WorldWideScience

Sample records for grocery store loyalty

  1. Loyalty program structure and consumers’ perceptions of status: Feeling special in a grocery store?

    OpenAIRE

    A. Arbore; Z. Estes

    2013-01-01

    Loyalty programs are business practices increasingly pursued by companies in order to achieve customer loyalty. Recent studies have focused on the relationship between loyalty program structures (i.e., number and size of hierarchical tiers) and status levels (i.e., exclusivity) perceived by members. The current study examines two potential moderators of this relationship between program structure and perceived status. Specifically, the aim of our research was to test whether loyalty program s...

  2. [Occupational risks in grocery stores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Francesca; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Violante, Francesco S

    2014-01-01

    This work provides an overview of the spectrum of possible occupational risk factors in the retail grocery store/supermarket workplace. Literature on this theme, obtained consulting PubMed database and Google Scholar, was checked. We also exjlore results from the National bInstitute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). RESULTs: Contacts with objects, use of dangerous equipment (cutter, food slicer) and falls to the same level (slips, trips and falls) are the mainly described workplace hazards. Exposure to chemical (flour dust, components of detergents or disinfectants, volatile organic compounds and contact with nickel) and physical agents (cold exposure, nonionizing radiation and whole bpdy vibration) are reported by many authors. Relations between biomechanical and ergonomic risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders represent the main subjects of study. Few studies are found about biological agents (particularly among butchers). Data regarding psychosocial risks factors in this setting are still limited. Musculoskeletal disorders continue to be the most recurrent health problem between the grocery store workers (particularly low back pain and carpal tunnel syndrome among cashiers). Many technical documents and international Srecommendations are present to prevent these kinds of disorders. Psychosocial risk factors and risk of workplace violence should deserve further investigation.

  3. Loyalty Programmes of Selective Grocery Retailers in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Solarová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with long term loyalty programmes of selective grocery retailers who operate in the market within the Czech Republic. Only those loyalty programmes designed for the end customers are taken into account, so this study is concerned with the B2C area. A long term loyalty programmes last at least for one year, i.e. twelve months (this time determination is valid for purposes of this paper. The main aim of this paper is to identify the single elements and principles occurring in long term loyalty programmes and then to develop an illustrative model. The presented output is a model of long term loyalty programmes that captures the three following phases: the establishment, development (or building and termination of the relationship. In addition, from the empirical research, an interesting fact has emerged: two of the analysed long term loyalty programmes were launched at a similar time. This could be explained through the tendency for companies to copy the successful activities insigated by their competitors. Furthermore, the next remarkable phenomenon is that one grocery chain runs two long term loyalty programmes at the same time and the target groups of these programmes overlap. A possible explanation could be that the chain is making efforts to interest as many as possible of its different customers.

  4. Rethinking the grocery store: inclusive wayfinding system for visually impaired shoppers in grocery stores

    OpenAIRE

    Khattab, Doaa

    2015-01-01

    Many people with disabilities face considerable barriers while shopping in grocery stores.  One such barrier is that they cannot find their way around easily, especially when they visit the grocery store for the first time and have not yet built a cognitive map in their memory. They may also experience delays in finding the right product or waiting for assistance from store employees, thus leading them to rely on family, friends, relatives, or volunteers to help them with their shopping. Prob...

  5. RETHINKING THE GROCERY STORE: INCLUSIVE WAYFINDING SYSTEM FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED SHOPPERS IN GROCERY STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Khattab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many people with disabilities face considerable barriers while shopping in grocery stores.  One such barrier is that they cannot find their way around easily, especially when they visit the grocery store for the first time and have not yet built a cognitive map in their memory. They may also experience delays in finding the right product or waiting for assistance from store employees, thus leading them to rely on family, friends, relatives, or volunteers to help them with their shopping. Problems start when these people are not available, in which case the individual is forced to cancel their visit to the grocery store and reschedule the trip. Grocery stores include many different zones and services, the aisles area being one of the main barriers to access for people with different disabilities. This area features many different sections such as canned goods, dry packaged goods, spices, drinks and snacks, baking supplies, baby items, cereals, cleaning products, pet supplies, and health and beauty items. For visually impaired individuals, however, it can be hard to reach these various sections and find the relevant products. The objective of this research is to design an inclusive and innovative wayfinding system in grocery stores for visually impaired shoppers in order to help them find the center zone, orient between different aisles, decide where to go, move easily between different sections, and select products with ease. The research approach will be based on the literature review and the application of the Delphi method.

  6. UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIPS OF PROGRAM SATISFACTION, PROGRAM LOYALTY AND STORE LOYALTY AMONG CARDHOLDERS OF LOYALTY PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Asiah Omar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Loyalty programs have increasingly attracted interest in both academic marketing research and practice. One major factor that has been increasingly discussed is loyalty. In this study we examine the influence of cardholders' satisfaction on loyalty (program loyalty and store loyalty in a retail context, namely, in department stores and superstores. Data were collected from 400 cardholders of a retail loyalty program in Klang Valley, Malaysia via the drop-off-and-collect technique. Structural modelling techniques were applied to analyze the data. The results indicated that program satisfaction is not related to store loyalty (share-of-wallet, share-of-visit and store preference. However, loyalty to the program (program loyalty plays a crucial intervening role in the relationship between program satisfaction and store loyalty. The study underscores the principal importance of program loyalty in the retail loyalty program.

  7. UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIPS OF PROGRAM SATISFACTION, PROGRAM LOYALTY AND STORE LOYALTY AMONG CARDHOLDERS OF LOYALTY PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Asiah Omar; Norzalita Abd. Aziz; Muhamad Azrin Nazri

    2011-01-01

    Loyalty programs have increasingly attracted interest in both academic marketing research and practice. One major factor that has been increasingly discussed is loyalty. In this study we examine the influence of cardholders' satisfaction on loyalty (program loyalty and store loyalty) in a retail context, namely, in department stores and superstores. Data were collected from 400 cardholders of a retail loyalty program in Klang Valley, Malaysia via the drop-off-and-collect technique. Structural...

  8. Retail brand architecture and consumer store loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    is to investigate the relationship between consumers perceived retail brand architecture, their store satisfaction and loyalty. Furthermore we use perceived store image as a mediating factor in our framework. In total 772 Danish households participated in a telephone interview and returned questionnaires by mail....... The major contribution of this research is to conceptualise and empirically investigate the role of brand architecture for perceived store image, store satisfaction and loyalty....

  9. Designing pharmacy services based on grocery store patron preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Nicolette S Raya; Casper, Kristin A; Green, Tara R; Pedersen, Craig A

    2007-01-01

    To assess preferences of grocery store patrons concerning pharmacy services and identify study participant characteristics that may predict the success of pharmacy services in the community setting. Self-administered survey. Central Ohio from December 16, 2005, to January 12, 2006. 163 grocery store patrons. Eight grocery store survey events. Responses to survey items about (1) perceived importance of 28 pharmacy services, (2) identification of the 3 most important services, (3) frequency of grocery store and pharmacy use, (4) preferred methods of advertising pharmacy services, and (5) socioeconomic demographics. Preferred services delineated by various demographics also were analyzed. A total of 163 surveys were returned from study participants. Nine services appeared in both the top 12 overall preferred services and the 12 highest-ranked services. Statistically significant differences were observed among services ranked as important or very important by age, race, employment, income, caregiver status, and prescription drug coverage status. The three advertising tools selected most frequently included: weekly grocery store ads (68.6%), in-store signs (51.0%), and flyers attached to prescription bags (36.0%). Grocery store patrons would like a wide range of nontraditional pharmacy services that could be implemented into community pharmacies. Pharmacies in grocery stores need to provide both traditional and expanded pharmacy services to meet the desires and expectations of current and potential patients, and expanded marketing methods should be considered.

  10. Retail grocery store marketing strategies and obesity: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Karen; Bader, Michael D M; Iyer, Shally

    2012-05-01

    In-store food marketing can influence food-purchasing behaviors and warrants increased attention given the dramatic rise in obesity. Descriptive and experimental studies of key marketing components have been conducted by consumer scientists, marketing researchers, and public health experts. This review synthesizes research and publications from industry and academic sources and provides direction for developing and evaluating promising interventions. Literature sources for the review were English-language articles published from 1995 to 2010, identified from multidisciplinary search indexes, backward searches of cited articles, review articles, industry reports, and online sources. Only articles that focused on physical grocery stores and food products were included. Data collection occurred in 2010 and 2011. Articles were classified in the categories of product, price, placement, and promotion and divided into controlled laboratory experiments, observation, and field experiments; 125 primary peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria. Narrative synthesis methods were used. Key findings were synthesized by category of focus and study design. Evidence synthesis was completed in 2011. Findings suggest several strategies for in-store marketing to promote healthful eating by increasing availability, affordability, prominence, and promotion of healthful foods and/or restricting or de-marketing unhealthy foods. Key results of research in controlled laboratory studies should be adapted and tested in real-world in-store settings. Industry methods for assessing consumer behavior, such as electronic sales data and individually linked sales information from loyalty card holders, can help public health researchers increase the scientific rigor of field studies. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Specialty Store and Multi-Brand Store loyalty: An Indian consumer perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the competitive era of retailing, retailers need to understand the importance of store format preferences. The study aimed to understand consumer store loyalty; in-depth interview was conducted to examine consumer store loyalty antecedents for two retail formats: specialty stores and multi brand stores. The study conceptualizes store loyalty factors like program loyalty, trust and brand commitment. Trust and brand commitment act as mediating factors between store image and store loyalty formats, and also between brand image and store loyalty formats. The findings highlight how consumer store loyalty preference differ for these two formats.

  12. Effective Factors in Environmental Health Status of Grocery Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Asadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.

  13. Pet Store Loyalty in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Yuen Yee

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty is open studied topic within the retailing and marketing discipline. A strong and profitable base of loyal customers is an asset to any organization, and is one of the epitomes of success for a company. The flourishing of large, specialty niche retailers like Starbucks, Victoria Secret and Barnes & Noble are stellar success stories that thrive on their troop of staunch followers. Pet retailing is a niche market which has its own interesting market characteristics. The emergence of ...

  14. The Impact of Customer Loyalty Program to Customer Loyalty (Study of Gaudi Clothing Store Manado)

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbay, Priscilla Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This research is to analyze the impact of loyalty program member card to customer loyalty in Gaudi clothing store Manado. Loyalty program is one of the important marketing strategic in industries nowadays to gain customer and to retain customer. Loyalty program member card contains of discount, point reward, special treatment and privilege are influencing the customer loyalty in this case Gaudi clothing store Manado card holder. This research is a quantitative research that associative with m...

  15. UNDERSTANDING THE BARRIERS: GROCERY STORES AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED SHOPPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Khattab

    2015-11-01

    Grocery stores include many different zones and services with the aisles area being one of the main barriers to access for people with impaired vision.  This area features many different sections such as canned goods, dry packaged goods, spices, drinks and snacks, baking supplies, baby items, cereals, cleaning products, pet supplies, and health and beauty items.  For visually impaired individuals, however, it can be hard to reach these various sections and to find the relevant products.  The purpose of this paper is to present a study that sought to understand the barriers that shoppers with vision impairment (VI face in the grocery store`s built environment. The research approach was based on the application of the ethnography method, Think-aloud Protocol (TAP, Interviews, and behavioural mapping method.

  16. [Organization and technology in the grocery store sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetti, Edy

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, grocery stores develop an annual turnover of 92 billion of , (data referred to 2013) and have 28.232 stores spread over a commercial area of 17.224.000 m2. The business involved are 252, linked with 30 important distribution leader companies. The total workforce is about 280.000 people. The grocery stores structure is composed by suppliers and producers warehouses and different kinds of stores (hypermarkets, supermarkets, shops and discounts). In the stores, the technological progress concerns fundamentally back-office operations; the improvement of information and computer science is the main renewal source. Other tasks as receiving goods and stocking shelves are still executed without specific inovations. In terms of organization, we observed a strong increase of part-time workers, the development of atypical contract and thie inclination to contract the easiest jobs (for example, stocking shelves). Also the warehouses often use to sub-contract the picking tasks. The increase of on-line shopping, also concerning the groceries, represents the most relevant evolution in tire near future.

  17. Program Perceived Value and Program Satisfaction Influences on Store Loyalty: Insights from Retail Loyalty Progam

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Nor Asiah; Musa, Rosidah; Nazri, Muhamad Azrin

    2007-01-01

    Investigations to determine whether program perceived value could influence program satisfaction, program card loyalty and store loyalty are critical to elucidate the roles and significance of the constructs and advancing management practice. Accordingly, in line with this research direction, this study aims to assess the effects of program perceived value offered by few leading retail superstores and departmental stores in Malaysia on its members’ loyalty towards the store. The data set util...

  18. FOOD SAFETY SYSTEMS’ FUNCTIONING IN POLISH NETWORKS OF GROCERY STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł NOWICKI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the way how the food safety systems are functioning in Polish networks of grocery stores. The study was conducted in the fourth quarter of 2012 in the south‐eastern Poland. There were chosen three organizations that meet certain conditions: medium size Polish grocery network without participation of foreign capital and up to 30 retail locations within the group. Studies based on a case study model. The research found that regular and unannounced inspections carried out to each store's, impact on increasing safety of food offered and the verification of GHP requirements on the headquarters level has a significant impact on the safety of food offered as well as on the knowledge and behavior of employees. In addition it was found that the verification and analysis of food safety management system is an effective tool for improving food safety. It was also shown that in most cases there is no formal crisis management system for the food protection in the surveyed companies and employees are only informed of what to do in case of an emergency.

  19. Shopper Loyalty to Whom? Chain Versus Outlet Loyalty in the Context of Store Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lin, Arjen; Gijsbrechts, E.

    2014-01-01

    When patronizing stores, consumers may exhibit loyalty not only to a retail chain but also to a specific outlet. This distinction is important in a dynamic retail environment: if a store changes ownership, chain loyalty makes customers inclined to seek out another outlet of the former chain, whereas

  20. Shopper loyalty to whom? Chain versus outlet loyalty in the context of store acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lin, A.I.J.G.; Gijsbrechts, E.

    When patronizing stores, consumers may exhibit loyalty not only to a retail chain but also to a specific outlet. This distinction is important in a dynamic retail environment: if a store changes ownership, chain loyalty makes customers inclined to seek out another outlet of the former chain, whereas

  1. MEASURING GROCERY STORES SERVICE QUALITY IN INDONESIA: A RETAIL SERVICE QUALITY SCALE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonnard Leonnard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of modern grocery stores in Indonesia is a challenge for each grocery store to maintain and increase their number of consumers. The success of maintaining and improving service quality will affect long-term profitability and business sustainability. Therefore, in this study, we examined consumer perceptions of service quality in one of modern grocery stores in Indonesia. Data were collected from 387 consumers of grocery stores in Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Bekasi, Cibubur, and Subang. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM through Maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation was employed to analyze the data. The finding indicated that the five indicators of the retail service quality scale consisting of physical aspects, reliability, personal interactions, problem solving and policies provided  valid multi-item instruments in measuring consumer perceptions of service quality in grocery stores.

  2. The influence of loyalty programs on customer´s loyalty with a focus on branded clothing stores

    OpenAIRE

    Běhounková, Klára

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor statement deals with the influence of loyalty programs on customer's loyalty with a focus on branded clothing stores. It defines a customer, his behavior, decision-making process and his loyalty to a firm. Also it defines marketing communication with customer,sales promotion, loyalty programs including species and benefits. It states specific loyalty programs Blažek, Reserved, Orsay, Marks&Spencer a S. Oliver. Final part evaluates the research of loyalty cards and their usage of...

  3. Evaluation of Traditional and Technology-Based Grocery Store Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jennifer; Litchfield, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Background: A literature gap exists for grocery interventions with realistic resource expectations; few technology-based publications exist, and none document traditional comparison. Purpose: Compare grocery store traditional aisle demonstrations (AD) and technology-based (TB) nutrition education treatments. Methods: A quasi-experimental 4-month…

  4. The missing path to gain customers loyalty in pharmacy retail: The role of the store in developing satisfaction and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Sandro; Grosso, Monica; Mallarini, Erika; Rindone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    An evolution led to community pharmacies experiencing increased competition both between themselves and with new entrants in the sector, for example, grocery retailers. Applying certain retail marketing strategies aimed at developing store loyalty may be an appropriate strategic path for pharmacies wanting to compete in this new arena. This study aimed to develop and test a two-step model to identify the determinants of store loyalty for community pharmacies in Italy. Based on the retail literature, qualitative research was conducted to identify key variables determining loyalty to community pharmacies. The model was then tested by means of a phone survey. A total of 735 usable questionnaires was collected. The study highlights the key role of the relationship between pharmacists and their customers in the loyalty-building path; trust in pharmacists is the first driver of satisfaction and a direct and indirect (through satisfaction) driver of trust in pharmacies, which leads to store loyalty. Retail-level levers, such as the store environment, assortment, and communication, influence trust in pharmacies. This model is a first step toward investigating loyalty-building by applying the retail management literature's concepts to the community pharmacy sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores--50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E. T.; Macumber, D. L.; Long, N. L.; Griffith, B. T.; Benne, K. S.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2008-09-01

    This report provides recommendations that architects, designers, contractors, developers, owners, and lessees of grocery store buildings can use to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  6. Brand patronage and loyalty patterns in store vs. manufacturer brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    Nowadays, in most of the developed fast-moving consumer goods' markets store brands (i.e. retailer brands or private labels) have managed to establish a considerable share in the retail market. Moreover, it is well known that store brands are perceived as strong competitors to manufacturer brands......, while offering good value for money. There is a large body of literature explaining and further exploring factors that influence loyalty towards store brands (e.g. among others Steenkamp and Dekimpe, 1997; Dhar and Hoch, 1997; Ailawadi and Keller, 2004; De Wulf et al, 2005). The objective of the work...... is to investigate the potential existence of differences in the loyalty behaviour between store brands and manufacturer brands, as expressed through certain brand performance and loyalty measures (e.g. market shares, penetration, purchase frequencies, repeat rate, etc.). In order to meet the above...

  7. Mapping of Grocery Stores in Slovak Countryside in Context of Food Deserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Bilková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on mapping grocery stores in the Slovak countryside with an emphasis on identifying potential food deserts in rural areas. Grocery stores are analyzed in the time period 2001–2011. Food deserts in rural areas are identified by two accessibility measures. The results show the development of food retailing in the Slovak countryside and in potentially threatened localities which can be defined as food deserts.

  8. Program Perceived Value and Program Satisfaction Influences on Store Loyalty: Insights from Retail Loyalty Progam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Asiah Omar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations to determine whether program perceived value could influence program satisfaction, program card loyalty and store loyalty are critical to elucidate the roles and significance of the constructs and advancing management practice. Accordingly, in line with this research direction, this study aims to assess the effects of program perceived value offered by few leading retail superstores and departmental stores in Malaysia on its members’ loyalty towards the store. The data set utilized in this study has been obtained via quota sampling technique, where a sample of 153 retail loyalty programs’ members was analyzed. An integrative conceptual model was developed and tested using Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS program. The results exemplify that program perceived value is a strong driver of program satisfaction and program card loyalty. Unexpectedly, program perceived value is not a significant predictor of store loyalty but, it has an indirect effect on store loyalty mediated by program satisfaction. Continuous plea in marketing management is to make marketing instruments more efficient. In recent years introduction of customer relationship marketing instruments is strongly advocated, both in marketing theory and practice. Several researchers (e.g., Berry 1983; Berry and Parasuraman 1991; and Gronroos, 1994 have changed the focus of a marketing orientation from attracting short-term, discrete transactional customers to retaining long-lasting, intimate customer relationships. In fact Roberts, Varki, Brodie (2003, further suggested that it is best to describe relationship marketing as the formation of “bonds” between the company and the customer. Achieving an effective relationship in a consumer context is considered to be even more challenging than it is in a business-to-business context, given the generally more polygamous character of consumers as opposed to business customers (Keng and Ehrenberger 1984; Pressey and

  9. Prevalence of phosphorus containing food additives in grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeen B. Leon

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, phosphorus additives are commonly present in groceries and contribute significantly to the phosphorus content of foods. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than additive-free foods. As a result, phosphorus additives may be an important contributor to hyperphosphatemia among persons with chronic kidney disease

  10. Trying Harder and Doing Worse : How Grocery Shoppers Track In-Store Spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Koert; Pennings, Joost M. E.; Wansink, Brian

    Although almost one in three U.S. households shops on a budget, it remains unclear whether and how shoppers track their in-store spending to stay within those budgets. A field study and two laboratory studies offer four key generalizations about budget shoppers in grocery stores: (1) They

  11. Trying Harder and Doing Worse: How Grocery Shoppers Track In-Store Spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van K.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Wansink, B.

    2010-01-01

    Although almost one in three U.S. households shops on a budget, it remains unclear whether and how shoppers track their in-store spending to stay within those budgets. A field study and two laboratory studies offer four key generalizations about budget shoppers in grocery stores: (1) They

  12. Average opportunity-based accessibility of public transit systems to grocery stores in small urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimish Dharmadhikari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the accessibility of grocery stores to university students using the public transportation system, drawing from a case study of Fargo, North Dakota. Taking into consideration the combined travel time components of walking, riding, and waiting, this study measures two types of accessibilities: accessibility to reach a particular place and accessibility to reach the bus stop to ride the public transit system. These two accessibilities are interdependent and cannot perform without each other. A new method to calculate the average accessibility measure for the transit routes is proposed. A step-wise case study analysis indicates that one route provides accessibility to a grocery store in eight minutes. This also suggests that the North Dakota State University area has moderate accessibility to grocery stores.

  13. Analyzing the Efficient Execution of In-Store Logistics Processes in Grocery Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiner, Gerald; Teller, Christop; Kotzab, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we examine in-store logistics processes for handling dairy products, from the incoming dock to the shelves of supermarkets and hypermarkets. The efficient execution of the in-store logistics related to such fast-moving, sensitive, and essential items is challenging and crucial...... for grocery retailers' sales, profits, and image. In our empirical study, we survey in-store logistics processes in 202 grocery supermarkets and hypermarkets belonging to a major retail chain in central Europe. Using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) and simulation, we facilitate process benchmarking....... In particular, we identify ways of improving in-store logistics processes by showing the performance impacts of different managerial strategies and tactics. The DEA results indicate different efficiency levels for different store formats; the hybrid store format of the small hypermarket exhibits a comparatively...

  14. Differences in healthy food supply and stocking practices between small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the practices for stocking and procuring healthy food in non-traditional food retailers (e.g., gas-marts, pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) compare availability of healthy food items across small food store types; and (ii) examine owner/manager perceptions and stocking practices for healthy food across store types. Descriptive analyses were conducted among corner/small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores. Data from store inventories were used to examine availability of twelve healthy food types and an overall healthy food supply score. Interviews with managers assessed stocking practices and profitability. Small stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA, not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. One hundred and nineteen small food retailers and seventy-one store managers. Availability of specific items varied across store type. Only corner/small grocery stores commonly sold fresh vegetables (63% v. 8% of gas-marts, 0% of dollar stores and 23% of pharmacies). More than half of managers stocking produce relied on cash-and-carry practices to stock fresh fruit (53%) and vegetables (55%), instead of direct store delivery. Most healthy foods were perceived by managers to have at least average profitability. Interventions to improve healthy food offerings in small stores should consider the diverse environments, stocking practices and supply mechanisms of small stores, particularly non-traditional food retailers. Improvements may require technical support, customer engagement and innovative distribution practices.

  15. Using a virtual grocery store to simulate shopping behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van H.W.I.; Yu, T.; Broek, van den E.M.F.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Simulating a store environment by using virtual reality techniques offers important potential advantages for research into consumer behaviour. Through the use of virtual reality, the store can be simulated in a realistic and cost-efficient way [1,9]. This allows researchers to collect

  16. Dietetics and Nutrition Students Response to Grocery Store Tour Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Elizabeth D.; Brunt, Ardith; Froelich, Christa; Borr, Mari

    2018-01-01

    Retail dietetics is a growing field, however, there is very little research available on effective teaching strategies for preparing students to enter this part of the profession. This paper is the second paper to report on the results of produce-focused grocery store tour training program. This paper focuses on the trained students' perception of…

  17. Functional Store Image and Corporate Social Responsibility Image: A Congruity Analysis on Store Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaliah Mohd. Yusof; Rosidah Musa; Sofiah Abd. Rahman

    2011-01-01

    With previous studies that examined the importance of functional store image and CSR, this study is aimed at examining their effects in the self-congruity model in influencing store loyalty. In particular, this study developed and tested a structural model in the context of retailing industry on the self-congruity theory. Whilst much of the self-congruity studies have incorporated functional store image, there has been lack of studies that examined social responsibility i...

  18. Reported Influences on Restaurant-Type Food Selection Decision Making in a Grocery Store Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Jessica Lynne; Arigo, Danielle

    2018-06-01

    To examine food decision-making priorities for restaurant-type foods at grocery stores and determine whether adding calorie information, as required by federal menu labeling laws, affected decision-making priorities. Natural experiment: intervention and control groups with baseline and follow-up. Regional grocery store chain with 9 locations. Participants (n = 393; mean age, 54.8 ± 15.1 years) were primarily women (71%) and Caucasian (95%). Data were collected before and after calorie information was added to restaurant-type foods at 4 intervention locations. Primary influencers of food selection decision making for restaurant-type foods and frequency of use of nutrition information. Quantitative analysis examined the top 3 influencers of food selections and chi-square goodness of fit test determined whether the calorie labeling intervention changed food decision-making priorities. Qualitative data were used to describe responses. Taste, cost, and convenience were the most frequently reported influencers of restaurant-type food selections; 20% of participants rated calories as influential. Calorie labeling did not affect food selection decision making; 16% of participants in intervention stores noticed calorie labels. Qualitative explanations confirmed these findings. Menu labeling laws increase access to calorie information; however, use of this information is limited. Additional interventions are needed to encourage healthier restaurant-type food selections in grocery stores. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigating the Customer Loyalty Model in the Chain Stores of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sanayei; Alireza Haddadian; Amirhossein Bagherieh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate customer loyalty model for the chain stores of Iran according to factors include perceived value, customer satisfaction, perceived quality, store image, customer relationship, perceived equity, trust and store atmosphere as preconditions of loyalty and brand preference, repurchase intention, word of mouth referral and expected switching cost as consequences of customer loyalty. This study is applied research and descriptive - correlation in terms of...

  20. The Grocery Store Food Environment in Northern Greenland and Its Implications for the Health of Reproductive Age Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Zoe A; Shanks, Carmen Byker; Miles, Mary P; Rink, Elizabeth

    2018-02-01

    The population of Greenland is diminishing and environmental and social shifts implicate food availability and the health of reproductive age women. There is little knowledge of the grocery store food environment in Greenland. To address this gap and provide baseline information the present study measured food availability in five grocery stores in northern Greenland. As well, 15 interviews were conducted with reproductive age women, three grocery store managers were interviewed and one interview was conducted with a food distribution manager. Results show few fresh fruits and vegetables are available in grocery stores and in some stores no fresh foods are available. In Kullorsuaq, the primary location for this study, the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores score in spring 2016 was (3/30) and the Freedman Grocery Store Survey Score was (11/49). Interview results highlight a need to increase communication within the food system and to tailor food distribution policies to the Arctic context with longer term planning protocols for food distribution. These findings can be used to inform future food store environment research in Greenland and for informing policies that improve healthful food availability in grocery stores in northern Greenland.

  1. Rewarding as a relational driver of customer loyalty in the Finnish grocery trade

    OpenAIRE

    LAUKKANEN, MAARIT

    2011-01-01

    TamPubissa tutkielman rajattu versio. Täydellinen versio luettavissa Tampereen yliopiston Linna-kirjastossa. The PDF is a limited version of the Master's thesis. The complete version can be viewed in print at Tampere University Library.   The study addressed the phenomenon of rewarding that has become an essential element of customer loyalty programs. It was indicated that the area of rewarding driving customer loyalty lacked qualitative studies that stressed different life stages....

  2. The Effect of Store Brand Image and Service Quality Towards Customer Loyalty at Freshmart Superstore Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Tumiwa, Johan; Lapian, S. L. H. V. Joyce; Kumowal, Rivo Christian

    2016-01-01

    Customer loyalty has been recognized as the dominant factor in a superstore€™s success. The customer loyalty subject has become of increased interest to most superstore in the competitive situation over the last few years. Store brand image and service quality describes what customers are looking for that is likely to be advantageous to the Superstore. The objectives of this research are to analyze the effect of store brand image, and service quality towards consumer loyalty, simultaneously a...

  3. Pengaruh Customer Relationship Management (Crm) Terhadap Customer Satisfaction Dan Customer Loyalty Pada Pelanggan Matahari Department Store

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Meyske

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect Benefits of Customer Relationship Management and Customer satisfation to Customer Loyalty in Customers Matahari Department Store. Customer relationship management (CRM) is part of a marketing strategy to get satisfaction and increase customer loyalty. CRM and customer satisfaction can encourage customer loyalty where customers do not easily switch to other companies. The population is all customers Matahari Department Store, and the sample are ...

  4. Assessing Reliability and Validity of the "GroPromo" Audit Tool for Evaluation of Grocery Store Marketing and Promotional Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F.; Bromby, Erica; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate reliability and validity of a new tool for assessing the placement and promotional environment in grocery stores. Methods: Trained observers used the "GroPromo" instrument in 40 stores to code the placement of 7 products in 9 locations within a store, along with other promotional characteristics. To test construct validity,…

  5. In search of loyalty: private label packaging solutions for the retail grocery industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bullen, Christine Angela Holly

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. corrugated packaging industry is highly concentrated, competitive and mature, facing only modest growth in the United States. The objective of this paper is to understand the opportunity that private label grocery products present to the corrugated packaging industry and how Weyerhaeuser Company might increase demand of corrugated boxes. Industry analyses of both the U.S. retail and corrugated packaging industry are provided in conjunction with summaries of major firms in the respect...

  6. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance; Grocery Stores (Revised) (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, B.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed the Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) to provide specific methodologies, information, and guidance to help energy managers and other stakeholders successfully plan and execute energy efficiency improvements. Detailed technical discussion is fairly limited in these guides. Instead, we emphasize actionable information, practical methodologies, diverse case studies, and unbiased evaluations of the most promising retrofit measures for each building type. A series of AERGs is under development, addressing key segments of the commercial building stock. Grocery stores were selected as one of the highest priority sectors, because they represent one of the most energy-intensive market segments.

  7. Effect of a grocery store intervention on sales of nutritious foods to youth and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ashley S; Estabrooks, Paul A; Davis, George C; Serrano, Elena L

    2012-06-01

    Grocery stores represent a unique opportunity to initiate nutrition interventions. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a 12-week, child-focused intervention at one grocery store. An observational uninterrupted time-series design was implemented from May to September 2009. The Healthy Kids campaign consisted of a point-of-purchase kiosk featuring fruits, vegetables, and healthy snacks as well as a sampling pod comprised of food items from the kiosk. Data collection included changes in sales for featured products; observations of customers at the kiosk/intervention; and brief questionnaires for customers who engaged with the kiosk. Descriptive statistics were computed for questionnaire responses and observational data. Correlational analyses were conducted to identify potential predictors of engagement. Sales data were analyzed using analysis of variance. Results showed an overall increase in the proportion of sales of the featured items to total store sales during the intervention period (Pincreased sales during the intervention period included whole-wheat bagels, bananas, radishes, honey, sunflower seeds, baked tortilla chips, and almond butter (P<0.05). Almost two thirds (61.7%) of the patrons interviewed noticed the Healthy Kids kiosk, with about one quarter (28.7%) indicating that they purchased at least one item. Fifty-eight percent reported that the kiosk encouraged them to buy healthier foods. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Grocery store beverage choices by participants in federal food assistance and nutrition programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Luedicke, Joerg; Henderson, Kathryn E; Tripp, Amanda S

    2012-10-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages are a target for reduction in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Concerns have been raised about sugar-sweetened beverages purchased with Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. This paper describes purchases of non-alcoholic refreshment beverages among participants in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and SNAP. Grocery store scanner data from a regional supermarket chain were used to assess refreshment beverage purchases of 39,172 households in January-June 2011. The sample consisted of families with a history of WIC participation in 2009-2011; about half also participated in SNAP. Beverage spending and volume purchased were compared for WIC sampled households either using SNAP benefits (SNAP) or not (WIC-only). Analyses were completed in 2012. Refreshment beverages were a significant contributor to expenditure on groceries by SNAP and WIC households. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for 58% of refreshment beverage purchases made by SNAP households and 48% of purchases by WIC-only households. Soft drinks were purchased most by all households. Fruit-based beverages were mainly 100% juice for WIC-only households and sugary fruit drinks for SNAP households. SNAP benefits paid for 72% of the sugar-sweetened beverage purchases made by SNAP households. Nationwide, SNAP was estimated to pay at least $1.7 to $2.1 billion annually for sugar-sweetened beverages purchased in grocery stores. Considerable amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages are purchased by households participating in WIC and SNAP. The SNAP program pays for most of the sugar-sweetened beverage purchases among SNAP households. The upcoming SNAP reauthorization could be a good time to reconsider the program priorities to align public funds with public health. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Piloting an online grocery store simulation to assess children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Amy M; Harris, Jennifer L; Liu, Sai; Schwartz, Marlene B; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Public health interventions must address poor diet among U.S. children, but research is needed to better understand factors influencing children's food choices. Using an online grocery store simulation, this research piloted a novel method to assess children's snack selection in a controlled but naturalistic laboratory setting, evaluate predictors of choice, and experimentally test whether promotions on food packages altered choices. Children (7-12 years, N = 61) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: promotions on healthy products; promotions on unhealthy products; and no promotions (control). They selected from a variety of healthy and unhealthy foods and beverages and rated all products on healthfulness and taste. Promotions on food packaging did not affect snack selection in this study, but findings supported our other hypothesis that perceived taste would be the strongest predictor of food choice. Children accurately rated product healthfulness, but these ratings did not predict healthy snack choices or taste ratings for healthy or unhealthy snacks. These results suggest that interventions to improve children's food choices should focus on increasing availability of healthy options and identifying opportunities to enhance children's liking of healthy options. However, nutrition education alone is unlikely to improve children's diets. Further testing is required, but the simulated online grocery store method shows potential for measuring children's food choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Features in Grocery Stores that Motivate Shoppers to Buy Healthier Foods, ConsumerStyles 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Latetia V; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-08-01

    We examined nine features in grocery stores shoppers reported motivated them to purchase more healthful foods in the past month. Features were compiled from common supermarket practices for each of the 4 Ps of marketing: pricing, placement, promotion, and product. We examined percentages of the features overall and by shopping frequency using Chi square tests from a 2014 cross sectional web-based health attitudes and behaviors survey, ConsumerStyles. The survey was fielded from June to July in 2014. Participants were part of a market research consumer panel that were randomly recruited by probability-based sampling using address-based sampling methods to achieve a sample representative of the U.S. Data from 4242 adults ages 18 and older were analyzed. About 44 % of respondents indicated at least one feature motivated them to purchase more healthful foods. Top choices included in-store coupons or specials (20.1 %), availability of convenient, ready-to-eat more healthful foods (18.8 %), product labels or advertising on packages (15.2 %), and labels or signs on shelves that highlighted more healthful options (14.6 %). Frequent shoppers reported being motivated to purchase more healthful foods by in-store tastings/recipe demonstrations and coupons/specials more often than infrequent shoppers. Enhancing the visibility and appeal of more healthful food items in grocery stores may help improve dietary choices in some populations but additional research is needed to identify the most effective strategies for interventions.

  11. Grocery store baking soda. A source of sodium bicarbonate in the management of chronic metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, B E; Gates, J; Morris, R C

    1984-02-01

    Oral sodium bicarbonate is used to treat metabolic acidosis in patients with renal tubular acidosis. Since infants and young children are unable to swallow tablets, those affected must ingest sodium bicarbonate in a powder or liquid form. Pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate is expensive and inconvenient to obtain; some pharmacists are reluctant to provide it. We determined that the sodium bicarbonate contained in 8-oz boxes of Arm and Hammer Baking Soda was sufficiently constant in weight that, dissolved in water to a given volume, it yielded a quantitatively acceptable therapeutic solution of sodium bicarbonate at a cost of approximately 3 percent of that of pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate. Grocery store baking soda can be a safe, economical, and convenient source of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of chronic metabolic acidosis in infants and young children.

  12. An exploration study on detecting important factors influencing brand loyalty in retail stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brand loyalty is one of the most important factors influencing on the success of retail stores. Many retail stores in the field of sport shoes in city of Tehran, Iran are facing tight competition and there seems to be that only stores with loyal customers could survive. In this paper, we present an exploration study to find out important factors influencing retail stores selling one of well-known sport shows such as Adidas, Nike, etc. in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes among 265 regular customers of these stores and analyze them using factor analysis. The results indicate that there were four important factors influencing customer loyalty including brand identification, brand promotion, brand loyalty and characterization of stores.

  13. State sales tax rates for soft drinks and snacks sold through grocery stores and vending machines, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eidson, Shelby S; Bates, Hannalori; Kowalczyk, Shelly; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2008-07-01

    Junk food consumption is associated with rising obesity rates in the United States. While a "junk food" specific tax is a potential public health intervention, a majority of states already impose sales taxes on certain junk food and soft drinks. This study reviews the state sales tax variance for soft drinks and selected snack products sold through grocery stores and vending machines as of January 2007. Sales taxes vary by state, intended retail location (grocery store vs. vending machine), and product. Vended snacks and soft drinks are taxed at a higher rate than grocery items and other food products, generally, indicative of a "disfavored" tax status attributed to vended items. Soft drinks, candy, and gum are taxed at higher rates than are other items examined. Similar tax schemes in other countries and the potential implications of these findings relative to the relationship between price and consumption are discussed.

  14. Consumer Poultry Handling Behavior in the Grocery Store and In-Home Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelan, Amy K; Chambers, Delores H; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria L; Cates, Sheryl C

    2016-04-01

    Considerable work on consumers' food safety habits has highlighted issues associated with home food preparation. However, consumer handling of foods, such as poultry, during shopping and storage has not been noted. The objective of this study was to determine consumer behaviors during purchasing and initial storage of raw poultry to determine potential cross-contamination issues. A shop-along observational study was conducted to determine actual shopping, transportation, and storage behavior of consumers who purchase raw poultry products. Neither hand sanitizer nor wipes were observed in 71% of grocery store meat sections of stores visited. Plastic bags could be found in the meat section 85% of the time, but only 25% of shoppers used the bag for their raw poultry purchases. During checkout, the poultry was bagged separately from other products 71% of the time. A majority of shoppers stored raw poultry in the original package without an additional container or overwrap. Overall, there needs to be an increase in food safety education on the handling of poultry during purchasing, transportation, and storage.

  15. Consumer perceptions of the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and grocery stores among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Pallavi; McMillen, Robert; Winickoff, Jonathan P

    2013-07-09

    Pharmacy-based tobacco sales are a rapidly increasing segment of the U.S. retail tobacco market. Growing evidence links easy access to tobacco retail outlets such as pharmacies to increased tobacco use. This mixed-mode survey was the first to employ a nationally representative sample of consumers (n = 3057) to explore their opinions on sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and grocery stores. The majority reported that sale of tobacco products should be either 'allowed if products hidden from view' (29.9%, 25.6%) or 'not allowed at all' (24.0%, 31.3%) in grocery stores and pharmacies, respectively. Significantly fewer smokers, compared to non-smokers, reported agreement on point-of-sale restrictions on sales of tobacco products (grocery stores: 27.1% vs. 59.6%, p sales of tobacco in grocery stores and pharmacies or allowing sales only if the products are hidden from direct view. Both policy changes would represent a departure from the status quo. Consistent with the views of practicing pharmacists and professional pharmacy organizations, consumers are also largely supportive of more restrictive policies.

