WorldWideScience

Sample records for grocery retail market

  1. Market Concentration and Profitability of the Grocery Retailers in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřich Špička

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to internationally compare the market concentration of grocery retailers in the six countries of Central Europe – Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. The market concentration was measured by CR4 ratio, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and the GRS index. Data covered the period 2010 – 2015. The secondary data came from the Euromonitor International and Bureau van Dijk databases. The results showed that the market structure of the Central European grocery retailers has mostly a character of asymmetric oligopoly. The pairwise correlation did not reveal any strong relationship between the market power and profitability of the grocery retailers. The Central European grocery market is controlled by strong national retail chains and multinational companies which operate modern grocery retail formats. However, traditional grocery retailers are still popular in Hungary while traditional individual grocers in other countries are disappearing or gradually joining the networking system based on franchising.

  2. Retail grocery store marketing strategies and obesity: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Karen; Bader, Michael D M; Iyer, Shally

    2012-05-01

    In-store food marketing can influence food-purchasing behaviors and warrants increased attention given the dramatic rise in obesity. Descriptive and experimental studies of key marketing components have been conducted by consumer scientists, marketing researchers, and public health experts. This review synthesizes research and publications from industry and academic sources and provides direction for developing and evaluating promising interventions. Literature sources for the review were English-language articles published from 1995 to 2010, identified from multidisciplinary search indexes, backward searches of cited articles, review articles, industry reports, and online sources. Only articles that focused on physical grocery stores and food products were included. Data collection occurred in 2010 and 2011. Articles were classified in the categories of product, price, placement, and promotion and divided into controlled laboratory experiments, observation, and field experiments; 125 primary peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria. Narrative synthesis methods were used. Key findings were synthesized by category of focus and study design. Evidence synthesis was completed in 2011. Findings suggest several strategies for in-store marketing to promote healthful eating by increasing availability, affordability, prominence, and promotion of healthful foods and/or restricting or de-marketing unhealthy foods. Key results of research in controlled laboratory studies should be adapted and tested in real-world in-store settings. Industry methods for assessing consumer behavior, such as electronic sales data and individually linked sales information from loyalty card holders, can help public health researchers increase the scientific rigor of field studies. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Market Definition in Grocery Retailing: The Whole Foods Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Jódar-Rosell; Jordi Gual

    2008-01-01

    As in many other antitrust cases, the delineation of the relevant product market was the critical issue in the Whole Foods and Wild Oats merger. Setting the market boundaries containing the set of products in direct competition with those of the merging parties is a very difficult task in the presence of product differentiation. The varieties produced by each of the firms differ in several dimensions.

  4. Online grocery retailing: What do consumers think?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Kim Bjarne; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    2005-01-01

    Kingdom and three in Denmark, were conducted among consumers with different degrees of experience with internet grocery shopping. This diversification of respondents was chosen to capture a broad range of the consumer beliefs that predict intentions to buy groceries online or not. The TPB framework...... of consumers in an underperforming and understudied branch of internet retailing. Barriers in the consumers' minds to shop for groceries online are identified using an established theoretical framework.......Purpose: To use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework to explore in depth the range of beliefs held by consumers about internet shopping in general and internet grocery shopping in particular. Design/methodology/approach: Seven focus group interviews, four in the United...

  5. The brand architecture of grocery retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    on these concepts has taken an internal management perspective on how retailers can manipulate aspects of the retail setting to serve their own interests. Then, we develop an alternative conceptualisation of retailer brand architecture that takes into account that consumers (and other constituents) are active co......This article discusses how the brand architecture of grocery retailers set material and symbolic boundaries for consumer choice, thus limiting consumer sovereignty. The article first discusses previous work on store atmospherics, servicescapes and brand architecture. It is argued that work based......- constructors of material and symbolic aspects of retail settings. It is discussed how consumers participate in constructing retailer brand architecture and how this concept differs from previous research. Implications for both research and practice are discussed....

  6. The brand architecture of grocery retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    on these concepts has taken an internal management perspective on how retailers can manipulate aspects of the retail setting to serve their own interests. Then, we develop an alternative conceptualisation of retailer brand architecture that takes into account that consumers (and other constituents) are active co......This article discusses how the brand architecture of grocery retailers set material and symbolic boundaries for consumer choice, thus limiting consumer sovereignty. The article first discusses previous work on store atmospherics, servicescapes and brand architecture. It is argued that work based......- constructors of material and symbolic aspects of retail settings. It is discussed how consumers participate in constructing retailer brand architecture and how this concept differs from previous research. Implications for both research and practice are discussed....

  7. The Danish Retail Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Bjerre, Mogens; Kornum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Danish retail market. A detailed picture of the Danish grocery sector is provided, and we highlight issues from the specialty sectors of fashion and DIY as well as patterns of internationalisation among Danish retailers. We further profile the Danish consumer...... in terms of consumption patterns and demographic changes as well as some specific consumer tendencies with a special emphasis on sustainability issues. E-commerce is taken up as a special theme, both profiling the consumer side and the retailer side. This part is exemplified with books and groceries....... Finally, we present the state-of-the-art of retail logistics in Denmark and analyse the impact on retailing of law on planning and law on opening hours....

  8. The Effect of Entry by Wal-Mart Supercenters on Retail Grocery Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Bobby J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. retail grocery industry shifted from an industry dominated by small grocers serving local markets to one characterized by large retailers present in international markets. Average retail grocery concentration as measured by CR4 increased from 19.9 in 1997 to 31.0 in 2002 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2000; 2005). Wal-Mart’s tremendous growth is the catalyst to this change, but little is known about Wal-Mart’s effect on market concentration. This analysis eva...

  9. THE EFFECT OF ENTRY BY WAL-MART SUPERCENTERS ON RETAIL GROCERY CONCENTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Bobby J.; Dooley, Frank J.; Kim, Sounghun

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. retail grocery industry shifted from an industry dominated by small grocers serving local markets to one characterized by large retailers present in international markets. Average retail grocery concentration as measured by CR4 increased from 17.8 in 1982 to 43.0 in 1999 (U.S. Census Bureau, 1982; Trade Dimensions Marketing Guidebook, 2000). Wal-Mart's tremendous growth is the catalyst to this change. Although Wal-Mart has been studied from multiple perspectives, little is known abou...

  10. Analysis of the potential of virtual stores for german online grocery retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Thelen, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    Research Problem – The effects of digitalization had a huge impact on people’s everyday life. With increased use of internet, E-Commerce became hugely popular and pressurized classic brick and mortar retailers. However, the grocery market is one of the few markets without a remarkable share of online sales. Recently various players entered the small but promising market. Still, it is not foreseeable which player and which kind of sales approach will prevail and retailers are se...

  11. Toward retail product recognition on grocery shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Gül; Kuzu, Rıdvan S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of retail product recognition on grocery shelf images. We present a technique for accomplishing this task with a low time complexity. We decompose the problem into detection and recognition. The former is achieved by a generic product detection module which is trained on a specific class of products (e.g. tobacco packages). Cascade object detection framework of Viola and Jones [1] is used for this purpose. We further make use of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to recognize the brand inside each detected region. We extract both shape and color information; and apply feature-level fusion from two separate descriptors computed with the bag of words approach. Furthermore, we introduce a dataset (available on request) that we have collected for similar research purposes. Results are presented on this dataset of more than 5,000 images consisting of 10 tobacco brands. We show that satisfactory detection and classification can be achieved on devices with cheap computational power. Potential applications of the proposed approach include planogram compliance control, inventory management and assisting visually impaired people during shopping.

  12. Online grocery retailing: What do consumers think?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Kim Bjarne; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework to explore in depth the range of beliefs held by consumers about internet shopping in general and internet grocery shopping in particular. Design/methodology/approach: Seven focus group interviews, four in the United...... Kingdom and three in Denmark, were conducted among consumers with different degrees of experience with internet grocery shopping. This diversification of respondents was chosen to capture a broad range of the consumer beliefs that predict intentions to buy groceries online or not. The TPB framework...... beliefs in predicting internet shopping behavior. Practical implications: The findings could be used to direct attention to consumer beliefs about internet grocery shopping which have the potential of acting as barriers to this line of e-commerce. Originality/value: To shed some light on the role...

  13. Customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    on individual shopping trips is a prerequisite for developing customer loyalty. However, there is surprisingly little research focusing on satisfaction with individual shopping trips. On the contrary, satisfaction is normally conceptualised and studied as an overall evaluation of a given retailer based on all...... encounters with that retailer. There are relatively few studies of satisfaction within the grocery retail sector. However, because grocery shopping is a frequently recurring activity that is often routine and task-oriented in nature, and thus dominated by utilitarian rather than hedonic concerns, different...... mechanisms may be at work than in other retail settings such as themed flagship stores, which are visited less regularly and are oriented more towards creating hedonic shopping experiences. This paper develops a conceptual framework for analysing customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip...

  14. Gains and losses of exclusivity in grocery retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekimpe, M.G.; Gielens, K.J.P.; Gijsbrechts, E.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional wisdom dictates that convenience goods should be distributed as intensively as possible. Still, exclusivity arrangements are rapidly gaining way in grocery retailing. We discuss the possible performance outcomes of exclusivity deals, and propose a unified framework (i) to quantify the g

  15. Competition and Oligopoly: A Case of UK Grocery Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Lawler

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a model of Bertrand price competition with uncertainty as to the number of bidders. The auction models predict retail price dispersion as an observable feature of price discrimination. The implications of the auction models are tested using a logit model on primary data. Some simulations of the logit model further enrich and capture critical states of chain-store rivalry. The findings show that consumer characteristics define type of store choice and that an auction model of price competition with uncertainty is an appropriate way to model retail grocery competition.

  16. Customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    on individual shopping trips is a prerequisite for developing customer loyalty. However, there is surprisingly little research focusing on satisfaction with individual shopping trips. On the contrary, satisfaction is normally conceptualised and studied as an overall evaluation of a given retailer based on all...... mechanisms may be at work than in other retail settings such as themed flagship stores, which are visited less regularly and are oriented more towards creating hedonic shopping experiences. This paper develops a conceptual framework for analysing customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip...... experiences in grocery retailing. The framework makes at least two important contributions to the literature. First, it focuses on customer satisfaction with individual shopping trips whereas previous research and theoretical frameworks have addressed either overall satisfaction with the retailer, service...

  17. The Consumer Direct Services Revolution in Grocery Retailing: an exploratory investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Teller, C; Kotzab, H; Grant, D B

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - To provide empirical evidence and explanation of the phenomenon that providers of home delivery of groceries are still of minor importance in highly concentrated retail markets. Design/methodology/approach - Based on a critical literature review three propositions were set up. A web based survey was conducted with two prospective consumer groups for home delivery providers: time starved consumers and consumers with Internet affinity. A structural equation modeling analysis was appli...

  18. Consumers' multifaceted deal knowledge in a grocery retail setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2016-01-01

    of deal price status, typical deal price knowledge, and deal-spotting ability. Results show reasonably stable knowledge of typical deal prices, while knowledge of deal price status and deal-spotting ability improves significantly during grocery shopping. Surprisingly, consumers’ deal knowledge...... is not conditional on purchasing a special thus indicating that most consumers, consciously or unconsciously, scan for promotion signals when shopping groceries. In addition, the results suggest consumers are not easily fooled, as the vast majority is able to spot ‘good’ and ‘bad’ deals, while also possessing...... typical deal price knowledge. Furthermore, the findings suggest that consumers store internal reference deal prices. Retailers are therefore well advised to consider mixed depth and creative discount patterns to prevent ‘perfect’ perceptions of typical deal prices....

  19. Consumers' multifaceted deal knowledge in a grocery retail setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2016-01-01

    Despite its relevance to retailers, studies of consumers’ deal knowledge have been few. This study explores consumers’ deal knowledge before, during, and after the store visit applying a between-subjects field-study design with 1204 respondents. In particular, the authors investigate perception...... of deal price status, typical deal price knowledge, and deal-spotting ability. Results show reasonably stable knowledge of typical deal prices, while knowledge of deal price status and deal-spotting ability improves significantly during grocery shopping. Surprisingly, consumers’ deal knowledge...... is not conditional on purchasing a special thus indicating that most consumers, consciously or unconsciously, scan for promotion signals when shopping groceries. In addition, the results suggest consumers are not easily fooled, as the vast majority is able to spot ‘good’ and ‘bad’ deals, while also possessing...

  20. Employability Skills in Chennai Retail Market, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Paulrajan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the finding from study to outline the underlying skill set required in getting and sustaining employment in the organised grocery and vegetable retail industry. The focus was ‘Employability’ which is neither one time attainable nor marketable vocational and academic skills just to create opportunity to get employment. An exploratory study has been carried out to understand the requirement of skill set in organised grocery and vegetable retailing for entry level jobs. Personal interview and questionnaire were the instruments used. Scope of the study to understand and identify required skills for entry level job in the organised grocery and vegetable retailing. Skill Matrix and employability skill set are formulated based on the study for entry level jobs in organised grocery and vegetable retailing sector.This study presents a comprehensive framework for selecting stores level managerial jobs by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. AHP method, expresses to determine the attributes in a multiple criteria decision-making problem in selection of personnel. Further scope for future research is enormous; study in the area of different or entire profile of retail jobs and geographical employability which is an influencing and deciding factor in organised grocery and vegetable employment.

  1. Multi-outlet/multi-format grocery retailing : Some issues and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haans, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Several trends and shifts in consumer behavior (e.g., desire for convenience) have resulted in grocery retailers opening more stores and new formats (e.g., AH ToGo and AH XL) next to their existing ones (regular supermarket). By using this strategy grocery retailers try to attract new customers

  2. Multi-outlet/multi-format grocery retailing : Some issues and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haans, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Several trends and shifts in consumer behavior (e.g., desire for convenience) have resulted in grocery retailers opening more stores and new formats (e.g., AH ToGo and AH XL) next to their existing ones (regular supermarket). By using this strategy grocery retailers try to attract new customers (inc

  3. COULD BE ONLINE GROCERIES AN ALTERNATIVE FOR ROMANIAN FOOD RETAIL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius T. STANCIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The new technologies, competition, consumer convenience and the lack of time for shopping are some factors that have encouraged the Romanian online retail food market. On the food market identifying the viable direction of development and business continuity represents a major concern for economic operators. For a new business online commerce is the most affordable and the fastest way to enter the market. The domestic online retail food market is estimated to reach 6 million euros in 2014. Studies carried out by specialized companies have identified the Romanian consumers' appetite for food shopping on the Internet. Although Romania is only at the beginning in online food market as compared to its European neighbours, experiments in other domestic sectors demonstrate the possibility of surprises in this domain. The article proposes a short analysis of the Romanian online food retail market, tendencies and opportunities in this new domain for local commerce.

  4. COULD BE ONLINE GROCERIES AN ALTERNATIVE FOR ROMANIAN FOOD RETAIL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius T. STANCIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The new technologies, competition, consumer convenience and the lack of time for shopping are some factors that have encouraged the Romanian online retail food market. On the food market identifying the viable direction of development and business continuity represents a major concern for economic operators. For a new business online commerce is the most affordable and the fastest way to enter the market. The domestic online retail food market is estimated to reach 6 million euros in 2014. Studies carried out by specialized companies have identified the Romanian consumers' appetite for food shopping on the Internet. Although Romania is only at the beginning in online food market as compared to its European neighbours, experiments in other domestic sectors demonstrate the possibility of surprises in this domain. The article proposes a short analysis of the Romanian online food retail market, tendencies and opportunities in this new domain for local commerce.

  5. Making working in retailing interesting: A study of human resource management practices in Danish grocery retail chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Buck, Nuka

    In this paper we investigate the human resource management practices of five Danish grocery retail chains from the perspective of both retailers and employees. We present an analytical framework for analysing the social and institutional context of Danish retailing and interpret our case study...

  6. Making working in retailing interesting: A study of human resource management practices in Danish grocery retail chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Buck, Nuka

    In this paper we investigate the human resource management practices of five Danish grocery retail chains from the perspective of both retailers and employees. We present an analytical framework for analysing the social and institutional context of Danish retailing and interpret our case study...

  7. An integrative conceptual framework for analyzing customer satisfaction with shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Grocery retailers aim to satisfy customers, and because grocery shopping trips are frequently recurring, they must do socontinuously. Surprisingly, little research has addressed satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips. This article therefore develops a conceptual framework for analyzing...... customer satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trip experiences within a overall ‘disconfirmation of expectations model’ of customer satisfaction. The contribution of the framework is twofold. First, by focusing on satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips, previous research...... on satisfaction is extended to a context marked by frequently recurring, often tedious and routine activities. Understanding what causes satisfaction/dissatisfaction with individual shopping trips is required to explain overall, cumulative satisfaction with a retailer, which has been the focus of prior research...

  8. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... unfair or deceptive act or practice for ``retail food stores'' to advertise ``food, grocery products or... CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade... impact of the FTC's rule for ``Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices'' (``Unavailability...

  9. A shopper's eye view of food safety at retail stores: lessons from photographs taken while grocery shopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retail grocery stores are the source of over 50% of food sales in the U.S., representing the most important sector for consumer food choices. Food safety-related infrastructure, procedures, and practices at retail grocery stores play an important role in protecting public health. Beyond actual risk ...

  10. Marketing Sustainable Retail Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary benefits of sustainable retail over the long run has to be the marketing gain from having something other competitors do not: lower operating costs, a more socially responsible public profile, ease of gaining planning approval for new projects, better access to certain investment pools, higher rents (in the case of developers, ease of recruiting and retaining key people. Each of these benefits needs marketing and public relations support; each benefits from a clear and consistent corporate message that promotes sustainable retail. To date, there are very few retailers or developers who have championed sustainability long enough, consistently enough and with enough actual demonstration of changes in standard operations to gain the benefits of green marketing, but the very paucity of examples serves to underscore the point: the green marketing space is wide open for large retailers and developers. What would be the marketing steps that a company could take to benefit from its “sustainability focus?” The key to any marketing program is to differentiate a company’s actions from those of competitors and to do it along lines that its various stakeholders care about. This practice of differentiation is often expressed as “finding a difference that makes a difference, to someone who makes difference to you.” For retail developers, the first differentiator should be to attract more and better tenants to all of their centers, tenants who value lower operating costs and the developer’s program of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility.

  11. Drivers and barriers of reverse logistics practices: A study of large grocery retailers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Meyer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reverse logistics (RL practices have previously been viewed as a cost drain, but have received greater attention from practitioners because of increasing competition and dwindling margins.Purpose: The purpose of this generic qualitative study was to uncover the main internal and external drivers and barriers of RL within major South African grocery retailers.Method: Eleven face-to-face, semi-structured interviews and one telephonic interview were conducted with participants from four large grocery retailers.Findings: Optimising profitability and cost reduction goals are the identified internal drivers, whereas the main external driver was to reduce the organisations’ environmental impact. A lack of information systems – such as enterprise resource planning systems or warehouse management system software – and infrastructure were revealed as the main internal barriers for organisations’ RL practices, whereas supplier non-compliance and transportation inefficiencies were the main external barriers exposed.Managerial implications: In order to optimise the efficiency of the reverse flow, managers are recommended to devote more capital to RL infrastructure, develop policies to manage supplier behaviour, focus on RL as a revenue generating stream as well as implement information systems to manage the entire reverse flow.Conclusion: All participating grocery retailers follow similar RL processes. Growth in RL practices as well as infrastructure to perform those practices is a future priority for all the reviewed grocery retailers. RL is no longer only a key cost driver, but also provides organisations with many additional opportunities.

  12. The use of reverse logistics for waste management in a Brazilian grocery retailer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Karina T S; Braga Junior, Sergio S

    2016-01-01

    Retail growth is a result of the diversification of departments with the intention to look to consumer's needs and level of demand. Pressed by consumers and by the law, the adoption of environmental preservation practices is becoming stronger among grocery retailers. The objective of this research was to analyse the practices of reverse logistics performed by a retailer and measure the amount of waste generated by each department. To reach the proposed goal, a field research study was conducted to directly observe a grocery retailer in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, for a period of 6 months and monitor the amounts of cardboard and plastic discarded by each department. Using the Wuppertal method, the first result observed was that the retailer stopped its monthly production of approximately 20 tonne of biotic and abiotic material, which influence global warming and degradation of the ozone layer. Another result observed with the implementation of reverse logistics, was that the general grocery department mostly used cardboard and plastic. This sector includes products such as food cupboard, drinks, household, health and beauty, and pet articles. The fresh fruit and vegetable department and the meat, chicken and frozen department were increasingly using less plastic and cardboard packaging, increasing the use of returnable and durable packaging and thus promoting sustainability.

  13. Electricity marketing and retailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilby, M. [Canadian Meter Services, Toronto ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Canadian Metering Services provides metrology expertise to power producers and has more than 40 years experience in the industry. The company is privately and nationally accredited in Canada and is an expert in data communications. This power point presentation focused on issues regarding prices and price stability. Graphs were included with the presentation which depicted the profiles of winners and losers in electricity marketing and retailing. The presentation also discussed the benefits of a market surveillance panel, AMV, and MDMA and how to go about choosing them. tabs., figs.

  14. Analyzing the Efficient Execution of In-Store Logistics Processes in Grocery Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiner, Gerald; Teller, Christop; Kotzab, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we examine in-store logistics processes for handling dairy products, from the incoming dock to the shelves of supermarkets and hypermarkets. The efficient execution of the in-store logistics related to such fast-moving, sensitive, and essential items is challenging and crucial...... for grocery retailers' sales, profits, and image. In our empirical study, we survey in-store logistics processes in 202 grocery supermarkets and hypermarkets belonging to a major retail chain in central Europe. Using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) and simulation, we facilitate process benchmarking....... In particular, we identify ways of improving in-store logistics processes by showing the performance impacts of different managerial strategies and tactics. The DEA results indicate different efficiency levels for different store formats; the hybrid store format of the small hypermarket exhibits a comparatively...

  15. Cooking-related PM2.5 and acrolein measured in grocery stores and comparison with other retail types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W R; Sidheswaran, M; Sullivan, D P; Cohn, S; Fisk, W J

    2016-06-01

    We measured particulate matter (PM), acrolein, and other indoor air contaminants in eight visits to grocery stores in California. Retail stores of other types (hardware, furniture, and apparel) were also sampled on additional visits. Based on tracer gas decay data, most stores had adequate ventilation according to minimum ventilation rate standards. Grocery stores had significantly higher concentrations of acrolein, fine and ultrafine PM, compared to other retail stores, likely attributable to cooking. Indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and acrolein exceeded health guidelines in all tested grocery stores. Acrolein emission rates to indoors in grocery stores had a mean estimate about 30 times higher than in other retail store types. About 80% of the indoor PM2.5 measured in grocery stores was emitted indoors, compared to only 20% for the other retail store types. Calculations suggest a substantial increase in outdoor air ventilation rate by a factor of three from current level is needed to reduce indoor acrolein concentrations. Alternatively, acrolein emission to indoors needs to be reduced 70% by better capturing of cooking exhaust. To maintain indoor PM2.5 below the California annual ambient standard of 12 μg/m(3) , grocery stores need to use air filters with an efficiency rating higher than the MERV 8 air filters commonly used today.

  16. Towards Corporate Shared Value in Retail Sector: A Comparative Study over Grocery and Banking Between Italy and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Candelo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research investigates the extent to which Banking and Grocery retailers use Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in accordance to evolving consumers’ expectations and build a strategic model of Corporate Shared Value (CSV to strive for economic and social returns simultaneously. The paper adopts a qualitative approach, based on the comparative case study methodology by investigating a sample of twelve Banking and Grocery retailers in Italy and the UK. Differences and similarities in CSR as new strategic model among countries and retail sectors emerge, with UK companies from both the sectors showing the most formalized integration of CSR within their business strategy. The chance for both Italian and UK retail companies is to adopt the best practices emerging from the case studies to turn their CSR programs into a strategic business model of CSV that will allow a stronger retailer-consumer relationship based on social improvements and a reinforcement of their brand image.

  17. FOOD RETAIL SALES (PRICING): THEORY AND EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FOR GERMAN GROCERY STORES

    OpenAIRE

    Loy, Jens-Peter; Weaver, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Retail pricing indicates many phenomena, such as sales or rigidities. A number of models have been proposed in particular to explain the occurrence of sales. Focussing on the market for fresh foods the model by Varian and the loss leader argument seem to be intuitively best fitting to the conditions in the fresh food market. From these models we derive several hypotheses that are tested for a unique data set of the German fresh food retail market The data set consists of weekly prices for ten...

  18. Risk factors of the upper limb disorders among cashiers in grocery retail industries: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhaidi, Muhammad Fareez Ahmad; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Cashiers have been appointed as one of top ten occupations in developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) particularly on the upper limb. Many of the workers are still in high risk injury due to incorrect workstations and lack of employee education in basic biomechanical principles. Normally, cashiers are exposed in several risk factors such as awkward and static postures, repetition motion and forceful exertions. Thus, cashiers in supermarket are considered at risk from developing upper limb disorders (ULDs). This review evaluates selected papers that have studied risk factors of the upper limb disorders among cashiers in grocery retail industries. In addition, other studies from related industry were reviewed as applicable. In order to understand risk factors of the upper limb disorders among cashiers, it is recommended that future studies are needed in evaluating these risk factors among cashiers.

  19. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review’s key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light...... on the effectiveness of food store interventions intended to promote the consumption of healthy foods and the methodological quality of studies reporting them. Methods Systematic literature search spanning from 2003 to 2015 (inclusive both years), and confined to papers in the English language was conducted. Studies...... fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality...

  20. Factors affecting robust retail energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelman, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This paper briefly defines an active retail market, details the factors that influence market activity and their relative importance, compares activity in various retail energy markets to date, and predicts future retail energy market activity. Three primary factors translate into high market activity: supplier margins, translated into potential savings for actively shopping customers; market size; and market barriers. The author surveys activity nationwide and predicts hot spots for the coming year.

  1. Direct Marketing of Specialty Crops by Producers: A Price-Comparison between Farmers' Markets and Grocery Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Jonathan Adam; Gunderson, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Oftentimes, prices at farmers' markets are much cheaper than those at grocery stores. However, little is known about the pricing relationship between farmers' markets and nearby grocery stores. Only by further analyzing this relationship can we gain a better understanding of these pricing trends. Although this trend is seemingly consistent, further research is necessary to test this assumption. Through the collection of prices at both locales, farmers' markets and grocery stores, producers as...

  2. Retail Brand in China Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sayamon Worawutkhunchai

    2011-01-01

    @@ The purpose of this paper is to discuss why and how brand reputation influence customer in Chinese retail market.Brand reputation can be looked upon as a favorable and publicly recognized estimation of a product or a service.The paper is not specifically interested in the success of marketing itself,but more on whether brand reputation impacts brand loyalty which forms the bases of brand equity.

  3. Examining Specialty Crop Price Relationships between Farmers Markets and Grocery Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Gunderson, Michael A.; Earl, Ashley N.

    2010-01-01

    Farmers markets across the state of Florida have been increasing in popularity over the past two years. Very little information is available regarding the price relationship between farmers markets and nearby grocery stores. Further investigation of this relationship is necessary and could yield vital infor­mation to support further understanding of pricing trends among these two sources. By obtaining prices from both farmers markets and grocery stores that are closest to each of the markets...

  4. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  5. Musculoskeletal symptoms and ergonomic hazards among material handlers in grocery retail industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Zuhaidi, Muhammad Fareez Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    Grocery retail work can be physically demanding as material handler’s tasks involve manual lifting, lowering, carrying, pushing and pulling loads. The nature of this work puts them at a risk for serious low back pain, shoulder pain and other musculoskeletal injuries. This study was conducted by using two different types of tools which were Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) as a survey and Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act (WISHA) Checklist as a direct observation method. Among 46 males and 14 females material handlers were involved throughout this study. For NMQ, the highest body part trouble in the last 12 months was low back pain (88.3%), followed by upper back (68.3%), neck (55.3%) and shoulder (36.7%). While for WISHA Checklist, most of them experienced hazard level involving awkward posture and high hand force. From the research conducted, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and ergonomic risk factors (ERFs) do related as it showed that musculoskeletal disorders may arise if the workers ignored the safety in ergonomic hazards.

  6. Retail Market of Oil Products Reshuffled Soon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to its commitments to the World Trade Organization, the Chinese government opened up China's oil products retail market fully on December 11, 2004. Centering on this important transition, a market pattern of multi-major-body will be appeared.

  7. SHOPPER MARKETING STRATEGY IN FOOD RETAILING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zoran Bogetic; Dragan Stojkovic; Sinisa Milosevic

    2016-01-01

    .... The paper considers and analyzes the characteristics of urban food retail market shoppers, and based on the findings of the conducted research concludes that adaptation of shopper marketing strategies is necessary...

  8. Retail beer market. Opportunities for beer category

    OpenAIRE

    Caldová, Marie

    2015-01-01

    My bachelors thesis deals with design of better utilization of sales space in traditional retail formats. I focus on the beer category . I describe the basic principles of retailing. I imagine the food retailing division according to the company Pilsner Urquell. I mention all the legal requirements for the labeling of beer products. I mention the beer category share in total sales in the retail market . I describe the main beer producers who are active on the Czech market. The main topic is t...

  9. Pulga (Flea Market) Contributions to the Retail Food Environment of Colonias in the South Texas Border Region

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Wesley R; Joseph R. Sharkey; St. John, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Accounts of the retail food environment have been limited by research that focused on supermarkets, grocery stores and restaurants as the principal food sources for consumers. Little is known about alternative retail food-sources, especially in rural and underserved areas such as the colonias along the South Texas border with Mexico. Many colonias are located near pulgas (flea markets). This is the first study to examine this alternative food source for colonia residents. This study's purpose...

  10. Marketing solutions for Romanian retail companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BĂLĂŞESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current developments in the consumer goods market raises important and complex issues for all retail companies. Under increasingly strong competition, Romanian retail businesses need to solve outstanding issues regarding the integration in market mechanisms, the diagnose of problems faced in the competitive environment, the initiation and development of business or the determination of any activity’s feasibility. Furthermore, being employed in a direct relationship with market demand, retailers must permanently know and follow its requirements and demands, phenomenon requiring multiple researches, studies and analysis.

  11. Developing Strategic Planning for the Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Retailers need a strategic plan that will enable them to adapt to changing trends and work with new ideas. Questions retailers should ask to shape the strategic plan and generic strategies--overall cost leadership, differentiation, and marketing to a particular group or offering a special service--are discussed. (SR)

  12. Developing Strategic Planning for the Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Retailers need a strategic plan that will enable them to adapt to changing trends and work with new ideas. Questions retailers should ask to shape the strategic plan and generic strategies--overall cost leadership, differentiation, and marketing to a particular group or offering a special service--are discussed. (SR)

  13. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    effective in promoting purchase of healthy foods. Conclusion Given the diverse study settings and despite the challenges of methodological quality for some papers, we find efficacy of in-store healthy food interventions in terms of increased purchase of healthy foods. Researchers need to take risk of bias...... interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review’s key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light...... on the effectiveness of food store interventions intended to promote the consumption of healthy foods and the methodological quality of studies reporting them. Methods Systematic literature search spanning from 2003 to 2015 (inclusive both years), and confined to papers in the English language was conducted. Studies...

