male Pearly-eyed Thrashers in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose William Beltran; Joseph M. Wunderle, Jr.; Wayne J. Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Food abundance, time of year, and stage of the reproductive cycle are important factors affecting home range size in birds. Between 23 January and 28 November 2003, we determined the home range and core area sizes for 10 radio-tagged male Pearly-eyed Thrashers (Margarops fuscatus; Mimidae) within the Luquillo Experimental Forest, northeastern Puerto Rico. We found...

  4. Glacial effects limiting mountain height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E

    2009-08-13

    The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces.

  5. Evidence for large-magnitude, post-Eocene extension in the northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, and its implications for Carlin-type gold deposits in the lower plate of the Roberts Mountains allochthon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.; John, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The northern Shoshone and Toiyabe Ranges in north-central Nevada expose numerous areas of mineralized Paleozoic rock, including major Carlin-type gold deposits at Pipeline and Cortez. Paleozoic rocks in these areas were previously interpreted to have undergone negligible postmineralization extension and tilting, but here we present new data that suggest major post-Eocene extension along west-dipping normal faults. Tertiary rocks in the northern Shoshone Range crop out in two W-NW–trending belts that locally overlie and intrude highly deformed Lower Paleozoic rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. Tertiary exposures in the more extensive, northern belt were interpreted as subvertical breccia pipes (intrusions), but new field data indicate that these “pipes” consist of a 35.8 Ma densely welded dacitic ash flow tuff (informally named the tuff of Mount Lewis) interbedded with sandstones and coarse volcaniclastic deposits. Both tuff and sedimentary rocks strike N-S and dip 30° to 70° E; the steeply dipping compaction foliation in the tuffs was interpreted as subvertical flow foliation in breccia pipes. The southern belt along Mill Creek, previously mapped as undivided welded tuff, includes the tuff of Cove mine (34.4 Ma) and unit B of the Bates Mountain Tuff (30.6 Ma). These tuffs dip 30° to 50° east, suggesting that their west-dipping contacts with underlying Paleozoic rocks (previously mapped as depositional) are normal faults. Tertiary rocks in both belts were deposited on Paleozoic basement and none appear to be breccia pipes. We infer that their present east tilt is due to extension on west-dipping normal faults. Some of these faults may be the northern strands of middle Miocene (ca. 16 Ma) faults that cut and tilted the 34.0 Ma Caetano caldera ~40° east in the central Shoshone Range (

  6. From the mountains to the coast and back again: Ancient biogeography in a radiation of short-range endemic harvestmen from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emata, K N; Hedin, M

    2016-05-01

    The harvestmen genus Calicina is represented by 25 short-range endemic species occurring in the western Sierra Nevada, Transverse and Coast Ranges of California. Our principal aim was to reconstruct the temporal and spatial biogeographic history of this arachnid lineage. We inferred a time-calibrated species tree for 21 of 25 described Calicina species using multiple genes and multilocus coalescent-based methods. This species tree was used as a framework for algorithmic biogeographic and divergence time analyses, and a phylogenetic canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was used to examine the relationship between morphological evolution and environmental variables. Species tree and biogeographic analyses indicate that high-elevation Sierran taxa are early-diverging in Calicina, with subsequent biogeographic "criss-crossing" of lineages from the Sierra Nevada to the Coast Ranges, back to the Sierra Nevada, then back to Coast Ranges. In both the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges, distantly-related parapatric lineages essentially never occur in sympatry. CCA reveals that in both the Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada, distant phylogenetic relatives evolve convergent morphologies. Our evidence shows that Calicina is clearly dispersal-limited, with an ancient biogeographic history that provides unique insight into the complex geologic evolution of California since the mid-Paleogene.

  7. Map showing areas with potential for talc deposits in the Gravelly, Greenhorn, and Ruby ranges and the Henrys Lake Mountains of southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Berg, Richard B.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    1998-01-01

    For the last several years, Montana has been the leading talc producing state in the United States (U.S. Geological Survey, 1996). For example, in 1992 Montana supplied about 40 percent of the U.S. mine production of talc (Virta, 1992). All of this production has come from the large deposits of high purity talc in the southwestern part of the state. All Montana talc is currently (1997) extracted from four mines, each within the study area of this map—the open pit operations of the Treasure State, Regal, and Yellowstone mines and the underground operation of the Beaverhead mine (see map numbers 1-4 on list and map to the left). The related mineral chlorite is mined at the Antler mine, located nearby, but outside of the study area in the Highland Mountains. Montana talc has at least two market advantages: (1) some deposits are very large and near surface, allowing economic mining by open pit methods; and (2) the deposits are of high purity and lack tremolite or other amphibole mineral contaminants (such as absestos) that occur in some other talc-rich deposits. Talc from southwest Montana is used in ceramics, paint, paper, plastics, cosmetics, rubber, roofing, flooring, caulking, and agricultural applications. The talc is also used in the processes of recycling paper and plastics. Talc was first discovered in the early 1900's at the present site of the Yellowstone mine (Perry, 1948, p. 9). Modest production began in 1942 from shallow pits and adits, supplying steatite (massive, compact, high-purity) talc that was used to make ceramic insulators. The southwest Montana talc industry grew to become a significant part of the region's economy; this history is described by Perry (1948), Olson (1976), and Berg (1997). Exploration and development are likely to continue for the foreseeable future for several reasons: (1) mines are active in the area at present and an infrastructure for talc processing exists; (2) large changes in domestic and export talc markets are not

  8. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  9. Energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Yin, Yarui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    In order to address the problem of optimizing the spectrum resources and power consumption in elastic optical networks (EONs), we investigate the potential gains by jointly employing the light-tree splitting and traffic grooming for multicast requests. An energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting (EED-MTGS-LS) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we design a traffic pre-processing mechanism to decide the multicast requests' routing order, which considers the request's bandwidth requirement and physical hops synthetically. Then, by dividing a light-tree to some sub-light-trees and grooming the request to these sub-light-trees, the light-tree sharing ratios of multicast requests can be improved. What's more, a priority scheduling vector is constructed, which aims to improve the success rate of spectrum assignment for grooming requests. Finally, a grooming strategy is designed to optimize the total power consumption by reducing the use of transponders and IP routers during routing. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the spectrum utilization and save the power consumption.

  10. Dopamine receptor modulation of repetitive grooming actions in the rat: potential relevance for Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer L; Rajbhandari, Abha K; Berridge, Kent C; Aldridge, J Wayne

    2010-03-31

    Studies of rodent grooming can provide valuable insight for dopamine contributions to the initiation, organization, and repetition of motor patterns. This information is useful for understanding how brain dysfunctions contribute to movement disorders such as Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder, in which patients are driven to reiterate particular movement patterns. In rodents, dopamine D1 receptor stimulation causes a complex behavioral super-stereotypy in the form of excessive production and rigid execution of whole sequences of movements known as syntactic grooming chains. Sequential super-stereotypy of grooming chains may be particularly advantageous for modeling movement sequences and treatments in Tourette syndrome and related disorders. Here, we report that co-administration of haloperidol, one available treatment for Tourette syndrome and primarily a D2 receptor antagonist, prevented D1 stimulation with SKF38393 from inducing sequential super-stereotypy, which manifests as an exaggeration of the tendency to complete all four phases of a syntactic chain in rigid serial order once the first phase has begun. In a separate experiment, we showed that in contrast to acute D1 agonist administration, 39h withdrawal from chronic (3weeks) administration of the D1 antagonist SCH23390 (which has been suggested to increase D1 receptor expression in the basal ganglia) did not elicit sequential super-stereotypy after drug cessation. Instead, rats suddenly removed from repeated SCH23390 spent more time performing simple stereotypies that included intense scratching and biting behaviors. Together, these results have implications for understanding how dopamine receptors facilitate particular stereotypies manifest in animal models of Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder.

  11. Successful Female Mountaineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANSIYIN

    2004-01-01

    The Third Mountaineering Meet took place from September 26 to October 8, 2003. It was sponsored by the Tibet Association for Mountaineers and undertaken by the Tibet Mountaineering Team and the Tibet Mountaineering School.

  12. Combining snow depth and innovative skier flow measurements in order to improve snow grooming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmagnola, Carlo Maria; Albrecht, Stéphane; Hargoaa, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades, ski resort managers have massively improved their snow management practices, in order to adapt their strategies to the inter-annual variability in snow conditions and to the effects of climate change. New real-time informations, such as snow depth measurements carried out on the ski slopes by grooming machines during their daily operations, have become available, allowing high saving, efficiency and optimization gains (reducing for instance the groomer fuel consumption and operation time and the need for machine-made snow production). In order to take a step forward in improving the grooming techniques, it would be necessary to keep into account also the snow erosion by skiers, which depends mostly on the snow surface properties and on the skier attendance. Today, however, most ski resort managers have only a vague idea of the evolution of the skier flows on each slope during the winter season. In this context, we have developed a new sensor (named Skiflux) able to measure the skier attendance using an infrared beam crossing the slopes. Ten Skiflux sensors have been deployed during the 2016/17 winter season at Val Thorens ski area (French Alps), covering a whole sector of the resort. A dedicated software showing the number of skier passages in real time as been developed as well. Combining this new Skiflux dataset with the snow depth measurements from grooming machines (Snowsat System) and the snow and meteorological conditions measured in-situ (Liberty System from Technoalpin), we were able to create a "real-time skiability index" accounting for the quality of the surface snow and its evolution during the day. Moreover, this new framework allowed us to improve the preparation of ski slopes, suggesting new strategies for adapting the grooming working schedule to the snow quality and the skier attendance. In the near future, this work will benefit from the advances made within the H2020 PROSNOW project ("Provision of a prediction system allowing

  13. Human impacts to mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  14. Changes in the daily range of the air temperature in the mountainous part of Slovakia within the possible context of global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Damborská

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mean global and regional air temperatures have increased in the last several decades more than at any time during the history of instrumental measurement. Because of changes in the energy balance of the daily regime of the Earth's surface, it seems that the daily minimum temperature will increase more than the daily maximum one. The general theoretical analysis have indicated the daily range (TR of air temperatures decrease, but they are also influenced by several other factors such as topography, wind, solar radiation, cloudiness, humidity, soil moisture, upwind and lee effects, etc. This paper contains a sample from an analysis of past conditions showing changes in TR at several Slovak stations from 1961–2010 and possible changes in TR up to the time frame of the year 2100 using climate change scenarios based on four climatic models adopted in Slovakia (global CGCM3.1 and ECHAM5, regional KNMI and MPI and three emission scenarios (IPCC SRES A2, B1 and A1B. The trends and correlations of daily air temperature ranges with other climatic variables were analyzed.

  15. Mountain medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen

    2016-01-01

    Travelling to high altitudes is an increasingly popular form of recreational holiday. Individual medical advice may be essential for certain groups of individuals such as patients with chronic disorders, pregnant women or children. This is the second part in a series of two articles on mountain...

  16. Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Changbai Mountains are located within the boundaries of Antu County, Fusong County and Changbai County of Jilin City of Jilin Province. They cover a total area of more than 200,000 hectares and is one of the largest nature preserves in China. There are abundant species of living things, such as Dongbei Tiger, sika, sable and

  17. Context-dependent differences in grooming behavior among the NIH heterogeneous stock and the Roman high- and low-avoidance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estanislau, C; Díaz-Morán, S; Cañete, T; Blázquez, G; Tobeña, A; Fernández-Teruel, A

    2013-12-01

    Grooming occurs during/after stress and seems to accompany dearousal. Here, grooming was investigated under testing situations involving different levels of aversiveness, taking advantage of differences among three rat strains in fearfulness/anxiety. Inbred Roman High Avoidance (RHA-I) rats are less anxious/fearful than inbred Roman Low Avoidance (RLA-I). The outbred genetically heterogeneous stock of rats (NIH-HS), which resembles the RLA-I in many behavioral traits, was also studied. Adult male rats (RLA-I: n=9, RHA-I: n=10, NIH-HS: n=12) were observed for 30min in: a novel open-field, a novel hole-board and in the home-cage. They were also observed during two-way active avoidance training. Differences in grooming depended on test situation: (a) No differences were found in the home-cage. (b) While tested in a novel environment, RHA-I showed less grooming activity than the other rats. (c) After avoidance responses appeared, differences among the strains were opposite to the observed in novelty tests. Furthermore, results suggest that (i) grooming is mostly suppressed when assured aversive experience is under way; (ii) rostral grooming prevails when experience with aversive stimuli is unpredictable (novelty) or potential (avoidance training); (iii) body grooming increases for a period in novel environments. In general, our results support that grooming takes place during dearousal.

  18. Histidine decarboxylase knockout mice, a genetic model of Tourette syndrome, show repetitive grooming after induced fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meiyu; Li, Lina; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Pittenger, Christopher

    2015-05-19

    Tics, such as are seen in Tourette syndrome (TS), are common and can cause profound morbidity, but they are poorly understood. Tics are potentiated by psychostimulants, stress, and sleep deprivation. Mutations in the gene histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) have been implicated as a rare genetic cause of TS, and Hdc knockout mice have been validated as a genetic model that recapitulates phenomenological and pathophysiological aspects of the disorder. Tic-like stereotypies in this model have not been observed at baseline but emerge after acute challenge with the psychostimulant d-amphetamine. We tested the ability of an acute stressor to stimulate stereotypies in this model, using tone fear conditioning. Hdc knockout mice acquired conditioned fear normally, as manifested by freezing during the presentation of a tone 48h after it had been paired with a shock. During the 30min following tone presentation, knockout mice showed increased grooming. Heterozygotes exhibited normal freezing and intermediate grooming. These data validate a new paradigm for the examination of tic-like stereotypies in animals without pharmacological challenge and enhance the face validity of the Hdc knockout mouse as a pathophysiologically grounded model of tic disorders.

  19. Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection with population-limiting respiratory disease in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; VanderSchalie, John; Fischer, Allison; Knowles, Donald P; Herndon, David R; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Weiser, Glen C; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2008-02-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population-limiting disease in bighorn sheep in much of western North America. Previous investigators have isolated diverse bacteria from the lungs of affected sheep, but no single bacterial species is consistently present, even within single epizootics. We obtained high-quality diagnostic specimens from nine pneumonic bighorn sheep in three populations and analyzed the bacterial populations present in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of seven by using a culture-independent method (16S rRNA gene amplification and clone library analyses). Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was detected as a predominant member of the pneumonic lung flora in lambs with early lesions of bronchopneumonia. Specific PCR tests then revealed the consistent presence of M. ovipneumoniae in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep in this study, and M. ovipneumoniae was isolated from lung specimens of five of the animals. Retrospective application of M. ovipneumoniae PCR to DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues of historical adult bighorn sheep necropsy specimens supported the association of this agent with bronchopneumonia (16/34 pneumonic versus 0/17 nonpneumonic sheep were PCR positive [P M. ovipneumoniae antibody-positive animals and the occurrence of current or recent historical bronchopneumonia problems (seropositive animals detected in 9/9 versus 0/9 pneumonic and nonpneumonic populations, respectively [P M. ovipneumoniae is strongly associated with bronchopneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep and is a candidate primary etiologic agent for this disease.

  20. Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Infection with Population-Limiting Respiratory Disease in Free-Ranging Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Potter, Kathleen A.; VanderSchalie, John; Fischer, Allison; Knowles, Donald P.; Herndon, David R.; Rurangirwa, Fred R.; Weiser, Glen C.; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2008-01-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population-limiting disease in bighorn sheep in much of western North America. Previous investigators have isolated diverse bacteria from the lungs of affected sheep, but no single bacterial species is consistently present, even within single epizootics. We obtained high-quality diagnostic specimens from nine pneumonic bighorn sheep in three populations and analyzed the bacterial populations present in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of seven by using a culture-independent method (16S rRNA gene amplification and clone library analyses). Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was detected as a predominant member of the pneumonic lung flora in lambs with early lesions of bronchopneumonia. Specific PCR tests then revealed the consistent presence of M. ovipneumoniae in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep in this study, and M. ovipneumoniae was isolated from lung specimens of five of the animals. Retrospective application of M. ovipneumoniae PCR to DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues of historical adult bighorn sheep necropsy specimens supported the association of this agent with bronchopneumonia (16/34 pneumonic versus 0/17 nonpneumonic sheep were PCR positive [P M. ovipneumoniae antibody-positive animals and the occurrence of current or recent historical bronchopneumonia problems (seropositive animals detected in 9/9 versus 0/9 pneumonic and nonpneumonic populations, respectively [P M. ovipneumoniae is strongly associated with bronchopneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep and is a candidate primary etiologic agent for this disease. PMID:18057131

  1. Influence of grooming on Rhipicephalus microplus tick infestation and serum cortisol rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferreira Pessoa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grooming is an important factor on animal resistance to ticks. Rhipicephalus microplus is the most pathogenic cattle tick in Brazil causing death in susceptible animals. Cortisol is the hormone of stress. The influence of grooming on tick infestation and serum cortisol level was studied in 16 Holstein heifers from fifth to eight-month-old. They were infested with 10,000 larvae in June/20/2011. Half of them used a necklace made of wood strips and had an infestation chamber made by cotton cloth covering about 50 cm diameter of the shaved flank, fixed at the skin in both sides with adhesive to prevent larvae to escape from the infestation chamber and the amount of larvae was divided into the two chambers. Such artifacts had the purpose to avoid grooming. The heifers remained all the tick parasitic life cycle in individual pens inside a closed shed at Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, São Paulo State. Tick females bigger than 4.5 mm were counted in the right side from day 20 to 22 after the artificial infestation. The tick recovery rate was calculated by adding and multiplying by two the number of ticks counted, assuming that 5,000 female larvae had infested the cattle. Immediately before infestation (day 0 and in day2, day8, and day17 after infestation, blood samples were collected using vacuum tubes, in the morning (8:30 – 10:00 A.M.. Cortisol was measured by immunoassay (EIA and the D.O. (optical density at 420 nm was converted in ng of cortisol/mL of serum sample. The experimental design was randomized with 8 replications. Data from serum cortisol were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using the presence of the artifacts (necklace and chamber and sampling day as independent variables and serum cortisol as the dependent variable. In the analyse of tick recovery rate, the presence of artifacts was the independent variable and tick recovery rate the dependent variable. The presence of

  2. [Modeling of species distribution using topography and remote sensing data, with vascular plants of the Tukuringra Range low mountain belt (Zeya state Nature Reserve, Amur Region) as a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudov, S V

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of maximum entropy method embedded in MaxEnt software, the cartographic models are designed for spatial distribution of 63 species of vascular plants inhabiting low mountain belt of the Tukuringra Range. Initial data for modeling were actual points of a species occurrence, data on remote sensing (multispectral space snapshots by Landsat), and a digital topographic model. It is found out that the structure of factors contributing to the model is related to species ecological amplitude. The distribution of stenotopic species is determined, mainly, by the topography, which thermal and humidity conditions of habitats are associated with. To the models for eurytopic species, variables formed on the basis of remote sensing contribute significantly, those variables encompassing the parameters of the soil-vegetable cover. In course of the obtained models analyzing, three principal groups of species are revealed that have similar distribution pattern. Species of the first group are restricted in their distribution by the slopes of the. River Zeya and River Giluy gorges. Species of the second group are associated with the southern macroslope of the range and with southern slopes of large rivers' valleys. The third group incorporates those species that are distributed over the whole territory under study.