  16. Grocery Store (or Supermarket) Tours as an Effective Nutrition Education Medium: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaus, Cassandra J; Muzaffar, Henna; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate evidence regarding grocery store tours as an effective nutrition education medium for improving nutrition knowledge and food-related behaviors. A systematic literature review of studies published from 1984 to 2015 concerning grocery store (or supermarket) tours and impact on nutrition knowledge and behaviors. Three investigators independently reviewed articles, extracted details, and assessed the quality of each study. Of 307 citations identified, 8 were reviewed and 6 were of neutral quality. Increases in nutrition knowledge were reported in 4 studies, as evaluated by investigator-designed quizzes, with short intervals between tours and assessments. Six programs assessed behavior change using subjective reports or objective purchasing behavior measures; 2 studies did not perform statistical analyses. The 6 studies that reported positive health-related outcomes had varying topics, tour lengths, and target audiences. Grocery store tours are increasingly used as an avenue for nutrition education to improve knowledge and/or alter food selection behaviors and may result in positive outcomes, but it is unknown whether these outcomes persist for longer than 3 months after the tour and whether there are common attributes of effective grocery store tours. More rigorous studies with uniform methodology in study design and outcome measures are needed to confirm the effectiveness of supermarket tours. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What role do local grocery stores play in urban food environments? A case study of Hartford-Connecticut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie S Martin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Research on urban food environments emphasizes limited access to healthy food, with fewer large supermarkets and higher food prices. Many residents of Hartford, Connecticut, which is often considered a food desert, buy most of their food from small and medium-sized grocery stores. We examined the food environment in greater Hartford, comparing stores in Hartford to those in the surrounding suburbs, and by store size (small, medium, and large. METHODS: We surveyed all small (over 1,000 ft2, medium, and large-sized supermarkets within a 2-mile radius of Hartford (36 total stores. We measured the distance to stores, availability, price and quality of a market basket of 25 items, and rated each store on internal and external appearance. Geographic Information System (GIS was used for mapping distance to the stores and variation of food availability, quality, and appearance. RESULTS: Contrary to common literature, no significant differences were found in food availability and price between Hartford and suburban stores. However, produce quality, internal, and external store appearance were significantly lower in Hartford compared to suburban stores (all p<0.05. Medium-sized stores had significantly lower prices than small or large supermarkets (p<0.05. Large stores had better scores for internal (p<0.05, external, and produce quality (p<0.01. Most Hartford residents live within 0.5 to 1 mile distance to a grocery store. DISCUSSION: Classifying urban areas with few large supermarkets as 'food deserts' may overlook the availability of healthy foods and low prices that exist within small and medium-sized groceries common in inner cities. Improving produce quality and store appearance can potentially impact the food purchasing decisions of low-income residents in Hartford.

  18. Brand patronage and loyalty patterns: Store vs. manufacturer brands in the Greek soft drink category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Fotopoulos, Christos

    Nowadays, in most of the developed fast-moving consumer goods' markets store brands (i.e. retailer brands or private labels) have managed to establish a conciderable share in the retail market. Moreover, it is well known that store brands are perceived as strong competitors to manufacturer brands......, while offering good value for money. There is a large body of literature explaining and further exploring factors that influence loyalty towards store brands (e.g. among others Steenkamp and Dekimpe, 1997; Dhar and Hoch, 1997; Ailawadi and Keller, 2004). The objective of the work is to investigate...... the potential existence of differences in the loyalty behavior between store brands and manufacturer brands, as expressed through certain brand performance and loyalty measures (e.g. market shares, penetration, purchase frequencies, repeat rate, etc.). In order to meet the above escribed objective, panel data...

  19. A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Using Grocery Store Tour Podcasts About Omega-3s Increases Long-Term Purchases of Omega-3-Rich Food Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangia, Deepika; Shaffner, Donald W; Palmer-Keenan, Debra M

    2017-06-01

    To assess the impacts associated with a grocery store tour point-of-purchase intervention using podcasts about omega-3 fatty acid (n-3)-rich food items. A repeated-measures secondary data analysis of food purchase records obtained from a convenience sample of shoppers' loyalty cards. Shoppers (n = 251) who had listened to podcasts regarding n-3-rich foods while shopping. The number of omega-3-rich food purchases made according to food or food category by participants determined via spreadsheets obtained from grocery store chain. Descriptive statistics were performed on demographic characteristics. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to assess whether food purchases increased from 6 months before to 6 months after intervention. Correlations assessed the relationship between intentions to purchase n-3-rich foods expressed on the intervention day with actual long-term n-3-rich food purchases. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVAs and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to analyze differences between changes made and demographic variables (ie, participants' gender, race, and education levels). Most shoppers (59%) increased n-3-rich food purchases, with significant mean purchase changes (t[172] = -6.9; P < .001; pre = 0.2 ± 0.7; post = 3.6 ± 5.1). Podcasts are promising nutrition education tools. Longer studies could assess whether lasting change results from podcast use. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between store food environment and customer purchases in small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Lenk, Kathleen; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Barnes, Timothy L; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-06-05

    Purchases at small/non-traditional food stores tend to have poor nutritional quality, and have been associated with poor health outcomes, including increased obesity risk The purpose of this study was to examine whether customers who shop at small/non-traditional food stores with more health promoting features make healthier purchases. In a cross-sectional design, data collectors assessed store features in a sample of 99 small and non-traditional food stores not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN in 2014. Customer intercept interviews (n = 594) collected purchase data from a bag check and demographics from a survey. Store measures included fruit/vegetable and whole grain availability, an overall Healthy Food Supply Score (HFSS), healthy food advertisements and in-store placement, and shelf space of key items. Customer nutritional measures were analyzed using Nutrient Databases System for Research (NDSR), and included the purchase of ≥1 serving of fruits/vegetables; ≥1 serving of whole grains; and overall Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score for foods/beverages purchased. Associations between store and customer measures were estimated in multilevel linear and logistic regression models, controlling for customer characteristics and store type. Few customers purchased fruits and vegetables (8%) or whole grains (8%). In fully adjusted models, purchase HEI-2010 scores were associated with fruit/vegetable shelf space (p = 0.002) and the ratio of shelf space devoted to healthy vs. less healthy items (p = 0.0002). Offering ≥14 varieties of fruit/vegetables was associated with produce purchases (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.2-12.3), as was having produce visible from the store entrance (OR 2.3 95% CI 1.0 to 5.8), but whole grain availability measures were not associated with whole grain purchases. Strategies addressing both customer demand and the availability of healthy food

  1. Fast-food outlets and grocery stores near school and adolescents' eating habits and overweight in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Hanne; Ervasti, Jenni; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Kouvonen, Anne; Halonen, Jaana I; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2015-08-01

    Environmental factors may affect adolescents' eating habits and thereby body weight. However, the contribution of school neighbourhood environment is poorly understood. This study examined the association between proximity of a fast-food outlet or grocery store to school and adolescents' eating habits and overweight. Participants were 23 182 adolescents (mean age 15 years) who responded to a classroom survey in 181 lower secondary schools in Finland (2008-09). School location was linked to data on distance from school to the nearest fast-food outlet or grocery store (≤100 m, 101-500 m, >500 m) using global positioning system-coordinate databases. Outcomes were irregular eating habits (skipping breakfast, skipping free school lunch, skipping free school-provided snacks and not having family dinners), the accumulation of these habits and overweight, including obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Thirteen percentage of the participants were overweight. Having a fast-food outlet or grocery store near school was associated with skipping often breakfast and free school lunch, and the accumulation of irregular eating habits. The proximity of a fast-food outlet or grocery store was associated with a 1.25-fold (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.52) risk of overweight among adolescent with a low socioeconomic status but not among those with higher socioeconomic status. This association was partly (12%) explained by the accumulation of irregular eating habits. Among adolescents from low socioeconomic background, the presence of fast-food retailers near schools is associated with accumulation of irregular eating habits and greater overweight. These findings suggest that obesogenic school neighbourhoods may contribute to social inequalities in overweight. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of Experience in Customer Self-Congruity to Maintaining Loyalty: A Study on Fashion Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Pandu Wijaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to understand the interrelationship between customer experience, self-congruity, and customer loyalty in the fashion industry. Previous studies have examined the direct effect of self-congruity on loyalty without taking into account the factor of customers’ shopping experience, which may moderate customers’ impression of a fashion. Research Design & Methods: This study employed questionnaires distributed to 100 respondents. Collected data was processed using PLS-SEM. The target respondents were between 18-30 years old. Individuals in that age band have dynamic dressing styles, so interesting to study. In the present study, the data from the respondents was processed in order to determine the inner model, the outer model, and hypothesis testing. Findings: The results of this study suggest that customer experience plays a significant role in moderating the effect of self-congruity on customer loyalty. This means that even though customers feel comfortable with a store’s image, however if they have bad experience, such experience may cause these customers not to be loyal. Implications & Recommendations: Research reveals that consumers are very concerned towards their experience when shopping. Stores should provide service that can make their customers feel comfortable and pleased. Contribution & Value Added: This study provides new insights into attempts to maintain customer loyalty. Several research was studied on self-congruity and loyalty, yet this is the first study that depict how experience moderating self-congruity towards loyalty.

  3. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review’s key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light...... fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality...

  4. Exploring the Relationships among Service Quality, Satisfaction, Trust and Store Loyalty among Retail Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çerri Shpëtim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationships among service quality, satisfaction, trust, and store loyalty in a retailing context. All these variables have considerable importance on store performance, measured by financial indicators or market ones. The data were collected from a sample of 258 students at two universities in Albania, during the first quarter of 2012. The items included in the survey measured the variables of the study as well as demographic characteristics of the sample. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and structural equation modeling (SEM were used to evaluate the hypotheses regarding relationships among model constructs. All the hypotheses developed in the study were positively confirmed, reinforcing the theory and previous research on this field. The study also reveals interesting implications in service quality, satisfaction, trust, and store loyalty, useful to both academics and practitioners. Managers will find this research helpful in better understanding these variables and their roles on their companies’ performance.

  5. The Prevalence of Phosphorus Containing Food Additives in Top Selling Foods in Grocery Stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Janeen B.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. Design The labels of 2394 best selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Setting Northeast Ohio Main outcome measures Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content Results 44% of the best selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread & baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 gm more than matched non-additive containing foods (p=.03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared to meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Conclusion Phosphorus additives are common in best selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. PMID:23402914

  6. The prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in top-selling foods in grocery stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Janeen B; Sullivan, Catherine M; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best-selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top-selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. The labels of 2394 best-selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best-selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created, and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content. Forty-four percent of the best-selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread and baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive-containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 g more than matched nonadditive-containing foods (P = .03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared with meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Phosphorus additives are common in best-selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of quality on store loyalty : A contingency approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odekerken-Schroder, G; De Wulf, K; Kasper, H; Kleijnen, M; Hoekstra, J; Commandeur, H

    This study's prime interest is to assist retail managers in deciding where they are likely to get the greatest response to their expenditures on quality improvement. An empirical test involving 287 consumers reporting on a wide array of stores assesses whether the relationship between three quality

  8. How about integration: the impact of online activities on store satisfaction and loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Teerling, Marije L.

    2004-01-01

    Although there has been widespread support for the concept of integrating the Internet with other channels, relatively little empirical research has been conducted in this area. This paper examines the effects of integrated online activities on customer perceptions, i.e., satisfaction and loyalty, as well as customer behavior, i.e., purchases. As this study focuses on a nontransaction site, the purchases only take place in the store. Through structural equation modeling, we test a model that ...

  9. Examining food purchasing patterns from sales data at a full-service grocery store intervention in a former food desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-01-01

    The Good Food Junction Grocery Store was opened in a former food desert in the inner city of Saskatoon, Canada. The purpose of this research was to examine, using grocery store sales data, healthy and less healthful food purchasing over a one-year period beginning eight months after opening by shoppers' neighborhood of residence. A multilevel cross sectional design was used. The sample consisted of members of the Good Food Junction with a valid address in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. All purchases made by members who reported their postal code of residence from May 15, 2013 to April 30, 2014 were analyzed. The outcome variable was the total amount spent on foods in 11 food groups. Linear random intercept models with three levels were fit to the data. Shoppers who were residents of former food desert neighborhoods spent $0.7 (95% CI: 0.2 to 1.2) more on vegetables, and $1.2 (95% CI: - 1.8 to - 0.6) less on meat, and $1.1 (95% CI: - 2.0 to - 0.3) less on prepared foods than shoppers who did not reside in those neighborhoods. When given geographical access to healthy food, people living in disadvantaged former food desert neighborhoods will take advantage of that access.

  10. Grocery store podcast about omega-3 fatty acids influences shopping behaviors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangia, Deepika; Palmer-Keenan, Debra M

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether listening to a podcast about omega-3 fatty acids (n-3s) while grocery shopping increased shoppers' awareness about and purchases of seafood and other foods rich in n-3s. Repeated-measures design with a convenience sample (n = 56) of grocery shoppers who listened to the podcast while shopping. Pre- and postintervention semistructured interviews were conducted. The Theory of Reasoned Action was the study's framework. Shoppers were primarily females (mean age, 41 ± 15.3 years). Their perceived ability to buy [t(55) = 6.27, P buying [t(55) = 3.38, P future purchases. Podcasts may effectively communicate nutrition information. More research with a larger sample size is needed to evaluate the effects of the podcast on long-term changes in shopping behavior. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analyzing the relationships among perceptions on store loyalty programs, trust, customer commitment to the relationship and store loyalty through structural equation modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Yeniçeri, Tülay; Erten, Ela

    2008-01-01

    Especially in the retail industry, where there is intense competition, companies have started to initiate customer loyalty programs. By the help of these programs companies expect to develop long - term relationships with their customers and collect useful information about them as well. The purpose of this research is to analyze a supermarket customer loyalty program to investigate the relationship between customer loyalty programs and the actual customer loyalty to a company’s products and ...

  12. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? —a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatah Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Prevalence of obesity and overweight has been increasing in many countries. Many factors have been identified as contributing to obesity including the food environment, especially the access, availability and affordability of healthy foods in grocery stores and supermarkets. Several interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review’s key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light on the effectiveness of food store interventions intended to promote the consumption of healthy foods and the methodological quality of studies reporting them. Methods Systematic literature search spanning from 2003 to 2015 (inclusive both years, and confined to papers in the English language was conducted. Studies fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality of all included articles has been determined using a validated 16-item quality assessment tool (QATSDD. Results The literature search identified 1580 publications, of which 42 met the inclusion criteria. Most interventions used a combination of information (e.g. awareness raising through food labeling, promotions, campaigns, etc. and increasing availability of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Few used price interventions. The average quality score for all papers is 65.0%, or an overall medium methodological quality. Apart from few studies, most studies reported that store interventions were effective in promoting purchase of healthy foods. Conclusion Given the diverse study settings and despite the challenges of methodological

  13. The association between self-reported grocery store access, fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity in a racially diverse, low-income population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Nichol Gase

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index. We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7% and driving (59.9% to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9% and traveling five minutes or less to reach (50.3% the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or body mass index. Results suggest the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes.

  14. The Association between Self-Reported Grocery Store Access, Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, and Obesity in a Racially Diverse, Low-Income Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren Nichol; DeFosset, Amelia Rose; Smith, Lisa V; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index (BMI). We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7%) and driving (59.9%) to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9%) and traveling 5 min or less to reach (50.3%) the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or BMI. Results suggest that the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes.

  15. Consumer identification with store brands: Differences between consumers according to their brand loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rubio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Retail management of store brands (SBs has focused on achieving positioning in value and creating associations of smart or expert shopping. The result is that value-conscious consumers and market mavens are the main targets of these brands. This study proposes and contrasts empirically a theoretical model of the effect of market mavenism and value consciousness on consumer identification with SBs. We also perform a multi-group analysis based on the consumer tendency to be loyal to the brands he or she buys. Consumers who are loyal to brands are very attractive segments for firms, due to the potential benefits these consumers represent in the long term, whereas consumers with little loyalty to brands can be an attractive segment for potential benefits in the short term. The results obtained in this study show differences between these two groups. For consumers who are loyal to brands, the results stress strong identification with the SB among the most value-conscious consumers, due fundamentally to their greater disagreement with the greater functional risk of these brands as compared to manufacturer brands and due to their greater conviction of the better price-quality ratio of SBs. In consumers with little brand loyalty, we find identification with the SB among the consumers with the greatest market mavenism, as a result of their greater perception of smart or expert shopping for these brands. Significant implications for management are derived from this study.

  16. Reported attitudes and beliefs toward soy food consumption of soy consumers versus nonconsumers in natural foods or mainstream grocery stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyver, Tamara; Smith, Chery

    2005-01-01

    To examine the attitudes and beliefs of soy foods consumers (SCs) versus nonconsumers (NCs). Seven focus groups were conducted. Mainstream or natural foods grocery stores. Fifty-three participants, ages 18 to 91 years. Focus groups included discussions on lifestyle practices, beliefs about soy, conversion to soy consumption, and suggestions on how to increase soy consumption. Common themes were identified, coded, and compared using NVivo computer software. Barriers to soy consumption included soy's image, a lack of familiarity with how to prepare soy foods, and a perception that soy foods were an inadequate flavor substitute for animal-based products. SCs' conversion to regular consumption was initiated by food intolerances, an increased interest in health, or an adoption of a vegetarian or natural foods lifestyle and was sustained because they enjoyed the flavor. Many participants did not know why soy was considered healthful, whereas others identified it as "heart healthy," a source of protein, and good for women's health. Some SCs had become concerned regarding the controversy surrounding breast cancer and soy consumption. Improving soy's image and educating consumers on its preparation could increase soy consumption.

  17. The efficiency, energy intensity and visual impact of the accent lighting in the retail grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, topics of displaying, presentation, lighting, energy saving and issues related to the environment while selling the fresh food (fruits, vegetable, bakery products, meat are becoming an important matter among traders. However, just bigger companies with transnational capital have devoted their attention to this issue yet. Generally, the energy costs make up 70% of operating costs in retail stores where the cooling system and lighting are the most energy consuming. Accent lighting in modern retails is largely involved in the overall design and atmosphere in shops and plays a crucial role in presenting the goods as well. Using of accent lighting can draw the customer's attention to a specific part of the sales area and achieve the overall harmonization in the store. With the rational using of combination of energy saving and effective accent lighting retailers can achieve not only attractive presentation of displayed products but also appreciable savings in the operation of their stores. It is the only factor that can be exactly measured and controlled. Using a Colour and Lux Meters we found out the intensity and color temperature of accent lighting used in domestic and foreign retail chains for the different kinds of fresh food products. Based on the obtained values we have compiled graphs, which are showing visual comfort. We also identified different types of accent lighting, which we assigned to their impact on emotional involvement of consumers. The starting points were the tests we conducted in simulated laboratory conditions. While searching of a compromise between effective and energy efficient accent lighting we take into consideration consumers' emotional response as well as the annual electricity consumption of different types of light sources. At the end we recommend options for energy-efficient, effective and spectacular lighting while using the optimal number of light sources and their logical organization

  18. Do Latino and non-Latino grocery stores differ in the availability and affordability of healthy food items in a low-income, metropolitan region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Madanat, Hala N; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2012-02-01

    To compare non-ethnically based supermarkets and Latino grocery stores (tiendas) in a lower-income region with regard to the availability, quality and cost of several healthy v. unhealthy food items. A cross-sectional study conducted by three independent observers to audit twenty-five grocery stores identified as the main source of groceries for 80 % of Latino families enrolled in a childhood obesity study. Stores were classified as supermarkets and tiendas on the basis of key characteristics. South San Diego County. Ten tiendas and fifteen supermarkets. Tiendas were smaller than supermarkets (five v. twelve aisles, P = 0·003). Availability of fresh produce did not differ by store type; quality differed for one fruit item. Price per unit (pound or piece) was lower in tiendas for most fresh produce. The cost of meeting the US Department of Agriculture's recommended weekly servings of produce based on an 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)/d diet was $US 3·00 lower in tiendas compared with supermarkets (P income communities. However, efforts are needed to increase the access and affordability of healthy dairy and meat products.

  19. What influences Latino grocery shopping behavior? Perspectives on the small food store environment from managers and employees in San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Flack, Jennifer C; Baquero, Barbara; Linnan, Laura A; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pickrel, Julie L; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2016-01-01

    To inform the design of a multilevel in-store intervention, this qualitative study utilized in-depth semistructured interviews with 28 managers and 10 employees of small-to-medium-sized Latino food stores (tiendas) in San Diego, California, to identify factors within the tienda that may influence Latino customers' grocery-shopping experiences and behaviors. Qualitative data analysis, guided by grounded theory, was performed using open coding. Results suggest that future interventions should focus on the physical (i.e., built structures) and social (i.e., economic and sociocultural) dimensions of store environments, including areas where the two dimensions interact, to promote the purchase of healthy food among customers.

  20. Investigating the effect of emotional and social stimulants of store atmosphere and prices on the customers' satisfaction and loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mosayebi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is impossible for retailers to establish a competitive and successful store in the marketplace through making a distinction in the outer facades of their stores, altering the pricing system, and diversifying the products offered in the store, due to the intense competition emerged in retailing markets. This leads the retailing markets to a new concept of marketplace, which is called “teaser retailing”. In this research, we first explain some related variables such as emotional and social stimulants, emotional-perceptual indicators, price of product, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty. Then we investigate the impact of emotional and social stimulants and price of products on emotional-perceptual indicators as well as the relationship between emotional-perceptual indicators and customer satisfaction, and finally the relationship between customer satisfaction and his/her loyalty. The first hypothesis was associated with the effect of the store emotional stimulants on emotional-perceptual indicators and it was not confirmed. After investigation of the second hypothesis, it was cleared that the store social stimulants affects the buyer's emotional-perceptual indicators in purchasing point. On the other hand, the third hypothesis indicated that price of products affects the buyer's emotional-perceptual indicators in purchasing point. The fourth hypothesis indicated that emotional-perceptual indicators affect the customer satisfaction, and finally the fifth one indicated that the customer satisfaction leads to his/her loyalty.

  1. Country-of-origin labeling prior to and at the point of purchase: an exploration of the information environment in Baltimore City grocery stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, Lisa P; Love, David C; Smith, Katherine Clegg

    2014-01-01

    The country-of-origin labeling (COOL) law requires United States grocers to indicate the origin and procurement method (farm-raised or wild-caught) for seafood. This study explored the presentation of COOL on fresh, frozen, packaged, and unpackaged seafood in Baltimore City grocery stores. Eight stores were visited bi-monthly to photograph seafood labels, and circulars were collected weekly from fourteen stores over three months. Ninety-six percent of products were labeled correctly. Forty-eight percent of advertisements included COOL. While in-store labels did not highlight COOL, advertising featured references to domestic and wild-caught seafood, signaling to customers that these are high-value product qualities.

  2. Preschoolers' influence on and help with beverage selection at the grocery store is linked to maternal responsiveness and child beverage intake: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Karina R; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Guzman, Melissa; Wakefield, Dorothy; Sisson, Susan B; Mayeux, Lara

    2016-12-01

    Children's involvement in beverage selection or purchase has seldom been investigated. The responsiveness dimension of parental feeding styles has been related to healthy maternal feeding practices. Assessing mothers' reports of responsiveness and demandingness in grocery stores may shed light on influences on purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fruit juice (FJ). Study objectives were to explore whether (1) maternal responsiveness and demandingness were associated with preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases during grocery shopping and whether (2) preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases were associated with child intake of these beverages. Mothers of 3-to-5-year-old children (n=185) who co-shopped with the child completed the Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire, reported frequency of child help with selection and influence on beverage purchase via questionnaire, and provided a one-day weekend food recall for the child. In adjusted logistic regressions, responsiveness was associated with child help selecting FJ (OR=6.50, 95% CI[1.04, 40.75], pparenting behaviors associated with grocery shopping should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Advertising Spending on Brand Loyalty Mediated by Store Image, Perceived Quality and Customer Satisfaction: A Case of Hypermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Farhina Hameed

    2013-01-01

    First, the study aims to investigate the effect of advertising spending on brand loyalty. Second, to test the mediating role of store image, perceived quality and customer satisfaction in above mentioned relationship. A quantitative approach was employed, using 15-item, 5-point Likert scale questionnaire administered to 360 participants. Data from the departmental stores are used to examine the direct and indirect impact of advertising spending on brand loyalty. Confirmatory Factor Analysis a...

  4. What influences Latino grocery shopping behavior? Perspectives on the small food store environment from managers and employees in San Diego, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Flack, Jennifer C.; Baquero, Barbara; Linnan, Laura A.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pickrel, Julie L.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2016-01-01

    To inform the design of a multilevel in-store intervention, this qualitative study utilized in-depth semistructured interviews with 28 managers and 10 employees of small-to-medium-sized Latino food stores (tiendas) in San Diego, California, to identify factors within the tienda that may influence Latino customers’ grocery-shopping experiences and behaviors. Qualitative data analysis, guided by grounded theory, was performed using open coding. Results suggest that future interventions should focus on the physical (i.e., built structures) and social (i.e., economic and socio-cultural) dimensions of store environments, including areas where the two dimensions interact, to promote the purchase of healthy food among customers. PMID:26800243

  5. How about integration : the impact of online activities on store satisfaction and loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerling, Marije L.

    2004-01-01

    Although there has been widespread support for the concept of integrating the Internet with other channels, relatively little empirical research has been conducted in this area. This paper examines the effects of integrated online activities on customer perceptions, i.e., satisfaction and loyalty,

  6. Classifying neighbourhoods by level of access to stores selling fresh fruit and vegetables and groceries: identifying problematic areas in the city of Gatineau, Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Adrian C; Apparicio, Philippe; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil

    2012-11-06

    Physical access to stores selling groceries, fresh fruit and vegetables (FV) is essential for urban dwellers. In Canadian cities where low-density development practices are common, social and material deprivation may be compounded by poor geographic access to healthy food. This case study examines access to food stores selling fresh FV in Gatineau, Quebec, to identify areas where poor access is coincident with high deprivation. Food retailers were identified using two secondary sources and each store was visited to establish the total surface area devoted to the sale of fresh FV. Four population-weighted accessibility measures were then calculated for each dissemination area (DA) using road network distances. A deprivation index was created using variables from the 2006 Statistics Canada census, also at the scale of the DA. Finally, six classes of accessibility to a healthy diet were constructed using a k-means classification procedure. These were mapped and superimposed over high deprivation areas. Overall, deprivation is positively correlated with better accessibility. However, more than 18,000 residents (7.5% of the population) live in high deprivation areas characterized by large distances to the nearest retail food store (means of 1.4 km or greater) and virtually no access to fresh FV within walking distance (radius of 1 km). In this research, we identified areas where poor geographic access may introduce an additional constraint for residents already dealing with the challenges of limited financial and social resources. Our results may help guide local food security policies and initiatives.

  7. Study design for a clinical trial to examine food price elasticity among participants in federal food assistance programs: A laboratory-based grocery store study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach Conrad

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a protocol for a study investigating the effect of food price changes on purchasing decisions among individuals participating in federal food assistance programs and among those not participating in these programs. We use a laboratory-based grocery store design, which provides greater control over factors influencing food purchasing than in situ experiments in actual grocery stores. We focus primarily, but not exclusively, on eggs because they are highly nutritious, easy to prepare, can be included in many different dishes, and are a part of a wide range of cultural food menus. The primary aim of this study is to compare the own-and cross-price elasticity of eggs between individuals participating in federal food assistance programs and those not participating in these programs. Our secondary aims are to 1 compare the own- and cross-price elasticity of eggs between overweight/obese individuals and non-overweight/obese individuals, 2 examine whether delay discounting moderates the effect of income on own- and cross-price elasticity, 3 examine whether subjective social status moderates the effect of participation in federal food assistance programs on the purchase of high nutrient-dense foods, and 4 examine whether usual psychological stress level moderates the effect of subjective social status on the purchase of high-nutrient dense foods. The results of this study will provide information about the drivers of food demand among low-income adults. A better understanding of these drivers is needed to develop effective nutrition interventions for this large population. Keywords: Price elasticity, Food assistance, Egg, Obesity, Social status, Stress

  8. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens from grocery stores and farms in Maryland, Ohio and Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yuqing; Verma, Shiv K; Kwok, Oliver C H; Alibana, Fatima; Mcleod, Rima; Su, Chunlei; Dubey, Jitender P; Pradhan, Abani K

    2017-05-01

    Chickens are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii. Chicken hearts (n = 1185) obtained from grocery stores were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in fluid removed from the heart cavity using the modified agglutination test (MAT) at 1:5, 1:25, and 1:100 dilutions. MAT antibodies were detected in 222 hearts at 1:5 dilution and 8 hearts at 1:25 dilution, but none were positive at 1:100 dilution. Seropositive (n = 230, 19.4%) chicken hearts were bioassayed in mice and seronegative (n = 157) chickens were bioassayed in cats. Viable T. gondii was not isolated from any hearts by bioassays in mice. The 2 cats fed 60 and 97 hearts did not excrete T. gondii oocysts. The results indicate a low prevalence of viable T. gondii in chickens from grocery stores. Molecular typing of 23 archived T. gondii strains isolated from free-range chickens from Ohio and Massachusetts using the 10 PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and altSAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico revealed that seven were ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1, 11 were genotype #2, one was genotype #3, three were genotype #170, and one was mixed genotype. These results indicate that the clonal genotypes #1 (type II), #2 (type III), and #3 (type II variant) are common in free-range chickens.

  9. Price learning during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    Many attempts have been made to measure consumers' price knowledge for groceries. However, the results have varied considerably and conflict with results of reference price research. This is the first study to examine price knowledge before, during, and after store visit, thus enabling a study...... of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

  10. Shopping for fruits and vegetables. Food and retail qualities of importance to low-income households at the grocery store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Caroline B; Sobal, Jeffery; Dollahite, Jamie S

    2010-04-01

    Purchasing fruits and vegetables is an integral part of managing food consumption and dietary quality. This study examined how low-income adults who had primary responsibility for household food purchases considered retail produce decisions. We used a qualitative research approach based on grounded theory and an ecological conceptual framework. Twenty-eight low-income rural, village, and inner city heads of households in upstate New York, USA, were selected by purposive and theoretical sampling and interviewed about fruit and vegetable shopping habits, attitudes toward local food stores, and where and how they would prefer to buy produce. Analyses revealed their concerns were organized around five themes: store venue; internal store environment; product quality; product price; relationships with the stores. An unanticipated finding was the differing social relations that appear to exist between participant consumers, store employees and management, and the store itself as a representation of the larger retail food system. Attitudes toward retail food stores in this study are described as passive or fatalistic indifference, supportive, opportunistic, and confrontational (change agents). These attitudes are related to how shoppers considered retail fruit and vegetable choice, access, and availability. These findings suggest ways to individualize nutrition education and consumer education messages. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. "The Virtual Grocery Store: A Proposal to Improve the Quality of Life for Retail Customers through a Virtual Environment"

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Katrina Jones

    2004-01-01

    With the prevalence and integration of the Internet in our lives, online shopping has become a popular and convenient method of obtaining goods. However, there is an important experience that occurs between the customer and the product as well as the customer and the space in the actual, physical store which does not yet occur in the virtual store (Raijas, 2002). Customersâ increased use of new technology and the Internet illustrates that an incredible growth potential exists in the elect...

  12. Investigating the effects of E-CRM's Functions on customer's E-satisfaction and E-loyalty (Case Study: Digikala Online Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hashem aghazade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the factors affecting customer satisfaction and loyalty, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between performance and characteristic of a online stores – Digi-Kala in this particular case, as a perfect example of an electronic customer relationship system, and customer's electronic loyalty and satisfaction. As a practical-descriptive, research, electronic questionnaires were distributed among customers of Digikala , In which, functions of internet shopping system have been linked into three stages; before- purchase, during-purchase, after-purchase, and its relations with electronic loyalty and satisfaction have been estimated using structural -equations method. Based on the results, satisfaction of E-CRM's functions affected electronic loyalty and satisfaction. Also, satisfaction of during-purchase and after-purchase functions affected electronic satisfaction. However, the, effect of satisfaction in before-purchase functions in the electronic relation system has not been proven on satisfaction electronic customer's. Furthermore, the effect of satisfaction in system's functions in the whole stages has been proven on loyalty electronic.

  13. A Study of the Role of Small Ethnic Retail Grocery Stores in Urban Renewal in a Social Housing Project, Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komakech, Morris D C; Jackson, Suzanne F

    2016-06-01

    Urban renewal often drives away the original residents, replacing them with higher income residents who can afford the new spaces, leading to gentrification. Urban renewal that takes place over many years can create uncertainties for retailers and residents, exacerbating the gentrification process. This qualitative study explored how the urban renewal process in a multi-cultural social housing neighborhood in Toronto (Regent Park) affected the small ethnic retail grocery stores (SERGS) that supplied ethnic foods and items to the ethnic populations living there. Interviews were conducted with ten SERGS store owners/managers and 16 ethnic residents who lived in Regent Park before renewal and were displaced, or who were displaced and returned. The SERGS stated that they provided culturally familiar items and offered a social credit scheme that recognized existing social relationships and allowed low-income residents to afford food and other amenities in a dignified manner and pay later, without penalty or interest. At the same time, the SERGS were unsupported during the renewal, were excluded from the civic planning processes, could not compete for space in the new buildings, and experienced declining sales and loss of business. The residents stated that the SERGS were trusted, provided a valued cultural social spaces for ethnic identity formation, and ethnic food security but they faced many uncertainties about the role of SERGS in a renewed neighborhood. Based on this study, it is recommended that ethnic retailers be recognized for the role they play in formulating ethnic identities and food security in mixed-use mixed-income communities and that they be included in planning processes during urban renewal. Such recognition may enable more former residents to return and lessen the gentrification.

  14. Mağaza Sadakat Programlarının Algılanması, Güven, İlişkiyi Sürdürme İsteği ve Mağaza Sadakati Arasındaki İlişkilerin Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli ile İncelenmesi = Analyzing the Relationships Among Perceptions on Store Loyalty Programs, Trust, Customer Commitment to the Relationship and Store Loyalty Through Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela Erten

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Especially in the retail industry, where there is intense competition, companies have started to initiate customer loyalty programs. By the help of these programs companies expect to develop long - term relationships with their customers and collect useful information about them as well. The purpose of this research is to analyze a supermarket customer loyalty program to investigate the relationship between customer loyalty programs and the actual customer loyalty to a company’s products and services. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM was used in order to test our research hypotheses. As a result of the Structural Equation Modeling, it is found that the trust, which is an important factor in relationship marketing, has also impact on the continuation of the relationship. The other consequence of the research is that the store loyalty is affected by perception of the loyalty programs and the willingness to continue the relationship with the store.

  15. Grocery Stores, LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including the locations and building footprints of schools, churches, government buildings, law enforcement and emergency response offices, pha, Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Grocery Stores dataset current as of 2011. LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including...

  16. Comparison of attitude to loyalty programmes between Czech and English customers

    OpenAIRE

    Müllerová, Patricie

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with customer loyalty and loyalty programmes in areas of buying chemist goods, clothing, footwear and groceries. The main objective of this work is to compare the approach of English and Czech customers to loyalty programmes in these areas. The intention of the analysis is to discover whether the approach to loyalty programmes in these two countries varies and what are the major differences. Does using a loyalty programme really affect customer loyalty? Who are more loyal, Cze...

  17. Use of diet-tracking websites as a resource for hard-to-find food label information: an example using specialty grocery store items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many specialty foods cannot be found in research-focused food databases. However, some nutrient data can be found for many of these foods through individual website searches using brand and store names. Some popular diet-tracking websites contain data for over 3 million foods, data often entered by ...

  18. Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following the introduction of Condensators, resistors and potentiometers from the Farnell electronic-catalogue into CERN Stores' catalogue, following products are now available: PRODUCT FAMILY GROUP SCEM Oscillators and quartz crystals 07.94.10 / 07.94.12 Diodes 08.51.14 / 08.51.54 Thyristors 08.51.60 / 08.51.66 Opto-electronics 08.52 Transistors 08.53 Integrated circuits 08.54 / 08.55 These articles can be procured in the same way as any other stores item, by completing a Material Request. N.B. Individual Farnell order codes can be used as keywords to facilitate searches in the CERN Stores Catalogue.

  19. Repurchase intentions in a retail store - exploring the impact of colours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Varga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to explore the elements that influence customer loyalty in different dominant colour environments in a retail store that sells groceries. The paper explores the relationship between customer satisfaction, exploring the store environment, communications with sales personnel and repurchase intentions in different colour environments. Furthermore, it explores the gender impact on creating customer loyalty in warm, cool and neutral colour environments. Empirical research is conducted using three different colour environments in a retail store that sells groceries. Based on research findings, exploring store environment is found to be the most influential element that boosts repurchase intentions. Gender stimulated differences are also found. For women, in warm, cool and neutral colour environment the dominant influence on repurchase intentions is exploring the store environment. For men, in both warm and cool colour environment communication with sales personnel influences their repurchase intentions. The research contributes to the existing body of knowledge on the influence of colours on repurchase intentions in the context of South-East European culture. Managerial implications are offered and suggestions for further research provided.

  20. Grocery E-commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Bjerre, Mogens

    Kornum and Mogens Bjerre bring key researchers together to investigate the factors contributing to the success of "Grocery e-commerce", particularly in countries that had the earliest and most extensive experiences in this field: the USA, the UK and Scandinavia. The authors argue that "Grocery e......-commerce" is especially difficult to implement because it differs from other types of consumer sales in numerous aspects including low profit margins, low value density of products and high frequency purchases. As well as examining these unique characteristics, the authors present research on consumer behaviour, cross...

  1. The Impact Of CRM Implementation On Customer Satisfaction, Loyalty And Organisational Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Tanas, Islam Nazier Abdelmalak

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates to what extend the customer relationship management implementation affects the customer loyalty and maintaining profitability in the food and retail industry by cultivating intrinsically motivated loyalty between customers and retailers in the current competitive environment. The former grocery retailers caught up in traditional transaction-based strategies and relied on acquisition instead of loyalty which deters customers from choosing alternative retailers by inc...

  2. 论连锁企业构建物流战略联盟的具体途径及方法——以百货连锁企业为例%Specific Path and Method for Establishing Strategic Alliance by Chain Enterprises:As Illustrated with Chain Grocery Stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓刚

    2012-01-01

    论述了物流战略联盟及其特征,对百货连锁业实行物流战略联盟的规模经济进行了分析,指出了百货连锁企业巩固物流战略联盟的具体措施,旨在为相关人员提供借鉴.%In this paper we introduced the characteristics of logistics strategic alliance, then analyzed the implementation of economy of scale such as logistics strategic alliance by chain grocery stores and pointed out the specific measures to reinforce the alliance.

  3. Multi-outlet/multi-format grocery retailing : Some issues and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haans, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Several trends and shifts in consumer behavior (e.g., desire for convenience) have resulted in grocery retailers opening more stores and new formats (e.g., AH ToGo and AH XL) next to their existing ones (regular supermarket). By using this strategy grocery retailers try to attract new customers

  4. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin R. Payne

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets.

  5. Predicting Commissary Store Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    stores or if it is possible to predict that success. Multiple studies of private commercial grocery consumer preferences , habits and demographics have...appropriate number of competitors due to the nature of international cultures and consumer preferences . 2. Missing Data Four of the remaining stores

  6. Mağaza Sadakat Programlarının Algılanması, Güven, İlişkiyi Sürdürme İsteği ve Mağaza Sadakati Arasındaki İlişkilerin Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli ile İncelenmesi = Analyzing the Relationships Among Perceptions on Store Loyalty Programs, Trust, Customer Commitment to the Relationship and Store Loyalty Through Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ela Erten; Tülay Yeniçeri

    2008-01-01

    Especially in the retail industry, where there is intense competition, companies have started to initiate customer loyalty programs. By the help of these programs companies expect to develop long - term relationships with their customers and collect useful information about them as well. The purpose of this research is to analyze a supermarket customer loyalty program to investigate the relationship between customer loyalty programs and the actual customer loyalty to a company’s products and ...

  7. IS ONLINE GROCERY SHOPPING INCREASING IN STRENGTH?

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, James J.

    2001-01-01

    Online grocery shopping is a relatively new innovation with regard to the way in which one purchases groceries. Some interesting concepts- designed to enhance the process of making grocery products available for consumption of the ever-changing consumer- have entered the food distribution industry channels. A telephone survey was conducted in the Boston trading area to determine the profile of online grocery consumers who are familiar with online grocery shopping.

  8. School Choice, Brand Loyalty and Civic Loyalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Applying a philosophical perspective to the concept of loyalty, I consider how the commodification of education may affect the ties between people. Using both theories of brand loyalty and Albert Hirschman's distinction between exit and voice, I examine how human loyalties may be formed in general and also in the field of education. I conclude…

  9. Building Company Loyalty System

    OpenAIRE

    Haniková, Alžběta

    2010-01-01

    The thesis discusses the importance of loyal customers, and loyalty system as a tool for building loyalty. It defines loyalty and customer satisfaction, it deals with the issue of customer retention. It describes the history and types of loyalty programs, important factors for deciding on their implementation and problems associated with them. The practical part is concerned with the clothing market, Orsay company and its Orsay Club loyalty systeme. The work also includes a survey of the loya...

  10. Customer Loyalty Research : Can customer loyalty programs really build loyalty?

    OpenAIRE

    Romppanen, Maiju; Kellgren, Cecilia; Moradi, Ladan

    2007-01-01

    Background: During the last decades the efforts to foster customer relationships have become important due to increased competition in the consumer markets. One of the most popular strategies have been to introduce customer loyalty programs which are believed to enhance the customer loyalty. The popularity of the customer loyalty programs is based on the beliefs that loyal customers are lucrative and these programs would bond the customers to the company. More recently however, the discussion...