  14. Jumping into the healthcare retail market: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollert, Pat; Dobberstein, Darla; Wiisanen, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Who among us has not heard of the retail-based clinic concept? Retail-based clinics have been springing up across the country in Target, Walmart, grocery stores, drugstores, and shopping malls. Due to multiple marketplace issues, others who have not traditionally been providers of healthcare saw an opportunity to meet the consumer's demand. Do retail and healthcare mix, and can this model be successful? MeritCare Health System in Fargo, ND made the decision to embrace and experiment with this new emerging consumerism model. This article reviews our experience in developing the first retail-based clinic in our service area and the state of North Dakota.

  15. Rebalancing the Market Power. Manufacturer and Retailer Brands in the German Food Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielig Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The German food retail market is considered to be one of the most competitive markets worldwide. A narrow oligopoly of domestic retail chains dominates competition at the national and regional levels, driven mostly by price competition and extensive market coverage. As a result, market entrance for potential newcomers is highly restricted, even for such global players like Wal-Mart, which retreated in 2006 after nine years of substantial financial losses in Germany. There have been discernable attempts by the domestic incumbents to rebalance the traditional “task division”, affecting the range of customers choices as well as retail brands. However, within ten years the share of large retailers brands earnings in the total food retail market increased from 21.8 percent to 38.8 percent in 2012, as “house brands” optimized their assortment, increased their independence from main suppliers and squeezed out competitors. The empirical analysis presented below describes the role played by different retail brands in German food retail market as measured by their market power, and considers its political implications.

  16. Issues of innovations in large retailers marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona BĂLĂŞESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysing the way distribution systems evolved in various countries it can be seen that, in all areas of the globe, the distribution has become progressively dynamic, suffering mutations on all levels, changing constantly the methods of marketing and sale, distribution forms, geographic distribution, etc. Retail sector has become a dynamic sector, with a rapid evolution and various forms of organization, mainly due to economic development and technological progress we have witnessed in recent years. To the rapid development of retail contributed the innovation, allowing it to adapt rapidly to market conditions, to continuous growth in consumer demands and requirements and the need for traders to streamline their business activities.

  17. One-to-one modeling and simulation: a new approach in customer relationship management for grocery retail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, Cem M.

    2002-03-01

    The ever-increasing competition in retail industry puts pressure on retailers to deal with their customers more efficiently. Currently most companies use Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems to maximize the customer satisfaction level by trying to understand more about their behaviors. However, one disadvantage of the current approaches is that they focus on the segmentation of customers into homogenous groups and they disregard examining the one-to-one relationship of each individual's behavior toward each product. Therefore, individual behavior cannot be captured in detail. Modeling individual behavior for each product enables several strategies of pricing by keeping the customer satisfaction at the maximum level. One example is offering a personal discount on a particular item to a customer who is price sensitive to that particular product. Therefore, you can still sell other products at the non-discounted level to this customer by keeping him satisfied. In this paper, individual pricing approach is discussed. The aim of this study is to develop a conceptual framework to analyze the feasibility of individual pricing. Customer behaviors can be modeled individually with respect to each product for a grocery store. Several factors can be used to determine these behaviors such as customer's need, brand loyalty and price sensitivity. Each customer can be modeled as an adaptive agent using qualitative descriptions of behaviors (i.e., highly price sensitive). Then, the overall shopping behavior can be simulated using a multi-agent Monte-Carlo simulation. It is expected that with this approach, retailers will be able to determine better strategies to obtain more profits, better sales and better customer satisfaction.

  18. THE ROMANIAN RETAIL MARKET - PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA BUZILĂ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the Romanian retail market are facing with several problems which players must find solutions. It comes to maintaining a financial balance in terms of accelerated development and consumption has declined in recent years, finding and recruiting specialized personnel and the development of alternative sales channels.

  19. Internet Retailing as a Marketing Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the incentives for incumbent bricks-and-mortar firms and new entrants to start an online retail channel in a differentiated goods market. To this end we set up a two-stage model where firms first decide whether or not to build the infrastructure necessary to start an online

  20. Internet Retailing as a Marketing Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the incentives for incumbent bricks-and-mortar firms and new entrants to start an online retail channel in a differentiated goods market. To this end we set up a two-stage model where firms first decide whether or not to build the infrastructure necessary to start an online re

  1. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R.; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R.; Kelly, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the efficacy of an easy-to-implement shopper marketing nutrition intervention in a pilot and two additional studies to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability or increasing shopper budgets. Methods We created grocery cart placards that detailed the number of produce items purchased (i.e., descriptive norm) at particular stores (i.e., provincial norm). The effect of these placards on produce spending was assessed across 971,706 individual person grocery store transactions aggregated by day. The pilot study designated a baseline period (in both control and intervention store) followed by installation of grocery cart placards (in the intervention store) for two weeks. The pilot study was conducted in Texas in 2012. In two additional stores, we designated baseline periods followed by 28 days of the same grocery cart placard intervention as in the pilot. Additional interventions were conducted in New Mexico in 2013. Results The pilot study resulted in a significant difference between average produce spending per day per person across treatment periods (i.e., intervention versus same time period in control) (16%) and the difference between average produce spending per day per person across stores in the control periods (4%); Furthermore, the same intervention in two additional stores resulted in significant produce spending increases of 12.4% and 7.5% per day per person respectively. In all stores, total spending did not change. Conclusions Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards) may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets. PMID:26844084

  2. Pulga (flea market) contributions to the retail food environment of colonias in the South Texas border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; St John, Julie

    2011-05-01

    Accounts of the retail food environment have been limited by research that focused on supermarkets, grocery stores, and restaurants as the principal food sources for consumers. Little is known about alternative retail food sources, especially in rural and underserved areas such as the colonias along the South Texas border with Mexico. Many colonias are located near pulgas (flea markets). This is the first study to examine this alternative food source for colonia residents. This study's purpose is to provide preliminary data on food availability in this unstudied element of the retail food environment. Five pulgas were identified for study by local informants. Two separate teams of two promotores (indigenous community health workers) conducted observations, wrote field notes, and surveyed vendors in each pulga. Traditional foods, prepared foods, and fresh fruits and vegetables were available in the observed pulgas. Traditional foods included staples, meal items, and snacks and sweets. Prepared foods were available in small stands run by independent operators, and each pulga had permanent restaurants that served prepared foods. A large variety of fresh fruits and vegetables were also available. An emphasis on supermarkets and grocery stores will provide an incomplete account of the retail food environment. Further studies should attempt to provide a more complete account by identifying alternative retail sources used by local residents. One such alternative retail food source, the pulga, provides a range of traditional food stuffs, prepared food items, and fruits and vegetables that complement conventionally studied aspects of the retail food environment.

  3. The efficiency, energy intensity and visual impact of the accent lighting in the retail grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, topics of displaying, presentation, lighting, energy saving and issues related to the environment while selling the fresh food (fruits, vegetable, bakery products, meat are becoming an important matter among traders. However, just bigger companies with transnational capital have devoted their attention to this issue yet. Generally, the energy costs make up 70% of operating costs in retail stores where the cooling system and lighting are the most energy consuming. Accent lighting in modern retails is largely involved in the overall design and atmosphere in shops and plays a crucial role in presenting the goods as well. Using of accent lighting can draw the customer's attention to a specific part of the sales area and achieve the overall harmonization in the store. With the rational using of combination of energy saving and effective accent lighting retailers can achieve not only attractive presentation of displayed products but also appreciable savings in the operation of their stores. It is the only factor that can be exactly measured and controlled. Using a Colour and Lux Meters we found out the intensity and color temperature of accent lighting used in domestic and foreign retail chains for the different kinds of fresh food products. Based on the obtained values we have compiled graphs, which are showing visual comfort. We also identified different types of accent lighting, which we assigned to their impact on emotional involvement of consumers. The starting points were the tests we conducted in simulated laboratory conditions. While searching of a compromise between effective and energy efficient accent lighting we take into consideration consumers' emotional response as well as the annual electricity consumption of different types of light sources. At the end we recommend options for energy-efficient, effective and spectacular lighting while using the optimal number of light sources and their logical organization

  4. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  5. A Study of Relationship Marketing in Chinese Retail market

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Qiusha

    2007-01-01

    Relationship Marketing, as a new marketing paradigm, has stimulated considerable interests in both the business and the academic world in recent years. It has been believed that companies can achieve success in the long run by maintaining relationships with their customers and business associates. However, the most of the research on relationship marketing focuses on the Western perspectives, and the current literature on relationship marketing in the Asian retail sector is relatively under-r...

  6. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? -a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen D

    2016-12-28

    The Prevalence of obesity and overweight has been increasing in many countries. Many factors have been identified as contributing to obesity including the food environment, especially the access, availability and affordability of healthy foods in grocery stores and supermarkets. Several interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review's key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light on the effectiveness of food store interventions intended to promote the consumption of healthy foods and the methodological quality of studies reporting them. Systematic literature search spanning from 2003 to 2015 (inclusive both years), and confined to papers in the English language was conducted. Studies fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality of all included articles has been determined using a validated 16-item quality assessment tool (QATSDD). The literature search identified 1580 publications, of which 42 met the inclusion criteria. Most interventions used a combination of information (e.g. awareness raising through food labeling, promotions, campaigns, etc.) and increasing availability of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Few used price interventions. The average quality score for all papers is 65.0%, or an overall medium methodological quality. Apart from few studies, most studies reported that store interventions were effective in promoting purchase of healthy foods. Given the diverse study settings and despite the challenges of methodological quality for some papers, we find efficacy of in-store healthy food

  7. Retail store image in emerging markets: An initial study among Chinese retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    This study explores the dimensions of store images and retailer's positioning in emerging markets. First, the store images of a retail segment will be assessed from the consumer's perspective. Second, store image clusters will be profiled based on a survey of the retailers; how they position...

  8. Comparative analysis of wholesale and retail frozen fish marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of wholesale and retail frozen fish marketing in Port ... the effects of the marketer's socioeconomic variables on the volume of sales. ... policies that would enhance frozen fish marketers' access to loans in order to increase ...

  9. Prevalence of Artificial Food Colors in Grocery Store Products Marketed to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batada, Ameena; Jacobson, Michael F

    2016-10-01

    Artificial food colors (AFCs) in foods and beverages may be harmful to children. This study assesses the percentage of grocery store products marketed to children that contain AFCs, by category and company. The research team collected product and food-color information about 810 products in one grocery store in North Carolina in 2014. Overall, 350 products (43.2%) contained AFCs. The most common AFCs were Red 40 (29.8% of products), Blue 1 (24.2%), Yellow 5 (20.5%), and Yellow 6 (19.5%). Produce was the only category that did not have any AFCs. The highest percentage of products with AFCs was found in candies (96.3%), fruit-flavored snacks (94%), and drink mixes/powders (89.7%). Forty-one of the 66 companies marketed products containing AFCs. Given concerns about health effects of AFCs and high proportions of high-AFC categories, clinicians, parents, food companies, and the government can take steps to support children's healthy eating and development by reducing AFCs in children's diets. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Relationship Marketing in Associative Networks of Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Aureliano da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Improving organizational competitiveness has become a driving force for national firms due to the entry of foreign companies. To gain competitiveness, the formation of networks has become a very common strategy. Understanding how relationship marketing occurs in associative networks of retail was the central aim of this study. It is emphasized that this study focused on level 2 - Relationship between the association and associated pizzerias. The method used was exploratory research with a qualitative approach. The object of research was the Pizzarias Unidas Association, located in the neighborhood of Pacaembu in São Paulo. The main results showed the formation of four blocks that underpin the Relationship Marketing associative networks in retail (1 activities related to customer management, (2 activities related to environmental monitoring, (3 activities related to management association and (4 activities related to monitoring the competition. Some activities appear only in one of four blocks, others appear in more than one block, as there is an overlap of activities supported by relationship marketing.

  11. Marketing promotion in the consumer goods’ retail distribution process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Bălăşescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental characteristic of contemporary marketing is the total opening towards three major directions: consumer needs, organization needs and society’s needs. The continuous expansion of marketing has been accompanied by a process of differentiation and specialization. Differentiation has led to the so called “specific marketing”. In this paper, we aim to explain that in the retail companies, the concept of sales marketing can be distinguished as an independent marketing specialization. The main objectives for this paper are: the definition and delimitation of consumer goods’ sales marketing in the retail business and the sectoral approach of the marketing concept and its specific techniques for the retail activities.

  12. MARKET SEGMENTATION PRACTICES OF RETAIL CROP INPUT FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Akridge; Mike Boehlje; Allan Gray; Aaron Reimer

    2007-01-01

    While market segmentation and the associated idea of target marketing are not new, there are questions about how the strategy of market segmentation and target marketing is being used in retail agribusiness firms. Previous research has demonstrated that distinct groups of farmers/customers exist (Alexander). However, retail crop input firms tend to be of modest size and are geographically bound. Both lack of resources and confinement to a specific geographic market present challenges for succ...

  13. MARKET SEGMENTATION PRACTICES OF RETAIL CROP INPUT FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Akridge; Mike Boehlje; Allan Gray; Aaron Reimer

    2007-01-01

    While market segmentation and the associated idea of target marketing are not new, there are questions about how the strategy of market segmentation and target marketing is being used in retail agribusiness firms. Previous research has demonstrated that distinct groups of farmers/customers exist (Alexander). However, retail crop input firms tend to be of modest size and are geographically bound. Both lack of resources and confinement to a specific geographic market present challenges for succ...

  14. Observations of marketing on food packaging targeted to youth in retail food stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Moise, Imelda K; Geiger, Sarah D

    2011-09-01

    There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices. Consequently, we sought to examine: (i) the extent to which foods marketed on the internet and television to youth are also available and marketed in retail food stores, and (ii) whether differences exist in the marketing practices across store types and by neighborhood racial composition. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey of 118 food stores was conducted in four Midwestern cities in the United States. Results showed that 82% of stores assessed carried items commonly marketed to youth via television or the internet. The items most likely to have some type of marketing technique were noncarbonated drinks (97.7%), fruit and cereal bars (76.9%), and soda (62.2%). Grocery stores were significantly more likely than convenience stores to have marketing for breads and pastries (34.6% vs. 17.9%), breakfast cereals (52.0% vs. 22.9%), cookies and crackers (54.2% vs. 25.3%), dairy (70.8% vs. 42.7%), and ice cream (23.8% vs. 9.8%). Stores located in black neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have marketing, in comparison to white neighborhoods, for breads and pastries (35.7% vs. 17.1%), breakfast cereals (44.4% vs. 25.0%), and cookies and crackers (48.1% vs. 26.3%). Our results highlight the importance of examining food marketing techniques in the retail food store environment, where visual cues from television and the internet may be reinforced.

  15. Better-bred berries for the retail market

    Science.gov (United States)

    While there are many exciting new choices for berry cultivars for the Northwest commercial industry, very few of them are available in the retail nursery market. It’s an odd thing where the top-selling cultivars in the region haven’t seen the light of day in the retail nursery market. For many other...

  16. THE STUDY FOR REGIONAL RETAIL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Sokolova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacy organizations are an element of regional pharmaceutical market infrastructure formation. They have different character and activity type, organizational and legal forms, types of properties. The revelation of the features of retail pharmaceutical market of Yaroslavl oblast was the purpose of the study. The analysis of the data of regional department of Federal Service on Surveillance in Healthcare and Social Development of Russian Federation  n Yaroslavl oblast in the beginning of 2014 showed that there are 137 acting commercial entities, which have licenses for pharmaceutical activity. The region has 487  pharmacy organizations which implement pharmaceutical activity of state (14.6%, municipal (7.4%, and private (78.0% forms of ownership. Some companies function in Yaroslavl (43.9% and Rybinsk (22.4% municipal district. The analysis of organization and legal forms revealed that 48.9% of pharmacy organizations are registered as ltd, 14.6% are state, and 14.2% are private entrepreneurs, public limited companies amount to 10.9%, the rest pharmacy organizations are included into municipal unitary enterprises and private limited companies – 7.39% and 4.1% correspondingly. The structure of retail market is represented by single pharmacy organizations (51.1% as well as organizations joined into pharmacy chains from two and more PO (48.9%. The share of commercial entities which include one PO amounted to 14.4% of all PO. Share of pharmacy chains (42.3% which include from 2 to 9 PO are 46.8% of all PO. Pharmacy chains, which have more than 9 retails spots amount to 6.6% of the total number of commercial entities. 38.8% of PO function within them. Pharmacy chains prevalence (42.3%, joined into 9 PO; pharmacy chains, which have more than 9 PO, and include state sector PO (14.6% are the features of the regional market.

  17. The Influence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak on Online and Offline Markets for Retail Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunae Jung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS outbreak in Korea affected online and offline retail sales and determines the presence of a substitution or delay effect between the two. We analyze the monthly retail sales of electronic goods, semi-luxury goods, and groceries using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model with intervention. The findings are as follows. First, offline sales of electronic goods declined by 7.9%, while online sales increased by 7.03%, indicating that these markets can act as substitutes. Second, the offline sales of semi-luxury goods decreased for two months, while online sales remained the same, indicating that there can be a delay effect in the offline market. Finally, despite the slight increase in online sales and the moderate decrease in offline sales, the MERS outbreak did not have a statistically significant effect on grocery sales. Our research findings imply that stakeholders such as the government and retail provided useful information on how to deal with the unexpected outbreak

  18. The effects of geographical competition and demand on grocery price premium

    OpenAIRE

    Halme, Kari; Akpinar, Murat; Neuvonen, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Due to the duopolistic characteristics of the Finnish grocery retail trade proprietor-run stores operate as adaptive price setters on the market. This paper examined the effects of geographical competition and demand on proprietor-run grocery stores’ pricing in Finland’s most populated province –Uusimaa. The assumption is that the price premium of a proprietoroperated store compared to the nearest co-operative competitor reflects the characteristics of competition and demand. Hypotheses on th...

  19. THE ASSIMILATION OF MARKETING CONCEPT BY RETAIL COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BĂLĂŞESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present evolution on consumption goods market generates serious andcomplex issues to retail companies. Under the circumstances of seriouscompetition, retail companies in Romania confront themselves with the needof finding solutions to different aspects regarding integration on the market,identifying solutions concerning competition issues, initializing anddeveloping businesses or determining the profitability of every activity. Morethan this, having a relation with the market they act, retailers must know andfollow permanently the needs and the requires on the market, phenomenonthat implies marketing research, studies and analysis that allow a betterunderstanding of the economic processes, and also social ones, cultural,demographical, and so on. These present realities (and even possibleevolutions that characterize the sector of retail have been the element thatdetermined the initiation of the present scientific action. The retail company isthe link within a value chain that comes in direct contact with the finalconsumer. Therefore, our intention is to determine the place, role andimportance of marketing within the general policies of retail companies.Naturally, this generated the question: is distribution marketing a specializeddomain that implies policies, strategies and specific techniques, or theassimilation of the classic concept is sufficient in solving marketing andmanagement problems?

  20. Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market - end 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-03-01

    Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market (as at 31.12.94) are tabulated, with brand names and company names, areas of operation, and total numbers of retail petrol outlets displaying brand names, self-service sites, company-owned sites and outlets retailing Derv given. Statistics resulting from a retail marketing survey (1995) are listed and cover UK petrol sites from 1985-1994; motorway brands; a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets; UK outlets retailing derv; average UK prices for petrol and derv per litre; percentage of petrol sites per company (1994); number of company petrol sites as a percentage of total; number of outlets at hypermarkets/supermarkets; and vapour recovery sites. (UK)

  1. Retail Marketing in the New Millennium: Emerging Issues & Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Today retail marketers focus on engaging the customers by offering them value and a customer experience which is innovative and customized. Consumers today are becoming digitally conscious and marketers are leveraging this opportunity to position their brands in a clutter breaking manner and gain competitive edge. Retail Marketingis the systematic approach of selling goods / services that satisfy specific needs of customers, adopted by every business and not for-profit agency and group with a...

  2. Grocery E-commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Bjerre, Mogens

    This book attempts to shed light on why it is so difficult to develop and maintain successful businesses in the grocery e-commerce arena. Within the last five years, "Grocery e-commerce" has experienced both consistent successes such as Tesco.com and irrevocable failures such as Webvan.com. Niels...... Kornum and Mogens Bjerre bring key researchers together to investigate the factors contributing to the success of "Grocery e-commerce", particularly in countries that had the earliest and most extensive experiences in this field: the USA, the UK and Scandinavia. The authors argue that "Grocery e-commerce...... country comparisons and new empirical evidence in order to address the long-term prospects for the survival of "Grocery e-commerce". Recommendations as to how managers should respond to its challenges are also made. Academics, students and researchers focussing on marketing, consumer behaviour, logistics...

  3. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin R. Payne

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets.

  4. Effect of Situational Factors on Store Format Choice Behaviour in Food and Grocery Retailing in India - A Multiple Discriminant Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cherukuri Jayasankaraprasad

    2010-01-01

    .... The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of situational factors such as task definition, perceived risk, physical surroundings, social surroundings and temporal aspects on retail format...

  5. An analysis of strategic price setting in retail gasoline markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguiberry, Florencia

    This dissertation studies price-setting behavior in the retail gasoline industry. The main questions addressed are: How important is a retail station's brand and proximity to competitors when retail stations set price? How do retailers adjust their pricing when they cater to consumers who are less aware of competing options or have less discretion over where they purchase gasoline? These questions are explored in two separate analyses using a unique datasets containing retail pricing behavior of stations in California and in 24 different metropolitan areas. The evidence suggests that brand and location generate local market power for gasoline stations. After controlling for market and station characteristics, the analysis finds a spread of 11 cents per gallon between the highest and the lowest priced retail gasoline brands. The analysis also indicates that when the nearest competitor is located over 2 miles away as opposed to next door, consumers will pay an additional 1 cent per gallon of gasoline. In order to quantify the significance of local market power, data for stations located near major airport rental car locations are utilized. The presumption here is that rental car users are less aware or less sensitive to fueling options near the rental car return location and are to some extent "captured consumers". Retailers located near rental car locations have incentives to adjust their pricing strategies to exploit this. The analysis of pricing near rental car locations indicates that retailers charge prices that are 4 cent per gallon higher than other stations in the same metropolitan area. This analysis is of interest to regulators who are concerned with issues of consolidation, market power, and pricing in the retail gasoline industry. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the empirical analysis.

  6. A Study of the Role of Small Ethnic Retail Grocery Stores in Urban Renewal in a Social Housing Project, Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komakech, Morris D C; Jackson, Suzanne F

    2016-06-01

    Urban renewal often drives away the original residents, replacing them with higher income residents who can afford the new spaces, leading to gentrification. Urban renewal that takes place over many years can create uncertainties for retailers and residents, exacerbating the gentrification process. This qualitative study explored how the urban renewal process in a multi-cultural social housing neighborhood in Toronto (Regent Park) affected the small ethnic retail grocery stores (SERGS) that supplied ethnic foods and items to the ethnic populations living there. Interviews were conducted with ten SERGS store owners/managers and 16 ethnic residents who lived in Regent Park before renewal and were displaced, or who were displaced and returned. The SERGS stated that they provided culturally familiar items and offered a social credit scheme that recognized existing social relationships and allowed low-income residents to afford food and other amenities in a dignified manner and pay later, without penalty or interest. At the same time, the SERGS were unsupported during the renewal, were excluded from the civic planning processes, could not compete for space in the new buildings, and experienced declining sales and loss of business. The residents stated that the SERGS were trusted, provided a valued cultural social spaces for ethnic identity formation, and ethnic food security but they faced many uncertainties about the role of SERGS in a renewed neighborhood. Based on this study, it is recommended that ethnic retailers be recognized for the role they play in formulating ethnic identities and food security in mixed-use mixed-income communities and that they be included in planning processes during urban renewal. Such recognition may enable more former residents to return and lessen the gentrification.

  7. The determining trends of the retail payment market

    OpenAIRE

    Bergqvist, Christian; Pettersson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The retail payment market can be seen as a high velocity market, where the rate of change is high. The future for the retail payment market is uncertain to a large extent. A relatively new phenomenon is the entrance of third party payment providers (hereafter; TPP) who are utilizing the incumbent banks account infrastructure in order access information or initiate payments. A legislation named PSD2 will increase the TPP’s possibilities to utilize the bank’s infrastructure. This makes it possi...

  8. Who Caroled in the Retail Market during 2006?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2007-01-01

    @@ According to statistics released by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the growth of apparel retail sales, by value, in Chinese department stores was higher during September, October and November than the same months in 2005. (See Sheet 1) Since Chinese department stores hold the largest market share of all clothing sales, sales in these stores are a reasonable indicator of an overall demand in retail.

  9. Retail Merchandising. An Advanced Level Option for Marketing and Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Ross; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to prepare secondary school students for entry-level and career-level positions in the largest area of employment in distribution and marketing--retail merchandising. Developed for use in the twelfth grade competency cluster phase of New York State secondary marketing and distributive education program, this…

  10. Shopping for fruits and vegetables. Food and retail qualities of importance to low-income households at the grocery store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Caroline B; Sobal, Jeffery; Dollahite, Jamie S

    2010-04-01

    Purchasing fruits and vegetables is an integral part of managing food consumption and dietary quality. This study examined how low-income adults who had primary responsibility for household food purchases considered retail produce decisions. We used a qualitative research approach based on grounded theory and an ecological conceptual framework. Twenty-eight low-income rural, village, and inner city heads of households in upstate New York, USA, were selected by purposive and theoretical sampling and interviewed about fruit and vegetable shopping habits, attitudes toward local food stores, and where and how they would prefer to buy produce. Analyses revealed their concerns were organized around five themes: store venue; internal store environment; product quality; product price; relationships with the stores. An unanticipated finding was the differing social relations that appear to exist between participant consumers, store employees and management, and the store itself as a representation of the larger retail food system. Attitudes toward retail food stores in this study are described as passive or fatalistic indifference, supportive, opportunistic, and confrontational (change agents). These attitudes are related to how shoppers considered retail fruit and vegetable choice, access, and availability. These findings suggest ways to individualize nutrition education and consumer education messages.

  11. PECULIARITIES OF CREDITING IN A MARKET OF RETAIL BANKING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kharchenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A purpose of the article is to define a sense of a concept of “retail banking crediting” on the basis of determination of the peculiarities of crediting in the market of retail banking services.  Methods. The methods of synthesis, induction, deduction, and analogy are used in the process of research.  Results. Approaches of scholars regarding the peculiarities of provision of retail banking services are systematized. Types of consumers of the retail services are considered. The author determined that individuals and legal entities of the small and medium business are among such consumers. Together with other peculiarities of the retail banking crediting the author emphasized the peculiarities such as a mass character of provision, the standardization of a credit product, a monetary form, an inconsiderable amount of credit, the voluntary explanation of a purpose of crediting, and the development of distribution channels. Taking into account the mentioned above, the author proposed the own definition of the sense of the concept of “retail banking crediting”.     An area of result application. The results of research may be applied in the activity of banks in the process of organization and improvement of the retail banking crediting.

  12. IMPACT OF GLOBAL RETAILERS ON REGIONAL MARKET PARTICIPANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Evtyugina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The given article is focused on a topical subject of global trade networks and the current trends of their development on a regional retail market. The authors believe that deep integration of international networks in the regions significantly increases the competition among network operators in the trade sector and creates a certain challenge for Russian retailers, and require introduction of innovative management techniques, automation of operational processes, expansion of assortment, better service, lower prices, etc. Research and assessment of the parameters given in the article help verifying an effect of international networks on the development process of regional market participants.

  13. EVOLUTION OF THE MAIN RETAILERS ON THE ROMANIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia PUIU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the retail market in Romania, the main retailers and their evolution in our country. The theme is better highlighted in the foreign professional literature, but also Romanian economists analyzed some features of this subject. The purpose of this paper was to examine and interpret how Romanian retailers evolved during the period 2002-2009. A qualitative method was chosen for this research, and the empirical data was gathered from the companies in the Romanian retail sector. Primary data was collected through annual information from their websites, annual reports and different articles. The research is useful for companies, in order to understand and anticipate the tendencies in the field.

  14. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  15. Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

    2004-01-01

    Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

  16. Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

    2004-01-01

    Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

  17. Price assymetry in the Dutch retail gasoline market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); M. Varkevisser (Marco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses retail price adjustments in the Dutch gasoline market. We estimate an asymmetric error correction model on weekly price changes for the years 1996 to 2001. We construct five datasets, one for each working day. The conclusions on asymmetric pricing are shown to differ

  18. Retail Pricing Behavior for Perishable Produce Products in the US with Implications for Farmer Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chenguang; Sexton, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    The typical model of retail pricing for produce products assumes retailers set price equal to the farm price plus a certain markup. However, observations from scanner data indicate a large degree of price dispersion in the grocery retailing market. In addition to markup pricing behavior, we document three alternative leading pricing patterns: fixed (constant) pricing, periodic sale, and high-low pricing. Retail price variations under these alternative pricing regimes in general have little co...

  19. Examining associations among obesity and per capita farmers' markets, grocery stores/supermarkets, and supercenters in US counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas; Crawford, Thomas; McGuirt, Jared T; Ammerman, Alice S

    2011-04-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is an important component of a healthful diet, yet fruits and vegetables are underconsumed, especially among low-income groups with high prevalence rates of obesity. This study used data from the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service Food Environment Atlas to examine county-level associations among obesity prevalence and per capita farmers' markets, grocery stores/supermarkets, and supercenters, adjusted for natural amenities, percent black, percent Hispanic, median age, and median household income, stratified by county metropolitan status. In models that included all three of the food venues, supercenters and grocery stores per capita were inversely associated with obesity in the combined (metro and nonmetro) and metro counties. Farmers' markets were not significant in the model for combined (metro and nonmetro) or for metro counties alone, but were significantly inversely related to obesity rates in the model for nonmetro counties. In this ecologic study, density of food venues was inversely associated with county-level obesity prevalence. Thus, future research should examine similar associations at the individual-level.

  20. Impact of the world agricultural grocery markets on self-development of regional agrarian systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniamin Vasil'evich Drokin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of foreign economic grocery relations on the state of self-development and self-regulation in the agrarian sector of the country and regions. A definition of the concept of «self-regulation of the agrarian sector in the region» is given. The characteristic of long-term trends in food independence is given. In this regard, the current state of food self-sufficiency in the regions of Russia on essential grocery is analyzed. It is concluded that the majority of regions are characterized by low levels of selfsufficiency in grocery. The main trends of Russian food exports in recent years are shown. The reasons for the sharp growth in grain exports are analyzed. The estimation of the possibilities for further increase of exports of these products in connection with the planned growth of consumption and production of staple food as predicted by the Russian government is made. In general, the authors believe that low levels of food self-sufficiency of the country may be not only at significant food imports, but also at low volumes of imports, coupled with the high volume of agricultural exports. Accordingly, in both cases the possibility of selfdevelopment of the regional agrarian scope is undermined because of the influence of external factors (low levels of food self-sufficiency in the country.