  3. Spatial modelling of organic carbon in burned mountain soils using hyperspectral images, field datasets and NiR spectroscopy (Cantabrian Range; NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Susana; Peón, Juanjose; Recondo, Carmen; Calleja, Javier

    2014-05-01

    In the North-West of the Cantabrian Range (north of Spain) the climate is oceanic and vegetation cover is continuous. Nevertheless, in the western part of the territory fires are very common, although small in size; their recurrence affects severely to soil properties. Soil organic matter is seriously affected by fires and suffers changes in stock, composition and distribution. In former researches stocks of oxidizable organic carbon increases in these burnt soils (32 Mg/ha in non-burned in front of 90 Mg/ha of oxidizable carbon measured in burned forest soils); however, biochart compounds, which are typically produced by fires, have not been found in all the fire-affected soils. In order to perfect a cartographic technique to identify areas with increases in soil carbon stocks caused by historical fire management we try to test a technique to transfer spectral calibrated model of soil organic carbon to hyperspectral images (AHS sensor). Total (TOC) and oxidizable carbon (OC) were measured in a population of 89 soil samples. OC mean was 19, 48 with STD 10,32. The samples were scanning with VNIR-SWIR spectrometer (350-2500nm) and chemometric model of OC was calibrated with very high level of adjust (R2 0,85) using Unscrambler 10.3. In order to transfer the chemiometric model to the hyperspectral images the model was recalculated using only the wavelengths present in the hyperspectral images (AHS sensor with cannels in 0,43-1,03;1,55-1,75;1,99-2,54 and 3,3-5,4nm of wavelengths). The most highlighting result was the increase in the adjust of model (R2 0,89) when the wavelengths were restricted between 2200 to 2400 nm. The model was regionalized to a large area using Arc Map 10 and crossing validate with RMSE 10. Finally, in order to analyze the influence of the relief in the OC landscape pattern the slope steepness was considered. Digital Terrain Model with 10m of resolution was used. Those areas with long, steep hillsides covered with heaths have lower amounts of OC

  4. "Groom"-ing the Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Art educators are aware that one way to inspire students is to introduce them to prominent artists. They all know that many students have preconceived notions that artists only become well-known after death, or that a life of art means a life of poverty. To open the students' eyes, the author always tries to include lessons about successful,…

  5. Bats (CHIROPTERA) and their zoogeographic distribution characteristics in the Qinling and Daba Mountain Ranges%秦岭和大巴山区翼手类及其动物地理分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴家炎; 裴俊峰

    2011-01-01

    There have been different ideas over whether or not the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges are part of the dividing line in Central China between the Palaearctic realm and the Oriental realm in the zoogeographical distribution of animals. Our predecessors have tried to prove this hypothesis from the perspectives of different disciplines by conducting surveys of birds, fishes, amphibians, reptiles and some mammals. The authors have carried out 3 major collections of bat ( CHIROPTERA) specimens in the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges since 1964. Over 2 000 obtained specimens were I-dentified and classified as 32 species belonging to 4 families and 4 subfamilies. The analytical results indicate that 23 species belong to the Oriental realm, accounting for 71. 8% of the total, and 9 belong to the Palaearctic realm, accounting for 28. 2%. These species are all seen in every Chinese zoogeographic region and their frequencies range as follows: Central China region, Southwest China region, South China region, North China region, Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang region, and Qinghai-Xizang region. Some of China' s endemic genera and species, including monotypic ones, also are distributed in the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges. The authors believe that bats are a class affected by climate, topography, and vegetation , and their geographic distribution is relatively sensitive and therefore restricted. According to the regional composition and distribution characteristics of bats in the Qinling and Daba ranges, the Oriental realm is limited to the northern slopes of Qinling range while the Palaearctic realm gradually declines in number from the southern slopes of Qinling range to the northern slopes of Daba range. There is a gradual transition for bats between the two realms in the southern slopes of the Qinling range and the northern slopes of Daba range, demonstrating that this is a transitional region for bats. All this further proves that the view is correct to consider the Qinling

  6. Timing of Pleistocene glacial oscillations recorded in the Cantabrian Mountains (North Iberia): correlation of glacial and periglacial sequences from both sides of the range using a multiple-dating method approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimón; Bourlès, Didier

    2015-04-01

    The Cantabrian Mountains is a coastal mountain range up to 2648 m altitude located at 43oN latitude and directly influenced by the North Atlantic climate oscillations. Although nowadays it is fully deglaciatied, glacial sediments and landforms are clearly preserved elsewhere above 1600 m. Particularly, glacial evidence in the central Cantabrian Mountains suggests the formation of an icefield in the headwaters of the Porma and Esla catchments drained by glaciers up to 1-6 km in length in the northern slope and 19 km-long in the southern slope, with their fronts at minimum altitudes of 900 and 1150 m asl respectively (Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al., 2014). Numerical ages obtained from the base of the Brañagallones ice-dammed deposit and one of the lateral moraines that are damming this deposit suggest that the local glacial maximum was prior to ca 33.5 cal ka BP in the Monasterio Valley (see data compiled in Rodriguez-Rodríguez et al., in press). Currently, our research is focused on developing a full chronology of glacial oscillations in both sides of the range and investigating their paleoclimate significance and relationship with glacial asymmetry through the combined use of surface exposure, OSL and radiocarbon dating methods. In this work, we present 47 10Be surface exposure ages obtained from boulders in moraines, glacial erratic boulders and rock glaciers in the Monasterio and Porma valleys. The glacial record of these valleys was chosen because of: (i) its good preservation state; (ii) the occurrence of a quartz-rich sandstone formation; and (iii) the availability of previous 14C and OSL numerical ages. Sampling sites were selected considering the relative age of glacial stages to cover as complete as possible the history of Pleistocene glaciations in the studied area, from the glacial maximum stage to the prevalence of periglacial conditions. Preliminary results suggest the occurrence of several glacial advances of similar extent at ca 150 - 50 ka followed

  7. Deficiency of antinociception and excessive grooming induced by acute immobilization stress in Per1 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Zhouqiao; Zhou, Linglin; Li, Huili; Teng, Huajing; Dai, Wei; Wang, Yongqing; Sun, Zhong Sheng

    2011-01-14

    Acute stressors induce changes in numerous behavioral parameters through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Several important hormones in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) play the roles in these stress-induced reactions. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and corticosterone are considered as molecular markers for stress-induced grooming behavior. Oxytocin in PVN is an essential modulator for stress-induced antinociception. The clock gene, Per1, has been identified as an effecter response to the acute stresses, but its function in neuroendocrine stress systems remains unclear. In the present study we observed the alterations in grooming and nociceptive behaviors induced by acute immobilization stress in Per1 mutant mice and other genotypes (wild types and Per2 mutant). The results displayed that stress elicited a more robust effect on grooming behavior in Per1 mutant mice than in other genotypes. Subsequently, the obvious stress-induced antinociception was observed in the wild-type and Per2 mutant mice, however, in Per1 mutant, this antinociceptive effects were partially-reversed (mechanical sensitivity), or over-reversed to hyperalgesia (thermal sensitivity). The real-time qPCR results showed that in PVN, there were stress-induced up-regulations of Crh, Avp and c-fos in all of genotypes; moreover, the expression change of Crh in Per1 mutant mice was much larger than in others. Another hormonal gene, Oxt, was up-regulated induced by stress in wild-type and Per2 mutant but not in Per1 mutant. In addition, the stress significantly elevated the serum corticosterone levels without genotype-dependent differences, and accordingly the glucocorticoid receptor gene, Nr3c1, expressed with a similar pattern in PVN of all strains. Taken together, the present study indicated that in acute stress treated Per1 mutant mice, there are abnormal hormonal responses in PVN, correlating with the aberrant

  8. Aggression, grooming and group-level cooperation in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus): insights from social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Maiya, Arun S; Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y

    2011-08-01

    The form of animal social systems depends on the nature of agonistic and affiliative interactions. Social network theory provides tools for characterizing social structure that go beyond simple dyadic interactions and consider the group as a whole. We show three groups of capuchin monkeys from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, where there are strong connections between key aspects of aggression, grooming, and proximity networks, and, at least among females, those who incur risk to defend their group have particular "social personalities." Although there is no significant correlation for any of the network measures between giving and receiving aggression, suggesting that dominance relationships do not follow a simple hierarchy, strong correlations emerge for many measures between the aggression and grooming networks. At the local, but not global, scale, receiving aggression and giving grooming are strongly linked in all groups. Proximity shows no correlation with aggression at either the local or the global scale, suggesting that individuals neither seek out nor avoid aggressors. Yet, grooming has a global but not local connection to proximity. Extensive groomers who tend to direct their efforts at other extensive groomers also spend time in close proximity to many other individuals. These results indicate the important role that prosociality plays in shaping female social relationships. We also show that females who receive the least aggression, and thus pay low costs for group living, are most likely to participate in group defense. No consistent "social personality" traits characterize the males who invest in group defense.

  9. Examination of Ethnic and Policy Issues in Grooming Preferences and Ethnic Hairstyles of African American Women in Corporate America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Renee Payne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For a century, college-trained, professional racial minorities: specifically, African American women with a preference in grooming methods have contributed to the labor market; however, in the new millennium, they are often discriminated against, scoffed at, isolated, and demoralized based on ethnic hairstyles. Research studies have distinguished a depth of research on this and conversely there are limited studies on racial minorities, in particular among grooming preferences in ethnic hairstyles. Studies have shown that in progressive companies, racial minorities and African American women who wear ethnic hairstyles had their employment terminated with prejudice. With regard to these case studies and findings, one could argue that in this nation there is freedom of speech and inequality in expression. For this reason, this research is very necessary to discover variables in ethnic and policy issues in grooming preferences with regard to the ethnic hairstyles of African American women as it relates to employers, whereat cohesive practices in diversity and policies address imposing construct in the labor market. This research will not address every ethnical concern in the labor market; yet, it responds to a call in the literature to define managerial deficiencies against racial minorities: in particular, African American women in grooming preferences.

  10. Himalayan Mountain Range, Taklimakan Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Looking north from Kashmir India (27.5N, 76.5E) into the Tibetan Plateau and beyond, the Taklimakan Desert of far western China appears to be covered with an extensive layer of haze that blankets the entire region. Reaching even into the western Siberian Plains of the CIS. This rugged land is one of the world's richest treasure troves of mineral wealth but the accessability into this remote area is so difficult that it is not yet economically feasible.

  11. Evaluation of beach grooming techniques on Escherichia coli density in foreshore sand at North Beach, Racine, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzelman, Julie L.; Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Jackson, Emma; Bagley, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of Escherichia coli(E. coli) in bathing waters at North Beach, a popular recreational site in Racine, Wisconsin, have been a persistent problem often resulting in the issuance of poor water quality advisories. Moreover, waterfowl (mostly Larus delawarensis and L. argentatus) in nearshore and offshore areas are common and may serve as non-point sources for bacterial contamination of recreational waters. Current beach management practice involves daily mechanical grooming of the nearshore sand for aesthetics and removal of hazardous debris. However, this practice has not been evaluated in terms of its effects on E. coli loading to beach sand and potential introduction to contiguous swimming water. In this study, we tested E. coli responses to three treatments: mechanical groomer, daily and twice weekly hand raking, and a control (no raking/grooming). A randomized block design consisted of replicated treatments and one control (10 each), for a total of 40 blocks sampled daily for 10 days. Foreshore sand samples were collected by hand coring to an average depth of 10 cm. Median E. colirecovered were 73 (mechanically groomed), 27 (hand-raked daily), 32 (hand-raked twice weekly), and 22 (control) colony-forming units (CFU) per gram dry weight sand. E. colicounts in sand that was groomed were significantly higher than hand rakings and control (p grooming efficacy and the importance of understanding non-point sources of bacterial contamination.

  12. Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W

    2014-06-01

    Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods.

  13. Structural and functional analysis of single neurons to correlate synaptic connectivity with grooming behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kays, Ibrahim; Cvetkovska, Vedrana; Chen, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    We describe a protocol to image the complex axonal branching structure of identified mechanosensory neurons in Drosophila, combined with a behavioral assay to evaluate the functional output of the neuron. The stimulation of identified mechanosensory neurons in live animals produces a stereotyped grooming reflex. The mechanosensory axonal arbor within the CNS is subsequently labeled with a lipophilic fluorescent dye and imaged by fluorescence microscopy. The behavioral output can therefore be correlated to the axonal morphology of the stimulated neuron in the same animal. Combining this protocol with genetic analysis provides a powerful tool for identifying the roles of molecules involved in different aspects of hard-wired neural circuit formation underlying an innate behavior. From behavioral analysis to axonal imaging, the protocol takes 4 d.

  14. Traffic Grooming in WDM Optical Networks%WDM光网络中的业务疏导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊; 刘华; 曾庆济; 肖鹏程; 刘继民; 徐捷

    2002-01-01

    目前WDM光网络普通用户大量的一般业务请求数目及波长通道带宽的不断增加极大的增加了网络中电层和光层设备的处理负担,增加了网络成本.对低速电信号复用到高速光通道进行优化,减少网络电层设备的使用,降低网络成本的业务疏导(Traffic Grooming)技术成为目前光网络研究的一个热点.本文主要介绍了WDM光网络中的业务疏导问题的基本概念、技术特点、国内外研究现状进行了总结.

  15. Necropsy findings in dogs that died during grooming or other pet service procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Anna Carolina Barbosa Esteves; Rego, Alexandre Aparecido Mattos da Silva; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2013-09-01

    Procedures involved in grooming, bathing, and other pet services can often lead animals to death. Of the necropsies of 1391 animals carried out at a private diagnostic laboratory in Sao Paulo, Brazil from 2004 to 2009, 94 were dogs that died during the above-mentioned procedures. Young male dogs and small breeds like Poodle Miniature, Yorkshire Terrier, and Lhasa Apso were most frequently observed. Blunt-force trauma was responsible for the deaths of 31% of the animals, with a higher incidence of trauma to the head, characterized chiefly by fractures and nervous tissue lesions. In the other 69% of cases, the animals showed signs of stress, and died due to pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. As we cannot rule out the intentional character in some situations, this article provides veterinary forensic support for veterinarians and pet owners, especially in lawsuits, helping in finding the cause of animal's death in such pet services.

  16. Groomed jets in heavy-ion collisions: sensitivity to medium-induced bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    2017-04-21

    We argue that contemporary jet substructure techniques might facilitate a more direct measurement of hard medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung in heavy-ion collisions, and focus specifically on the "soft drop declustering" procedure that singles out the two leading jet substructures. Assuming coherent jet energy loss, we find an enhancement of the distribution of the energy fractions shared by the two substructures at small subjet energy caused by hard medium-induced gluon radiation. Departures from this approximation are discussed, in particular, the effects of colour decoherence and the contamination of the grooming procedure by soft background. Finally, we propose a complementary observable, that is the ratio of the two-pronged probability in Pb-Pb to proton-proton collisions and discuss its sensitivity to various energy loss mechanisms.

  17. Groomed jets in heavy-ion collisions: sensitivity to medium-induced bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    2016-01-01

    We argue that contemporary jet substructure techniques might facilitate a more direct measurement of hard medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung in heavy-ion collisions, and focus specifically on the "soft drop declustering" procedure that singles out the two leading jet substructures. Assuming coherent jet energy loss, we find an enhancement of the distribution of the energy fractions shared by the two substructures at small subjet energy caused by hard medium-induced gluon radiation. Departures from this approximation are discussed, in particular, the effects of colour decoherence and the contamination of the grooming procedure by soft background. Finally, we propose a complementary observable, that is the ratio of the two-pronged probability in Pb-Pb to proton-proton collisions and discuss its sensitivity to various energy loss mechanisms.

  18. Repetitive grooming and sensorimotor abnormalities in an ephrin-A knockout model for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzman, Rachel; Forcelli, Patrick A; Griffey, Christopher J; Kromer, Lawrence F

    2015-02-01

    EphA receptors and ephrin-A ligands play important roles in neural development and synaptic plasticity in brain regions where expression persists into adulthood. Recently, EPHA3 and EPHA7 gene mutations were linked with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and developmental neurological delays, respectively. Furthermore, deletions of ephrin-A2 or ephrin-A3, which exhibit high binding affinity for EphA3 and EphA7 receptors, are associated with subtle deficits in learning and memory behavior and abnormalities in dendritic spine morphology in the cortex and hippocampus in mice. To better characterize a potential role for these ligands in ASDs, we performed a comprehensive behavioral characterization of anxiety-like, sensorimotor, learning, and social behaviors in ephrin-A2/-A3 double knockout (DKO) mice. The predominant phenotype in DKO mice was repetitive and self-injurious grooming behaviors such as have been associated with corticostriatal circuit abnormalities in other rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistent with ASDs specifically, DKO mice exhibited decreased preference for social interaction in the social approach assay, decreased locomotor activity in the open field, increased prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and a shift towards self-directed activity (e.g., grooming) in novel environments, such as marble burying. Although there were no gross deficits in cognitive assays, subtle differences in performance on fear conditioning and in the Morris water maze resembled traits observed in other rodent models of ASD. We therefore conclude that ephrin-A2/-A3 DKO mice have utility as a novel ASD model with an emphasis on sensory abnormalities and restricted, repetitive behavioral symptoms.

  19. Melanocortin receptor 4 deficiency affects body weight regulation, grooming behavior, and substrate preference in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Joram D; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J M; Brans, Maike A D; Brakkee, Jan H; Toonen, Pim W; Garner, Keith M; Adan, Roger A H; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis-induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein(79-129) (AgRP(79-129)), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function.

  20. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ... New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases ...

  1. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  2. Mountain Child: Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.

  3. 75 FR 37353 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Mountain Plover as Threatened

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    .... Mountain plovers breed in the western Great Plains and Rocky Mountain States from the Canadian border to... range; (4) Effects of range management on mountain plover habitat; (5) Declines in burrowing mammals and...; Listing the Mountain Plover as Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION:...