  11. The brand architecture of grocery retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how the brand architecture of grocery retailers set material and symbolic boundaries for consumer choice, thus limiting consumer sovereignty. The article first discusses previous work on store atmospherics, servicescapes and brand architecture. It is argued that work based...... on these concepts has taken an internal management perspective on how retailers can manipulate aspects of the retail setting to serve their own interests. Then, we develop an alternative conceptualisation of retailer brand architecture that takes into account that consumers (and other constituents) are active co......- constructors of material and symbolic aspects of retail settings. It is discussed how consumers participate in constructing retailer brand architecture and how this concept differs from previous research. Implications for both research and practice are discussed....

  12. Customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    , whereas hedonic value reflects the potential entertainment and emotional worth associated with the shopping trip. Recognising this duality, in addition to enabling customers to satisfy utilitarian needs related to product-acquisition, grocery retailers increasingly try to offer customers pleasurable...... shopping experiences, even to entertain them. Because there is evidence suggesting even satisfied customers sometimes switch brands and retailers due to boredom, it is important for retailers to continuously engage consumers and stir interest in a given store. Satisfying customers again and again...

  13. The ambiguities of loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Barbara Backer

    2013-10-01

    Loyalty is a complex notion. Recognizing moments of loyalty in nursing can encourage pride in the profession and thereby assist in elevating nursing as a profession. If nurses can appreciate the complexities involved in loyalty, this knowing might assist them in understanding personal struggles with loyalty when they arise and may also help in the understandings-misunderstandings that can occur when a breach of loyalty is felt. In this column, this complexity is discussed. Loyalty as a part of living quality is also highlighted in that loyalty is always choosing value priorities in co-creating living quality. Furthermore, the principles of humanbecoming are used as a guide to teaching-learning as well as recognizing loyalty in the nursing profession.

  14. Loyalty in Fashion Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Frühauf, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze customer loyalty and market fashion apparel, identify customer perception and participation in loyalty programs. Evaluate current approaches of using customer loyalty programs by the biggest fashion houses. Based on the research results suggest recommendations for creating loyalty programs on the market with fashion and clothing. The solution was used focus group methods, questionnaire probes, expert interviews, desk research and market testing, which focu...

  15. German Grocery Discounters: Dynamics and Regional Impact. the Case of Schleswig-Holstein (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgens Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grocery discount stores have long dominated developments in the German food retail sector, and they continue to grow. This paper discusses the reasons for this long-term success based on internal decision-making parameters such as price, adjustment of product range, choice of location, and size of new stores. The result is significant customer acceptance, but also adverse developments viewed critically in various governance constellations. The paper is based on expert interviews and a comprehensive collection of data on grocery discount stores and supermarkets in the German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein

  16. The impact of loyalty programs on customer loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Ištvancová, Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Loyalty programs are one of the tools that serve to create customer loyalty. The aim of this thesis is to determine whether loyalty programs of perfumeries and satisfaction with their impact on customer loyalty. The theoretical research summarizes the available knowledge about consumer behavior, loyalty and loyalty programs. The parfumeria market analysis in the Czech Republic and the content analysis of the MML TGI provide sufficient information about the established loyalty programs and the...

  17. Customer Satisfaction with the Loyalty Programs in Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraljević Radojka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The loyalty programs are often part of a comprehensive strategy for customer relationship and provide a good way to identify and maintain customers with greater value than others. The main objective of this paper is to show the role of loyalty programs affecting customer satisfaction in retail. The purpose of the empirical research was to discover the effects of loyalty programs on customer satisfaction. Research has shown (N= 53 that the loyalty program is not the determinating factor. All other examined factors such as product range, price, locationof the store and customers relationship proved to be the more relevant for consumer satisfaction.

  18. Consumer Online Grocery Buying Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Jan Møller; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the ability of two consumer theories - the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior - in predicting consumer online grocery buying intention. In addition, a comparison of the two theories is conducted. Data were collected from two web-based surveys of Danish (n=1222) and Swedish (n=1038) consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Lisrel results suggest that the theory of planned behavior (with the inclusion of a path from subjective norm to attitude...

  19. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R.; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R.; Kelly, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the efficacy of an easy-to-implement shopper marketing nutrition intervention in a pilot and two additional studies to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability or increasing shopper budgets. Methods We created grocery cart placards that detailed the number of produce items purchased (i.e., descriptive norm) at particular stores (i.e., provincial norm). The effect of these placards on produce spending was assessed across 971,706 individual person grocery store transactions aggregated by day. The pilot study designated a baseline period (in both control and intervention store) followed by installation of grocery cart placards (in the intervention store) for two weeks. The pilot study was conducted in Texas in 2012. In two additional stores, we designated baseline periods followed by 28 days of the same grocery cart placard intervention as in the pilot. Additional interventions were conducted in New Mexico in 2013. Results The pilot study resulted in a significant difference between average produce spending per day per person across treatment periods (i.e., intervention versus same time period in control) (16%) and the difference between average produce spending per day per person across stores in the control periods (4%); Furthermore, the same intervention in two additional stores resulted in significant produce spending increases of 12.4% and 7.5% per day per person respectively. In all stores, total spending did not change. Conclusions Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards) may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets. PMID:26844084

  20. Efficient Consumer Response (ECR: a survey of the Australian grocery industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Swatman

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficient consumer response (ECR is a U.S. supply chain management strategy which attempts to address the inefficiencies which have led to excessive inventory and unnecessary costs at all levels within the grocery industry supply chain. This paper discusses the traditional grocery store format, the supermarket, and the ways in which inefficient business practices developed in the U.S. grocery supply chain; and discusses the major business activities needed for successful implementation of ECR. The paper then presents a brief summary of the results of a survey of ECR knowledge and usage within the Australian grocery industry, which is the initial phase of a long term research project whose main purpose is to evaluate ECR as it applies to that industry.

  1. Brand Loyalty and Market Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Birger Wernerfelt

    1991-01-01

    Two concepts of brand loyalty are defined, “inertial” brand loyalty resulting from time lags in awareness, and “cost-based” brand loyalty resulting from intertemporal utility effects. Their market level implications are formally derived in a continuous time model. It is found that inertial brand loyalty leads to equilibria with price dispersion, while cost-based brand loyalty also may allow single price equilibria. In all cases, as brand loyalty vanishes, so does the difference between the av...

  2. Loyalty in the Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Damacena

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Loyalty has been a hot topic in marketing management, not only for academics, but also for managers. In that sense, the main goal of this paper is to identify the variables that discriminate loyalty groups. Therefore, seven hypotheses have been proposed which might have an impact on loyalty groups. Based on discriminant analysis, the paper analyzes and discusses the data, and presents a conclusion that the more important variables on loyalty in the supermarket are affective commitment, satisfaction with its environment and value provided by supermarket experiences. Moreover, the results also indicated that the theoretical model achieved a variance in the loyalty construct of canonical R-squared = 0.78. It could be considered a good value to the final model. Final considerations and study limitations conclude the paper.

  3. Food category purchases vary by household education and race/ethnicity: results from grocery receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen; Baranowski, Tom; Watson, Kathy; Nicklas, Theresa; Fisher, Jennifer; O'Donnell, Sharon; Baranowski, Janice; Islam, Noemi; Missaghian, Mariam

    2007-10-01

    To characterize food group purchases from grocery receipts. Food shoppers (aged>or=19 years with at least one child agedfood purchaser) were recruited in front of grocery stores to participate in two interviews, separated by 6 weeks, and to save and mail grocery store receipts from the interim to researchers. Receipt items were coded by food categories; the percentage of total grocery dollars spent in each of the food categories each week was computed. Analyses of variance were performed on the total grocery dollar spent and the percentage spent in each food category by participant characteristics. The greatest percentage of purchases were for protein foods (24%), followed by drinks (12%), grains (9.2%), vegetables (8.8%), dairy (8.3%), mixed dishes (7.5%), and fruit (7%). Hispanics purchased a greater percentage of fruit and vegetables than African Americans. Whites purchased more alcohol products than African Americans. Whites purchased more mixed dishes than Hispanics, and African Americans purchased more protein foods than whites (all P<0.001). The use of this measurement procedure, unaffected by errors of self-report, should be more thoroughly explored to explain differences in disease prevalence.

  4. Loyalty in Online Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William L; Zhang, Justine; Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Jurafsky, Dan; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-05-01

    Loyalty is an essential component of multi-community engagement. When users have the choice to engage with a variety of different communities, they often become loyal to just one, focusing on that community at the expense of others. However, it is unclear how loyalty is manifested in user behavior, or whether certain community characteristics encourage loyalty. In this paper we operationalize loyalty as a user-community relation: users loyal to a community consistently prefer it over all others; loyal communities retain their loyal users over time. By exploring a large set of Reddit communities, we reveal that loyalty is manifested in remarkably consistent behaviors. Loyal users employ language that signals collective identity and engage with more esoteric, less popular content, indicating that they may play a curational role in surfacing new material. Loyal communities have denser user-user interaction networks and lower rates of triadic closure, suggesting that community-level loyalty is associated with more cohesive interactions and less fragmentation into subgroups. We exploit these general patterns to predict future rates of loyalty. Our results show that a user's propensity to become loyal is apparent from their initial interactions with a community, suggesting that some users are intrinsically loyal from the very beginning.

  5. Flexible loyalties: How malleable are bicultural loyalties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Y. Chiou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biculturals are individuals who are acculturated in two cultures and have dual identities. Due to this, many early discussions on biculturalism argued that biculturals may have divided loyalties between their two cultural backgrounds and the identities derived from these backgrounds. This view is further highlighted given historical and contemporary debate regarding immigrants in the European and American political arenas. These concerns illustrate two possibilities. First, that biculturals have a preference for their home or host culture, identifying one as the in-group to express loyalty towards and the other as the out-group. Second, biculturals may alternate between who they identify as their in-group depending upon the circumstances. In a particular cultural environment, a given bicultural may feel greater degrees of loyalty towards that culture, while feeling different loyalties when immersed in a different cultural environment. To-date, few empirical studies have examined these two questions in detail. We proposed two hypotheses: First, biculturals will express higher levels of loyalty for a specific culture if they have been exposed to a prime congruent with that culture than if they have been exposed to a prime associated with a different culture. Second, the magnitude of preferences expressed for the two cultures will differ depending on the cultural prime.We experimentally investigated this phenomenon in a sample of Chinese-Americans (N = 136 using a computer simulated soccer game between the United States and China. This simulation was selected in order to avoid the controversial nature of an immigration or cultural conflict scenario. Past research has shown that support for the sports team of a given country is a form of expressing loyalty. Participants were randomly exposed to one cultural priming condition (American, Neutral, Chinese using commentaries recorded in different languages: English, no commentary, and Chinese

  6. Impact Of The International Grocery Chain On The US Online Grocery Business

    OpenAIRE

    Louis J. Zivic; Timothy P. Shea

    2011-01-01

    The established, United States based brick-and-mortar grocery chains have been slow to enter the online grocery business. This paper, the third in a series, explores whether that is still the case in 2001, how the new pure-play online grocers are doing in the aftermath of the collapse of the technical sector of stocks in early 2001, and the role that internationally-based grocery chains are taking in the US marketplace. Somewhat surprisingly, some internationally-based grocery chains are movi...

  7. Buying in multiple stores : Shopping strategies beyond price promotions and their effects on Store Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbrechts, E.; Campo, K.; Nisol, P.

    2013-01-01

    Grocery-store switching has typically been viewed as evidence of cherry-picking behavior, with consumers switching stores to benefit from temporary promotional offers. However, research reveals that it may also result from a longer-term planning process based on stable store characteristics. Even in

  8. Online grocery retailing: What do consumers think?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Kim Bjarne; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    2005-01-01

    beliefs in predicting internet shopping behavior. Practical implications: The findings could be used to direct attention to consumer beliefs about internet grocery shopping which have the potential of acting as barriers to this line of e-commerce. Originality/value: To shed some light on the role...... Kingdom and three in Denmark, were conducted among consumers with different degrees of experience with internet grocery shopping. This diversification of respondents was chosen to capture a broad range of the consumer beliefs that predict intentions to buy groceries online or not. The TPB framework...... of consumers in an underperforming and understudied branch of internet retailing. Barriers in the consumers' minds to shop for groceries online are identified using an established theoretical framework....

  9. Energy Efficiency in Grocery Distribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)......Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)...

  10. The Moderating Influence of Supermarket Satisfaction on Out-of-stock Store Switching Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2015-01-01

    Consumer store switching behaviour – going to another store to buy an item that is out-of-stock – is often considered to be associated with high brand loyalty in combination with low store loyalty, making a study of the causes for such behaviour highly important to both store and brand managers...

  11. Who Is Hurt by E-Commerce? Crowding out and Business Stealing in Online Grocery

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Pozzi

    2011-01-01

    I study the impact of e-commerce on competition in retail markets. Using scanner data from a large chain that markets grocery online and through traditional stores, I illustrate that selling online reduces the barrier of geographic differentiation and allows stealing business from competitors. Between 60% and 70% of the sales made online by the chain are stolen from other grocers, the rest coming from self cannibalization. I show that small stores are suffering the largest losses from this re...

  12. CUSTOMER LOYALTY THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita IŠORAITĖ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Customer loyalty - is a voluntary user solution for a long time to build relationships with the company. Loyalty is the user's desire for a long time to continue their relationship with a particular company, because loyal customers are those who purchase goods/services of the company from time to time. Loyalty can be treated as a customer desire, willingness to be a regular customer for a long time, buying and using the goods of the chosen companies by recommending them to friends and colleagues. Loyalty can be seen as a multi-dimension, covering behavioral and positional components, where positional aspect reflects customers' approach to business, while the behavioral dimension reveals a frequent and regular shopping, purchase quantity, size, range, availability, etc.

  13. Rethinking Loyalty in Business Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik

    This conceptual paper develops an alternative understanding of the foundation of commitment and loyalty in business relationships. It is argued that commonly used facets of commitment and loyalty depend on past behavior or expectations but do not explain the foundation of such commitment and loya......This conceptual paper develops an alternative understanding of the foundation of commitment and loyalty in business relationships. It is argued that commonly used facets of commitment and loyalty depend on past behavior or expectations but do not explain the foundation of such commitment...... and loyalty. The paper develops a relevant constructs which explain the alignment and match between customers and suppliers. The foundation of commitment and loyalty should be seen as an aggregated match of three elements: business understanding, business resources, and business interaction. The new model...... for the foundation of loyalty contributes to an understanding of loyalty and customer behavior in business markets and challenges current loyalty measurement models....

  14. Loyalty-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichheld, F F

    1993-01-01

    Despite a flurry of activities aimed at serving customers better, few companies have systematically revamped their operations with customer loyalty in mind. Instead, most have adopted improvement programs ad hoc, and paybacks haven't materialized. Building a highly loyal customer base must be integral to a company's basic business strategy. Loyalty leaders like MBNA credit cards are successful because they have designed their entire business systems around customer loyalty--a self-reinforcing system in which the company delivers superior value consistently and reinvents cash flows to find and keep high-quality customers and employees. The economic benefits of high customer loyalty are measurable. When a company consistently delivers superior value and wins customer loyalty, market share and revenues go up, and the cost of acquiring new customers goes down. The better economics mean the company can pay workers better, which sets off a whole chain of events. Increased pay boosts employee moral and commitment; as employees stay longer, their productivity goes up and training costs fall; employees' overall job satisfaction, combined with their experience, helps them serve customers better; and customers are then more inclined to stay loyal to the company. Finally, as the best customers and employees become part of the loyalty-based system, competitors are left to survive with less desirable customers and less talented employees. To compete on loyalty, a company must understand the relationships between customer retention and the other parts of the business--and be able to quantify the linkages between loyalty and profits. It involves rethinking and aligning four important aspects of the business: customers, product/service offering, employees, and measurement systems.

  15. Make a customer, not a sale : A study on customer's perception of loyalty programs

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Swedish food retail industry is one with fierce competition, small product differentiation and increasingly disloyal customers. Consequently in order to create and retain loyal customers many of the stores offer some kind of loyalty schemes. The effectiveness of loyalty programs have been questioned, but it is proposed that in order for a loyalty program to be successful it must offer benefits that are perceived as valuable by customers. Thus the purpose of this qualitative study is to in...

  16. Factors for Creating Online Customer Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Anamaria Baranov; Liliana-Aurora Constantinescu

    2012-01-01

    Only those companies which succeed in building lasting relationships with online customers are those who customers are confident in and transact online securely. Furthermore, successful companies are those who pay attention to customer satisfaction, who are trying to understand customer needs and expectations and to fulfill them properly. Only those online store managers that focus more on gaining customer loyalty, than to customer acquisition succeed in the online business medium. Customer l...

  17. Consumers' multifaceted deal knowledge in a grocery retail setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2017-01-01

    of deal price status, typical deal price knowledge, and deal-spotting ability. Results show reasonably stable knowledge of typical deal prices, while knowledge of deal price status and deal-spotting ability improves significantly during grocery shopping. Surprisingly, consumers’ deal knowledge...... typical deal price knowledge. Furthermore, the findings suggest that consumers store internal reference deal prices. Retailers are therefore well advised to consider mixed depth and creative discount patterns to prevent ‘perfect’ perceptions of typical deal prices.......Despite its relevance to retailers, studies of consumers’ deal knowledge have been few. This study explores consumers’ deal knowledge before, during, and after the store visit applying a between-subjects field-study design with 1204 respondents. In particular, the authors investigate perception...

  18. Win-Win Strategies at Discount Stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Deleersnyder (Barbara); M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); J-B.E.M. Steenkamp (Jan-Benedict); O. Koll (Oliver)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAn important development that contributes to store brands’ growing success in the grocery market is the increasing number of discount stores that sell predominantly own, private-label, brands. To fight private labels, manufacturers of national brands feel increasingly compelled to

  19. One-to-one modeling and simulation: a new approach in customer relationship management for grocery retail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, Cem M.

    2002-03-01

    The ever-increasing competition in retail industry puts pressure on retailers to deal with their customers more efficiently. Currently most companies use Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems to maximize the customer satisfaction level by trying to understand more about their behaviors. However, one disadvantage of the current approaches is that they focus on the segmentation of customers into homogenous groups and they disregard examining the one-to-one relationship of each individual's behavior toward each product. Therefore, individual behavior cannot be captured in detail. Modeling individual behavior for each product enables several strategies of pricing by keeping the customer satisfaction at the maximum level. One example is offering a personal discount on a particular item to a customer who is price sensitive to that particular product. Therefore, you can still sell other products at the non-discounted level to this customer by keeping him satisfied. In this paper, individual pricing approach is discussed. The aim of this study is to develop a conceptual framework to analyze the feasibility of individual pricing. Customer behaviors can be modeled individually with respect to each product for a grocery store. Several factors can be used to determine these behaviors such as customer's need, brand loyalty and price sensitivity. Each customer can be modeled as an adaptive agent using qualitative descriptions of behaviors (i.e., highly price sensitive). Then, the overall shopping behavior can be simulated using a multi-agent Monte-Carlo simulation. It is expected that with this approach, retailers will be able to determine better strategies to obtain more profits, better sales and better customer satisfaction.

  20. Patient loyalty model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaedi, Sik; Bakti, I Gede Mahatma Yuda; Rakhmawati, Tri; Astrini, Nidya Judhi; Yarmen, Medi; Widianti, Tri

    2015-07-06

    This study aims to investigate the simultaneous effect of subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and trust on patient loyalty. The empirical data were collected through survey. The respondents of the survey are 157 patients of a health-care service institution in Bogor, Indonesia. Multiple regressions analysis was performed to test the conceptual model and the proposed hypotheses. The findings showed that subjective norm and trust influence patient loyalty positively. However, this research also found that perceived behavioral control does not influence patient loyalty significantly. The survey was only conducted at one health-care service institution in Bogor, Indonesia. In addition, convenience sampling method was used. These conditions may cause that the research results can not be generalized to the other contexts. Therefore, replication research is needed to test the stability of the findings in the other contexts. Health-care service institutions need to pay attention to trust and subjective norm to establish patient loyalty. This study is believed to be the first to develop and test patient loyalty model that includes subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and trust.

  1. Understanding Consumers' In-store Visual Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Jesper; Kristensen, Tore; Grønhaug, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the human brain has limited capacity for perceptual stimuli and consumers'' visual attention, when searching for a particular product or brand in a grocery store, should then be limited by the boundaries of their own perceptual capacity. In this exploratory study, we...... examine the relationship between abundant in-store stimuli and limited human perceptual capacity. Specifically, we test the influence of package design features on visual attention. Data was collected through two eye-tracking experiments, one in a grocery store using wireless eye-tracking equipment......, and another in a lab setting. Findings show that consumers have fragmented visual attention during grocery shopping, and that their visual attention is simultaneously influenced and disrupted by the shelf display. Physical design features such as shape and contrast dominate the initial phase of searching...

  2. Online grocery retailing: What do consumers think?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Kim Bjarne; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework to explore in depth the range of beliefs held by consumers about internet shopping in general and internet grocery shopping in particular. Design/methodology/approach: Seven focus group interviews, four in the United...... beliefs in predicting internet shopping behavior. Practical implications: The findings could be used to direct attention to consumer beliefs about internet grocery shopping which have the potential of acting as barriers to this line of e-commerce. Originality/value: To shed some light on the role...

  3. Consumer loyalty in retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drinić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loyal consumers are partner enterprises and they represent stable source of income. Companies are more interested in maintaining the existing consumers, rather than attracting the newones, because loyal consumers are the most valuable asset. The aim of this article is to develop an integrative conceptual framework for creating and maintaining consumer loyalty, and ,at the same time, to be based on a thorough review of the relevant literature and the current market situation . In this context, empirical research was carried out by using the survey method on a random sample of 165 respondents. Based on the research conducted, important factors that influence consumer loyalty were identified.

  4. Your loyalty program is betraying you.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Joseph C; Drèze, Xavier

    2006-04-01

    Even as loyalty programs are launched left and right, many are being scuttled. How can that be? These days, everyone knows that an old customer retained is worth more than a new customer won. What is so hard about making a simple loyalty program work? Quite a lot, the authors say. The biggest challenges include clarifying business goals, engineering the reward structure, and creating incentives powerful enough to change buying behavior but not so generous that they erode margins. Additionally, companies have to sort out the puzzles of consumer psychology, which can result, for example, in two rewards of equal economic value inspiring very different levels of purchasing. In their research, the authors have discovered patterns in what the successful loyalty programs get right and in how the others fail. Together, their findings constitute a tool kit for designing something rare indeed: a program that won't do you wrong. To begin with, it's important to know exactly what a loyalty program can do. It can keep customers from defecting, induce them to consolidate certain purchases with one seller (in other words, win a greater share of wallet), prompt customers to make additional purchases, yield insight into their behavior and preferences, and turn a profit. A program can meet these objectives in several ways--for instance, by offering rewards (points, say, or frequent-flier miles) divisible enough to provide many redemption opportunities but not so divisible that they fail to lock in customers. Companies striving to generate customer loyalty should avoid five common mistakes: Don't create a new commodity, which can result in price wars and other tit-for-tat competitive moves; don't cater to the disloyal by making rewards easy for just anyone to reap; don't reward purchasing volume over profitability; don't give away the store; and, finally, don't promise what can't be delivered.

  5. Forecast Collaboration in Grocery Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Gammelgaard, Britta

    -requisites, degree of forecast collaboration, demand related contingency factors and outcomes/KPIs based. The hypotheses are tested in a survey among Danish grocery suppliers. The survey findings provide evidence of a positive effect of collaborative orientation and retailer competencies and trustworthiness...

  6. Multiple and Symbol Operators: the Battle for Market Leadership in the Irish Grocery Market

    OpenAIRE

    O'Callaghan, Edmund; Wilcox, Mary

    2002-01-01

    The Irish grocery retailing market, one of the most competitive in Europe, has undergone a metamorphosis in recent years. The demise of many small grocers, an increased concentration of multiples and the galvanization of the independent sector through symbol group participation has intensified competitive rivalry. The two largest multiples ie. Tesco Ireland and Dunnes Stores continually vie for number one position nationally. In recent years, Musgrave have galvanised the independent sector an...

  7. "Hello Jumbo!” The spatio-temporal rollout and traffic to a new grocery chain after acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lin, Arjen; Gijsbrechts, Els

    Grocery retailers increasingly use acquisitions to expand their presence. Such acquisitions are risky, especially when retailers decide to subsume the acquired stores under their own banner, which can take years and demands careful planning. We show how the dynamics of consumer valuations of the old

  8. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  9. LOYALTY AND THE MILITARY PROFESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    required to suppress competing emotions of right and wrong in battle. Since loyalty motivates Soldiers to act in a particular way, Connor also provides...given. Therefore, a sound understanding of loyalty is essential to understanding its role in the profession of arms. Ten readings from various...sound understanding of loyalty is essential. This research paper presents an approach by offering 10 readings to provide a substantial

  10. Brand loyalty in Smartphone

    OpenAIRE

    Forsido, Mulugeta Z

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Problem statement – what factors determine brand loyalty in Smartphone? Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine causal antecedent factors leading to brandloyalty in the Swedish Smartphone market Theory – theoretical review and critical analysis of academic journals related to dependantand independent variables and conceptual model is formulated. Methodology - Quantitative approach is used to quantify the relationship between dependantand independent variables based on the p...

  11. Loyalty programs and their impact on consumer

    OpenAIRE

    Rothmajerová, Jaroslava

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is focused on loyalty programs. The aim of the thesis is to show how the loyalty program works by using a particular example and how it affects consumers. In the theoretical part, there is explained the position of loyalty programs in marketing. The thesis also deals with media, which use loyalty programs in marketing communication. In the practical part, the loyalty program of Nestlé is analysed, which is aimed at children as consumers. Awareness and satisfaction with loyalty prog...

  12. The case for customer loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Arthur C

    2004-09-01

    How does customer loyalty grow? Through good customer experiences. Yet some organizations seem to genuinely fail to understand that they can keep or lose a customer in the proverbial blink of an eye. And in this era of increasing customer demands across all industries, it's important that healthcare financial managers understand the correlation between customer loyalty and customer experience.

  13. The impact of the multi-channel retail mix on online store choice: Does online experience matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Melis, Kristina; Campo, Katia; Breugelmans, Els; Lamey, Lien

    2015-01-01

    More and more grocery retailers are becoming multi-channel retailers, as they are opening an online alternative next to their traditional offline supermarkets. While the number of multi-channel grocery shoppers is also expanding at a fast growth rate, there are still large differences in online shopping frequency, and as a result, in the levels of experience with buying in the online grocery channel. This study wants to (i) identify the underlying drivers of online store choice and (ii) explo...

  14. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  15. Do Loyalty Programs Really Enhance Behavioral Loyalty? An Empirical Analysis Accounting for Self-Selecting Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Leenheer (Jorna); H.J. van Heerde (Harald); T.H.A. Bijmolt (Tammo); A. Smidts (Ale)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOne of the pressing issues in marketing is whether loyalty programs really enhance behavioral loyalty. Loyalty program members may have a much higher share-of-wallet at the firm with the loyalty program than non-members have, but this does not necessarily imply that loyalty programs are

  16. Do loyalty programs really enhance behavioral loyalty? An empirical analysis accounting for self-selecting members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, Jorna; van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Smidts, Ale

    One of the pressing issues in marketing is whether loyalty programs really enhance behavioral loyalty. Loyalty program members may have a much higher share-of-wallet at the firm with the loyalty program than non-members have, but this does not necessarily imply that loyalty programs are effective.

  17. Store Format Choice in an Evolving Market . A TPB Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kamaljit Anand; Sinha, Piyush Kumar

    2008-01-01

    The store choice has been studied extensively in the literature, but store format choice has had limited research attention. The store choice modeling has been primarily done in the random utility theory framework, which however is a neo-economics based view of choice decision that ignores the psychological and behavioral aspects of this planned behavior. The store format choice for bulk grocery purchase despite being a rational context has not been conceptualized in the most accepted constru...

  18. [Healthcare patient loyalty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    If the "old economy" preached standardization of products/services in order to reduce costs, the "new economy" is based on the recognition of the needs and the management of information. It is aimed at providing better and more usable services. One scenario is a national health service with regional management but based on competition between hospitals/companies.This led to a different handling of the user/patient, which has become the center of the health system: marketing seeks to retain the patient, trying to push a client-patient to not change their healthcare service provider. In costs terms, it is more economical to retain a customer rather than acquire a new one: a satisfied customer is also the best sounding board for each company. Customer equity is the management of relations with patients which can result in a greater customer value: it is possible to recognize an equity of the value, of the brand and of the report. Loyalty uses various marketing activities (basic, responsive, responsible, proactive and collaborative): each hospital/company chooses different actions depending on how many resources it plans to invest in loyalty.

  19. DETERMINANTS OF CUSTOMER LOYALTY. A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Bobâlcă

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to investigate the determinants of customer loyalty. The research objectives are: (1) to identify the factors that affect customer loyalty; (2) to identify the relations between the determinants of loyalty and loyalty construct. We used an exploratory research based on a documentary study. The main determinants of customer loyalty that are identified and studied in past researchers are: satisfaction, trust, commitment, involvement, perceived risk, switching cost...

  20. Changes in approach to customer loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Szczepańska, Katarzyna; Gawron, Patryk Paweł

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses an overview of customer loyalty theoretical framework. It presents both, the classic approach to the subject of loyalty as well as the results of its ongoing evolution. This allowed the identification of factors affecting customer loyalty and a statement that the concept of loyalty can be seen in varying degrees, in terms of criteria other than behavioral. Finding of not enough empirical research on customer loyalty in the long types of market and specific customer group...

  1. Loyalty programs challenges in retail banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanauskienė, Neringa; Auruškevičienė, Viltė

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the challenges of loyalty programs in retail banks in Lithuania. Case study methodology was chosen to analyze the loyalty programs launched by various banks to show how banks are building the loyalty of individual customers and what challenges these banks face. The findings suggest that the majority of analyzed loyalty programs reward a repeat purchasing. Lithuanian retail banks launching loyalty programs for two customer segments - the potentially prof...

  2. Investigate The Relationship Between Brand Equity Brand Loyalty And Customer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Farbod Souri

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study conducted an empirical study in the field of marketing in order to investigate the relationship between brand equity brand loyalty and customer satisfaction in Refah stores in which Nam and colleagues model 2011 have been used. In this model the relationship between brand equity and brand loyalty and customer satisfaction is evaluated. To review research a sample of 384 customers was selected as a stepwise clustering. Data gathered by standard questionnaire with 23 q...

  3. Classification bias in commercial business lists for retail food stores in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Aspects of the food environment such as the availability of different types of food stores have recently emerged as key modifiable factors that may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity. Given that many of these studies have derived their results based on secondary datasets and the relationship of food stores with individual weight outcomes has been reported to vary by store type, it is important to understand the extent to which often-used secondary data correctly classify food stores. We evaluated the classification bias of food stores in Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) and InfoUSA commercial business lists. Methods We performed a full census in 274 randomly selected census tracts in the Chicago metropolitan area and collected detailed store attributes inside stores for classification. Store attributes were compared by classification match status and store type. Systematic classification bias by census tract characteristics was assessed in multivariate regression. Results D&B had a higher classification match rate than InfoUSA for supermarkets and grocery stores, while InfoUSA was higher for convenience stores. Both lists were more likely to correctly classify large supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores with more cash registers and different types of service counters (supermarkets and grocery stores only). The likelihood of a correct classification match for supermarkets and grocery stores did not vary systemically by tract characteristics whereas convenience stores were more likely to be misclassified in predominately Black tracts. Conclusion Researches can rely on classification of food stores in commercial datasets for supermarkets and grocery stores whereas classifications for convenience and specialty food stores are subject to some systematic bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition. PMID:22512874

  4. Classification bias in commercial business lists for retail food stores in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa M; Zenk, Shannon N; Rimkus, Leah; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-04-18

    Aspects of the food environment such as the availability of different types of food stores have recently emerged as key modifiable factors that may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity. Given that many of these studies have derived their results based on secondary datasets and the relationship of food stores with individual weight outcomes has been reported to vary by store type, it is important to understand the extent to which often-used secondary data correctly classify food stores. We evaluated the classification bias of food stores in Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) and InfoUSA commercial business lists. We performed a full census in 274 randomly selected census tracts in the Chicago metropolitan area and collected detailed store attributes inside stores for classification. Store attributes were compared by classification match status and store type. Systematic classification bias by census tract characteristics was assessed in multivariate regression. D&B had a higher classification match rate than InfoUSA for supermarkets and grocery stores, while InfoUSA was higher for convenience stores. Both lists were more likely to correctly classify large supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores with more cash registers and different types of service counters (supermarkets and grocery stores only). The likelihood of a correct classification match for supermarkets and grocery stores did not vary systemically by tract characteristics whereas convenience stores were more likely to be misclassified in predominately Black tracts. Researches can rely on classification of food stores in commercial datasets for supermarkets and grocery stores whereas classifications for convenience and specialty food stores are subject to some systematic bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition.

  5. Classification bias in commercial business lists for retail food stores in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Euna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspects of the food environment such as the availability of different types of food stores have recently emerged as key modifiable factors that may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity. Given that many of these studies have derived their results based on secondary datasets and the relationship of food stores with individual weight outcomes has been reported to vary by store type, it is important to understand the extent to which often-used secondary data correctly classify food stores. We evaluated the classification bias of food stores in Dun & Bradstreet (D&B and InfoUSA commercial business lists. Methods We performed a full census in 274 randomly selected census tracts in the Chicago metropolitan area and collected detailed store attributes inside stores for classification. Store attributes were compared by classification match status and store type. Systematic classification bias by census tract characteristics was assessed in multivariate regression. Results D&B had a higher classification match rate than InfoUSA for supermarkets and grocery stores, while InfoUSA was higher for convenience stores. Both lists were more likely to correctly classify large supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores with more cash registers and different types of service counters (supermarkets and grocery stores only. The likelihood of a correct classification match for supermarkets and grocery stores did not vary systemically by tract characteristics whereas convenience stores were more likely to be misclassified in predominately Black tracts. Conclusion Researches can rely on classification of food stores in commercial datasets for supermarkets and grocery stores whereas classifications for convenience and specialty food stores are subject to some systematic bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition.

  6. Shopping in discount stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    quarters of intentions to shop in discount stores. Value perception has the strongest total effect, which is partly mediated by enjoyment, shame and guilt. Attributions influence the shopping intention indirectly via value perception and emotions. The inferior quality attribution has the strongest total......This paper analyzes the impact of price-related attributions, emotions and value perception on the intention to shop at grocery discounters in an integrated framework. Moderating effects of price consciousness are also analyzed. The results show that the proposed model explains almost three...... effect, followed by the efficiency of the business model attribution. The unfairness to stakeholders and the tricks in price communication attribution mostly influence the shopping intention for less price-conscious customers....

  7. Guest loyalty in hospitality industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagić Snježana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous growth of competition in the hospitality sector has created the need to retain guests and prevent them from switching company due to better offer or saturation. Loyal customers are a valuable asset for catering companies, not only because of the awareness of the effects of customer loyalty. They tend to spread word-of-mouth advertising, more tolerant to price changes, as well as they casually create a linkage to their friends, relatives, colleagues, and other probable consumers and thus enable businesses to uphold a guest's base. By recognizing loyalty guests' importance, the global hospitality industry created monetary and non-monetary rewards for loyal visitors, delayed gratification (points collection and immediate rewards, as well as numerous other reward systems that try to keep them. To win customer loyalty, together with all benefits arising from it, caterers need to become familiar with factors, which determine guests' loyalty. The paper will show the results of research regarding the impact of the service quality and guests' satisfaction to their loyalty. Many authors have confirmed that employees' satisfaction affected customers' satisfaction, so this paper will give an answer does it influence on customers' loyalty as well.

  8. Multi-vendor loyalty programs: influencing customer behavioral loyalty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eVillacé-Molinero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Loyalty programs are a consolidated marketing instrument whose adoption in many sectors has not been associated with appropriate comprehension of either their management elements or their effects. The purpose of this research is to contribute to knowledge about the effect of loyalty programs on repeat purchase behavior. More specifically, it seeks to see discover whether joining a program changes the buying behavior of its members, and, if so, to study the profile of those whose behavior changes most. The intention was also to provide new study variables pertaining to multi-vendor loyalty programs, such as where they are joined or purchases in associated outlets as a result of behavioral loyalty. Research was carried out using a sample of 1,200 individuals (31,746 purchases belonging to a multi-vendor loyalty program. The study period was 13 years, 4 months, and split into two phases: before and after the joining the program. Different methodological approaches, such as the use of transactional databases that included pre-program-enrollment data and of the same sampling units throughout the study, were incorporated into the research with the aim of advancing academic knowledge regarding multi-vendor loyalty programs. Moreover, a type of program and market hardly dealt with in the relevant literature was analyzed. The results showed while the loyalty program had managed to reduce the time between purchases, it had not affected purchase volume or average expenditure. They also demonstrated the existence of a differential profile of customers who had changed their buying behavior to a greater extent. Finally, recency was identified as being the decisive variable in behavioral change.

  9. Multi-Vendor Loyalty Programs: Influencing Customer Behavioral Loyalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacé-Molinero, Teresa; Reinares-Lara, Pedro; Reinares-Lara, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Loyalty programs are a consolidated marketing instrument whose adoption in many sectors has not been associated with appropriate comprehension of either their management elements or their effects. The purpose of this research is to contribute to knowledge about the effect of loyalty programs on repeat purchase behavior. More specifically, it seeks to discover whether joining a program changes the buying behavior of its members, and, if so, to study the profile of those whose behavior changes most. The intention was also to provide new study variables pertaining to multi-vendor loyalty programs, such as where they are joined or purchases in associated outlets as a result of behavioral loyalty. Research was carried out using a sample of 1200 individuals (31,746 purchases) belonging to a multi-vendor loyalty program. The study period was 13 years, 4 months, and split into two phases: before and after the joining the program. Different methodological approaches, such as the use of transactional databases that included pre-program-enrollment data and of the same sampling units throughout the study, were incorporated into the research with the aim of advancing academic knowledge regarding multi-vendor loyalty programs. Moreover, a type of program and market hardly dealt with in the relevant literature was analyzed. The results showed while the loyalty program had managed to reduce the time between purchases, it had not affected purchase volume or average expenditure. They also demonstrated the existence of a differential profile of customers who had changed their buying behavior to a greater extent. Finally, recency was identified as being the decisive variable in behavioral change.

  10. Multi-Vendor Loyalty Programs: Influencing Customer Behavioral Loyalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacé-Molinero, Teresa; Reinares-Lara, Pedro; Reinares-Lara, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Loyalty programs are a consolidated marketing instrument whose adoption in many sectors has not been associated with appropriate comprehension of either their management elements or their effects. The purpose of this research is to contribute to knowledge about the effect of loyalty programs on repeat purchase behavior. More specifically, it seeks to discover whether joining a program changes the buying behavior of its members, and, if so, to study the profile of those whose behavior changes most. The intention was also to provide new study variables pertaining to multi-vendor loyalty programs, such as where they are joined or purchases in associated outlets as a result of behavioral loyalty. Research was carried out using a sample of 1200 individuals (31,746 purchases) belonging to a multi-vendor loyalty program. The study period was 13 years, 4 months, and split into two phases: before and after the joining the program. Different methodological approaches, such as the use of transactional databases that included pre-program-enrollment data and of the same sampling units throughout the study, were incorporated into the research with the aim of advancing academic knowledge regarding multi-vendor loyalty programs. Moreover, a type of program and market hardly dealt with in the relevant literature was analyzed. The results showed while the loyalty program had managed to reduce the time between purchases, it had not affected purchase volume or average expenditure. They also demonstrated the existence of a differential profile of customers who had changed their buying behavior to a greater extent. Finally, recency was identified as being the decisive variable in behavioral change. PMID:26941677

  11. Loyalty & Disloyalty: sebuah Pandangan Komprehensif dalam Analisa Loyalitas Pelanggan

    OpenAIRE

    Darsono, Licen Indahwati

    2004-01-01

    Marketer convinced that customer loyalty is a valuable asset for the company. But, in today marketplace managing customer loyalty is a daunting task. An understanding about customer loyalty concept is prerequisite for managing customer loyalty. Customer loyalty concept best understood with the composite approach; behavioral and attitudinal approach. Composite approach could make marketer to find out loyalty category andloyalty stages of the customers, loyalty's antecedent and manage loyalty f...

  12. The correlation between cherry picking and the distance that consumers travel to do grocery shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Van Scheers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Retailers often use price promotions to discriminate between consumers who can shift purchases over time and those who cannot. Retailers consistently tend to charge lower prices than necessary, pricing defensively to prevent loyal customers from cherry picking, or shifting to competitors. Knowledge about cherry picking behaviour will enable retailers to obtain a higher share of disposable income from even price-sensitive shoppers, while at the same time charging higher prices. Recent studies indicate that effective cherry picking entails saving costs through price searching over time, price searching across stores, or both. This study examines the relationship between cherry picking and the distance that consumers travel to do grocery shopping. Interviews were conducted at ten different retail outlets over three days, and the results show that there is a highly significant correlation between cherry picking and the distance that consumers travel to do grocery shopping.These results should help retailers to benefit from cherry picking by taking a proactive approach to store switching and store location, two of the main influences on cherry picking behaviour.