  1. Socio-cultural retailing: What can marketing learn from this interdisciplinary field?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the on-going cultural turn in retail marketing by offering an overview of the interdisciplinary field of socio-cultural retailing and discussing how this body of work can contribute conceptually, methodologically and substantively to the field of retail marketing. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is based on a literature review of socio-cultural retail studies in marketing, cultural geography, sociology, and anthro...

  2. Innovative Positioning as a Marketing Tool of Retailers on the Food Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Śmigielska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the paper is to develop the theory of retail business positioning as a part of marketing innovation-based strategy. It is proposed that innovative retail formats and business models should be included in it. Research Design & Methods: The critical literature review on the existing dimensions of business positioning as well as the new, suggested dimensions is made. General trends in food retailers’ positioning in Poland and the positioning strategy development of Carrefour are analysed in the form of examples and a short case study. They are based on the secondary sources like academic papers, retail magazines and companies’ web sites. Findings: On the fragmented food markets retailers position themselves by introducing format innovations and stressing low price. Then they have to reposition themselves by attributes other than price. Big mass merchandisers are now segmenters. Implications & Recommendations: In Poland the tendencies for buying natural, Fair Trade, diabetics, organic or functional products, as well as the focus on the elderly segment are opportunities for retailers. Yet, trading up creates new opportunities for discounters. Contribution & Value Added: The paper contributes to the theory of retail positioning by linking elements of the marketing and the entrepreneurship approaches. It also develops knowledge about the Polish retail food market.

  3. Evaluation of the retail market potential for locally produced paper birch lumber in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls

    2002-01-01

    An evaluation of the retail market potential for random-width paper birch ( Betula papyrifera Marsh.) lumber in Alaska was conducted. Information from lumber manufacturers and retail managers was used to identify current barriers to customer acceptance of locally produced paper birch lumber. Major retail markets and paper birch producing regions throughout Alaska were...

  4. Strategic positioning of retail entrepreneurship in marketing channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Miloš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the actual market flows and dynamiting of power ratios bring about the revolutionary changes within the marketing strategies and basic management approaches, while completely deranging the traditional value system (i.e. system established through marketing channel members' interaction. What is being altered are the market performance patterns, channel communication standards, and forms of institutional pressure manifestation toward the remainder of members which is being performed by the institution with highest economic and negotiating power. Retail company becomes the leader in development of break-the-rule strategies as well as the mutual revolutionary and innovational processes in marketing channel functioning. The final objectives of initiation of co-revolutionary retail strategy with the remainder of marketing channel members are identification and removal of all non-efficient points in the process of development and the process of adding value at all levels of distribution. In addition, these goals are the advanced management of supply chain and integration of consumers with appropriate marketing channel on a long-term basis.

  5. A Services Marketing Perspective on E-Retailing: Implications for E-Retailers and Directions for Further Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Mark B.; Galbraith, R. Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Applying a body of theory and empirical research in the study of customer loyalty drivers in the services sector, this paper sets out a number of marketing and Web site design implications for e-retailers. It then suggests several means by which e-retailers can manage customer perceptions to increase sales and develop greater customer loyalty.…

  6. Implementation Plan for a Common Nordic Retail Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    For several years NordREG has been working to promote and facilitate a common Nordic end user market. Given the political support that was expressed at the meeting of the Nordic energy ministers in the autumn of 2009, the work has become even more concrete. With this implementation plan, NordREG outlines what should be done, by whom and when in order to create a common Nordic end user market over the coming years. As the plan shows the need for contributed efforts from all stakeholders will be vital in the coming years in order to make a reality of the plans of creating a common Nordic end user market. The transition from national retail markets to a single Nordic market will take a great deal of work from regulators, DSOs, suppliers and TSOs. The benefits that a single Nordic end user market will bring will however make it worthwhile. In the long run, the integrated Nordic end user market will be a more efficient solution than keeping the four national markets. This is also a step towards the integration of European markets. The process of creating a single Nordic market also brings a unique opportunity to find new efficient solutions on different issues. Hence, the goal is not only to integrate the Nordic end user markets, but rather to develop a more customer oriented market with a high degree of competition between the suppliers

  7. Contributions to the Foundation of the Marketing Mix for Retail Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasescu, S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the particularities of the marketing mix for a company from the retail sector. In this sector there are some specific activities which influence the marketing approach, in terms of decisions regarding the policies and strategies. New elements are added to the traditional marketing mix, specific to the retail activity, and this triggers the marketing mix for the retail company. All the elements are extensively presented in the paper, with emphasis on their importance and relevant examples.

  8. Methodological and Practical Issues of Scientific Research on the Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasescu, M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the role and importance of marketing research in a dynamic and complex sector such as retail. The paper approaches the theoretical issues related to the methods and instruments of marketing research appropriate for the retail market. The theory about qualitative and quantitative research methods is supported by relevant examples which lead to a better understanding of the marketing research process and of its effectiveness on retail activities.

  9. Clothing Company Pegs Chinese Retail Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuAlun

    2003-01-01

    Using a flurry of brand and marketing strategies, Zheng Yonggang has staged the most astonishing turnaround in China's clothing industry. The once insolvent State-owned factory that Zheng was transferred to in 1989 now boasts the country's top fashion brands, and is quickly becoming a multi-business conglomerate. In 1994, the FIRS

  10. MARKETING OBJECTIVES OF RETAILERS WITH DIFFERENTIATED GOODS: AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiaojun XIAO; Gang YU

    2006-01-01

    In the real world, revenue maximization behavior may prevail in various markets. To understand this phenomenon, we develop a two-population model with two-vertically integrated channels. Every channel consists of one manufacturer and many (a sufficiently large number of) retailers that sell products in different markets by adopting pure marketing objective strategies: profit maximization and revenue maximization. We study the marketing objective behaviors in the quantity-setting duopoly and the price-setting duopoly situations respectively from an indirect evolutionary point of view. In the quantity-setting duopoly situation, we find that whether the equilibrium is an evolutionarily stable strategy depends on the type of strategic interaction (substitutes or complements), relative unit cost, market scale, etc. We extend it to the case with continuous preferences. We argue that revenue maximization may be an evolutionarily stable strategy and profit maximization strategy may be unstable. Under proper conditions, revenue maximization behavior can coexist with profit maximization behavior. In the price-setting duopoly situation with linear demand functions, we find that profit maximization is always an evolutionarily stable strategy and revenue maximization behavior will gradually become extinct. The extended model has a similar result but the retailers may compromise the two pure strategies.

  11. Analysis of Website and Marketing Promotion To Facilitate Online Marketing in Printing Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Patankar, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    In today’s era of internet with evolution of Web 2.0, all the organisations dealing in retail are going online. In fact online presence has been mandatory requirement today and does no longer hold any competitive advantage by far. In country like India, printing retail industry has been found to be in a state of growth. There is wide array of literature available that analyzes critical success factors for online marketing in general as well as precisely for retail industry. This management pr...

  12. Brazilian Culture and Relationship Marketing: An Ethnographic Study in Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléria Donizete da Silva Lourenço

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to understand how Brazilian cultural traits are manifested in the relations of trade between employees of micro and small retailers and their customers. How, in marketing, one of the theoretical perspectives that seek to account for the relationship between businesses and consumers is relationship marketing, we sought to understand the exchanges and also to support this view. Assuming that the exchange ratio is also a commercial and social human relationship, we tried to treat the exchange as a social phenomenon. The research, qualitative in nature, was conducted in five retailers in a small city in southern Minas Gerais during the period of one year (Dec/2008 to Dec/2009 using ethnography as a method. As to results, as evidenced personalism, the warmth, the valuation of non-manual work, aversion to conflict, and the cunning knack manifested in trade relations. The main conclusion reached is that the reality of retail trade is complex and multifaceted as much as is the Brazilian culture. 

  13. How To Seize a Window of Opportunity: The Entry Strategy of Retail Firms into Transition Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Gielens (Katrijn); M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn most western countries, grocery retailers are faced with maturing domestic markets with a year-to-year sales growth close to zero. Moreover, most Western-European markets are characterized by a high concentration rate, with a combined market share of the top five players easily

  14. The Examination of Entry Strategy in Chinese Retailing Market: The Tendency of WOEs

    OpenAIRE

    LIN Hui

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Recently, with more and more countries start to open their retailing market, and more and more foreign investors would like to expand their business scale and scope in retailing realm, there seems to be that the internationalization of retailing industry would be a tend worldwide. And since China became a member of WTO, it enlarges the market grant scope, releases the limitation of market entrance and offers foreign investors favourable treatment to follow the fashion of the wor...

  15. On the measurement of retail marketing mix effects in the presence of different economic regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bode (Ben); J. Koerts (Johan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThis study deals with the measurement of the effects of retail marketing instruments on annual sales in retail stores. We assume that the sales level in retail stores is determined by an interplay of supply capacity and demand factors. In some stores sales are supply-determined, whereas

  16. On the measurement of retail marketing mix effects in the presence of different economic regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bode (Ben); J. Koerts (Johan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThis study deals with the measurement of the effects of retail marketing instruments on annual sales in retail stores. We assume that the sales level in retail stores is determined by an interplay of supply capacity and demand factors. In some stores sales are supply-determined, whereas

  17. Retail supply chains and efficiency of retail trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Segetlija

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since in today's supply chains in particular areas (for example in the grocery sector most power is in the hands of retail chains on which manufacturers depend, this paper analyzes the retail supply chains. The aim of this paper is to propose a new indicator of retail trade efficiency for an individual national economy. This indicator would then be used to complement the usual analyses. As large marketing systems, retail supply chains present new competition for production companies in particular states, because they can get around them or replace them with other production companies. Methods: Concepts relating to retail supply chains are analyzed on the basis of accessible literature, and available data sources are used as the basis for a table presentation of 10 world's largest retail chains in the grocery sector, with basic remarks about their logistics and about the development of the their supply chains (basic models are described. Efficiency of the total retail trade in the selected countries is analyzed on the basis of the following indicators (a turnover per unit of selling surface; (b turnover per 1 employee in the retail trade. These indicators are presented in tables and graphically for the selected European countries. Results: The performed analysis leads to the conclusion that retail trade efficiency, as measured by the realized turnover per 1 employee in the retail trade and by the realized turnover per unit of selling surface in the retail trade, is realized diversely in individual observed countries; yet there are no differences in the results between transitional and market-developed countries. However, the analysis of retail trade efficiency of entire economies of the observed states shows that there are differences between transitional and market-developed countries. Conclusions: Thus, in order to evaluate the retail trade efficiency for the total economy in a particular country it would be necessary to also take

  18. The Relevance of Shopper Logistics for Consumers of Store-Based Retail Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teller, Christoph; Kotzab, Herbert; Grant, David B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses and empirically evaluates the relevance of shopping-related logistics for consumers of store-based retail formats. Based on a literature review a conceptual model was developed and subsequently tested using a survey of more than six hundred consumers in the grocery retail...... sector. Respondents were those primarily responsible for grocery shopping in their households located in a highly concentrated European urban retail market. Variance based structural equation modelling reveals that shopper logistics has a major impact on the convenience of store-based shopping and partly...

  19. Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-based Pricing and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines dynamic pricing behavior in retail gasoline markets for 19 Canadian cities over 574 weeks. I find three distinct retail pricing patterns: 1. cost-based pricing, 2. sticky pricing, and 3. steep, asymmetric retail price cycles that, while seldom documented empirically, resemble those of Maskin & Tirole[1988]. Using a Markov switching regression, I estimate the prevalence of patterns and the structural characteristics of the cycles. Retail price cycles prevail in over 40% of ...

  20. Directions in healthcare research: pointers from retailing and services marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, Thomas L J; Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Although the importance of the environment in relation to healing processes has been well established, empirical evidence for environmental effects on patient well-being and behavior is sparse. In addition, few attempts have been made to integrate insights from related fields of research such as retailing and services marketing with findings from healthcare studies. In this paper, relevant findings and insights from these domains are discussed. What insights and findings from retailing and services marketing are (potentially) of interest to the healthcare context, and how should one interpret and follow up on these results in healthcare environments? Research in retailing and services marketing indicates that physical environmental factors (i.e., music and scent) and social environmental factors (i.e., crowded conditions) may affect consumer satisfaction and well-being. In addition, environmental effects have been shown to vary with contextual factors (e.g., the type of environment) and consumer needs (e.g., the extent to which consumers value social contact or stimulation in a specific setting). Although the evidence base for environmental factors in health environments is steadily growing, few attempts have been made to integrate findings from both domains. The findings presented indicate that environmental variables such as music and scent can contribute to patient well-being and overall satisfaction. In addition, findings suggest that these variables may be used to counteract the negative effects resulting from crowded conditions in different healthcare units. Taking into account recent developments in the healthcare industry, the importance of creating memorable and pleasant patient experiences is likely to grow in the years to come. Hence, the finding that subtle and relatively inexpensive manipulations may affect patient well-being in profound ways should inspire follow-up research aimed at unraveling the specifics of environmental influences in health

  1. The Impact of Relationship Marketing Strategy in Indonesia Retail Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Pandapotan Simbolon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the impact of relationship marketing strategy on customer loyalty in Indonesia’s retail industries. A questionnaire derived from previous studies and the relevant literature was completed by 182 retail customers in Jakarta. Multiple regression analysis assessed the impact on customer loyalty of four key constructs of relationship marketing (trust, commitment, communication, and conflict handling. The two variables (trust and commitment had a significant effect and predicted a good proportion of the variance in customer loyalty. Moreover, they were significantly related to one another. The relationships investigated in this study deserved further research. Since the data analyzed were collected from one sector of the service industry in one region, more studies were required before general conclusions can be drawn. It is reasonable to conclude, on this evidence, that customer loyalty can be created, reinforced, and retained by marketing plans aimed at building trust, demonstrating a commitment to service, communicating with customers in a timely, reliable and proactive fashion, and handling conflict efficiently, reinforces and refines the body of knowledge relating to customer loyalty in service industries.

  2. Common Nordic Retail Market. Organisation of the further work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    For several years NordREG has been working to promote and facilitate a common Nordic end user market. Given the political support that was expressed at the meeting of the Nordic energy ministers in the autumn of 2009, the work has become even more concrete. It should also be noted that the energy ministers expressed their support for the NordREGs implementation plan for a common Nordic retail market at their yearly meeting on the 25th of October 2010. With this organization document, NordREG define the organization of the future work and the governance rules of the whole process. The document shows which bodies needs to be established, what their roles are and how the decision-making and the consultation of stakeholders will be organized. As the document shows, the need for contributed efforts from all stakeholders will be vital in the coming years in order to make a reality of the plans for creating a common Nordic end user market. The organization document has been prepared by the NordREG Retail and Distribution Working Group. Nordenergi and Nordic TSOs have had an opportunity to comment the document before it was finalized. NordREG appreciates all the comments and has taken them into consideration before finalizing the document

  3. Common Nordic Retail Market. Organisation of the further work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    For several years NordREG has been working to promote and facilitate a common Nordic end user market. Given the political support that was expressed at the meeting of the Nordic energy ministers in the autumn of 2009, the work has become even more concrete. It should also be noted that the energy ministers expressed their support for the NordREGs implementation plan for a common Nordic retail market at their yearly meeting on the 25th of October 2010. With this organization document, NordREG define the organization of the future work and the governance rules of the whole process. The document shows which bodies needs to be established, what their roles are and how the decision-making and the consultation of stakeholders will be organized. As the document shows, the need for contributed efforts from all stakeholders will be vital in the coming years in order to make a reality of the plans for creating a common Nordic end user market. The organization document has been prepared by the NordREG Retail and Distribution Working Group. Nordenergi and Nordic TSOs have had an opportunity to comment the document before it was finalized. NordREG appreciates all the comments and has taken them into consideration before finalizing the document

  4. Consumer preferences for over-the-counter drug retailers in the reregulated Swedish pharmacy market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove

    2016-03-01

    Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative data systemization and visualisation in marketing research: groceries selection determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Janová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to fill in the gap in effective interpretation of the results obtained when systemizing the marketing data by cluster analysis. The graphic visualization of the cluster analysis results is developed in the way the marketing information can be more easily readable and interpretable. Using the primary research data concerning decision making process of consumer when purchasing gro­ce­ries, the systemization of consumers using hierarchical cluster analysis is performed for several sets of consumers’ characteristics and for each case the graphic visualization is developed. The graphical information is interpreted and the marketing impacts of the results obtained by the cluster analysis and presented by the visualization are discussed. Range of possible applications of the procedure constructed encompasses also other spheres of primary and secondary marketing research and ge­ne­ral­ly is useful for the effective analyses of various statistical surveys.

  6. Modeling Demand Response in Electricity Retail Markets as a Stackelberg Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    We model the retail market with dynamic pricing as a Stackelberg game where both retailers (leaders) and flexible consumers (followers) solve an economic cost-minimization problem. The electricity retailer optimizes an economic objective over a daily horizon by setting an hourly price-sequence, w......We model the retail market with dynamic pricing as a Stackelberg game where both retailers (leaders) and flexible consumers (followers) solve an economic cost-minimization problem. The electricity retailer optimizes an economic objective over a daily horizon by setting an hourly price...... with Equilibrium Constraints (MPEC) and cast as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP), which can be solved using off-the-shelf optimization software. In an illustrative example, we consider a retailer associated with both flexible demand and wind power production. Such an example shows the efficiency of dynamic...

  7. CHINESE RETAIL MARKET: REAL POTENTIAL TO BECOME THE GREATEST WORLDWIDE BEFORE 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECATERINA STǍNCULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to capture current market developments of the Chinese retail sales in the last 4-5 years, emphasising its tendency to become the first global market before 2020. The author makes a brief analysis of the Chinese retail market sales characteristics including growth rates, sales structure, influencing factors (population growing income, urbanization, consumer goods imports. The characteristics of the constantly changing retail consumer market and the main challenges faced by the trans-national companies activating on the Chinese market represent distinct points in the analysis undertaken in this article.

  8. Winning in retail market games: relative profit and logit demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hoogland (Jasper); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe examine retailers that maximize their relative profit, which is the (absolute) profit relative to the average profit of the other retailers. Customer behavior is modelled by a multinomial logit (MNL) demand model. Although retailers with low retail prices attract more customers than

  9. The Retail Romanian Market and the Functional Integrated Commercial Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian trade is passing through a transforming process, both for what the nature of the involved economic agents are concerned and the methods, techniques, knowledge etc. necessary for the activities within this economic field. Many of the favourable changes have been produced both under the influence of the large foreign retail groups (especially the European ones, present at themoment on the Romanian market too, and the impact of certain legislativeregulations applicable in this field. Right from the beginning of the “postDecember” period, there was an imperative need as far as the trade developmentwas concerned, as well as the creation of an urban framework that should offeroptimal conditions to carry out trading activities. The implementation of the foreignretail groups (including the large commercial centers has brought to our countrythe practices and commercial policies encountered in the civilized world, imposing at the same time the practice of the real competition, accompanied by a series of more or less favourable consequences, both at the local and national level. By the mid of March 2008, the hypermarket and supermarket type of market chains, discount and cash & carry markets (over 40 is going through an extension process, a fact which is to be observed in the huge number of markets in Romania, the Romanian market being open for the foreign investments.

  10. The effects of retail concentration on retail dairy product prices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovhannisyan, V; Bozic, M

    2016-06-01

    This study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between grocery retail concentration and retail dairy product prices in the United States. The analysis was performed based on a unique data set on store-level retail prices provided by the Information Resources Inc. Further, alternative measures of retail concentration were considered, which included revenue and store selling space-based Herfindahl-Hirschman Index that were computed based on a Nielsen TDLinx data set on store characteristics. Results from a reduced-form empirical framework estimated via panel data techniques indicated that grocery retail concentration had a positive statistically significant effect on retail dairy product prices in the analyzed locations during the analyzed period of time. Specifically, a 10% increase in concentration was found to lead to a 0.46% rise in retail dairy product prices. This central result was robust to the way in which retail concentration was measured and was consistent with broader empirical evidence in the literature on retail market power.

  11. Making working in retailing interesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Buck, Nuka; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    context of Danish grocery retailer, we identify three types of retail employees (transitional workers, core employees and career seekers), who have different motivations and aspirations for working in grocery retailing. The central challenge for retailers is how to cope with the different employee types...... and make store-level retail jobs interesting to them. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we...

  12. Making working in retailing interesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Buck, Nuka; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how five retail chains in the Danish grocery industry attempt to make low-wage, low-status store-level retail jobs as checkout operators and sales assistants interesting from the perspective of both retailers and employees. Following analysis of the social and institutional...... context of Danish grocery retailer, we identify three types of retail employees (transitional workers, core employees and career seekers), who have different motivations and aspirations for working in grocery retailing. The central challenge for retailers is how to cope with the different employee types...... and make store-level retail jobs interesting to them. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we...

  13. Assessment of the marketing activities at-retail on the beer market in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Krbová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The retail sector, more specifically non-specialized food predominating retail outlets, is defined as the area of interest in this study. The main aim is to describe the relationship between the marketing activities in the retail outlets of two subjects (1 beer manufacturer and (2 his competitors. This aim is deducted from the presumption that more than two thirds of shopping decisions are made directly in the store. The manufacturer therefore has to be visible in the retail outlet and perform better than his competitors. Data were observed in the multinational retail chains once a month during one year. The observation was focused on one specific product category – beer. The competitors were observed as one group for the purpose of comparison. Three criteria were included in this study (1 a presence of products’ secondary position, (2 a presence of point-of-purchase materials in the main product category area and (3 a presence of point-of-purchase materials outside the main product category area. Data were analysed especially by using a logistic regression, but also other methods of statistical analysis were used. The dependence was identified in all three analyzed criteria. It varies from moderate to strong.

  14. Marketing de relacionamento entre fabricantes e varejistas Relationship marketing between manufacturers and retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Crescitelli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Para os fabricantes, o relacionamento com o canal de distribuição é uma atividade essencial, que se torna crítica em virtude da tendência de concentração do varejo em redes de grande porte. O uso do marketing de relacionamento junto a atacadistas e varejistas pode ser um instrumento valioso, desde que aplicado de forma adequada. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as relações entre fabricantes e redes de varejo. A intenção é identificar em quais circunstâncias o marketing de relacionamento pode contribuir para a melhoria das relações e, conseqüentemente, potencializar o desempenho dos fabricantes. Para isso, foi feita uma pesquisa bibliográfica sobre marketing de relacionamento e canais de distribuição, além de uma pesquisa de campo envolvendo entrevistas em profundidade com representantes de fabricantes e de redes varejistas do setor de eletrodomésticos. O estudo permite concluir que o marketing de relacionamento pode exercer influência positiva, contribuindo para a melhoria das relações entre fabricante e varejista, mas a efetividade de seus efeitos depende das condições em que ele é aplicado.The relationship of manufacturers with the distribution channel is an essential activity that is becoming more critical as retailing tends to concentrate in large specialized companies. Relationship marketing with wholesalers and retailers can be a valuable tool if appropriately used. Circumstances where relationship marketing between manufacturers and retailers may contribute to improve relations as well as maximize the performance of manufacturers were investigated. Literature was reviewed on the subjects of relationship marketing and marketing channels. Field research included in depth interviews with manufacturers' representatives and appliance retailer networks. Results show that relationship marketing may have a positive influence by contributing to better relations between manufacturers and retailers; however

  15. From Beijing to Bentonville: Do Multinational Retailers Link Markets?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Each of the world's largest retailers---Walmart, Carrefour, Tesco, and Metro---entered China after 1995. Their subsequent expansion in China may have influenced Chinese exports through two channels. First, they may have enhanced bilateral exports between the retailers' Chinese operations and destination countries also served by stores in the retailers' networks. Second, Chinese city-level exports to all destinations may have grown if multinational retailer presence enhanced the general export...

  16. Mail versus Mall: A Strategic Analysis of Competition between Direct Marketers and Conventional Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar Balasubramanian

    1998-01-01

    Consumers now purchase several offerings from direct sellers, including catalog and Internet marketers. These direct channels exist in parallel with the conventional retail stores. The availability of multiple channels has significant implications for the performance of consumer markets. The literature in marketing and economics has, however, been dominated by a focus on the conventional retail sector. This paper is an effort toward modeling competition in the multiple-channel environment fro...

  17. Analytical Business Model for Sustainable Distributed Retail Enterprises in a Competitive Market

    OpenAIRE

    Courage Matobobo; Osunmakinde, Isaac O.

    2016-01-01

    Retail enterprises are organizations that sell goods in small quantities to consumers for personal consumption. In distributed retail enterprises, data is administered per branch. It is important for retail enterprises to make use of data generated within the organization to determine consumer patterns and behaviors. Large organizations find it difficult to ascertain customer preferences by merely observing transactions. This has led to quantifiable losses, such as loss of market share to com...

  18. Money market rates and retail interest regulation in China: The disconnect between interbank and retail credit conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Nathan; Xu, TengTeng

    2013-01-01

    Interest rates in China are composed of a mix of both market-determined interest rates (interbank rates and bond yields), and regulated interest rates (retail lending and deposit rates), reflecting China's gradual process of interest rate liberalization. This paper investigates the main drivers of China's interbank rates by developing a stylized theoretical model of China's interbank market and estimating an EGARCH model for 7-day interbank repo rates. Our empirical findings suggest that move...

  19. EVALUATION OF COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES OF COFFEE RETAILING IN ASPECT OF MARKET ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı ÖZTOPÇU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coffee retailers are trying to improve both their products and services and to increase their market share. Companies are both competing and developing different strategies such as issues production, R&D, business model, customers, and innovations. The aim of this study is to determine the competitive strategies in the coffee retailing aspect of the market economy. For this purpose, firstly, in this sector, the major competitors, suppliers, and customers were researched and the general structure of the sector was determined. Secondly, size of the global market, industry, and demand growth rate and the future status of the coffee retail industry were determined. Finally, the bargaining power of customers and suppliers of the sector were evaluated. According to the evaluation obtained, it was understood that coffee retailing is an attractive, large and dynamic sector. In the analysis according to the study of Porter’s five force model, important information was obtained for coffee retailing.

  20. The Model Of The Five Competitive Forces On Romanian Retail Market

    OpenAIRE

    SILVIA PUIU

    2010-01-01

    The paper is about the model of the five competitive forces of Michael Porter. In the first part, I have presented the theoretical aspects of the model and after that, I tried to apply the model on the retail market in Romania. I used data gathered from national and international institutes of market research and also from the information offered by the main retailers on their web sites. The retail market in our country is not very good crystalized, but has had a good evolution in the last ye...

  1. Research on Development Rule of Retail Store in China's Fashion Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yan-min; JIANG Zhi-wei

    2002-01-01

    Retail store is one of key contents of fashion marketing management. From the point of theory of three spaces in store, Shanghai - China's most important fashion retailing market, is taken as a research sample. Store types, transform rule and relative factors of China's fashion retailing market are discussed. Some problems,such as agreement of store quality and brand target, are analyzed. Finally, five basic conclusions are drawn:first, development of store has been simultaneous with the development of fashion retailing market; second,development speed of store is restrained by region economy objectively; third, the effective means of upgrading marketing level of fashion brand presupposes improving the whole quality of store; fourth, the model of store is index reflecting competitive ability of fashion brand; fifth, there is obvious difference between domestic fashion store and that of international important area.

  2. Drivers of perceived service quality in selected informal grocery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Driver of perceived service quality in selected informal grocery retail stores in ... Understanding and meeting customers' needs are essential for the success of ..... 1In developing the data-gathering instrument, an extensive literature review was.

  3. SEGMENTING RETAIL MARKETS ON STORE IMAGE USING A CONSUMER-BASED METHODOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEENKAMP, JBEM; WEDEL, M

    1991-01-01

    Various approaches to segmenting retail markets based on store image are reviewed, including methods that have not yet been applied to retailing problems. It is argued that a recently developed segmentation technique, fuzzy clusterwise regression analysis (FCR), holds high potential for store-image

  4. Business Concept as a Relational Message: Supermarket vs Independent Grocery as Competitors for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Mikkola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with competition for sustainability between two business concepts, the supermarket and the independent grocery, both selling local and organic food. The paper is based on Finnish case evidence with very oligopolistic retail structure and its empirical and the theoretical interest focuses on the nature of economic exchange relations of these business concepts. The study shows how the supermarket is driven by market and hierarchic as well as power relations, regarding both suppliers and consumers. The business concept includes weak choice editing and indicates ‘consumer versus producer via retailer’ set-up. The independent grocery is at its core a social and partnership based endeavour, entailing strong choice editing for sustainability through the ‘consumer cum producer via retailer’ set-up. However, the supermarket may include more local and organic food in its product range on market conditions, in need of customer management, while the grocery can expand by decentralized multiplication of its business concept. The grocery also adds a new market channel for family farmers enabling better use of local resources, thereby renewing the market. This study shows the importance of the business concept as a condition and limitation for further growth, and explains the business concept as a relational message for sustainability.

  5. Energy to the masses : a blueprint for competition in Alberta's retail energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, L. [Direct Energy Marketing Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a framework for competition in Alberta's retail energy market and its influence on Direct Energy Marketing Limited . The main factors for successful retail energy competition were identified as being a level playing field for all retailers; a stable and committed regulatory framework; customer education; brand trust and visibility; regulated pricing which reflects market conditions; customer service and billing; unrestricted customer choice; and, conformity between electricity and gas markets. Direct Energy is a wholly owned subsidiary of British-based Centrica plc, one of the top 30 companies in the United Kingdom in terms of market capitalization. It was created during Britain's regulatory reform of the energy industry and operates through 4 retail brand units. Centrica entered the North American market in 2000 when it acquired Direct Energy Marketing Limited which supplies energy and services to half of the households in Ontario. Direct Energy is expected to increase its customer base with the pending closure of ATCO Gas and ATCO Electric in Alberta, making it Canada's largest provider of retail energy services. In a competitive energy market, retailers can offer a wider range of products than energy alone. Cost-to services can be reduced by offering services such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning.

  6. Campylobacter jejuni seasonal recovery observations of retail market broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, W L; Murray, C

    1997-02-01

    This study investigated possible seasonal trends in the Campylobacter jejuni carrier state of market broilers. In this study, broiler carcasses, 15 each of two major companies, were obtained from a local supermarket each month for an entire year to evaluate the presence of C. jejuni on the carcasses. Direct plating and the whole carcass rinse procedure were used for C. jejuni detection. Resuscitation of damaged cells and preenrichment of low numbers of micoorganisms were accomplished by Hunt's procedure. None of the carcasses tested positive from direct plating of skin flora in this study. After both Company A and Company B broiler samples were enriched, 69% (229/330) of the raw commercial broilers were, positive for C. jejuni. The highest recovery rates were obtained during the warmer months of the year, from May through October (93, 97, 97, 87, 87, and 93% respectively), and the lowest were obtained in December (7%) and January (33%). Storage time, due to slow movement of broilers, appeared to affect the detectability of C. jejuni during December and January. This study shows that seasons of the year influence C. jejuni detectability and the carrier state in market broilers at retail level.