  4. Genotypic variability and relationships between mite infestation levels, mite damage, grooming intensity, and removal of Varroa destructor mites in selected strains of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Emsen, Berna; Unger, Peter; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate genotypic variability and analyze the relationships between the infestation levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, the rate of damage of fallen mites, and the intensity with which bees of different genotypes groom themselves to remove mites from their bodies. Sets of paired genotypes that are presumably susceptible and resistant to the varroa mite were compared at the colony level for number of mites falling on sticky papers and for proportion of damaged mites. They were also compared at the individual level for intensity of grooming and mite removal success. Bees from the "resistant" colonies had lower mite population rates (up to 15 fold) and higher percentages of damaged mites (up to 9 fold) than bees from the "susceptible" genotypes. At the individual level, bees from the "resistant" genotypes performed significantly more instances of intense grooming (up to 4 fold), and a significantly higher number of mites were dislodged from the bees' bodies by intense grooming than by light grooming (up to 7 fold) in all genotypes. The odds of mite removal were high and significant for all "resistant" genotypes when compared with the "susceptible" genotypes. The results of this study strongly suggest that grooming behavior and the intensity with which bees perform it, is an important component in the resistance of some honey bee genotypes to the growth of varroa mite populations. The implications of these results are discussed.

  5. The effect of queen pheromone status on Varroa mite removal from honey bee colonies with different grooming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different grooming ability and queen pheromone status on mortality rates of Varroa mites (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman), mite damage, and mortality rates of honey bees. Twenty-four small queenless colonies containing either stock selected for high rates of mite removal (n = 12) or unselected stock (n = 12) were maintained under constant darkness at 5 °C. Colonies were randomly assigned to be treated with one of three queen pheromone status treatments: (1) caged, mated queen, (2) a synthetic queen mandibular pheromone lure (QMP), or (3) queenless with no queen substitute. The results showed overall mite mortality rate was greater in stock selected for grooming than in unselected stock. There was a short term transitory increase in bee mortality rates in selected stock when compared to unselected stock. The presence of queen pheromone from either caged, mated queens or QMP enhanced mite removal from clusters of bees relative to queenless colonies over short periods of time and increased the variation in mite mortality over time relative to colonies without queen pheromone, but did not affect the proportion of damaged mites. The effects of source of bees on mite damage varied with time but damage to mites was not reliably related to mite mortality. In conclusion, this study showed differential mite removal of different stocks was possible under low temperature. Queen status should be considered when designing experiments using bioassays for grooming response.

  6. Central generation of grooming motor patterns and interlimb coordination in locusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, A; Laurent, G

    1996-12-15

    Coordinated bursts of leg motoneuron activity were evoked in locusts with deefferented legs by tactile stimulation of sites that evoke grooming behavior. This suggests that insect thoracic ganglia contain central pattern generators for directed leg movements. Motoneuron recordings were made from metathoracic and mesothoracic nerves, after eliminating all leg motor innervation, as well as all input from the brain, subesophageal ganglion, and prothoracic ganglion. Strong, brief trochanteral levator motoneuron bursts occurred, together with silence of the slow and fast trochanteral depressor motoneurons and activation of the common inhibitor motoneuron. The metathoracic slow tibial extensor motoneuron was active in a pattern distinct from its activity during walking or during rhythms evoked by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. Preparations in which the metathoracic ganglion was isolated from all other ganglia could still produce fictive motor patterns in response to tactile stimulation of metathoracic locations. Bursts of trochanteral levator and depressor motoneurons were clearly coordinated between the left and right metathoracic hemiganglia and also between the mesothoracic and the ipsilateral metathoracic ganglia. These data provide clear evidence for centrally generated interlimb coordination in an insect.

  7. Antibacterial properties of saliva: role in maternal periparturient grooming and in licking wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, B L; Powell, K L

    1990-09-01

    Canine saliva was tested for its bactericidal effects against pathogens relevant to the presumed hygienic functions of maternal grooming of the mammary and anogenital areas and licking of wounds. Both female and male saliva were bactericidal against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus canis but only slightly, and nonsignificantly, bactericidal against coagulase positive staphylococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. E. coli is the cause of highly fatal coliform enteritis of neonatal mammals and E. coli and S. canis are the main pathogens implicated in neonatal septicemia of dogs. The bactericidal effects of saliva would facilitate the hygienic function of maternal licking of the mammary and anogenital areas in protecting newborns from these diseases. E. coli and S. canis along with coagulase positive staphylococcus and P. aeruginosa are among the common wound contaminants of dogs. Wound licking, and the application of saliva, would thus reduce wound contamination by E. coli and S. canis. The resistance of staphylococcus to bactericidal effects of saliva may be a factor in the high frequency (46 percent) with which coagulase positive staphylococcus was isolated from wounds compared with much lower frequency (9-17 percent) with which E. coli and S. canis were isolated.

  8. Oxygen isotope, fluid inclusion, microprobe and petrographic studies of the preCambrian granites from the southern Wind River range and the Granite Mountains, central Wyoming, U.S.A.: Constraints on origin, hydrothermal alteration and uranium genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheang, K. K.

    The Granite Mountain is comprised of the granite of Long Creek Mountain and the volumetrically dominant granite of Lankin Dome. Average delta 018 O values in per mil deg/00 of the granite of Long Creek Mountain is 8.2 + or - 0.3 deg/00 (N = 4) and average delta 018 8.5 + or - -0.5 deg/00 (N = 37), values of the two phases from the granite of Lankin Dome are: biotite granites = delta 018 8.5 + or 0.5 deg/00 (N = 37), leucocratic graphite = 8.4 + or - 0.3 deg/00 (N = 12). The average delta 018 values for Louis Lake Batholith are: hornblende-biotite granodiorite = 7.3 + or - 0.3 deg/00 (N = 13) and leucocratic biotite granite = 7.7 + or - 0.1 deg/00 (N = 6). It is concluded from the whole rock oxygen isotopic, mineralogical, chemical and strontium isotopic data that the unaltered granites in the Granite Mountains were probably derived from a uranium enriched source with some peraluminous metasedimentary component which favoured the preconcentration of uranium and thorium, whereas the Louis Lake Batholith was formed by partial melting of igneous source materials that are not strongly enriched in uranium.

  9. The passive river restoration approach as an efficient tool to improve the hydromorphological diversity of rivers - Case study from two river restoration projects in the German lower mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, M.

    2017-09-01

    Intensive use of European rivers during the last hundreds of years has led to profound changes in the physicochemical properties, river morphology, and aquatic faunistic communities. Rectifying these changes and improving the ecological state of all surface water bodies is the central aim of the European Water Frame Directive (WFD), and river restoration measures are the main tool to achieve this goal for many rivers. As the cost-effectiveness of all measures is crucial to the WFD implementation, the approach of the passive river restoration has become very popular over the last decades. But while costs of this approach are minimal, not much is known about the long-term effectiveness of passive river restorations. The research presented here provides essential and in-depth data about the effects of two such restoration measures on the riverbed morphology of a large river of the lower mountain region in Germany (type 9.2). More than 3200 data sets were acquired using the TRiSHa method (Typology of Riverbed Structures and Habitats). The results show a high spatial and temporal diversity and dynamic for all analyzed hydromorphologic parameters - ranging from riverbed sediments, organic structures like dead wood or macrophytes, to the distribution of 32 microhabitat types. The structures and their dynamic depend on the character of the study area (free-flowing or impounded), the location of the study sites within the research area (main channel or restored side channel), and on the occurrence of major flood events (the mapping and sampling were conducted annually from 2006 to 2008 with a 50-year flood event occurring in early 2007). These results show the potential of the passive restoration approach for creating morphologically diverse riverbeds, as habitat diversity and the spatial heterogeneity of the riverbed substrates increased significantly (e.g., more than 40% of all habitat types were only detected in the newly restored side channels). But the results also

  10. Life in the Taihang Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    THE Taihang Mountain Range meanders for 500 kilometers across the territories of Henan, Shanxi and Hebei provinces. It is an important ecological screen for the North China Plain and source of water. In Hebei’s Shexian County sits Wangjinzhuang, a 300-year-old stone village nestled in the mountains.The village is a stone world-lanes, houses, court-yard walls, towers, pavilions, tables, benches and mills are all hewn fom ancient rock. Streets and lanes are paved in stones of various shapes and sizes whose sur-

  11. A sightability model for mountain goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  12. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  13. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  14. WDM光网络中多播业务量疏导方法分析%Analysis of multicast traffic grooming algorithms in WDM mesh networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焕淋; 方强; 雷芳

    2012-01-01

    在光层多播树路由中疏导低速业务实现阻塞率降低和吞吐量提高是光网络比较复杂的联合优化问题.分析了WDM(wave-length division multiplex)网络中多播业务量疏导问题的研究方法和成果,分析比较了静态多播业务和动态多播业务的疏导方法,并讨论了各种多播业务疏导方法性能、特点及存在的问题,最后总结了关于动态多播疏导的未来研究思路.%Grooming the low-speed traffic to reduce the blocking probability and improve throughput in optical layer multicast routing tree is a more complex joint optimization problem. The paper analyzes the methods and results of the optical multicast traffic grooming problem in WDM networks. Also,the multicast static traffic and dynamic traffic grooming algorithms are analyzed and compared in the paper respectively. Furthermore,the authors discuss the performance,characteristics and the existing problems of those algorithms for optical multicast traffic grooming. Finally,we summarize the future research ideas about the methods of dynamic multicast traffic grooming.

  15. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: does the wild or captive origin of group members affect sociality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare.

  16. Response of male mice to odours of female mice in different stages of oestrous cycle: self-grooming behaviour and the effect of castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiraman, Shanmugam; SankarGanesh, Devaraj; Kannan, Soundarapandian; Kamalakkannan, Soundararajan; Nirmala, Natarajan; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2014-01-01

    The behavioural assays were carried out in a Y-maze wherein intact, castrated and testosterone-treated male mice were exposed to oestrus and non-oestrus urine samples. The intact male mice investigated more frequently and spent more time in the Y-maze arm with oestrus urine than in that with non-oestrus urine. In contrast, the castrated mice were not attracted to oestrus urine, whereas testosterone-treated mice showed preference for oestrus urine. The rate of self-grooming was higher in intact males in case of exposure to oestrus urine while the rate was lower with respect to non-oestrus urine. However, castrated mice exhibited less self-grooming behaviour which was partially restored by testosterone treatment. The results suggest that self-grooming behaviour is an indicator of detection and discrimination of oestrus by males, and supports the androgen role in male chemosensory ability to discriminate between oestrus and non-oestrus female odours.

  17. Self-grooming by rodents in social and sexual contexts%社会关系和性关系中的自我理毛行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael H. FERKIN; Stuart T. LEONARD

    2005-01-01

    Arguments swirl about explanations about the function of self-grooming in mammals. For instance, mammals self-groom to remove parasites that maybe transferred from a nearby opposite-sex conspecific during an encounter. Animals also self-groom when they encounter the odor of an opposite-sex conspecific because self-grooming is a re-directed behavior displayed by individuals that are torn between fleeing and fighting. Animals may self-groom to relieve stress and be a form of de-arousal. In other cases, animals may self-groom to indicate their response to conspecifics. The ubiquity of self-grooming in different contexts suggests that it serves multiple functions. Consequently, in this review, we do much to avoid arguments against these other roles for self-grooming. It is not our intent nor do we feel that it is constructive to label self-grooming as being solely a response to anxiety or stress, a mechanism to lower body temperature, or a behavior involved in care of the body surface. This limited view does not accept the possibility that self-grooming serves multiple domains. Rather, in this paper, we focus on a very specific context for self-grooming. That is, when an individual encounters the odors of a conspecific and self-grooms%有很多观点解释了动物自我理毛的作用.例如,动物通过自我理毛可以清除在与附近的同种异性接触期间传播来的寄生虫,当嗅出同种异性的气味时也可能自我理毛,因为自我理毛是一种动物在逃避还是战斗之间所面临的进退两难选择时表现出来的改向行为.动物可以通过自我理毛缓解紧张,因而是一种缓解冲动的方式.在其它情况下,动物自我理毛可能表示对同种个体的反应,它们在不同场合下普遍存在自我理毛行为,表明这种行为有多种功能.因此,在这篇综述中,作者尽量避免自我理毛具有其它功能的争议,我们无意把自我理毛看成一种仅仅是对焦虑和紧张

  18. Rats with differential self-grooming expression in the elevated plus-maze do not differ in anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Adriano Edgar; de Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Chiavegatto, Silvana; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2015-10-01

    Individual differences are important biological predictors for reactivity to stressful stimulation. The extent to which trait differences underlie animal's reactions to conditioned and unconditioned fear stimuli, for example, is still to be clarified. Although grooming behavior has been associated with some aspects of the obsessive-compulsive disorder in humans, its relation with other anxiety disorders is still unknown. Given that grooming behavior could be a component of the whole spectrum of these disorders, in the present study we allocated male Wistar rats in low, intermediate and high self-grooming groups according to the duration of such behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). These groups were then evaluated in unconditioned fear tests, such as the EPM and the open-field, and in conditioned fear tests, such as fear-potentiated startle and fear extinction retention. Additionally, we studied the expression of unconditioned behaviors in marble burying test and the sensorimotor gate function with prepulse inhibition test. Neurochemicals and neuroendocrine parameters were also evaluated, with the quantification of basal corticosterone in the plasma, and dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites in brain structures involved with fear processing. In general, rats classified according to grooming expression showed similar performance in all behavioral tests. Accordingly, corticosterone and monoamine concentrations were similar among groups. Thus, despite grooming expression elicited by different approaches--especially pharmacological ones--has been related with some aspects of anxiety disorders, rats with different expression of spontaneous self-grooming in the EPM do not differ in anxiety-like behaviors nor in neurochemical and neuroendocrine parameters generally associated with anxiety disorders.

  19. Cenozoic Uplift and Denudation of the EW-trending Range of Northern Altun Mountains:Evidence from Apatite Fission Track Data%阿尔金北缘EW向山脉新生代隆升剥露的裂变径迹证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙岳; 陈正乐; 陈柏林; 韩凤彬; 周永贵; 郝瑞祥; 李松彬

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly presents analytical results of apatite fission-track ages to constrain the uplifting characteristics of EW-trending range of Northern Altun Mountains. 22 rock mass samples were collected from Zhuoerbulake, Dapinggou, and Kaladawan in EW-trending mountain range of Northern Altun Mountains. Fission-track ages for these samples range from (62.6±3.5) to (28.3±1.7) Ma with mean track lengths varying from (13.25±0.15) to (14.29±0.1)μm. According to track lengths and measured age data, the authors carried out the inversion simulation on temperature and age of apatite. The results show a specific regularity of the uplifting of Northern Altun Mountains. In the SN direction, the fission-track ages display a uplifting trend from south to north. In the EW direction, the ages of Dapinggou area in the middle mountains were older than those of other areas and confined to Paleocene and Eocene, and imply an uplifting trend from the middle outwards. The similar thermal history simulation lines of all samples and the single peak of track lengths are considered to have been caused by rapid uplifting during the Paleocene-Eocene (63~28 Ma) and steadiness during the Miocene and later periods in the Northern Altun Mountains. A comparative study of the uplifting and exhumation of the whole Altun area shows that the mountains uplifting and denudation of this region had both global and unique features in Cenozoic: the uplifting of the Altun Mountains had universality and regional features in Paleogene, but uplifting and exhumation existed in NEE-trending and NE-trending mountain ranges in Miocene and subsequent period. It is held that the rapid strike-slip Altun fault has had no influence on uplifting and denudation of EW-trending mountain ranges in Northern Altun Mountains since Miocene.%本文主要利用磷灰石裂变径迹测年技术探讨了阿尔金北缘EW向山脉隆升的时空差异特征。22个岩体分别采自阿尔金北缘EW向山体中的卓尔布

  20. The Rock Paintings of the Helan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    THE HelanMountains sit ina corner of theNingxia Hui Autonom-ous Region of north-western China in a widearc running for 250 kmfrom north to south.Insome places the range is20 to 30 km across;the individual moun-tain peaks are on aver-age 1,400 m above sealevel and the high-est peak Shaguozhou,reaches 3,556 m intothe sky.When the YellowRiver enters Ningxia

  1. Jets from Jets: Re-clustering as a tool for large radius jet reconstruction and grooming at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; Swiatlowski, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Jets with a large radius $R\\gtrsim 1$ and grooming algorithms are widely used to fully capture the decay products of boosted heavy particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Unlike most discriminating variables used in such studies, the jet radius is usually not optimized for specific physics scenarios. This is because every jet configuration must be calibrated, insitu, to account for detector response and other experimental effects. One solution to enhance the availability of large-R jet configurations used by the LHC experiments is {\\it jet re-clustering}. Jet re-clustering introduces an intermediate scale $rgroomed jets. Jet re-clustering has the benefit that no additional large-R calibration is necessary, allowing the r...

  2. Mountain Plover [ds109

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Point locations representing observations of mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) feeding and roosting flocks (and occasional individuals) documented during an...

  3. Traffic Grooming in Multi-hop WDM rings%多跳波分复用环网中的业务疏导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘逢清; 钱炎琛; 冯翰林

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the problem of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks for both uniform and non-uniform traffic patterns,an ILP (Interger Linear Programming) algorithm and a heuristic algorithm are presented.The optimization objective of traffic grooming is to minimize the number of optical transceivers and wavelengths for a given traffic matrix.Taking WDM rings as examples,numerical results derived verify the effectiveness of the heuristic algorithm.It also demonstrates that the bigger the scale of ring networks,the more lightpaths reduced by traffic grooming,and the more obvious the effect of traffic grooming.%采用整数线性规划算法和启发式算法对均匀和非均匀业务模式下WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing)网络的业务疏导问题进行研究,优化目标为最小化给定业务矩阵情况下所需光收发机和波长数.以环网为例进行了数值仿真,数值结果验证了启发式算法的有效性,并表明随着环网规模的增大,通过疏导减少的光通道数越来越大,疏导的效果也越来越明显.

  4. Separate and Combined Effects of Behavior Rehearsal and Self-Other Modeling Variations on the Grooming Skill Acquisition of Mentally Retarded Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Richard A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared the separate and combined effects of behavior rehearsal and modeling on grooming skill development of mentally retarded women (N=48). All treatments were superior to the control condition. Modeling and behavior rehearsal were both effective but there was no advantage to combining them. Cost effectiveness favored the other-model procedure.…

  5. Long Hair and the Law: A Look at Constitutional and Title VII Challenges to Public and Private Regulation of Male Grooming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, David P.