  13. The Grocery Sector from the 1960s to the Present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    , the paper serves as a case study of the introduction of the motor vehicle in Denmark. Both the supply of goods to the retail outlets (the wholesale side) and the shopping transport are covered. The period covered has seen both a profound restructuring of the grocery sector structure (incl. a reduction...... of the retail shops by some 60%) and a complete change in shopping patterns. The transport demand for grocery shopping has grown 3.8 times, while freight transport of groceries has tripled. Fuel consumption and CO2-emissions are about 2.5 times higher today compared to 1960, whereas NOx-emissions are 3.6 times...

  14. PERAN MEDIASI E-SATISFACTION DAN E-TRUST TERHADAP E-LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayi Retno Dwi Asih

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As the number of female customers shopping in online clothing stores increases, understanding how female customers’ e-loyalty is formed and fostered in this type of online store becomes very important. The purpose of this paper is to focus on female online clothing shoppers and to examine the mediating of e-loyalty in the context of online clothing stores: e-satisfaction and e-trust. The number  of respondents is 196 persons who have online clothing shopping experience in Jakarta. The structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the measurement and structural models. The results show that both Online Satisfaction and Online Security are positively associated with e-trust, whereas web design is not. Furthermore, Online Satisfaction turns positively influence e-loyalty for female online clothing shoppers.

  15. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  16. Changes in Approach to Customer Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an overview of customer loyalty theoretical framework. It presents both, the classic approach to the subject of loyalty as well as the results of its ongoing evolution. This allowed the identification of factors affecting customer loyalty and a statement that the concept of loyalty can be seen in varying degrees, in terms of criteria other than behavioral. Finding of not enough empirical research on customer loyalty in the long types of market and specific customer groups indicates a cognitive gap. Verification of the classic determinants of customer loyalty authorized to conclude that the profitability of the customer portfolio sets new definition of loyalty, which is related to the concepts of marketing value and value based management. This is supported by associations of loyalty to the management parameters.

  17. Loyalty Programs. Role, Structure and Potential Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Filip

    2011-01-01

    A loyalty program consists of an integrated system of marketing activities, aimed at increasing members’ loyalty by rewarding customers according to their purchasing frequency and amount spent. Loyalty schemes, customer clubs and sales promotion techniques are the most common relationship tools used in marketing practice. To join the program and receive a card, consumers must fill in a registration form, providing demographic, behavioural or even psychographic data. Loyalty schemes and custom...

  18. What drives customer participation in loyalty programs?

    OpenAIRE

    Hörold, Maïté

    2017-01-01

    Relationship marketing, both in research and in practice, has increasingly gained in importance over the last decades and loyalty programs have become a widely used customer relationship management tool. Despite considerable interest and investment in loyalty programs, the number of active members remains relatively low and the impact of loyalty programs on company profitability is more than often called into question. This research studies customers’ attitude and behaviour towards loyalty pr...

  19. Erosion and variability in brand loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Dekimpe, Marnik; Mellens, M; Steenkamp, J; Vanden Abeele, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the over-time behavior of brand loyalty for a large set of brands drawn from many product categories. Using the brand-loyalty operationalization of Colombo and Morrison (1989), the following conclusions are obtained. First, little support is found for the often-heard contention that brand loyalty is gradually declining over time. Second, while the short-run variability around a brand's mean loyalty level is not negligible, no evidence is found that this variability...

  20. Empirical Study on Multi-Channel Service Quality and Customer Loyalty of Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Yong-zhi

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of offline RSSQ (retailing store service quality), online store ESQ (E-service quality) and O2O MCISQ (multi-channel integration service quality) on traditional retailers' customer loyalty as well as the relation of them three in multi-channel retailing. 380 customers with both offline and online shopping experience at the same retailer's store are investigated. Through the structural equation model, we find out that in multi-channel retailing, RSSQ and MCISQ ...

  1. Energy and Environmental Effects of Grocery Distribution: Transportation Means Catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The report serves as a background report for the project "Energy and Environmental Effects of Grocery Distribution". It contains a systematic overview of physical characteristics of the typical technologies, including energy and environmental effects....

  2. Grocery e-commerce in the UK and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Bjerre, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a framework for the analysis of market creation and apply this to the grocery e-commerce business. The article develops a model of four forces that interplay when companies engage in the process of creating new markets. The applicability of the model...... is exemplified by examining the interaction of the forces having created grocery e-commerce markets in the UK and Denmark. The application of the model reveals that besides the usual identification of competition intensity, the persistency of market reach efforts of a focal firm and the value attraction of its...... offerings play a significant role in the creation of grocery e-commerce markets. The practical implications are that retailers should not just transfer a grocery e-commerce set-up from one national market to another without considering the mentioned four forces in their own national markets....

  3. Opportunity and Implications of Grocery E-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, Mads

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To incorporate the element of sustainability of advantages into the concept ofFirst-Mover Advantage for analysis on grocery e-commerce. Grocery e-commerce is a relatively unexplored phenomenon in Denmark and I seek to explain this via the concept of FMA. In order to fully understand...... and coupled with previous empirical findings on grocery e-commerce. Findings: a) Providing insights into the concept of first- mover advantage, b) sustainability of advantages and c) providing a framework for analysis on advantages sought by acting entrepreneurial. Value: The applicability of the concept...... of first-mover advantage is very descriptive to date. With thispaper and hopefully more to follow, I wish to transform the FMA concepts into a tool for analysis addressing the very crucial element that is not dealt with today -sustainability.Keywords : First-Mover Advantage; e-commerce; grocery industry...

  4. Hospital patient loyalty: causes and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to test whether factors associated with customer and employee loyalty are linked to hospital loyalty, and to measure the relative strength of the associations between traditional patient satisfaction factors and loyalty as compared to non-traditional factors.

  5. Toward retail product recognition on grocery shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Gül; Kuzu, Rıdvan S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of retail product recognition on grocery shelf images. We present a technique for accomplishing this task with a low time complexity. We decompose the problem into detection and recognition. The former is achieved by a generic product detection module which is trained on a specific class of products (e.g. tobacco packages). Cascade object detection framework of Viola and Jones [1] is used for this purpose. We further make use of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to recognize the brand inside each detected region. We extract both shape and color information; and apply feature-level fusion from two separate descriptors computed with the bag of words approach. Furthermore, we introduce a dataset (available on request) that we have collected for similar research purposes. Results are presented on this dataset of more than 5,000 images consisting of 10 tobacco brands. We show that satisfactory detection and classification can be achieved on devices with cheap computational power. Potential applications of the proposed approach include planogram compliance control, inventory management and assisting visually impaired people during shopping.

  6. Food safety issues and training methods for ready-to-eat foods in the grocery industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Margaret; Ghiselli, Richard

    2005-10-01

    As Americans have become more pressed for time, the use of convenient, simplified meals become a way of life. One aspect of this trend, known as Home Meal Replacement (IIMR), has increased in sales since its inception. Between 1999 and 2001, the average annual expenditure per consumer rose 5.6 pereent, and $958 per person per year was spent in 2002. Along with this growth, food safety risks may have increased. The study reported here examined efforts being undertaken by grocery and convenience stores to control the wholesomeness of INR food items. After a convenience sample of 500 grocery store executives was identified, a 32-item questionnaire was developed and mailed to the executives. The results indicate that the industry has taken food safety seriously with only 10 pereent reporting that they have no food safety training. The executives cited employee turnover as a major concern in food safety today, along with lack of food safety knowledge of the consumer and improper holding temperatures.

  7. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients.

  8. Loyalty marketing in automobile dealerships : case: car dealer X

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyryläinen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how customer loyalty is taken into account in automobile dealerships, what loyalty marketing means are used to improve customer loyalty, and what potential new loyalty marketing means can be implemented. The thesis is commissioned by Car dealer X. In the theoretical part, areas covered are customership and loyalty marketing. Customership includes customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, customer value and customer retention. Loyalty marketing contain...

  9. Loyalty program of payment cards, solution based on DWH

    OpenAIRE

    Jersák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    This diploma thesis is covering topics of customer's loyalty, loyalty programs in banking and mainly topic is loyalty programs of payment cards in banking industry. First theoretical parts is guiding us though concept of customer's loyalty in banking industry and is describing specifics of this loyalty compared to loyalty to sales businesses. Further, this thesis is trying to show opportunities to be used to support customer's loyalty in bank with participation of credit and debit cards. In t...

  10. Price satisfaction and producer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Beukel, Karin; Gyau, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design/methodology/approach......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design...... reliability, and relative price are dimensions of price satisfaction that affect producers’ trust in the buyer. Moreover, trust between the producer and the buyer is found to be a strong mediator between price satisfaction and producer loyalty. The findings support recent studies about trust and its mediating...... between the multi-dimensional nature of price satisfaction and producer loyalty with trust as a mediating variable in the business-to-business (B2B) context. Although B2B relationships have been shown to be of great importance for smallholders in enhancing business performance with their buyers, little...

  11. BRAND LOYALTY AND LOYALTY PROGRAMS; A LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Elvira Tabaku; Mirela Zerellari (Mersini)

    2015-01-01

    Global and competitive markets have led businesses to cope with many challenges. Technology development has brought many businesses to deal with advantages which last less than before. It becomes increasingly difficult for a company to differentiate its products as they are perceived as easily imitable and fairly standard. Brand and brand loyalty come as a solution for creating a strong and long term competitive advantage for any business. The main objective of this paper is to examine the co...

  12. Cooking Matters at the Store: A Case Study of Three Missouri Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Cooking Matters at the Store is a grocery store tour where participants learned about healthy eating and tips for saving money on food purchases. Participants learned how to read food labels, compare unit prices, find whole grains, and three ways to purchase produce. Evaluations revealed that participants planned to use the information they…

  13. AFFECTING CUSTOMER LOYALTY: DO DIFFERENT FACTORS HAVE VARIOUS INFLUENCES IN DIFFERENT LOYALTY LEVELS?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Kuusik

    2007-01-01

    The current paper studies the influence of various factors on customer loyalty. The main hypothesis of the study insists that the list of most important factors affecting loyalty is dependant on the level of loyalty of costumers. LOGIT method was used for testing the hypotheses on the sample of survey data about 1000 private customers of the biggest telecommunication company in Estonia. The results reveal that four analysed factors affecting customer loyalty (satisfaction, trustworthiness, im...

  14. Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Alexander N.; Albert, Stephanie L.; Chan-Golston, Alec M.; Langellier, Brent A.; Glik, Deborah C.; Belin, Thomas R.; Garcia, Rosa Elena; Brookmeyer, Ron; Sharif, Mienah Z.; Prelip, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of food retail interventions is largely undetermined, yet substantial investments have been made to improve access to healthy foods in food deserts and swamps via grocery and corner store interventions. This study evaluated the effects of corner store conversions in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California on perceived accessibility of healthy foods, perceptions of corner stores, store patronage, food purchasing, and eating behaviors. Methods Household data ...

  15. Workplace loyalty in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umiker, W

    1995-03-01

    The loyalty paradigm is evolving as part of our cultural modifications. We must enunciate our own standards and temper them with realism. Employers can seldom promise permanent jobs, and employees are reluctant to hitch their stars to one organization. In health care institutions, ethical considerations may result in divergent allegiances. The new loyalty paradigm is affected by the movements toward participative management and team building. A number of suggestions are offered for enhancing a pragmatic form of loyalty.

  16. Social Identity Perspective on Brand loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    He, Hongwei; Li, Yan; Harris, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a social identity perspective of customer–brand relationship and integrates brand identity and identification with value, trust and satisfaction in predicting brand loyalty. Two studies' empirical results support this path to brand loyalty framework. The results offer several theoretical implications. First, this research confirms the presence of significant direct and indirect effects of brand identity and brand identification on traditional antecedents of brand loyalty (...

  17. Implementation of loyalty program in chosen company

    OpenAIRE

    Šenitková, Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The importance of building longterm relationship with customers has raisen very quickly in companies last years. One of very strong marketing tool is loyalty programme, main topic of thesis, which is used in different parts of business all over the world and experience boom in Czech and Slovak republic these days. Thesis explains theoretical aspects of loyalty, satisfaction and value of customer, and all important components of loyalty programme. Thesis concerns also different types of progra...

  18. ANTESEN CUSTOMER LOYALTY PADA BUDGET HOTEL

    OpenAIRE

    Latifa Rahma

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, and Brand Image Budget hotel (Five Budget Hotel Managed by local chain hotel). The purpose of this study were 1) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, 2) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty, 3) to analyze the effect of Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty, 4) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on the Brand Image, 5 ) to analyze ...

  19. Advertising, brand loyalty and pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Chioveanu, I.

    2009-01-01

    I consider an oligopoly model where, prior to price competition, firms invest in persuasive advertising and induce brand loyalty in consumers who would otherwise buy the cheapest alternative on the market. This setting, in which persuasive advertising is introduced to homogenous product markets, provides an alternative explanation for price dispersion phenomena. Despite ex-ante symmetry, the equilibrium profile of advertising outlays is asymmetric. It follows that endogenously determine...

  20. Measuring brand loyalty in agribusinesses / Catharina Maria Wiese

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese, Catharina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Brand loyalty represents an important asset to any business. While a considerable amount of research focuses on brand loyalty, empirical tests on the brand loyalty influences in the agribusiness environment have not been conducted. The primary purpose of this study was to measure brand loyalty in the agribusiness environment by applying a validated model that measures brand loyalty for this environment. The brand loyalty influences were empirically validated, their reliability ...

  1. Creating effective loyalty programs knowing what (wo-)men want

    OpenAIRE

    Melnyk, V.

    2005-01-01

    Loyalty programs started to boom in the late 1990s, under the main premise that it is cheaper to keep existing customers than to attract new ones. However, despite their popularity, many loyalty programs are ineffective and fail to stimulate the desired loyalty of customers. Therefore, the debate whether loyalty programs actually enhance customer loyalty still continues among marketing scientists and practitioners. The main goal of this dissertation is to identify factors that make loyalty pr...

  2. Development and outlook of online grocery retail in the Czech Republic and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Biznár, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide a comprehensive understanding of successful strategies in retail trade, overview of the Czech online grocery retail market and provide recommendations how to succeed in this market. This diploma thesis is intended to help established big grocery retailers, start-ups venturing into the online grocery retail and prospective investors into such start-ups understand the Czech online grocery market. First, we provide a summary of the major developments in the h...

  3. Store Type and Demographic Influence on the Availability and Price of Healthful Foods, Leon County, Florida, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Angela F.; Lee, Jung Sun; Rigby, Samantha; Kurtz, Hilda; Johnson, Mary Ann; Betterley, Connie; Park, Sohyun

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The availability of healthful foods varies by neighborhood. We examined the availability and price of more healthful foods by store type, neighborhood income level, and racial composition in a community with high rates of diet-related illness and death. Methods We used the modified Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores to conduct this cross-sectional study in 2008. We surveyed 73 stores (29% supermarkets, 11% grocery stores, and 60% convenience stores) in Leon County, F...

  4. Gains and losses of exclusivity in grocery retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielens, K.J.P.; Gijsbrechts, E.; Dekimpe, M.G.

    Conventional wisdom dictates that convenience goods should be distributed as intensively as possible. Still, exclusivity arrangements are rapidly gaining way in grocery retailing. We discuss the possible performance outcomes of exclusivity deals, and propose a unified framework (i) to quantify the

  5. A preliminary examination of patient loyalty: an application of the customer loyalty classification framework in the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiens, R A; Pleshko, L P

    1997-01-01

    The present article applies the customer loyalty classification framework developed by Dick and Basu (1994) to the health care industry. Based on a two factor classification, consisting of repeat patronage and relative attitude, four categories of patient loyalty are proposed and examined, including true loyalty, latent loyalty, spurious loyalty, and no loyalty. Data is collected and the four patient loyalty categories are profiled and compared on the basis of perceived risk, product class importance, provider decision importance, provider awareness, provider consideration, number of providers visited, and self-reported loyalty.

  6. A novel application of point-of-sales grocery transaction data to enhance community nutrition monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiya, Hiroshi; Moodie, Erica E M; Buckeridge, David L

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy eating is the most important preventable cause of global death and disability. Effective development and evaluation of preventive initiatives and the identification of disparities in dietary patterns require surveillance of nutrition at a community level. However, nutrition monitoring currently relies on dietary surveys, which cannot efficiently assess food selection at high spatial resolution. However, marketing companies continuously collect and centralize digital grocery transaction data from a geographically representative sample of chain retail food outlets through scanner technologies. We used these data to develop a model to predict store-level sales of carbonated soft drinks, which was applied to all chain food outlets in Montreal, Canada. The resulting map of purchase patterns provides a foundation for developing novel, high-resolution nutrition indicators that reflect dietary preferences at a community level. These detailed nutrition portraits will allow health agencies to tailor healthy eating interventions and promotion programs precisely to meet specific community needs.

  7. Subway Customer Loyalty And Evaluating Marketing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Dr. Lalita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose- The major consideration of this research was the chain restaurant industry, and its underlying principle was to (1) establishing which factors manipulate relationship excellence and customer loyalty development. (2) Observe the relations between relationship quality and loyalty. Based on the literature review, five proportions influence restaurant consumers behavior: service quality, food quality, price, location, and environment. Speculative relationships between attributes influenc...

  8. Customer Loyalty and Customer Relationship Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengwei; Li, Min; Jiao, Xiaojing; Zhou, Ruijin

    The contemporary company attaches great importance to marketing relationship and customer relations is the core of this relationship. Further, customer satisfaction and loyalty is the core of the customer relationship management. Sometimes, high customer satisfaction causes low profit because enterprises do not realize that strengthening the loyalty of the aimed customer is the key of customer relationship management.

  9. Customer loyalty of retail firm - Billa

    OpenAIRE

    Dančevská, Ráchel

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor thesis results from marketing, which includes customer loyalty and consumer typology. Then the thesis is concerned with a marketing research and a proper creation of a questionnaire for this research. The practical part of the thesis introduces the retail company Billa and presents the results from field research, which was focused on finding of customer loyalty of the Billa's customers.

  10. BUILDING PATIENT LOYALTY USING ONLINE TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladoi Anca Daniela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the online tools used by private healthcare organizations in order to generate patient loyalty. The research emphases a comparative analyze between the Romanian and other European countries private healthcare organizations referring to online tools used by these organizations on their websites to generate patient loyalty.

  11. Customer Loyalty Measurement at Czech Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vykydal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available All organizations certified against the ISO 9001 requirements must also measure customer satisfaction. But customer loyalty represents quality management system maturity on higher level of objectivity. An purpose of the article is bring set of information on current state analysis of customer loyalty measurement at Czech companies. Principal methodology of this analysis was special field survey and our research too. Results of special research performed through focus groups, based on risk analysis in the field of quality management principles implementation, are presented there as a part of findings. The another important findings show that customer loyalty measurement is mostly underestimated or ignored at Czech organizations. Main reasons of such state are also described. As well as: the first proposal of original methodology how to measure three fundamental types of customer loyalty - advocasy, purchasing and retention loyalty is also included to this article.

  12. Build loyalty in business markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayandas, Das

    2005-09-01

    Companies often apply consumer marketing solutions in business markets without realizing that such strategies only hamper the acquisition and retention of profitable customers. Unlike consumers, business customers inevitably need customized products, quantities, or prices. A company in a business market must therefore manage customers individually, showing how its products or services can help solve each buyer's problems. And it must learn to reap the enormous benefits of loyalty by developing individual relationships with customers. To achieve these ends, the firm's marketers must become aware of the different types of benefits the company offers and convey their value to the appropriate executives in the customer company. It's especially important to inform customers about what the author calls nontangible nonfinancial benefits-above-and-beyond efforts, such as delivering supplies on holidays to keep customers' production lines going. The author has developed a simple set of devices-the benefit stack and the decision-maker stack-to help marketers communicate their firm's myriad benefits. The vendor lists the benefits it offers, then lists the customer's decision makers, specifying their concerns, motivations, and power bases. By linking the two stacks, the vendor can systematically communicate how it will meet each decision-maker's needs. The author has also developed a tool called a loyalty ladder, which helps a company determine how much time and money to spend on relationships with various customers. As customers become increasingly loyal, they display behaviors in a predictable sequence, from growing the relationship and providing word-of-mouth endorsements to investing in the vendor company. The author has found that customers follow the same sequence of loyalty behaviors in all business markets.

  13. A study of the relationship between UK consumers purchase intention and store brand food products -- Take Nottingham city consumers for example

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kaochun

    2008-01-01

    Recently, store brands play an important role in retail grocery strategy. More and more retailers put their effort to develop and market new store brands because consumers have been accepting store brands. Therefore, store brands have gradually influenced consumers purchase behaviours in order to provide an in-depth investigation of consumers purchase intention in store brands, the study choose food products among many product categories because when consumers hear the store brand, they mus...

  14. Customer loyalty in Internet banking

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, M.; Schuster, C.

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years the way to do banking has changed. Internet banking has grown and a lot of niche banks working mainly with the Internet as a medium has entered the Swedish bank market. How to keep the customer loyal online in a very competitive environment has become a main question for the banks. The aim of this dissertation is to test what factors impact bank customer loyalty in an online environment. A positivistic research philosophy, a deductive research approach, an explanatory pur...

  15. General and food-selection specific parenting style in relation to the healthfulness of parent-child choices while grocery shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Graham, Dan J; Ullrich, Emily; MacPhee, David

    2017-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated that parenting style is related to children's health and eating patterns, and that parenting can vary across time and context. However, there is little evidence about similarities and differences between general, self-reported parenting style and observed parenting during grocery shopping. The goals of this study were to investigate links between general parenting style, parental warmth and limit setting (important dimensions of parenting style) during grocery shopping, and the healthfulness of foods chosen. Participants were 153 parent (88 mothers) - child (6-9 years old) dyads. Dyads were brought to a laboratory set up like a grocery store aisle and asked to choose two items from each of three categories (cookies/crackers, cereals, chips/snacks). Parents were observed in terms of warmth, responsiveness, autonomy granting, and limit setting; children were observed in terms of resistance and negotiation. Parents reported behaviors related to general parenting. Regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses. Observed parental limit setting was related to general parenting style; observed warmth was not. Observed limit setting (but not observed warmth or self-reported parenting style) was related to the healthfulness of food choices. Limit setting appears to be the dimension of parenting style that is expressed during grocery shopping, and that promotes healthier food choices. Implications are discussed regarding consistencies in parenting style across situations as well as contributions of parenting style to the development of children's healthy eating. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The garden of the self-service store

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    As a result of the increased competition between self-service chains, retail managers to an increasing degree try to strengthen store identity and customer loyalty. Based on a broad range of consumer choice and environmental psychology theories, this article discusses a number of reasons why the ...

  17. [Epidemiology of illnesses and musculoskeletal disorders in grocery stores and catering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzini, Matteo; Battevi, Natale; Stucchi, Giulia; Vitelli, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Large scale retail industry and catering industry are characterized by the widespread presence of several risk factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD): repetitive movements, incongruous postures and manual handling tasks. We reviewed current epidemiological evidence related to musculoskeletal disorders within these two sectors, distinguishing between symptoms and clinically documented disorders. In retail industry cashier is the most investigated figure, regarding upper limbs disorders as a consequence of repetitive tasks. In the catering sector there are few studies, mostly focused only on the job as a cook. The majority of studies showed a high prevalence of WMSD and, to a lesser extent, a high frequency ofmusculoskeletal alterations; suggesting the presence of a not negligible risk. These findings, however, are affected by a number of methodological limitations: they derive from cross-sectional studies, are based on voluntary self-selected workers, are focused on not unequivocally defined health outcomes, and are usually lacking a proper comparison. with the prevalence in less exposed/reference working groups. In order to achieve an effective control of the workers' risk, it is therefore necessary to design and conduct prospective studies that compare the risk of developing disorders and/or diseases in workers exposed to different levels of biomechanical load. It appears essential to involve occupational physicians in active health surveillance programs in order to identify critical areas and to develop effective preventive measures.

  18. Totem and taboo in the grocery store: quasi-religious foodways in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E. Zeller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on food proscriptions such as veganism and gluten-free eating, and prescriptions such as the Paleolithic diet, focusing on the North American context. These quasi-religious foodways serve as means for individuals to engage in discourses of community, personal and group identity, and boundary-marking. Through the daily practice of eating, those who follow quasi-religious foodways mark their identities, literally consuming who they are. These quasi-religious foodways therefore function to allow contemporary consumer-oriented individualistic Americans to engage in discourses of community, identity, and meaning in a highly vernacular manner, that of the marketplace. They also point to the manner in which identity and community have expanded well outside of religious categories.

  19. The adoption and effectiveness of loyalty programs in retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Leenheer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Loyalty programs have widely appeared in several sectors, with the aim of enhancing customer loyalty and profitability. This dissertation examines which role loyalty programs can play in the company's marketing-mix, with a special focus on retailing. The dissertation consists of three independent projects. The first project studies the determinants of retailers' decision to adopt loyalty programs and the effectiveness of loyalty programs by means of a retailer survey. The second project studi...

  20. The Significance of Loyalty on Consumer Credit Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Galih Prihartono; Ujang Sumarwan; Noer Azam Achsani; Kirbrandoko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze and test the effect of customer loyalty on consumer credit profitability. Loyalty Index Score was developed to determine the level of customers’ loyalty level through 4 main variables; Longevity, Depth, Breadth and Referrals. The effect of Loyalty Index Score on profitability was further tested by path analysis to find out the significance direct relationship between loyalty and profitablity and the indirect relationship between the two variable th...

  1. Motivation and consumer behaviour in the context of loyalty programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Mrkosová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the partial results of the marketing research on loyalty programs. The aim was to identify the reasons that lead consumers to participate in loyalty programs and the benefits that are the main motivators for participation in the loyalty program. Respondents had the opportunity to create a loyalty program as they wish. The aim of this paper was also to prove the popularity of loyalty programs based on the principles of the deferred compensation.

  2. Three Perspectives for Making Loyalty Programs More Effective

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhoff, Lena; Palmatier, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Loyalty programs are an ubiquitous instrument of customer relationship management. However, many loyalty programs perform poorly, which ultimately results in their abolition. Among both marketing managers and researchers, reasons for loyalty program failure are far from clear. The aim of this research is to enhance our understanding of loyalty program effectiveness. We propose a broadened framework for analyzing loyalty program performance which relies on three perspectives: a customer portfo...

  3. Investigate The Relationship Between Brand Equity Brand Loyalty And Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Souri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study conducted an empirical study in the field of marketing in order to investigate the relationship between brand equity brand loyalty and customer satisfaction in Refah stores in which Nam and colleagues model 2011 have been used. In this model the relationship between brand equity and brand loyalty and customer satisfaction is evaluated. To review research a sample of 384 customers was selected as a stepwise clustering. Data gathered by standard questionnaire with 23 questions that its validity and reliability confirmed and was distributed among the statistical population. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. At the level of Descriptive statistics indices such as frequency and frequency percentage were used and in inferential statistics correlation methods structural equation modeling path analysis has been done using the spss and lisrel software. The results of the analysis showing the existence of a significant and positive relationship of brand equity on customer satisfaction and loyalty. In general the ability of Refah store to increase customer satisfaction and brand loyalty of customers to Refah brand being associated with the brand equity 050 p.

  4. Food system access, shopping behavior, and influences on purchasing groceries in adult Hmong living in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Lisa; Smith, Chery

    2010-01-01

    To investigate influences on shopping and eating behavior of Hmong adults living in St. Paul/Minneapolis, Minnesota. Conducted a mapping project, food surveys, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and focus groups (n = 11). Subjects were assigned to three groups. The B-TL(1) group was made up of subjects who were born in Thailand/Laos and had lived in the US 5 years (n = 20). The B-US group was made up of subjects who were born and/or raised in the US (n = 30). Using Geographical Informational Systems software, 15 grocery stores were mapped and surveyed. Food prices were compared with the consumer price index (CPI). The FFQ assessed food consumption patterns. Focus group transcripts were evaluated for themes and coded. Degree of acculturation was assessed by adapting a previously developed instrument. The population is concentrated in St. Paul, coinciding with store density. Limited foods had CPIs and some CPIs were outdated. B-US had significantly higher levels of dietary acculturation than B-TL(2) and B-TL(1), with B-TL(2) also having a higher dietary acculturation level compared with B-TL(1). Acculturation of the Hmong into the American food system, determinants of store type, and Hmong food's having a mainstream factor were identified themes. B-US and B-TL(2) shopped at American stores more than did B-TL(1) because of convenience, one-stop shopping, and increased English fluency. Hmong foods have entered the American food system and are sold at Asian and American stores.

  5. Patient loyalty and the social media effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkamp, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    In a changing healthcare environment, patient loyalty has never been more important. However, creating patient loyalty can mean more than providing quality health services within the four walls of the medical office. With patients turning to online sources and social media in search of advice and a better patient experience, we must now ensure that patients have meaningful engagements with us across the continuum of care, from the phone, to the office, to social media tools like Facebook and YouTube as we look to build loyalty and grow our referral volumes.

  6. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  7. Store Personality as a Source of Customer Value

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Kim; Leroi-Werelds, Sara; Streukens, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Customer value has been considered a strategic imperative in the retail environment, since the customer is more value conscious than ever before (Sweeney and Soutar 2001). In this study, the authors investigate store personality as a potential source of value. Furthermore, they examine the mediating role of customer value in the relationship between store personality and two key outcome variables (i.e., satisfaction and loyalty). Additionally, they investigate self-congruence (i.e., the match...

  8. Customer loyalty programs: the role of different value constructs in building customer loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    So, Jing Theng

    2017-01-01

    In times of severe competition, loyalty programs (LPs) are introduced by firms to provide customers with added value to gain higher levels of loyalty and retention. While LPs are claimed to engender customer loyalty, researchers have not reached a decision about whether these programs are worthwhile for businesses in the long-run. Despite being a popular research area in the marketing literature, previous studies have found inconsistent results regarding the effectiveness of these programs in...

  9. Interaction of Employee Loyalty and Customer Loyalty in the Service Industry

    OpenAIRE

    monireh dabooeian; manijeh gharecheh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The subject of customer loyalty is a focal concern of marketers who seek to identify its antecedents and casual structure with the aim of better understanding of its relationship with employee loyalty, particularly in the service sector. In the service industry the role of staff in creating value is significant, therefore it is argued that maintaining customer loyalty is almost impossible without having loyal employees, since loyal employees offer higher quality services and make ...

  10. The feasibility and utility of grocery receipt analyses for dietary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Yan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To establish the feasibility and utility of a simple data collection methodology for dietary assessment. Design Using a cross-sectional design, trained data collectors approached adults (~20 – 40 years of age at local grocery stores and asked whether they would volunteer their grocery receipts and answer a few questions for a small stipend ($1. Methods The grocery data were divided into 3 categories: "fats, oils, and sweets," "processed foods," and "low-fat/low-calorie substitutions" as a percentage of the total food purchase price. The questions assessed the shopper's general eating habits (eg, fast-food consumption and a few demographic characteristics and health aspects (eg, perception of body size. Statistical Analyses Performed. Descriptive and analytic analyses using non-parametric tests were conducted in SAS. Results Forty-eight receipts and questionnaires were collected. Nearly every respondent reported eating fast food at least once per month; 27% ate out once or twice a day. Frequency of fast-food consumption was positively related to perceived body size of the respondent (p = 0.02. Overall, 30% of the food purchase price was for fats, oils, sweets, 10% was for processed foods, and almost 6% was for low-fat/low-calorie substitutions. Households where no one was perceived to be overweight spent a smaller proportion of their food budget on fats, oils, and sweets than did households where at least one person was perceived to be overweight (p = 0.10; household where the spouse was not perceived to be overweight spent less on fats, oils, and sweets (p = 0.02 and more on low-fat/low-calorie substitutions (p = 0.09 than did households where the spouse was perceived to be overweight; and, respondents who perceived themselves to be overweight spent more on processed foods than did respondents who did not perceive themselves to be overweight (p = 0.06. Conclusion This simple dietary assessment method, although global in

  11. Do Loyalty Programs Enhance Behavioral Loyalty: An Empirical Analysis Accounting for Program Design and Competitive Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Leenheer, J.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Heerde, H.J.; Smidts, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of loyalty programs on share-of-wallet using market-wide household panel data on supermarket purchases.We find that loyalty programs relate positively to share-of-wallet, but the programs differ in effectiveness and some are ineffective.Both a saving component and a multi-vendor structure enhance the effectiveness of a loyalty program, but high discounts do not lead to higher share-of-wallets.Further, if households have multiple loyalty cards, the effectiveness ...

  12. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-08-01

    The affordability of food is considered as an important factor influencing people's diet and hence health status. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood food store availability is associated with some aspects of dietary intake and thus possibly with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. Subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 years of age. Neighborhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (meat stores, fish stores, fruit and vegetable stores, confectionery stores/bakeries, rice stores, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores). Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire. No association was seen between any measure of neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, except for a positive association between confectionery and bread availability (based on confectionery stores/bakeries, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores) and intake of these items (P for trend = .02). Further, no association was seen for BMI or waist circumference, except for an inverse relationship between availability of convenience stores and BMI and a positive relationship between store availability for meat (meat stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and fish (fish stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and waist circumference. In conclusion, this study of young Japanese women found no meaningful association between neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, BMI, or waist circumference, with the exception of a positive relationship between availability and intake for confectionery and bread. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The mismanagement of customer loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, Werner; Kumar, V

    2002-07-01

    Who wouldn't want loyal customers? Surely they should cost less to serve, they'd be willing to pay more than other customers, and they'd actively market your company by word of mouth, right? Maybe not. Careful study of the relationship between customer loyalty and profits plumbed from 16,000 customers in four companies' databases tells a different story. The authors found no evidence to support any of these claims. What they did find was that the link between customers and profitability was more complicated because customers fall into four groups, not two. Simply put: Not all loyal customers are profitable, and not all profitable customers are loyal. Traditional tools for segmenting customers do a poor job of identifying that latter group, causing companies to chase expensively after initially profitable customers who hold little promise of future profits. The authors suggest an alternative approach, based on well-established "event-history modeling" techniques, that more accurately predicts future buying probabilities. Armed with such a tool, marketers can correctly identify which customers belong in which category and market accordingly. The challenge in managing customers who are profitable but disloyal--the "butterflies"--is to milk them for as much as you can while they're buying from you. A softly-softly approach is more appropriate for the profitable customers who are likely to stay loyal--your "true friends." As for highly loyal but not very profitable customers--the "barnacles"--you need to find out if they have the potential to spend more than they currently do. And, of course, for the "strangers"--those who generate no loyalty and no profits--the answer is simple: Identify early and don't invest anything.

  14. Analyzing Sport Consumer Behaviour toward Sportswear Store: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hafedh Ibrahim; Faouzi Najjar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate in sportswear store setting the relationships among psychological traits, loyalty to salesperson and behavioural intentions in three different sport consumers according to their switching behaviour. By means of structural equation modelling, we find a clear difference in the behaviour of the three groups. The results show that loyalty to salesperson is more influenced by need for social affiliation for the stayer customers. Whereas, for the dissatisfied a...

  15. The Loyalty Model of Private University Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonnard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates Loyalty Model of Private University Student by using STIKOM London School of Public Relation as a study case. This study examined the model from service quality, college image, price, trust and satisfaction perspective. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine and analyze the effect of service quality, college image, tuition fee, trust and satisfaction towards students’ loyalty; the effect of service quality, college image, price and satisfaction towards trust; and the effect of service quality, college image and price towards satisfaction. This study used survey methodology with causal design. The samples of the study are 320 college students. The gathering of data is conducted by using questionnaire in likert scale. The analysis of the data used a Structural Equation Model (SEM approach. The implication of this study is portraying a full contextual description of loyalty model in private university by giving an integrated and innovated contribution to Student Loyalty Model in private university..

  16. How retailer coupons increase attitudinal loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierich, Ralf; Zielke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate how different design elements of retailer coupons increase the attitudinal loyalty towards retailers. Design/methodology/approach – Three design elements are manipulated in a 2x2x2 experimental design. Data is analysed using structural equation...... and the minimum purchase amount require at least some cognitive processing to have a loyalty impact. Research limitations/implications – Future studies can use the developed framework to test the impact of other design elements, promotion types or loyalty schemes. Practical implications – The results underline...... that personalization offers opportunities for increasing loyalty without the necessity of large investments. As these effects can occur without redemption, coupon promotions should not be evaluated based on redemption rates only. Originality/value – The study extends existing research by focusing on retailer coupons...

  17. Extending the prevalent consumer loyalty modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tudoran, Ana Alina; Brunsø, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study addresses the role of habit strength in explaining loyalty behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses 2063 consumers’ data from a survey in Denmark and Spain, and multigroup structural equation modelling to analyse the data. The paper describes an approach employing...... the psychological meanings of the habit construct, such as automaticity, lack of awareness or very little conscious deliberation. Findings: The findings suggest that when habits start to develop and gain strength, less planning is involved, and that the loyalty behaviour sequence mainly occurs guided...... by automaticity and inertia. A new model with habit strength as a mediator between satisfaction and loyalty behaviour provides a substantial increase in explained variance in loyalty behaviour over the traditional model with intention as a mediator. Originality/value: This study contributes to the existent...

  18. The Loyalty Model of Private University Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonnard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates Loyalty Model of Private University Student by using STIKOM London School of Public Relation as a study case. This study examined the model from service quality, college image, price, trust and satisfaction perspective. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine and analyze the effect of service quality, college image, tuition fee, trust and satisfaction towards students’ loyalty; the effect of service quality, college image, price and satisfaction towards trust; and the effect of service quality, college image and price towards satisfaction. This study used survey methodology with causal design. The samples of the study are 320 college students. The gathering of data is conducted by using questionnaire in likert scale. The analysis of the data used a Structural Equation Model (SEM approach. The implication of this study is portraying a full contextual description of loyalty model in private university by giving an integrated and innovated contribution to Student Loyalty Model in private university.

  19. Market Concentration and Profitability of the Grocery Retailers in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřich Špička

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to internationally compare the market concentration of grocery retailers in the six countries of Central Europe – Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. The market concentration was measured by CR4 ratio, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and the GRS index. Data covered the period 2010 – 2015. The secondary data came from the Euromonitor International and Bureau van Dijk databases. The results showed that the market structure of the Central European grocery retailers has mostly a character of asymmetric oligopoly. The pairwise correlation did not reveal any strong relationship between the market power and profitability of the grocery retailers. The Central European grocery market is controlled by strong national retail chains and multinational companies which operate modern grocery retail formats. However, traditional grocery retailers are still popular in Hungary while traditional individual grocers in other countries are disappearing or gradually joining the networking system based on franchising.

  20. The influence of store image on customer satisfaction: a case study of a shoe store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsis Souza Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of customers' image of a store is an essential factor in the management of retail outlets. This article presents a case study of the effect of the image customers have of a shoe store on their satisfaction, based on a descriptive and quantitative survey, with the application of a structured questionnaire. We then employed factor analysis to obtain seven store image factors: assortment, convenience, reputation, price, atmosphere, layout and service. The results show that the factor that most affects customer satisfaction in the store studied is service, and that atmosphere and layout have no effect in this respect. The results provide a better understanding of the role store image plays in customer satisfaction and loyalty.

  1. Decisions of customers loyalty programs formation

    OpenAIRE

    Gudonavičienė, Rasa; Rutelionė, Aušra

    2009-01-01

    In order that company could be prosper, successful and competitive in the market it has to keep the customer loyal. Recently business companies have started to focus on the present customers more, seeking to keep them by using various loyalty programs. Well prepared and developed loyalty stimulation tools can be effective method to strengthen relations with customers, increase sales, identify the most popular and best saleable products, evaluate how to choose the best price decisions, form th...

  2. Studying brand loyalty in the cosmetics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research is to know the brand loyalty and contribute to the knowledge that how brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, and product knowledge is important to build brand loyalty. Method: Data were collected from the female's students of department from the university of Sargodha Final analysis was performed on 125 valid respondents. Cronbach's Alpha statistic was used in order to check the reliability of the scale.  Regression was used in order to test the hypothesis. Correlation analysis was used to study the relationship between the variables such that this analysis studied the positive relation of all the independent variables (brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and product knowledge with the dependent variable (brand loyalty. Results and Conclusion: The results indicate the positive relationships between brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, product knowledge (independent variables and brand loyalty (dependent variables. Further among all the variables studied brand awareness has the highest impact on brand loyalty and according to this research L'Oreal consumer is more as compare to other brands.  Although this research specifically studies the Brand Loyalty in University of Sargodha. However more importantly, the purpose of this study is that cosmetic industry must focus on brand association, perceived quality, product knowledge, brand credibility in order to build Brand Loyalty. To the best of researcher's knowledge, this research is first of its kind in the University of Sargodha which studies student's credibility, awareness, association, perceived quality, product knowledge and loyalty toward their favorite cosmetics brand. The results of this study are limited by the specificity of the geographic context by taking a sample of 125 students of one department from total population of University of

  3. Brand Awareness and Consumer Loyalty in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Firend, A.R; Alvandi, S.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study is to evaluate consumer's awareness of brand by studying the relationship between brand awareness and variables such as customer loyalty, customer satisfaction, customer trust and quality of services. The study examines the relationship through a quantitative research methodology conducted in main peninsula Malaysia. The examined brand Air Asia airline's services in Malaysia. This study finds the existence of crucial association between customer loyalty, trust, sa...