  7. Evaluation of information technology application in retail marketing in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Kwong, Tung-wing, Albert; 鄺東榮

    2014-01-01

    Hong Kong is renowned for its name of shopping paradise in the past several decades. It not only has the attractive street markets, but also has the different styles, themes and levels of shopping malls. Indeed, the retail industry of Hong Kong serves both visitors and Hong Kong local people as well. From the figures of Hong Kong Retail Management Association, it recorded HK$494,456 million dollars overall retail sale in 2013 and 267,703 person were employed as the workforce under retail as a...

  8. Assessing Reliability and Validity of the "GroPromo" Audit Tool for Evaluation of Grocery Store Marketing and Promotional Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F.; Bromby, Erica; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate reliability and validity of a new tool for assessing the placement and promotional environment in grocery stores. Methods: Trained observers used the "GroPromo" instrument in 40 stores to code the placement of 7 products in 9 locations within a store, along with other promotional characteristics. To test construct validity,…

  9. Influence of wholesale lamb marketing options and merchandising styles on retail yield and fabrication time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, C L; Martin, A M; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1997-01-01

    Lamb carcasses (n = 94) from five packing plants, selected to vary in weight class and fat thickness, were used to determine retail yield and labor requirements of wholesale lamb fabrication. Carcasses were allotted randomly according to weight class to be fabricated as whole carcasses (n = 20), three-piece boxes (n = 22), or subprimals (n = 52). Processing times (seconds) were recorded and wholesale and retail weights (kilograms) were obtained to calculate retail yield. Subprimals were fabricated into bone-in retail cuts or boneless or semi-boneless retail cuts. Retail yield for subprimal lamb legs decreased from 85.3 +/- .6% for bone-in to 68.0 +/- .7% for a completely boneless retail product. Correspondingly, processing times increased from 126.1 +/- 5.4 s to 542.0 +/- 19.2 s for bone-in and boneless legs, respectively. For all subprimals, retail yield percentage tended to decrease and total processing time increase as cuts were fabricated to boneless or semi-boneless end points compared with a bone-in end point. Percentage retail yield did not differ (P > .05) among whole carcass, three-piece box, and subprimal marketing methods. Total processing time was shorter for subprimals (P < .05) than for the other two marketing methods.

  10. Strategic thinking leading to private brand strategy that caters for customers' shopping preferences in retail marketing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ching-Liang Chen

    2009-01-01

      This study proposes a private brand strategy for retail marketing through brand equity to explore customers' shopping preferences and it uses structural equation model to analyze the model's appropriateness...

  11. Understanding value formation : A study of marketing communications practices at the food retailer ICA

    OpenAIRE

    Ots, Mart

    2010-01-01

    ICA AB is Sweden’s largest retail and wholesale firm, a cooperation of retail proprietors. Here it is studied as the nation’s largest media firm. It is the largest advertiser, the largest publisher of consumer magazines, and plausibly the most advanced user of household shopping data for marketing purposes. ICA’s marketing media system is operated by a constellation of different professional groups, and the study at hand asks questions about how practitioners in different professional communi...

  12. THE AGENT-BASED MODEL OF REGULATION OF RETAIL PRICES ON THE MARKET OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid Galchynsky; Andrij Svydenko; Iryna Veremenko

    2011-01-01

    This article provides model of the retail gasoline market as multi-agent systems. The main factors, which affecting on the retail price of gasoline were determined. The authors found that using the agent approach, which takes into consideration the coalitions in the market, in particular, tacit collusion, it is possible to describe the behaviour of players correctly. An description of agent behaviour models and algorithms specific agent were done.

  13. Understanding value formation : A study of marketing communications practices at the food retailer ICA

    OpenAIRE

    Ots, Mart

    2010-01-01

    ICA AB is Sweden’s largest retail and wholesale firm, a cooperation of retail proprietors. Here it is studied as the nation’s largest media firm. It is the largest advertiser, the largest publisher of consumer magazines, and plausibly the most advanced user of household shopping data for marketing purposes. ICA’s marketing media system is operated by a constellation of different professional groups, and the study at hand asks questions about how practitioners in different professional communi...

  14. EVALUATION OF COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES OF COFFEE RETAILING IN ASPECT OF MARKET ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Aslı ÖZTOPÇU

    2017-01-01

    Coffee retailers are trying to improve both their products and services and to increase their market share. Companies are both competing and developing different strategies such as issues production, R&D, business model, customers, and innovations. The aim of this study is to determine the competitive strategies in the coffee retailing aspect of the market economy. For this purpose, firstly, in this sector, the major competitors, suppliers, and customers were researched and the general struct...

  15. The Importance of Management in the Deregulated Retail Electricity Distribution Market in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Drago Papler; Stefan Bojnec

    2006-01-01

    This paper underlines the importance of management in the deregulated retail electricity distribution market, entrepreneurship and business behaviours toward consumers’ satisfaction with quality of services. The coefficients of concentration indicate a high concentration of electricity suppliers and users in the deregulated electricity retail market for industry. The production function reveals the importance of education and electricity infrastructure, and to a lesser extent of capital inten...

  16. Strategic evaluation of bilateral contract for electricity retailer in restructured power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karandikar, R.G.; Khaparde, S.A.; Kulkarni, S.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2010-06-15

    In a competitive market scenario, consumers make payments for the consumption of electricity to retailers at fixed tariff. The retailers buy power at the Market Clearing Price (MCP) in spot market and/or through bilateral contract at agreed upon price. Due to these different modes at buying and selling ends, the retailers are faced with an involved task of estimating their payoffs along with the risk-quantification. The methodology presented in this paper gives a range of bilateral quantity and associated price for a retailer to ensure risk-constrained payoff. The exercise is carried out with a single retailer in the market as well as for a case of competition amongst two retailers. Risk is quantified using Risk Adjusted Recovery on Capital (RAROC). The problem is evaluated to get a range of bilateral quantity to be quoted for a particular bilateral price at fixed tariff of loyal load and fixed value of switching load. This summary combined with risk-averseness of the retailer leads him to make a judicial choice about bilateral transactions such that it leads to a risk-constrained payoff. (author)

  17. Competition in Retail Electricity Markets : An Assessment of Ten Years Dutch Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Bert; Mulder, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines a decade of retail competition in the Dutch electricity market and discusses market structure, regulation, and market performance. We find a proliferation of product variety, in particular by the introduction of quality-differentiated green-energy products. Product innovation cou

  18. THE MODEL OF THE FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES ON ROMANIAN RETAIL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA PUIU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is about the model of the five competitive forces of Michael Porter. In the first part, I have presented the theoretical aspects of the model and after that, I tried to apply the model on the retail market in Romania. I used data gathered from national and international institutes of market research and also from the information offered by the main retailers on their web sites. The retail market in our country is not very good crystalized, but has had a good evolution in the last years. The competition is intense, the barriers are relatively high, the power of national supplyers is diminished by the integration of Romania in European Union, the power of consumers is moderate and the substitutes appear as discount stores and e-retailing.

  19. Quality of fresh retail pork cuts stored in modified atmosphere under temperature conditions simulating export to distant markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, L M; Stiles, M E

    1994-01-01

    The effect of storage temperature on microbial and sensory quality of retail cuts of pork was determined on samples stored under temperature regimens designed to simulate conditions that could be encountered in accessing distant markets with retail-ready product. Samples were packaged in modified atmosphere with 100% CO(2) and export of retail-ready pork cuts to distant markets with a three-week time for delivery to market at -1·5°C can be achieved with one to two weeks of marketing time at retail market at 4 to 7°C.

  20. AN OVERVIEW ON RETAIL REVERSE LOGISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical approach on retail reverse logistics. Environmental concern and the current marketing strategy have spurred retailers to implement strategies to facilitate product returns from end customers. Reverse logistics, indicating the process of this return flow, encompasses such activities as the movement of returned products, facilities to accommodate returned items, and overall remedy process for returned items. The retail industry, under great competitive pressure, has used return policies as a competitive weapon. Grocery retailers were the first to begin to focus serious attention on the problem of returns and to develop reverse logistics innovations. Grocery retailers first developed innovations such as reclamation centers. Reclamation centers, in turn, led to the establishment of centralized return centers. Centralizing returns has led to significant benefits for most firms that have implemented them. Over the last several years, retailers have consolidated. Now, more than ever, reverse logistics is seen as being important. This reverse distribution activity can be crucial to the survival of companies, because the permanent goodwill of the company is at stake. Businesses succeed because they respond to both external and internal changes and adjust in an effective manner to remain competitive.

  1. Concentration and drug prices in the retail market for malaria treatment in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Catherine; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim; Bloland, Peter; Mills, Anne

    2009-06-01

    The impact of market concentration has been little studied in markets for ambulatory care in the developing world, where the retail sector often accounts for a high proportion of treatments. This study begins to address this gap through an analysis of the consumer market for malaria treatment in rural areas of three districts in Tanzania. We developed methods for investigating market definition, sales volumes and concentration, and used these to explore the relationship between antimalarial retail prices and competition.The market was strongly geographically segmented and highly concentrated in terms of antimalarial sales. Antimalarial prices were positively associated with market concentration. High antimalarial prices were likely to be an important factor in the low proportion of care-seekers obtaining appropriate treatment.Retail sector distribution of subsidised antimalarials has been proposed to increase the coverage of effective treatment, but this analysis indicates that local market power may prevent such subsidies from being passed on to rural customers. Policymakers should consider the potential to maintain lower retail prices by decreasing concentration among antimalarial providers and recommending retail price levels. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Moulds and mycotoxins in rice from the Swedish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredlund, E; Thim, A-M; Gidlund, A; Brostedt, S; Nyberg, M; Olsen, M

    2009-04-01

    A survey of moulds and mycotoxins was performed on 99 rice samples taken from the Swedish retail market. The main objective was to study the mould and mycotoxin content in basmati rice and rice with a high content of fibre. Samples of jasmine rice as well as long-grain rice were also included. The samples were analysed for their content of ochratoxin A (high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)), aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2) (HPLC, RIDA(R)QUICK), and mould (traditional cultivation methods in combination with morphological analysis). The majority of samples were sampled according to European Commission Regulation 401/2006. Subsamples were pooled and mixed before milling and both mould and mycotoxin analyses were performed on milled rice. The results showed that the majority of basmati rice (71%) and many jasmine rice samples (20%) contained detectable levels of aflatoxin B(1) (level of quantification = 0.1 microg aflatoxin kg(-1) rice). Two samples of jasmine rice and ten basmati rice samples contained levels over the regulated European maximum limits of 2 microg kg(-1) for aflatoxin B(1) or 4 microg kg(-1) for total aflatoxins. Aspergillus was the most common mould genus isolated, but also Penicillium, Eurotium, Wallemia, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Alternaria, and Trichotecium were found. The presence of Aspergillus flavus in 21% of the samples indicates that incorrect management of rice during production and storage implies a risk of mould growth and subsequent production of aflatoxin. Rough estimates showed that high rice consumers may have an intake of 2-3 ng aflatoxin kg(-1) bodyweight and day(-1) from rice alone. This survey shows that aflatoxin is a common contaminant in rice imported to Europe.

  3. Content Marketing for Small/Medium Online Re-tailers: Case Lamnia

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Mai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to acquire a deeper knowledge of content marketing, its relevance to small and medium online retailing businesses, and to examine the implementation of content marketing strategy by the case company. The research is done in parallel with the case company’s marketing development activities, thus it also determines the effectiveness of different content marketing tactics that were used. The data for the theoretical part of this thesis was collected from secondary da...

  4. Content Marketing for Small/Medium Online Re-tailers: Case Lamnia

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Mai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to acquire a deeper knowledge of content marketing, its relevance to small and medium online retailing businesses, and to examine the implementation of content marketing strategy by the case company. The research is done in parallel with the case company’s marketing development activities, thus it also determines the effectiveness of different content marketing tactics that were used. The data for the theoretical part of this thesis was collected from secondary da...

  5. Relationship of producers and retail networks in the regional food market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Alexandrovich Neganov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the issues of difficult and often uncooperative relationships between producers (suppliers and retail networks within thecontext of development of the new structure ofregional food market. At the present stage, the problem of numerous additional requirements presented by retail trade networks to producers during the conclusion of supply contract is noted as crucial for both parties. Hypotheses wereformulated during analysis of literaturetheir verification showed that the basis of disputed situations is mainly composed by price and bonus payments. The economic substance of bonus payments is collected by retail networks from agricultural producers and producers of food commodities is revealed. Relative importance of bonus payments in terms of retail networks and suppliers is compared; importance of divergence of their viewpoints is estimated. On the basis of quantitative and qualitative empirical data, the attempt to define the main disputed zones, with the help of modern marketing tools is undertaken.

  6. COLLABORATION BETWEEN MANUFACTURERS AND RETAIL STORES THROUGH TRADE MARKETING AND SALES PROMOTION ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Nedovic Cabarkapa; Darija Ivankovic; Vlasta Sibalic

    2012-01-01

    This article examines mutual relationship, namely cooperation between manufacturers and trade enterprises when the following issues are discussed: retail price recommended by manufacturer, in-store product positioning, support in activities related to the product improvement, as well as activities related to the trade marketing offered by manufacturer to retail store as its business partner. Fairness in implementation of agreed activities between those enterprises would improve their relation...

  7. Role of social media in retail network operations and marketing to enhance customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, U; Subramanian, N.; Parrott, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The technology evolution compels retail networks to introduce unique business models to retain customers and to gain a competitive advantage. Customer reviews available through social media need to be taken into account by retail networks to design a model with unique service operations and marketing approaches that will improve loyalty by adding value to customers. Furthermore, the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer spending behaviour is very weak and needs furt...

  8. A History of Danish Advertising, Market Research, and Retailing: 1920-1960

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Kloppenborg

    2016-01-01

    The period from1920 to1960 witnessed the development of two new marketing institutions in Denmark; the advertising agency and the market research agency. And in the latter part of the period a much older and already established institution, retailing, underwent a complete transformation. Self...

  9. A Retail Center Facing Change: Using Data to Determine Marketing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kristen L.; Curren, Mary T.; Kiesler, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Plaza del Valle is an open-air shopping center in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles. The new marketing manager must review primary and secondary data to determine a target market, a product positioning strategy, and a promotion strategy for the retail shopping center with the ultimate goal of increasing revenue for the Plaza. She is…

  10. A Retail Center Facing Change: Using Data to Determine Marketing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kristen L.; Curren, Mary T.; Kiesler, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Plaza del Valle is an open-air shopping center in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles. The new marketing manager must review primary and secondary data to determine a target market, a product positioning strategy, and a promotion strategy for the retail shopping center with the ultimate goal of increasing revenue for the Plaza. She is…

  11. Security of supply and retail competition in the European gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, Ibrahim, E-mail: ibrahim.abada@polytechnique.edu [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); EDF Research and Development, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France); EconomiX-CNRS, University of Paris Ouest (France); Massol, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.massol@ifpen.fr [Center for Economics and Management, IFP School, 228-232 av. Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Department of Economics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of uncertain disruptions in gas supply upon gas retailer contracting behavior and consequent price and welfare implications in a gas market characterized by long-term gas contracts using a static Cournot model. In order to most realistically describe the economical situation, our representation divides the market into two stages: the upstream market that links, by means of long-term contracts, producers in exporting countries (Russia, Algeria, etc.) to local retailers who bring gas to the consuming countries to satisfy local demands in the downstream market. Disruption costs are modeled using short-run demand functions. First we mathematically develop a general model and write the associated KKT conditions, then we propose some case studies, under iso-elasticity assumptions, for the long-short-run inverse-demand curves in order to predict qualitatively and quantitatively the impacts of supply disruptions on Western European gas trade. In the second part, we study in detail the German gas market of the 1980s to explain the supply choices of the German retailer, and we derive interesting conclusions and insights concerning the amounts and prices of natural gas brought to the market. The last part of the paper is dedicated to a study of the Bulgarian gas market, which is greatly dependent on the Russian gas supplies and hence very sensitive to interruption risks. Some interesting conclusions are derived concerning the necessity to economically regulate the market, by means of gas amounts control, if the disruption probability is high enough. - Highlights: > We model retail competition using a Nash-Cournot framework. > Risk-neutral retailers decide their import policy among a set of risky producers. > Case 1: the German gas trade of the 1980s to understand the gas sources' choices. > Case 2: the current Bulgarian gas trade to study the market properties. > Conclusions about the market regulation for welfare optimization reasons.

  12. 24-Karat Protection: RFID and Retail Jewelry Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Wyld

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the unique value proposition presented by RFID (radio frequency identification forjewelry retailers’ inventory management. The article provides a general overview of RFID technology.The author then presents findings on its use in jewelry retailing to date by innovative companies aroundthe world. The research establishes that RFID-based inventory tracking is exceptionally well-suited to thejewelry industry due a variety of factors, including the values, origins, sizes and form factors of jewelryitems. Early adopting jewelry retailers have found that RFID-based inventory tracking can address theirneeds for better inventory management and control, heightened security, and improved businessintelligence.

  13. The Estimate of the Optimum Number of Retail Stores of Small Market Areas Using Agent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Takuya; Hibino, Takayuki; Abe, Takehiko; Kimura, Haruhiko

    At present, the conditions of the location and the optimal arrangements for retail stores of small market areas are examined with the several surveys. The surveys are important because the proceeds are influenced largely with the selection of the location. However, costs, time and experience are necessary in the surveys. For this reason, this research is intended for the retail stores of small market areas which expend a great deal of money for the surveys. The retail stores of small market areas in this paper are convenience stores. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the optimum number of convenience stores by computer simulation. We adopted the agent model. We constructed an agent model that had the customer agent, the shop agent and the landscape with the kind of necessary minimum parameters. And, we were able to make the simulation environment that reflected the real world. As a result, we could estimate the optimum number of convenience stores by simulations.

  14. Agent-based simulation of retail electricity markets: Bilateral contracting with demand response

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Fernando; Algarvio, Hugo; Ilco, Cristina; Sousa, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The novelty of the evolving electric power industry implies that researchers lack insight into numerous open problems. There is a growing need for advanced modeling approaches that simulate the behavior of electricity markets over time. Accordingly, this article looks at using software agents to help manage the complexity of electricity markets, particularly retail markets, towards ensuring long-term capacity sustainability. The article focuses on bilateral trading and describes some importan...

  15. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to {open_quotes}play the market{close_quotes}. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers.

  16. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to {open_quotes}play the market{close_quotes}. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers.

  17. Marketing retail health clinics: challenges and controversies arising from a health care innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cheryl-Ann N; Khanfar, Nile M; Harrington, Catherine; Loudon, David

    2011-01-01

    Since their founding in 2000, retail-based health care clinics, also called convenient care clinics, have flourished but continue to generate controversy. This article examines the literature with respect to the industry's background, establishment of industry standards, types of services offered, marketing of retail health clinics, industry growth with new target markets, and patient demographics. It also examines the growing relationship with insurers and third-party payers, quality-of-care concerns by medical associations, and legal regulations and their potential impact on industry growth nationwide.

  18. 76 FR 13401 - Vectren Retail, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Vectren Retail, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Vectren Retail, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  19. Consumer protection and grocery

    OpenAIRE

    Sklář, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with consumer protection and grocery section regulations. It's objective is to evaluate whether grocery stores stick to law while selling food and to analyze attitudes and behavior of consumers. The theoretical part deals with definition of consumer and other related concepts and with obligations of food sellers and consumer rights. The practical part consists of three parts that contain expert commentary, own research performed through grocery stores and survey tak...

  20. Analysis of French generic medicines retail market: why the use of generic medicines is limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2014-12-01

    The market share of generic medicines in France is low compared to other European countries. This perspective paper provides an overview of the generic medicines retail market in France and how the current policy environment may affect the long-term sustainability. Looking at the French generic medicines retail market and the surrounding regulatory framework, all conditions seem to be in place to create a healthy generic medicines market: the country has well-respected regulatory authorities, generic medicines enter the market in a timely manner and prices of generic medicines are competitive compared with other European countries. Despite the success of the demand-side policies targeted at pharmacists and patients, those targeted at physicians were less successful due to a lack of enforcement and a lack of trust in generic medicines by French physicians. Recommendations to increase the use of generic medicines in France round off this perspective paper.

  1. Tailoring online retail strategies to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Souitaris, V.; Balabanis, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how online retailers can combine their strategies on differentiation and market scope (segmentation) to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. Drawing on a sample of UK grocery e-buyers, the authors classified e-shoppers as either goal-oriented or experiential, and empirically assessed the impact of a number of possible differentiation strategies on the satisfaction and loyalty of each shopper segment. The results show that differentiation based on customisation, prod...

  2. Labelling and Marketing of Bivalve and Gastropod Molluscs Retailed in Sardinia, Italy Between 2009 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico

    2015-05-28

    The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25%) presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35%) and open-air markets (25%) compared with the big retailing chains (20%). The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  3. Labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Meloni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25% presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35% and open-air markets (25% compared with the big retailing chains (20%. The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  4. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen...

  5. The impact of investments on e-grocery logistics operations

    OpenAIRE

    Kämäräinen, Vesa

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, various business models have been implemented in e-grocery retailing, however, in most cases, without success. The biggest stumbling block has been logistics, and some inefficient operation has frequently led to capital being used up on operating expenses. Therefore, improving overall logistical efficiency can be seen as one of the most important steps towards profitability. This dissertation aims at understanding different e-grocery logistics system implementation alternativ...

  6. Competition, regulation, and pricing behaviour in the Spanish retail gasoline market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contin-Pilart, Ignacio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Correlje, Aad F. [Section Economics of Infrastructures, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5015, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Clingendael International Energy Programme (Netherlands); Blanca Palacios, M. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The restructuring of the Spanish oil industry produced a highly concentrated oligopoly in the retail gasoline market. In June 1990, the Spanish government introduced a system of ceiling price regulation in order to ensure that 'liberalization' was accompanied by adequate consumer protection. By 1998, prices were left to the 'free' market. This paper examines the pricing behaviour of the retail gasoline market using multivariate error correction models over the period January 1993 (abolishment of the state monopoly)-December 2004. The results suggest that gasoline retail prices respond symmetrically to increases as well as to decreases in the spot price of gasoline both over the period of price regulation (January 1993-September 1998) and over the period of free market (October 1998-December 2004). However, once the ceiling price regulation was abolished, cooperation emerged between the government and the major operators, Repsol-YPF and Cepsa-Elf, to control the inflation rate. This resulted in a slower rate of adjustment of gasoline retail prices when gasoline spot prices went up, as compared with the European pattern. Finally, the Spanish retail margin was by the end of our timing period of analysis, as in the starting years after the abolishment of the state monopoly, above the European average. This pattern confirms our political economic hypothesis, which suggests that the Spanish government and the oil companies were working together in reducing the inflation, in periods of rising oil and gasoline prices. It is also inferred that explaining the pricing pattern in energy markets may require different hypothesis than the classical perspective, involving just firms taking advantage of market power. (author)

  7. A new concept: the marketing of consumer goods disposal in retail companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will consider, par excellence, the need for adopting the conception of marketing in all its aspects, in the process of consumer goods disposal in the retail company, meaning in an essential point of the distribution flow.

  8. Analytical Business Model for Sustainable Distributed Retail Enterprises in a Competitive Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courage Matobobo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Retail enterprises are organizations that sell goods in small quantities to consumers for personal consumption. In distributed retail enterprises, data is administered per branch. It is important for retail enterprises to make use of data generated within the organization to determine consumer patterns and behaviors. Large organizations find it difficult to ascertain customer preferences by merely observing transactions. This has led to quantifiable losses, such as loss of market share to competitors and targeting the wrong market. Although some enterprises have implemented classical business models to address these challenging issues, they still lack analytics-based marketing programs to gain a competitive advantage to deal with likely catastrophic events. This research develops an analytical business (ARANN model for distributed retail enterprises in a competitive market environment to address the current laxity through the best arrangement of shelf products per branch. The ARANN model is built on association rules, complemented by artificial neural networks to strengthen the results of both mutually. According to experimental analytics, the ARANN model outperforms the state of the art model, implying improved confidence in business information management within the dynamically changing world economy.

  9. Investigating the Sustainability of Kesko’s Grocery Supply Chain: Comparison and Recommendation for Grocery Supply Chain in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate Kesko’s grocery supply chain and find out sustainable practices along it. The main objective of the thesis is to compare Kesko’s sustainable supply chain practices with Vietnamese grocery retailers’ and through which draws out a set of recommendation for the latter. The literature review revisits related terms and concepts, which are retail, supply chain management, sustainability and sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). Also in this part, a SSCM fra...

  10. Retail winners or losers: how shall end users fare in a restructured market and what are their expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewees, D. N. (Toronto Univ., ON (Canada))

    1999-01-01

    Wholesale and retail competition in the deregulated electricity market in Ontario are reviewed. It is predicted that while wholesale prices are not likely to fall significantly in the short term, over time they will be driven down by competitive forces. With regard to retail consumers, the Ontario Market Design Committee model provides access to the wholesale spot price to all end users, thus retail consumers should get the full benefits of wholesale competition. In addition, retailers can also compete with the spot price, and with each other with fixed price offerings, with metering, and with energy management services. Green power marketing and environmental labeling should provide yet another avenue of competition. At the same time, end users should get reasonable protection from the excesses of over-aggressive marketers through consumer protection measures such as consumer information, limits on small customer contracts during the first year and prudential requirements designed to limit failure of retailers.

  11. Retail winners or losers: how shall end users fare in a restructured market and what are their expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewees, D. N. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Wholesale and retail competition in the deregulated electricity market in Ontario are reviewed. It is predicted that while wholesale prices are not likely to fall significantly in the short term, over time they will be driven down by competitive forces. With regard to retail consumers, the Ontario Market Design Committee model provides access to the wholesale spot price to all end users, thus retail consumers should get the full benefits of wholesale competition. In addition, retailers can also compete with the spot price, and with each other with fixed price offerings, with metering, and with energy management services. Green power marketing and environmental labeling should provide yet another avenue of competition. At the same time, end users should get reasonable protection from the excesses of over-aggressive marketers through consumer protection measures such as consumer information, limits on small customer contracts during the first year and prudential requirements designed to limit failure of retailers.

  12. THE IMPACT OF MARKETING EXPERIMENTS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOFTWARE PRODUCERS AND THEIR RETAILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERȚANU ANDREEA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a marketing experiment done on the Romanian software market. The main purpose of this research is to determine how the marketing campaigns of software manufacturers can influence the decisions of software retailers. Through this marketing experimental research an evaluation and an analysis of the impact that marketing policies of software companies have on the retailers from all over the country is made. Three different marketing campaigns were proposed to three groups of software vendors from the most important cities of the country. The total number of software retailers included in this experiment is of 45, and the marketing campaigns proposed by the authors in this experiment refer to the Microsoft brand. Promotion strategies such as: sales promotion by encouraging sales force and promotional pricing or even the policy of partner relationship management have a great impact on three aspects regarding software retailers: loyalty, purchase and resale intention and attitude towards a brand. The results of the experiment show a high interest for the strategy of promotional pricing. The representatives of the software vendors have a positive orientation towards sales promotion by encouraging sales force. Regarding the influences of the manipulations used in the experiment, the greatest impact on the loyalty of the software vendors it has the strategy of promotional pricing. Also the policy of sales promotion by encouraging sales force has the biggest impact on the purchase and sale intention of the software retailers. All three manipulations have also an impact on the attitude towards a brand of the vendors, but the differences are too small to determine which of the proposed stimuli has a greater impact on this aspect. The results of the experiment may help and could have a great influence on the future marketing decisions of manufacturers regarding the strategies and marketing policies used on the Romanian

  13. PRICING POLICY AND MARKETING STRATEGIES AS A PART OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF RETAILS STORES IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslava Gburová; Róbert Štefko; Radovan Baèík

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with price and marketing pricing strategies of retail chain stores in the Slovak Republic. The aim of this paper is to highlight the perception of the impact of economic recession in the retail chain stores. To determine the most used marketing pricing strategies has been used analysis of variance ANOVA. The global finance crisis does not have influence to selection and implementation of pricing strategy, which is used by branches of chain stores marketing management of in are...

  14. The measurement of retail output and the retail revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard I. Nakamura

    1999-01-01

    The computerization of retailing has made price dispersion a norm in the United States, so that any given list price or transactions price is an increasingly imperfect measure of a product's resource cost. As a consequence, measuring the real output of retailers has become increasingly difficult. Food retailing is used as a case study to examine data problems in retail productivity measurement. Crude direct measures of grocery store output suggest that the CPI for food-at-home may have been o...

  15. Measurement of retail output and the retail revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard I. Nakamura

    1998-01-01

    The computerization of retailing has made price dispersion a norm in the United States, so that any given list price or transactions price is an increasingly imperfect measure of a product's resource cost. As a consequence, measuring the real output of retailers has become increasingly difficult. Food retailing is used as a case study to examine data problems in retail productivity measurement. Crude direct measures of grocery store output suggest that the CPI for food-at-home may have been o...

  16. Avaliação do serviço de distribuição física: a relação entre a indústria de bens de consumo e o comércio atacadista e varejista Evaluation of physical distribution service: relationship between the grocery industry, retailers and wholesalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Fleury

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar os resultados de pesquisa sobre a avaliação da qualidade do serviço de distribuição física prestado por fornecedores da indústria de bens de consumo ao comércio atacadista e varejista. Para tanto, foi desenvolvida uma metodologia para medir a qualidade do serviço de distribuição física, que foi aplicada em dois momentos distintos: logo após a implementação do plano real, em 1994 e no final de 1995. Os resultados indicam fortes mudanças de comportamento do mercado ao longo do período decorrido entre as duas pesquisas. Os resultados demonstram que a importância do serviço ao cliente, como variável de decisão de compra entre a indústria de bens de consumo e comércio, tem crescido substancialmente ao longo do período considerado nas duas pesquisas. A pesquisa também demonstrou que, se por um lado, o cliente tornou-se mais exigente por melhores serviços, por outro, os fornecedores pioraram o nível de serviço de distribuição física. O percentual de clientes insatisfeitos, por conseguinte, aumentou substancialmente entre junho de 1994 e o fim de 1995.The objective of this paper is to present the results of research developed to determine the quality of physical distribution services offered by the grocery industry as perceived by retailers and wholesalers. A methodology was developed in order to measure the service quality, which was applied at two different moments: soon after the implementation, in 1994, of the Brazilian economic plan called the "Plano Real", and at the end of 1995. The results show great changes in the market behavior over the time interval between the two phases of the research. The results also show customer service as a purchasing variable that is increasing in importance. Retailers and wholesalers are raising their service requirements as suppliers are decreasing their service quality level. As a result, the percentage of unsatisfied client firms

  17. 75 FR 8325 - AEP Retail Energy Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AEP Retail Energy Partners, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of AEP Retail Energy Partner, LLC's application...