    1975-01-01

    Arguments that have been advanced in court by both sides of the controversy are examined, and it is concluded that male grooming regulations may effectively exclude a significant proportion of males from job opportunities or require them to alter their personal appearance for reasons probably unrelated to job performance. (LBH)

  6. Effect of fractionated extracts and isolated pure compounds of Spondias mombin (L. Anacardiaceae) leaves on novelty-induced rearing and grooming behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoka, Abiodun O; Owolabi, Rotimi A; Bamitale, Samuel K; Akomolafe, Rufus O; Aladesanmi, Joseph A; Ukponmwan, Eghe O

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to elucidate the neurotransmitter systems involved in the neurophysiological properties of ethanolic extract, fractions and pure isolates of Spondias mombin leaves in mice (n = 6) after intraperitoneal (i.p.) route of administration.The crude ethanolic extract of Spondian mombin leaves was fractionated using the partitioning method to obtain the ethylacetate, butanolic and aqueous fractions. Open column chromatographic fractionation of the ethylacetate fraction yielded seven sub-fractions, out of which the pure coumaroyl, quercetin and gallic acid derivatives were obtained after purification on Sephadex LH 20. The ethanolic extract, butanolic fraction, ethylacetate subfractions and pure isolates of the Spondian mombin leaves were tested on novelty-induced rearing and grooming behaviours in mice with standard pharmacological tools using the open field method. The extract and its fractions decreased novelty-induced rearing in a dose-dependent manner. While the Coumaroyl derivative had no effect on novelty-induced rearing, it significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of yohimbine, propranolol and haloperidol on novelty-induced rearing. Quercetin significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of yohimbine on novelty-induced rearing. Naloxone significantly potentiated the quercetin-induced suppression of novelty-induced rearing. Gallic acid derivative significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of yohimbine on novelty-induced rearing. Naloxone, atropine and haloperidol pretreatments significantly potentiated gallic acid derivative-induced suppression of novelty-induced rearing.The extract and its fractions had biphasic effect on novelty-induced grooming in mice. Coumaroyl derivative significantly increased novelty-induced grooming, while quercetin and gallic acid derivative decreased novelty-induced grooming significantly. The three pure isolates significantly reversed the effects of yohimbine and atropine on the novelty-induced grooming in

  7. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  8. Mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, D. Archibald; Grundel, Ralph; Dahlsten, Donald L.; Poole, Alan; Gill, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli), a small, cavity-nesting songbird, is one of the most common birds of montane and coniferous forest from southern Arizona and Baja California north to British Columbia and the Yukon territory. This publication describes the life history of the Mountain Chickadee.

  9. Repetitive self-grooming behavior in the BTBR mouse model of autism is blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jill L; Tolu, Seda S; Barkan, Charlotte L; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2010-03-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including well-replicated deficits in reciprocal social interactions and social approach, unusual patterns of ultrasonic vocalization, and high levels of repetitive self-grooming. These phenotypes offer straightforward behavioral assays for translational investigations of pharmacological compounds. Two suggested treatments for autism were evaluated in the BTBR mouse model. Methyl-6-phenylethynyl-pyridine (MPEP), an antagonist of the mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptor, blocks aberrant phenotypes in the Fmr1 mouse model of Fragile X, a comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder with autistic features. Risperidone has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of irritability, tantrums, and self-injurious behavior in autistic individuals. We evaluated the actions of MPEP and risperidone on two BTBR phenotypes, low sociability and high repetitive self-grooming. Open field activity served as an independent control for non-social exploratory activity and motor functions. C57BL/6J (B6), an inbred strain with high sociability and low self-grooming, served as the strain control. MPEP significantly reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, at doses that had no sedating effects on open field activity. Risperidone reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, but only at doses that induced sedation in both strains. No overall improvements in sociability were detected in BTBR after treatment with either MPEP or risperidone. Our findings suggest that antagonists of mGluR5 receptors may have selective therapeutic efficacy in treating repetitive behaviors in autism.

  10. Intermediate-term emotional bookkeeping is necessary for long-term reciprocal grooming partner preferences in an agent-based model of macaque groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Evers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how primates are able to maintain long-term affiliative relationships is still under debate. Emotional bookkeeping (EB, the partner-specific accumulation of emotional responses to earlier interactions, is a candidate mechanism that does not require high cognitive abilities. EB is difficult to study in real animals, due to the complexity of primate social life. Therefore, we developed an agent-based model based on macaque behavior, the EMO-model, that implements arousal and two emotional dimensions, anxiety-FEAR and satisfaction-LIKE, which regulate social behavior. To implement EB, model individuals assign dynamic LIKE attitudes towards their group members, integrating partner-specific emotional responses to earlier received grooming episodes. Two key parameters in the model were varied to explore their effects on long-term affiliative relationships: (1 the timeframe over which earlier affiliation is accumulated into the LIKE attitudes; and (2 the degree of partner selectivity. EB over short and long timeframes gave rise to low variation in LIKE attitudes, and grooming partner preferences were only maintained over one to two months. Only EB over intermediate-term timeframes resulted in enough variation in LIKE attitudes, which, in combination with high partner selectivity, enables individuals to differentiate between regular and incidental grooming partners. These specific settings resulted in a strong feedback between differentiated LIKE attitudes and the distribution of grooming, giving rise to strongly reciprocated partner preferences that could be maintained for longer periods, occasionally up to one or two years. Moreover, at these settings the individual’s internal, socio-emotional memory of earlier affiliative episodes (LIKE attitudes corresponded best to observable behavior (grooming partner preferences. In sum, our model suggests that intermediate-term LIKE dynamics and high partner selectivity seem most plausible for

  11. Child Grooming and Sexual Exploitation: Are South Asian Men the UK Media’s New Folk Devils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha K Gill

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2012, nine men from the Rochdale area of Manchester were found guilty of sexually exploiting a number of underage girls. Media reporting on the trial focused on the fact that eight of the men were of Pakistani descent, while all the girls were white. Framing similar cases in Preston, Rotherham, Derby, Shropshire, Oxford, Telford and Middlesbrough as ethnically motivated, the media incited moral panic over South Asian grooming gangs preying on white girls. While these cases shed light on the broader problem of sexual exploitation in Britain, they also reveal continuing misconceptions that stereotype South Asian men as ‘natural’ perpetrators of these crimes due to culturally-specific notions of hegemonic masculinity. Examining newspaper coverage from 2012 to 2013, this article discusses the discourse of the British media’s portrayal of South Asian men as perpetrators of sexual violence against white victims, inadvertently construing ‘South Asian men’ as ‘folk devils’.

  12. Ontogeny of a social custom in wild chimpanzees: age changes in grooming hand-clasp at Mahale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Michio; Nishida, Toshisada

    2013-02-01

    Among cultural behaviors of chimpanzees, the developmental processes of complex skills involved in tool use are relatively well known. However, few studies have examined the ontogeny of social customs that do not require complex skills. Thus, in this study, we describe the developmental process of the grooming hand-clasp (GHC), one of the well-known social customs of chimpanzees at Mahale. We have collected 383 cases of GHC where at least one of the participants was 15 years old or younger during 1994-2007. First performances of GHC with the mother were observed at around 4-6 years old; the earliest observed age was 4 years and 4 months old. The first performances of GHC with nonrelated females were at around age 9 years, and those with adult males at around 11 years. However, some orphans engaged in GHC earlier than nonorphans. By gradually expanding GHC partners from the mother to other females and then to males, chimpanzees increased the number of GHC partners with age. Young males were observed to perform GHC with larger numbers of partners than were young females. GHC by young chimpanzees was shorter in duration than that among adults. Overall, the ontogeny of GHC showed several dissimilarities with that of tool use and was more an extension of the development of typical grooming behavior. For example, infants did not try to perform GHC initially; instead, mothers were more active in the earliest stages. These results suggest that not all socially learned cultural behaviors are acquired in the way of learning tool use. There may be various ways of learning behavioral patterns that are performed continuously in a group and that consequently comprise culture in chimpanzees.

  13. Pyrethroids and Nectar Toxins Have Subtle Effects on the Motor Function, Grooming and Wing Fanning Behaviour of Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Caitlin J; Softley, Samantha; Williamson, Sally M; Stevenson, Philip C; Wright, Geraldine A

    2015-01-01

    Sodium channels, found ubiquitously in animal muscle cells and neurons, are one of the main target sites of many naturally-occurring, insecticidal plant compounds and agricultural pesticides. Pyrethroids, derived from compounds found only in the Asteraceae, are particularly toxic to insects and have been successfully used as pesticides including on flowering crops that are visited by pollinators. Pyrethrins, from which they were derived, occur naturally in the nectar of some flowering plant species. We know relatively little about how such compounds--i.e., compounds that target sodium channels--influence pollinators at low or sub-lethal doses. Here, we exposed individual adult forager honeybees to several compounds that bind to sodium channels to identify whether these compounds affect motor function. Using an assay previously developed to identify the effect of drugs and toxins on individual bees, we investigated how acute exposure to 10 ng doses (1 ppm) of the pyrethroid insecticides (cyfluthrin, tau-fluvalinate, allethrin and permethrin) and the nectar toxins (aconitine and grayanotoxin I) affected honeybee locomotion, grooming and wing fanning behaviour. Bees exposed to these compounds spent more time upside down and fanning their wings. They also had longer bouts of standing still. Bees exposed to the nectar toxin, aconitine, and the pyrethroid, allethrin, also spent less time grooming their antennae. We also found that the concentration of the nectar toxin, grayanotoxin I (GTX), fed to bees affected the time spent upside down (i.e., failure to perform the righting reflex). Our data show that low doses of pyrethroids and other nectar toxins that target sodium channels mainly influence motor function through their effect on the righting reflex of adult worker honeybees.

  14. Pyrethroids and Nectar Toxins Have Subtle Effects on the Motor Function, Grooming and Wing Fanning Behaviour of Honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin J Oliver

    Full Text Available Sodium channels, found ubiquitously in animal muscle cells and neurons, are one of the main target sites of many naturally-occurring, insecticidal plant compounds and agricultural pesticides. Pyrethroids, derived from compounds found only in the Asteraceae, are particularly toxic to insects and have been successfully used as pesticides including on flowering crops that are visited by pollinators. Pyrethrins, from which they were derived, occur naturally in the nectar of some flowering plant species. We know relatively little about how such compounds--i.e., compounds that target sodium channels--influence pollinators at low or sub-lethal doses. Here, we exposed individual adult forager honeybees to several compounds that bind to sodium channels to identify whether these compounds affect motor function. Using an assay previously developed to identify the effect of drugs and toxins on individual bees, we investigated how acute exposure to 10 ng doses (1 ppm of the pyrethroid insecticides (cyfluthrin, tau-fluvalinate, allethrin and permethrin and the nectar toxins (aconitine and grayanotoxin I affected honeybee locomotion, grooming and wing fanning behaviour. Bees exposed to these compounds spent more time upside down and fanning their wings. They also had longer bouts of standing still. Bees exposed to the nectar toxin, aconitine, and the pyrethroid, allethrin, also spent less time grooming their antennae. We also found that the concentration of the nectar toxin, grayanotoxin I (GTX, fed to bees affected the time spent upside down (i.e., failure to perform the righting reflex. Our data show that low doses of pyrethroids and other nectar toxins that target sodium channels mainly influence motor function through their effect on the righting reflex of adult worker honeybees.

  15. Precipitation and Runoff Simulations of the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains, and Updated Estimates of Ground-Water Inflow and the Ground-Water Budgets for Basin-Fill Aquifers of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, Nevada, and California, from the adjacent Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains ranged from 22,000 to 40,000 acre-feet per year using water-yield and chloride-balance methods. In this study, watershed models were developed for watersheds with perennial streams and for watersheds with ephemeral streams in the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains to provide an independent estimate of ground-water inflow. This report documents the development and calibration of the watershed models, presents model results, compares the results with recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, and presents updated estimates of the ground-water budget for basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley. The model used for the study was the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Geographic Information System software was used to manage spatial data, characterize model drainages, and to develop Hydrologic Response Units. Models were developed for * Two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Carson Range and two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Pine Nut Mountains using measured daily mean runoff, * Ten watersheds with ungaged perennial streams using estimated daily mean runoff, * Ten watershed with ungaged ephemeral streams in the Carson Range, and * A large area of ephemeral runoff near the Pine Nut Mountains. Models developed for the gaged watersheds were used as index models to guide the calibration of models for ungaged watersheds. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for 4 gaged watersheds and for 10 ungaged watersheds in the Carson Range estimated in a previous study. The models were further constrained by annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study to provide

  16. CURRENT STATE OF CONSERVATION, FIRST PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD AND POPULATION ESTIMATION OF THE COASTAL JAGUAR (Panthera onca centralis AND RECORDS OF COMPANION FAUNA OF MEDIUM-SIZED AND HIGHER MAMMALS IN THE PROTECTED FOREST CERRO BLANCO OF THE CHONGÓN COLONCHE MOUNTAIN RANGE, GUAYAQUIL – ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saavedra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chongón-Colonche Mountain Range is important for their goods and environmental services, its high biodiversity, and being one of the few coastal regions of Ecuador, which still houses the coastal Jaguar Panthera onca centralis. In the Forest Protector Cerro Blanco (BPCB, last Southeast extension of the mountain chain, it was developed the field research through the data collection with direct and indirect medium-sized and higher mammals’ records. Besides a Cuddeback Digital camera trap was used, by selecting a sampling point within a probable route of the jaguar. Inspections in a nearby quarry were made to observe traces of major feline registries. The same consolidated past sightings or evidence of witnesses which complemented the study for the determination of the status of the species in the BPCB. The study showed indirect and direct records of white-tailed deer, peccaries, raccoons, agoutis, wild rabbits, howler monkeys, Capuchin white or monkeys, agouti, bears Anteaters and Jaguars from the coast for which it is considered that the BPCB is probably a meeting place between two individuals; however, it is important to note that the results presented are preliminary.

  17. [National Bison Range: Annual narrative report 1924

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes conditions on the National Bison Range during 1924. Wildlife- including buffalo, elk, deer, mountain sheep, predators, rodents, and...

  18. 78 FR 68699 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV... airspace at the Battle Mountain VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigational Aid (VORTAC) navigation aid, Battle Mountain, NV. A favorable comment from the National Business Aviation...

  19. 78 FR 41335 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at the Battle Mountain VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigational Aid (VORTAC) navigation aid, Battle Mountain, NV, to...

  20. 78 FR 58159 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV... Class E airspace at the Battle Mountain VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigational Aid (VORTAC) navigation aid, Battle Mountain, NV, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules...

  1. Modeling the Biophysical Impacts of Global Change in Mountain Biosphere Reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bugmann, H.; Björnsen Gurung, A.; Ewert, F.; Haeberli, W.; Guisan, A.; Fagre, D.; Kääb, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mountains and mountain societies provide a wide range of goods and services to humanity, but they are particularly sensitive to the effects of global environmental change. Thus, the definition of appropriate management regimes that maintain the multiple functions of mountain regions in a time of gre

  2. Effects of Climatic Variability and Change on Upland Vegetation in the Blue Mountains [Chapter 6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky K. Kerns; David C. Powell; Sabine Mellmann-Brown; Gunnar Carnwath; John Kim

    2017-01-01

    The Blue Mountains ecoregion (BME) extends from the Ochoco Mountains in central Oregon to Hells Canyon of the Snake River in extreme northeastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho, and then north to the deeply carved canyons and basalt rimrock of southeastern Washington (see fig. 1.1 in chapter 1). The BME consists of a series of mountain ranges occurring in a southwest to...

  3. Modeling the Biophysical Impacts of Global Change in Mountain Biosphere Reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bugmann, H.; Björnsen Gurung, A.; Ewert, F.; Haeberli, W.; Guisan, A.; Fagre, D.; Kääb, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mountains and mountain societies provide a wide range of goods and services to humanity, but they are particularly sensitive to the effects of global environmental change. Thus, the definition of appropriate management regimes that maintain the multiple functions of mountain regions in a time of

  4. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Timeline

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document details all of the major events having occurred at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal from it's establishment on May 2, 1942 up through the document's release...

  5. Landforms of High Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A. McDougall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Landforms of High Mountains. By Alexander Stahr and Ewald Langenscheidt. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2015. viii + 158 pp. US$ 129.99. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-642-53714-1.

  6. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  7. Diurnal variation of mountain waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain waves could be modified as the boundary layer varies between stable and convective. However case studies show mountain waves day and night, and above e.g. convective rolls with precipitation lines over mountains. VHF radar measurements of vertical wind (1990–2006 confirm a seasonal variation of mountain-wave amplitude, yet there is little diurnal variation of amplitude. Mountain-wave azimuth shows possible diurnal variation compared to wind rotation across the boundary layer.

  8. Acidification in the mountains ?; Foersurning i fjaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerman, E. [National Board of Fisheries, Drottningholm (Sweden). Inst. of Freshwater Research; Engblom, E.; Lingdell, P.E. [Limnodata AB, Skinnskatteberg (Sweden); Melin, E.; Olofsson, E. [Haerjedalens Kommun, Sveg (Sweden)

    1992-12-31

    The present paper is a literature review dealing with the extent of acidification in the Swedish mountain range. The first effects of acidification were noted in the beginning of the 1960`s in the Fulufjaell area in the southernmost part of the mountain range. Since then many studies have been published indicating that the extent of acidification and the negative effects of biota were widespread. However, many scientists have claimed that there is no acidification in the area and that acid surges following snow melt have always been a problem to the fauna due to natural dilution of the water. This is contradicted by this paper. Acidification in this area is caused by anthropogenic emissions of acidifying substances. It is shown that the mountain area has a higher load of airborne pollutants than the surrounding lowland. Lakes are not as badly affected as streams, but an overall loss of alkalinity is found in the entire mountain range and several small ephemeral lakes in the southern part of the range have lost alkalinity completely. There are indications that acidification also affects lichens (Cladonia spp.) negatively, and it is suspected that the abundance of epilithic green algae has increased in streams. Relatively few objects have been limed so far. Re colonization of benthos, fish and birds has been noted after liming. It is recommended that the liming programme is extended. The ultimate goal should be to achieve a pH above 5 in snow to avoid harmful effects to the most sensitive water bodies. 307 refs

  9. Studies of the impact and mitigation of pile-up on large-$R$ and groomed jets in ATLAS at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Large radius jets provide one avenue towards efficient reconstruction of massive boosted objects whose decay products are sufficiently collimated so as to make standard reconstruction techniques impractical. The potentially adverse impact of additional proton-proton interactions on such large jets is assessed for a variety of jet types and hadronic final state topologies. The mitigation of these effects via jet grooming algorithms such as trimming, pruning, and filtering is then studied for high transverse momentum jets at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV using an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the ATLAS detector. A total of 29 jet algorithms and grooming configuration combinations are studied. The application of jet trimming and filtering significantly improves the robustness of large-$R$ jets and reduces their sensitivity to the intense environment of the high-luminosity LHC. The consequence is an overall improvement in the physics potential of searches for heavy boosted objects.