  4. Pentingnya Brand Loyalty terhadap Minat Beli Ulang

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi, Prasetyo; Sumarto, Sumarto

    2010-01-01

    Brand loyalty provides strategic value to the company if managed properly. For example, the reduction of marketing costs, increase sales and market share, create brand awareness, growing interest in new customers. Including providing opportunities for the company time to anticipate a possible threat from rivals. Thus, marketing is a battle of consumer perception and brand loyalty, not just a battle of products.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of positioning strategy tow...

  5. On the relationship between perceived service quality, service loyalty and switching costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyter, de J.C.; Wetzels, M.G.M.; Bloemer, J.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    In the services marketing literature it has been argued that the concept of service loyalty needs further conceptual and empirical investigation. In this paper a theoretical framework for service loyalty consisting of three dimensions: preference loyalty; price indifference loyalty; and

  6. Developing a new Internet grocery retail shop concept for the Indian customers

    OpenAIRE

    Belkud, Ravikiran

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the thesis is to develop a new Internet grocery retail shop concept for Indian customers in the capital region of Finland. The aim is to understand the various factors to be considered when setting up an Internet grocery retail shop. The thesis report consists of an introduction, and chapters describing the theoretical framework, benchmarking, collection and analysis of empirical data and implementation details of the Internet grocery retail shop. The theoretical frame...

  7. Differentiation strategy : how to create a competitive advantage in online groceries

    OpenAIRE

    Lok, Ka Heng

    2017-01-01

    Since the beginning of e-commerce, digital selling of commodities is becoming more common and accessible to every consumer. It is possible to order any grocery item on the Internet. A successful company in online groceries requires a strategy that could make it stand out from its competitors. That is the aim of the thesis; to create a competitive advantage in online groceries by using a differentiation strategy. The study focuses on analysing the external factors: the macro environment, ...

  8. Supermarket and Grocery Store–Based Interventions to Promote Healthful Food Choices and Eating Practices: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinen, Amy M.; Nitzke, Susan A.; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasingly high rates of obesity have heightened interest among researchers and practitioners in identifying evidence-based interventions to increase access to healthful foods and beverages. Because most food purchasing decisions are made in food stores, such settings are optimal for interventions aimed at influencing these decisions. The objective of this review was to synthesize the evidence on supermarket and grocery store interventions to promote healthful food choices. Methods We searched PubMed through July 2012 to identify original research articles evaluating supermarket and grocery store interventions that promoted healthful food choices. We categorized each intervention by type of intervention strategy and extracted and summarized data on each intervention. We developed a scoring system for evaluating each intervention and assigned points for study design, effectiveness, reach, and availability of evidence. We averaged points for each intervention category and compared the strength of the evidence for each category. Results We identified 58 articles and characterized 33 interventions. We found 7 strategies used alone or in combination. The most frequently used strategy was the combination of point-of-purchase and promotion and advertising (15 interventions); evidence for this category was scored as sufficient. On average, of 3 points possible, the intervention categories scored 2.6 for study design, 1.1 for effectiveness, 0.3 for reach, and 2 for availability of evidence. Three categories showed sufficient evidence; 4 showed insufficient evidence; none showed strong evidence. Conclusion More rigorous testing of interventions aimed at improving food and beverage choices in food stores, including their effect on diet and health outcomes, is needed. PMID:23578398

  9. Divided by Loyalty: The Debate Regarding Loyalty Provisions in the National Defense Education Act of 1958

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Brent D.

    2016-01-01

    The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) of 1958 was the first federal investment in low-interest student loans and became a precedent for expansion of student loans in the Higher Education Act of 1965. In its controversial loyalty provisions, the NDEA required loan recipients to affirm loyalty to the U.S. government. Between 1958 and 1962,…

  10. Do Loyalty Programs Enhance Behavioral Loyalty : An Empirical Analysis Accounting for Program Design and Competitive Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, J.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Heerde, H.J.; Smidts, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of loyalty programs on share-of-wallet using market-wide household panel data on supermarket purchases.We find that loyalty programs relate positively to share-of-wallet, but the programs differ in effectiveness and some are ineffective.Both a saving component and a

  11. The Impact of Frequent Shopper Programs in Grocery Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    David Bell; Rajiv Lal

    2002-01-01

    Frequent Shopper programs are becoming ubiquitous in retailing. Retailers seem unsure however about whether these programs are leading to higher loyalty, or to higher profits. In this paper we analyze data from a US supermarket chain that has used a number of frequent shopper rewards to improve sales and profitability. We find that while these programs are profitable, this is only because substantial incremental sales to casual shoppers (cherry pickers) oset subsidies to already loyal custome...

  12. Factors affecting Purchase behavior of Women grocery consumer- An Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, Dr. Anu Nagpal

    2014-01-01

    Women are most powerful consumers in the world as they control almost 80 percent of the household spending. And no longer can the womens spending powers and influence be neglected. The role of women in the society and their effects has changed. Most of the marketers know that women are different, but we actually need a deep rooted understanding of how and why they are different. Studying women could be interesting as Family grocery shopping is the accepted domain of women; however, modern so...

  13. COLLABORATION BETWEEN SMALL RETAIL STORES AND SUPPLIERS OF FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Branska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Small grocery stores are forced to look for ways to retain customers. One possibility is through collaboration with suppliers. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the forms of collaboration between small Czech grocery stores and suppliers and to specify the differences in this collaboration depending on store location and the possible affiliation of the store with a retail chain. To achieve this goal, quantitative research was carried out among 65 Czech retail stores using face-to-face interviews with predetermined questions. Collaboration was assessed on the basis of four criteria defined by the authors. It was found that the most frequently occurring element of collaboration was the provision of trade credit to retailers – less often, long-term contracts and synchronization of replenishment. The least used was information sharing. The research results show that the form of collaboration is significantly affected by customer value. Therefore, the level of collaboration can be improved by building horizontally interconnected retail chains. The paper enriches theoretical knowledge by specifying possible elements of collaboration between small retail stores and suppliers and mapping the frequency of their implementation.

  14. Which retailers adopt a loyalty program? An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, J.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines antecedents of retailers’ loyalty program adoption and their perceptions regarding loyalty program effectiveness. The investigated antecedents consists of sector, competitive and demand, and firm characteristics. To test the hypotheses, we surveyed 180 retail companies active in

  15. The Relevance of Shopper Logistics for Consumers of Store-Based Retail Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teller, Christoph; Kotzab, Herbert; Grant, David B.

    2012-01-01

    influence consumers' perceptions of shopping related costs. Nevertheless, shopper logistics does not affect consumer behaviour in terms of the share of visits of a store. These results are moderated by age, hedonic shopping orientation, shopping frequency, average spending per trip and store format......This paper discusses and empirically evaluates the relevance of shopping-related logistics for consumers of store-based retail formats. Based on a literature review a conceptual model was developed and subsequently tested using a survey of more than six hundred consumers in the grocery retail...... sector. Respondents were those primarily responsible for grocery shopping in their households located in a highly concentrated European urban retail market. Variance based structural equation modelling reveals that shopper logistics has a major impact on the convenience of store-based shopping and partly...

  16. Decisive Visual Saliency and Consumers' In-store Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Jesper; Aastrup, Jesper; Forsberg, Signe Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on consumers' in-store visual tactics and decision-making. It has been argued that many consumers shop by routine or by simple rules and justification techniques when they purchase daily commodities. It has also been argued that they make a majority of decisions in the shop......, and that they are affected by the visual stimuli in the store. The objective for this paper is to investigate the visual saliency from two factors: 1) in-store signage and 2) placement of products. This is done by a triangulation method where we utilize data from an eye-track study and sales data from grocery stores....... The first study takes place in laboratory settings with a simulated purchase situation, and the second research design builds on manipulated in-store settings and data from real purchases. We found optimal placement of two comparable goods (branded good and private label) to increase visual attention...

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING OVERALL BRAND EQUITY: THE CASE OF SHAHRVAND CHAIN STORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar AZIZI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the role of chain stores in distribution system of Iran has been paid more attention. Managers of these stores are seeking to increase the stores’ brand equity. This study develops a model of factors affecting overall brand equity in SHAHRVAND chain store as a case study. The Sample of 167 customers in Tehran city using convenience sampling method was selected. Data was gathered by the 44-items questionnaire in self-reporting way. Path analysis was applied using Lisrel 8.80 to test the conceptual model which includes six hypotheses. Results showed that brand-customer personality congruency affects brand identification positively. The positive impact of brand identification on brand loyalty and trust was confirmed. Analysis also revealed that brand trust impact brand loyalty positively. Results also indicated the positive impact of brand loyalty and trust on the overall brand equity.

  18. Brand Loyalty: Impact of Cognitive and Affective Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad TOUZANI; Azza TEMESSEK

    2009-01-01

    Studies on brand loyalty typically focus on the behavioural side of brand loyalty or on the attitudinal side. Rare are the studies that examine simultaneously both components of brand loyalty. The present study was performed to describe the conjoint contribution of cognitive and affective variables in the formation of brand loyalty. A questionnaire was administered to 400 shampoo users. A confirmatory analysis was performed to test the conceptual model presented. The results provide a better ...

  19. AN ANALYSIS OF THE BRAND LOYALTY BASED CONSUMER TYPOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Moisescu Ovidiu Ioan

    2007-01-01

    Even though the number of brands has strongly increased in recent years, only a few managed to endow themselves with significant brand loyalty. Besides the actual proprietary brand assets, such as patents and trademarks, other major elements like brand loyalty, perceived quality, brand associations, and others, underlie brand equity. A successful brand strategy must be based on creating brand loyalty. For achieving this goal consumers must be classified on a loyalty basis, while marketing str...

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND LOYALTY IN PROFESSIONAL SPORTS FANS

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Tsan Lin; Chen-Hsien Lin

    2008-01-01

    Many researchers have provided comprehensive definitions for the term of brand loyalty and also examined the factors affecting brand loyalty with many empirical studies. But there is little research focusing on the brand loyalty of professional sports fans. The topic area about factors influencing brand loyalty in professional sports fans was identified because these fans bring significant financial benefits every year and stimulate economic growth in the United States. Although different con...

  1. Relationship Marketing Through the Prism of Customer Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Bivainis, Juozas

    2011-01-01

    The paper sistemically analyzes two complex phenomena relevant to practice and science – mixture of relationship marketing and customer loyalty. The following fundamental aspects of these phenomena were analyzed: the historical context of relationship marketing and customer loyalty, content of relationship marketing at strategic and tactical levels, the most popular features of relationship marketing strategies, specifics of loyalty status change, the place of customer loyalty programs in mar...

  2. Factors Influencing Brand Loyalty For Samsung Mobile Users In Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Bikash

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis Business Administration BE501 - University of Agder 2016 Brand loyalty is one of the key element to success for the business organization. There is a high competition between the brand of the smart phone companies, so it is necessary to develop customer trust to build brand loyalty. The study aims to identify the factors influencing brand loyalty in Nepalese market. The model studies the effect of different independent variables that determines brand loyalty. Regression ana...

  3. The Effects of Brand Loyalty on Competitive Price Promotional Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jagmohan S. Raju; V. Srinivasan; Rajiv Lal

    1990-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role played by brand loyalty in determining optimal price promotional strategies used by firms in a competitive setting. (Loyalty is operationalized as the minimum price differential needed before consumers who prefer one brand switch to another brand.) Our objective is to examine how loyalties toward the competing brands influence whether or not firms would use price promotions in a product category. We also examine how loyalty differences lead to variations in the de...

  4. 'Online Shopping’ Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, Pervaiz Ali and Sudha

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of this research is to analyze the customer satisfaction and loyalty of the online customers in Norway. The theoretical framework discusses in brief about the effects of customer loyalty and retention on customer satisfaction. The study on customer satisfaction and loyalty has been done from the perspective of a firm performing online business. To understand the customer satisfaction and loyalty level of online Norwegian shoppers, we pursued with the collection of quantitativ...

  5. Save or (over-)spend? : The impact of hard-discounter shopping on consumers' grocery outlay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbrechts, Els; Campo, K.; Vroegrijk, M.J.J.

    An increasing number of consumers have come to patronize a hard discounter (HD) to save on their grocery budget. Given the HDs' rock-bottom prices, a complete switch from the traditional supermarket (TS) to the HD format would, indeed, substantially reduce grocery spending. However, consumers

  6. Longitudinal Trends in Tobacco Availability, Tobacco Advertising, and Ownership Changes of Food Stores, Albany, New York, 2003?2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hosler, Akiko S.; Done, Douglas H.; Michaels, Isaac H.; Guarasi, Diana C.; Kammer, Jamie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequency of visiting convenience and corner grocery stores that sell tobacco is positively associated with the odds of ever smoking and the risk of smoking initiation among youth. We assessed 12-year trends of tobacco availability, tobacco advertising, and ownership changes in various food stores in Albany, New York. Methods Eligible stores were identified by multiple government lists and community canvassing in 2003 (n = 107), 2009 (n = 117), 2012 (n = 135), and 2015 (n = 137)....

  7. The adoption and effectiveness of loyalty programs in retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Loyalty programs have widely appeared in several sectors, with the aim of enhancing customer loyalty and profitability. This dissertation examines which role loyalty programs can play in the company's marketing-mix, with a special focus on retailing. The dissertation consists of three independent

  8. Creating effective loyalty programs knowing what (wo-)men want

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melnyk, V.

    2005-01-01

    Loyalty programs started to boom in the late 1990s, under the main premise that it is cheaper to keep existing customers than to attract new ones. However, despite their popularity, many loyalty programs are ineffective and fail to stimulate the desired loyalty of customers. Therefore, the debate

  9. The benefit of guest loyalty programmes | La Rose | Research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the literature review of this research, the following aspects are discussed: a loyalty programme and its use; the sort of loyalty programmes; the effects of a loyalty programme; and the wishes and needs of a leisure guest. Surveys were divided among 46 leisure guests of Apollo Hotels and Resorts in order to collect data on ...

  10. Factors Influencing Consumers Intention for Online Grocery Shopping - A Proposed Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzi, SFF; Thoo, AC; Tan, LC; Muharam, FM; Talib, NA

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, Internet is one of the most popular platforms for people to do online shopping including grocery items. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the determinants of customer intentions for online grocery shopping. Till now, there is no consensus on what are the factors that actually influencing people to shop grocery items through Internet. This paper aims to explore the factors such as social influences, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivations, perceived risk and perceived trust that influence the consumer intention to purchase grocery online. Questionnaires will be the main instrument of the study and they will be distributed to target respondents using Internet survey. Respondents of the study will be selected using convenience sampling. After data collection, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) will be employed for data analysis. Overall, the result of the study is important to retailers to identify the important factors in increasing their customers’ intention to purchase grocery online.

  11. An integrative conceptual framework for analyzing customer satisfaction with shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Grocery retailers aim to satisfy customers, and because grocery shopping trips are frequently recurring, they must do socontinuously. Surprisingly, little research has addressed satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips. This article therefore develops a conceptual framework for analyzing...... customer satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trip experiences within a overall ‘disconfirmation of expectations model’ of customer satisfaction. The contribution of the framework is twofold. First, by focusing on satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips, previous research...... on satisfaction in the retailing literature. Second, the framework synthesizes and integrates multiple central concepts from different research streams into a common framework for analyzing shopping trip satisfaction. Propositions are derived regarding the relationships among the different concepts...

  12. Student satisfaction and loyalty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahsavar, Tina; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring and managing customers’ satisfaction are key features to benefit from today’s competitive environment. In higher education context, only a few studies are available on satisfaction and loyalty of the main customers who are the students, which signifies the need to investigate the field...... more thoroughly. The aim of this research is to measure the strength of determinants of students’ satisfaction and the importance of antecedents in students’ satisfaction and loyalty in Denmark. Our research model is the modification of European Performance Satisfaction Index (EPSI), which takes...... the university’s image direct effects on students’ expectations into account from students’ perspective. The structural equation model of student satisfaction and loyalty has been evaluated using partial least square path modelling. Our findings confirm that the EPSI framework is applicable on student...

  13. Costs of Loyalty Programmes Implementation in Pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sierpińska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Receiving the customer is in todays market realities top marketing companies. The build a sustainable partnership relation between the seller and the buyer is decide on businesses, takings and profit potential. Increasingly, therefore, perpetuates the view that create lasting relationships is an essential factor in improving the effectiveness of marketing activities conducted by modern businesses. The paper presents the implementation costs of loyalty programmes in pharmacies. These costs are presented based on a study of one of the largest pharmacy loyalty programmes in Poland: I care for health.

  14. The Mission of customer loyalty programmes and peculiarities of their development

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdonienė, Liudmila; Jakštaitė, Rasa

    2006-01-01

    Loyalty is a characteristic of a person showing any relation with an object – goods, service or enterprise. Nowadays it is important to earn loyalty of investors, employees and customers. The article deals with essence of customer loyalty, dimensions of customer loyalty, mission, goals, tasks of customer loyalty as well as disputes a process of developing customer loyalty programme: choice of a target group, grounding the structure implementing customer loyalty programme, registration of part...

  15. Patient influences on satisfaction and loyalty for GP services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Russell-Bennett, Rebekah

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about the influence that patients themselves have on their loyalty to a general practitioner (GP). Consequently, a theoretical framework that draws on diverse literature is proposed to suggest that along with satisfaction, patient loyalty is an important outcome for GPs. Comprising 174 Australian patients, this study identified that knowledgeable patients reported lower levels of loyalty while older patients and patients visiting a GP more frequently reported higher levels of loyalty. The results suggest that extending patient-centered care practices to encompass all patients may be warranted in order to improve patient satisfaction and loyalty. Further, future research opportunities abound, with intervention and dyadic research methodologies recommended.

  16. Brand Loyalty: Impact of Cognitive and Affective Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad TOUZANI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on brand loyalty typically focus on the behavioural side ofbrand loyalty or on the attitudinal side. Rare are the studies that examinesimultaneously both components of brand loyalty. The present study wasperformed to describe the conjoint contribution of cognitive and affectivevariables in the formation of brand loyalty. A questionnaire was administered to400 shampoo users. A confirmatory analysis was performed to test theconceptual model presented. The results provide a better knowledge about therole played by each factor in brand loyalty formation and emphasises the majorrole played by affective factors.

  17. Availability, quality and price of produce in low-income neighbourhood food stores in California raise equity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosliner, Wendi; Brown, Daniel M; Sun, Betty C; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia B

    2018-06-01

    To assess produce availability, quality and price in a large sample of food stores in low-income neighbourhoods in California. Cross-sectional statewide survey. Between 2011 and 2015, local health departments assessed store type, WIC (Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children)/SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) participation, produce availability, quality and price of selected items in stores in low-income neighbourhoods. Secondary data provided reference chain supermarket produce prices matched by county and month. t Tests and ANOVA examined differences by store type; regression models examined factors associated with price. Large grocery stores (n 231), small markets (n 621) and convenience stores (n 622) in 225 neighbourhoods. Produce in most large groceries was rated high quality (97 % of fruits, 98 % of vegetables), but not in convenience stores (25 % fruits, 14 % vegetables). Small markets and convenience stores participating in WIC and/or SNAP had better produce availability, variety and quality than non-participating stores. Produce prices across store types were, on average, higher than reference prices from matched chain supermarkets (27 % higher in large groceries, 37 % higher in small markets, 102 % higher in convenience stores). Price was significantly inversely associated with produce variety, adjusting for quality, store type, and SNAP and WIC participation. The study finds that fresh produce is more expensive in low-income neighbourhoods and that convenience stores offer more expensive, poorer-quality produce than other stores. Variety is associated with price and most limited in convenience stores, suggesting more work is needed to determine how convenience stores can provide low-income consumers with access to affordable, high-quality produce. WIC and SNAP can contribute to the solution.

  18. Determinants of Brand Loyalty: A Study of the Experience-Commitment-Loyalty Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwas Maheshwari; George Lodorfos; Siril Jacobsen

    2014-01-01

    Marketing strategies for brands have shifted its focus on relationships and value creation that directly links to brand loyalty, is the main focus of this paper and two key factors: brand experience and brand commitment, within automotive sector, are investigated to examine relative relationships. These factors have already been established to have a connection to brand loyalty. However, as brand commitment consists of both affective and continuance commitment, it is still somewhat unclear ab...

  19. Interplay between air passengers' service quality, satisfaction, loyalty and loyalty programmes in South African owned airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Mantey, Nicholas O.; Naidoo, Vannie

    2017-01-01

    Orientation: Delivering service quality is crucial for the continuous operation and sustainability of South African owned airlines. The term ‘South African owned airlines’ refers to six South African owned registered airlines, and is used for purpose of anonymity and confidentiality. Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine the interplay between service quality delivery, satisfaction, loyalty programmes and passengers’ loyalty to South African owned airlines. Motivati...

  20. The Significance of Loyalty on Consumer Credit Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Galih Prihartono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze and test the effect of customer loyalty on consumer credit profitability. Loyalty Index Score was developed to determine the level of customers’ loyalty level through 4 main variables; Longevity, Depth, Breadth and Referrals. The effect of Loyalty Index Score on profitability was further tested by path analysis to find out the significance direct relationship between loyalty and profitablity and the indirect relationship between the two variable through bucket. The result showed that loyalty has a significant effect on profitability either directly or indirectly. It was concluded that direct loyalty effect on profitability is lower than that of the indirect effect through bucket. The conclusion could be made by analyzing the available data from personal loan customers in one of the biggest multinational bank in indonesia during October 2010 until March 2011.

  1. Marketing practices of vapor store owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall; Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-06-01

    We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies.

  2. Marketing Practices of Vapor Store Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Methods. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Results. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Conclusions. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies. PMID:25880960

  3. Testing scales for beer brand loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    and Carlsberg beers, and to compare Cronbach's alphas for the two brands when evaluated by the same respondents. Both brands are produced by the Carlsberg Group, and both are lagers. The Carlsberg Group markets Tuborg as a more premium brand, and it also aims at women. Both validated loyalty scales - (repeat...

  4. Does patient satisfaction affect patient loyalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Daniel P; Mylod, Deirdre

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate how patient satisfaction affects propensity to return, i.e. loyalty. Data from 678 hospitals were matched using three sources. Patient satisfaction data were obtained from Press Ganey Associates, a leading survey firm; process-based quality measures and hospital characteristics (such as ownership and teaching status) and geographic areas were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The frequency with which end-of-life patients return to seek treatment at the same hospital was obtained from the Dartmouth Atlas. The study uses regression analysis to estimate satisfaction's effects on patient loyalty, while holding process-based quality measures and hospital and market characteristics constant. There is a statistically significant link between satisfaction and loyalty. Although satisfaction's effect overall is relatively small, contentment with certain hospitalization experience may be important. The link between satisfaction and loyalty is weaker for high-satisfaction hospitals, consistent with other studies in the marketing literature. RESEARCH LIMITATION/IMPLICATIONS: The US hospitals analyzed are not a random sample; the results are most applicable to large, non-profit teaching hospitals in competitive markets. Satisfaction ratings have business implications for healthcare providers and may be useful as a management tool for private and public purchasers. The paper is the first to show that patient satisfaction affects actual hospital choices in a large sample. Because patient satisfaction ratings are also correlated with other quality measures, the findings suggest a pathway through which individuals naturally gravitate toward higher-quality care.

  5. Loyalty and Creativity in a Disciplinary Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhaug, Rudi

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between loyalty to rules and the creativity that attempts to improve those same rules was examined among Norwegian army officers deployed in international operations. Today's army officers are faced with rapidly changing work conditions and unpredictable enemies, both of which challenge and outdate rules and routines. They thus…

  6. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge

  7. In-store buying behaviour : memories of forgotten needs

    OpenAIRE

    Kanabar, Amrita Dilipkumar Ranchhod

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to better illustrate in-store buying behaviour, in terms of how different stimuli activate parts of shoppers’ brains to remember items that were not part of their shopping plans. The aim is to shed some light on shopper’s attitudes and reactions towards national brands or private labels, the impact of loyalty cards on cardholders’ shopping decisions, how shoppers with company behave differently than solo shoppers, and on the role of consumers’ hedonic and utilit...

  8. Development and reliability testing of a food store observation form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, Leah; Powell, Lisa M; Zenk, Shannon N; Han, Euna; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Pugach, Oksana; Barker, Dianne C; Resnick, Elissa A; Quinn, Christopher M; Myllyluoma, Jaana; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    To develop a reliable food store observational data collection instrument to be used for measuring product availability, pricing, and promotion. Observational data collection. A total of 120 food stores (26 supermarkets, 34 grocery stores, 54 gas/convenience stores, and 6 mass merchandise stores) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area. Inter-rater reliability for product availability, pricing, and promotion measures on a food store observational data collection instrument. Cohen's kappa coefficient and proportion of overall agreement for dichotomous variables and intra-class correlation coefficient for continuous variables. Inter-rater reliability, as measured by average kappa coefficient, was 0.84 for food and beverage product availability measures, 0.80 for interior store characteristics, and 0.70 for exterior store characteristics. For continuous measures, average intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.82 for product pricing measures; 0.90 for counts of fresh, frozen, and canned fruit and vegetable options; and 0.85 for counts of advertisements on the store exterior and property. The vast majority of measures demonstrated substantial or almost perfect agreement. Although some items may require revision, results suggest that the instrument may be used to reliably measure the food store environment. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Senior's lifestyle and their store choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesakova Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To attract and retain customers, an understanding of their motives and reasons for selecting particular food and grocery store is needed. This is of particular importance in the growing segment of seniors. The size of the senior's market demands a better understanding of the older consumer. The aim of our study is to identify psychographic characteristics of the elderly consumer, and to indicate the lifestyle groups and the relationship between these groups and retail store attributes. Differences in the motives for patronizing specific food stores are analyzed for lifestyle groups. We use the lifestyle as a segmentation variable in the diverse population of seniors for the reason, that the lifestyle of the elderly provides more valuable information than chronological age alone. This information can be used by retailers to improve marketing strategies in order to appeal to a target group of senior shoppers. Empirical research is based on a self-administrated questionnaire aimed on the identification of the lifestyle characteristics and retail store attributes of the consumers in 65+ age, used for the choice of food purchasing retail stores. Lifestyles characteristics were measured by the respondents activities, interests and opinions (AIO. The results of the research indicate that there are differences among the lifestyle groups with significant differences in attitudes towards quality of products or internal store environment. Our research demonstrates the value of psychographic information over age alone regarding the patronage factors in store selection. Our study is a part of the research project VEGA 1/0612/12 'Determinants of the size, structure and tendences in the individual consumption of seniors'.

  10. Compliance to two city convenience store ordinance requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Cammie K Chaumont; Amandus, Harlan E; Wu, Nan; Hendricks, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Background Robbery-related homicides and assaults are the leading cause of death in retail businesses. Robbery reduction approaches focus on compliance to Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) guidelines. Purpose We evaluated the level of compliance to CPTED guidelines specified by convenience store safety ordinances effective in 2010 in Dallas and Houston, Texas, USA. Methods Convenience stores were defined as businesses less than 10 000 square feet that sell grocery items. Store managers were interviewed for store ordinance requirements from August to November 2011, in a random sample of 594 (289 in Dallas, 305 in Houston) convenience stores that were open before and after the effective dates of their city’s ordinance. Data were collected in 2011 and analysed in 2012–2014. Results Overall, 9% of stores were in full compliance, although 79% reported being registered with the police departments as compliant. Compliance was consistently significantly higher in Dallas than in Houston for many requirements and by store type. Compliance was lower among single owner-operator stores compared with corporate/franchise stores. Compliance to individual requirements was lowest for signage and visibility. Conclusions Full compliance to the required safety measures is consistent with industry ‘best practices’ and evidence-based workplace violence prevention research findings. In Houston and Dallas compliance was higher for some CPTED requirements but not the less costly approaches that are also the more straightforward to adopt. PMID:26337569

  11. Video-Based Grocery Shopping Intervention Effect on Purchasing Behaviors Among Latina Shoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Dharma E.; Garcia, Samantha; Duan, Lei; Black, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To compare changes in food-purchasing knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior after viewing nutrition education videos among Los Angeles, California Latinas responsible for household grocery shopping. Methods. From February to May 2015, a convenience sample of 113 Latinas watched 1 video (El Carrito Saludable) featuring MyPlate guidelines applied to grocery shopping (1-video intervention) and another convenience sample of 105 Latinas watched 2 videos (El Carrito Saludable and Ser Consciente), the latter featuring mindfulness to support attention and overcome distractions while grocery shopping (2-video intervention). We administered questionnaires before and after intervention. A preselected sample in each intervention condition (n = 72) completed questionnaires at 2-months after intervention and provided grocery receipts (before and 2-months after intervention). Results. Knowledge improved in both intervention groups (P behavior and mindfulness show promise for improving the quality of foods that Latinas bring into the home. PMID:28323473

  12. Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment in the Grocery Industry and Defense Commissary Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    ... possible cost to authorized patrons (2002: 2). This project looks at DeCA's current business processes as well as the relatively new business process of CPFR used by some of the major supermarket chains in the commercial grocery industry...

  13. Video-Based Grocery Shopping Intervention Effect on Purchasing Behaviors Among Latina Shoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Hortensia; Cortés, Dharma E; Garcia, Samantha; Duan, Lei; Black, David S

    2017-05-01

    To compare changes in food-purchasing knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior after viewing nutrition education videos among Los Angeles, California Latinas responsible for household grocery shopping. From February to May 2015, a convenience sample of 113 Latinas watched 1 video (El Carrito Saludable) featuring MyPlate guidelines applied to grocery shopping (1-video intervention) and another convenience sample of 105 Latinas watched 2 videos (El Carrito Saludable and Ser Consciente), the latter featuring mindfulness to support attention and overcome distractions while grocery shopping (2-video intervention). We administered questionnaires before and after intervention. A preselected sample in each intervention condition (n = 72) completed questionnaires at 2-months after intervention and provided grocery receipts (before and 2-months after intervention). Knowledge improved in both intervention groups (P shopping list (both P behavior and mindfulness show promise for improving the quality of foods that Latinas bring into the home.

  14. The art of grocery shopping on a food stamp budget: factors influencing the food choices of low-income women as they try to make ends meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Kristen; Smith, Chery

    2009-10-01

    Amidst a hunger-obesity paradox, the purpose of the present study was to examine the grocery shopping behaviour and food stamp usage of low-income women with children to identify factors influencing their food choices on a limited budget. Focus groups, which included questions based on Social Cognitive Theory constructs, examined food choice in the context of personal, behavioural and environmental factors. A quantitative grocery shopping activity required participants to prioritize food purchases from a 177-item list on a budget of $US 50 for a one-week period, an amount chosen based on the average household food stamp allotment in 2005. Ninety-two low-income women, with at least one child aged 9-13 years in their household, residing in the Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA. Participants' mean age was 37 years, and 76% were overweight or obese (BMI> or =25.0 kg/m2). Key findings suggest that their food choices and grocery shopping behaviour were shaped by not only individual and family preferences, but also their economic and environmental situation. Transportation and store accessibility were major determinants of shopping frequency, and they used various strategies to make their food dollars stretch (e.g. shopping based on prices, in-store specials). Generally, meat was the most important food group for purchase and consumption, according to both the qualitative and quantitative data. Efforts to improve food budgeting skills, increase nutrition knowledge, and develop meal preparation strategies involving less meat and more fruits and vegetables, could be valuable in helping low-income families nutritionally make the best use of their food dollars.

  15. An exploration of loyalty determinants in Greek wine varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the market structure of Greek red and white wine varieties and to measure the loyalty behaviour of frequent wine buyers in Greece. Design/methodology/approach - The study measures brand performance and loyalty of four different Greek...... wine varieties. Based on stated preference data, basic brand performance measures are estimated through Juster purchase probabilities of brand choice. To measure loyalty behaviour, the polarisation index w (phi) is used as a measure to model both loyalty to the brand name and specific wine attributes...... and their levels. Findings - The findings of the present study point to the conclusion that each one of the four Greek wine varieties under examination exhibits its own market structure and loyalty profile, whereas price, quality certification and winemaker's size seem to function as loyalty stimulators more...

  16. The effectiveness of loyalty programs in the hospitality industry: the case of hotels in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Lubica Hikkerova; Jean-Michel Sahut

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the issues of hotel loyalty programs implemented in the Slovak Republic. It analyzes the effectiveness of loyalty programs in relation to purchasing behaviour of Slovak customers. We propose a theoretical model of loyalty determina

  17. ANTESEN CUSTOMER LOYALTY PADA BUDGET HOTEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa Rahma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, and Brand Image Budget hotel (Five Budget Hotel Managed by local chain hotel. The purpose of this study were 1 to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, 2 to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty, 3 to analyze the effect of Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty, 4 to analyze the effects of Service Quality on the Brand Image, 5  to analyze the influence of the Customer Satisfaction Brand Image, 6 to analyze the effect of Customer Loyalty to Brand Image. The design of this research using primary data obtained by distributing questionnaires to 250 respondents eligible stayed at the Budget Hotel at least 1 time in last 12 months. Respondents were selected using purposive sampling method and the data were analyzed using AMOS version 22.0 and SPSS version 22.0. The proposed model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and analyzed using AMOS. This study shows that 1 Service Quality found to have an influence on Customer Satisfaction, 2 Service Quality found to have an influence on Customer Loyalty, 3 Customer Satisfaction is found to have an influence on Customer Loyalty, 4 Service Quality found to have an influence on brand image, 5 Customer Satisfaction is found to have an influence on Brand Image, 6 Customer Loyalty found to have an influence on the Brand Image. The results of this study concluded that there is a positive influence of the Service Quality on Brand Image through the Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty. Future researches are recommended to increase the factor of First Impression, Favorable Location, Hotel Core

  18. Faktor-Faktor Brand Loyalty Smartphone pada Generasi Y

    OpenAIRE

    Tirta Angela; Nurlaila Effendi

    2015-01-01

    Brand loyalty terhadap smartphone merupakan bentuk perilaku pembelian berulang yang dilakukan konsumen terhadap suatu merek smartphone yang sama. Brand loyalty merupakan suatu fenomena penting bagi industri. Generasi Y merupakan sasaran penelitian ini karena berkarakteristik sebagai techno-generation yang akan menjadi pimpinan pasar pada masa depan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi brand loyalty terhadap smartphone, pada generasi Y. Teknik sampling...

  19. The influence of customer relationship management information on customer loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatovič, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this master thesis is to approve that customer relationship management (CRM) has influenced on customer loyalty. In order to achieve this purpose the work was divided into four main tasks: review of the relevant literature; analyze the influence of customer relationship management on customer loyalty and approve its importance for companies, research of the concrete business-to-business (B2B) Company CRM process and its customer loyalty, and the development of the customer rela...

  20. Development of loyalty programmes in the hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Laškarin, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – In the very beginning when loyalty programmes were being developed, hoteliers were mostly involved as partners of airline companies. However, once they realized the obvious numerous advantages that airlines were gaining, hoteliers began to design their own loyalty programmes. The idea of a loyalty programme is to strike a balance between what guests want and what is offered to them as a reward, and to find other programme partners whose services guests will also use. This paper will...

  1. Loyalty Programme Roulette: The Loyal, The Committed, And The Polygamous

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Noel du Toit; Michael Colin Cant

    2012-01-01

    Loyalty programmes have two main aims, firstly to gather consumer data and secondly to create or maintain loyal behaviour amongst their customers. The aim of this study was to investigate the results of a loyalty programme and evaluate its effectiveness in encouraging loyal behaviour amongst members. In order to achieve this objective, a comparison was made between the loyal behaviour of members and non-members of a loyalty programme at a single clothing retailer by means of a structured ques...

  2. Analysis of the loyalty programme of Ambiente restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Čuchranová, Mária

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is focused on the area of loyalty programme. Its aim is to analyse the loyalty programme of Ambiente restaurants called The Programme for Friends of Good Food and to compare it with the old method of rewarding customers that the company used to have before they launched the programme. The theoretical part of this thesis describes the position of loyalty programme in marketing and explains the basic terms as marketing and commercial communication, marketing mix, communication mix, s...

  3. Customer Segmentation by Factors Influencing Brand Loyalty and Customer Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Tereza Vebrová; Kateřina Venclová; Stanislav Rojík

    2016-01-01

    Brand loyalty and customer involvement are two important concepts that help explain and understand a significant part of consumer shopping behavior. The aim of the present work is to identify factors influencing brand loyalty and customer involvement. A further aim is to consider subsequent segmentation of customers with respect to different degrees of brand loyalty and customer involvement. The research was focused on the field of Czech telecommunication services – mobile operators. Primary ...

  4. Developing a customer loyalty programme for Aircooled Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Muljar, Evelina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis project was to plan a customer loyalty programme for a small company called Aircooled Finland Oy/Ltd. The study was conducted using a quantitative research method in the form of a questionnaire. Although the plan for the customer loyalty programme was already agreed on with the manager of the company, this research was commissioned as a form of information retrieval to determine whether the customers would find this type of a loyalty programme appealing. This st...

  5. Modeling Customer Behavior in Loyalty Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Loyalty programs have exploded in popularity in recent decades. In the United States alone, membership has reached 1.3 billion (Ferguson and Hlavinka, 2007). In spite of their continued popularity, the effectiveness of these programs has been long debated in the literature, with mostly mixed results. Verhoef (2003) finds that the effects are positive but very small, DeWulf et al. (2001) finds no support for positive effects of direct mail, Shugan (2005) finds that firms gain short term revenu...

  6. Consumer Learning, Brand Loyalty, and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    J. Miguel Villas-Boas

    2004-01-01

    In several markets, consumers can gain further information regarding how well a product fits their preferences only by experiencing it after purchase. This could then generate loyalty for the products tried first. This paper considers a model in which consumers learn in the first period about the product they buy and then make choices in the second period about the competing products, given what they learned in the first period. The paper finds that if the distribution of valuations for each ...

  7. Media brand loyalty through online audience integration?

    OpenAIRE

    Lischka, Juliane A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the question whether audience members become loyal toward a media brand when sharing, liking or commenting on online media content – or are loyal readers more inclined to write comments on online articles or to like and share them? The aim is to answer this chicken-egg causality dilemma on the audience integration-loyalty relation on a theoretical basis. Therefore, the concept of attitude-behavior consistency, the theory of reasoned action, involvement theory, uses and ...

  8. The Impact of value equity and brand equity on loyalty : an empirical investigation in retail banking

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanauskienė, Neringa; Auruškevičienė, Viltė

    2013-01-01

    The scientific analysis of the concept of customer loyalty leads to assertion that the loyalty theory cannot be treated separately from the service quality theory and the branding theory, and the research of loyalty factors, despite their abundance, has not yet revealed an overall approach towards the causalities of loyalty. The research problem is related to how functional value and brand value affect the loyalty of retail banking customers. The object of the research is the loyalty based on...

  9. Study of The Final Customer Loyalty Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fandos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For any business is important to maintain a loyal customer base to help they to survive over time. This situation is accentuated even to the extent that increases competition and increases uncertainty. At present these are two features that are really developed. Because of the deep crisis in which we are, and other elements such as globalization and the development of new technologies and communication systems, we are faced with a scenario of intense competition and uncertainty manifest. It is therefore more necessary than ever to know in depth how to get customers to be faithful, and develop true loyalty strategies.In this paper, we present the sequential approach to the formation of consumer loyalty in order to deepen understanding of the concept. It is supplemented by studying the combined effect of switching costs as an element that promotes the continuity of the relationship. The results shows that the consumer takes a more cognitive process information in their initial assessments of the service and therefore in the early stages of loyalty. As advances in consumer behavior process becomes more direct and mechanic, so we can say that the customer-company bond is stronger.

  10. Loyalty in the Workplace: Some Considerations for Mental Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Lees, David; Sayers, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Nurses are expected to be loyal to their patients, employer and the nursing profession, while also remaining 'loyal' to their own values and aims as both a person and clinician. Loyalty therefore is of central importance to how we relate to people in personal and professional relationships and may affect our attitude to the organization we work for. This column explores the concept of loyalty, and its role in professional relationships, behaviour and practice. Ways that loyalty can be influential in achieving personal, patient and organizational outcomes are explored and the potential to enhance loyalty is considered.

  11. Does Customer Loyalty Depend on Corporate Social Responsibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Milena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study conducted to examine the dependence of customer loyalty on corporate social responsibility (CSR. CSR is a good opportunity for a company’s differentiation, but only if customers value the company’s efforts in this field. Loyalty is a primary goal of each company, but it is influenced by numerous factors. The goal of this paper was to examine if CSR influences customer loyalty as one possible factor. Based on the presented results, management recommendations are provided concerning business strategy, mission, and vision formulation, so companies can fulfill customers’ interests and gain their loyalty.