  18. Relationship marketing in the retail sector: an insight in the determination of customer loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Niculae

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years we see a loss of power of individual brands, despite the money and the effortinvested in them. The power is now in the hands of retailers. The final challenge of an individual band is thebattle it has to win in the store. One way of winning the retail battle is to grow, to expand your offer, to sellfood, clothing, electronic consumer durables, luxury goods, etc., to become the mastodon of your market.But, growing, being the easy way into bigger profits, it is sure you will be soon followed by others.You have to differentiate; you have to expand not only the product range but also the services. This isthe age of relationship marketing.

  19. Information management in retail market design in the electricity supply industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Elizabeth Florence

    The retail electricity market is no different from any other market in the need to know how much of a good is bought and by whom and when. However what sets the electricity market apart is the time definition of the "when" and therein lies the problem. It is not enough to know how much a customer uses; it is when that use takes place that is important. In an ideal world all customers would have their consumption measured accurately and in real time. Costs however are a problem in the real world and other less costly approaches are needed. Market designers then have to decide which measurement approach to apply to which group of customers. Affordability has been the main criterion used. If the costs of measurement are a small percentage annual outlay on electricity (usually based on a fixed rate) then that measurement approach is deemed appropriate. This dissertation presents a method for determining a solution that is optimal for customer and retailer. Retailers are assumed to maximize profit in providing a fixed rate and a market-based pricing option. The latter has a measurement cost attached. Customers choose the pricing option that minimizes their costs and reflects their ability to respond to market prices. The threshold level determined from this optimization depends not only on the cost of measurement but also on the level and variability of electricity prices, but most importantly it depends on the ability of an individual customer to change the pattern of electricity use across the day. The optimization method does more than replace affordability in the determination of appropriate threshold levels between measurement options. The method: (1) underscores the need to look at threshold levels not on a consumption basis but on an individual customer's ability to modify usage patterns in response to market prices, in other words ability to substitute across time periods; (2) highlights the need for a flexible approach to measurement; there must be a choice of

  20. THE ROLE OF THE RETAILERS IN CAUSE-RELATED MARKETING: A REFERENCE TO THE SPANISH CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mercedes Galán - Ladero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cause-Related Marketing (CRM is one of the most relevant Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR initiatives nowadays. Its most important characteristic is that corporate donation is conditioned by sales, that is, CRM ultimately depends on consumer behavior. In this paper, we focus on CRM programs and its application in a specific industry: distribution sector. Thus, our aim is to understand the fundamental features or the practice of these programs in the distribution sector in Spain, to study the role played by retailers and their possible influence on the consumer behavior, so that companies can better design these campaigns and achieve greater success. Hence, the paper is organized as follows. First, we review the CRM conceptual framework in which the theoretical development of this work is based. Secondly, and from a list of companies associated to the National Association of Large Distribution Companies (ANGED, the most representative retail association in Spain, we observe the Spanish situation and analyze the main campaigns carried out by these retailers during the last years. This information was completed consulting each retailer´s website, asking them for additional information by email, and with a general internet search. After that, we present and discuss the main results, and summarize the most relevant conclusions, as well as the theoretical contribution and managerial implications. One of the most important findings shows the retailer´s influence on consumer behavior and the key role of the retailers in the success of CRM programs. Finally, we also include possible limitations and further research.

  1. Perspectives of Small Retailers in the Organic Market: Customer Satisfaction and Customer Enthusiasm

    OpenAIRE

    Bolten, Jan; Kennerknecht, Raphael; Spiller, Achim

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper we discuss the impact of customer satisfaction and enthusiasm on the performance of small retailers in the organic food market. The analysis of customer satisfaction and shop data confirm essential economic effects. The study is based on 948 customer interviews and an analysis of management ratios of 12 organic food shops in Germany. The results show that customer satisfaction is a relevant key to sales performance. Regression analysis reveals that overall customer sat...

  2. Risk Assessment and Mitigation Strategies : Suppliers and Retailers in the Swedish Organic Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bocquillon, Grégoire; Ekallam, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Consumer interest and demand for healthy and ecologically produced local food has led to a high market demand that local production cannot meet. Product attributes of perishability and short life cycles ensure that even local supply chains are challenging to manage. This increases potential for risks occurrence in an Organic Food Supply Chain (OFSC) especially with unreliable supply of products. Small and established food retailers import organic food products from across...

  3. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vertical Marketing Systems, Supply Chains and the New Indicators of Retailing’s Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segetlija Zdenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In modern vertical marketing systems (i.e., in grocery sector, the greatest power is demonstrated by retail chains, and producers depend thereupon. This paper analyzes vertical marketing systems and the role of retailing therein. Specially analyzed is the power of retail chains’ demand with regard to the entire supply chains they head, as well as the present-day new competition in retailing and modern business concepts related to the vertical marketing systems. Additionally, analyzed are also select indicators to examine the significance of retailing in an individual national economy. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the new indicators of significance of retailing in economy with regard to the realized GDP, as a component of value chains. These indicators complement the usual retailing significance analyses from the point of view of its share in the number of employees and the number of companies.

  5. Multinationals Competing for China's Oil Products Retail Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Meijuan

    2004-01-01

    @@ In a footnote to growing Sino-British trade,companies from both countries signed contracts worth more than US$1.5 billion on May 11 in London. Britain's leading energy business BP alone signed four contracts worth more than a billion dollars, which will deepen its presence in the growing Chinese energy market.

  6. The evolution of green food products and retailers’ eco-strategizing and green competitiveness in the Danish and Brazilian grocery sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzero, Marcelo Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Grounded on the evolutionary approach, this thesis adds an understanding about the dynamics of the greening of the economy, particularly highlighting the neglected demand side aspect of the greening of markets. Since the emergence of green food markets in the 1980s and 1990s, this study...... investigates the role of retail groups in the development of the green food market in Denmark and Brazil. Accordingly, it investigates the rate and direction of the greening of this process in those markets as well as their sectoral convergence of retailers’ eco-strategizing. Using the dynamic capabilities...... framework, it examines why, how and when the eco-strategizing, green performance and competitiveness of grocery retail groups co-evolved with the development of the green food market in Denmark and Brazil. This thesis contributes innovatively to research on at least three more aspects. Firstly, it advances...

  7. E-cigarette marketing in UK stores: an observational audit and retailers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, D; Stead, M; MacKintosh, A M; MacDonald, L; Purves, R; Pearce, J; Tisch, C; van der Sluijis, W; Amos, A; MacGregor, A; Haw, S

    2015-09-11

    To explore how e-cigarettes are being promoted at point of sale in the UK and how retailers perceive market trends. Fixed retail outlets subject to a ban on the display of tobacco products. Observational audit of all stores selling tobacco products (n=96) in 4 Scottish communities, conducted over 2 waves 12 months apart (2013-2014), and qualitative interviews with small retailers (n=25) in 4 matched communities. The audit measured e-cigarette display characteristics, advertising materials and proximity to other products, and differences by area-level disadvantage. Interviews explored retailers' perceptions of e-cigarette market opportunities and risks, and customer responses. The number of e-cigarette point-of-sale display units and number of brands displayed increased between waves. E-cigarettes were displayed close to products of interest to children in 36% of stores. Stores in more affluent areas were less likely to have external e-cigarette advertising than those in deprived areas. Although e-cigarettes delivered high profit margins, retailers were confused by the diversity of brands and products, and uncertain of the sector's viability. Some customers were perceived to purchase e-cigarettes as cessation aids, and others, particularly low-income smokers, as a cheaper adjunct to conventional tobacco. E-cigarette point-of-sale displays and number of brands displayed increased over 12 months, a potential cause for concern given their lack of regulation. Further scrutiny is needed of the content and effects of such advertising, and the potentially normalising effects of placing e-cigarettes next to products of interest to children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. The Grocery Sector from the 1960s to the Present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    , the paper serves as a case study of the introduction of the motor vehicle in Denmark. Both the supply of goods to the retail outlets (the wholesale side) and the shopping transport are covered. The period covered has seen both a profound restructuring of the grocery sector structure (incl. a reduction...

  9. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS): Mapping the Indian Online Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Vikrant R; Chahar, Puneet; Balappanavar, Aswini Y; Yadav, Vipul

    2017-11-01

    Motivating tobacco consumers to change their behavior, and harm reduction strategies, are the predominant traditional approaches to tobacco cessation. Recent trends worldwide have shown the emergence of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), as a purported harm reduction strategy to traditional cigarettes. Considering the global rise in the popularity of ENDS, our study aims to survey the online retail market for ENDS in India. The current study was conducted in September-October, 2015 and 4 keywords were used to search Google India to identify online retail websites marketing ENDS. Each website was searched using the same keywords and all specific website pages displaying ENDS models were considered. Thus, data was obtained for various measures of ENDS present on the model descriptions. A total of 6 retail shopping websites were searched which revealed 65 different models of ENDS (34 brands). Forty-five models (69%) were flavored and 21 models (33%) mentioned about nicotine strengths. Seventeen models (26%) provided health warnings in their product descriptions. "No tar no tobacco" was most common claim accounting to 34 models (51%). This article provide insight into the current status of evident online sales of ENDS in India. There is urgent need to implement regulations on online sales of these products and protect the future from such approaches of tobacco control which still have divided opinions. The study permits the use of web search engine to explore market availability of ENDS at various online retail websites. Recommendations from the study can be used to guide policy makers in developing strategies tailored to regulate availability and online sales of ENDS in India.

  10. Relationship Marketing: An Analysis of Relationship Business-To-Business at Multi Brand Retailers From Surfwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Pinheiro Lamarca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current market environment, a good relationship with clients proves to be an essential item to be worked on maintaining competitive advantages. Especially in  relationships business-to-business, between retailers and their suppliers where transactions have high economic value. The level of difficulty in managing this relationship further increases in multi brand companies, which have high offer from suppliers. Therefore, this article aims to study the degree of satisfaction of multi brand retailers in surfwear apparel segment when it comes to the relationship with their suppliers. The survey was applied to a closed mailing of companies in the sector, and the responses were analyzed to verify the accuracy of the hypotheses raised by the authors, from the previously studied literature. Specific items on the actions of relationship marketing have had higher degree of dissatisfaction, and presented interesting links between the degree of satisfaction of retailers and the years of relationship with the supplier, the number of stores and the volume of purchases effected. 

  11. Relationship Marketing: An Analysis of Relationship Business-To-Business at Multi Brand Retailers From Surfwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Pinheiro Lamarca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current market environment, a good relationship with clients proves to be an essential item to be worked on maintaining competitive advantages. Especially in  relationships business-to-business, between retailers and their suppliers where transactions have high economic value. The level of difficulty in managing this relationship further increases in multi brand companies, which have high offer from suppliers. Therefore, this article aims to study the degree of satisfaction of multi brand retailers in surfwear apparel segment when it comes to the relationship with their suppliers. The survey was applied to a closed mailing of companies in the sector, and the responses were analyzed to verify the accuracy of the hypotheses raised by the authors, from the previously studied literature. Specific items on the actions of relationship marketing have had higher degree of dissatisfaction, and presented interesting links between the degree of satisfaction of retailers and the years of relationship with the supplier, the number of stores and the volume of purchases effected.

  12. Antibiotic resistance profile and RAPD analysis of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from vegetables farms and retail markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Yew Huat Tang; Mohd Ikhsan Khalid; Syazana Aimi; Che Abdullah Abu-Bakar; Son Radu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibiotic resistance profile and characterize Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) isolates using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Methods: Ninety eight C. jejuni isolates from farms and retail outlets were screened against 10 antibiotics commonly used clinically and agriculturally by using disk diffusion method. RAPD analysis was done to characterize 98 C. jejuni isolates. Results: Fifty-one percent of the isolates had multiple antibiotic resistance index 0.2 and below. This indicated that the isolates in the vegetables were not from the high risk environment or extensive farming practices. C. jejuni isolates found resistant towards penicillin G (93%), vancomycin (86%), ampicillin (35%), erythromycin (28%), genta-mycin (4%), amikacin (3%), enrofloxacin (1%), norfloxacin (1%) and no resistance to-wards ciprofloxacin. RAPD clustering analysis showed that the contamination of C. jejuni in vegetables was likely due to cross contamination at retail markets. Conclusions: C. jejuni contamination in vegetables at retail markets was due to cross contamination. Current finding proved that C. jejuni in small scale vegetables production was less expose towards antibiotic abuse.

  13. Antibiotic resistance profile and RAPD analysis of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from vegetables farms and retail markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Yew Huat Tang; Mohd Ikhsan Khalid; Syazana Aimi; Che Abdullah Abu-Bakar; Son Radu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antibiotic resistance profile and characterize Campylobacter jejuni(C.jejuni) isolates using random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD) analysis.Methods:Ninety eight C.jejuni isolates from farms and retail outlets were screened against 10 antibiotics commonly used clinically and agriculturally by using disk diffusion method.RAPD analysis was done to characterize 98 C.jejuni isolates.Results:Fifty-one percent of the isolates had multiple antibiotic resistance index 0.2 and below.This indicated that the isolates in the vegetables were not from the high risk environment or extensive farming practices.C.jejuni isolates found resistant towards penicillin G(93%),vancomycin(86%),ampicillin(35%),erythromycin(28%),gentamycin(4%),amikacin(3%),enrofloxacin(1%),norfloxacin(1%) and no resistance towards ciprofloxacin.RAPD clustering analysis showed that the contamination of C.jejuni in vegetables was likely due to cross contamination at retail markets.Conclusions:C.jejuni contamination in vegetables at retail markets was due to cross contamination.Current finding proved that C.jejuni in small scale vegetables production was less expose towards antibiotic abuse.

  14. A retail market study of organic and conventional potatoes (Solanum tuberosum): mineral content and nutritional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Andrea M; Cook, David M; Eggett, Dennis L; Christensen, Merrill J

    2012-06-01

    Whether or not all foods marketed to consumers as organic meet specified standards for use of that descriptor, or are nutritionally different from conventional foods, is uncertain. In a retail market study in a Western US metropolitan area, differences in mineral composition between conventional potatoes and those marketed as organic were analysed. Potatoes marketed as organic had more copper and magnesium (p potatoes. Comparison of individual mineral concentrations between foodstuffs sold as organic or conventional is unlikely to establish a chemical fingerprint to objectively distinguish between organic and conventional produce, but more sophisticated chemometric analysis of multi-element fingerprints holds promise of doing so. Although statistically significant, these differences would only minimally affect total dietary intake of these minerals and be unlikely to result in measurable health benefits.

  15. The environmental factors effect on the task vectors of holistic marketing of retail-networks on the food market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Shubin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The purpose of the article is to develop evaluation criteria and testing their determination in the interaction of sellers and consumers. It is shown that formation of a single market space forcing the participants to consider the requirements and environmental factors in the formation of significant competitive advantage. Such factors as general environment and factors of entourage are taken into consideration. The results of the analysis. The paper deals with the study of marketing environment factors and their impact on marketing task vectors of trading networks. The authors propose to use holistic marketing principles for strategy building on the basis of identifying and benchmarking assessments through the interaction of all components of the network elements. It is highlighted that the largest value in the system interact of domestic partnerships is their perception and commitment to specific factors interact. Conducted testing, for example retail network «glutton», gives opportunity to develop vectors` objectives. The hypothesis of the need to study the specific results of business and interpersonal communication internal and external partners is proposed. The mentioned results of diagnostics through perception model interact of participants in marketing business system can be useful in the sphere of retail network in the food market. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The designated development strategy forms the basis metavalue by establishing and maintaining of sustainable business interactions. The authors proposed the basic differentiators: customer satisfaction, convenience, value of use, commitment, feedback. The main results of the development and the use of differentiators should increase the efficiency of firm contacts with the client, seller or buyer through attracting of customers to the business of commercial enterprises. The key advantages of system vectors tasks were marked. In order

  16. Forecast Collaboration in Grocery Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Gammelgaard, Britta

    -requisites, degree of forecast collaboration, demand related contingency factors and outcomes/KPIs based. The hypotheses are tested in a survey among Danish grocery suppliers. The survey findings provide evidence of a positive effect of collaborative orientation and retailer competencies and trustworthiness...... on the degress of forecast collaboration. Also, campaign frequency as a demand related contingency variable is found to positively affect degree of forecast collaboration. Finally, the survey findings provide evidence of a positive effect of degree of forecast collaboration on inventory levels and forecast...

  17. Response to DOE's call for comments on its discussion paper on wholesale and retail market design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, T.

    2005-04-14

    The options available to the Government of Alberta concerning retail electricity policy were reviewed by the Office of the Utilities Consumer Advocate. The Council claims that the deregulation of Alberta's electricity market has been a success because competition has added new generation and removed inefficient generation from service. However, the Council is concerned that the transition to competitive retail electricity market can impose additional costs and risks on small consumers. Therefore, it proposes that electricity be bought on a central basis for small consumers using a suitable mix of 3 to 5 year hedges; that competitive and regulated retailers be given full access to a centrally purchased hedge supply; that regulated retailers be offered a small customer service margin price incentive per kWh over the hedged energy rate; and that the regulated rate option be reviewed in 4 years. 1 fig.

  18. Uncovering Market Positioning Coordinates Using In-Depth Interviews. Evidence from the Romanian Modern Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negricea Iliuta Costel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Market positioning is not anymore just an outcome of the marketing endeavour but actually the essence of it. Organisations must develop and implement proper market positioning plans if they want to pursue an enduring existence. In this direction, an organisation must perform a brand situation analysis, its results being the starting point of a successful market positioning. This analysis entails collecting data about the brand and its competitors being performed through various qualitative and quantitative research methods. The current study focuses on the use of in-depth interviews, a very important qualitative research instrument, in collecting data necessary to build a market position in the form of inconspicuous consumer behaviour factors, such as perceptions, attitudes and motivations. The peculiarities and advantages of this tool are detailed in an analysis of the Romanian modern retail. The findings through their richness made possible configuring market positions for several companies under study. There is no doubt about the effectiveness of this tool in collecting essential data for an effective market positioning. However, in some instances an organisation might need data of quantitative nature in making market positioning decisions, situations in which the use of the indepth interview should be complemented with a survey.

  19. Retail Shopping Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses consumers' shopping lists. The current study is based on a survey of 871 lists collected at retail grocery stores. Most items on shopping lists appear on the product category level rather than the brand level. The importance of the brand level varies considerably across product....... The paper ends with a discussion and with suggestions for future research....

  20. Chemical composition and microbial loads of chicken table eggs from retail markets in urban settings of Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewonetu Kebede Senbeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of microbial load, chemical quality, pH and cholesterol level, a total of 400 table eggs were randomly collected from 10 retailers situated at major urban settings in Eastern Ethiopia and Haramaya University Poultry Farm, Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using SAS. High moisture and cholesterol levels and low pH and huge microbial load were detected in the eggs. Exposure of eggs to sunlight in the market and transportation of eggs from farm to the retail market might influence in lowering moisture and increasing pH. Huge microbial contamination of eggs from retailers at urban settings could be due to unhygienic handling of the eggs, lack of standard storage and transportation facilities. Storing of eggs in refrigeration condition and protection of direct sun light could be helpful in maintaining quality eggs. Introduction of refrigeration systems and construction of shades in markets are suggested to maintain and improve quality of eggs sold in markets.

  1. A EVALUATION OF CONSUMER’S PREFERENCES IN THE CLUJ-NAPOCA RETAIL MARKET BASED ON A MULTINOMIAL LOGIT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Marcel POP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A long period of time investors were interested in the Bucharest market, butthe need for investment in the rest of the country, coupled with the highpotential markets present there, resulted in increasingly more investorsinterested in Romania, switching to provincial cities. The applicationpresented in this paper involves clients of several types of retail storespresent in the commercial area of Cluj-Napoca. The results obtained in thestudy, through the multinomial logit model, show different aspects of theclient’s behaviour from the Romanian retail market.

  2. Adolescence and the path to maturity in global retail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, Bart; Ellickson, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses retail modernization in the developed and developing world using data from the grocery trade and internet retailing across a global set of nations. Retail modernization leads to more variety, lower prices, and more time savings for consumers relative to a traditional retailing

  3. Adolescence and the path to maturity in global retail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, Bart; Ellickson, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses retail modernization in the developed and developing world using data from the grocery trade and internet retailing across a global set of nations. Retail modernization leads to more variety, lower prices, and more time savings for consumers relative to a traditional retailing se

  4. Essays on strategic location choices and pricing strategies in oligopolistic markets

    OpenAIRE

    Erdmann, Anett

    2016-01-01

    The three chapters of this dissertation contribute to the understanding of strategic firm behavior in oligopolistic markets. In particular, I link spatial market features to standard competition analysis, which enables new perspectives to explain market outcomes in geographically defined markets and provide applications to the grocery retail industry. Chapter 1 studies the importance of returns to product differentiation and distribution economies for a firm’s optimal location ...

  5. Adapting of marketing research methodology “Mystery Shopping” to the specifics of retail self-service shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.K. Antipona

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the innovational approaches of carrying out marketing research of the service quality in the retail self-service shops with the help of Mystery Shopping method. The algorithm of making marketing research Mystery Shopping in the self-service shops was developed.

  6. Implementation Plan for a Common Nordic Retail Market. Evaluation of the responses on the public consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    Draft implementation plan for a common Nordic Retail Market was developed in close cooperation with relevant stakeholders in the Nordic electricity market during winter and spring 2010. The implementation plan outlines what should be done, by whom and when in order to create a common Nordic end user market over the coming years. NordREG organised a public consultation on the draft implementation plan from the end of June until the beginning of the August, 2010 and received 25 responses from stakeholders. This evaluation report includes summary of stakeholders' responses and NordREG comments on stakeholders' views. The evaluation of the responses has been taken into account during the finalization of the implementation plan

  7. Phenotypic characteristics and genotypic correlation between Salmonella isolates from a slaughterhouse and retail markets in Yangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yinqiang; Tao, Jing; Jiao, Yang; Fei, Xiao; Zhou, Le; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Huijuan; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2016-04-02

    An epidemiological investigation of Salmonella spp. in pig and pork samples from one slaughterhouse and its downstream retail markets in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, China, was conducted from October 2013 to March 2014. A total of 71.8% (155/216) and 70.9% (78/110), respectively, of the slaughterhouse and retail market samples were recovered positive for Salmonella. All Salmonella isolates were characterized using serotyping, antimicrobial resistance detection, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven serotypes were shared by isolates from the two sources, with the most common serotypes being Salmonella Derby, Typhimurium, and Uganda. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing revealed that the highest antimicrobial resistance rate was against tetracycline (49.7% and 37.2% in isolates from the slaughterhouse and retail market, respectively) with many multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates in both sources. MLST analysis showed that eight sequence type (ST) patterns were shared, and ST40 occupied an absolute superiority among isolates from both sources. PFGE permitted the resolution of XbaI macrorestriction fragments of the selected 31 Salmonella Derby and 19 Salmonella Typhimurium into 30 and 10 distinct pulsotypes, displaying the high similarity between the isolates from the two sources. Our findings indicated that Salmonella isolates from a slaughterhouse and its downstream retail markets were phenotypically and genetically homologous. Additionally, Salmonella may propagate along the slaughter line and pork production chain from the slaughterhouse to retail markets.

  8. Restrictions on the reimbursement policy with regard to retail marketing of medicinal products in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    On January 1, 2012, the law of 12 May 2011 on the reimbursement of medicines, food products of special nutritional purpose and medicinal products, intended to tighten up the reimbursement system, came into force in Poland. The new legislative act has significantly altered the previous principles of retail marketing of products subject to publicly financed reimbursement. First of all, the prices of reimbursed products have been unified through the introduction of fixed margins and prices and a ban--completely unknown until now--on using free market sales practices. These regulations are intended to lead to the abolition of price competition and its replacement with competition as to the quality of services provided by pharmacies. At the same time, entities engaged in retail marketing of medicinal products have been imposed a number of new obligations and highly repressive penalties for failure to fulfill them. The paper analyzes the legislative changes and points out the consequences, both those which can already be seen and the predictable ones. The assumed priority and criterion of evaluation of the reimbursement policy in question is its impact on the functioning of pharmacies which, according to the premises of Polish pharmaceutical law, should play the role of public health protection institutions.

  9. Evaluation of quality and nutrient contents of table eggs from different sources in the retail market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Attia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Table egg quality and nutrient contents from four sources in the retail market in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia were evaluated using straight run experimental design and compared with the recommended daily allowance (RDA, 2002/2005 profiles. Egg source had a noticeable effect (P<0.05 on shell weight per unit of surface area, albumen percentage, Haugh unit, yolk percentage, index and colour. Differences in dry matter, protein, and lipid profiles of eggs were significant (P<0.05 among various sources, while variability in egg cholesterol and low density lipoprotein reached 51 and 17.6% (P<0.05, respectively. Egg sources had an effect (P<0.05 on total antioxidant capacity and lipid malonaldehyde. Mineral contents (mg/egg of the whole edible parts of eggs showed a significant difference (P<0.05 among different egg sources in most of the minerals except for potassium. In conclusion, eggs in the retail market had variable quality and nutrition contents that may affect the fulfillment of the RDA for human and may possibly improve the quality of eggs and their nutritional values. Such diversity indicates the need for uniform of production and husbandry practice, the enforcement of quality control regulations based on egg quality and nutrient profiles by the authorities in the market, and the impact this may have on the health of the consumer.

  10. The New Hampshire retail competition pilot program and the role of green marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, E.A. [Ed Holt and Associates, Inc. (United States); Fang, J.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Most states in the US are involved in electric industry restructuring, from considering the pros and cons in regulatory dockets to implementing legislative mandates for full restructuring and retail access for all consumers. Several states and utilities have initiated pilot programs in which multiple suppliers or service providers may compete for business and some utility customers can choose among competing suppliers. The State of New Hampshire has been experimenting with a pilot program, mandated by the State Legislature in 1995 and implemented by the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (NHPUC), before it implements full retail access. Green marketing, an attempt to characterize the supplier or service provider as environmentally friendly without referring to the energy resource used to generate electricity, was used by several suppliers or service providers to attract customers. This appeal to environmental consumerism was moderately successful, but it raised a number of consumer protection and public policy issues. This issue brief examines the marketing methods used in New Hampshire and explores what green marketing might mean for the development of renewable energy generation. It also addresses the issues raised and their implications.

  11. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market

    OpenAIRE

    Lyhs Ulrike; Ikonen Ilona; Pohjanvirta Tarja; Raninen Kaisa; Perko-Mäkelä Päivikki; Pelkonen Sinikka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria (ExPEC) exist as commensals in the human intestines and can infect extraintestinal sites and cause septicemia. The transfer of ExPEC from poultry to humans and the role of poultry meat as a source of ExPEC in human disease have been discussed previously. The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the properties of ExPEC in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market with special attention to their pr...

  12. 3D Printing and Retail : The Effects of Additive Manufacturing Techniques to the Retail Market in the Next Decade

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The thesis takes a practical approach to assess the uses of 3D printing on both consumer and professional levels, tries to identify the type of internal processes in retail where 3D printing could be used, and the threats and opportunities 3D printing creates to retail. The first part of the thesis, the overview of 3D printing, explains what 3D printing is, finds out about its history, categories, current and future applications, expected diffusion rate, the advantages and disadvantages ...

  13. Estimating Price Premiums for Breads Marketed as “Low-Carbohydrate Breadsâ€

    OpenAIRE

    Nganje, William E.; Kaitibie, Simeon; Wachenheim, Cheryl J.; Acquah, Emmanuel T.; Matson, Joel; Johnson, Grant

    2008-01-01

    Retail data are used in a hedonic pricing framework to estimate the premium paid for the “low-carbohydrate†attribute and other attributes of bread at grocery and non-grocery stores in a regional market. Results show that consumer willingness to pay is influenced by the “low-carbohydrate†attribute as well as by sugar, fiber, and fat content; serving size; and size of loaf. Implicit price premiums vary significantly by retail location. However, price differentials may be compounded by t...

  14. 76 FR 59999 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants... (HTSUS). Furthermore, although the HTSUS subheading is provided for convenience and customs purposes,...

  15. 75 FR 16434 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants to... convenience and customs purposes, the written description of the scope of this investigation is...

  16. 78 FR 28194 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants..., although the HTSUS subheading is provided for convenience and customs purposes, our written description...

  17. 75 FR 16428 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants... convenience and customs purposes, the written description of the scope of this investigation is...

  18. Marketing Research on the Retail Market in Braşov with a View to Obtaining Solutions to Diminish the Negative Effects of the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăşescu S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the present circumstances of the economic crisis, studying the retail market is a must. The tendencies emphasize a diminution of consumption. Retailers face a long series of problems in the present context. These problems refer to the reduction of turnover, as the number of clients reduces as well. The research in the domain shows what instruments retailers use in order to diminish the negative effects of the crisis. The present work presents some of the results of the qualitative research, as well as of the quantitative one.

  19. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyhs Ulrike

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria (ExPEC exist as commensals in the human intestines and can infect extraintestinal sites and cause septicemia. The transfer of ExPEC from poultry to humans and the role of poultry meat as a source of ExPEC in human disease have been discussed previously. The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the properties of ExPEC in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market with special attention to their prevalence, virulence and phylogenetic profiles. Furthermore, the isolates were screened for possible ESBL producers and their resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. Methods The presence of ExPEC in 219 marinated and non-marinated raw poultry meat products from retail shops has been analyzed. One E. coli strain per product was analyzed further for phylogenetic groups and possession of ten virulence genes associated with ExPEC bacteria (kpsMT K1, ibeA, astA, iss, irp2, papC, iucD, tsh, vat and cva/cv using PCR methods. The E. coli strains were also screened phenotypically for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and the susceptibility of 48 potential ExPEC isolates for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. Results E. coli was isolated from 207 (94.5% of 219 poultry meat products. The most common phylogenetic groups were D (50.7%, A (37.7%, and B2 (7.7%. Based on virulence factor gene PCR, 23.2% of the strains were classified as ExPEC. Two ExPEC strains (1% belonged to [O1] B2 svg+ (specific for virulent subgroup group, which has been implicated in multiple forms of ExPEC disease. None of the ExPEC strains was resistant to ciprofloxacin or cephalosporins. One isolate (2.1% showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Conclusions Potential ExPEC bacteria were found in 22% of marinated and non-marinated poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market and 0.9% were contaminated with E. coli [O1] B2 svg+ group. Marinades did

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolates from Chicken Carcasses in Retail Markets in Yangon, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Aung Zaw; Paulsen, Peter; Pichpol, Duangporn; Fries, Reinhard; Irsigler, Herlinde; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Oo, Kyaw Naing

    2017-06-01

    A cross-sectional investigation was conducted concerning prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, multidrug resistance patterns, and serovar diversity of Salmonella in chicken meat sold at retail in Yangon, Myanmar. The 141 chicken meat samples were collected at 141 retail markets in the Yangon Region, Myanmar, 1 November 2014 to 31 March 2015. Information on hygienic practices (potential risk factors) was retrieved via checklists. Salmonella was isolated and identified according to International Organization for Standardization methods (ISO 6579:2002) with minor modifications. Twelve antimicrobial agents belonging to eight pharmacological groups were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disk diffusion method). Salmonella was recovered from 138 (97.9%) of the 141 samples. The isolates were most frequently resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70.3% of isolates), tetracycline (54.3%), streptomycin (49.3%), and ampicillin (47.1%). Resistance was also found to chloramphenicol (29.7%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (17.4%), ciprofloxacin (9.4%), tobramycin (8.7%), gentamicin (8%), cefazolin (7.2%), lincomycin-spectinomycin (5.8%), and norfloxacin (0.7%). Among the 138 Salmonella isolates, 72 (52.2%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobial agents. Twenty-four serovars were identified among the 138 Salmonella-positive samples; serovars Albany, Kentucky, Braenderup, and Indiana were found in 38, 11, 10, and 8% of samples, respectively. None of the potential risk factors were significantly related to Salmonella contamination of chicken carcasses. This study provides new information regarding prevalence and antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella serovar diversity in retail markets in Yangon, Myanmar.