  10. Fine-scale linkage mapping reveals a small set of candidate genes influencing honey bee grooming behavior in response to Varroa mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E Arechavaleta-Velasco

    Full Text Available Populations of honey bees in North America have been experiencing high annual colony mortality for 15-20 years. Many apicultural researchers believe that introduced parasites called Varroa mites (V. destructor are the most important factor in colony deaths. One important resistance mechanism that limits mite population growth in colonies is the ability of some lines of honey bees to groom mites from their bodies. To search for genes influencing this trait, we used an Illumina Bead Station genotyping array to determine the genotypes of several hundred worker bees at over a thousand single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a family that was apparently segregating for alleles influencing this behavior. Linkage analyses provided a genetic map with 1,313 markers anchored to genome sequence. Genotypes were analyzed for association with grooming behavior, measured as the time that individual bees took to initiate grooming after mites were placed on their thoraces. Quantitative-trait-locus interval mapping identified a single chromosomal region that was significant at the chromosome-wide level (p<0.05 on chromosome 5 with a LOD score of 2.72. The 95% confidence interval for quantitative trait locus location contained only 27 genes (honey bee official gene annotation set 2 including Atlastin, Ataxin and Neurexin-1 (AmNrx1, which have potential neurodevelopmental and behavioral effects. Atlastin and Ataxin homologs are associated with neurological diseases in humans. AmNrx1 codes for a presynaptic protein with many alternatively spliced isoforms. Neurexin-1 influences the growth, maintenance and maturation of synapses in the brain, as well as the type of receptors most prominent within synapses. Neurexin-1 has also been associated with autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia in humans, and self-grooming behavior in mice.

  11. Model for predicting mountain wave field uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe; Plougonven, Riwal

    2017-04-01

    Studying the propagation of acoustic waves throughout troposphere requires knowledge of wind speed and temperature gradients from the ground up to about 10-20 km. Typical planetary boundary layers flows are known to present vertical low level shears that can interact with mountain waves, thereby triggering small-scale disturbances. Resolving these fluctuations for long-range propagation problems is, however, not feasible because of computer memory/time restrictions and thus, they need to be parameterized. When the disturbances are small enough, these fluctuations can be described by linear equations. Previous works by co-authors have shown that the critical layer dynamics that occur near the ground produces large horizontal flows and buoyancy disturbances that result in intense downslope winds and gravity wave breaking. While these phenomena manifest almost systematically for high Richardson numbers and when the boundary layer depth is relatively small compare to the mountain height, the process by which static stability affects downslope winds remains unclear. In the present work, new linear mountain gravity wave solutions are tested against numerical predictions obtained with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. For Richardson numbers typically larger than unity, the mesoscale model is used to quantify the effect of neglected nonlinear terms on downslope winds and mountain wave patterns. At these regimes, the large downslope winds transport warm air, a so called "Foehn" effect than can impact sound propagation properties. The sensitivity of small-scale disturbances to Richardson number is quantified using two-dimensional spectral analysis. It is shown through a pilot study of subgrid scale fluctuations of boundary layer flows over realistic mountains that the cross-spectrum of mountain wave field is made up of the same components found in WRF simulations. The impact of each individual component on acoustic wave propagation is discussed in terms of

  12. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of yawning and genital grooming by the aqueous extract of Saccharum officinarum L. (sugarcane) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria T; Gamberini, Maria C; Nasello, Antonia G

    2015-01-01

    Yawning, associated with genital grooming, is a physiological response that may be used for elucidating the mechanism of action of drugs. Preliminary analysis showed that aqueous extract (AE) of Saccharum induced yawns in rats. So, we aimed to quantify these behavioral responses and investigate the pharmacological mechanisms involved in these actions. During 120 min, after AE administration, the yawns and the genital grooming were quantified at 10 min intervals. Since dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are implied in these responses, AE were evaluated in the presence of haloperidol 0.5 mg/kg and atropine 2 mg/kg. AE 0.5 g/kg increased the yawns, effect that was blocked both by haloperidol and atropine. Genital grooming could only be stimulated by AE 0.5 g/kg when dopaminergic receptors were blocked by haloperidol. However, it was inhibited when atropine was previously administered. So, we demonstrated a central action of Saccharum and it was postulated that neural circuits with the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are involved. The fact that AE is comprised of innumerous compounds could justify the extract's distinct responses. Also, we cannot disregard the presence of different neural circuits that count on the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways and could be activated by the same induction agent.

  13. Earth science: Making a mountain out of a plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Hugh

    2017-02-01

    A theory proposed in 2015 suggested that relatively flat surfaces in mountain ranges were formed by the reorganization of river networks. A fresh analysis rebuts this idea, reigniting discussion of a long-standing problem in Earth science.

  14. Mountain saved. is a mountain earned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, K.

    The Anaconda Copper Company boasted that the smokestack on its Washee smelter mill was the world's tallest. It also was probably the world's deadliest. Mysterious livestock deaths began occurring in 1906. They seemed to concentrate in the path of the prevailing westerly winds, carrying the Washee's smelter smoke plume toward Mt. Haggin. As evidence mounted that the deaths were connected to particulate fallout from the smelter (largely oxides of zinc, arsenic, lead, and copper), there were rumblings of lawsuits against Anaconda. The company felt threatened, but did not possess the technology to cure the situation. To protect itself, Anaconda purchased all the lands that were affected by fallout from the smelter smokestack. The result was the formation of the 154,000-acre Mt. Haggin Ranch. Today, the Anaconda Copper Company uses sophisticated pollution abatement equipment, and it is possible to see the healing that has taken place in recent years. The ranch includes rugged mountain peaks and ridges, high mountain valleys, and rolling foothills. A fisherman's paradise, the area also contains 20 mountain lakes, numerous ponds, and over 60 miles of trout streams. The Conservancy has been working to save Mt. Haggin since 1969. Negotiations have involved not only the fee owner--Mt. Haggin Livestock, Inc.--but also parties holding grazing and timber contracts, a variety of public agencies, and the Anaconda Company, which still holds some rights over the portion of the property not yet purchased by the Conservancy. The Conservancy assists in preserving lands like Mt. Haggin by handling the financial and legal aspects of land purchases. The Conservancy is allocating property to two ultimate recipients: the U.S. Forest Service and the montana Department of Fish and Game.

  15. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  16. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional

  17. Volcanismo oligoceno superior - mioceno inferior en la sierra de Pirurayo, Puna jujeña: estratigrafía y mecanismos eruptivos Upper Oligocene - Lower Miocene volcanism in the mountain range of Pirurayo, northern Puna: stratigraphy and eruptive mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Soler

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El Complejo Volcánico Pirurayo (CVP aflora en la sierra homónima, aproximadamente entre los 65°54' y 65°50' de longitud oeste y los 22°25' y 22°17' de latitud sur, en el ámbito de la Puna jujeña. Se encuentra intercalado en la Formación Moreta, una secuencia sedimentaria continental integrada por areniscas y conglomerados rojos y morados. El CVP ocupa su sección intermedia, con un espesor máximo en el sector norte que supera los 640 m y que disminuye bruscamente hacia el sur. Representa un sistema volcánico compuesto, de composición andesítico_dacítica, desarrollado en el marco de una cuenca continental de régimen fluvial, emplazado durante el Oligoceno superior - Mioceno inferior, según sistemas de fracturación submeridianos. Dicho complejo mostró en sus comienzos participación de fenómenos netamente explosivos y de carácter magmático, los que produjeron depósitos de volúmenes reducidos principalmente de oleadas piroclásticas y en menor proporción de ignimbritas. Posteriormente los mecanismos eruptivos cambiaron, caracterizándose por la alternancia entre emisiones lávicas y desarrollo de domos, acompañados por frecuentes colapsos de los mismos, depositándose intercalados mantos de lavas con bancos de flujos de bloques y cenizas y escasos y delgados depósitos de caída. El área de proveniencia de dichos depósitos se encontraba en el sector NNO del complejo y la boca de emisión de los mismos pudo ser única o haberse tratado de un volcán compuesto, de bocas múltiples.The Pirurayo Volcanic Complex (PVC crops out in the Pirurayo Range, approximately between 65º54' - 65º50' W, and 22º25' - 22º17' S, in the northern Puna region. The complex belongs to the Moreta Formation, a continental sedimentary sequence integrated by red and purple sandstones and conglomerates. The PVC occupies the middle section of the Moreta Formation, reaching a thickness of 640 m in the north, whereas to the south it diminishes

  18. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  19. Xiuhua Mountain Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    XIUHUA Mountain Museum,a building nestled amongthe hills,is the first private museum of the Tujiaethnicity.Its name is an amalgamation of the names ofthe couple who run it,Gong Daoxiu and her husband ChenChuhua.According to Chen,the reason that he put his wife’s

  20. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  1. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  2. Climate change in Mediterranean mountains during the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués Bravo, David; Araújo, Miguel B; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2008-01-01

    Mediterranean mountain biomes are considered endangered due to climate change that affects directly or indirectly different key features (biodiversity, snow cover, glaciers, run-off processes, and water availability). Here, we provide an assessment of temperature, precipitation, and spring...... precipitation changes in Mediterranean mountains under different emission scenarios (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) and Atmosphere-Ocean-Coupled General Circulation Models for two periods: 2055 (2040-2069 period) and 2085 (2070-2099). Finally, the future climate trends projected for Mediterranean...... mountains are compared with those trends projected for non-Mediterranean European mountain ranges. The range of projected warming varies between +1.4 degrees C and 5.1 degrees C for 2055 (+1.6 degrees C and +8.3 degrees C for 2085). Climate models also project a reduction of precipitation, mainly during...

  3. Postconflict Conciliation within One-Male Breeding Units in Sichuan Snub-Nosed Monkeys in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Tao; Li, Jia-Xuan; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Cheng-Liang; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Song-Tao; Li, Bao-Guo

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed conflict and postconflict (PC) conciliation between males and females within one-male breeding units in Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains, China. The PC matched-control and time rule methods were used to collect and analyze data recorded from September 2013 to June 2014. The conciliatory tendency among individuals following conflict was 82.07%, and affiliation occurred within a few minutes after the conflict, which was not significantly different between mating and nonmating seasons. The PC conciliation scenarios were different from those reported from captivity. Lumbar hold and grooming were the most common expressions in reconciliation. In addition, bystander affiliation was uniquely found, which may be associated with the more terrestrial locomotion of R. roxellana, compared with other colobines.

  4. Effects of Mountain Ranges on Mesoscale Systems Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    coverage * values saves a great deal of computing resources in a compositing study. However, manual digitization is labor intensive, so economy over...reduce labor costs, making this method less expensive than those that composite higher resolution digital data. 5. Acknowledgments Ray McAnelly and...merging of these lines, making the case appear similar in many respects to the " derecho " as described by Johns and Hirt (1983). We note qualitatively

  5. [Death by avalanche in the minor mountain range].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisenberger, Dorothee; Kramer, Lena; Pircher, Rebecca; Pollak, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    On 30 Jan 2015, two avalanche accidents happened in the Black Forest (at the foot of the 1493 m high Feldberg and the Herzogenhorn situated next to it), in which experienced ski tourers--a 58-year-old woman and a 20-year-old man--were completely buried by snow masses. Both victims were recovered dead after nearly 2 hours under the snow. The avalanches were promoted by strong snowfalls, snowdrift by the wind and steep downwind slopes. One of the victims, the 20-year-old man, underwent a forensic autopsy. The findings suggested death by protracted asphyxiation with agonal hypothermia. A mechanical traumatization with internal injuries suspected by the emergency doctor at the scene could not be confirmed at autopsy. The possible causes of death in the avalanche are discussed using the reported case as an example and in reference to the relevant literature.

  6. 基于区域扩展的绿色业务量疏导算法%Green traffic grooming in zone-based scalable optical networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汝言; 徐印; 吴大鹏; 彭海英

    2012-01-01

    In the view of high blocking probability of Traditional Green traffic grooming algorithm in optical networks, a Green traffic grooming in zone-based scalable optical networks is proposed and studied in this paper. On the basis of W + 5 Auxiliary Graph Model, generating an auxiliary graph which only contains parts of network nodes, it is possible to find a suitable and shorter route by flexibility to expand the auxiliary graph. Simulation results show that in comparison with the Traditional Green traffic grooming algorithm, the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the blocking probability and achieve the lowest average power consumption when traffic load is relatively high.%针对全光网络中传统绿色业务量疏导算法阻塞率高的性能缺陷,提出一种全光网络中基于区域扩展的绿色业务量疏导算法.该算法基于W+5分层图模型,生成一个仅包含部分网络节点的区域性辅助图,通过灵活扩展辅助图的方式,寻找最佳路径,避免了形成过长路由.仿真结果表明,与传统绿色业务量疏导算法相比,基于区域扩展的绿色业务量疏导算法能够有效地降低业务阻塞率,并且在高负载的情况下,网络的平均功耗最低.

  7. The mountain Cer: Potentials for tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In northwest of Serbia in the meridians directions an elongated mountain range of Cer with Iverak and Vlašić stretches itself. On the north it goes down to Mačva and Posavina, on the west to Podrinje, on the east to the valley of Kolubara, on the south to the basins and valleys of Jadar and upper Kolubara, which separate it from the mountains of Valjevo and Podrinje area. Cer mountain offers extremely good condition for development of eco-tourism. The variety of relief with gorgeous see-sites, natural rarities, convenient bio-climatic conditions, significant water resources, forest complexes, medieval fortresses, cultural-historic monuments, richness of flora and fauna, preserved rural environment, traditions and customs of local population, were all neglected as strategic factors in the development of tourism. This mountain’s potentials are quite satisfactory for the needs of eco-tourism, similar to the National Park of Fruška Gora, but it has lacked an adequate ecotourist strategy so far. This study aims to pointing to the potential and possibilities of ecotourist valorization of this mountain.

  8. Toward mountains without permanent snow and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, M.; Bookhagen, B.; Huggel, C.; Jacobsen, D.; Bradley, R. S.; Clague, J. J.; Vuille, M.; Buytaert, W.; Cayan, D. R.; Greenwood, G.; Mark, B. G.; Milner, A. M.; Weingartner, R.; Winder, M.

    2017-05-01

    The cryosphere in mountain regions is rapidly declining, a trend that is expected to accelerate over the next several decades due to anthropogenic climate change. A cascade of effects will result, extending from mountains to lowlands with associated impacts on human livelihood, economy, and ecosystems. With rising air temperatures and increased radiative forcing, glaciers will become smaller and, in some cases, disappear, the area of frozen ground will diminish, the ratio of snow to rainfall will decrease, and the timing and magnitude of both maximum and minimum streamflow will change. These changes will affect erosion rates, sediment, and nutrient flux, and the biogeochemistry of rivers and proglacial lakes, all of which influence water quality, aquatic habitat, and biotic communities. Changes in the length of the growing season will allow low-elevation plants and animals to expand their ranges upward. Slope failures due to thawing alpine permafrost, and outburst floods from glacier- and moraine-dammed lakes will threaten downstream populations. Societies even well beyond the mountains depend on meltwater from glaciers and snow for drinking water supplies, irrigation, mining, hydropower, agriculture, and recreation. Here, we review and, where possible, quantify the impacts of anticipated climate change on the alpine cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, and consider the implications for adaptation to a future of mountains without permanent snow and ice.

  9. 业务疏导技术在WDM网络及OPS网络中的应用%Traffic Grooming in WDM and OPS Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於仲杰; 范戈; 许华东

    2007-01-01

    在波分复用(WDM)光网络中,可使用业务疏导(Traffic Grooming)技术来提高网络性能,降低网络成本.详细阐述了WDM光网络中业务疏导的基本概念及主要目标,并对国内外研究现状进行了总结.最后介绍了OPS光交换网络中使用的业务疏导技术.

  10. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Barry M. Goldwater Range (West), the Chocolate Mountains Aerial Gunnery Range (CMAGR) and additional designated airspace areas. In addition to...above. Scoring & Feedback System Strategic Attack h The current JAWSS scoring system is limited by antequated analog technology. This prevents...optic cable and make the change from analog to digital throughout facilities. Encroachment Observations Factors Assigned Training Mission Score Comment

  11. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  12. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition.

  13. ARISK PHENOMENA IN THE SILVANIA MOUNTAINS, INTUITIVE AND GENETIC REFLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA BOGDAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk phenomena in the Silvania Mountains, intuitive and genetic reflexes. In the contemporary period, the scientific research under the auspices of the global development has experienced a real quantitative and qualitative revolution. Theoretically and methodologically, the widespread promotion of the “concept of discontinuity” in terms of content, significances, manifestation, implications is observed, which has become a new imperative of the nowadays geography. The phenomena of discontinuity happen as real “paroxysmal, rhythm and intensity ruptures“ in relation to the normal occurrence defined either through the average value, determined on statistical basis as hydrological, meteorological, climatic phenomena or in discrete forms, when the phenomena occur in a veiled manner and they are perceptible only through their effects, respectively the environmental reflexes. Among the notions used with reference to extreme evolutionary discontinuities, we quote: the hazard, the disaster, the calamity and the risk to which was added a series of related notions: stability, sensitivity, resilience, fragility and vulnerability. The Silvania Mountains, a representative territorial unit within Silvania Land, with a fascinating and controversial geological origin, a real petrographic synthesis with uncovered crystalline stone, brought to the surface due to erosion under the layers of Neogene sediments, as a last remaining of a grandiose Hercynian chain with a varied orientation SW-NE of which were part the Massif Central –France, the east side, the Vosges Mountains, the Black Forest Mountains, the Harz Mountains and Bohemia. In this range of mountains, we also mention the Silvania Hercynian Mountains, respectively Plopiș and Meseș Mountains.This mountainous elevation level has an important role within the landscape as "geographical discontinuity factor” on one hand, between the Someșan Plateau and the Silvania piedmontan hills (Meseș Mountains

  14. HENDUAN MOUNTAINS A Dazzling World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Indian Continent drifted northward and eventually collideawith the Euro-Asian Continent,pushing up the piece of land weknow today as the Himalayas and Henduan Mountains.Located where Qinghai,Tibet,Yunnan and Sichuan all meet.Asia,including the Nujiang,Jinshajiang and Lancanjiang.In the mountains,rivers Wave a drop of about 2,500 meters.Late last year,we drove into the mountainous area,covering adistance of some 1,000 km.