  12. How do challenges increase customer loyalty to online games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ching-I

    2013-12-01

    Despite the design of various challenge levels in online games, exactly how these challenges increase customer loyalty to online games has seldom been examined. This study investigates how such challenges increase customer loyalty to online games. The study sample comprises 2,861 online gamers. Structural equation modeling is performed. Analytical results indicate that the relationship between challenge and loyalty intensifies when customers perceive that overcoming challenges takes a long time. Results of this study contribute to efforts to determine how challenges and challenge-related perceptions impact customer loyalty to online games.

  13. Brand image, cultural events and loyalty in mobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Valéria Rocha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available : This study analyses the effect of cultural events in brand image and customers’ loyalty in the mobile industry. The main relevance is to discuss the effectiveness’ of cultural events, those demanding high investments’ for the companies which have to explain the results in terms of loyalty and brand image. The subject is reviewed theoretical considering three topics: cultural events, brand image and loyalty, which lead to hypotheses to be tested. The field research of a quantitative nature uses the survey method, which was applied to 150 teenagers consumers of mobiles companies, classes A and B. The results of field research show that there is a positive relationship between cultural activities and brand image, and between the brand image and loyalty. However, there was significant correlation between cultural events and loyalty only to B Company. It may be related with B events wish were prepared to this target and may improve loyalty. To companies as A and C, brand image acts as moderator between cultural events and loyalty. These results indicated that cultural events may have impact in loyalty, since the company developed those actions to the target. As contribution, this study fills a gap which is the study that discusses effect of cultural activities on brand image and loyalty, in emerging economies, as Brazil, where few researches consider cultural events.

  14. The Moderating Influence of Supermarket Satisfaction on Out-of-Stock Store Switching Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    . Based on a survey of 631 grocery consumers, this study investigates the moderating influence of preferred supermarket satisfaction on relations between quality consciousness, price consciousness, pre-planning propensity and out-of-stock store switching, and also examines the direct influence...... of these variables on out-of-stock store switching. The results indicate that whereas preferred supermarket satisfaction negatively moderates the relation between quality consciousness and out-of-stock store switching, preferred supermarket satisfaction positively moderates the relation between price consciousness...

  15. Community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzier, Sophie; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Lesage, Alain; Moisan, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacists can use medication records to assist individuals who are loyal to their pharmacy in better managing their pharmacotherapy. However, the extent of community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia remains unknown. To assess the extent of community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with schizophrenia and identify factors associated with loyalty. Using the Quebec Health Insurance Board databases, a cohort study of individuals with schizophrenia who claimed an antipsychotic drug for the first time between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2005 was conducted. Such individuals were considered loyal to their community pharmacy if they filled all their prescriptions for any drug at the same community pharmacy during the second year after antipsychotics initiation. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with community pharmacy loyalty (measured in the first year after antipsychotics initiation). Of the 6159 individuals in the study, 57.8% were loyal to one pharmacy. Men were more likely to be loyal (Adjusted OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.16-1.44), as were individuals aged 30-64 years and those aged ≥65 years, when compared to individuals 20-29 years (1.70; 1.48-1.95 and 2.39; 1.97-2.90, respectively). Individuals who filled their antipsychotics on a weekly basis were also more likely to be loyal (1.39; 1.18-1.63). Factors associated with non-loyalty were welfare beneficiary status (0.79; 0.70-0.89), having substance-use disorder (0.69; 0.60-0.80), a greater number of different types of drugs (5-8 types = 0.76; 0.66-0.87; 9-51 = 0.59; 0.50-0.69), and emergency department visits (0.71; 0.60-0.82). Results suggest that medication records in community pharmacies are incomplete for 42.2% of individuals with schizophrenia. Individuals more likely to experience more severe illness were also those less likely to be loyal. Given the potentially severe consequences of medication-related problems

  16. THE EFFECT of E-SERVICE QUALITY, E-TRUST and E-SATISFACTION on FORMATION ONLINE CUSTOMER LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan SEVİM

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the factors which affect the e-loyalty of online customers to the websites they shop from.  In this context, the e-service quality that customers perceive from the website, the level of e-satisfaction associated with the website, and the e-trust were defined as the variables that determine the e-loyalty. A model was proposed based on these variables. Using the E-S-Qual scale, the execution and e-quality of the services provided by the website were measured based on the dimensions of security, efficiency system availability, and fulfillment and the effect of e-service quality on both the e-satisfaction and e-trust were demonstrated. The impact of e-trust and e-satisfaction on e-loyalty was also investigated.   A total of 594 people living in the city of Eskişehir, Turkey, who shopped from the hepsiburada.com internet store, participated in the study. The study results indicate that the customers’ perception of website’s e-quality is an important determinant in creating e-trust and e-satisfaction in the website’s services, and that the resulting perception of e-trust and e-satisfaction in turn determines e-customer loyalty.

  17. PERSONALITY INFLUENCES ON ONLINE STORES CUSTOMERS BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costinel DOBRE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Online customer behaviors include a wide range of processes and activities related to sensory reactions, perceptions, attitude formation, preferences, decisions, satisfaction evaluation, and loyalty formation. Online customer behaviors are influenced by exogenous and endogenous factors. Exogenous factors include attributes associated with the online retailer and the consumer’s environmental influences. Endogenous factors include characteristics attributed to consumers. Of these, personality has major influences on customer behavior in the online stores. In this paper we highlight the influences of personality on important decision making variables linked to the customer’s online visiting, buying and post purchase process. Thus, we intend to point out the influences of personality on the criteria used in evaluating stores, on expectations customers form towards stores, on the perception of store performance and the assessment of satisfaction. This will involve carrying out a survey, and its administration will be performed on the Internet. The sample under research will comprise respondents who own an account on the social network Facebook, assuming these respondents have time and are more likely to have purchased online at least once. The results of this study are useful both for academic researchers and practitioners engaged in online marketing, online communication and web design.

  18. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Supply Chain Innovation-prospects for Supply Chain Managment in the Irish Grocery Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Joan; O'Callaghan, Edmund; Wilcox, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Supply chain management is one of the most significant strategic challenges currently facing the Irish grocery sector. The UK grocery market with its emphasis on composite deliveries via regional distribution centres is extremely sophisticated; the Irish grocery sector, however, is in the embryonic stage of implementing central distribution. The potential to develop innovative supply chain systems is mediated by both national logistic-related variables and company characteristics. In additio...

  19. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott; Han, Daikwon; Huber, John C

    2009-02-16

    To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG) study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better access to more supercenters or supermarkets, grocery

  20. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Daikwon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1 distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2 coverage (number of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Results Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better

  1. Loyalty Program in the Pharmacy. Case of Construction and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woś

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the process of construction the loyalty programs between pharmaceutical market that is shaped warehouse, pharmacy and patient. The examples of this loyalty programs in this article has confirm the opinion about programs as efficiency in the pharmaceutical environment in Poland.

  2. Loyalty: Why Is It so Problematic in Athletics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon Kay

    2012-01-01

    What is loyalty and why is it problematic in athletics? The author discusses the ethical lapses that can occur when a powerful social value, "loyalty," trumps individuals' ability to make moral decisions. She argues that education about morality should be a necessary part of sport education and explains how moral education programs can make a…

  3. Advocacy participation and brand loyalty in virtual brand communtity

    OpenAIRE

    Munnukka, Juha; Uusitalo, Outi; Jokinen, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Brand owners use virtual communities to strengthen brand loyalty by engaging consumers in active content creation activities. Personal and reciprocal communication and consumers’ participation in virtual brand communities are the main sources through which communities contribute to brand loyalty formation. This research examines the antecedents and consequences of advocacy participation in virtual brand communities. The results show that the VBC members’ advocacy participation ...

  4. Is Giving Scholarship Worth the Effort? Loyalty among Scholarship Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlida, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    To stay ahead of competition, a significant factor has now become of significance; student loyalty towards higher learning institutions. Hence, scholarship recipients have the expectation to demonstrate a certain degree of loyalty towards their education sponsor. In addition, they play an important role as opinion leaders and walking advertisement…

  5. Showing the Love: Predictors of Student Loyalty to Undergraduate Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianden, Jörg; Barlow, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the notion that undergraduates may be considered student-customers whose relationship with and loyalty to their institutions can be managed by college educators. The Student University Loyalty Instrument administered to 1,207 undergraduates at three comprehensive Midwestern institutions assessed the predictors of student…

  6. Modeling Antecedents of Student Loyalty in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Marcelo Gattermann; Sampaio, Claudio Hoffmann; Simoes, Claudia; de Polvora, Rosiane Polvora

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to understand the antecedents of student loyalty in the Brazilian context. In particular we address the impact of student trust, commitment and quality perception on loyalty. A quantitative study was conducted among business management student majors from two private Brazilian Higher Education Institutions…

  7. Customer Segmentation by Factors Influencing Brand Loyalty and Customer Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Vebrová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brand loyalty and customer involvement are two important concepts that help explain and understand a significant part of consumer shopping behavior. The aim of the present work is to identify factors influencing brand loyalty and customer involvement. A further aim is to consider subsequent segmentation of customers with respect to different degrees of brand loyalty and customer involvement. The research was focused on the field of Czech telecommunication services – mobile operators. Primary data were acquired through the method of questionnaire survey. In total, the questionnaire was completed by 340 respondents, of which 319 respondents owned their mobile phones for private purposes only. For more accurate interpretation of the identified factors the Exploratory Factor Analysis method was used. Four factors of brand loyalty were extracted, which account for 75 % of the variability of the original parameters: (1 Cognitive affective loyalty, (2 Trustworthiness, (3 Attitudinal loyalty and (4 Commitment and three factors of customer involvement were found to account for 71 % variability of the original parameters: (1 Social involvement, (2 Centrality, (3 Importance. High loyalty customers mostly have only one SIM card and 73 % of them use a tariff. In a further group of highly involved customers own from 80 % only one SIM card. This study forms part of a research programme investigating the influence of customer involvement on brand loyalty.

  8. Building Brand Loyalty Through Increasing Brand Trust And Brand Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Choirul Afif

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Loyalty is one indicator of the success of marketing performance. Various studies have shown that brand loyalty increases the number of customers and sales. In addition brand loyalty is also lowering the cost to acquire new customers. Marketing managers need to give special attention to the issue of brand loyalty including the services of an English course.As one of the requirements to be able to compete at the global level is the mastery international language. However Indonesian English ability is lower than ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. These conditions increase the number of English Courses in Indonesia rapid grow. But some people do not get the results as expected and are still looking for other colleges that are considered to have high quality with affordable prices. English village situated in Pare Kediri. About the qualifications of teaching staff infrastructure and management colleges in big cities is better than the village colleges in the Pare Kediri. Some participants still chose KampungInggris Pare Kediri as a place to learn English. The purpose of this research is how to analyze the important aspect to build brand loyalty. The results is the key factors to build brand loyalty is brand trust and brand brand affect. Brand trust and brand affect affected brand loyalty both simultaneously and partially. Marketing managers of English Courses in Indonesia must give more attention these aspects to increase brand loyalty.

  9. Banking system trust, bank trust, and bank loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esterik-Plasmeijer, P.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test a model of banking system trust as an antecedent of bank trust and bank loyalty. Six determinants of trust and loyalty are included: competence, stability, integrity, customer orientation, transparency, and value congruence. The study provides insights

  10. The Antecedents of Store Image and Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kulter Demirgunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of store image is argued to be useful if it predicts phenomena such as satisfaction, loyalty, customer retention and other attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. Previous researches show that customers are affected by the store attributes and consider them to assess perceived benefits and attitudes. One of the biggest challenges for companies is to build a positive image. Knowing the alternatives which could be used to form a positive image is an important issue. A positive image which is created in the customer’s mind about store is seen to have a strong and positive influence on satisfaction. A satisfied customer is likely to be loyal to the store. Therefore, image and customer satisfaction gain importance in the stores which aim to survive. This study focuses on store image, customer satisfaction and the relationship between them. The study primarily explains these two concepts, and then provides a literature review on the researches related with them. The study presents researches in which store image and customer satisfaction are separately discussed, thus it also shows other variables which can be influential on these concepts. Implications for both store image theory and practices are discussed. The literature review reveals that store image plays an important role in customer satisfaction.  Since most of the studies in literature are based on retail industry, in this study ‘store’ concept mostly refers to ‘retail store’.

  11. Rancang Bangun Sistem Informasi Customer Loyalty untuk Keunggulan Kompetitif Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of information technology to achieve competitive advantage has become a necessity  for business people and managers of organizations  in the information age now. This research aim to create a customer loyalty that the information system is one part of theCustomer  Relationship  Management  to  collect  data  on  indicators  of  customer  loyalty.  Indicator  of  customer  loyalty  is  determined according  empirical  model  customer  loyalty  and  create  customer  loyalty  information  system  that  can  be  used  to  gain  competitive advantage organizations. Structural Equation Modeling is used to obtain indicators of customer loyalty. Customer loyalty info rmation system designed using prototype system development and modeling analysis using Data Flow Diagram, database design using  Entity Relationship  Diagram,  and  a  web-based  interface.  Web-based  information  systems  that  provide online  customer  survey  facilities  and analysis  results  in  the  form  of  customer  loyalty  index  values  shaped  by  the  dynamic  graphic  indicator  of  loyalty  according  to  the empirical study of customer loyalty that can be used to gain competitive advantage. The value of customer loyalty index cons ists of four main variables, namely: the ability to anticipate customer value, customer value anticipation peace, customer satisfaction, and loyalty.Keywords: Customer loyalty, Structural Equation Modeling, Index loyalty, Competitive advantage

  12. Price or Privilege? Customer Perception on Loyalty Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnan Furinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research is to understand how customers perceive loyalty programs. The author argues that types of loyalty programs could be classified into two: price based and privilege based. This research models that customer perceptions on loyalty programs, differ between these two types, and is contingent upon the relationship between customers and firm. Using settings of air-line domestic passengers and bank customers in Indonesia, the research provides evidence that price based rewards are perceived to provide higher utility perception in contractual relationships compared to non contractual relationships. However, this research failed to provide empirical support that privilege based rewards are perceived to provide higher utility perception in non contractual relation-ship compared to contractual relationship. Firms are therefore, encouraged to incorporate affective elements into their loyalty programs, on top of monetary elements, in order for the loyalty programs to be better perceived by their customers.

  13. IMPACT OF EDUCATION, GENDER AND AGE ON CONSUMER LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Klopotan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the important parameters of customer loyalty and impact of education, gender and age of the respondents will be tested. The study was conducted in the Republic of Croatia, as part of research relevant parameters of customer loyalty, loyal consumer behavior and the role of social networks in building and maintaining a loyal behavior. The concept of loyalty has a strong foothold in marketing theories and in theories of intellectual capital companies. Loyalty has been related to the management of intellectual capital, especially relational capital, as a component of intellectual capital. In terms of loyalty, series of key parameters that describe it or have an effect on it, and thus impacting the company's business appear.

  14. Rancang Bangun Sistem Informasi Customer Loyalty untuk Keunggulan Kompetitif Organisasi

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Mulyani; Mustafid Mustafid; Catur Edi Widodo

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of information technology to achieve competitive advantage has become a necessity  for business people and managers of organizations  in the information age now. This research aim to create a customer loyalty that the information system is one part of theCustomer  Relationship  Management  to  collect  data  on  indicators  of  customer  loyalty.  Indicator  of  customer  loyalty  is  determined according  empirical  model  customer  loyalty  and  create  customer  loyalty  inform...

  15. The Influence of Personal Values on Attitudes and Loyalty Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Henrique

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although loyalty has been extensively investigated in the marketing discipline, there is a lack of attention to the relationship between personal values, loyalty and attitudes. Based on that, the objective of this study was to test the moderating role of personal values in the relationship between attitudes and loyalty tages from Oliver (1999. Data from a survey with 910 bank customers support the hypothesis that attitudes predicts loyalty, despite the structural model does not reveal statistically significant differences among customer clusters (self-promotional and selftranscending Hedonic. However, when comparing Loyalty means among segments, it can be noted that (i the self-promotional and self-transcendent clusters were different at the cognitive and affective stages, and (ii the self-promotional differed from the hedonic in the action stage. Finally we discuss the theoretical and managerial implications and provide suggestions for future research in the area.

  16. The Relationship Quality Effect on Customer Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilte Auruskeviciene

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo la identificación de los elementos constitutivos de la calidad de relación que permite a las empresas oferentes de servicios profesionales establecer relaciones a largo plazo con sus clientes y fortalecer la lealtad de los mismos.El marco teórico sobre el que se ha formulado la identificación de dichos elementos y de la interrelación inherente a la lealtad del cliente ha sido contrastado empíricamente sobre una muestra de 74 directivos de empresas lituanas compradoras de servicios relacionados con las tecnologías de la información. Los resultados sugieren que las variables "calidad funcional", "confianza" y "compromiso" tienen un efecto significativo sobre la lealtad del cliente de servicios de tecnologías de la información. La calidad funcional es el elemento más importante a la hora de construir relaciones a largo plazo con clientes en el mercado de servicios profesionales.This study aims to identify the dimensions of relationship quality that enables professional services companies to establish long-term relations with their clients and fosters the loyalty of the client. The theoretical framework of relationship quality dimensions and customer loyalty interrelationship in a sample of 74 Lithuanian companies' managers buying IT service has been empirically tested. The findings suggest that the three variables (functional quality, trust, and commitment have a significant effect on IT services customer loyalty. Functional quality construct is the most important in building long-term relationship with customers in a professional services market.

  17. A Typology Framework of Loyalty Reward Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuheng; Nsakanda, Aaron Luntala; Mann, Inder Jit Singh

    Loyalty reward programs (LRPs), initially developed as marketing programs to enhance customer retention, have now become an important part of customer-focused business strategy. With the proliferation and increasing economy impact of the programs, the management complexity in the programs has also increased. However, despite widespread adoption of LRPs in business, academic research in the field seems to lag behind its practical application. Even the fundamental questions such as what LRPs are and how to classify them have not yet been fully addressed. In this paper, a comprehensive framework for LRP classification is proposed, which provides a foundation for further study of LRP design and planning issues.

  18. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Dual Loyalty in Prison Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöver, Heino; Wolff, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Despite the dissemination of principles of medical ethics in prisons, formulated and advocated by numerous international organizations, health care professionals in prisons all over the world continue to infringe these principles because of perceived or real dual loyalty to patients and prison authorities. Health care professionals and nonmedical prison staff need greater awareness of and training in medical ethics and prisoner human rights. All parties should accept integration of prison health services with public health services. Health care workers in prison should act exclusively as caregivers, and medical tasks required by the prosecution, court, or security system should be carried out by medical professionals not involved in the care of prisoners. PMID:22390510

  20. TO STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    2001-01-01

    Stores users are informed that the Stores (Central, Emergency window, Raw materials, Chemical products and Prévessin Self service stores) will be closed on Friday, 7 December owing to migration of the Stores computers to Windows 2000. Thank you for your understanding.

  1. Availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional, convenience, and nontraditional types of food stores in two rural Texas counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos, Brenda; Sharkey, Joseph R; Anding, Jenna; McIntosh, Alex

    2009-05-01

    Limited research has focused on the availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional food stores (supermarkets and grocery stores) in rural areas. Current market trends suggest that food items may be available for purchase in stores other than traditional food stores. An observational survey was developed and used on-site to document the availability and variety of fruit and vegetables (fresh, canned, and frozen), meats (meat, poultry, fish, and eggs), dairy (milk, yogurt, and cheese), and grains (whole grains and refined grains) in all traditional food stores, convenience stores, and nontraditional food stores (dollar stores and mass merchandisers) in two rural Texas counties. Descriptive statistics and t tests identified that although the widest selection of more healthful food items was available in supermarkets, not all supermarkets carried all items. Grocery stores carried less variety of fresh fruits (8+/-0.7 vs 4.7+/-0.3; Pconvenience or nontraditional food stores. Among convenience and nontraditional food stores, "dollar" stores offered the best variety of more healthful canned fruits and vegetables, whole-wheat bread, and whole-grain cereal. Mass merchandisers and dollar stores offered a greater variety of more healthful types of canned tuna and poultry, reduced-fat and skim milk, and low-fat tortillas. In these rural counties, traditional food stores offered greater availability of more healthful food choices across food groups. More healthful food choices in canned fruits and vegetables, canned meat and fish, milk, and grains were also available in dollar stores, mass merchandisers, and convenience stores. Results suggest that a complete understanding of the food environment, especially in rural areas, requires knowledge of the availability and variety of healthful food in all types of stores that are accessible to families.

  2. Evaluate E-loyalty of sales website: a Fuzzy mathematics method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ying; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Xiong, Ying-Zi

    The study about online consumer loyalty is limited, but how to evaluate the customers' E-loyalty to a sales website is always a noticeable question. By using some methods of fuzzy mathematics, we provide a more accurate way to evaluate E-loyalty of sales website. Moreover, this method can differentiate level and degree of each factor that influences E-loyalty.

  3. An action plan for a suitable customer loyalty programme for Matterhorn Valley Hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Lörtscher, Eliane Vera; Fragnière, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Today, a customer loyalty programmes is considered a common marketing tool in tourism. It is said that loyalty programmes increase the revenue of a well-handled business, others doubt the effectiveness. Matterhorn Valley Hotels’ loyalty programme is experiencing issues and therefore, a new loyalty programme is necessary.

  4. Proposals for enhancing tactical planning in grocery retailing with S&OP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Heidi Carin; Kiil, Kasper; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2018-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to explore tactical planning in grocery retailing and propose how process and integration mechanisms from sales and operations planning (S&OP) can enhance retail tactical planning.Design/methodology/approach-This work follows an explorative design with case...... studies from the grocery retailing industry in Finland, Norway, and the UK.Findings-The tactical planning process focuses on demand management and securing product availability from suppliers in order to reach sales targets. Less attention is directed toward balancing supply and demand or toward providing...... a single plan to guide company operations. Planning appeared to be functionally oriented with limited coordination between functional plans, but it did include external integration that improved forecast accuracy.Research limitations/implications-The study involves grocery retailer cases with variable...

  5. Separation of powers and constitutional loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta SAFTA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The complexity and dynamics of political life leads to developments and reconsiderations in terms of classical theories of constitutional law. Such a process occurs also in the case of separation of powers. Many factors have a bearing on how this theory is currently translated into practice, which requires additional perspectives of analysis in order to develop improved models of cooperation and balance of powers, according to new political realities. This study aims at examining the principle of separation and balance of powers in terms of mutual respect and loyal cooperation between institutions, or, in a broader sense, of constitutional loyalty, an intrinsic value-principle of all constitutions, without which no fundamental law, no matter of how democratic it might be, could function properly2. Based on examination of concrete cases drawn from the case-law of the Constitutional Court of Romania, the study demonstrates that, in lack of constitutional loyalty, the objective pursued by enshrining the principle of separation of powers cannot be achieved effectively, i.e. compliance of public authorities and political actors with constitutional provisions is purely formal and the alleged collaboration between them is a "dialogue of the deaf" at the expense of democracy. The seriousness of the consequences of this type of behaviour requires identification of remedies. What are the limits and what solutions can be identified in this regard are questions that also we aim to answer.

  6. EBT Payment for Online Grocery Orders: a Mixed-Methods Study to Understand Its Uptake among SNAP Recipients and the Barriers to and Motivators for Its Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Olivia; Tagliaferro, Barbara; Rodriguez, Noemi; Athens, Jessica; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2018-04-01

    To examine Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients' use of the first online supermarket accepting Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) payment. In this mixed-methods study, the authors collected EBT purchase data from an online grocer and attempted a randomized controlled trial in the South Bronx, New York City, followed by focus groups with SNAP beneficiaries aged ≥18 years. Participants were randomized to shop at their usual grocery store or an online supermarket for 3 months. Focus groups explored barriers and motivators to online EBT redemption. Few participants made online purchases, even when incentivized in the randomized controlled trial. Qualitative findings highlighted a lack of perceived control over the online food selection process as a key barrier to purchasing food online. Motivators included fast, free shipping and discounts. Electronic Benefit Transfer for online grocery purchases has the potential to increase food access among SNAP beneficiaries, but challenges exist to this new food buying option. Understanding online food shopping barriers and motivators is critical to the success of policies targeting the online expansion of SNAP benefits. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A study of the potential of grocery shopping on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Kim Bjarne

    for online grocery shopping. It builds the model on 2 components, intention formation (which is basically the TPB) and a learning component. 614 respondents in Denmark participated in the study. The results show that Perceived Behavioral Control has little influence on the intention to buy grocery products......Internet shopping is a rapid growing form of shopping. A variety of studies have tried to profile shoppers on the Internet, but little effort has been done to provide a theoretical foundation for the research. This paper uses the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to investigate the potential...

  8. A study of the potential of grocery shopping on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Kim Bjarne; Grunert, Klaus G.

    Internet shopping is a rapid growing form of shopping. A variety of studies have tried to profile shoppers on the Internet, but little effort has been done to provide a theoretical foundation for the research. This paper uses the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to investigate the potential...... for online grocery shopping. It builds the model on 2 components, intention formation (which is basically the TPB) and a learning component. 614 respondents in Denmark participated in the study. The results show that Perceived Behavioral Control has little influence on the intention to buy grocery products...

  9. Student satisfaction and loyalty in Denmark: Application of EPSI methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavar, Tina; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring and managing customers' satisfaction are key features to benefit from today's competitive environment. In higher education context, only a few studies are available on satisfaction and loyalty of the main customers who are the students, which signifies the need to investigate the field more thoroughly. The aim of this research is to measure the strength of determinants of students' satisfaction and the importance of antecedents in students' satisfaction and loyalty in Denmark. Our research model is the modification of European Performance Satisfaction Index (EPSI), which takes the university's image direct effects on students' expectations into account from students' perspective. The structural equation model of student satisfaction and loyalty has been evaluated using partial least square path modelling. Our findings confirm that the EPSI framework is applicable on student satisfaction and loyalty among Danish universities. We show that all the relationships among variables of the research model are significant except the relationship between quality of software and students' loyalty. Results further verify the significance of antecedents in students' satisfaction and loyalty at Danish universities; the university image and student satisfaction are the antecedents of student loyalty with a significant direct effect, while perceived value, quality of hardware, quality of software, expectations, and university image are antecedents of student satisfaction. Eventually, our findings may be of an inspiration to maintain and improve students' experiences during their study at the university. Dedicating resources to identified important factors from students' perception enable universities to attract more students, make them highly satisfied and loyal.

  10. Determinants of patient loyalty to healthcare providers: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Jiao; Wan, Qiao-Qin; Liu, Cong-Ying; Feng, Xiao-Lin; Shang, Shao-Mei

    2017-08-01

    Patient loyalty is key to business success for healthcare providers and also for patient health outcomes. This study aims to identify determinants influencing patient loyalty to healthcare providers and propose an integrative conceptual model of the influencing factors. PubMed, CINAHL, OVID, ProQuest and Elsevier Science Direct databases were searched. Publications about determinants of patient loyalty to health providers were screened, and 13 articles were included. Date of publication, location of the research, sample details, objectives and findings/conclusions were extracted for 13 articles. Thirteen studies explored eight determinants: satisfaction, quality, value, hospital brand image, trust, commitment, organizational citizenship behavior and customer complaints. The integrated conceptual model comprising all the determinants demonstrated the significant positive direct impact of quality on satisfaction and value, satisfaction on trust and commitment, trust on commitment and loyalty, and brand image on quality and loyalty. This review identifies and models the determinants of patient loyalty to healthcare providers. Further studies are needed to explore the influence of trust, commitment, and switching barriers on patient loyalty. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Student satisfaction and loyalty in Denmark: Application of EPSI methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavar, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring and managing customers’ satisfaction are key features to benefit from today’s competitive environment. In higher education context, only a few studies are available on satisfaction and loyalty of the main customers who are the students, which signifies the need to investigate the field more thoroughly. The aim of this research is to measure the strength of determinants of students’ satisfaction and the importance of antecedents in students’ satisfaction and loyalty in Denmark. Our research model is the modification of European Performance Satisfaction Index (EPSI), which takes the university’s image direct effects on students’ expectations into account from students’ perspective. The structural equation model of student satisfaction and loyalty has been evaluated using partial least square path modelling. Our findings confirm that the EPSI framework is applicable on student satisfaction and loyalty among Danish universities. We show that all the relationships among variables of the research model are significant except the relationship between quality of software and students’ loyalty. Results further verify the significance of antecedents in students’ satisfaction and loyalty at Danish universities; the university image and student satisfaction are the antecedents of student loyalty with a significant direct effect, while perceived value, quality of hardware, quality of software, expectations, and university image are antecedents of student satisfaction. Eventually, our findings may be of an inspiration to maintain and improve students’ experiences during their study at the university. Dedicating resources to identified important factors from students’ perception enable universities to attract more students, make them highly satisfied and loyal. PMID:29240801

  12. Value-based formulas for purchasing. Loyalty renaissance: the rebirth of loyalty in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, S

    1997-01-01

    As more consumers join managed care organizations, the personal bond between patient and physician or medical group has been transformed into an economic relationship driven chiefly by the price of health care services. Managed care organizations now face the same pressures as the airline and retail industries: To gain and retain client loyalty through product differentiation and consistently high levels of service. How do managed health care plans create and maintain loyalty among their members? What is the value proposition that consumers will respond to in this era of managed care? Discussion will focus on the consumer as the critical variable in the economic model of a health care system and how the consumer will impact the continued evolution of managed care.

  13. The Understanding of Loyalty in J. Royce and The Role of Loyalty in Overcoming The Evil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Koç

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Stating that no philosophical issue is more discouraging than misstatement of the problem of evil in theory, Josiah Royce focused his attention on the problem of evil in accordance with the overall trend of philosophy in the 18th and 19th centuries. The most striking characteristic of Royce‟s approach to problem of evil is that he considered a loyalty-based moral perception to overcome this problem. Approaching the problem of evil through an existentialist perspective rather than a rational point of view and underlining that the problem of evil can only be addressed responsibly through experiencing it in practice, Royce emphasized a collective will and responsibility, which for Royce needs to be produced through loyalty, in fighting the evil

  14. Increasing loyalty to breastfeeding: investigating a product development strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Joy; Russell-Bennett, Rebekah; Previte, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates how social marketing insights were used to influence women's loyalty to breastfeeding. The article reports on a social marketing campaign undertaken by the Australian Breastfeeding Association and a government health department, which used a product development strategy in order to increase breastfeeding loyalty. Seeking new approaches to support breastfeeding behaviors is critical and timely, because while initiation rates of breastfeeding are high in developed countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and the United States, duration rates are significantly lower. Results indicate that a product- focused strategy influences pregnant women's loyalty to exclusively breastfeeding.

  15. Mothers' self-reported grocery shopping behaviours with their 2- to 7-year-old children: relationship between feeding practices and mothers' willingness to purchase child-requested nutrient-poor, marketed foods, and fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Kathryn; Babawale, Oluborode; Thompson, David M; Morris, Amanda S; Harris, Jennifer L; Sisson, Susan B; Cheney, Marshall K; Lora, Karina R

    2017-12-01

    To assess relationships between mothers' feeding practices (food as a reward, food for emotion regulation, modelling of healthy eating) and mothers' willingness to purchase child-marketed foods and fruits/vegetables (F&V) requested by their children during grocery co-shopping. Cross-sectional. Mothers completed an online survey that included questions about feeding practices and willingness (i.e. intentions) to purchase child-requested foods during grocery co-shopping. Feeding practices scores were dichotomized at the median. Foods were grouped as nutrient-poor or nutrient-dense (F&V) based on national nutrition guidelines. Regression models compared mothers with above-the-median v. at-or-below-the-median feeding practices scores on their willingness to purchase child-requested food groupings, adjusting for demographic covariates. Participants completed an online survey generated at a public university in the USA. Mothers (n 318) of 2- to 7-year-old children. Mothers who scored above-the-median on using food as a reward were more willing to purchase nutrient-poor foods (β=0·60, Ppurchase nutrient-poor foods (β=0·29, Ppurchase nutrient-dense foods (β=0·22, Ppurchase child-requested, nutrient-poor foods. Parental feeding practices may facilitate or limit children's foods requested in grocery stores. Parent-child food consumer behaviours should be investigated as a route that may contribute to children's eating patterns.

  16. What Happens When Parents and Children Go Grocery Shopping? An Observational Study of Latino Dyads in Southern California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Joanna; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Elder, John P; Belch, George E; Castro, Iana A; Weibel, Nadir; Pickrel, Julie

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to observe parent-child interactions in tiendas, limited assortment food stores catering to Latinos in the United States, and to examine the extent to which child involvement influenced these interactions and their purchase outcomes. Two confederates, one posing as a tienda employee and one posing as a customer, observed the entire shopping trip of 100 Latino parent-child (mean age = 8 years) dyads and coded the following: number and type of parent- and child-initiated request interactions, types of purchase influence attempts used by children and how parents responded, and whether the product was purchased. Level of child involvement was examined as a potential influencing factor on purchasing. The observations were relatively short (mean duration of 10 minutes), reflecting the "quick trip" nature of the observed shopping trips. From the 100 parent-child dyads, 144 request interactions were observed, and among dyads with at least 1 request interaction during the shopping trip, the average number of request interactions per dyad was 2. Children initiated most of the request interactions by asking for a product or simply placing it in the basket; parents initiated 24% of the request interactions. Child involvement in shopping and checkout were associated with spending and purchase outcomes. These results indicate that children and parents influence each other during grocery shopping, and children who are more involved have greater influence over purchases. Furthermore, this study identified a number of targets for future family/parent and consumer food environment interventions.

  17. NACS Store Planning Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Store Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Topics discussed by the NACS Store Planning/Renovation Committees in this updated version of the college store renovation manual include: short- and long-range planning, financial considerations, professional planning assistance, the store's image and business character, location considerations, building requirements, space requirements, fixtures,…

  18. Implementing a short-term loyalty program : case: Bosch Lawn & Garden and the Ventum short-term loyalty program

    OpenAIRE

    Logvinova, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, one of the Bosch Home and Garden divisions, Bosch Lawn and Garden, has made a strategic decision to adopt a points-based short-term loyalty program called Ventum LG in the German supermarkets and petrol stations. It was decided that the base of this program will be completed Ventum PT short-term loyalty program which was managed by another division, Bosch Power Tools, and proved to be successful. This thesis aims to evaluate the worthiness of the Ventum LG loyalty program for Bosch L...

  19. Supply chain risk management processes for resilience: A study of South African grocery manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Simba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The supply chain risk management (SCRM process is aimed at the implementation of strategies that assist in managing both daily and exceptional risks facing the supply chain through continuous risk assessment to reduce vulnerability and ensure continuity. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the SCRM process enables supply chain resilience among grocery manufacturers in South Africa. The fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG-manufacturing industry faces increased risk because of the nature of their products being perishable with a limited shelf life. Method: This study was conducted using a descriptive qualitative research design. Data were collected by means of 12 semi-structured interviews with senior supply chain practitioners within the South African grocery manufacturing industry. Findings: The study found that most firms informally implement SCRM processes of risk identification, assessment, mitigation and monitoring to mitigate disruptions. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the SCRM processes facilitate resilience among grocery manufacturers in South Africa. Conclusion: The managerial implications show that supply chain managers of grocery manufacturers should formalise the SCRM process and develop risk assessment scales to better prioritise risks in order to run a resilient supply chain. The research contributes to the supply chain management field by adding to the scarce literature relating to SCRM as an enabler of supply chain resilience in a South African context.

  20. Promoting Literacy with Self-Created Grocery Lists on Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Karen H.; Uphold, Nicole M.; Steffen, Shannon; Kroesch, Allison M.

    2018-01-01

    Four middle school students with a developmental disability participated in a multiple probe design across students and replicated across conditions study to evaluate the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach them to create a grocery list on an iPad or iPod touch. The classroom teacher collected data on the percentage of items…

  1. Production, characterization and fuel properties of alternative diesel fuel from pyrolysis of waste plastic grocery bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of HDPE waste grocery bags followed by distillation resulted in a liquid hydrocarbon mixture that consisted of saturated aliphatic paraffins (96.8%), aliphatic olefins (2.6%), and aromatics (0.6%) that corresponded to the boiling range of conventional petroleum diesel fuel (#1 diesel 182–2...

  2. Drivers and barriers of reverse logistics practices: A study of large grocery retailers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Meyer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reverse logistics (RL practices have previously been viewed as a cost drain, but have received greater attention from practitioners because of increasing competition and dwindling margins. Purpose: The purpose of this generic qualitative study was to uncover the main internal and external drivers and barriers of RL within major South African grocery retailers. Method: Eleven face-to-face, semi-structured interviews and one telephonic interview were conducted with participants from four large grocery retailers. Findings: Optimising profitability and cost reduction goals are the identified internal drivers, whereas the main external driver was to reduce the organisations’ environmental impact. A lack of information systems – such as enterprise resource planning systems or warehouse management system software – and infrastructure were revealed as the main internal barriers for organisations’ RL practices, whereas supplier non-compliance and transportation inefficiencies were the main external barriers exposed. Managerial implications: In order to optimise the efficiency of the reverse flow, managers are recommended to devote more capital to RL infrastructure, develop policies to manage supplier behaviour, focus on RL as a revenue generating stream as well as implement information systems to manage the entire reverse flow. Conclusion: All participating grocery retailers follow similar RL processes. Growth in RL practices as well as infrastructure to perform those practices is a future priority for all the reviewed grocery retailers. RL is no longer only a key cost driver, but also provides organisations with many additional opportunities.

  3. Understanding Customer Attrition at an Individual Level: a New Model in Grocery Retail Context

    OpenAIRE

    Gautrais , Clément; Cellier , Peggy; Guyet , Thomas; Quiniou , René; Termier , Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a new model to detect and explain customer defection in a grocery retail context. This new model analyzes the evolution of each customer basket content. It therefore provides actionable knowledge for the retailer at an individual scale. In addition, this model is able to identify customers that are likely to defect in the future months.

  4. Understanding wellness center loyalty through lifestyle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Satya; Ravichandran, Swathi; P, Ganesan

    2011-01-01

    Many changes taking place at a macro-level in Indian society along with the popularity of services that are native to India, such as Yoga and Ayurveda, have generated significant interest in wellness services. To assist wellness centers in gaining loyal clients, the goal of this study was to understand the influence of customer lifestyle factors on wellness center loyalty. The activities, interests, and opinions model was used to understand the lifestyles of wellness center clients. Data were collected from clients of five wellness centers. Regression results indicate that overworked individuals and those seeking a balance between work and family life would be the most loyal to wellness centers. Managerial implications of results are discussed.

  5. Compliance to two city convenience store ordinance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumont Menéndez, Cammie K; Amandus, Harlan E; Wu, Nan; Hendricks, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    Robbery-related homicides and assaults are the leading cause of death in retail businesses. Robbery reduction approaches focus on compliance to Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) guidelines. We evaluated the level of compliance to CPTED guidelines specified by convenience store safety ordinances effective in 2010 in Dallas and Houston, Texas, USA. Convenience stores were defined as businesses less than 10 000 square feet that sell grocery items. Store managers were interviewed for store ordinance requirements from August to November 2011, in a random sample of 594 (289 in Dallas, 305 in Houston) convenience stores that were open before and after the effective dates of their city's ordinance. Data were collected in 2011 and analysed in 2012-2014. Overall, 9% of stores were in full compliance, although 79% reported being registered with the police departments as compliant. Compliance was consistently significantly higher in Dallas than in Houston for many requirements and by store type. Compliance was lower among single owner-operator stores compared with corporate/franchise stores. Compliance to individual requirements was lowest for signage and visibility. Full compliance to the required safety measures is consistent with industry 'best practices' and evidence-based workplace violence prevention research findings. In Houston and Dallas compliance was higher for some CPTED requirements but not the less costly approaches that are also the more straightforward to adopt. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Loyalty of hospital patients: a vital marketing objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1987-01-01

    Hospitals must strive for patient loyalty as a top priority objective in their marketing strategies. Loyal patients are sources of repeat business, potential users of new services, and positive spokespersons in word-of-mouth advertising.

  7. Uncovering attribute-based determinants of loyalty in cigarette brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of tobacco differentiation attributes (i.e. nicotine and tar content, length, flavor and thickness) in market performance and loyalty levels of brands. Design/methodology/approach – The study adopts a stochastic approach to measure...... brand loyalty at the attribute level using the Dirichlet model as a benchmark tool. Data based on the Juster Probability Scale were collected from a sample of n ¼ 155 young smokers in Iceland. Findings – Product differentiation strategies operate differently. Light nicotine and tar content encourages...... smokers to switch across brands and within family brands, resulting on improved market performance and loyalty levels. Length and thickness-related differentiation are slightly better than nondifferentiation in inducing loyalty, but worse in improving performance. Practical implications – Two types...