  1. Roadmap of retail electricity market reform in China: assisting in mitigating wind energy curtailment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dezhao; Qiu, Huadong; Yuan, Xiang; Li, Yuan; Shao, Changzheng; Lin, You; Ding, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Among the renewable energies, wind energy has gained the rapidest development in China. Moreover wind power generation has been penetrated into power system in a large scale. However, the high level wind curtailment also indicates a low efficiency of wind energy utilization over the last decade in China. One of the primary constraints on the utilization of wind energy is the lack of an electricity market, in which renewable energies can compete equally with traditional fossil fuel generation. Thus the new round electric power industry reform is essential in China. The reform involves implementing new pricing mechanism, introducing retail-side competition, promoting the consumption of renewable energy. The new round reform can be a promising solution for promoting the development and consumption of wind energy generation in China. Based on proposed reform policies of electric power industry, this paper suggests a roadmap for retail electricity market reform of China, which consists of three stages. Barriers to the efficient utilization of wind energy are also analysed. Finally, this paper introduces several efficient measures for mitigating wind curtailment in each stage of reform.

  2. In-person retail marketing claims in tobacco and E-cigarette shops in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joshua S; Wood, Michele M; Peirce, Katelynn

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarette use has been increasing in the United States, though knowledge of potential risks and harms associated with e-cigarette use is low. Marketing of e-cigarettes may serve as a source of information to shape beliefs and attitudes toward e-cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to identify the most common marketing claims made within "vape" and tobacco shops in sales interactions with customers in demographically diverse cities. Vape and tobacco shops from three diverse cities in Southern California were selected for inclusion in the study. From May 2015 to July 2015, simulated customers asked salespeople in vape and tobacco shops how e-cigarettes compare to conventional cigarettes, and then recorded the resulting claims that were made using a standardized form designed for this purpose. Data were analyzed from January to March 2016. The most frequent claims made by sales staff were that: smoking e-cigarettes helps one quit smoking (57% of the simulated shopping interactions), e-cigarettes come in multiple flavors (54%), and e-cigarettes are healthier than conventional cigarettes (50%). Simulated customer interactions that took place in vape shops included more positive marketing claims than those that occurred in tobacco shops; this relationship approached statistical significance (p = .087). There was a significant relationship between city and the average number of positive e-cigarette claims made (p < .001). A wide range of marketing claims are made about e-cigarettes in retail settings. These may vary by geographic location, community demographics, and type of retail outlet.

  3. Retail Market analysis in targeting sales based on Consumer Behaviour using Fuzzy Clustering - A Rule Based Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanu, D

    2009-01-01

    Product Bundling and offering products to customers is of critical importance in retail marketing. In general, product bundling and offering products to customers involves two main issues, namely identification of product taste according to demography and product evaluation and selection to increase sales. The former helps to identify, analyze and understand customer needs according to the demo-graphical characteristics and correspondingly transform them into a set of specifications and offerings for people. The latter, concerns with how to determine the best product strategy and offerings for the customer in helping the retail market to improve their sales. Existing research has focused only on identifying patterns for a particular dataset and for a particular setting. This work aims to develop an explicit decision support for the retailers to improve their product segmentation for different settings based on the people characteristics and thereby promoting sales by efficient knowledge discovery from the exi...

  4. La evolución del marketing relacional y las nuevas tecnologías.

    OpenAIRE

    Bultó Carulla, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    A case study about how new technologies have influenced the evolution of relational marketing in grocery retailing. Un caso Práctico de como las nuevas tecnologías han hecho evolucionar el marketing relacional en el sector del Gran Consumo Un cas pràctic de com les noves tecnologies han fet evolucionar el marketing relacional en el sector del Gran Consum.

  5. Salmonella on Raw Poultry in Retail Markets in Guatemala: Levels, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Serovar Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquin, Claudia; Alvarez, Danilo; Morales, Oneida; Morales, Ana Judith; López, Beatriz; Donado, Pilar; Valencia, Maria F; Arévalo, Alejandra; Muñoz, Fredy; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella numbers on retail raw chicken carcasses in Guatemala and to phenotypically characterize the isolates (serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility). In total, 300 chicken carcasses were collected from seven departments in Guatemala. Salmonella numbers were determined using the most-probable-number method following the U. S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service protocol. In total, 103 isolates were obtained, all of which were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, whereas 46 isolates were serotyped. Overall, Salmonella prevalence and mean number (mean log most probable number per carcass) was 34.3% and 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 2.1 to 2.5), respectively. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence were found by storage condition (refrigerated or ambient temperature), market type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent poultry stores), chicken production system (integrated or nonintegrated production company), and chicken skin color (white or yellow). Chickens produced by integrated companies had lower Salmonella numbers (P < 0.05) than nonintegrated companies, and white-skin carcasses had lower numbers (P < 0.05) than yellow-skin carcasses. Among 13 different Salmonella serovars identified, Paratyphi B (34.8%) was most prevalent, followed by Heidelberg (16.3%) and Derby (11.6%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 59.2% were resistant to one to three antibiotics and 13.6% to four or more antibiotics. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B and Heidelberg were the most resistant to the antibiotics tested. Salmonella levels and antibiotic resistant profiles among isolates from raw poultry at the retail market level were high relative to other reports from North and South America. These data can be used by Guatemalan stakeholders to develop risk assessment models and support further research opportunities to control transmission of Salmonella spp. and

  6. Impact of cigarette minimum price laws on the retail price of cigarettes in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Michael A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Loomis, Brett R

    2013-05-01

    Cigarette price increases prevent youth initiation, reduce cigarette consumption and increase the number of smokers who quit. Cigarette minimum price laws (MPLs), which typically require cigarette wholesalers and retailers to charge a minimum percentage mark-up for cigarette sales, have been identified as an intervention that can potentially increase cigarette prices. 24 states and the District of Columbia have cigarette MPLs. Using data extracted from SCANTRACK retail scanner data from the Nielsen company, average cigarette prices were calculated for designated market areas in states with and without MPLs in three retail channels: grocery stores, drug stores and convenience stores. Regression models were estimated using the average cigarette pack price in each designated market area and calendar quarter in 2009 as the outcome variable. The average difference in cigarette pack prices are 46 cents in the grocery channel, 29 cents in the drug channel and 13 cents in the convenience channel, with prices being lower in states with MPLs for all three channels. The findings that MPLs do not raise cigarette prices could be the result of a lack of compliance and enforcement by the state or could be attributed to the minimum state mark-up being lower than the free-market mark-up for cigarettes. Rather than require a minimum mark-up, which can be nullified by promotional incentives and discounts, states and countries could strengthen MPLs by setting a simple 'floor price' that is the true minimum price for all cigarettes or could prohibit discounts to consumers and retailers.

  7. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Sandy; Giovino, Gary; Chaloupka, Frank

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and the interest in studying tobacco harm reduction, sound research and surveillance are needed to examine and understand the distribution and availability of PREPs in communities, as well as the tobacco industry's marketing practices surrounding these products. We examined the availability and marketing of PREPs in a national sample of tobacco retail stores. We also compared the price of PREPs to those of premium brand cigarettes and examined the distribution of PREPs in comparison with premium brand cigarettes by store type, urbanization, region, and race/ethnicity. We found that PREPs are not widely available, are priced similarly to leading cigarette brands, and have few promotional offers. We also found some significant differences in the distribution of PREPs and cigarettes, as well as in the distribution of Ariva and Omni, by store type and community demographics. The fact that this study used data collected nationally emphasizes the importance of these findings and helps shed some light on the tobacco industry's PREP marketing strategies. This study's national sample provides a unique perspective that needs to be replicated if and when other PREPs are widely marketed.

  8. Mothers' self-reported grocery shopping behaviours with their 2- to 7-year-old children: relationship between feeding practices and mothers' willingness to purchase child-requested nutrient-poor, marketed foods, and fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Kathryn; Babawale, Oluborode; Thompson, David M; Morris, Amanda S; Harris, Jennifer L; Sisson, Susan B; Cheney, Marshall K; Lora, Karina R

    2017-09-07

    To assess relationships between mothers' feeding practices (food as a reward, food for emotion regulation, modelling of healthy eating) and mothers' willingness to purchase child-marketed foods and fruits/vegetables (F&V) requested by their children during grocery co-shopping. Cross-sectional. Mothers completed an online survey that included questions about feeding practices and willingness (i.e. intentions) to purchase child-requested foods during grocery co-shopping. Feeding practices scores were dichotomized at the median. Foods were grouped as nutrient-poor or nutrient-dense (F&V) based on national nutrition guidelines. Regression models compared mothers with above-the-median v. at-or-below-the-median feeding practices scores on their willingness to purchase child-requested food groupings, adjusting for demographic covariates. Participants completed an online survey generated at a public university in the USA. Mothers (n 318) of 2- to 7-year-old children. Mothers who scored above-the-median on using food as a reward were more willing to purchase nutrient-poor foods (β=0·60, P<0·0001), mothers who scored above-the-median on use of food for emotion regulation were more willing to purchase nutrient-poor foods (β=0·29, P<0·0031) and mothers who scored above-the-median on modelling of healthy eating were more willing to purchase nutrient-dense foods (β=0·22, P<0·001) than were mothers with at-or-below-the-median scores, adjusting for demographic covariates. Mothers who reported using food to control children's behaviour were more willing to purchase child-requested, nutrient-poor foods. Parental feeding practices may facilitate or limit children's foods requested in grocery stores. Parent-child food consumer behaviours should be investigated as a route that may contribute to children's eating patterns.

  9. Marketing strategy for retailing small-scale wind energy turbines in Indian markets

    OpenAIRE

    Harjula, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The study analyzes the small-scale wind energy markets in Mumbai, focusing on questions: How feasible is the wind energy for SME businesses in Mumbai, and what are the main challenges and opportunities of small-scale wind energy in Mumbai? The study is a qualitative case study, in which, the data has been collected through observing the markets by visiting wind energy sites and companies, interviewing and meeting potential customers and other stakeholders in the market. Theoretical frame...

  10. An empirical investigation of spatial differentiation and price floor regulations in retail markets for gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Jean-Francois

    In the first essay of this dissertation, I study an empirical model of spatial competition. The main feature of my approach is to formally specify commuting paths as the "locations" of consumers in a Hotelling-type model of spatial competition. The main consequence of this location assumption is that the substitution patterns between stations depend in an intuitive way on the structure of the road network and the direction of traffic flows. The demand-side of the model is estimated by combining a model of traffic allocation with econometric techniques used to estimate models of demand for differentiated products (Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995)). The estimated parameters are then used to evaluate the importance of commuting patterns in explaining the distribution of gasoline sales, and compare the economic predictions of the model with the standard home-location model. In the second and third essays, I examine empirically the effect of a price floor regulation on the dynamic and static equilibrium outcomes of the gasoline retail industry. In particular, in the second essay I study empirically the dynamic entry and exit decisions of gasoline stations, and measure the impact of a price floor on the continuation values of staying in the industry. In the third essay, I develop and estimate a static model of quantity competition subject to a price floor regulation. Both models are estimated using a rich panel dataset on the Quebec gasoline retail market before and after the implementation of a price floor regulation.

  11. Creating customer value and the use of the product life cycle to generate strategic options for maturing low-cost service-retail markets -A case study on The Spirit Group value pub food retail concept"Two for One"

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This is a case study on a low-cost service retail concept known as "Two for One" a pub-food chain owned by The Spirit Group. The thesis aims to explore the nature and characteristics of the product life cycle for low-cost service retailers with the objective to establish strategic options. The nature of low-cost propositions is that price is the main strategic driver to compete for growth and market share. However in maturing markets where competition is high and margins are low, retailers...

  12. Analysing the maximum level of customer satisfaction in grocery stores: the influence of feature advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pilar Martínez Ruiz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available From the initial consideration of the store attributes that the marketing literature has identified as key in order that grocery retailers manage to design their differentiation strategies, this work identifies the main factors underlying the above mentioned attributes. The goal is to analyze which of these factors exert a bigger influence on the highest level of customer satisfaction. With this intention, we have examined a sample of 422 consumers who had carried out their purchase in different types of store formats in Spain, considering the influence of feature advertising on the clientele behavior. Interesting conclusions related to the aspects that most impact on the maximum level of customer satisfaction depending on the influence of feature advertising stem from this work.

  13. Factors Influencing Consumers Intention for Online Grocery Shopping - A Proposed Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzi, SFF; Thoo, AC; Tan, LC; Muharam, FM; Talib, NA

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, Internet is one of the most popular platforms for people to do online shopping including grocery items. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the determinants of customer intentions for online grocery shopping. Till now, there is no consensus on what are the factors that actually influencing people to shop grocery items through Internet. This paper aims to explore the factors such as social influences, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivations, perceived risk and perceived trust that influence the consumer intention to purchase grocery online. Questionnaires will be the main instrument of the study and they will be distributed to target respondents using Internet survey. Respondents of the study will be selected using convenience sampling. After data collection, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) will be employed for data analysis. Overall, the result of the study is important to retailers to identify the important factors in increasing their customers’ intention to purchase grocery online.

  14. Research on the Complexity of Dual-Channel Supply Chain Model in Competitive Retailing Service Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Li, Ting; Ren, Wenbo

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the optimal decisions of dual-channel game model considering the inputs of retailing service. We analyze how adjustment speed of service inputs affect the system complexity and market performance, and explore the stability of the equilibrium points by parameter basin diagrams. And chaos control is realized by variable feedback method. The numerical simulation shows that complex behavior would trigger the system to become unstable, such as double period bifurcation and chaos. We measure the performances of the model in different periods by analyzing the variation of average profit index. The theoretical results show that the percentage share of the demand and cross-service coefficients have important influence on the stability of the system and its feasible basin of attraction.

  15. AÇAÍ PULP DEMAND IN THE RETAIL MARKET OF BELÉM, STATE OF PARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIO CORDEIRO DE SANTANA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to estimate the parameters associated to the demand for açaí pulp in the retail market of Belém. Multiple regression analysis was applied to identify the key variables that impact on product consumption and to estimate the price and income elasticities and cross demand. The econometric estimation method applied was the least squares to correct heteroscedastic variance problems. Results have shown that the demand for açaí pulp is price and income inelastic. Fish and cassava flour were confirmed as complementary products of strong influence on the decisions of consumers. Product quality, with regard to its association to Chagas disease, also revealed a strong influence on product choice for household consumption. Finally, the socio-economic benefit of açaí pulp was R$ 762.78 million per year.

  16. Assessment of Coumarin Levels in Ground Cinnamon Available in the Czech Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blahová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the coumarin content of ground cinnamon purchased from retail markets in the Czech Republic. No sample was labelled with information on the botanical source, but, in some cases, the countries of origin were specified. For comparison, a single cinnamon sample imported directly from a plantation in Sri Lanka that came from Cinnamomum verum was analyzed. Results from 60 ground cinnamon samples comprising twelve brands confirmed a high content of coumarin, with mean levels ranging from 2 650 to 7 017 mg · kg−1. The high coumarin content confirmed that these cinnamon samples obtained from cassia cinnamon were in contrast to the sample from Sri Lanka, which was coumarin-free.

  17. Tracking cross-contamination transfer dynamics at a mock retail deli market using GloGerm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Jessica; Boyer, Renee; Gallagher, Dan; Duncan, Susan; Bauer, Nate; Kause, Janell; Eifert, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meats are considered a food at high risk for causing foodborne illness. Deli meats are listed as the highest risk RTE food vehicle for Listeria monocytogenes. Cross-contamination in the retail deli market may contribute to spread of pathogens to deli meats. Understanding potential cross-contamination pathways is essential for reducing the risk of contaminating various products. The objective of this study was to track cross-contamination pathways through a mock retail deli market using an abiotic surrogate, GloGerm, to visually represent how pathogens may spread through the deli environment via direct contact with food surfaces. Six contamination origination sites (slicer blade, meat chub, floor drain, preparation table, employee's glove, and employee's hands) were evaluated separately. Each site was inoculated with 20 ml of GloGerm, and a series of standard deli operations were completed (approximately 10 min of work). Photographs were then taken under UV illumination to visualize spread of GloGerm throughout the deli. A sensory panel evaluated the levels of contamination on the resulting contaminated surfaces. Five of the six contamination origination sites were associated with transfer of GloGerm to the deli case door handle, slicer blade, meat chub, preparation table, and the employee's gloves. Additional locations became contaminated (i.e., deli case shelf, prep table sink, and glove box), but this contamination was not consistent across all trials. Contamination did not spread from the floor drain to any food contact surfaces. The findings of this study reinforce the need for consistent equipment cleaning and food safety practices among deli workers to minimize cross-contamination.

  18. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef retail markets from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eBrusa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxing-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are foodborne pathogens that cause mild or serious diseases and can lead to people death. This study reports the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 and non-O157 in commercial ground beef and environmental samples, including meat table, knife, meat mincing machine and manipulator hands (n= 450 obtained from 90 retail markets over a nine-month period. The STEC isolates were serotyped and virulence genes as stx (Shiga toxin, rfbO157 (O157 lipopolysaccharide, fliCH7 (H7 flagellin, eae (intimin, ehxA (enterohemolysin and saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin, were determined. STEC O157 were identified in 23 (25.5% beef samples and 16 (4.4% environmental samples, while STEC non-O157 were present in 47 (52.2% and 182 (50.5%, respectively. Among 54 strains isolated, 17 were STEC O157:H7 and 37 were STEC non-O157. The prevalent genotype for O157 was stx2/eae/ehxA/fliCH7 (83.4%, and for STEC non-O157 the most frequent ones were stx1/stx2/saa/ehxA (29.7%; stx2 (29.7%; and stx2/saa/ehxA (27%. None of the STEC non-O157 strains were eae-positive. Besides O157:H7, other 20 different serotypes were identified, being O8:H19, O178:H19 and O174:H28 the prevalent. Strains belonging to the same serotype could be isolated from different sources of the same retail market. Also, the same serotype could be detected in different stores. In conclusion, screening techniques are increasingly sensitive, but the isolation of STEC non-O157 is still a challenge. Moreover, with the results obtained from the present work, although more studies are needed, cross-contamination between meat and the environment could be suspected.

  19. 75 FR 14569 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ..., e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants to... convenience and customs purposes, the written description of the scope of this investigation is...

  20. Energy sector liberalization in Kenya: critical policy issues in petroleum retail market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okech, B.A. [University of Nairobi (Kenya). Inst. for Development Studies; Nyoike, P.M. [Government of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya). Ministry of Energy

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews and analyzes policy and environment and issues surrounding emerging liberalized petroleum sub-sector in Kenya. It covers those areas relating to pricing, taxation and investment within the country's petroleum retail market. The underlying premise is that due to the fuel price and supply liberalization which have taken place within the sub-sector as part of macro-economic and structural policy reforms which the Kenyan Government has continued to deepen and consolidate, the emerging environment and relations linked to the sub-sector will necessarily call for developments of new policy strategies in order to provide stimulus for growth and new investment. In response, the economic operators will also be expected to evolve business management strategies and investment scenarios consistent with this new operating environment. However, it is found that there is lack of a sound knowledge base which can facilitate formulation of policies and institutional frameworks appropriate to the emerging market regime. Therefore, it is the objective of this paper to generate such knowledge. The paper finds that consumer prices and the concomitant profit margin setting arrangement have not changed significantly; price leadership remains the practice with the government's regulatory capacity being weak; product taxes remain high and discriminatory; the market concentration remains moderately high; and considerable potential for access to both domestic and foreign capital exists. (author)

  1. A cluster analysis study based on profitability and financial indicators in the Italian gas retail market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, Guendalina; Di Pillo, Francesca; Levialdi, Nathan [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Impresa, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cricelli, Livio [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio, Universita di Cassino, Via G. Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    In the European Union, the natural gas market is increasingly being liberalized. The liberalization process is aimed at leading to lower prices and higher volumes, and hence higher consumer welfare. This paper focuses on the changes in performance in the natural gas retail market by analyzing the profit and financial position of the companies concerned over the first three years following the market liberalization. The balance sheets of 105 Italian companies in this sector are analyzed, after which a cluster analysis is performed employing the most significant performance indexes. The companies are then analyzed within each cluster with respect to age, size, geographical location and business diversification. The results of our analysis show that the majority of companies attained a high level of performance, although this positive outcome was mitigated by the gradual decrease of the average values of performance indicators during the period concerned. The companies that achieve the best performances belong to longstanding business groups, are medium-large sized and are located in the north of the country. Regarding business diversification, in the first two years, the specialised companies outperformed the diversified companies. (author)

  2. Price learning during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

  3. Grocery e-commerce in the UK and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Bjerre, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    is exemplified by examining the interaction of the forces having created grocery e-commerce markets in the UK and Denmark. The application of the model reveals that besides the usual identification of competition intensity, the persistency of market reach efforts of a focal firm and the value attraction of its...

  4. Frequency and characteristics of Listeria spp. in minced meat in Albanian retail market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELVIRA BELI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is the emerging bacterial zoonotic infections worldwide. Among the species of the genus Listeria, Listeria monocytogens is known as causative agent of humans and animals listeriosis. Information on the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria species is limited in the veterinary and public health sectors in Albania. The studies for Listeria spp. in the food in Albania belongs to the last ten years. This survey was conducted determinate the incidence of Listeria spp. in minced meat samples, collected from retail shops and supermarkets in Tirana. A total of 240 samples of raw minced meat (beef, pork and pork-beef mixed were collected over 2010-2011 period, analyzed for the presence of Listeria spp. The standard techniques (ISO 11290-1, 2004 were employed for the isolation and identification of Listeria species, as well as biochemical identification system API-Listeria. Out of the total of 240 samples examined, 152 (63.3% were found to be positive for Listeria spp. Listeria it was isolated during all year. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated in 72 (30%, Listeria innocua in 112 (46,6%, Listeria seeligeri in 8 (3.2%, Listeria gray in 4 (1.6% of the analyzed samples. 28 (11.6% out of total 240 samples showed a mixed contamination of the two, three species Listeria. This study indicated the high incidence rate of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species in retail minced meat of the Tirana market. This highlights the possibility of Listeria spp or L.monocytogenes to persist in not cooked well minced meat preparation and raises the problem of illness for the public.

  5. Investment Strategy in a Closed Loop Supply Chain: The Case of a Market with Competition between Two Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Yoon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To survive in the ceaseless cycle of competition, businesses have developed strategies to become sustainable. These strategies include reusing products, which can lead not only to the creation of economic benefits but also to improvements in a corporation’s social and environmental responsibility. Product reuse can also increase the profit earned on new products by compensating customers who bring in old products to buy new ones, as the ensuing remanufacturing process allows for the reuse of materials and thus drives down costs. As businesses have come to recognize these values, the marketing competition to retrieve used products from customers has intensified. This research focuses on identifying effective compensation strategies to determine the appropriate advertising investment and trade-in value in a market where two homogeneous retailers compete. Retailers advertise to secure more customers to trade in their used products and to generate more trade-in sales than competitors do. A retailer’s results may vary according to its competitor’s investment strategy, which makes it useful to employ information on past competitor investment patterns to plan future investment strategies. However, as competitors using one another’s information may intensify the competition, better investment results could be obtained by ignoring competitor investment information. Therefore, this study suggests four competition strategies that determine the advertisement costs and trade-in allowance spent by retailers and discusses the difference in the profits obtained by the retailers under each of the four strategies.

  6. Price learning during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    Many attempts have been made to measure consumers' price knowledge for groceries. However, the results have varied considerably and conflict with results of reference price research. This is the first study to examine price knowledge before, during, and after store visit, thus enabling a study...... of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

  7. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers' Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Pan, William K; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-01-01

    ... (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231...

  8. Risk factors and spatial distribution of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing- Escherichia coli at retail poultry meat markets in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aliyu, A B; Saleha, A A; Jalila, A; Zunita, Z

    2016-01-01

    .... Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, spatial distribution and potential risk factors associated with the dissemination of ESBL-EC in poultry meat retail at wet-markets...

  9. SATISFACTION OF RETAIL INVESTORS ON THE STRUCTURAL EFFICIENCY OF THE MARKET: EVIDENCE FROM A DEVELOPING COUNTRY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamunur Rashid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Satisfied investors are a necessary element of the stock market. They help to finance rapid expansion in developing countries. This study explores the components of market structure that contribute to the satisfaction level of retail investors. Around 300 retail investors from 25 randomly selected brokerage houses registered with the Dhaka Stock Exchange, Bangladesh were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Analyses reveal that most investors were young and inexperienced but educated, with shortages of skills and income. The investors put the strongest emphasis on effective investment analysis, followed by ease of the transaction process, effective information management and timely risk management. The trading experience of these investors was used as a moderating variable to investigate the impact of demographic variables and found to be insignificant. The study suggests the importance of effective regulation, disclosure requirements to ensure a supply of quality information, investor education and technology driven trading in brokerage houses for overall investor satisfaction.

  10. Pomen managementa na dereguliranem maloprodajnem trgu električne energije v Sloveniji = The Importance of Management in the Deregulated Retail Electricity Distribution Market in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Drago Papler; Stefan Bojnec

    2006-01-01

    This paper underlines the importance of management in the deregulated retail electricity distribution market, entrepreneurship and business behaviours toward consumers’ satisfaction with quality of services. The coefficients of concentration indicate a high concentration of electricity suppliers and users in the deregulated electricity retail market for industry. The production function reveals the importance of education and electricity infrastructure, and to a lesser extent of capital inte...

  11. Electricity Retailing in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    von der Fehr, Nils-Henrik M.; Vegard Hansen, Petter

    2008-01-01

    We analyse retailer and household behaviour on the Norwegian electricity market, based on detailed information on prices and other market characteristics. We find that there exists a competitive market segment where a number of retailers compete fiercely for customers, with small margins on all products. However, we also find evidence of monopolistic behaviour, whereby retailers exploit the passivity of some of their customers. We discuss explanations for these results, as well as means to im...

  12. Analysis of the competition on the retail market for electric power; Analyse af konkurrencen pae detailmarkedet for el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    This year it is almost ten years ago, that it was made possible for all electricity consumers to choose their supplier. Specifically, this was done by changes in the Electricity Supply Act, whereby increased competition was designated as the central means of achieving the energy policy objectives of security of supply, economics, environment, and consumer protection. The retail electricity market's turnover today is approx. 43 billion. DKK, but it is expected to grow significantly in the coming years because consumers are increasingly expected to use electricity from renewable energy for heating and transport. It is obvious that it is also for this reason essential to the economy that competition in the retail market works as well as possible. In practice, competition as an instrument is aimed at production and retail sales in the electricity market, with the significant exception that the smaller consumers are protected by both the competition itself as well as by the special supply regulation. The protective supply regulation means that a majority of consumers and small and medium-sized enterprises do not have sufficient incentive to trade electricity on the free market, which in turn means that there is not exercised pressure on suppliers that can lead to innovation, product development, or to provide electricity at the lowest possible prices. The Secretariat of the Danish Energy Regulatory Authority has against this background made an in-depth analysis of the competition in the retail market for electricity and for the general supply regulation. The analysis shows that there are a number of barriers that stand in the way of effective competition in the retail market, and thus of fostering innovation, product development and potential improvements in infrastructure. The Danish government and parliament have taken a number of initiatives that remove some of the barriers. But challenges still remain. They all originate from inertia and low mobility at

  13. Incentive-based demand response programs designed by asset-light retail electricity providers for the day-ahead market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotouhi Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali; Faria, Pedro; Ramos, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    spikes, volatile loads and the potential for market power exertion by GENCO (generation companies). A REP can manage the market risks by employing the DR (demand response) programs and using its' generation and storage assets at the distribution network to serve the customers. The proposed model suggests...... how a REP with light physical assets, such as DG (distributed generation) units and ESS (energy storage systems), can survive in a competitive retail market. The paper discusses the effective risk management strategies for the REPs to deal with the uncertainties of the DAM (day-ahead market) and how...... to hedge the financial losses in the market. A two-stage stochastic programming problem is formulated. It aims to establish the financial incentive-based DR programs and the optimal dispatch of the DG units and ESSs. The uncertainty of the forecasted day-ahead load demand and electricity price is also...

  14. 零售企业微信营销策略研究%Micro Letter Retailers Marketing Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜南岚

    2015-01-01

    The micro letter marketing is an innovative marketing model, more and more retail companies want to enhance brand value and profitability through the micro letter marketing. However, in practice, still faces challenges, the need to work hard from content management, customer interaction, micro letter marketing talent level, micro letter marketing environment security.%微信营销是营销模式的一种创新,越来越多的零售企业都想通过微信营销提升企业品牌价值与盈利能力。但是在实践中仍面临挑战,还需从内容管理、客户互动、微信营销人才水平、微信营销环境安全等方面下功夫。

  15. INTENSIVE PROCESSES OF RETAIL INTERNATIONALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2010-01-01

    Integration and globalization of world market have resulted in trade internationalization, especially in the sector of retailing. Global trade, and in particular global retail, has become more intensive. Free European market has speeded up cross border retail expansion within European Union. Retail internationalization, with increased tempo, has redefined relationships in distribution channels on a global scale. Even though the speed of retail internationalization is, without a doubt, increas...

  16. Factor structure of essential social skills to be salespersons in retail market: implications for psychiatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Leo C C; Tsang, Hector W H

    2005-12-01

    This study continued the effort to apply social skills training to increase vocational outcomes of people with severe mental illness. We planned to identify factor structure of essential social skills necessary for mental health consumers who have a vocational preference to work as salesperson in retail market. Exploratory factor analysis of the results of a 26-item questionnaire survey suggested a five-factor solution: social skills when interacting with customers, problem-solving skills, knowledge and attitudes, flexibility, and skills for conflict prevention, which accounted for 65.1% of the total variance. With the factor solution, we developed a job-specific social skills training program (JSST) to help consumers who want to be salespersons. The structure and session design followed the basic format of a typical social skills training program. The way this JSST is to be used with the work-related social skills training model previously developed by the corresponding author to produce better vocational outcomes of consumers is suggested.