  15. Mammoth Mountain, California broadband seismic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P. B.; Pitt, A. M.; Wilkinson, S. K.; Chouet, B. A.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.; Prejean, S. G.; Read, C.; Shelly, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a young cumulo-volcano located on the southwest rim of Long Valley caldera, California. Current volcanic processes beneath Mammoth Mountain are manifested in a wide range of seismic signals, including swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, upper and mid-crustal long-period earthquakes, swarms of brittle-failure earthquakes in the lower crust, and shallow (3-km depth) very-long-period earthquakes. Diffuse emissions of C02 began after a magmatic dike injection beneath the volcano in 1989, and continue to present time. These indications of volcanic unrest drive an extensive monitoring effort of the volcano by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program. As part of this effort, eleven broadband seismometers were deployed on Mammoth Mountain in November 2011. This temporary deployment is expected to run through the fall of 2013. These stations supplement the local short-period and broadband seismic stations of the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) and provide a combined network of eighteen broadband stations operating within 4 km of the summit of Mammoth Mountain. Data from the temporary stations are not available in real-time, requiring the merging of the data from the temporary and permanent networks, timing of phases, and relocation of seismic events to be accomplished outside of the standard NCSN processing scheme. The timing of phases is accomplished through an interactive Java-based phase-picking routine, and the relocation of seismicity is achieved using the probabilistic non-linear software package NonLinLoc, distributed under the GNU General Public License by Alomax Scientific. Several swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, spasmodic bursts of high-frequency earthquakes, a few long-period events located within or below the edifice of Mammoth Mountain and numerous mid-crustal long-period events have been recorded by the network. To date, about 900 of the ~2400 events occurring beneath Mammoth Mountain since November 2011 have

  16. Key issues for mountain areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Martin F; Jansky, Libor; Iatsenia, Andrei A

    2004-01-01

    ... and livelihood opportunities . . . ... Safdar Parvez and Stephen F. Rasmussen 86 6 Mountain tourism and the conservation of biological and cultural diversity... Wendy Brewer Lama and Nikhat Sattar 11...

  17. Hair breakage by combing and brushing--a comment on: T. A. Evans and K. Park, A statistical analysis of hair breakage. II. Repeated grooming experiments, J. Cosmet. Sci., 41, 439-456 (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Y K; Robbins, C

    2011-01-01

    Literature dealing with the mechanisms of hair breakage in combing and brushing published so far has been reviewed as a background for the critical evaluation of the method and data analysis of the paper "Statistical Analysis of Hair Breakage. II" by Evans and Park (1). Accumulated knowledge about hair breakage in these grooming processes indicates that hair breakage in combing and brushing results from tangling, looping, knotting, and impact loading. Fatiguing, though responsible for some weakening of the fiber in the grooming process, it is unlikely to be a significant factor in hair breakage in combing and brushing.

  18. Grooming Great Urban Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michele; Lewis, Jeffrey; Onafowora, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Master teachers working in real urban classrooms have shared their exemplary teaching practices in an After-School Pedagogical Laboratory (L-TAPL), a program for elementary students that aims to improve the achievement of urban students and the competence of their teachers. The L-TAPL enrichment program curriculum includes language arts, math,…

  19. Groomed for Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Web

    2012-01-01

    Graduates of the John Stanford Public Service and Political Science Academy at Franklin High School in Seattle, Washington, leave school with self-confidence and a fiery sense of civic duty, giving back to their communities in crucial ways. Students tackle civic and ethical issues daily in the classroom, and the service-learning projects they…

  20. Comparison of extreme precipitation characteristics between the Ore Mountains and the Vosges Mountains (Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minářová, Jana; Müller, Miloslav; Clappier, Alain; Kašpar, Marek

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the characteristics of extreme precipitation events (EPEs) not only helps in mitigating the hazards associated with it but will also reduce the risks by improved planning based on the detailed information, and provide basis for better engineering decisions which can withstand the recurring and likely more frequent events predicted in future in the context of global climate change. In this study, extremity, temporal and spatial characteristics, and synoptic situation of the 54 EPEs that occurred during 1960-2013 were compared between two low mountain ranges situated in Central Europe: the Ore Mountains (OM) and Vosges Mountains (VG). The EPEs were defined using the Weather Extremity Index, which quantifies the extremity, duration, and spatial extent of events. Comparative analysis of EPE characteristics showed that in both regions the EPEs were mostly short (lasted 1-2 days) and their seasonal occurrence significantly depended on the synoptic situation and duration of EPEs; the low was related to summer short EPEs, while zonal circulation to winter long EPEs. The EPEs were generally related to lows in OM and to troughs in VG. The lows often moved to OM from the Mediterranean area, i.e. along the Vb track. However, five EPEs in VG occurred during a low with Vb track significantly deflected westwards. The EPEs in VG affected smaller area as compared to that in OM. The comparison of EPEs between the two low mountain ranges is first of its kind and contributes to the understanding of EPE characteristics in the regions.

  1. Impacts of glacier recession and declining meltwater on mountain societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, Mark; Molden, Olivia C.; Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2017-01-01

    Glacierized mountains are often referred to as our world's water towers because glaciers both store water over time and regulate seasonal stream flow, releasing runoff during dry seasons when societies most need water. Ice loss thus has the potential to affect human societies in diverse ways......, including irrigation, agriculture, hydropower, potable water, livelihoods, recreation, spirituality, and demography. Unfortunately, research focusing on the human impacts of glacier runoff variability in mountain regions remains limited, and studies often rely on assumptions rather than concrete evidence...... about the effects of shrinking glaciers on mountain hydrology and societies. This article provides a systematic review of international research on human impacts of glacier meltwater variability in mountain ranges worldwide, including the Andes, Alps, greater Himalayan region, Cascades, and Alaska...

  2. A simple method to estimate fractal dimension of mountain surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kolwankar, Kiran M

    2014-01-01

    Fractal surfaces are ubiquitous in nature as well as in the sciences. The examples range from the cloud boundaries to the corroded surfaces. Fractal dimension gives a measure of the irregularity in the object under study. We present a simple method to estimate the fractal dimension of mountain surface. We propose to use easily available satellite images of lakes for this purpose. The fractal dimension of the boundary of a lake, which can be extracted using image analysis softwares, can be determined easily which gives the estimate of the fractal dimension of the mountain surface and hence a quantitative characterization of the irregularity of the topography of the mountain surface. This value will be useful in validating models of mountain formation

  3. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Cancelliere

    Full Text Available Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  4. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelliere, Emma C; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  5. "Christ is the Mountain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Hallencreutz

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author focuses on the religious function of symbols in the encounter and interaction of Christianity and other religions. Some observations on the religious function of the symbol of the Holy Mountain in different African contexts are presented. These contexts are a traditional Kikuyu religion, b a Christian hymn from Northern Tanzania, and c the New Year's Fiest of the independent Nazaretha Church among Zulu in South Africa. The examples of how the symbol of the holy mountain is used in different religious contexts in Africa are, of course, too limited to provide a basis for far-reaching generalizations on how symbols function religiously in the encounter of Christianity and other religions. However, this kind of analysis can be applied also when studying other encounters of religions inside and outside Africa. The symbol functions both as a carrier of a new religious message and as an indigenous means to appropriate this message locally and give it adequate form in different milieus. The symbols, which most likely have the religious functions are those which are of a general nature; light, way, living water, and which some are tempted to speak of as archetypes. Yet the comparison between the Chagga-hymn to the holy mountain and Shembe's interpretation of the blessing of the New Year's Fiest on Inhlangakozi indicates, that in the encounter of Christianity and other religions it is not only the symbols as such which produce the local appropriation of the new religious message and give it adequate localized form. Not even in the encounter of Christianity and other religions the symbols function religiously without human beings as actors in the historical process.

  6. A geodynamic model of Andean mountain building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellart, Wouter P.

    2017-04-01

    The Andes mountain range in South America is the longest in the world and is unique in that it has formed at a subduction zone and not at a continent-continent collision zone. The mountain range has formed due to overriding plate shortening since the Late Cretaceous, and its origin and the driving mechanism(s) responsible for its formation remain a topic of intense debate. Here I present a buoyancy-driven geodynamic model of South American-style subduction, mantle flow and overriding plate deformation, illustrating how subduction-induced mantle flow drives overriding plate deformation. The model reproduces several first-order characteristics of the Andes, including major crustal thickening (up to double the initial crustal thickness) and hundreds of km of east-west shortening in the Central Andes, as well as a slab geometry that is comparable to that of the Nazca slab below the Central Andes. Ultimately, the geodynamic model shows that subduction-induced mantle flow is responsible for Andean-style mountain building.

  7. Climate change and hydrology in the Blue Mountains [Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caty F. Clifton; Kate T. Day; Kathie Dello; Gordon E. Grant; Jessica E. Halofsky; Daniel J. Isaak; Charles H. Luce; Mohammad Safeeq; Brian P. Staab; John Stevenson

    2017-01-01

    The dominant influences on climatic patterns in the Pacific Northwest are the Pacific Ocean and the Cascade Range. The diurnal temperature range is higher east of the Cascade crest, further inland from the Pacific Ocean. More precipitation falls west of the Cascade Mountains crest, and a strong rain shadow greatly reduces precipitation east of the crest. The southern...

  8. Spatial Information Research for Temperature and Precipitation Climate Data in Hengduan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the spatial information of temperature and precipitation data in Hengduan mountains. [Method] Considering GIS spatial interpolation and numerical statistics theory, spatial prediction were carried out to the ten years average temperature and precipitation flux observation data in 109 sparse meteorological stations in Hengduan Mountains. Based on the spatial range of geographic position of Hengduan Mountains, and 1∶1 000 000 scale DEM as data sources, and using trend surface ...

  9. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-02-25

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

  10. mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [gbrod]: 2 CDS's (760... of codon usage for each CDS (format) Homepage mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground ...

  11. Mountains and Tropical Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Z.; Goodman, P. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Malyshev, S.; Russell, J. L.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observed tropical convection exhibits zonal asymmetries that strongly influence spatial precipitation patterns. The drivers of changes to this zonally-asymmetric Walker circulation on decadal and longer timescales have been the focus of significant recent research. Here we use two state-of-the-art earth system models to explore the impact of earth's mountains on the Walker circulation. When all land-surface topography is removed, the Walker circulation weakens by 33-59%. There is a ~30% decrease in global, large-scale upward vertical wind velocities in the middle of the troposphere, but only minor changes in global average convective mass flux, precipitation, surface and sea-surface temperatures. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is also largely unchanged. Following the spatial pattern of changes to large-scale vertical wind velocities, precipitation becomes less focused over the tropics. The weakening of the Walker circulation, but not the Hadley circulation, is similar to the behavior of climate models during radiative forcing experiments: in our simulations, the weakening is associated with changes in vertical wind velocities, rather than the hydrologic cycle. These results indicate suggest that mountain heights may significantly influence the Walker circulation on geologic time scales, and observed changes in tropical precipitation over millions of years may have been forced by changes in tropical orography.

  12. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  13. Causal Chains Arising from Climate Change in Mountain Regions: the Core Program of the Mountain Research Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Mountains are a widespread terrestrial feature, covering from 12 to 24 percent of the world's terrestrial surface, depending of the definition. Topographic relief is central to the definition of mountains, to the benefits and costs accruing to society and to the cascade of changes expected from climate change. Mountains capture and store water, particularly important in arid regions and in all areas for energy production. In temperate and boreal regions, mountains have a great range in population densities, from empty to urban, while tropical mountains are often densely settled and farmed. Mountain regions contain a wide range of habitats, important for biodiversity, and for primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. Climate change interacts with this relief and consequent diversity. Elevation itself may accentuate warming (elevationi dependent warming) in some mountain regions. Even average warming starts complex chains of causality that reverberate through the diverse social ecological mountain systems affecting both the highlands and adjacent lowlands. A single feature of climate change such as higher snow lines affect the climate through albedo, the water cycle through changes in timing of release , water quality through the weathering of newly exposed material, geomorphology through enhanced erosion, plant communities through changes in climatic water balance, and animal and human communities through changes in habitat conditions and resource availabilities. Understanding these causal changes presents a particular interdisciplinary challenge to researchers, from assessing the existence and magnitude of elevation dependent warming and monitoring the full suite of changes within the social ecological system to climate change, to understanding how social ecological systems respond through individual and institutional behavior with repercussions on the long-term sustainability of these systems.

  14. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  15. Range Tracing

    OpenAIRE

    Jenke, Philipp; Huhle, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we tackle the problem of merging an arbitrary number of range scans (depth images) into a single surface mesh. The mesh-based representation is superior to point-based approaches since it contains important connectivity information. Most previous mesh-based merge methods, however, lose surface details by using simplifying intermediate surface representations (e.g.\\ implicit functions). Such details are essential for further processing steps, especially for feature-preserving r...

  16. Revised potentiometric-surface map, Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, E.M.; Luckey, R.R.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1994-12-01

    The revised potentiometric-surface map presented in this report updates earlier maps of the Yucca Mountain area using mainly 1988 average water levels. Because of refinements in the corrections to the water-level measurements, these water levels have increased accuracy and precision over older values. The small-gradient area to the southeast of Yucca Mountain is contoured with a 0.25-meter interval and ranges in water-level altitude from 728.5 to 73 1.0 meters. Other areas with different water levels, to the north and west of Yucca Mountain, are illustrated with shaded patterns. The potentiometric surface can be divided into three regions: (1) A small-gradient area to the southeast of Yucca Mountain, which may be explained by flow through high-transmissivity rocks or low ground-water flux through the area; (2) A moderate-gradient area, on the western side of Yucca Mountain, where the water-level altitude ranges from 775 to 780 meters, and appears to be impeded by the Solitario Canyon Fault and a splay of that fault; and (3) A large-gradient area, to the north-northeast of Yucca Mountain, where water level altitude ranges from 738 to 1,035 meters, possibly as a result of a semi-perched groundwater system. Water levels from wells at Yucca Mountain were examined for yearly trends using linear least-squares regression. Data from five wells exhibited trends which were statistically significant, but some of those may be a result of slow equilibration of the water level from drilling in less permeable rocks. Adjustments for temperature and density changes in the deep wells with long fluid columns were attempted, but some of the adjusted data did not fit the surrounding data and, thus, were not used.

  17. Revised potentiometric-surface map, Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, E.M.; Luckey, R.R.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The revised potentiometric-surface map presented in this report updates earlier maps of the Yucca Mountain area using mainly 1988 average water levels. Because of refinements in the corrections to the water-level measurements, these water levels have increased accuracy and precision over older values. The small-gradient area to the southeast of Yucca Mountain is contoured with a 0.25-meter interval and ranges in water-level altitude from 728.5 to 731.0 meters. Other areas with different water levels, to the north and west of Yucca Mountain, are illustrated with shaded patterns. The potentiometric surface can be divided into three regions: 1) A small-gradient area to the southeast of Yucca Mountain, which may be explained by flow through high-transmissivity rocks or low ground-water flux through the area; 2) A moderate-gradient area, on the western side of Yucca Mountain, where the water-level altitude ranges from 775 to 780 meters, and appears to be impeded by the Solitario Canyon Fault and a splay of that fault; and 3) A large-gradient area, to the north-northeast of Yucca Mountain, where water level altitude ranges from 738 to 1,035 meters, possibly as a result of a semi-perched groundwater system. Water levels from wells at Yucca Mountain were examined for yearly trends (1986-89) using linear least-squares regression. Data from five wells exhibited trends which were statistically significant, but some of those may be a result of slow equilibration of the water level from drilling in less permeable rocks. Adjustments for temperature and density changes in the deep wells with long fluid columns were attempted, but some of the adjusted data did not fit the surrounding data and, thus, were not used.

  18. European mountain biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy, Jennifer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, originally prepared as a discussion document for the ESF Exploratory Workshop «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop», provides an overview of current mountain biodiversity research in Europe. It discusses (a biogeographical trends, (b the general properties of biodiversity, (c environmental factors and the regulation of biodiversity with respect to ecosystem function, (d the results of research on mountain freshwater ecosystems, and (e climate change and air pollution dominated environmental interactions.- The section on biogeographical trends highlights the importance of altitude and latitude on biodiversity. The implications of the existence of different scales over the different levels of biodiversity and across organism groups are emphasised as an inherent complex property of biodiversity. The discussion on ecosystem function and the regulation of biodiversity covers the role of environmental factors, productivity, perturbation, species migration and dispersal, and species interactions in the maintenance of biodiversity. Regional and long-term temporal patterns are also discussed. A section on the relatively overlooked topic of mountain freshwater ecosystems is presented before the final topic on the implications of recent climate change and air pollution for mountain biodiversity.

    [fr] Ce document a été préparé à l'origine comme une base de discussion pour «ESF Exploratory Workshop» intitulé «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop»; il apporte une vue d'ensemble sur les recherches actuelles portant sur la biodiversité des montagnes en Europe. On y discute les (a traits biogéographiques, (b les caractéristiques générales- de la biodiversité, (c les facteurs environnementaux et la régulation de la biodiversité par rapport à la fonction des écosystèmes, (d les résultats des études sur les écosystèmes aquatiques des montagnes et (e les

  19. The uplifting process of the Bogda Mountain during the Cenozoic and its tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZongXiu; LI Tao; ZHANG Jin; LIU YongQing; MA ZongJin

    2008-01-01

    Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China The Tianshan Mountains have undergone its initial orogeny, extension adjusting and re-orogeny since the Late Paleozoic. The re-orogeny and uplifting process of the orogeny in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are two of most important events in the geological evolution of Euro-Asian continent, which resulted in the formation of the present range-and-basin pattern in topography of the Tianshan Mountains and its adjacent areas. Thermochronology results by the method of fission-track dating of apatite suggest three obvious uplifting stages of the Bogad Mountain Chain re-orogeny during the Cenozoic, i.e. 5.6-19 Ma, 20-30 Ma, and 42-47 Ma. The strongest uplifting stage of the mountain is the second one at 20-30 Ma, when the mountain uplifted as a whole, and the beginning of re-orogeny was no less than 65Ma. Furthermore, our studies also show that the uplifting types of the mountain are variable in the different time periods, including uplifting of mountain as a whole and differential uplifting. The apparently diversified uplifting processes of the mountain chain are characterized by the migration (or transformation) of the uplifting direction of the mountain from west to east and from north to south, and the main process of mountain extending is from north to south.

  20. Geochemical quantification of semiarid mountain recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahi, Arun K; Hogan, James F; Ekwurzel, Brenda; Baillie, Matthew N; Eastoe, Christopher J

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of a typical semiarid mountain system recharge (MSR) setting demonstrates that geochemical tracers help resolve the location, rate, and seasonality of recharge as well as ground water flowpaths and residence times. MSR is defined as the recharge at the mountain front that dominates many semiarid basins plus the often-overlooked recharge through the mountain block that may be a significant ground water resource; thus, geochemical measurements that integrate signals from all flowpaths are advantageous. Ground water fluxes determined from carbon-14 ((14)C) age gradients imply MSR rates between 2 x 10(6) and 9 x 10(6) m(3)/year in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, USA. This estimated range is within an order of magnitude of, but lower than, prior independent estimates. Stable isotopic signatures indicate that MSR has a 65% +/- 25% contribution from winter precipitation and a 35% +/- 25% contribution from summer precipitation. Chloride and stable isotope results confirm that transpiration is the dominant component of evapotranspiration (ET) in the basin with typical loss of more than 90% of precipitation-less runoff to ET. Such geochemical constraints can be used to further refine hydrogeologic models in similar high-elevation relief basins and can provide practical first estimates of MSR rates for basins lacking extensive prior hydrogeologic measurements.