  8. The affordable care ACT on loyalty programs for federal beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Justin J; Williams, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    To discuss changes in the law that allow community pharmacy loyalty programs to include and offer incentives to Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. The retailer rewards exception of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 and its change to the definition of remuneration in the civil monetary penalties of the Anti-Kickback Statute now allow incentives to be earned on federal benefit tied prescription out-of-pocket costs. The criteria required to design a compliant loyalty program are discussed. Community pharmacies can now include Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries in compliant customer loyalty programs, where allowed by state law. There is a need for research directly on the influence of loyalty programs and nominal incentives on adherence.

  9. An exploration of loyalty determinants in Greek wine varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    or type of the wine variety per se does not constitute a particularly important loyalty component in the wines' marketing mix. Research limitations/implications: The wine category has always been one of the most The wine category has always been one of the most challenging product categories......Purpose: This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the market structure of red This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the market structure of red and white wines from Greek wine varieties and measure loyalty behaviour of frequent wine buyers in Greece. Design....../methodology: The study concerned measuring brand performance and loyalty of 4 The study concerned measuring brand performance and loyalty of 4 different Greek wine varieties. Based on stated preference data, basic brand performance measures are estimated through Juster purchase probabilities of brand choice. To measure...

  10. Exit, voice and loyalty in Kenya's French bean industry: What ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    response affected their continued participation in the supermarket business. It applies Hirschman's concept of exit, voice and loyalty to assess the strategies used by ... This strategy of compliance with IFSS has since become the model in

  11. Relationship Quality as Predictor of B2B Customer Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaimaa S. B. Ahmed Doma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationship marketing has become extremely important recently due to the fierce competition in today's marketplace. Companies are required to build long-term profitable relationship with customers and to achieve customer loyalty. Also, switching behaviors frequently occur among most of targeted customers. Fewer studies, however, discuss the effects of relationship quality efforts on customer loyalty. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate the impact of relationship quality on customer loyalty in B2B context in the Egyptian shipping services sector. Building on prior research, we propose relationship quality as a higher construct comprising trust, commitment and satisfaction. An analytical model is developed as a guideline to test the relationships between relationship quality dimensions and customer loyalty.

  12. The mismanagement of customer loyalty / Werner Reinartz, V. Kumar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinartz, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Kliendilojaalsuse olemusest, mõõtmisest ja juhtimisest, lojaalsete klientide eelistest ning põhjustest neist loobumiseks. Diagramm ja tabelid: The cost of keeping customers on; Which customers are really profitable; Choosing a loyalty strategy

  13. LoyalTracker: Visualizing Loyalty Dynamics in Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Conglei; Wu, Yingcai; Liu, Shixia; Zhou, Hong; Qu, Huamin

    2014-12-01

    The huge amount of user log data collected by search engine providers creates new opportunities to understand user loyalty and defection behavior at an unprecedented scale. However, this also poses a great challenge to analyze the behavior and glean insights into the complex, large data. In this paper, we introduce LoyalTracker, a visual analytics system to track user loyalty and switching behavior towards multiple search engines from the vast amount of user log data. We propose a new interactive visualization technique (flow view) based on a flow metaphor, which conveys a proper visual summary of the dynamics of user loyalty of thousands of users over time. Two other visualization techniques, a density map and a word cloud, are integrated to enable analysts to gain further insights into the patterns identified by the flow view. Case studies and the interview with domain experts are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of our technique in understanding user loyalty and switching behavior in search engines.

  14. Marketing of financial services and customer loyalty in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing of financial services and customer loyalty in the Nigerian banking sector. ... that banks must invest more in financial service marketing strategies that would help to keep their customers. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. Distinguishing between satisfaction and loyalty: Conceptual, methodological & analytical differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson, K.A. [Illinois Power, Decatur, IL (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This paper briefly presents a discussion of the conceptual definition of {open_quotes}Customer Satisfaction{close_quotes} followed by review of operational definitions of {open_quotes}Satisfaction{close_quotes} as a criterion variable and the kinds of predictor variables and analytic methods employed in its modeling. A model of {open_quotes}Customer Satisfaction{close_quotes} is presented developed by the discussed methodology. Conceptual and operational definitions of {open_quotes}Customer Loyalty{close_quotes} are then reviewed, contrasting the kinds of predictor variables and analytic methods most appropriate for understanding a {open_quotes}Loyalty{close_quotes} decision and how these differ from {open_quotes}Customer Satisfaction.{close_quotes} A more fully specified model of {open_quotes}Customer Loyalty{close_quotes} is presented. Finally, the risks of employing a {open_quotes}Satisfaction{close_quotes} methodology in modeling {open_quotes}Customer Loyalty{close_quotes} are discussed.

  16. A study on ranking ethical factors influencing customer loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Modiri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommending brand to others, positive attitude toward brand and cognitive loyalty to brand. These criteria have been ranked using fuzzy analytical network process. The study determines 14 different ethical values, which may play essential role on customer loyalty and using VIKOR, different ethical values are ranked. The study indicates that welcoming customers is the most important factor followed by cheerfulness, on time delivery, being informative and having appropriate standards.

  17. Empirical assessment of loyalty drivers using consumers’ retail format choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gindi, A.A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Using Stimulus–Organism–Response (S-O-R framework, this study examines Stimulus– Response relationships of fresh vegetable consumers’ behavior in Klang Valley, Malaysia. In particular, the study focused on how loyalty drivers affect retail formats choice by the fresh vegetable (FV consumers. The Stimuli that pertain to loyalty drivers include promotional activities, perceived price and social interaction and the Response is the retail format choice. Three hypotheses were developed and tested with the data collected from a survey using simple random sampling technique. Structural Equation Model (SEM was used in analyzing the data. Results of the study revealed that Stimuli (loyalty drivers influence Response (retail format choice for the different FV markets in Malaysia. Based on the finding of the research, Malaysian retailers have different marketing strategies to be considered with regards to loyalty drivers.

  18. Survey on supply and demand of medicinal plants in Lorestan province groceries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Naderi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of activities related to medicinal plant industry lead to maintenance and progress (improvement of society health. Attention to situation of medicinal plants in groceries, diagnosis different species, Value of consumption and supplier regions as most important factors in medicinal plants forum can be used for programming and politics in medicinal industry in our country. So via proper scientific programming we can achieve to better culture of medicinal plants consumption and we can improve health parameters in lorestan province. Materials and methods The research was accomplished with Cross-Sectional study and questionary technique was used for data collection. The questionnaire consist of 3 parts were included questions related to socioeconomic trait, number of medicinal plant and medicinal properties. All of the groceries in the lorestan province were studied as statistical society. Sampling method was availability sample and samples size was 69 groceries. Results Results showed that the numbers of medicinal plants in groceries were about 336 species, mean of sold weight Was 128.48 kg. 94.5% and 5.5% of medicinal plants were supplied from out of Lorestan and Lorestan province respectively. Conclusion Existence of special plains and mountains plentiful running water, high storage of under round water and different Climate in the lorestan province cause a considerable diversity in this province. Whereas the results of this study showed that the most important suppliers of medicinal plants were located out of this province therefore programming in the case of these valuable sources of medicinal plants will be because higher preoccupation and existence of these crops in the groceries of lorestan province, even can export these to other countries.

  19. MODEL DEVELOPMENT OF NURSING STUDENT LOYALTY IN POLITEKNIK OF HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Hammad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Loyalty of nursing student is an important factor that nursing education should pay attention in order to compete with other nursing educations; involved by perceived value, expectation, and quality assurance in nursing higher education. The purpose of this study was to develop a loyalty model of nursing student in nursing higher education. Methods: This study was an explanatory research with cross sectional approach. Population were nursing student in Poltekkes Banjarmasin, with 112 samples which is selected by proportional random sampling. Data was collected by giving questionnaire and analyzed by partial least square. Result: Result of this study indicates that was an effect of costumer expectation on quality assurance in nursing higher education, there was effect of costumer expectation on perceived value in nursing student, there was an effect of customer expectation on student satisfaction (4 there was effect of quality assurance in nursing higher education, there wasn’t any affect of quality assurance in nursing higher education on student satisfaction, there was effect of perceived value in nursing student on student satisfaction, there was effect of student satisfaction on student loyalty. Discussion: Overall result of this research were, student loyalty in nursing higher education developed by student satisfaction. Student satisfaction formed by perceived value. Perceived value developed from two aspects quality assurance, and student expectation, quality assurance of higher education wasn’t directly effect to student sasfaction. However, indirectly effect through student perceived value. Student satisfaction in nursing higher education was stronger effect than any other variable in this loyalty model. Loyalty model in this research can be use for improvement student loyalty on health education that focused on improvement student satisfaction without deny the other aspect. Further research is needed to analyze word of

  20. The Effect of Social Media Marketing on Customers’ Brand Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Mehrabi; Hossein Islami; Mojtaba Aghajani

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, customers’ loyalty is a key to commercial success. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of social media marketing on customers’ brand loyalty. In this regard, a conceptual framework which considered advertising campaign, providing relevant content, updating content, providing popular content among friends, and providing applicable programs as marketing indexes in social media is presented. This was an applicable research in terms of its purpose, and a descriptive-survey...

  1. Impact of hotel service quality on the loyalty of customers

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinskas, Edmundas; Streimikiene, Dalia; Svagzdiene, Biruta; Simanavicius, Arturas

    2016-01-01

    The hotel business is rapidly developing due to growing demand for such services as well as the growing opportunities for travel. As a result, hotels face demanding customers, since the requirements for quality grow with an increased use of hotels’ services, in order to increase the competitive ability of a hotel, the issue of customer loyalty is also important. The aim of this article is to assess the impact of the quality of hotel services on the loyalty of customers. In t...

  2. Maintaining Customer Loyalty : Case company: Industrail Securities Ltd (China)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenqing

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how customer relationship management can be applied in maintaining customer loyalty. The study will assist the case company to find the way to develop a long-term relationship with existing customers. The better relationship with customers, the higher customer loyalty will be obtained. The theoretical background of the thesis begins with general view of customer relationship management, which embodies the concept of managing customer relations...

  3. Customer Loyalty and its Determinants in a Banking Services Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Filip; Laurentiu-Dan Anghel

    2009-01-01

    The present paper presents the methodology and the main results of a quantitative study applied on a sample of 1010 respondents, in the Romanian banking industry. The aim of the study was to research the customer level of loyalty toward Romanian organizations acting in the retail banking sector. According to similar researches in the field, loyalty is a complex construction, which comprises both psychological and behavioural components, fact also proved by the results of the present research....

  4. The Relationship Between Hotel Brand Personality And Customer Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Yasin, Bahar; Jamontaite, Kamile; Ahmedova, Saida; Akin, Mahmut Selami

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between brand personality and customer loyalty in the five-star business hotel and propose an effective way for developing a remarkable hotel brand and improving its customer loyalty. The reason for choosing a particular hotel is that it is a member of a famous international hotel chain with a well-known brand name. According to the literature, business hotels usually have stronger brand names comparing to leisure hotels. Literature r...

  5. The effect of brand image on customer brand loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    ADONYEVA K.V.

    2012-01-01

    Since the world is a global marketing now it’s getting more difficult for the companies to compete. In order to win the leader position in the marketplace marketing specialists work out different kind of strategies to achieve long lasting success. One of the most significant among these strategies is customer loyalty toward the brand.The primary purpose of this article is to illustrate relationships between the brand image, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, to summarize information ...

  6. The Antecedents of Automobile Brand Loyalty: Evidence from Malaysian

    OpenAIRE

    Mabkhot, Hashed Ahmed; Salleh, Salniza MD; Shaari, Hasnizam

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically examined the mediating effect of brand satisfaction on the relationship between brand image and brand loyalty among Malaysian customer toward local automobile brands. Four hypotheses were developed to test hypothesizing relationships among brand image, brand satisfaction on brand loyalty. Data collected from customers of automobile brands in north Malaysia peninsula from three states which were Kedah, Penang, and Perlis. This study applies partial least squares to a sam...

  7. Anteseden Customer Loyalty Pada Low Cost Carrier Airline

    OpenAIRE

    Harlan, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    The background of this research was Customer loyalty as a competitive advantage in service industry.The design of this research applies a survey toward unit of analysis on Low Cost Carrier Airline to interview the passanger for testing hypothesis. Meanwhile the required data consist of five variables; Recovery Satisfaction, Corporate Social Responsibility, Customer Trust, Customer Loyalty. The aggregate numbers of customer being respondent of the study are 200. Data analysis us...

  8. Impact of entrepreneurial education on consumer loyalty in tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Pero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Each educational activity in tourism is a vital tool of development. In most industries during the late 20th and early 21st century, the growing intensity of competition and dynamic development, has led to changes in the objectives of doing business, and this is especially true for the tourism industry. In the past, the focus was on attracting new customers, while marketing strategies now focus on retaining existing customers and winning their loyalty. The main reason for this new approach is the awareness of the economic impact of tourism customer loyalty. Travel and tourism companies with a higher share of consumer loyalty benefit from the growing rate of repurchase, increased tolerance to higher prices, positive advertisements on the basis of recommendations from satisfied tourist consumers and less tendency to switch to competitors. In order to achieve customer loyalty and all the benefits that implies, tourism companies must be aware of the factors that determine loyalty. Therefore, the subject of this paper analyzes the factors that influence consumer loyalty to tourism, in order to come to the knowledge of the type, intensity and mode of influence of individual factors on long-term customer loyalty. The quality of the training and education of entrepreneurship procure sub­sequent impact on customer loyalty. The paper points out the importance of entrepreneurship education in the European Union with a focus on the quality of educational programs. In turn, the number and quality of the coverage factor of success in a wholesome entrepreneurial economy is expanded, especially in the tourism industry as its most dynamic part.

  9. Brand gender, brand personality and brand loyalty relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Gumus, Izzet

    2016-01-01

    Brand personality, especially brand gender concepts are quite new in Turkey, therefore these concepts have not been used  as a topic in research. The aim of this research is to shed light on the literature by emphasizing the relationship between brand  personality, brand gender and brand loyalty.  This research is conducted to demonstrate the effects of brands loyalty on consumers in terms of gender and personality. Brand categories and brands are chosen in...

  10. Understanding patient e-loyalty toward online health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Caro, Eva; Cegarra-Navarro, Juan Gabriel; Solano-Lorente, Marcelina

    2013-01-01

    Public health institutions are making a great effort to develop patient-targeted online services in an attempt to enhance their effectiveness and reduce expenses. However, if patients do not use those services regularly, public health institutions will have wasted their limited resources. Hence, patients' electronic loyalty (e-loyalty) is essential for the success of online health care services. In this research, an extended Technology Acceptance Model was developed to test e-loyalty intent toward online health care services offered by public health institutions. Data from a survey of 256 users of online health care services provided by the public sanitary system of a region in Spain were analyzed. The research model was tested by using the structural equation modeling approach. The results obtained suggest that the core constructs of the Technology Acceptance Model (perceived usefulness, ease of use, and attitude) significantly affected users' behavioral intentions (i.e., e-loyalty intent), with perceived usefulness being the most decisive antecedent of affective variables (i.e., attitude and satisfaction). This study also reveals a general support for patient satisfaction as a determinant of e-loyalty intent in online health care services. Policy makers should focus on striving to get the highest positive attitude in users by enhancing easiness of use and, mainly, perceived usefulness. Because through satisfaction of patients, public hospitals will enlarge their patient e-loyalty intent, health care providers must always work at obtaining satisfied users and to encourage them to continue using the online services.

  11. Brand loyalty, patients and limited generic medicines uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Rudisill, Caroline; Tan, Stefanie

    2014-06-01

    The sluggish development of European generic drug markets depends heavily on demand side factors, and more specifically, patients' and doctors' loyalty to branded products. Loyalty to originator drugs, to the point where originator prices rise upon generic entry has been described as the 'generics paradox'. Originator loyalty can emerge for a plethora of reasons; including costs, perceptions about quality and physician advice. We know very little about the behavioural underpinnings of brand loyalty from the consumer or patient standpoint. This paper attempts to test the extent to which patients are brand loyal by drawing upon Spain's 2002 Health Barometer survey as it includes questions about consumer acceptance of generics in a country with exceptionally low generic uptake and substitution at the time of the study. Our findings suggest that at least 13% of the population would not accept generics as substitutes to the originator. These results confirm evidence of brand loyalty for a minority. Alongside high levels of awareness of generics, we find that low cost-sharing levels explain consumer brand loyalty but their impact on acceptance of generic substitution is very small. Higher cost-sharing and exempting fewer patients from cost-sharing have the potential to encourage generic acceptance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Consumer Attitudes toward Sustainable Development and Risk to Brand Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. J. Kuchinka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study reveals the importance of understanding how business decisions focused on sustainability can impact companies, due to the risks associated with brand loyalty. The relationship between brand loyalty and consumers’ environmental viewpoint is investigated, including how consumers’ brand loyalty would be impacted after environmental-based expansion decisions are announced. College students from the USA and Romania (N = 92 were asked to voluntarily participate in a survey. The Brand Loyalty Scale (BLS is used to assess brand loyalty before and after a fictitious expansion announcement was made and the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP scale is utilized to assess attitudes toward sustainability. A paired samples t-test analysis reveals a significant positive correlation between NEP scores (attitudes toward sustainability and brand loyalty. No significant differences are found in attitudes toward sustainability regarding region (Romania and USA or gender. These results indicate that individuals who generally show concern towards the environment will stay loyal to their favorite companies after sustainability is introduced. Results also indicate that the gap regarding region and gender is slowly closing in attitudes toward sustainability; individuals in developing countries are also showing a major concern toward environmental issues. Males indicate just as much concern toward the environment as females, which is confirmed by other findings in previous literature.

  13. Information for Stores Users

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2004-01-01

    As the FARNELL Catalogue CAPACITORS, RESISTORS and POTENTIOMETERS have now been integrated into the CERN Stores Catalogue (SCEM Groups 10 and 11) they can now be obtained via an EDH 'Material Request' like any other Stores item. N.B. The Farnell 'Order code' is one of the key-words that make it easier to find items in the Stores Catalogue. Logistics Group FI Department

  14. Distributed energy store railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that when the limiting case of a distributed energy store railgun is analyzed, i.e., the case where the space between adjacent energy stores become indefinitely small, three important results are obtained. First, the shape of the current pulse delivered by each store is sinusoidal and an exponential tail. Second, the rail-to-rail voltage behind the rear-most active store approaches zero. Third, it is not possible to choose parameters in such a way that capacitor crowbars can be eliminated

  15. The Reasons of Young Consumers’ Choice on Chain Café Stores: A Research on Starbucks

    OpenAIRE

    Akgün, Serkan; Yalım, Funda

    2015-01-01

    Corporations providing services and making goods are forced to ensure customer satisfaction, to build brand loyalty, to change the way being in service by taking some changes into consideration, such as changes in living conditions, in consumers’ supply and demand, fi erce competition environment. At this point, chain café stores are appeared as preferred ones by especially young consumers in direct proportion to changes in consumers’ supply and demand. Young consumers, while going for a chai...

  16. Storing up trouble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, M.

    1992-01-01

    Scottish Nuclear have applied for permission to build a temporary ground-level dry store for spent fuel at Torness. However, Nirex's failure to find a suitable site for a long-term repository could mean that the Torness store will be less temporary than planned. (author)

  17. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group - FI Department

    2005-01-01

    The Farnell catalogue can now be accessed from the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue. Users can order Farnell equipment as well as standard Stores equipment at the same time using a single document, the EDH Materials Request form. The Materials Request form offers users items from both the internal 'Stores' catalogue and the external 'Farnell' catalogue, all of which may be ordered on the same form. The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Farnell equipment to Farnell. The delivery time is 48 hours in both cases. Requests for materials are routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  18. Impact of Income on Customers' Loyalty: Are Customers with Higher Income more Loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klopotan Igor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research on customers’ loyalty mostly focuses on several indicators, such as price, income and promotion. However, the level of income and its impacts on customers' loyalty have not been investigated in greater details.

  19. Comparison of Grocery Purchase Patterns of Diet Soda Buyers to Those of Regular Soda Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    James, Binkley; Golub, Alla A.

    2007-01-01

    The ultimate effect of regular and diet carbonated soft drinks on energy intakes depends on possible relations with other dietary components. With this motivation, this study compared grocery purchase patterns of regular and diet soft drink consumers using a large sample of US single person households. We tested for differences in food spending shares allocated to 43 food categories chosen mainly for their desirable/undesirable nutritional properties. We also investigated whether differences ...

  20. Supply chain risk management processes for resilience: A study of South African grocery manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Simba; Wesley Niemann; Theuns Kotzé; Assilah Agigi

    2017-01-01

    Background: The supply chain risk management (SCRM) process is aimed at the implementation of strategies that assist in managing both daily and exceptional risks facing the supply chain through continuous risk assessment to reduce vulnerability and ensure continuity. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the SCRM process enables supply chain resilience among grocery manufacturers in South Africa. The fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG)-manufacturing industry faces incre...

  1. Psychological Prices and Price Rigidity in Grocery Retailing: Analysis of German Scanner Data

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Roland; Moeser, Anke

    2005-01-01

    A substantial degree of price rigidity has been reported for branded foods in various studies with scanner data. One possible explanation for price rigidity is the existence of psychological pricing points. We analyze to which extent psychological pricing plays a role in grocery retailing and whether it contributes to price rigidity of branded foods in Germany. Psychological pricing defined here as just-below-the-round-figure-pricing is empirically analyzed with scanner data of weekly prices ...

  2. On the Competitive Interaction Between Private Label and Branded Grocery Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald W. Cotterill; Ravi Dhar; William P. Putsis Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Recent research in marketing has focused on cross-category variation in the market share of private label products, while recent work in the economics and industrial organization literature has focused on the determinants of firm price setting behavior. In this paper, the authors develop a framework for estimating market share and price reaction equations simultaneously in an attempt to understand the nature of competitive interaction in the market for private label and branded grocery produc...

  3. Measuring customer loyalty using an extended RFM and clustering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Zalaghi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, the ability to identify the profitable customers, creating a long-term loyalty in them and expanding the existing relationships are considered as the key and competitive factors for a customer-oriented organization. The prerequisite for having such competitive factors is the presence of a very powerful customer relationship management (CRM. The accurate evaluation of customers’ profitability is considered as one of the fundamental reasons that lead to a successful customer relationship management. RFM is a method that scrutinizes three properties, namely recency, frequency and monetary for each customer and scores customers based on these properties. In this paper, a method is introduced that obtains the behavioral traits of customers using the extended RFM approach and having the information related to the customers of an organization; it then classifies the customers using the K-means algorithm and finally scores the customers in terms of their loyalty in each cluster. In the suggested approach, first the customers’ records will be clustered and then the RFM model items will be specified through selecting the effective properties on the customers’ loyalty rate using the multipurpose genetic algorithm. Next, they will be scored in each cluster based on the effect that they have on the loyalty rate. The influence rate each property has on loyalty is calculated using the Spearman’s correlation coefficient.

  4. Consumers' Loyalty Related to Labor Inclusion of People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Marta; Luis Fernández, José

    2016-01-01

    the purpose of this paper is to show that reporting the corporate commitment to labor exclusion of people with disability correlates with the increase of consumer loyalty. It is a theoretical revision that will relate consumer loyalty to three main topics: disability and labor exclusion, responsible consumerism toward disability, and corporate communication to increase loyalty of those consumers that are concerned about this problem.      • Disability is an invisible phenomenon that concerns the whole of human society. So, the exclusion of the collective appears as a great social problem that might be dealt by the companies to be perceived as responsible.      • Responsible companies are awarded with the loyalty of the consumers.      • Clear corporate information about the commitment with this problem will reinforce the loyalty toward the brand.      • This information can be given in an informal way or by following a certification process. The impact of those methods will depend on how disability is understood by each consumer. This paper focuses on a topic usually neglected by companies and even by literature. However, the fact that more and more companies are paying attention to this problem allows us to think that we are facing a social change that will challenge companies.

  5. Customer loyalty guidelines for independent financial advisers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle van Tonder

    2016-04-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for creating customer loyalty towards independent financial advisers in South Africa. Motivation: To succeed, financial advisers need to build good relationships with clients and ensure they remain loyal to them in the long term. Research design, approach and method: A convenience non-probability sampling technique was applied, and altogether 262 self-administered questionnaires were completed and used in the analysis. Descriptive and standard multiple regression analysis and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA technique were used to test four hypotheses formulated for the study. Main findings: Relationship commitment must be established in a trustworthy environment, regardless of the type of province where the business is operated. Practical/managerial implications: In urban provinces (such as Gauteng both trusting relationships and commitment could lead to customer loyalty; in semi-urban provinces (such as North-West only the commitment variable might do so. Independent financial advisers in both provinces should explore additional factors that could foster customer loyalty. Contributions: The research findings of this study challenge the seminal work of Morgan and Hunt (1994 by establishing that in South Africa, the extent to which trust and commitment predicts customer loyalty is specific to both industrial and geographical location. This study further provides customer loyalty guidelines for independent financial advisers in South Africa.

  6. ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE ON CUSTOMER LOYALTY FOR DIRECT SELLING COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia BOBALCA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to investigate Romanian direct sellers’ perceptions on customers’ loyalty. The research objectives are: (1 to identify the direct sellers’ perceptions on the concept of loyalty; (2 to identify the main loyalty techniques that direct sellers use in their work with the clients; (3 to frame the portrait of a loyal customer. As a research method, we used qualitative research based on depth interviews. It is an exploratory and instrumental research, the results being used for building a questionnaire for a future survey. The investigated population is represented by direct selling women, with ages beteeen 19 and 30 years. For direct sellers, loyalty is an attitude and also a behavior, it means buying from the same company, from the same seller and preferring the products of the company. The main loyalty techniques that direct sellers use in their work with the clients are: promotional actions, personalization the relation with the client and offering stimulants. The loyal customer is the one who buys companies’ products every month or at least quarterly, spends a monthly amount of 100 Ron on these products, works with the same seller, pays on time for the order, doesn’t look only after promotions, loves the products, recommends the company to others, doesn’t return the order, wants to buy more products from the company and trusts its products.

  7. Consumers’ Loyalty Related to Labor Inclusion of People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Marta; Luis Fernández, José

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: the purpose of this paper is to show that reporting the corporate commitment to labor exclusion of people with disability correlates with the increase of consumer loyalty. Methodology: It is a theoretical revision that will relate consumer loyalty to three main topics: disability and labor exclusion, responsible consumerism toward disability, and corporate communication to increase loyalty of those consumers that are concerned about this problem. Findings:      • Disability is an invisible phenomenon that concerns the whole of human society. So, the exclusion of the collective appears as a great social problem that might be dealt by the companies to be perceived as responsible.      • Responsible companies are awarded with the loyalty of the consumers.      • Clear corporate information about the commitment with this problem will reinforce the loyalty toward the brand.      • This information can be given in an informal way or by following a certification process. The impact of those methods will depend on how disability is understood by each consumer. Originality/value: This paper focuses on a topic usually neglected by companies and even by literature. However, the fact that more and more companies are paying attention to this problem allows us to think that we are facing a social change that will challenge companies. PMID:27445880

  8. Followers' agreeableness and extraversion and their loyalty towards authentic leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzani, Lucas; Ripoll, Pilar; Peiró, José María

    2014-01-01

    Effective leaders understand that loyal followers are the key for success. To win their loyalty, leaders usually build social exchange relationships with them, through a wide range of behaviours, such as honouring agreements or using open and transparent communication. However, the effect of these behaviours on their followers' loyalty can differ depending on followers' individual differences, especially in relational traits such as agreeableness and extraversion. We explored the moderating role of followers' agreeableness and extraversion in the relationship between authentic leadership (using transactional leadership as reference group) and followers' loyalty. A two-wave experiment, where 224 participants with and without work experience were randomly assigned to either a transactional or authentic leadership style condition was conducted. Our results show that followers in the authentic leadership condition had higher levels of loyalty toward their leader. Moreover, followers' agreeableness played a negative moderating role in this relationship whereas extraversion played a positive moderating role in it. Our results indicate that followers' characteristics influence the effect of situational factors on their attitudes, such as loyalty, providing support for the need of a more integrative approach to leadership, where followers need to be considered as active elements of this process ofinfluence.

  9. Brand interactions and social media: enhancing user loyalty through social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Nisar, T.M.; Whitehead, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate how user loyalty can be achieved and maintained through social networking sites. More specifically, we intend to test the relationships between brands, user loyalty and social media. The research thus provides insights into user-brand relationships through social media and argues how loyal customers can be through social networking websites. Although there are considerable numbers of studies about loyalty; there exists very limited work studying user loyalty thr...

  10. Reflection of Loyalty Programmes with the Use of Bonuses in Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Sakharov Pavlo O.

    2013-01-01

    The article studies loyalty programmes that are used at modern trading enterprises and discovers main barriers on the way of development of methodical approaches of bonus accounting provided to the clients of loyalty programmes. It analyses theoretical and methodical aspects of bonus accounting in international practice and methods of reflection of loyalty programmes in accounting with the use of bonuses existing in Ukraine. Comparing electronic money and settlement elements of the loyalty pr...

  11. STUDY OF IDENTIFYING AND PRIORITIZING THE AFFECTING FACTORS ON BANK BRAND CUSTOMER LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Aliyari; Yosef Beygzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Today, customer loyalty is the key to business success. By increased customers’ loyalty, market share and profitability level of enterprises will rise. Market perception along with planning and adopting appropriate strategies for making customers loyal and enhancing their rate of loyalty leads to long-term benefits for the enterprises. Given the importance of the issue, the goal of this study was to identify and prioritize the factors affecting loyalty to a banking brand from perspective of K...

  12. THE EFFECT OF BRAND LOYALTY OF INVOLVEMENT TO PRODUCTS: THE SAMPLE OF MOBILE PHONE

    OpenAIRE

    Armagan, Ece; Akel, Gokhan

    2017-01-01

    Brands in a highly competitive environment is consideredas the main assets of businesses, businesses that create brand loyalty ensuresthat there is a long period of time. In order to ensure brand loyalty alsoconsumers’ involvement need to be investigated. Brand loyalty is also a greatbenefit in understanding consumers' level of involvement on the brand. Theproduct involvement required to understand consumer behavior is an importantfactor on brand loyalty. In this study, the effect of the...

  13. Involvement and Trust in a Brand as Predictors of Loyalty Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Darsono, Licen Indahwati

    2009-01-01

    Customer loyalty is the most valuable asset for the firm. Several researchs find that customer loyalty is positively related with profitability. The purpose of this research is to investigate the power of involvement and trust in a brand (as cognitive and conative antece-dent of loyalty) to predict loyalty categories. Dick and Basu (1994) conceptualization of loyaly is used as the main reference in this research. The object of this research is facial whitening product, and the subjects are wo...

  14. Analyzing the relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty : Case: Ritz-Carlton Guangzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Tong

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The first objective of this research is to study the concepts of customers’ satisfaction and loyalty and discover the factors influencing them.Secondly, the objective is to analyze the relationship between the concepts of customer’ satisfaction and loyalty. The third objective is to discover how customers’ satisfaction and loyalty can be increased. A set of recommendations for the case company a...

  15. Determination of combinations of the attributes of sales promotion for different loyalty stages' customers

    OpenAIRE

    Pilelienė, Lina

    2010-01-01

    The peculiarities of the usage of sales promotion according to customer loyalty stage are being analyzed in the article. The main assumption here is that customers being on different loyalty stages have distinct needs and expectations with the sales promotion offerings. To be effective, sales promotion has to correspond to specific needs of a customer loyalty stage. On purpose to determine combination of attributes of sales promotion best suitable to customers being on different loyalty stage...

  16. Relationships among grocery nutrition label users and consumers' attitudes and behavior toward restaurant menu labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary G; Mathe-Soulek, Kimberly; Higgins, Joseph A

    2013-12-01

    In the United States (US), based on the 2010 Affordable Care Act, restaurant chains and similar retail food establishments with 20 or more locations are required to begin implementing calorie information on their menus. As enacting of the law begins, it is important to understand its potential for improving consumers' healthful behaviors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore relationships among users of grocery nutrition labels and attitudes toward restaurant menu labeling, along with the caloric content of their restaurant menu selection. Study participants were surveyed and then provided identical mock restaurant menus with or without calories. Results found that participants who used grocery nutrition labels and believed they would make healthy menu selections with nutrition labels on restaurant menus made healthier menu selections, regardless of whether the menu displayed calories or not. Consumers' nutrition knowledge and behaviors gained from using grocery nutrition labels and consumers' desire for restaurants to provide nutrition menu labels have a positive effect on their choosing healthful restaurant menu items. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The use of reverse logistics for waste management in a Brazilian grocery retailer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Karina T S; Braga Junior, Sergio S

    2016-01-01

    Retail growth is a result of the diversification of departments with the intention to look to consumer's needs and level of demand. Pressed by consumers and by the law, the adoption of environmental preservation practices is becoming stronger among grocery retailers. The objective of this research was to analyse the practices of reverse logistics performed by a retailer and measure the amount of waste generated by each department. To reach the proposed goal, a field research study was conducted to directly observe a grocery retailer in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, for a period of 6 months and monitor the amounts of cardboard and plastic discarded by each department. Using the Wuppertal method, the first result observed was that the retailer stopped its monthly production of approximately 20 tonne of biotic and abiotic material, which influence global warming and degradation of the ozone layer. Another result observed with the implementation of reverse logistics, was that the general grocery department mostly used cardboard and plastic. This sector includes products such as food cupboard, drinks, household, health and beauty, and pet articles. The fresh fruit and vegetable department and the meat, chicken and frozen department were increasingly using less plastic and cardboard packaging, increasing the use of returnable and durable packaging and thus promoting sustainability. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Impact of Perceived Website Service Quality on Customer E-Loyalty on a Lodging Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Myunghee

    2009-01-01

    Customer loyalty on websites, "e-loyalty", is reflected on customer behavior, regardless of online or offline business. Specifically, it is believed that customer loyalty on a website is strongly associated with website service quality. This study rigorously reviewed previously reported research in the website service quality dimensions and…

  19. 42 CFR 61.14 - Separate consideration of information concerning moral character or loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... moral character or loyalty. 61.14 Section 61.14 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Separate consideration of information concerning moral character or loyalty. No information in the records or possession of the Public Health Service concerning the moral character or loyalty of a fellow will...

  20. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From next week, the SFS UNIMARKET (tooling) catalogue will be accessible using the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and those of existing suppliers. Users will now be able to place orders from the SFS catalogue using the Material Request form on EDH. Note: The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment and those for SFS equipment, placed using the same Material Request form, to the CERN Stores and SFS respectively. In both cases, the maximum delivery time will be 48 hours. Requests for equipment will be routed for approval in accordance with standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  1. INFORMATION FOR STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From next week, the SFS UNIMARKET (tooling) catalogue will be accessible using the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and those of existing suppliers. Users will now be able to place orders from the SFS catalogue using the Material Request form on EDH. Note: The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment and those for SFS equipment, placed using the same Material Request form, to the CERN Stores and SFS respectively. In both cases, the maximum delivery time will be 48 hours. Requests for equipment will be routed for approval in accordance with standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  2. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Radiospares Catalogue is now accessible from the Material Request page on EDH in the same way as the CERN Stores Catalogue. This means that users can order Radiospares equipment by completing an EDH Materials Request form. N.B.: The system will automatically forward orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Radiospares equipment to Radiospares. In both cases the delivery time will be a maximum of 48 hours. Requests for materials will be routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  3. INFORMATION FOR STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    1999-01-01

    You can now make Material Request from CERN Stores over the WEB :CERN Home/Administrative Tools/EDH/Material Requestor https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAGVia the Stores Catalogue : CERN Home/Administrative Tools/Stores Catalogueor http://edhcat.cern.ch/In both cases, you need to enter your EDH login and password.For more details, you can consult the Quick Reference Guide on :http://edh.cern.ch/doc/quickrefguides.htmlor obtain a printed version from AIS Support at tel: 79933or e-mail to: ais.support@cern.chSPL DivisionLogistics Group

  4. Food marketing targeting youth and families: what do we know about stores where moms actually shop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Rooney, Mary R

    2013-01-01

    Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC), and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop.

  5. Food Marketing Targeting Youth and Families: What Do We Know about Stores Where Moms Actually Shop?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S. Grigsby-Toussaint

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC, and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop.

  6. Food Marketing Targeting Youth and Families: What Do We Know about Stores Where Moms Actually Shop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Rooney, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC), and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop. PMID:24163701

  7. The Antecedents of Store Image and Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Külter Demirgüneş

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Definition ofstore image is argued to be useful if it predicts phenomena such assatisfaction, loyalty, customer retention and other attitudinal and behavioraloutcomes. Previous researches show that customers are affected by the storeattributes and consider them to assess perceived benefits and attitudes. One ofthe biggest challenges for companies is to build a positive image. Knowing thealternatives which could be used to form a positive image is an importantissue.A positive image which iscreated in the customer’s mind about store is seen to have a strong andpositive influence on satisfaction. A satisfied customer is likely to be loyalto the store. Therefore, image and customer satisfaction gain importance in thestores which aim to survive.     This study focuses on store image, customer satisfaction and therelationship between them. The study primarily explains these two concepts, andthen provides a literature review on the researches related with them. The study presents researches in which store image andcustomer satisfaction are separately discussed, thus it also shows othervariables which can be influential on these concepts. Implications for bothstore image theory and practices are discussed. The literature review revealsthat store image plays an important role in customer satisfaction.  Sincemost of the studies in literature are based on retail industry, in this study‘store’ concept mostly refers to ‘retail store’.

  8. SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER LOYALTY IN PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The capability of service providers to plan and implement the quality components in executing daily job may have a significant impact on customer loyalty. However, the role of service quality as an important determinant has been given less attention in the workplace quality research literature. Therefore, this study was undertaken to measure the relationship between service quality and customer loyalty. A survey method was employed to collect data from Malaysian soldiers who involved in peacekeeping missions at Middle Eastern country. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model analysis demonstrate that the ability of organization to appropriately implement tangible, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy in executing daily job has been important determinants of customer loyalty. Further, this study provides discussion, implications and conclusion.

  9. Moderating Effects of Craftourism on Place Attachment and Destination Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Baksi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Practice of traditional handicrafts play a significant role in enhancing destination attractiveness. Visitors assign considerable weightage to local craft practices to satisfy their desire to participate in the learning and production process, a case of role-reversal. Promoting this scope of role-reversal has been used by the Destination Marketing Organizations as differentiators. Craftourism has gained considerable momentum. This paper focuses on examining the moderating effects of craftourism on place attachment and destination loyalty. Dimensions of craftourism were identified by applying suitable statistical procedure. The results revealed craftourism, with option for visitors to enact role-reversal, improves the chances of destination loyalty following antecedent effects of place attachment. Keywords: craftourism, place attachment, destination loyalty, visitor, moderating

  10. ED services: the impact of caring behaviors on patient loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sandra S; Franz, David; Allen, Monette; Chang, En-Chung; Janowiak, Dana; Mayne, Patricia; White, Ruth

    2010-09-01

    This article describes an observational study of caring behaviors in the emergency departments of 4 Ascension Health hospitals and the impact of these behaviors on patient loyalty to the associated hospital. These hospitals were diverse in size and geography, representing 3 large urban community hospitals in metropolitan areas and 1 in a midsized city. Research assistants from Purdue University (West Lafayette, IN) conducted observations at the first study site and validated survey instruments. The Purdue research assistants trained contracted observers at the subsequent study sites. The research assistants conducted observational studies of caregivers in the emergency departments at 4 study sites using convenience sampling of patients. Caring behaviors were rated from 0 (did not occur) to 5 (high intensity). The observation included additional information, for example, caregiver roles, timing, and type of visit. Observed and unobserved patients completed exit surveys that recorded patient responses to the likelihood-to-recommend (loyalty) questions, patient perceptions of care, and demographic information. Common themes across all study sites emerged, including (1) the area that patients considered most important to an ED experience (prompt attention to their needs upon arrival to the emergency department); (2) the area that patients rated as least positive in their actual ED experience (prompt attention to their needs upon arrival to the emergency department); (3) caring behaviors that significantly affected patient loyalty (eg, making sure that the patient is aware of care-related details, working with a caring touch, and making the treatment procedure clearly understood by the patient); and (4) the impact of wait time to see a caregiver on patient loyalty. A number of correlations between caring behaviors and patient loyalty were statistically significant (P loyalty but that occurred least frequently. The study showed through factor analysis that some caring

  11. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Bossard catalogue is now accessible alongside the CERN Stores catalogue from the Material Request form on EDH. Users will thus be able to order Bossard equipment using the EDH Materials Request form. As a reminder, the system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Bossard equipment to Bossard. In both cases the delivery time will be a maximum of 48 hours. Requests for materials will be routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Some items will remain available from the emergency desk in the event of urgent requests. These items will be visible in the Stores catalogue even if they cannot be purchased via the EDH material request form. Logistics Group FI Department

  12. Provenance Store Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2008-03-01

    Requirements for the provenance store and access API are developed. Existing RDF stores and APIs are evaluated against the requirements and performance benchmarks. The team’s conclusion is to use MySQL as a database backend, with a possible move to Oracle in the near-term future. Both Jena and Sesame’s APIs will be supported, but new code will use the Jena API

  13. Antecedents of Employee Loyalty in Educational Setting: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available No studies have been conducted to link three variables of work values, internal marketing, and job satisfaction in predicting employee loyalty. Therefore, this research aims to fulfill the gap by developing a model that include work values, internal marketing, and job satisfaction in assessing employee loyalty in educational context. This research applies a judgmental sampling with the sample size of 200 lecturers from private universities in Tangerang. Structural equation modeling was applied in testing the research hypotheses. The results showed that there is one out of three hypotheses that were not supported. That hypothesis is the relationship between internal marketing and job satisfaction.