  17. Selective Marketing for Retailers to promote Stock using improved Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.SURIYA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is a knowledge discovery process which deals with analysing large storage of data in order to identify the relevant data. It is a powerful tool to uncover relationships within the data.Association rule mining is an important data mining model to mine frequent items in huge repository of data. It frames out association rules with the help of minimum support and confidence value which inturns paves way to identify the occurrence of frequent item sets. Frequent pattern mining starts from analysis of customers buying habits. From which various associations between the different items that the customers purchase are identified. With the help of such associations retailers perform selective marketing to promote their business. Biologically inspired algorithms have their process observed in nature as their origin. The best feature of Ant colony algorithm, which is a bio inspired algorithm based on the behaviour of natural ant colonies, is its parallel search over the problem data and previously obtained results from it. Dynamic memory management is done by pheromone updating operation. During each cycle, solutions are constructed by evaluation of the transition probability throughpheromone level modification. An improved pheromone updating rule is used to find out all the frequent items. The proposed approach was tested using MATLAB along with WEKA toolkit. The experimental results prove that the stigmeric communication of improved ant colony algorithm helps in mining the frequent items faster and effectively than the existing algorithms.

  18. Detection of Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Eggs and Chicken Feeds from Farms to Retail Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Jeon, Su Been; Ok, Hyun Ee; Jung, Hyelee; Choi, Changsun; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2016-01-01

    Contamination by foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins was examined in 475 eggs and 20 feed samples collected from three egg layer farms, three egg-processing units, and five retail markets in Korea. Microbial contamination with Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, and Arcobacter species was examined by bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The contamination levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone in eggs and chicken feeds were simultaneously analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after the post-derivatization. While E. coli was isolated from 9.1% of eggs, Salmonella species were not isolated. Arcobacter species were detected in 0.8% of eggs collected from egg layers by PCR only. While aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone were found in 100%, 100%, and 85% of chicken feeds, their contamination levels were below the maximum acceptable levels (1.86, 2.24, and 147.53 μg/kg, respectively). However, no eggs were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxins, or zearalenone. Therefore, the risk of contamination by mycotoxins and microbes in eggs and chicken feeds is considered negligible and unlikely to pose a threat to human health. PMID:27621686

  19. Meat Managers' Expectations Regarding Marketing of Irradiated Red Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Gaynor, Joe; Jensen, Kimberly L.; Jaenicke, Edward C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess meat managers' expectations about impact of the recent regulatory approval of irradiated raw meat and meat products on marketing decisions and plans by supermarkets and grocery meat retailers. Forty managers of meat departments were interviewed in person to obtain the information for the study. While many of the meat managers believed that irradiation would help increase shelf life and reduce spoilage, they were less optimistic about consumers being wi...

  20. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from beef at retail markets in the north Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Truong Ha; Hirai, Takuya; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Shimada, Akinori; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2012-09-01

    Approximately 39.9% (63/158) of beef samples collected from retail markets in Hanoi from January to June 2009 were Salmonella-positive. Nine Salmonella serovars, Anatum (28.6%), Rissen (25.4%), Weltevreden (12.7%), Typhimurium (7.9%), Derby (7.9%), Lexington (7.9%), Dublin (4.6%), Newport (3.2%) and London (1.8%), were identified. Thirty-seven (58.7%) of the 63 Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial tested, of which 29 (46%) isolates showed multidrug resistance (MDR). The isolates were commonly resistant to tetracycline (46.0%), sulphonamide (39.7%), ampicilline (31.7%), streptomycin (30.2%), trimethoprim (28.6%), kanamycin (28.6%) and chloramphenicol (22.2%). Fourteen (bla(TEMV), bla(OXA-1), aadA1, aadA2, sul1, tetA, tetB, tetG, cmlA1, floR, dfrA1, dfrA12, aac (3)-IV and aphA1-1AB) out of 22 antimicrobial resistance genes were detected by PCR from the resistant isolates. The catA1, Kn, blaPSE-1 genes and plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance (PMQR) genes such as qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qepA and acc (6')-ib-cr were not detected. Mutations in the gyrA gene leading to the amino acid changes Ser83Phe and/or Asp87Asn were found in 6 out of the 11 quinolone-resistant isolates. The data revealed that multidrug resistant Salmonella strains were widely distributed in north Vietnam via the food chain and might contain multiple genes specifying identical resistant phenotypes. Thus, continuous studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of MDR in Salmonella and its spread in the livestock market.

  1. Electronic Commerce Readiness in Developing Countries: The Case of the Chinese Grocery Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnia, Sherah; Peng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Currently, e-Commerce has been used within the industry to various degrees, with retailers leading the way in incorporating e-Commerce technologies into the majority of their daily operations. Some of the major retailers have already introduced transactional and interactive websites to facilitate B2C and B2B e-Commerce. However the majority of the businesses within the grocery industry possess only standalone internal computer networks and websites. The e-Commerce readiness of the Chinese gro...

  2. How Retailers Handle Complaint Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Wilke, Ricky; Zaichkowsky, Judy

    2009-01-01

    as to the links between CM and redress of consumers’ complaints. The results suggest that retailers who attach large negative consequences to consumer dissatisfaction are more likely than other retailers to develop a positive strategic view on customer complaining, but at the same time an increase in perceived......This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained...... negative consequences of customer dissatisfaction leads to a more negative view on interacting with complaining customers....

  3. Pomen managementa na dereguliranem maloprodajnem trgu električne energije v Sloveniji = The Importance of Management in the Deregulated Retail Electricity Distribution Market in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Papler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the importance of management in the deregulated retail electricity distribution market, entrepreneurship and business behaviours toward consumers’ satisfaction with quality of services. The coefficients of concentration indicate a high concentration of electricity suppliers and users in the deregulated electricity retail market for industry. The production function reveals the importance of education and electricity infrastructure, and to a lesser extent of capital intensity, in labour productivity growth in the retail electricity distribution enterprise. Electricity demand in industry is determined positively by real income growth and negatively by real electricity price increases. Multivariate factor analysis confirms two main common components of efficient retail electricity supply and satisfaction of consumers in industry. In the first group of factors of efficient retail electricity supply the highest weights are for consumption, quality of services, expenses and advice. In the second group of factors of consumers’ satisfaction the highest weights are for response, needs, reliability and personnel. The impacts of changes in the dynamics of competition in the deregulated retail electricity market on management and organisational behaviours are found significant for quality of services, marketing and marketing strategies, supply-chain and customer relationship management.

  4. 我国零售业集中度对阶格影响的实证分析%An Empirical Analysis on the Effect of China's Retail Market Concentration on RetailPrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺孙林; 郭馨梅

    2012-01-01

    This paper selects the relative market Concentration Rate (CRS) , the calculated result tells the conclusion that China's retail market concentration rata shows a rising trend. On that basis, this paper makes an empirical analysis on the effect of China's retail market concentration on retail pricesby the Time-series data model, the study finds that the net impact ofhigher market concentration rataat the local level was to reduce prices. Accordingly, this paper finally proposes some suggestions to improve the concentration of China's retail market.%通过选取我国零售业的相对市场集中度(CR8)指数计算得出我国零售业市场集中度呈现持续上升态势的结论。在此基础上,利用时间序列数据模型,对我国零售商品价格影响因素作了实证分析。研究发现,我国零售业市场集中度对商品价格影响显著,且呈现负相关,从而得出应当提高我国零售业市场集中度的结论,并探讨提高我国零售业集中度的对策。

  5. Marketing research of the competitive strategies of the main product retail networks of Perm

    OpenAIRE

    Kel'bakh, E.; Kocharyan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Main Perm food-retailer’s rival strategies were analyzed and the importances of competition existence were mentioned in this work. The sales amount leader was revealed basing on the research and main retailer’s rival strategies became formed. Author gives a general description of features which suit the retailers in the city. During the research principal factors, which influence on the customers behavior when choosing the retail chain, were named. Basing on the research above Author gives ex...

  6. Institute for Commerce & International Marketing at the Saarland University, Germany: A Research Center in the Field of Retail Management and E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Zentes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, a lot of experience in the field of new developments in retail management and marketing and the necessary innovations in the IT-support tools for retailers as well as in the application of e-commerce - B2C and B2B - has been accumulated. The institute has come to notice, that e-commerce in all its forms has become a major source of change for retail companies and therefore dedicates a large share of its resources to the investigation of this highly relevant topic.

  7. The effect of the financial crisis on credit scoring in the retail credit market in South Africa / van der Walt, J.

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Walt, Andries Jacobus

    2011-01-01

    This study follows a three–pronged approach to investigate the effects of the global financial crisis on the South African retail credit market (using Woolworths as subject). These three prongs, or areas, include a literature study, step–by–step credit scoring guide and an application of this guide in an empirical study. To achieve this goal, credit scoring was selected as the quantitative tool to illustrate these effects. Two different periods were chosen to supply a snapshot of the retail c...

  8. 2006 China Retail Ranking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEO LIU; JIANG TAO

    2006-01-01

    @@ The rankings of China's leading retailers for fastmoving consumer goods,a collaboration between Beijingbased CTR Market Research and CIB, comes into its third term. According to our findings,with the competitive advantages such as better shopping environments and cheaper prices,the large-scale retailers, or hypermarkets, are continuing to increase their market shares.

  9. Retail promotions and perceptions of R.J. Reynolds' novel dissolvable tobacco in a US test market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coan Lorinda L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With declining cigarette sales, tobacco manufacturers have been developing and marketing new smokeless products, such as R. J. Reynolds' dissolvable tobacco, Camel Sticks, Strips and Orbs. This study assessed the availability, price and point-of-purchase promotional strategies for Camel Dissolvables, and investigated consumer awareness, interest and perception of these products in the Indiana test market. Methods An exploratory retail audit of point-of-purchase promotions was conducted in a random sample of retailers from 6 store categories (n = 81 in the test market area. Data included: store type, location, product placement, forms/flavors carried, price, types and locations of advertisements and promotions, and ad messages. An Awareness-Attitude-Usage (AAU survey was used to gauge consumer awareness and knowledge of tobacco products including Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were shown promotional materials from a package onsert and perceptions and interest in the Camel Dissolvables were assessed. An Intended Target Survey (ITS compared subjects' perceptions of ad targets for several non-tobacco products, as well as Camel Snus, Camel No. 9 and Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were asked to identify each ad's intended target category, perceived targetedness, and purchase intent. Results The products were carried by 46% of stores, most frequently gas stations (100% and convenience stores (75%. They were shelved near smokeless tobacco (70%, cigarettes (25% or candy (5%. Prices ranged from $3.59 -$4.19 per package; most stores carried at least 1 promotional item. Ad messages included: "Dissolvable Tobacco" (60%. "Free Trial" (24%, "Special Price" (24%, "What's Your Style?" (22%. At 14% of stores, free trial packs of Camel Dissolvables were offered with another Camel purchase. Awareness was reported by 42% of respondents (n = 243, and trial by 3%. Consumer interest was very low, but younger respondents ( 40 years, p Conclusions

  10. Legal analysis of contract models in a common Nordic electricity retail market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerneby, Henrik; Alvik, Ivar

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to consider the legal advantages and disadvantages with different contract models given NordREG's choice of a supplier centric model with mandatory combined billing in a future Nordic end-user market for electricity.At the outset, there are today three relevant categories of agreements in place between customers, suppliers and DSOs in the Nordic electricity retail markets: the electricity supply agreements between customers and suppliers, the grid use agreements between customers and DSOs, and the grid connection agreements usually entered into between customers and DSOs. We have assumed that issues governed by the grid connection agreements will still be entered into by DSOs under a supplier centric model. Two general contract models have on this basis been considered as possible approaches to regulation of electricity supply and grid use terms under a future supplier centric model. The subcontractor model is considered in more detail in chapter 7 of this report. Under this model, the customer enters into a contract with the supplier governing both electricity supply and grid use. The supplier then enters into a separate contract with the DSO for grid use, making the DSO a subcontractor for this service. The Danish wholesale model which will be implemented from 1 October 2014 represents one example of a subcontractor model.The main advantage of the subcontractor model is that it will entitle the customer to envisage the electricity supply, including grid services, as a single service delivered by the supplier. On the other hand, the sub-contractor model will extend the responsibilities of suppliers towards customers. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this model further in section 7.2. The power of attorney model is considered in more detail in chapter 8 of this report. Under this model, the customer and the DSO will still formally be contract parties to the grid use agreement, but the supplier will act with a

  11. Legal analysis of contract models in a common Nordic electricity retail market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerneby, Henrik; Alvik, Ivar

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to consider the legal advantages and disadvantages with different contract models given NordREG's choice of a supplier centric model with mandatory combined billing in a future Nordic end-user market for electricity.At the outset, there are today three relevant categories of agreements in place between customers, suppliers and DSOs in the Nordic electricity retail markets: the electricity supply agreements between customers and suppliers, the grid use agreements between customers and DSOs, and the grid connection agreements usually entered into between customers and DSOs. We have assumed that issues governed by the grid connection agreements will still be entered into by DSOs under a supplier centric model. Two general contract models have on this basis been considered as possible approaches to regulation of electricity supply and grid use terms under a future supplier centric model. The subcontractor model is considered in more detail in chapter 7 of this report. Under this model, the customer enters into a contract with the supplier governing both electricity supply and grid use. The supplier then enters into a separate contract with the DSO for grid use, making the DSO a subcontractor for this service. The Danish wholesale model which will be implemented from 1 October 2014 represents one example of a subcontractor model.The main advantage of the subcontractor model is that it will entitle the customer to envisage the electricity supply, including grid services, as a single service delivered by the supplier. On the other hand, the sub-contractor model will extend the responsibilities of suppliers towards customers. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this model further in section 7.2. The power of attorney model is considered in more detail in chapter 8 of this report. Under this model, the customer and the DSO will still formally be contract parties to the grid use agreement, but the supplier will act with a

  12. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Supply Chain Innovation-prospects for Supply Chain Managment in the Irish Grocery Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Joan; O'Callaghan, Edmund; Wilcox, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Supply chain management is one of the most significant strategic challenges currently facing the Irish grocery sector. The UK grocery market with its emphasis on composite deliveries via regional distribution centres is extremely sophisticated; the Irish grocery sector, however, is in the embryonic stage of implementing central distribution. The potential to develop innovative supply chain systems is mediated by both national logistic-related variables and company characteristics. In additio...

  14. Differentiation in online retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellner, Julian; Wagner, Gerhard; Zielke, Stephan

    Due to the highly competitive nature of the online retail environment, differentiation strategies are of importance for online retailers to gain competitive advantages and to achieve a unique positioning in the market. However, little is known about perceptual dimensions used by consumers to make...... a distinction between online retailers. The present study addresses this research gap by using a repertory grid approach to identify points of difference between online retailers from a consumer’s perspective. The results have important implications for positioning strategies of online retailers and research...

  15. Differentiation in online retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellner, Julian; Wagner, Gerhard; Zielke, Stephan;

    Due to the highly competitive nature of the online retail environment, differentiation strategies are of importance for online retailers to gain competitive advantages and to achieve a unique positioning in the market. However, little is known about perceptual dimensions used by consumers to make...... a distinction between online retailers. The present study addresses this research gap by using a repertory grid approach to identify points of difference between online retailers from a consumer’s perspective. The results have important implications for positioning strategies of online retailers and research...... on online store formats....

  16. A bilevel model for electricity retailers' participation in a demand response market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    (followers) in a dynamic price environment. Both players in the game solve an economic optimisation problem subject to stochasticity in prices, weather-related variables and must-serve load. The model allows the determination of the dynamic price-signal delivering maximum retailer profit, and the optimal...... consumers are believed to have significant potential for peak-shaving and load-shifting, thus relieving the power system while reducing costs and risk for energy retailers. This paper proposes a game theoretical model accounting for the Stackelberg relationship between retailers (leaders) and consumers...... load pattern for consumers under this pricing. The bilevel programme is reformulated as a single-level MILP, which can be solved using commercial off-the-shelf optimisation software. In an illustrative example, we simulate and compare the dynamic pricing scheme with fixed and time-of-use pricing. We...

  17. RETAIL STORE DESIGN AND ENVIRONMENT AS BRANDING SUPPORT IN THE SERVICES MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor NISTORESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The services are intangibles, therefore their quality is difficult to be evaluatedby the client and building a strong brand image is a challenging task. Theservices are distributed using diverse channels such as: company retailstores, dealers, franchise. The service companies are interested in theenvironment of the location, not only to increase sells but also in order toboost the image of the company. The excitement that a retail store induces toa client can modify the perception of the brand. The client values more abrand that distributes its services in a luxury, high-tech retail environmentthan a discount store. In this paper we intended to investigate the techniquesthat a service company is using to enhance the brand image in a retaillocation. For this purpose, the various aspects of the retail store design andenvironment were analyzed in connection with the customer-based brandequity model. This original association will offer the services companies’ newperspectives on how to leverage brand image.

  18. Formas de apresentação e embalagens de mandioquinha-salsa no varejo brasileiro New forms and product types of arracacha commercialized at the Brazilian retail market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2005-03-01

    identified. The objective of this paper is to make a survey of arracacha packing and types of product commercialized at the Brazilian retail market, and a preliminary study of the consumer perception of the product in São Paulo. Data were collected through visits to supermarkets, grocery shops and other retail markets in the metropolitan areas of São Paulo and Brasília from 2001 to 2003. Arracacha is sold at the retail market in ten distinct forms and product types, three of them organic and seven grown in the conventional system. The two most common ways of selling arracacha is displaying the roots on open market stands without wrapping and in Styrofoam trays wrapped with PVC films. Organic arracacha had higher average retail prices when compared to the traditional product, reaching R$ 5.80/kg for non-packed roots, R$ 9.95/kg for PVC-wrapped roots and R$ 11.54/kg for precooked and vacuum-packed roots. For the conventionally cultivated arracacha, prepacked forms (PVC film, minimally processed roots (peeled; slices; rods; whole roots packed in vacuum-sealed bags and precooked roots in vacuum-sealed bags had higher prices at the retail market, ranging from R$ 4.16/kg (peeled roots to R$ 8.60/kg (slices. The new arracacha forms and product types at the Brazilian retail market had higher added value and fulfill specific market demands.

  19. Comparison of the Microbial Quality of Lamb and Goat Meat Acquired from Internet and Local Retail Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chyer; Stein, Roslyn A; Pao, Steven

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial quality of lamb and goat meat sold through local (Virginia) and Internet (U. S.) retail markets. A total of 134 frozen meat products consisting of locally purchased lamb ground (LLG) and lamb chops and Internet-procured lamb ground, goat ground, lamb chops (ILC), goat chops (IGC), lamb stew, and goat stew were tested. Significantly higher levels of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and coliforms were found in the meat locally acquired than in the meat procured from the Internet. Similar average prevalence (27%) of Escherichia coli was observed regardless of market source. Ground meat had significantly high levels and prevalence of mesophiles, psychrotrophs, coliforms, and Listeria spp. One sample of LLG contained Campylobacter, and one sample of IGC contained Salmonella. Listeria spp. were present in 23 to 40% and 17 to 80% of samples from local and Internet markets, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of isolated E. coli strains revealed brand specificity and genomic diversity. No isolate from different brands and market sources had matching PFGE profiles. The average price of Internet meat ($23.4/kg) was about 1.2 times higher than the price of local meat, except for ILC, whose price was 2.7 times higher. This study revealed differences in microbial quality of lamb and goat meat based on market source; thus, meat products should be handled carefully regardless of market source because of the presence of high microbial levels and the high prevalence of pathogens.

  20. Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M.; Bremson, J.; Solo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

  1. Social media as marketing strategy: an explorative study on adoption and use by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Alarcón-Del-Amo, M.-D.-C.; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, E.; Alarcön-Del-Amo, M.-D.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose — This study examines a cross section of the Spanish retailing branch on the adoption and use of Social Media tools, identifying users and nonusers and their impact on management experiences. The use of 2.0 technologies has also been analyzed based on company size. Methodology — An online

  2. The retail market for fresh cassava root tubers in the European Union (EU)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind-Hansen, Lotte; Brimer, Leon

    2010-01-01

    A number of retail shops in Copenhagen sell fresh cassava roots. Cassava roots contain the toxic cyanogenic glucoside linamarin. A survey was made of the shop characteristics, origin of the roots, buyers, shop owner's knowledge of toxicity levels, and actual toxicity levels....

  3. Social media as marketing strategy: an explorative study on adoption and use by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, E.; Alarcón-Del-Amo, M.-D.-C.; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, E.; Alarcön-Del-Amo, M.-D.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose — This study examines a cross section of the Spanish retailing branch on the adoption and use of Social Media tools, identifying users and nonusers and their impact on management experiences. The use of 2.0 technologies has also been analyzed based on company size. Methodology — An online s

  4. Social media as marketing strategy: an explorative study on adoption and use by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Alarcón-Del-Amo, M.-D.-C.; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, E.; Alarcön-Del-Amo, M.-D.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose — This study examines a cross section of the Spanish retailing branch on the adoption and use of Social Media tools, identifying users and nonusers and their impact on management experiences. The use of 2.0 technologies has also been analyzed based on company size. Methodology — An online su

  5. Promoting Problem-Based Learning in Retailing and Services Marketing Course Curricula with Reality Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Mark S.; Otalora, Mauricio Losada; Ramírez, Germán Contreras

    2015-01-01

    This research provides business educators who teach retailing and services courses with an innovative way to encourage students to engage in problem-based learning solving by incorporating reality television into their curricula. The authors explore the reality television genre from several theoretical perspectives to lend support to the…

  6. Promoting Problem-Based Learning in Retailing and Services Marketing Course Curricula with Reality Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Mark S.; Otalora, Mauricio Losada; Ramírez, Germán Contreras

    2015-01-01

    This research provides business educators who teach retailing and services courses with an innovative way to encourage students to engage in problem-based learning solving by incorporating reality television into their curricula. The authors explore the reality television genre from several theoretical perspectives to lend support to the…

  7. Retailer branding of consumer sales promotions. A major development in food marketing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Robert P; Lindsay, Sophie; Insch, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    This article examines retailer branding of consumer price promotions. It discusses the mechanics of price promotions, consumers' reactions to them and the benefits that accrue to those that use them. It describes how large food retailers can now deploy branded price promotion systems that are fundamentally different to 'traditional' price promotions in both their mechanics and their effects on consumer decision processes. The article describes a field experiment that compared the performance of a food retailer's branded price promotion system with that of a generic (manufacturer) price promotion. The research involved three experiments that covered two food categories (sliced bread and margarine) and two levels of discount (10% and 20%). The results indicate that food retailers are able to attach powerful brands to their price promotion systems, and these brand heuristics can significantly increase consumer purchase intent relative to an equivalent generic/manufacturer promotion. This incremental heuristic effect was stable in both categories and for both levels of price discount studied. These results are consistent with the predictions of alternative, non-cognitive and heuristic based models of food consumer choice that have been published recently in 'Appetite'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  9. Retail marketing a in-store promotion společnosti Samsung Electronics Czech and Slovak s.r.o.

    OpenAIRE

    Košťál, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the retail marketing and the in-store promotion. It is prima-rily focused on merchandising, sales promotion and other selected activities. The work itself is devoted to Samsung Electronics Czech and Slovak s.r.o. and is mostly based on a practical experience gained from a position of an employee. Firstly, the amount of investments in marketing of Samsung in comparison with the competition is introduced. The following part describes the basic retail acti-vities across th...

  10. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF RETAILING

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2014-01-01

    Integration and globalization of world market have resulted in retail trade internationalization. In many developed countries, the retail trade is faced with the problem of limited sales growth for the sake of saturation on the domestic market, and the enter on overseas markets is seen as a sustainable growth strategy. Therefore,this study was initiated by the basic research problem: increasing growth through internationalization of business.This paper aims to investigate and present the inte...

  11. Consumer Online Grocery Buying Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Jan Møller; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the ability of two consumer theories - the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior - in predicting consumer online grocery buying intention. In addition, a comparison of the two theories is conducted. Data were collected from two web-based surveys of Danish (n=1222) and Swedish (n=1038) consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Lisrel results suggest that the theory of planned behavior (with the inclusion of a path from subjective norm to attitude...

  12. Retail marijuana purchases in designer and commercial markets in New York City: sales units, weights, and prices per gram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifaneck, Stephen J; Ream, Geoffrey L; Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise

    2007-09-01

    This paper documents the bifurcation of the market for commercial marijuana from the market for designer marijuana in New York City. Commercial marijuana is usually grown outdoors, imported to NYC, and of average quality. By contrast, several varities of designer marijuana are usually grown indoors from specially bred strains and carefully handled for maximum quality. The mechanisms for marijuana sales include street/park sellers, delivery services, private sales, and storefronts. Retail sales units vary from 5 dollars to 50 dollars and more, but the actual weights and price per gram of retail marijuana purchases lacks scientific precision. Ethnographic staff recruited marijuana purchasers who used digital scales to weigh a purposive sample of 99 marijuana purchases. Results indicate clear differences in price per gram between the purchases of commercial (average 8.20 dollars/g) and designer (average 18.02 dollars/g) marijuana. Designer purchases are more likely to be made by whites, downtown (Lower East Side/Union Square area), via delivery services, and in units of 10 dollar bags, 50 dollar cubes, and eighth and quarter ounces. Commercial marijuana purchases are more likely to be made by blacks, uptown (Harlem), via street dealers, and in units of 5 dollar and 20 dollar bags. Imported commercial types Arizona and Chocolate were only found uptown, while designer brand names describing actual strains like Sour Diesel and White Widow were only found downtown. Findings indicate clear divisions between commercial and designer marijuana markets in New York City. The extent that these differences may be based upon different THC potencies is a matter for future research.

  13. Molecular characterization and antibiogram of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from chicken and mutton of retail markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar B. N., Nadeem Fairoze , Madhavaprasad C. B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate Listeria monocytogenes from chicken and mutton meat sold at retail outlets and to characterize isolates for virulence determinants. Methods: Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from chicken and mutton meat samples using ISO: 11290 method. Multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of virulence associated genes. Results: Out of 198 retail meat samples (72 chicken and 126 mutton analyzed, Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 4.5% (8.3% chicken and 2.3% mutton samples. All the 9 isolates (6 from chicken and 3 from mutton belonged to 1/2a servar and carried virulence genes viz. haemolysin (hlyA, phosphatidylinositol phospholipase (plcA, actin polymerization protein (actA and invasive associative protein p60 (Iap. Conclusion: L. monocytogenes is an organism of food safety and public health significance, its recovery from the meat sold at retail outlets indicated breach in the quality assurance. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(2: 65-68

  14. Consumer and retailer perceptions of market transactions and the complaining consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rousseau

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to compare consumers' and retailers' perceptions of actions taken in particular types of buying situations. Hypotheses relating to differences existing between the perceptions of consumers and retailers of actions taken in the buying situation are proposed and empirically tested using data from a systematic random sample of 150 consumers and 47 retailers in the Port Elizabeth metropolitan area. Complaints about products recently bought by subjects in tjhe sample were also analysed as part of the study. Results imply that perceptual differences occurred in five of the fourteen situations portrayed, indicating possible causes of consumer frustration. Complaints analysed through the survey identified inadequate after-sales service, defective or malfunctioning products, and perishable food items as main sources of dissatisfaction. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie is om verbruikers en kleinhandelaars se waarnemings van optrede in spesifieke koopsituasies te vergelyk. 'n Hipotese dat verskille wel bestaan tussen die waarnemings van verbruikers en kleinhandelaars ten opsigte van optrede binne die koopsituasie, word gestel en empirics getoets. Data is verkry d.m.v. 'n sis- tematiese ewekansige steekproef met 150 verbruikers en 47 kleinhandelaars in die Port Elizabeth metropolitaanse gebied. Klagtes oor produkte onlangs aangekoop deur proefpersone in die steekproef is verder ontleed as deel van die studie. Resultate impliseer dat waamemingsverskille voorkom in vyf van die veertien situasies uitgebeeld wat moontlike oorsake van frustrasies aandui. Klagtes ontleed deur die opname het ontoereikende na-verkope diens, foutiewe produkte en bederfbare voedselitems as hoofbronne van ontevredenheid geidentifiseer.

  15. 78 FR 50376 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ..., e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants, to... convenience and customs purposes, the written description of the scope of the order is dispositive....

  16. 75 FR 53953 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants... convenience and customs purposes, the written description of the scope of the order is dispositive....

  17. EXTENDED SPECTRUM BETA-LACTAMASE PRODUCING E. COLI CONTAMINATION OF CHICKEN MEAT IN THE IRISH RETAIL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dearbháile Morris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals represent potential reservoirs for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. Twenty domestically produced chicken meat samples were collected from 19 retail outlets in Ireland, inoculated into Bolton broth and cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mCCDA and Preston agars. Selected representative coliforms included 16 E.coli and 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All E.coli isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers, 15 isolates harbored a blaCTX-M group-1 gene, and none belonged to the E.coli 025b:H4-ST131 clonal group. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis identified 13 distinct pulsed field profiles and comparison with more than 300 human clinical isolates of ESBL producing E. coli did not reveal any similarities. ESBL producing E. coli were detected on retail meats in the Irish market place. Although no similarity was apparent between poultry and human isolates this does not preclude a role for ESBL-producing E.coli in meat in dissemination of antimicrobial resistance.

  18. Microbiological quality of Pecorino Siciliano "primosale" cheese on retail sale in the street markets of Palermo, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammanco, Giovanni M; Pepe, Arcangelo; Aleo, Aurora; D'Agostino, Valentina; Milone, Samuela; Mammina, Caterina

    2011-04-01

    Pecorino Siciliano (PS) "primosale" is a traditional Sicilian fresh soft cheese made from sheep's milk. Short-ripening time and production from unpasteurized or raw milk can facilitate bacterial contamination of PS "primosale". The microbiological quality of "primosale" on retail sale in the street markets of Palermo, Italy was studied by detecting the common food pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and indicator microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae. In our study, 4% and 44% of the samples, respectively, did not comply with the acceptability levels fixed by European regulations for S. aureus and E. coli. A high contamination of bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae was found in 42% and 50% of the cheeses analyzed, respectively. Such results indicate poor husbandry and poor hygiene practices during milk collection or preservation or during cheese production processes and handling. In addition, the retail sale conditions may have played a role in cheese contamination since a correlation was found between poor microbiological quality and some selling parameters. This study emphasizes the need to improve production hygiene throughout the PS food chain in line with the traditional cheese-making procedures. Labelling of PS with clear information on whether the cheese was prepared from raw milk also requires improvement.

  19. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers' Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Pan, William K; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-01-01

    ...) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses...