  1. Thermally driven upslope flow in mountainous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, Dan; Hocut, Christopher; Fernando, Harindra; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Team

    2011-11-01

    Buoyancy driven up-slope flow and its separation from mountain apex are two important processes that determine meso and regional flows in mountainous areas. Such flow configurations have applications from mountain meteorology to large scale monsoonal circulation. A combined experimental and theoretical study toward improving our understanding of the mechanisms governing upslope flow processes, in particular, generation of upstream circulating cells and plume rise at the apex is presented. The experiments were performed in a 1.25x.35x.3 m water tank, using an inclined (10 to 30 degrees from the horizontal) electrical foil as the heated slope. Under certain condition the flow configuration produced stable circulation cells and rising limited plumes of finite height. Particle Tracking Velocimetry and flow visualization techniques were used for the diagnostics of velocity field and plume rise height, and relevant salient dimensionless quantities were evaluated in terms of governing parameters. Theoretical arguments are presented to explain the results. Parameter ranges for the appearance of characteristic flow patterns are also delineated.

  2. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  3. Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gail Heath

    2012-07-01

    Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

  4. Caracterização de solos em uma topoclimossequência no maciço de triunfo - sertão de pernambuco Soil characterization along a climatic gradient in the triunfo mountain range, semi-arid region of pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Vinícius Cordeiro Conceição de Souza

    2010-08-01

    ável pela diferenciação dos solos ao longo da topoclimossequência, devendo-se ressaltar, também, a influência do material de origem e do relevo.Highland forests in mountains of Northeast Brazil are islands of humid Atlantic forest in the midst of the semi-arid region. The climatic conditions are rather atypical, improved by the occurrence of orographic rainfall, which can reach 1,200 mm per year. In the state of Pernambuco, most of the scientific studies in these humid highland forests are focused on botanical and zoological aspects only, with very little information about soils. Aiming to study the soils of the humid mountains in the semi-arid region and to evaluate the influence of the various soil-forming factors on formation and evolution, three soil profiles were characterized for morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties in the Triunfo mountain range, at different altitude levels. The soil profiles were located in the municipalities of Serra Talhada (P1, Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde (P2 and Triunfo (P3, along a moisture and altitude gradient (topo-climatic sequence. The soils were morphologically similar, due to the low development degree, mainly in the soil profiles P3 (Triunfo and P2 (Santa Cruz, classified, respectively, as Oxic Haplustept and Typic Haplustept. In the lower part of profile P1 (Serra Tallhada, a low clay content and greater textural gradient classified the soil as Typic Haplustult. The results showed that all studied soils were developed from syenitic rocks, with influence of sediments from the upper part of the relief. The development degree of the soil of Triunfo, with the highest rainfall levels, was higher than of the others. Climate, acting mainly by the variation in moisture, was however not the only soil forming factor responsible for soil differentiation along the sequence, but parent material and relief were important as well.

  5. Mountain pine beetle in high-elevation five-needle white pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Elizabeth Campbell; Ken Gibson; Sandra Kegley; Jesse Logan; Diana Six

    2011-01-01

    Across western North America mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), populations are growing at exponential rates in pine ecosystems that span a wide range of elevations. As temperature increased over the past several decades, the flexible, thermally-regulated life-history strategies of mountain pine beetle have allowed...

  6. Options for the management of white pine blister rust in the Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly S. Burns; Anna W. Schoettle; William R. Jacobi; Mary F. Mahalovich

    2008-01-01

    This publication synthesizes current information on the biology, distribution, and management of white pine blister rust (WPBR) in the Rocky Mountain Region. In this Region, WPBR occurs within the range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), limber pine (P. flexilis), and whitebark pine (P. albicaulis...

  7. Integrated and Participatory Research Approaches towards Sustainable Livelihoods and Ecosystems in Mountainous Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Neef; Franz Heidhues; Karl Stahr; David Thomas; Pittaya Sruamsiri

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mountainous regions cover about 27 per cent of the world's land surface and are home to some 22 per cent of the global population (UNEP 2002). A much greater number of people depend on mountain environments for a wide range of services, including clean water, energy, timber,biodiversity, recreation, and protection from environmental hazards, such as landslides and floods.

  8. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, northwestern Washington, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Baccus, William T.

    2016-11-30

    Executive SummaryWe estimated abundance and trends of non-native mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington, based on aerial surveys conducted during July 13–24, 2016. The surveys produced the seventh population estimate since the first formal aerial surveys were conducted in 1983. This was the second population estimate since we adjusted survey area boundaries and adopted new estimation procedures in 2011. Before 2011, surveys encompassed all areas free of glacial ice at elevations above 1,520 meters (m), but in 2011 we expanded survey unit boundaries to include suitable mountain goat habitats at elevations between 1,425 and 1,520 m. In 2011, we also began applying a sightability correction model allowing us to estimate undercounting bias associated with aerial surveys and to adjust survey results accordingly. The 2016 surveys were carried out by National Park Service (NPS) personnel in Olympic National Park and by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) biologists in Olympic National Forest and in the southeastern part of Olympic National Park. We surveyed a total of 59 survey units, comprising 55 percent of the 60,218-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 623 ±43 (standard error, SE). Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 561 to 741 mountain goats at the time of the survey.We examined the rate of increase of the mountain goat population by comparing the current population estimate to previous estimates from 2004 and 2011. Because aerial survey boundaries changed between 2004 and 2016, we recomputed population estimates for 2011 and 2016 surveys based on the revised survey boundaries as well as the previously defined boundaries so that estimates were directly comparable across years. Additionally, because the Mount Washington survey unit was not surveyed in 2011, we used results from an independent survey of the Mount

  9. Mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Kylee B; Meyers, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, the sport of mountain biking has experienced extensive growth in youth participation. Due to the unpredictable nature of outdoor sport, a lack of rider awareness and increased participation, the number of injuries has unnecessarily increased. Many believe that the actual incidence of trauma in this sport is underestimated and is just the 'tip of the iceberg'. The most common mechanism of injury is usually attributed to downhill riding and forward falling. Although rare, this type of fall can result in serious cranial and thoraco-abdominal trauma. Head and neck trauma continue to be documented, often resulting in concussions and the possibility of permanent neurological sequelae. Upper limb injuries range from minor dermal abrasions, contusions and muscular strains to complex particular fracture dislocations. These are caused by attempting to arrest the face with an outstretched hand, leading to additional direct injury. Common overuse injuries include repeated compression from the handlebars and vibration leading to neurovascular complications in the hands. Along with reports of blunt abdominal trauma and lumbar muscle strains, lower extremity injuries may include various hip/pelvic/groin contusions, patellofemoral inflammation, and various muscle strains. The primary causes of mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents include overuse, excessive fatigue, age, level of experience, and inappropriate or improperly adjusted equipment. Additional factors contributing to trauma among this age group involve musculoskeletal immaturity, collisions and falls, excessive speed, environmental conditions, conditioning and fitness status of the rider, nonconservative behavioural patterns, and inadequate medical care. The limited available data restrict the identification and understanding of specific paediatric mountain biking injuries and injury mechanisms. Education about unnecessary risk of injury, use of protective equipment, suitable bikes

  10. 支持多优先级QoS的业务量疏导算法%Multi-Priority QoS Supported Traffic Grooming Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠嫣娇; 金海; 范戈

    2010-01-01

    针对当前业务量疏导研究中很少涉及的QoS约束的问题,提出并研究了一种支持多优先级QoS的业务量疏导算法(Differentiated Traffic Grooming Algorithm,DTGA),该算法综合考虑了对不同等级业务QoS和网络资源利用率的优化.与目前实用的WDM光网络业务量疏导算法的性能仿真对比表明,DTGA能有效地降低高服务等级需求业务的阻塞率和节省网络资源.

  11. THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE GROOM- BAILY'S TENSOR DECOMPOSITION IN MAGNETOTELLURICS%大地电磁GB张量分解法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨长福; 林长佑; 徐世浙

    2002-01-01

    在对Groom-Baily的大地电磁(MT)张量分解法(简称GB分解法)修改之后,采用对单个频点进行张量分解的方法,并将参加分解的阻抗张量元素改用视电阻率和相位,使得分解方程数目及求解未知数数目减少,大大改善了方程的病态性能并减少计算时间,从而使张量分解更少地受分解条件的限制而稳定地进行.在此基础上,编写了单频点张量分解程序,并应用于实际资料.

  12. Pattern and timing of late Cenozoic rapid exhumation and uplift of the Helan Mountain,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Helan Mountain, an intraplate deformation belt in the North China Craton, is located in the northern portion of the China North-South seismic belt, and at the northwestern margin of the Ordos Block. The Cenozoic deformation history of the Helan Mountain is characterized by extension along the eastern Helan Mountain fault (EHSF), resulting in the exhumation and uplift of the Helan Mountain, relative to the rifting of the adjacent Yinchuan Basin. Here we present new apatite fission track (AFT) data from several transects adjacent to the EHSF in the central and northern Helan Mountain. AFT ages from the northern Helan Mountain (Dawukou and Zhengyiguan transects) range from 10 Ma to 89 Ma, whereas AFT ages from the southern Helan Mountain (Suyukou transect) are greater than 71 Ma. The AFT data analysis reveals initiation of rapid uplift and exhumation of the Helan Mountain at 10–12 Ma. Additionally, a plot of the AFT ages versus their mean track length shows a distinctive "boomerang" pattern indicating that the Helan Mountain experienced a discrete phase of accelerated exhumation beginning at 10-12 Ma. Spatially, AFT samples systematically increase in age away from the EHSF and are consistent with late Cenozoic exhumation that was slow in the southwestern Helan Mountain and rapid in the northeastern Helan Mountain, as well more rapid adjacent to the EHSF and slower away from the EHSF. Obviously, the spatial distribution of late Cenozoic exhumation indicates that normal faulting of the EHSF is related to southwestward tilting and rapid exhumation of the Helan Mountain beginning at 10–12 Ma. The uplift and exhumation of the Helan Mountain was a response to the intensive extension of the northwestern margin of the Ordos Block in the late Cenozoic; this occurred under a regional extensional stress field oriented NW-SE along the Yinchuan-Jilantai-Hetao and the Weihe-Shanxi graben systems adjacent to the Ordos Block.

  13. [Mountain medicine - an introduction. I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen; Bay, Bjørn

    2016-10-31

    Tourism to high-altitude areas is increasingly popular even from low-lying regions such as Denmark. Mountain sports include skiing, mountaineering, and ski touring. The young, elderly and at-risk individuals with pre-existing illnesses engage in recreational mountain activities. Thus, risk assessment and counselling regarding altitude exposure is increasingly relevant to all healthcare providers. In this first article of two in a review series, we summarize the state of the art of altitude physiology, alpine dangers and avalanches, and medical aspects of the increased UV-exposure at altitude.

  14. Study on traffic grooming with mixed line rates in OTN metro networks%多线速OTN城域网的业务疏导研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白文杰; 刘逢清; 康文军

    2014-01-01

    针对未来的通信网络将趋于扁平化并支持各种业务的需求,将多线速应用到城域 OTN(光传送网)的业务疏导算法中,对高、低带宽业务进行不同的业务疏导。提出了适合解决大中型网络业务疏导问题的启发式算法,将该算法应用于城域 OTN中,并将多线速与单线速网络的结果进行比较,结果证明多线速 OTN城域网的业务疏导算法可以降低网络建设成本。%Future telecommunication networks are expected to be flat-structured and support a variety of traffic demands.In line with the diversified demands,the Mixed Line Rate (MLR)is applied to the metro OTN traffic grooming algorithm,groo-ming services at the different bit-rates.A heuristic algorithm is proposed for the service grooming in large and medium-sized networks.Then this algorithm is applied to metro networks and the results in MLR and Single Line Rate (SLR)networks are compared,which show that this algorithm applied in MLR OTN metro networks can reduce the network construction cost.

  15. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  16. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain...

  17. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  18. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  19. Spatial and temporal interactions of sympatric mountain lions in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Kerry L.; Krausman, Paul R.; Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Culver, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Spatial and temporal interactions among individual members of populations can have direct applications to habitat management of mountain lions (Puma concolor). Our objectives were to evaluate home range overlap and spatial/temporal use of overlap zones (OZ) of mountain lions in Arizona. We incorporated spatial data with genetic analyses to assess relatedness between mountain lions with overlapping home ranges. We recorded the space use patterns of 29 radio-collared mountain lions in Arizona from August 2005 to August 2008. We genotyped 28 mountain lions and estimated the degree of relatedness among individuals. For 26 pairs of temporally overlapping mountain lions, 18 overlapped spatially and temporally and eight had corresponding genetic information. Home range overlap ranged from 1.18% to 46.38% (x̄=2443, SE = 2.96). Male–male pairs were located within 1 km of each other on average, 0.04% of the time, whereas male–female pairs on average were 3.0%. Two male–male pairs exhibited symmetrical spatial avoidance and two symmetrical spatial attractions to the OZ. We observed simultaneous temporal attraction in three male–male pairs and four male–female pairs. Individuals from Tucson were slightly related to one another within the population (n = 13, mean R = 0.0373 ± 0.0151) whereas lions from Payson (n = 6, mean R = -0.0079 ± 0.0356) and Prescott (n = 9, mean R = -0.0242 ± 0.0452) were not as related. Overall, males were less related to other males (n = 20, mean R = -0.0495 ± 0.0161) than females were related to other females (n = 8, mean R = 0.0015 ± 0.0839). Genetic distance was positively correlated with geographic distance (r2 = 0.22, P = 0.001). Spatial requirements and interactions influence social behavior and can play a role in determining population density.

  20. Mountain biodiversity patterns at low and high latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molau, Ulf

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of mountain biodiversity at a multitude of scales in space, time, and function. Even though species richness is usually the focal component in nature conservation, genetic diversity within species is equally important. The small-scale distribution of species in the tropical Andes, as exemplified by the plant genera Calceolaria and Bartsia, contrasts against the situation in high-latitude mountains, e.g., the Scandes, where species have wide ranges and many are circumpolar. Recent studies on alpine plants based on molecular methods show that the intraspecific genetic diversity tends to increase with latitude, a situation brought about by the glaciation history with repeated contraction-expansion episodes of species' distributions. In tropical mountains, species distributions are geographically much narrower, often as a result of relatively recent, local speciation. Thus, whereas species richness in mountains decreases from the Equator towards the poles, genetic diversity shows the opposite trend. Finally, a comparison of ecosystem diversity in low- and high-latitude mountain ranges (tropical Andes vs. Scandes) shows that the landscapes differ profoundly with regard to timberline ecotones, snow distribution, and climate variables, and are subject to widely different impacts of global change

  1. Oil and gas exploration near Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grow, J.A.; Barker, C.E. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Harris, A.G. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Three oil exploration wells were drilled within 20 km of Yucca Mountain in 1991. Conodont samples from two of these new wells and 190 locations near Yucca Mountain and have been analyzed for color alteration indices (CAI), which can be correlated to thermal maturity and petroleum generation. Cambrian through Triassic rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain have experienced temperatures too high to be capable of generating oil, except for a narrow zone (20 x 100 km) northeast of Yucca Mountain, where Mississippian through Triassic rocks are just within the upper limit of the oil generating window. Organic geochemical samples from the Mississippian Eleana Formation in this zone have low total organic carbon and low hydrogen indices, which, combined with overall pattern of CAI values, indicates that the entire Cambrian through Triassic sedimentary column is unfavorable as oil source rocks. While much of the Cambrian through Triassic rocks have thermal potential for gas, extensive Late Tertiary faulting at Yucca Mountain suggest that seals might be inadequate for retaining gas. No commercial gas fields have been found to date in Nevada or adjacent parts of California. Organic geochemistry on samples from a few Tertiary lacustrine deposits do show high carbon and hydrogen indices. However, the lacustrine deposits in these basin and range type valleys lack long range continuity and none of the present Nevada oil fields produce from such Tertiary valley-fill.

  2. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  3. A mountain of millipedes IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Two species of the genus Prionopetalum Attems, 1909, are recorded from the Udzungwa Mountains: P. asperginis sp. nov. and P. kraepelini (Attems, 1896). Prionopetalum stuhlmanni Attems, 1914, is synonymized under P. kraepelini. Odontopyge fasciata Attems, 1896, is transferred from Prionopetalum...

  4. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  5. THE MOST SUCCE SSFUL MOUNTAINEERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Tsering Dorje:I Dream of Climbing Mt. Qomolangma Carrying the Olympic Torch Tsering Dorje,the oldest of the Tibetan professional mountaineers,has successfully reached a total of fourteen of the world's highest mountain summits.His companions jokingly refer to him as"Aku"(meaning"uncle"in Tibetan).However, acting as an uncle,he has to shoulder the responsibilities of team leader to take care of the others.

  6. Vertical Profile of Aerosol Properties at Pico Mountain, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Dzepina, K.; Hueber, J.; China, S.; Sharma, N.

    2013-12-01

    Pico Mountain (2325m asl) is a dormant volcano in the archipelago of the Azores1500 km west of Lisbon, Portugal in the North Atlantic. It differs from typical mountain ranges such as the Alps or the Rockies, which are large and present a complex orography. Pico Mountain has a simple cone-like structure with only one main peak and is thousands of kilometers away from any other significant mountain range. In summer months, it is typical for air masses to move around the mountain rather than traveling up its face. This implies that often the peak of the mountain lies above the marine boundary layer in the free troposphere, while the lower part of the mountain is affected by marine clouds and marine air-masses. An atmospheric monitoring station, the Pico Mountain Observatory was established in 2001 in the summit caldera of the volcano at 2225m above sea level. The observatory is far from large populations or pollution sources, which makes the station ideal to study atmospheric gases and aerosols transported over long-ranges in the free troposphere. The station is reachable only by foot following a steep and strenuous hiking trail. In the summer of 2013 we began to collect vertical profiles of aerosol by carrying an instrumented backpack up to the summit of the mountain, with the goal of studying the vertical structure of atmospheric aerosols from the marine boundary layer to the free troposphere. The backpack was carried from the base of trail at 1200m asl. The backpack was equipped with the following instruments: 1. Nephelometer to measure light scattering from aerosol 2. 2-size optical particle counter (300-500 nm) 3. Portable micro-aethalometer to measure absorbing aerosols 4. SEM/TEM sampler to collect particles for off-line electron microscopy analysis 5. Battery powered data logger to measure relative humidity, temperature and pressure 6. GPS tracking device We provide a preliminary analysis of data collected in 2013 to gain insight on the vertical distribution

  7. Geologic map of the Yucca Mountain region, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Dickerson, Robert P.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Taylor, Emily M.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; San Juan, Carma A.; Day, Warren C.