  14. Investigating cross-category brand loyalty behavior in FMCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Hildebrandt, Lutz; Silberhorn, Nadja

    category depend on purchases in other categories. The aspect of cross-category related brand loyalty has been somewhat neglected so far. We concentrate on cross-category relationships of strong national brands and on how customers' brand choice decisions are related across several product categories.......In competitive markets, customer retention is more efficient than trying to attract new customers. Brand loyalty is an intrinsic commitment to repeatedly purchase a particular brand. But most analyses have been conducted in one specific category only. It has been shown that product purchases in one...

  15. Close Look at Hybrid Vehicle Loyalty and Ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes [ORNL; Taylor, Rob D [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In a news release dated April 9, 2012, Polk stated that only 35% of hybrid owners bought a hybrid again when they returned to market in 2011. These findings were based on an internal study conducted by Polk. The study also indicated that if repurchase behavior among the high volume audience of Toyota Prius owners wasn t factored in; hybrid loyalty would drop to under 25%. This news release has generated a lot of interest and concern by the automobile industry as well as consumers, since it was published, and caused many to think about the idea of hybrid loyalty as well as factors that influence consumers. Most reactions to the 35% hybrid loyalty dealt with concerns of the viability of hybrid technology as part of the solution to address transportation energy challenges. This paper attempts to shed more light on Polk s hybrid loyalty study as well as explore several information sources concerning hybrid loyalty status. Specifically, major factors that might impact the selection and acquisition of hybrid vehicles are addressed. This includes investigating the associations between hybrid market shares and influencing factors like fuel price and hybrid incentives, as well as the availability of hybrid models and other highly fuel efficient vehicle options. This effort is not in-depth study, but rather a short study to see if Polk s claim could be validated. This study reveals that Polk s claim was rather misleading because its definition of loyalty was very narrow. This paper also suggests that Polk s analysis failed to account for some very important factors, raising the question of whether it is fair to compare a vehicle drive train option (which hybrids are) with a vehicle brand in terms of loyalty and also raises the question of whether hybrid loyalty is even a valid point to consider. This report maintains that Polk s study does not prove that hybrid owners were dissatisfied with their vehicles, which was a common theme among reporting news agencies when Polk

  16. Visitors’ Motivations, Satisfaction and Loyalty Towards Castro Marim Medieval Fair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Márcia Barbeitos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tests the relationship between motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty using a structural equation model. Data have been collected through a questionnaire applied to visitors attending a local festival, Castro Marim Medieval Fair, which hosts every year between 45.000 and 60.000 visitors. Results show that satisfaction towards controlled variables of the event within the venue’s boundaries, such as animation, gastronomy, and handicraft, influences visitors’ overall satisfaction towards the event. On the other hand, they also reveal a direct relationship between overall satisfaction and loyalty. The study contributes to a better understanding of visitors’ behaviour and provides useful guidance to festival ideation and design.

  17. What drives customer loyalty towards Greek wine varieties? Using polarization to model consumer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotseridis, Yiorgios; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios

    their processing limits, they tend to simplify their decision-making based on heuristics (Bettman, Luce and Payne 1998). In the case of wine, such heuristics can be said to be extrinsic (e.g. brand, price, region variety, vintage, label) and intrinsic cues (taste, colour, etc). Many studies have explored......, marketers have been always eager towards building strong bonds with their customers. Therefore, identifying which cues makes consumers remain loyal and increase their chances of repeat purchase is always of high importance. In the case of wine, delineating the issue of loyalty in a wine brand......Wine is often characterised as a difficult and confusing product for consumers. In addition, the wine market is much diverse and competitive, with an enormous number of niche brands making consumer choice even more complex. When consumers are overloaded with information that exceeds...

  18. The Nord interim store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leushacke, D.F.; Rittscher, D.

    1996-01-01

    In line with the decision taken in 1990 to shut down and decommission the Greifswald and Rheinsberg Nuclear Power Stations, the waste management concept of the Energiewerke Nord is based on direct and complete decommissioning of the six shut down reactor units within the next fifteen years. One key element of this concept is the construction and use of the Zwischenlager Nord (Nord Interim Store, ZLN) for holding the existing nuclear fuels and for interim and decay storage of the radioactive materials arising in decommissioning and demolition. The owner and operator of the store is Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and treatment station and buffer store for the flows of residues arising. As a radioactive waste management station, it accommodates nuclear fuels, radioactive waste or residues which are not treated any further. It is used as a buffer store to allow the materials accumulating in disassembly to be stored temporarily before or after treatment in order to ensure continuous loading of the treatment plants. When operated as a processing station, the ZLN is able to handle nearly all types of radioactive waste and residues arising, except for nuclear fuels. These installations allow the treatment of radioactive residues to be separated from the demolition work both physically and in time. The possibilities of interium storage and buffer storage of untreated waste and waste packages make for high flexibility in logistics and waste management strategy. (orig.) [de

  19. Inflammable materials stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandagopan, V.

    2017-01-01

    A new Inflammable Materials Stores has been constructed by A and SED, BARC near Gamma Field for storage of inflammable materials falling into Petroleum Class ‘A’ ‘B’ and “C” mainly comprising of oils and lubricants, Chemicals like Acetone, Petroleum Ether etc. which are regularly procured by Central Stores Unit (CSU) for issue to the various divisions of BARC. The design of the shed done by A and SED, BARC was duly got approved from Petroleum and Explosive Safety Organization (PESO) which is a mandatory requirement before commencement of the construction. The design had taken into account various safety factors which is ideally required for an inflammable materials stores

  20. Predicting the Satisfaction and Loyalty of Adjunct Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Jeff E.

    2012-01-01

    Satisfaction with the quality of students, autonomy, faculty support, honorarium, and preference for teaching were significant predictors of adjunct faculty loyalty. With the exception of autonomy, these factors along with a heavy teaching load, collaborative research with full-time faculty, and satisfaction with teaching schedule were predictive…

  1. Career Adaptability, Turnover and Loyalty during Organizational Downsizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klehe, Ute-Christine; Zikic, Jelena; Van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; De Pater, Irene E.

    2011-01-01

    During organizational restructuring and downsizing, employees often worry about being redundant, actually are redundant, and/or feel unsatisfied with their jobs. Employees, in turn, often react with poor loyalty to and high voluntary exit from the organization. The current study addresses this process from a careers' perspective, showing that…

  2. Career adaptability, turnover and loyalty during organizational downsizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klehe, U.-C.; Zicik, J.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; de Pater, I.E.

    2011-01-01

    During organizational restructuring and downsizing, employees often worry about being redundant, actually are redundant, and/or feel unsatisfied with their jobs. Employees, in turn, often react with poor loyalty to and high voluntary exit from the organization. The current study addresses this

  3. Loyalty to two brands of beer of the same producer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    The focus of the paper is loyalty to two brands of beer produced by the Carlsberg Group - Tuborg and Carlsberg. Both beers are lagers. The Carlsberg Group markets Tuborg as a more premium brand, and it also aims to promote it to women. Unlike in the Netherlands with one brand - Heineken and unlike...

  4. Impact of brand personality on satisfaction and loyalty of consumers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research is to review the impact of various dimensions of brand personality which includes: honesty, qualification, being exciting, perfection, and strength on customer's satisfaction and its impact on customer's loyalty. The statistical population of this research includes customers who have used luxury ...

  5. Understanding Student Satisfaction and Loyalty in the UAE HE Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Cedwyn; Ross, Kieran; Meraj, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to verify and estimate the impact of the antecedents of Programme satisfaction and to explore its link with student loyalty in the higher education (HE) sector in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Design/methodology/approach: A Programme Experience Questionnaire (PEQ) was developed, based on the National Student…

  6. Questions of Ethics and Loyalty: An Assistant Principal's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by real-life events, this case describes the dilemma of a novice assistant principal who must balance her role as an administrator at her high school campus where a cousin's son, Eddie, recently enrolled and is proving to be disruptive the first month of school. Troubled by questions of ethics and loyalty, the issue is complicated after…

  7. Why patient loyalty matters--and how to enhance it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas H

    2014-12-01

    Five tactics can help healthcare organizations earn patients' confidence and loyalty-and in turn retain or expand market share: Developing a shared vision about patient care. Committing to measuring the patient experience. Being accountable to the data. Emphasizing team care. Establishing organizational pride.

  8. Higher Education Institutions: Satisfaction and Loyalty among International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paswan, Audhesh K.; Ganesh, Gopala

    2009-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the relationship between satisfaction with educational service augmenters and consumer loyalty within the context of the international student market. An enhanced state of consumer satisfaction, also labeled as delight, is captured by focusing on service augmenters that fall outside the domain of the core…

  9. A review of brand-loyalty measures in marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Mellens, M; Dekimpe, Marnik; Steenkamp, J

    1996-01-01

    Brand loyalty represents an important asset to the firm. While considerable agreement exists on its conceptual definition, no unified approach to operationalize the concept has yet emerged in the marketing literature. We provide a conceptual framework to classify existing management approaches, discuss their relative advantages/disadvantages and provide some managerial recommendations.

  10. Studying customer loyalty at Daewoo express bus service, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meeting service quality standards and striving for loyalty are two critical areas which have until now been overlooked by both the passenger transport industry and academia in Pakistan therefore the study sheds useful light on an issue hitherto untouched. Therefore increased sample size will help in increasing generalizability of study. Methods: This paper is designed to study the level of loyalty at Daewoo Express Bus Service in Sargodha by measuring customer satisfaction. Researchers used a small sample of only 96 respondents (passengers and only studies customer's behavior in the service quality of Daewoo Express Bus Service however it may differ in other passenger transport services. Results and conclusions: This paper reveals that there is a positive and significant relationship between loyalty (dependant variable and price perceptions, reliability, retrieving and smoothing (independent variables. However, the study found that reliability of services is the most important dimension among other independent variables (price perceptions, smoothing, reliability, retrieving effecting customers loyalty at Daewoo Express. Paper under consideration would surely assist Daewoo`s management team to take care of the loopholes existing in the current service level and likely threats which Daewoo might face.

  11. Gender Effects on Loyalty: A Replication in an Emerging Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babah Daouda, Falylath; Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper replicates the gender-effect on object of loyalty found by
    Melnyk et al. (2009), suggesting that females are more loyal towards
    individuals and males are more loyal to groups and organizations. Results
    from Benin (West Africa) support this but find that the results

  12. Filipino Parents' School Choice and Loyalty: A Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; de Castro, Belinda V.; Aquino, Kieshia Albert B.; Buenaventura, Melinda Anne R.; Duque, Anna Celina C.; Enriquez, Mark Lawrence D. R.

    2008-01-01

    This quantitative study aims to ascertain the significant relationship existing between parents' profile, and their school choice and school loyalty. Data were gathered using the researcher's two-part made instrument. Respondents were first asked to fill in a "robotfoto" for purpose of profiling their baseline characteristics and were…

  13. Leadership Analysis in K-12 Case Study: "Divided Loyalties"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2016-01-01

    This report mainly aims to provide a critical and in-depth analysis of the K-12 Case, "Divided Loyalty" by Holy and Tartar (2004). The case recounts how the manifestation of inadequate leadership skills in a school setting could affect negatively the performance of students.

  14. Teachers' Loyalty to Their Supervisors and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Nurhayat; Korumaz, Mithat

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies on teachers' organizational commitment based some findings of western context in Turkey. But some of the characteristics prove that organizational issues cannot be resulted with the terms in Western World. One of the new concepts in organizational issues for Eastern culture is loyalty to supervisor (in school context supervisor…

  15. Exit and Voice: Organizational Loyalty and Dispute Resolution Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study compares workplace dispute resolution strategies (exit, voice and toleration) in matched pairs of conventional and worker-owned cooperative organizations operating in three industries--coal mining, taxicab driving and organic food distribution. Building on Hirschman's classic exit, voice and loyalty thesis, this research demonstrates…

  16. The role of consumer confidence in creating customer loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Yi-Chun; de Vries, Lisette; Wiesel, Thorsten; Verhoef, Pieter

    How can firms retain customers during recessions? To answer this question, we investigate the moderating role of consumer confidence (CC) on the effects of three types of crucial customer loyalty strategies. These strategies are value equity (VE), brand equity (BE), and relationship equity (RE),

  17. Airline loyalty (programs) across borders : A geographic discontinuity approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gerben; Behrens, Christiaan; van Ommeren, Jos

    2018-01-01

    We analyze brand loyalty advantages of national airlines in their domestic countries using geocoded data from a major international frequent flier program. We employ a geographic discontinuity design that estimates discontinuities in program activity at the national borders of the program's

  18. Information for Stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    The DISTRELEC catalogue (IT) is now available in EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and the catalogues of existing suppliers. Using an EDH materials request form, users can now order DISTRELEC equipment from amongst the following product groups: peripherals, multimedia, PC components, data media, communication and data cables and adapters. Non-authorised materials will be clearly indicated. As a reminder, the system automatically manages the distribution of standard Stores equipment and punch out equipment ordered on the same request form. In both cases, delivery will take a maximum of 48 hours. The approval of the EDH document will follow the usual EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  19. The loyalty on the market of agricultural machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Schwarzová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dealing with the market of agricultural machinery with the focus on the loyalty of agricultural subjects. In this market the brand is very important factor that can influence fundamentally the purchaser during buying a machine. Totally there are three types, the subjects that are totally not influenced by the brand mark, the subjects taking in their consideration the brand mark but just as one factor and the rest that is loyalty and buys just one brand. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the customers in this market and their loyalty to each brand. To reach the main goal there were analyzed data of agricultural subject’s facilities, perception of brand marks and their relation. The data were used from own primary marketing research and analyzed by the help of statistics methods for marketing research as a Chi-square test, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and testing the hypotheses. The other part of this paper was focused on the satisfaction of respondents with each brand that they own. According to the article objective there were set hypotheses for following testing that were main mean to solve the goal. The result of this paper is found loyalty for just one brand in the agricultural machinery market. For John Deere brand there was proven the loyalty – subjects perceiving the mark as the best in the market and also buying it. The results can help for our future analyses to understand factors influencing the market and analyses of each brand and how their strategy in the market is conformed to the subject perception and behavior.

  20. An Eclectic Approach to Loyalty-Promoting Instruments in Corporate Law: Revisiting Hirschman's Model of Exit, Voice, and Loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Bootsma (Bart)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This essay analyses the shareholder role in corporate governance in terms of Albert Hirschman's Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. The term 'exit' is embedded in a law & economics framework, while 'voice' relates to a corporate constitutional framework. The essay takes an

  1. Shaktismen - hinduismens store gudindetradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne Wernicke

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen giver en introduktion til shaktismen - hinduismens store gudindetradition. Den ser på de vigtigste gudinder, begreber, traditioner og forestillinger, ligesom den giver et vue over forskningssituationen. Shaktismens opståen i sin klassiske form, dens hovedretninger, virkelighedsforståelse...

  2. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    From the beginning of March onwards, the LYRECO (stationery) catalogue will be accessible from the Material Request form on EDH in the same way as the CERN Stores catalogue and the existing individual supplier catalogues. Items will be delivered within a maximum of 48 hours. Logistics Group FI Department

  3. Store Security: Reducing Shoplifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsel, Robert; Garman, Jerry

    The major purpose of the course outline presented in the document is the reduction of stealing in retail stores. The teaching outline is formatted by juxtaposing the content outline of each substantive area next to relevant activities and methods. Some of the topics covered are psychology of shoplifting, tools used by shoplifters, Ohio's law on…

  4. Healthy Zero Energy Buildings (HZEB) Program - Cross-Sectional Study of Contaminant Levels, Source, Strengths, and Ventilation Rates in Retail Stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Sidheswaran, Meera; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William

    2014-02-01

    This field study measured ventilation rates and indoor air quality parameters in 21 visits to retail stores in California. The data was collected to guide the development of new, science-based commercial building ventilation rate standards that balance the dual objectives of increasing energy efficiency and maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Data collection occurred between September 2011 and March 2013. Three types of stores participated in this study: grocery stores, furniture/hardware stores, and apparel stores. Ventilation rates and indoor air contaminant concentrations were measured on a weekday, typically between 9 am and 6 pm. Ventilation rates measured using a tracer gas decay method exceeded the minimum requirement of California’s Title 24 Standard in all but one store. Even though there was adequate ventilation according to Title 24, concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein exceeded the most stringent chronic health guidelines. Other indoor air contaminants measured included carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), and particulate matter (PM). Concentrations of CO{sub 2} were kept low by adequate ventilation, and were assumed low also because the sampling occurred on a weekday when retail stores were less busy. CO concentrations were also low. The indoor-outdoor ratios of O{sub 3} showed that the first-order loss rate may vary by store trade types and also by ventilation mode (mechanical versus natural). Analysis of fine and ultrafine PM measurements showed that a substantial portion of the particle mass in grocery stores with cooking-related emissions was in particles less than 0.3 μm. Stores without cooking as an indoor source had PM size distributions that were more similar indoors and outdoors. The whole-building emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM were estimated from the measured ventilation rates and indoor and outdoor contaminant concentrations. Mass balance models were

  5. Reliability of a retail food store survey and development of an accompanying retail scoring system to communicate survey findings and identify vendors for healthful food and marketing initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Observational. Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store scoring methodology weighted to emphasize availability of healthful food. Type A intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) with absolute agreement definition or a κ test for measures using ranges as categories. Measures of availability and price of fruits and vegetables performed well in reliability testing (κ = 0.681-0.800). Items for vegetable quality were better than for fruit (ICC 0.708 vs 0.528). Kappa scores indicated low to moderate agreement (0.372-0.674) on external store marketing measures and higher scores for internal store marketing. "Next to" the checkout counter was more reliable than "within 6 feet." Health departments using the store scoring system reported it as the most useful communication of neighborhood findings. There was good reliability of the measures among the research pairs. The local store scores can show the need to bring in resources and to provide access to fruits and vegetables and other healthful food. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Para I Famagu'on-Ta: Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Food Store Environment, and Childhood Overweight/Obesity in the Children's Healthy Living Program on Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanane, Lenora; Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; Silva, Joshua; Li, Fenfang; Nigg, Claudio; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T; Novotny, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the: (1) association between food store environment (FSE), fruit and vegetable (FV) availability and access, and prevalence of early childhood overweight/obesity (COWOB); and (2) influence of young child actual FV intake on the relationship between the FSE and early COWOB prevalence. Anthropometric and socio-demographic data of children (2 to 8 years; N=466) in baseline communities on Guam participating in the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program community trial were included. CDC year 2000 growth charts were used to calculate BMI z-scores and categories. FSE factors (fresh FV scores, store type) were assessed using the CX3 Food Availability and Marketing Survey amended for CHL. ArcGIS maps were constructed with geographic coordinates of participant residences and food stores to calculate food store scores within 1 mile of participant's residences. A sub-sample of participants (n = 355) had Food and Activity Log data to calculate FV and energy intakes. Bivariate correlations and logistic regression evaluated associations. Of 111 stores surveyed, 73% were small markets, 16% were convenience stores, and 11% were large grocery/supermarkets. Supermarkets/large grocery stores averaged the highest FV scores. Most participants did not meet FV intake recommendations while nearly half exceeded energy intake recommendations. Living near a small market was negatively correlated with BMI z-score (r = - 0.129, P associations. The high density of small markets may be an opportunity for FSE intervention but further investigation of Guam's FSE influence on health is needed.

  7. Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of food retail interventions is largely undetermined, yet substantial investments have been made to improve access to healthy foods in food deserts and swamps via grocery and corner store interventions. This study evaluated the effects of corner store conversions in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California on perceived accessibility of healthy foods, perceptions of corner stores, store patronage, food purchasing, and eating behaviors. Methods Household data (n = 1686 were collected at baseline and 12- to 24-months post-intervention among residents surrounding eight stores, three of which implemented a multi-faceted intervention and five of which were comparisons. Bivariate analyses and logistic and linear regressions were employed to assess differences in time, treatment, and the interaction between time and treatment to determine the effectiveness of this intervention. Results Improvements were found in perceived healthy food accessibility and perceptions of corner stores. No changes were found, however, in store patronage, purchasing, or consumption of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions Results suggest limited effectiveness of food retail interventions on improving health behaviors. Future research should focus on other strategies to reduce community-level obesity.

  8. Food and Beverage Availability in Small Food Stores Located in Healthy Food Financing Initiative Eligible Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Duran, Ana Clara; Zenk, Shannon N.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI). Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods) were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97%) stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time. PMID:29057794

  9. Food and Beverage Availability in Small Food Stores Located in Healthy Food Financing Initiative Eligible Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chelsea R; Li, Yu; Duran, Ana Clara; Zenk, Shannon N; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M

    2017-10-18

    Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI). Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods) were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97%) stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time.

  10. Food and Beverage Availability in Small Food Stores Located in Healthy Food Financing Initiative Eligible Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea R. Singleton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI. Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97% stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time.

  11. Policy alternatives for reducing tobacco sales to minors: results from a national survey of retail chain and franchise stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, D G; Linzer, J; Kropp, R; Descheemaeker, N; Feighery, E; Fortmann, S P

    1992-01-01

    Minors' access to tobacco has become an important public health issue. Little is known, however, about the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward access among executives from businesses that sell tobacco. This study examined access from the perspective of corporate and regional headquarters of retail chains and franchises that sell tobacco. A total of 148 U.S. companies with the largest overall retail sales volume that sold tobacco were asked to participate; 91 agreed. The sample included grocery stores, convenience stores, gas station mini-marts, liquor stores, and drug stores. Data revealed at least moderate support for policies limiting youth tobacco access. Although most companies reported having in place policies to prevent minors from purchasing tobacco, these policies did not seem intensive. In addition, executives underestimated the extent of youth access. We conclude that the time is right for passage of bold policies to protect young people from tobacco.

  12. STORE IN STORE FRANCHISING STRATEGY: THE TREND IN FRANCHISING NEGOTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado-Serrano, Alexander; Universidad de Puerto Rico

    2016-01-01

    The literature on franchising has traditionally focused on the effects and transformation it has promoted in the service sector, retailing, restaurants, hotels and other service-related industries. Store within a store research has been focused on the perspective of the manufacturer entering department stores. To date, little research has been carried out for the store in store strategy from the franchising perspective. This paper explores why big box retailers such as Walmart are adopting th...

  13. The economic impact of reduced value added tax rates for groceries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomíra Martinková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The value added tax represents one of the most important sources of state budget revenues of EU Member States. The basic value added tax rate is in the EU currently between 15% in Luxembourg to 27% applied in Hungary. The revenues from this tax represent an average of 17.5% of all tax revenues of EU countries and create an average GDP of 7.0% (year 2016, EU 28. As revenues from value added tax represent a stable income of state budget, the legislative changes in the system of value added tax, mainly its reductions as well as its imposition on groceries, can significantly influence further macroeconomic development. In the last year, the government of the Slovak Republic implemented changes in universal indirect taxing in such way that in addition to the standard value added tax rate of 20%, the Act No. 268/2015 on Value added tax adopted in 2016 a decreased value added tax rate of 10% on selected groceries, in order to support domestic producers and reduce the tax burden of low-income and middle-income groups. According to the European Commission (2007, the reduced rate of value added tax in selected cases has its justification and importance in the country's economy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic impact of the applied reduced value added tax on food in the Slovak Republic in the context of household expenditures and revenues of the state budget.

  14. A framework for understanding grocery purchasing in a low-income urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Drew A; Palmer, Anne M; Beckham, Sarah W; Surkan, Pamela J

    2013-05-01

    Research demonstrates that food desert environments limit low-income shoppers' ability to purchase healthy foods, thereby increasing their likelihood of diet-related illnesses. We sought to understand how individuals in an urban American food desert make grocery-purchasing decisions, and specifically why unhealthy purchases arise. Analysis is based on ethnographic data from participant observation, 37 in-depth interviews, and three focus groups with low-income, primarily African American shoppers with children. We found participants had detailed knowledge of and preference for healthy foods, but the obligation to consistently provide food for their families required them to apply specific decision criteria which, combined with structural qualities of the supermarket environment, increased unhealthy purchases and decreased healthy purchases. Applying situated cognition theory, we constructed an emic model explaining this widely shared grocery-purchasing decision process and its implications. This context-specific understanding of behavior suggests that multifaceted, system-level approaches to intervention are needed to increase healthy purchasing in food deserts.

  15. Evaluating the Impact of Business Intelligence Tools on Organizational Performance in Food and Groceries Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja Venuturumilli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While retailers are spending a significant portion of its information technology (IT budgets on BI and related technology in order to handle the ever increasing volumes of data, the actual benefits derived from these tools needs to be explored. The study focuses on the organized food and groceries retail, and explores benefits of business intelligence (BI and hypothesis‟s a structural causal relationship among its intrinsic attributes, and impact on organizational performance. A focus group of selected senior marketing employees was used to develop and validate the research model. Based on findings from the literature survey and focus group, a survey instrument was developed to empirically validate the research model. Data collected from senior marketing executives and managers from six organized food and groceries retail was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling. Five major categories of BI were identified: (1 access to data quality, (2 improved managerial effectiveness, (3 improved operational effectiveness, (4 improved customer orientation and (5 improved organizational efficiency. From the structural causal relationship analysis, a significant relationship was found between intrinsic attributes and benefits of BI and data quality. The structural equation model also suggests a significant relationship between BI and data quality on organizational performance.

  16. Evaluation of a Cooperative Extension Service Curriculum on Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Grocery Shop, Prepare Food, and Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice R.; Johnston, Jan H.; Brosi, Whitney A.; Jaco, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Shop, Cook and Eat curriculum was designed to provide education about concepts of empowerment and assistive technology for grocery shopping, preparing food, and eating. The curriculum included examples and hands-on demonstrations of assistive technology devices for grocery shopping, food…

  17. Fuel element store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1987-01-01

    The spherical fuel elements are stored dry in cans. The cans themselves are stacked in parallel storage shafts, which are combined into a rectangular storage space. The storage space is made earthquake-proof by surrounding it with concrete. It consists of a ceiling assembled from several steel parts, which is connected to the floor by support elements. A cooling air ventilation station supplies the individual storage shaft and therefore the cans with cooling air via incoming and outgoing pipes. (DG) [de

  18. Air corrosion in storing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaudier, F.; Feron, D.; Baklouti, M.; Midoux, N.

    2001-01-01

    The air corrosiveness of a radioactive waste package has been estimated in a store inside which the environmental conditions are supposed to be rather close to the outside ones. It is expressed according to the ISO 9223 standard, from the humidification value and the amounts of sulfur dioxide and chlorine ions. A computer code has been perfected too; the thermal behaviour of the package can then been determined. (O.M.)

  19. Store and forward teledermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthraj Garehatty

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Store and forward and real time or videoconferences are the two types of teledermatology services practiced. Dermatology and radio-diagnosis are visual specialties suited for store-and-forward teledermatology (SAFT. Advances in information technology, electronic instruments and biotechnology have revolutionized and brought changes in SAFT. Cellular phone, digital camera, personal digital assistants, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max and computer- aided-design software are incorporated to deliver the quality health care to remote geographic regions. Complete SAFT care equivalent to face-to-face consultation (Gold standard is essential. Health care providers in rural areas are the ′eyes′ for the consultants. Consultants to guide them should have a rapid periodic audit of visual parameters and dimensions of lesions. Given this background, this article reviews advances in 1 capture, store and transfer of images. 2 Computer Aided measurements of generalized and localized lesions and 3 the integration model to meet all the above two requirements in a centralized location. This process enables diagnosis, management, periodic assessment and complete follow-up care to achieve patient and physician satisfaction. Preservation of privacy and confidentiality of digital images is important. Uniform rules and regulations are required. Indian space research organization (ISRO, Government of India has demonstrated telemedicine pilot projects utilizing the satellite communication and mobile telemedicine units to be useful in meeting the health care needs of remote and rural India. we have to join hands with them to meet dermatology problems in rural areas.

  20. Towards a three-component model of fan loyalty: a case study of Chinese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xian; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Meng; Zhang, Ji-qi

    2015-01-01

    The term "fan loyalty" refers to the loyalty felt and expressed by a fan towards the object of his/her fanaticism in both everyday and academic discourses. However, much of the literature on fan loyalty has paid little attention to the topic from the perspective of youth pop culture. The present study explored the meaning of fan loyalty in the context of China. Data were collected by the method of in-depth interviews with 16 young Chinese people aged between 19 and 25 years who currently or once were pop fans. The results indicated that fan loyalty entails three components: involvement, satisfaction, and affiliation. These three components regulate the process of fan loyalty development, which can be divided into four stages: inception, upgrade, zenith, and decline. This model provides a conceptual explanation of why and how young Chinese fans are loyal to their favorite stars. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. The effects of interactive marketing, customer satisfaction and flashes on customer loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer ASLAM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores impact of interactive marketing impact on consumer satisfaction and loyalty. So for no specific research has been conducted to identify the process of customer loyalty in banking sector in this perspective. Customer loyalty has great importance and agonizes among connoisseur, academician and professionals in ample industries. Interactive marketing combination of relationship marketing and service marketing. This study generally focused on following dimensions commitment, trust, familiarity, quality of employees, service quality and service personalization efforts as key predictor of customer satisfaction and loyalty. Data was collected by using by pretested questionnaire through personal interviews. A representative sample of one hundred and sixty consumers was selected by using convenience sampling technique. Interactive marketing has positive significant influence customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The customer satisfaction fully mediates the relationship between interactive marketing and customer loyalty.

  2. Organizational Loyalty and Organizational Commitment: An Analysis in Terms of Political Party Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akyay Uygur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sense of belonging is a psychological condition in which loyalties are divided into two. Organizational commitment, the value of the individual within the organization to accept and hear the desire to remain in the organization as it is defined. Identify a specific individual's loyalty to the organizational integration organizations, in the form of sincere commitment and dedication has been defined. This study aimed to determine the level of organizational loyalty to Turkey's third largest political party (AKP, CHP, MHP, feeling of belonging to the organization aims to determine the level of loyalty of the individual. Organizational loyalty created in accordance with this scale in city information was collected from 674 people. Accordingly, the highest level of organizational loyalty to the party MHP, the second CHP and third place in the AKP has emerged.

  3. Towards a three-component model of fan loyalty: a case study of Chinese youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xiao Zhang

    Full Text Available The term "fan loyalty" refers to the loyalty felt and expressed by a fan towards the object of his/her fanaticism in both everyday and academic discourses. However, much of the literature on fan loyalty has paid little attention to the topic from the perspective of youth pop culture. The present study explored the meaning of fan loyalty in the context of China. Data were collected by the method of in-depth interviews with 16 young Chinese people aged between 19 and 25 years who currently or once were pop fans. The results indicated that fan loyalty entails three components: involvement, satisfaction, and affiliation. These three components regulate the process of fan loyalty development, which can be divided into four stages: inception, upgrade, zenith, and decline. This model provides a conceptual explanation of why and how young Chinese fans are loyal to their favorite stars. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. For soldier and state: dual loyalty and World War One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.

  5. Internal marketing and the antecedents of nurse satisfaction and loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W; Pointer, Lucille; Schibrowsky, John A

    2008-01-01

    Employee satisfaction and retention are critical issues that influence the success of any organization. Yet, one of the most critical problems facing the worldwide health care industry is the shortage of qualified nurses. Recent calls have been made within the traditional nursing literature for research that utilizes marketing and business models to better understand nurse satisfaction and retention. The purpose of this study is to develop scales that can be used to empirically test a model of the proposed antecedents of nurse job satisfaction and loyalty which have been used widely in the internal marketing and the relationship-marketing literature. Specifically, the study will investigate the degree to which structural bonding, social bonding, financial bonding activities, and quality of care impact how well nurses are satisfied with their job and their commitment to the organization. The results show that quality of care most impacted nurse satisfaction and loyalty, followed by structural, social, and financial bonds.

  6. How to strengthen customer loyalty, using customer segmentation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELNIC Elena Lidia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Do you provide exceptional customer service?”, “Is the customer service in your company extraordinary?” “How to convert satis fied customers into loyal customers?” - are the most frequent questions of today’s managers and have driven the research on this article to getting the answer to a highly important marketing topic “How to strengthen customer loyalty using customer segmentation?”. Anyone who has bought a product or a service has probably suffered at least once from a company’s apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences. If this is the case, the company is in a wrong direction, since loyalty is the most powerful tool in today competitive market. To strengthen the bonds with these high-profit customers, innovative companies are deploying enterprise-wide strategies built on consumer segmentation.

  7. EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOCAL FOOD CONSUMPTION AND INTENTIONAL LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoon ALLAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the pertinent literature on tourism supply, the relative importance of local food tourism has been subject to considerable discussion. Despite the breadth of such literature, there is a general lack of research on role of local food in tourism in the Middle East, in general and Jordan, in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the local food consumption motivations  and their relationship with intentional loyalty for international tourists. The study indicated that the cultural experience is the central motivation for respondents to experience local food. In addition, it showed that the excitement motivation was the high significant predictor of the behavioural intention (loyalty. On the basis of the findings, tourism management in Jordan should add local food to its tourism discourse and improve the nature and scope of the current marketing and promotion strategies of local food.

  8. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our study, Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.815 and there are eight influencing factors including flexibility in offering various services, building good relationship with customers, technology and processes, customers’ experiences, brand identity in continuous advertisement, organization size, customer perception on reputation of brand and customers’ tendency to build better brand loyalty. In our survey, flexibility in offering various services received the highest rank followed by building good relationship with customers.

  9. Investigating the effect of different green marketing on brand loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Green marketing plays important role on developing different business plans without harming environment. Green marketing may also help us find more loyal customers since many people do care about taking care of environment and prefer purchasing only green products and services. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find the effect of different green strategies on brand loyalty. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 384 randomly selected people who purchase various brands in city of Tehran, Iran. The gathered data are analyzed using structural equation modeling and the results indicate that different green marketing strategies including green pricing, green promotion, green distribution positively influence brand loyalty.

  10. Product bundling as a customer loyalty strategy; Kundenbindung durch Produktbuendel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, H.G. [Arthur Andersen Business Consulting GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    In the deregulated market in electricity, all marketers and energy-related service providers are competing not only for new customers, but also for customer loyalty. The article sets out concepts and strategies developed by a business consulting firm, for maintaing or enhancing customer loyalty in the end-use market segment, focusing on customized product bundling. A four-tier approach for product bundle development and implementation is discussed. (orig./CB) [German] Fuer Energieversorger und -dienstleister ergibt sich neben der Neukundengewinnung der strategische Zwang zur Bindung bestehender Kunden. An praktischen Ansaetzen fuer Privatkunden stehen neben Value-Added-Services und Incentives (Kundenclub, -karte) nicht zuletzt Produktbuendel (Bundles) zur Verfuegung. Zur erfolgreichen Entwicklung und Implementierung von Produktbuendeln wird ein vierphasiges Vorgehensmodell erlaeutert. (orig./CB)

  11. The effects of service brand dimensions on brand loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2014-01-01

    influences consumer satisfaction, attitude and behavioural loyalty towards service brands were confirmed. Moreover, contrary to previous findings, controlled communication elements (i.e. advertising and promotions) did not have any influence on customer satisfaction with service brands. However, the same......The present paper uses a modified version of the Service Brand Verdict (SBV) model. The objective of the study is to incorporate service brand loyalty as an ultimate dependent measure seen as the outcome of consumers’ evaluation of various service brand dimensions and communication, and test...... the generalizability of the modified SBV model in two different service sectors and cultural settings. Two studies using on-line survey data were conducted in Denmark and Norway in two different service industries (airlines and banks respectively). Previous findings suggesting that brand evidence significantly...

  12. Utilization of Near Field Communication Technology for Loyalty Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferina Ferdianti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Near Field Communication (NFC is one of wireless technology developed at this time. We can use a mobile phone to do many transactions with NFC. Mobile developments have created to provide convenience for users in all aspects. However, at this time the function of NFC just limited for payment and micropayment. Beside it, there are assets that support to increase sales with attention of loyality management system. In this system, discounts or prizes are given based on data mining for every transaction costumers. Loyalty management has three concept, those are Frequency, Recency and Quantity. The goals are minimizing the cost, making purchase process faster, and managing data obtained through the NFC technology more simple. The result of this paper is the procedure to use data mining of NFC for loyalty management and system design using Unified Modeling Language approach.

  13. Effect of Advertising on the Brand Loyalty of Cosmetic Products among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ababio, Abraham Gyamfi; Yamoah, Emmanuel Erastus

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between advertising and brand loyalty of cosmetic products. The multinomial logit model was used to ascertain the effect of advertising on different loyalty profiles for cosmetic products among college students. Based on a survey of 200 Ghanaian students drawn randomly, findings indicated that advertising plays no significant role on college students’ loyalty for cosmetic products. It can be argued, however, that the most promiscuous buyer is more amenable...

  14. Analysing Factors That Drives Customer Loyalty Of Shoes Laundry Quickcares Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Mawa, Maria; Tumbuan, Willem J.F.Alfa; Tielung, Maria V.J

    2017-01-01

    This research is to analyzing what are the factors that drive customer loyalty of shoe laundry Quickcares Manado. Shoe Laundry is the services that offer to clean and taking care shoe, Customer Loyalty is the result of consistently positive emotional experience, physical attribute-based satisfaction and perceived value of an experience, which includes the product or services. It is important to know factors that drive customer Loyalty in business, in order to guarantee business continuity and...

  15. Effects of Website Interactivity on e-Loyalty: A Social Exchange Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Jang Jih; Su-Fang Lee; Yuan-Cheng Tsai

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of major considerations of commercial website design and management, website interactivity, the important performance factor, and customer loyalty. Meaningful interactions with existing and potential customers allow e-commerce firms to enhance customer loyalty by providing satisfactory customer experience. Customer loyalty is a composite construct, yet consists of multiple dimensions that do not necessarily contribute to repeat purchase in the same manner. Guide...

  16. Influence of Brand Loyalty on Fast Food Industry - Consumer buying behavior of India.

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Manav

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how consumers are influenced by factors of brand loyalty towards fast food brands. The research was conducted in Delhi with Indian consumers. People who filled the questionnaire are adults who are working or are looking for job. This research was adopted based on seven factor of brand loyalty. The seven factors of brand loyalty are brand name, product quality, price, style, promotion, and service quality and restaurant environment. Brand name has sho...

  17. The Impact of Customer Relationship Management to Customer Loyalty Through Customer Satisfaction in Cabal Dining Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Pandowo, Merinda; Pangemanan, Sifrid S.; Wattilete, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Customer relationship management is the one influencing customer loyalty, but to get customer loyalty we should know how to make customer satisfaction. This research is purposed to analyze the impact of customer relationship management to customer loyalty through customer satisfaction in Cabal Dining Manado. This research used the Path analysis as the method of this research. Population in this research is mainly in this research is people in Manado. The sample of this research is 100 respond...

  18. The Influence Of Customer Handling On Brand Image In Building Customer Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Kurniawan; Sucherly; Surachman

    2015-01-01

    Complaint handling influences brand image which will influence customer loyalty in the future. This research is aimed to find out how the complaint handling is capable to influence against the brand image in building the customer loyalty of Indomaret Minimarket with the study case of Indomaret Minimarket. This research also aims to find out how the complaint handling is conducted by Indomaret Minimarket the brand image of service on Indomaret Minimarket as well as the customer loyalty of Ind...

  19. IMPACT OF RELATIONSHIP MARKETING ON CUSTOMER LOYALTY IN THE BANKING SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhiddin Jumaev; Prof. Dr. Dileep Kumar. M.; Jalal R. M. Hanaysha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the impact of customer loyalty in banking sector. The customer loyalty in banking has seen a major concern to practitioners due to severe competition and higher customer expectations. Further to that, one way to enhance customer loyalty in banking is by focusing on offering excellent services and meeting the needs of customer. Banks need to have a good understanding of their customer behaviour so that appropriate marketing strategies directed towards re...

  20. A Conceptual Framework to Build Brand Loyalty in the Modern Marketing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Wasib B Latif; Md. Aminul Islam; Idris Bin Mohd Noor

    2014-01-01

    Building brand loyalty in a competitive market can play an efficient role in the modern marketing environment. It is now widely acknowledged by companies and business enterprises that strong brand loyalty will make a competitive advantage in the marketplace that will increase their overall knowledge with experiences and trustworthiness. Indeed, recent trends in modern marketing have changed tremendously, and study of brand loyalty is increasingly becoming essential to keep pace with this chan...