    2002-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nev., has been identified as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste. This geologic map compilation, including all of Yucca Mountain and Crater Flat, most of the Calico Hills, western Jackass Flats, Little Skull Mountain, the Striped Hills, the Skeleton Hills, and the northeastern Amargosa Desert, portrays the geologic framework for a saturated-zone hydrologic flow model of the Yucca Mountain site. Key geologic features shown on the geologic map and accompanying cross sections include: (1) exposures of Proterozoic through Devonian strata inferred to have been deformed by regional thrust faulting and folding, in the Skeleton Hills, Striped Hills, and Amargosa Desert near Big Dune; (2) folded and thrust-faulted Devonian and Mississippian strata, unconformably overlain by Miocene tuffs and lavas and cut by complex Neogene fault patterns, in the Calico Hills; (3) the Claim Canyon caldera, a segment of which is exposed north of Yucca Mountain and Crater Flat; (4) thick densely welded to nonwelded ash-flow sheets of the Miocene southwest Nevada volcanic field exposed in normal-fault-bounded blocks at Yucca Mountain; (5) upper Tertiary and Quaternary basaltic cinder cones and lava flows in Crater Flat and at southernmost Yucca Mountain; and (6) broad basins covered by Quaternary and upper Tertiary surficial deposits in Jackass Flats, Crater Flat, and the northeastern Amargosa Desert, beneath which Neogene normal and strike-slip faults are inferred to be present on the basis of geophysical data and geologic map patterns. A regional thrust belt of late Paleozoic or Mesozoic age affected all pre-Tertiary rocks in the region; main thrust faults, not exposed in the map area, are interpreted to underlie the map area in an arcuate pattern, striking north, northeast, and east. The predominant vergence of thrust faults exposed elsewhere in the region, including the Belted Range and Specter Range thrusts, was to the east

  8. Plant biodiversity patterns on Helan Mountain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Kang, Muyi; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Guangcai

    2007-09-01

    A case study was conducted to mountainous ecosystems in the east side of Helan Mountain, located in the transitional zone between steppe and desert regions of China, aiming to reveal the influences of four environmental factors on features of plant biodiversity—the spatial pattern of vegetation types, and the variation of α- and β-diversities in vegetation and flora. Field surveys on vegetation and flora and on environmental factors were conducted, and those field data were analyzed through CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and through Shannon-Weiner index for α-diversity and Sørensen index for β-diversity. The preliminary results are: (1) Ranked in terms of their impacts on spatial patterns of plant biodiversity, the four selected environmental factors would be: elevation > location > slope > exposure. (2) The variation of Shannon-Weiner index along the altitudinal gradient is similar to that of species amount within altitudinal belts spanning 200 m each, which suggests a unimodal relationship between the species richness and the environmental condition with regards to altitudinal factors. Both the Shannon-Weiner index and the species richness within each altitudinal belt reach their maximum at elevation range from about 1700 to 2000 m a.s.l. (3) The altitudinal extent with the highest Shannon-Weiner index is identical to the range, where both the deciduous broad-leaved forest, and the temperate evergreen coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest distribute. The altitudinal range from 1700 to 2200 m a.s.l. is the sector with both high level of species richness and diversified vegetation types. (4) The variation of β-diversity along the altitude is consistent with the vegetation vertical zones. According to the Sørensen index between each pair of altitudinal belts, the transition of vegetation spectrum from one zone to another, as from the base horizontal zone, the desert steppe, to the first vertical zone, the mountain open forest and

  9. Estimating abundance of mountain lions from unstructured spatial sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.; Royle, J. Andrew; Desimone, Richard; Schwartz, Michael K.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Pilgrim, Kristy P.; Mckelvey, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are often difficult to monitor because of their low capture probabilities, extensive movements, and large territories. Methods for estimating the abundance of this species are needed to assess population status, determine harvest levels, evaluate the impacts of management actions on populations, and derive conservation and management strategies. Traditional mark–recapture methods do not explicitly account for differences in individual capture probabilities due to the spatial distribution of individuals in relation to survey effort (or trap locations). However, recent advances in the analysis of capture–recapture data have produced methods estimating abundance and density of animals from spatially explicit capture–recapture data that account for heterogeneity in capture probabilities due to the spatial organization of individuals and traps. We adapt recently developed spatial capture–recapture models to estimate density and abundance of mountain lions in western Montana. Volunteers and state agency personnel collected mountain lion DNA samples in portions of the Blackfoot drainage (7,908 km2) in west-central Montana using 2 methods: snow back-tracking mountain lion tracks to collect hair samples and biopsy darting treed mountain lions to obtain tissue samples. Overall, we recorded 72 individual capture events, including captures both with and without tissue sample collection and hair samples resulting in the identification of 50 individual mountain lions (30 females, 19 males, and 1 unknown sex individual). We estimated lion densities from 8 models containing effects of distance, sex, and survey effort on detection probability. Our population density estimates ranged from a minimum of 3.7 mountain lions/100 km2 (95% Cl 2.3–5.7) under the distance only model (including only an effect of distance on detection probability) to 6.7 (95% Cl 3.1–11.0) under the full model (including effects of distance, sex, survey effort, and

  10. The origins of mountain geoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mountain geoecology, as a sub-discipline of Geography, stems from the life and work of Carl Troll who, in turn, was inspired by the philosophy and mountain travels of Alexander von Humboldt. As founding chair of the IGU Commission on High-Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll laid the foundations for inter-disciplinary and international mountain research. The paper traces the evolution of the Commission and its close links with the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (1972- and the United Nations University’s mountain Project (1978-. This facilitated the formation of a major force for inclusion of a mountain chapter in AGENDA 21 during the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Herat Summit (UNCED and the related designation by the United Nations of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. In this way, mountain geoecology not only contributed to worldwide mountain research but also entered the political arena in the struggle for sustainable mountain development and the well-being of mountain people.La geoecología de montaña, como sub-disciplina de la Geografía, entronca con la vida y trabajo de Carl Troll, quien, a su vez, fue inspirado por la filosofía y viajes de Alexander von Humboldt. Como presidente fundador de la comisión de la UGI sobre High Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll colocó las bases para la investigación interdisciplinar e internacional de las montañas. Este trabajo presenta la evolución de la Comisión y sus estrechas relaciones con el Programa Hombre y Biosfera de UNESCO (1972- y con el Proyecto de montaña de la Universidad de Naciones Unidas (1978-. Esto facilitó la inclusión de un capítulo sobre la montaña en AGENDA 21 durante la Cumbre de la Tierra de Río de Janeiro (UNCED, y la consiguiente designación de 2002 como el Año Internacional de las Montañas por parte de Naciones Unidas. En este sentido, la geoecología de montaña no sólo contribuyó a la investigación de las montañas del mundo sino que también empujó a la pol

  11. An assessment of future volcanic hazard at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R. [WRH Associates, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Preliminary results and methods of a volcanic-hazards assessment for the proposed high-level nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain are given. The most significant hazards are potential intersection of the repository by a basaltic dike, or structural disruption associated with dike intrusion. Two approaches are taken, which give similar results: homogeneous volcanic-source zones and spatial smoothing. The preliminary computed probabilities of intersection of the Yucca Mountain repository by a basaltic dike are in the range 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -8} per year.

  12. Summer weather characteristics on the Grove Mountain of East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The summer weather characteristics of the Grove Mountain, East Antarctica, are presented based on the data obtained by Chinese National Antarctic Expedition (CHINARE) in January 1999. The result shows that the pattern of daily variation of temperature and the prevailing wind direction in Grove is similar to that of Zhongshan Station. However, the daily range of temperature and strong wind frequency are much higher than those of Zhongshan Station. The change of wind direction is close to the weather system that impacted the Grove Mountain. The warm and wet air from northern parts often causes the precipitation. The clear weather appears when controlled by eastern winds in January.

  13. Postconflict behavior among female Rhinopithecus roxellana within one-male units in the Qinling Mountains, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian ZHANG, Dapeng ZHAO, Baoguo LI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available For group-living primates, the information on postconflict management is crucial for understanding primate competition and cooperation. However, such information is poorly known for snub-nosed monkeys, especially for wild populations. In this study, from September 2007 to June 2008, we investigated postconflict behavior among adult females Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus roxellana within one-male units in a wild, provisioned group in the Qinling Mountains of China by means of the time-rule method and the PC-MC method. We obtained a total of 81 PC-MC pairs and each individual was involved in only 0.004 aggressive behavior per observation hour. The first affiliative behavior was more likely to occur within the first minute after a conflict. The postconflict affiliative behaviors most often seen were contact-sit, embrace and grooming. The affiliative contacts between adult females occur due to selective attraction, i.e. reconciliation. The pattern of postconflict affiliation demonstrates that the R. roxellana belongs to a tolerant species [Current Zoology 56 (2: 222–226, 2010].

  14. Diversity of the Mountain Flora of Central Asia with Emphasis on Alkaloid-Producing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimjan Tayjanov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountains of Central Asia with 70 large and small mountain ranges represent species-rich plant biodiversity hotspots. Major mountains include Saur, Tarbagatai, Dzungarian Alatau, Tien Shan, Pamir-Alai and Kopet Dag. Because a range of altitudinal belts exists, the region is characterized by high biological diversity at ecosystem, species and population levels. In addition, the contact between Asian and Mediterranean flora in Central Asia has created unique plant communities. More than 8100 plant species have been recorded for the territory of Central Asia; about 5000–6000 of them grow in the mountains. The aim of this review is to summarize all the available data from 1930 to date on alkaloid-containing plants of the Central Asian mountains. In Saur 301 of a total of 661 species, in Tarbagatai 487 out of 1195, in Dzungarian Alatau 699 out of 1080, in Tien Shan 1177 out of 3251, in Pamir-Alai 1165 out of 3422 and in Kopet Dag 438 out of 1942 species produce alkaloids. The review also tabulates the individual alkaloids which were detected in the plants from the Central Asian mountains. Quite a large number of the mountain plants produce neurotoxic and cytotoxic alkaloids, indicating that a strong chemical defense is needed under the adverse environmental conditions of these mountains with presumably high pressure from herbivores.

  15. Modelling the Long-term Periglacial Imprint on Mountain Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David Lundbek; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    -term evolution of mountains in cold climates. We focus upon two periglacial processes: 1) production of regolith from bedrock via frost-weathering, and 2) transport of sediment via frost creep. First, we propose a mechanistic model that quantifies the influence of temperature and sediment cover on process rates......-term feedbacks among climate, weathering intensity, sediment transport and the evolution of mountain topography. Our results suggest that periglacial processes can produce effectively smooth topography at a rate that varies with climate. The observed smoothing closely simulates the morphology of high......-elevation, low-relief summit surfaces known from many cold-region mountain ranges. Our model simulations also suggest that late- Cenozoic cooling has brought about variations in the intensity and spatial pattern of periglacial activity. Depending upon elevation, some summit surfaces experienced accelerated...

  16. Practices of nature: movement and contemplation in the Marumbi mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Izabel de Carvalho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Between the 1940s and 1960s a group of climbers was dedicated to brave the Marumbi mountains, a massive located at the Sea Mountain Range in State of Paraná (Brazil. They termed the sport practiced as "marumbinismo" and to organize their activities founded the Clube dos Marumbinistas de Curitiba. The paper presents the initial phase of ascents of those mountains, then the club consolidation phase and seeks to analyze how the sociopolitical context of that time, with emphasis on the importance of physical exercises in the supposed character building individual and national,has influenced the discourse of CMC. It also analyzes the internal structure of the club around a "culture of nature."

  17. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-08-20

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue' in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.

  18. Evaluation of sampling methods for periphytic fauna in macrophytes at the Espinhaço Mountain Range Biosphere Reserve, Minas Gerais State, Brazil = Avaliação dos métodos de amostragem para fauna perifítica em macrófitas na Reserva da Biosfera, Serra do Espinhaço, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lúcia Menezes Ferreira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The methods “Jar”, “Manual Removal” and “modified Ekman Dredge” wereevaluated for sampling periphyton fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes. Sixty-three samples were collected from five lentic and three lotic water bodies at the Espinhaço Mountain Range Biosphere Reserve (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Anova and Tukey statistical tests were performed for Protista, Rotifera and Crustacea richness, whereas the abundance of Protista, Rotifera, Crustacea, Gastrotricha, Tardigrada and Nematoda was evaluated by percentage. Of the three methods, the Dredge is less indicated for different water bodies systems in which there is interest in analyzing various microinvertebrate groups. The Protista and Rotifera represent 80% of the total abundance and richness in the invertebrate community. In the ecosystems evaluated, all methods are relevant for Protistaanalysis; on the other hand, Crustacea analysis required the Jar method. Manual Removal and Dredge methods are appropriate for Rotifera analysis. Gastrotricha and Tardigrada abundance presented better results with the Jar method; Nematoda with the Dredgemethod. The three methods are appropriate for periphyton fauna sampling in both water body systems; nevertheless, it is important to be aware that for each fauna community in a specified ecosystem, there is a specific method for best performance.Os métodos “Jarra”, “Remoção Manual” e “Draga de Eckman modificada” foram avaliados para amostrar a fauna perifítica associada à macrófitas aquáticas. Foram coletadas 63 amostras em cinco ambienteslênticos e três lóticos na reserva da biosfera da Serra do Espinhaço (Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os testes estatísticos Anova e Tukey foram feitos para riqueza de Protista, Rotifera eCrustacea, enquanto para a abundância de Protista, Rotifera, Crustacea, Gastrotricha, Tardigrada e Nematoda foram avaliados os percentuais. Os protozoários e rotíferos representaram 80% daabund

  19. Mountain sports and total hip arthroplasty: a case report and review of mountaineering with total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Participation in certain sports after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is common. Some high-risk sports such as extreme endurance sports with risks of falls and fractures are often cautioned against, except when the sport was participated in preoperatively and an excellent physical condition is present postoperatively. In this article, current concepts pertaining to this issue in general and in relation to mountain sports are discussed after a description of the activities of a 69-year-old patient who received cementless bilateral THAs in 1987 and 1995 and who resumed, after each rehabilitation, his preoperative sports practice (eg, walking and high-altitude mountaineering [6000+ m]). The patient, who was experienced in alpine and high-altitude mountaineering, was able, after his first operation, to climb classic alpine peaks (4000+ m) as well as participate in difficult and strenuous climbs outside Europe (Kilimanjaro, Elbrus, and Rolwaling trekking). After the second operation and an intensive rehabilitation program, he was able to climb 2 mountains in the range of 6000+ m. With excellent physical training, a long preoperative practice of the sport, and an intensive and careful rehabilitation, patients with a THA are, under specific circumstances, able to perform mountaineering at a very high, even professional level without signs of prosthesis loosening or higher than normal wear of the bearing materials.

  20. Discussion on the Split-Flow Programs of Reconstruction and Extension of Expressway and Emergent Grooming Measures%对高速公路改扩建分流方案及应急疏导方式的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元鹏; 高原

    2014-01-01

    In the highway reconstruction and extension ,there are two difficulties which are split-flow and emergent grooming.Based on roadway split-flow and vehicle type split-flow,the paper sketches split-flow programs were used in the process of old road reconstruction of highway and emergent grooming measures were presented after the accident.%针对高速公路改扩建工程中的分流及应急疏导的两个难点,从道路分流和车型分流两方面简述了高速公路在旧路改造过程中曾用到的分流方案,以及介绍了发生事故后应急疏导的方法。

  1. Time-Aware Green Grooming Algorithm for Scheduled Traffic in WDM Networks%WDM光网络中带宽预留型业务的时间感知绿色疏导算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焕淋; 刘洋; 陈勇; 张盛峰; 黄胜

    2014-01-01

    A green grooming algorithm, called as time-aware green grooming ( TAGG) algorithm, is pro-posed for scheduled traffic requests. By comparing the transmission energy consumption for different traf-fic grooming strategies, the most energy-efficient traffic grooming strategy is selected in TAGG algorithm for traffic requests. Moreover, in order to further reduce the transmission energy consumption, a scheme is put forward to trigger the operation of merging light-paths. According to the moment of tearing down light-paths, the scheme can determine the moment of merging light-paths for traffic requests, which can reduce the number of required router ports and transceivers, and improve the wavelength bandwidth utili-zation. Simulation shows that the proposed TAGG algorithm can reduce transmission energy consumption effectively.%针对带宽预留型业务提出了一种业务持续时间感知的绿色疏导算法,通过计算不同疏导策略的传输能耗,为业务选择最小能耗疏导策略;为进一步减小网络传输能耗,设计一种灵活触发光路合并操作的机制,该机制能根据光网络中不同光路的拆除时刻在业务传输前确定光路的合并时刻,减少了路由器端口和光收发器数目的使用,增加了光路带宽利用率。仿真结果表明,提出的时间感知绿色疏导算法能有效降低网络传输能耗。

  2. A static traffic grooming algorithm based on multicast tree in opti- cal networks%光网络中基于组播树的静态业务疏导算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 徐展琦; 邱智亮; 许奇钦

    2011-01-01

    For saving the source of wavelength in WDM networks,the multicast routing is used in the static traffic grooming algorithm. The traffic grooming trees are constructed for the implement of traffic grooming,and the grooming trees are minimiied to decrease the consumption of wavelength. So the traffic between the network nodes is grouped,and the packing algorithm is used for reducing the group numbers. In order to realize the path sharing after traffic packing,the minimum spanning tree is constructed.The simulation results show that this algorithm has efficiently reduced the use of wavelength in WDM network and the operation complexity.%为了减少波分复用(WDM)网络中波长资源消耗,将组播路由算法的思想运用于静态业务疏导的计算,通过建立业务疏导树来实现静态业务疏导.为了减少疏导树的数量,从而减少网络中波长资源的消耗,将节点间的业务请求分组归并,利用装包算法使业务分组的数量最少,并通过构建最小生成树实现传输路径共享.仿真结果表明,本文的算法可以有效地减少WDM网络中的波长资源消耗,而且很大程度降低了计算复杂度.

  3. Job performance in the mountain metros

    OpenAIRE

    Mark C. Snead; Kate Watkins

    2012-01-01

    This issue of the Rocky Mountain Economist explores the labor market performance of the mountain state metropolitan areas, including recent industry trends and comparisons to state and national job performance.

  4. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics ...

  5. Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034762, the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station is authorized to discharge from the interior storm drainage system and air exhaust stacks at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, in El Paso County, Colorado, to tributaries Fountain Creek.

  6. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, J.N.

    1992-09-30

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain.

  7. WHITE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. If mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significanlty, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  8. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  9. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever KidsHealth > For Parents > Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Print A A A What's in ... en español La rickettsiosis maculosa About RMSF Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial infection that's ...

  10. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  11. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  12. Storymakers: Hopa Mountain's Early Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Hopa Mountain's StoryMakers program is an innovative, research-based program for donating high quality young children's books to parents. Hopa Mountain is a nonprofit organization based in Bozeman, Montana. Hopa Mountain works with groups of rural and tribal citizen