  20. 大型零售商主导购物中心零售业态双边市场运行机理%Large Retailers Dominate Operation Mechanism of Retail Formats Bilateral Market in Shopping Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙殿国

    2015-01-01

    Shopping mall is a traditional trading platform with distinct characteristics of two-sided markets. The large-scale retailers choose to open new stores in appropriate locations where they can rent the shopping malls, which is considered the trading behavior in two-sided markets on the basis of forward integration of the retailers. In such integration, the large-scale retailers succeed not only in the realization of their further development, but also in the transformation from retailers purely engaged in merchandising to platforms with typical characteristics of two-sided markets. As a trading platform, the operation of such shopping malls led by large-scale retailers presents the operational characteristics of the two-sided market, which is shown in their pricing mechanism and the competition of the product assortment in a platform. The core competitive power of such retailers lies in the competitive advantage of the merchandises they deal in.%购物中心零售业态是传统的具有双边市场特征的交易平台。大型零售商通过整体租赁购物中心零售业态进行选址开店的模式,可以看作是双边市场中基于零售商一体化双边市场交易平台的行为。一体化结构下,大型零售商不仅成功实现零售业态的进一步拓展,本身也由单纯从事商品销售的零售商转变为具有双边市场特征的平台企业。作为平台企业,其运作机制遵循双边市场的经营特征,主要表现在倾斜定价机制和平台多产品组合竞争。但其核心竞争力依然来源于自身经营商品的竞争优势。

  1. Uncovering Market Positioning Coordinates Using In-Depth Interviews. Evidence from the Romanian Modern Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Negricea Iliuta Costel; Edu Tudor; Balan Laura

    2016-01-01

    Market positioning is not anymore just an outcome of the marketing endeavour but actually the essence of it. Organisations must develop and implement proper market positioning plans if they want to pursue an enduring existence. In this direction, an organisation must perform a brand situation analysis, its results being the starting point of a successful market positioning. This analysis entails collecting data about the brand and its competitors being performed through various qualitative an...

  2. Delivering medical abortion at scale: a study of the retail market for medical abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Powell-Jackson

    Full Text Available Medical abortion (mifepristone and misoprostol has the potential to contribute to reduced maternal mortality but little is known about the provision or quality of advice for medical abortion through the private retail sector. We examined the availability of medical abortion and the practices of pharmacists in India, where abortion has been legal since 1972.We interviewed 591 pharmacists in 60 local markets in city, town and rural areas of Madhya Pradesh. One month later, we returned to 359 pharmacists with undercover patients who presented themselves unannounced as genuine customers seeking a medical abortion.Medical abortion was offered to undercover patients by 256 (71.3% pharmacists and 24 different brands were identified. Two thirds (68.5% of pharmacists stated that abortion was illegal in India. Only 106 (38.5% pharmacists asked clients the timing of the last menstrual period and 38 (13.8% requested to see a doctor's prescription - a legal requirement in India. Only 59 (21.5% pharmacists correctly advised patients on the gestational limit for medical abortion, 97 (35.3% provided correct information on how many and when to take the tablets in a combination pack, and 78 (28.4% gave accurate advice on where to seek care in case of complications. Advice on post-abortion family planning was almost nonexistent.The retail market for medical abortion is extensive, but the quality of advice given to patients is poor. Although the contribution of medical abortion to women's health in India is poorly understood, there is an urgent need to improve the practices of pharmacists selling medical abortion.

  3. Delivering medical abortion at scale: a study of the retail market for medical abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Acharya, Rajib; Filippi, Veronique; Ronsmans, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Medical abortion (mifepristone and misoprostol) has the potential to contribute to reduced maternal mortality but little is known about the provision or quality of advice for medical abortion through the private retail sector. We examined the availability of medical abortion and the practices of pharmacists in India, where abortion has been legal since 1972. We interviewed 591 pharmacists in 60 local markets in city, town and rural areas of Madhya Pradesh. One month later, we returned to 359 pharmacists with undercover patients who presented themselves unannounced as genuine customers seeking a medical abortion. Medical abortion was offered to undercover patients by 256 (71.3%) pharmacists and 24 different brands were identified. Two thirds (68.5%) of pharmacists stated that abortion was illegal in India. Only 106 (38.5%) pharmacists asked clients the timing of the last menstrual period and 38 (13.8%) requested to see a doctor's prescription - a legal requirement in India. Only 59 (21.5%) pharmacists correctly advised patients on the gestational limit for medical abortion, 97 (35.3%) provided correct information on how many and when to take the tablets in a combination pack, and 78 (28.4%) gave accurate advice on where to seek care in case of complications. Advice on post-abortion family planning was almost nonexistent. The retail market for medical abortion is extensive, but the quality of advice given to patients is poor. Although the contribution of medical abortion to women's health in India is poorly understood, there is an urgent need to improve the practices of pharmacists selling medical abortion.

  4. STUDY ON RETAIL BRAND AWARENESS IN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija Dan Cristian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brand awareness, together with other behavioural indicators (sympathy, trust, image, satisfaction or loyalty, is one of the main vectors that has an essential contribution to the outline of brand equity in general and to that of retail brand, in particular. The perception upon these indicators must be taken into consideration by production, service or retail companies in order to be able to identify their position on target markets, and in order to be able to create an adequate strategy that would help them reach the desired positioning. The aim of this paper is, on one hand, to reveal both the dimensions of brand awareness, and the relationship between these and consumers brand perception and, on the other hand, to offer a suitable instrument to measure awareness level of various retail chains. Questioning of almost 4.000 consumers indicates a significant awareness of the retailers that have been on the selected market for a longer period of time.

  5. A Study of the Application of Big Data in Retail Marketing%大数据在零售业营销中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明星

    2014-01-01

    大数据应用于生活中的很多方面,尤其是在零售业中得到了充分的应用。文中首先阐述了大数据的概念及特点,简单概括为海量、多样性、速度、价值。在此基础上,详细分析了大数据在零售业中的应用现状、对零售业的影响。包括大数据优势以及如何应用于零售业营销中,给零售企业带来效益。最后,从大数据的流动性和可获取性、数据关联性以及如何统计分析数据这些方面探讨了零售业营销运用大数据需要解决的问题。%Big data was widely used in our life ,especially in retail marketing .This paper firstly explains the concept and characteristic of big data , which was simply summarized as massive , diversity, speed, value.On this basis, we analyze the application status and impact in retail marketing ,and the advantage of big data and how to use in retail marketing to bring benefits for retail enterprises .Finally,we put forward some measures to solve the problems and development of application of big data in retail marketing .

  6. EVALUATING FACTORS INFLUENCING GROCERY STORE CHOICE

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Marco A.; Emerson, Robert D.; House, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes consumer preferences toward grocery store choices given a set of attributes of stores. This information will then be used to make inferences on how the opening of a Wal-Mart supercenter would affect the other grocery stores in a small city.

  7. European Retail Payments Market: New Opportunities to Mergers and Acquisition Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Novickytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of European banks will not be able to allocate funds successfully participating in the SEPA. Some of them have to look for opportunities to reduce the cost in collaboration with other institutions in the execution of the payment or provision of services to carry out transmission of the third party. The other part will have to find a merger partner. In future there can be more active participants in the market lead to acquisitions. In order to assess possible changes in the payment market, noted that its participants – service providers – consolidation will be inevitable. The assessment of the Lithuanian bank sector shows that banks with the parent banks that invest and develop the activities of subsidiaries of banks, are likely to remain in the market. However, banks that are not ready to participate and get involved in a single market, will be taken over or disappear.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers' Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Pan, William K; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-07-28

    The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated) cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers' tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people.

  9. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    With centralised buying organisations, growth in market coverage and turn over retailers have become gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers. W review the literature on retailer buying behaviour...... and find that research findings appear scattered and unrelated. Most of the previous research has been concerning with generating lists of criteria used by retailers when deciding whether or not t accept a new product. Other areas that have caught the interest of researcher are: the role of buying...... committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  10. FOOD SAFETY SYSTEMS’ FUNCTIONING IN POLISH NETWORKS OF GROCERY STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł NOWICKI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the way how the food safety systems are functioning in Polish networks of grocery stores. The study was conducted in the fourth quarter of 2012 in the south‐eastern Poland. There were chosen three organizations that meet certain conditions: medium size Polish grocery network without participation of foreign capital and up to 30 retail locations within the group. Studies based on a case study model. The research found that regular and unannounced inspections carried out to each store's, impact on increasing safety of food offered and the verification of GHP requirements on the headquarters level has a significant impact on the safety of food offered as well as on the knowledge and behavior of employees. In addition it was found that the verification and analysis of food safety management system is an effective tool for improving food safety. It was also shown that in most cases there is no formal crisis management system for the food protection in the surveyed companies and employees are only informed of what to do in case of an emergency.

  11. Price knowledge during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    Past research on consumer price knowledge has varied considerably partly due to differences in how and when price knowledge is measured.This paper applies a multi-point, multi-measure approach to reconcile differences in past price knowledge research by examining systematicrelationships between...... accessible at the store exit. These findings enable the authors to reconcile diverging results from past research,showing how consumer price knowledge evolves and suggesting that the vast majority of consumers learn about prices, whether consciously orunconsciously, during grocery shopping. Thus, when...... applying a multi-point, multi-measure approach, consumers appear to know more aboutprices than suggested by past research. Determinants of price knowledge are also examined and the results indicate that price knowledge buildsup not only because of active search but also due to accidental exposure to prices...

  12. Measurement of the Marketing Mix of Service, Satisfaction and Loyalty of Customers in a Retail Bank

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Especificidades dos serviços, tais como a intangibilidade, a inseparabilidade, a variabilidade e a perecibilidade fazem dos serviços um assunto que deve ser tratado de forma diferente em relação ao marketing industrial. Gilmore (2003) e Kotler, Hayes e Bloom (2002), dentre outros, apresentam o mix de marketing de serviços (7Ps): os processos, as pessoas, as evidências físicas, o produto, a praça, a promoção e o preço....

  13. El marketing sensorial: una aproximación al mundo del retail español

    OpenAIRE

    Yagüe Guillén, María Jesús; García Gumiel, Cristina; Molinillo Jiménez, Sebastián; Gómez Suárez, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es conocer la percepción de los decisores de los centros comerciales españoles sobre la aplicación de acciones de marketing sensorial y experiencial. Mediante una encuesta personal realizada en septiembre de 2014 a 171 profesionales del sector, el análisis empírico realizado sirve para responder a las siguientes preguntas ¿Qué grado de conocimiento tienen los gestores sobre el marketing sensorial? ¿Qué acciones se están utilizando en este ámbi...

  14. Measurement of the Marketing Mix of Service, Satisfaction and Loyalty of Customers in a Retail Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Brito Pereira de Souza; Marlusa Mendonça Gosling; Carlos Alberto Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Especificidades dos serviços, tais como a intangibilidade, a inseparabilidade, a variabilidade e a perecibilidade fazem dos serviços um assunto que deve ser tratado de forma diferente em relação ao marketing industrial. Gilmore (2003) e Kotler, Hayes e Bloom (2002), dentre outros, apresentam o mix de marketing de serviços (7Ps): os processos, as pessoas, as evidências físicas, o produto, a praça, a promoção e o preço....

  15. 售电市场环境下计及可中断负荷的营销策略%Marketing Strategy in Competitive Retail Market Considering Interruptible Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗琴; 宋依群

    2015-01-01

    Retail side competition will be introduced as the next step of Chinese electricity market development.Under this environment,retail side monopoly will be broken,which leads to a significant change in the marketing strategy of retailers.In this paper,new challenges for retailers and consumers under competition environment are discussed firstly.Then the customer behavior model based on a psychological method is proposed for simulating the behaviors of electricity consumers to select retailers and electricity contracts.For retailers,a novel marketing strategy considering the influence on interruptible load and consumer behavior is modeled to determine electricity fixed price,up-low limited real-time price and energy procurement allocation.Finally,numerical simulation is used to show the essential features of proposed model.%售电市场的开放是中国电力市场下一步的改革方向。在竞争性的市场环境下,售电公司垄断被打破,售电方式将发生重大转变。分析了竞争性售电公司可能面临的新问题,基于心理学方法构建用户对售电公司及用电合同的选择行为模型,以均一电价和保底封顶实时电价为主,计及可中断负荷影响,为费率制定以及购电比例分配提供科学有效的计算方法,并通过算例分析了以可中断负荷为代表的附加服务类型对于售电公司营销策略的影响。

  16. The missing path to gain customers loyalty in pharmacy retail: The role of the store in developing satisfaction and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Sandro; Grosso, Monica; Mallarini, Erika; Rindone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    An evolution led to community pharmacies experiencing increased competition both between themselves and with new entrants in the sector, for example, grocery retailers. Applying certain retail marketing strategies aimed at developing store loyalty may be an appropriate strategic path for pharmacies wanting to compete in this new arena. This study aimed to develop and test a two-step model to identify the determinants of store loyalty for community pharmacies in Italy. Based on the retail literature, qualitative research was conducted to identify key variables determining loyalty to community pharmacies. The model was then tested by means of a phone survey. A total of 735 usable questionnaires was collected. The study highlights the key role of the relationship between pharmacists and their customers in the loyalty-building path; trust in pharmacists is the first driver of satisfaction and a direct and indirect (through satisfaction) driver of trust in pharmacies, which leads to store loyalty. Retail-level levers, such as the store environment, assortment, and communication, influence trust in pharmacies. This model is a first step toward investigating loyalty-building by applying the retail management literature's concepts to the community pharmacy sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Do auctions and forced divestitures increase competition? Evidence for retail gasoline markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.; Haan, M.A.; Heijnen, P.

    2008-01-01

    Where markets are insufficiently competitive, governments can intervene by auctioning licenses to operate or by forcing divestitures. The Dutch government has done exactly that, organizing auctions to redistribute tenancy rights for highway gasoline stations and forcing the divestiture of outlets of

  18. 3C, Internet Dynamics and Retail: Towards a new market segmentation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, Peter van den; Reep, Frans van der

    2006-01-01

    The Internet introduces new business choices for customer interaction. In this article we introduce two claims. Firstly, we will show that the way companies shape their customer interaction, and not their sector or size, determine the market segmentation. Secondly, Internet dynamics and its effect o

  19. Do auctions and forced divestitures increase competition? Evidence for retail gasoline markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.; Haan, M.A.; Heijnen, P.

    2008-01-01

    Where markets are insufficiently competitive, governments can intervene by auctioning licenses to operate or by forcing divestitures. The Dutch government has done exactly that, organizing auctions to redistribute tenancy rights for highway gasoline stations and forcing the divestiture of outlets of

  20. Cross-national differences in price–role orientation and their impact on retail markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Stephan; Komor, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes differences in price–role orientations between economically developed and emerging markets and how these differences influence store brand and store format preferences. It extends cross-national research on price–role orientations by (1) focusing on culturally similar...

  1. Analysis of eight organophosphorus pesticide residues in fresh vegetables retailed in agricultural product markets of Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ligang; Liang, Yongchao; Jiang, Xin

    2008-10-01

    A method to effectively remove pigments in fresh vegetables using activated carbon followed cleanup through solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge to further reduce matrix interference and contamination, was established to determine eight organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) by gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) in this study, and it has been successfully applied for the determination of eight OPPs in various fresh vegetables with the recoveries ranging from 61.8% to 107%. To evaluate eight OPPs residue level, some fresh vegetables retailed at three agricultural product markets (APM) of Nanjing in China were detected, the results showed that phorate in Shanghai green (0.0257 microg g(-1)) and Chinese cabbage (0.0398 microg g(-1)), dimethoate in Shanghai green (0.0466-0.0810 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.077 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.118-0.124 microg g(-1)), methyl-parathion in Shanghai green (0.0903 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.157 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.0924 microg g(-1)), malathion in Shanghai green (0.0342-0.0526 microg g(-1)), chorpyrifos in spinach (0.106-0.204 microg g(-1)), and Chinese cabbage (0.149 microg g(-1)), chlorfenvinfos in carrot (0.094-0.131 microg g(-1)), were found. However, fonofos and fenthion were not detected in all the collected vegetable samples.

  2. Estimation of Lead and Cadmium residual levels in chicken giblets at retail markets in Ismailia city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soad A. Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb and Cadmium (Cd are environmental contaminants of food which have deleterious cumulative effect on human health. Using flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS, the concentrations of Pb and Cd were estimated in 60 samples of chicken giblets comprising of broiler livers, gizzards and hearts collected randomly from retail markets in Ismailia city, Egypt. The greatest Pb concentrations were found in liver samples (0.8762 ± 0.2089 ppm, whereas gizzard samples contain 0.3186 ± 0.1462 ppm and lowest levels of Pb were detected in heart samples 0.1733 ± 0.06777 ppm. Cd deposited in liver samples reached 0.040714 ± 0.0290 ppm; however gizzard and heart samples contain negligible Cd concentrations (0.0041 ± 0.0028 and 0.0036 ± 0.008 ppm, respectively. These data interpreted that Pb residual concentration, particularly in chicken liver sold in Ismailia city, is more than the permissible limit (0.5 ppm in the Codex Alimentarius international food standards and thus may be hazardous to human consumption and more serious inspection procedures should be applied by the veterinary authorities therein.

  3. Microbiota of regular sodium and sodium-reduced ready-to-eat meat products obtained from the retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Petr; Liu, Xiaoji; McMullen, Lynn M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of sodium content on the microbiota on the surface of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products purchased from the retail market in Canada. Products, including sliced and sausage-type deli meats, were analysed with culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Bacteria were identified from 23 brands of products from different meat processors with claims of sodium content ranging from 390 to 1200 mg per 100 g of product. Out of 150 bacterial isolates, the most common were identified as Leuconostoc gelidum, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and Leuconostoc gasicomitatum. Vacuum-packaged RTE deli sliced meat products had the largest population of bacteria. Leuconostocci were the most common isolates in this group of products, while carnobacteria were prevalent on products with moderate loads of bacteria. A higher incidence of carnobacteria and lower incidence of B. thermosphacta were detected on sodium-reduced products. Simpson's and Shannon-Wiener indices showed that low sodium products (25%-50% less sodium) had an overall higher bacterial diversity. This was also observed when individual low sodium products were compared with their regular sodium counterpart.

  4. ICT, an effectiveness factor in the application of digital marketing to retail businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Prada Ospina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg The need for organizational development has led companies to review their business model and to find the way to redesign it to face the existing competition and to remain sustainable in the market. The rapid growth of organizations is accompanied by an increase of their functions, as well as an increase in their amount of activities. As situations change, companies are transformed to face new challenges almost instantly. Currently, digital marketing seems to be an important alternative for performing their sales. This evidence of fast increase and change is supported by ICT new technologies, performing a key role on the way to survival, the generation of competitive advantages and much more added value to avoid bottlenecks and restrictions in their processes unless they use appropriate tools and set up coincidental synergies between customers and new technologies so that they won´t turn into appropriation relations better than into representation relations.

  5. 78 FR 46319 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Taiwan: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... consumer packaging and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants, to their customers to package and carry their... for convenience and customs purposes, our written description of the scope of the order is...

  6. 75 FR 23667 - Antidumping Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants to their customers to package and carry their purchased products. The scope of... orders. Although the HTSUS subheading is provided for convenience and customs purposes, the...

  7. 75 FR 33772 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... packaging and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants, to their customers to package and carry their purchased... convenience and customs purposes, the written description of the scope of the order is dispositive. Use...

  8. 75 FR 23670 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants to their customers to package and carry their purchased products... subheading is provided for convenience and customs purposes, the written description of the scope of...

  9. 75 FR 38978 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, and Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants, to their customers to package and carry their purchased.... Furthermore, although the HTSUS subheading is provided for convenience and customs purposes, the...

  10. 76 FR 30102 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... consumer packaging and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants, to their customers to package and carry their... HTSUS. Furthermore, although the HTSUS subheading is provided for convenience and customs purposes,...

  11. 75 FR 61128 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants, to their customers to package and carry their purchased... convenience and customs purposes, the written description of the scope of the order is dispositive. Return...

  12. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR DURING ONLINE GROCERY SHOPPING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriela Hanus

    2016-01-01

    .... With online grocery supermarkets there are no limitations connected with localization and opening hours, and consumers have access to a large range of stores and products online across the world...

  13. Retailers' choice of suppliers and products

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Executive summary 1. Across Europe retailers have grown in size and turnover. Centralised buying organisations have enabled retailers to act as gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers when developing their marketing strategies. 2. The purpose of this paper is to review previous research on retailer buying behaviour in order to establish a state-of-the-art knowledge before launching an Europ...

  14. Energy Efficiency in Grocery Distribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)......Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)...

  15. The Impact of the New York State Retail Milk Price Regulation on Farm-to-Retail Price Transmission and Supermarket Pricing Strategies in Metropolitan Fluid Milk Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotova, Yuliya; Novakovic, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    The New York State Milk Price Gouging Law establishes that the retail prices of fluid milk products are not to exceed 200% of the prices that NYS milk processors pay for Class I milk. The enforcement of this law significantly affected the nature of the Class I fluid milk price transmission process and the milk pricing strategies of supermarkets in the five largest cities in New York State: New York City, Albany, Syracuse, Buffalo and Rochester. During the pre-law period, supermarkets used a r...

  16. Frequency distributions of Escherichia coli in the confectionery products offered in retail market in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Rezaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Raw ingredients used in confectionary carry high risk of infection with Escherichia coli. Since confectionaries are offered in the market in quite varied forms and types and there is a great difference in the sanitary status of the confectionaries, this study aimed at evaluation of E.coli   frequency distribution in different types of confectionery products in Isfahan market. In addition, the effect of moisture content, products category and the sanitary level of the confectionaries as well as product types (Industrially or traditionally produced on the contamination level were studied. Materials and methods: A total of 200 samples were randomly collected from confectioneries in Isfahan city through simple random sampling method. Preparation and dilution procedures were conducted under sterile conditions. Samples were cultured on EMB agar medium. Later, some of the positive isolates were randomly selected and confirmed by TSI and IMVIC test. Data analysis was performed using descriptive indices. Also, one way ANOVA and LSD test or independent t test were applied to determine the statistically significant difference between the mean E.coli cell numbers in the categorized groups of sweets. Results: It was found that 19% of the total tested samples were contaminated with E.coli strains. The mean, median and maximum of contamination were (35±.5, (0 and (3.4 CFU/gr, respectively. Moisture content, products category and being traditionally or industrially produced have significant effects on the level of contamination; while, the sanitary status of the traditional confectionaries as graded in this study has no impact on the average E.coli cell count. Discussion and conclusion: Regarding the microbial quality, at least about 25% of the sweets in the market do not meet the national standards of confectionary products. Implementation of strict hygiene regulation in the traditional confectionaries is in need to provide the public with

  17. Factors affecting Purchase behavior of Women grocery consumer- An Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, Dr. Anu Nagpal

    2014-01-01

    Women are most powerful consumers in the world as they control almost 80 percent of the household spending. And no longer can the womens spending powers and influence be neglected. The role of women in the society and their effects has changed. Most of the marketers know that women are different, but we actually need a deep rooted understanding of how and why they are different. Studying women could be interesting as Family grocery shopping is the accepted domain of women; however, modern so...

  18. Evaluation of microbial contamination of tomatoes and peppers at retail markets in Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Carmen; Molina, Karina; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos

    2013-08-01

    The source of a large outbreak of foodborne disease related to Salmonella-contaminated jalapeño peppers has been traced to Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of tomatoes and jalapeño peppers from markets and supermarkets from the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. One hundred sixty samples (40 bola tomatoes, 40 saladette [Roma] tomatoes, 40 serrano peppers, and 40 jalapeño peppers) were purchased. Stems from peppers were removed and analyzed separately. Samples were analyzed for indicator organisms and Salmonella, following the Mexican Official Methods. The results showed that the presence of indicator organisms varied among samples and origins, and levels were relatively high in peppers (average 4.4 to 4.7 log CFU/g for total mesophilic, 3.25 to 3.73 log CFU/g for total coliforms, and 1.69 log CFU/g for fecal coliforms). Saladette tomatoes and serrano peppers showed the greatest microorganism levels (∼1 log CFU/g higher) in comparison with the other varieties. Pepper stems typically had indicator microbial levels ∼1 to 2 log CFU/g higher than levels in smooth flesh. Only one tomato and one jalapeño sample were positive for Salmonella. However, in the case of the pepper, the contamination was found in the stem. Although the microbiological quality of tomatoes and peppers sampled was similar to that found in markets from developed countries, the presence of pathogens causes a risk of infection for consumers.

  19. State sales tax rates for soft drinks and snacks sold through grocery stores and vending machines, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eidson, Shelby S; Bates, Hannalori; Kowalczyk, Shelly; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2008-07-01

    Junk food consumption is associated with rising obesity rates in the United States. While a "junk food" specific tax is a potential public health intervention, a majority of states already impose sales taxes on certain junk food and soft drinks. This study reviews the state sales tax variance for soft drinks and selected snack products sold through grocery stores and vending machines as of January 2007. Sales taxes vary by state, intended retail location (grocery store vs. vending machine), and product. Vended snacks and soft drinks are taxed at a higher rate than grocery items and other food products, generally, indicative of a "disfavored" tax status attributed to vended items. Soft drinks, candy, and gum are taxed at higher rates than are other items examined. Similar tax schemes in other countries and the potential implications of these findings relative to the relationship between price and consumption are discussed.

  20. The Establishment of the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS): A Pilot Project on Poultry Farms, Slaughterhouses and Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Godoy, P; Castellanos, R; León, M; Arevalo, A; Clavijo, V; Bernal, J; León, D; Tafur, M A; Byrne, B A; Smith, W A; Perez-Gutierrez, E

    2015-04-01

    The development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria (AMR) is currently one of the world's most pressing public health problems. The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals has resulted in AMR which has narrowed the potential use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections in humans. To monitor AMR and to develop control measures, some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Denmark, have established national integrated surveillance systems (FDA, , CIPARS, 2007, DANMAP,2002). The components of these programs monitor changes in susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobial agents of selected zoonotic pathogens and commensal organisms recovered from animals, retail meats and humans. The rapid development of Colombia's animal production industry has raised food safety issues including the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Colombian Integrated Surveillance Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (COIPARS) was established as a pilot project to monitor AMR on poultry farms, slaughter houses and retail markets. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. ETHICAL EVALUATIONS OF RETAILERS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON FOOD AND CLOTHING RETAILERS IN KAYSERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Kurtoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in retailing sector bring about some ethical problems. Retailing is a faceto-face marketing activity by its nature. Thus, ethical problems in retailing directly affect consumers and consumer reactions turn directly to retailers. Therefore, defining and solving the ethical problems in retailing is an important issue for retailers. The main purpose of this study is to identify the food and clothing retailers’ perspective about ethical purchase decision making process and their evaluations on this subject. Beside this, identifying the differences of these evaluations in terms of the demographic characteristics of retailers is another objective of this study. Findings show that retailers generally approve ethical behaviors and disapprove unethical behaviors. In addition, evaluations of retailers differ in terms of some demographic characteristics. Results of the study also show that retailers are sensitive about unethical actions and behaviors and they believe that all the retailers must act according to ethical principles.

  2. Consumer views on safety of over-the-counter drugs, preferred retailers and information sources in Sweden: after re-regulation of the pharmacy market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Tommy; Barzi, Sahra; Bernsten, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The availability of over-the-counter drugs (OTCs) has increased in Sweden since a re-regulation of the pharmacy market in 2009, through which non-pharmacy retailers became permitted to provide certain OTCs. To examine the adult general public's views on safety, purchasing and information channels, storage and disposal of OTCs in Sweden, three years after the re-regulation of the pharmacy market. A questionnaire study in 2012-13 in a stratified, random sample of all inhabitants in Sweden ≥ 18 years old. Totally 8,302 people (42%) answered the questionnaire. Seven percent found OTCs completely harmless regardless of how they are being used, 18% felt they should be used only on health professionals' recommendation. Differences in how OTCs are perceived were however found with regards to respondents' country of birth, family type, educational level and income. The pharmacy was still the preferred OTC drug retailer by 83% of the respondents and preferred information source by 80% Reasons for preferred retailers were primarily due to out of habit (45%), counseling provided (35%), the product range (34%) and the confidence in staff (27%). Analgesics are the most common OTCs to have at home (90%). The bathroom cabinet is the primary site for storage (42%) and 16% throw their OTC leftovers in the trash. The study population does not consider OTCs as harmless regardless of how they are used, but on the other hand feels they should not be taken on health professionals' recommendation only. The pharmacy is still the preferred retailer and information source, and there is room for further improvement in the storage and disposal of OTCs. A return of OTC drug leftovers to the pharmacy should be further encouraged. Due to several limitations, great caution should however be observed when generalizing the results to the adult population of Sweden.

  3. Learning Based Bidding Strategy for HVAC Systems in Double Auction Retail Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yannan; Somani, Abhishek; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a bidding strategy is proposed using reinforcement learning for HVAC systems in a double auction market. The bidding strategy does not require a specific model-based representation of behavior, i.e., a functional form to translate indoor house temperatures into bid prices. The results from reinforcement learning based approach are compared with the HVAC bidding approach used in the AEP gridSMART® smart grid demonstration project and it is shown that the model-free (learning based) approach tracks well the results from the model-based behavior. Successful use of model-free approaches to represent device-level economic behavior may help develop similar approaches to represent behavior of more complex devices or groups of diverse devices, such as in a building. Distributed control requires an understanding of decision making processes of intelligent agents so that appropriate mechanisms may be developed to control and coordinate their responses, and model-free approaches to represent behavior will be extremely useful in that quest.

  4. Analysis of Liaoning Retailing Market and Strategy Research Based on BCG Model%基于BCG模型的辽宁零售市场分析及策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉霞

    2015-01-01

    从BCG分析模型入手,利用市场增长率———相对市场占有率矩阵法对辽宁省14个城市的社会消费品零售总额的竞争态进行定量分析,研究结果表明:辽宁幼童类零售市场包括抚顺、丹东、营口、锦州、盘锦、朝阳、辽阳、阜新、本溪、葫芦岛10市,明星类零售市场包括沈阳、大连、鞍山3市,瘦狗类零售市场为铁岭市,金牛类零售市场暂缺。%The paper carries on quantitative analysis by using market growth rate-the relative market share ma-trix method for competitive state of total retail sales of social consumer goods of Liaoning provinceˊs 14 cities based on BCG analysis model. The results show that the retailing market of young child class in-cludes Fushun, Dandong, Yingkou, Jinzhou, Panjin, Chaoyang, Liaoyang, Fuxin, Benxi, Huludao. The retailing market of star class includes Shenyang, Dalian, Anshan. The retailing market of thin dogs class only includes Tieling. The retailing market of taurus class is blank.

  5. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations.

  6. Retail Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The retail banking plays more and more important role in polish banking sector. There are several targets of this article. First of all is retail banking identification, both in Euroland and Poland. The next one trends, especially household deposits and credits and last retail banking in particular banks.

  7. TENDENCIES OF INTERNATIONALIZATION IN RETAILING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing companies took advantage of internationalization as early as in the seventies and eighties of the last century, whereas retail companies have used these chances not before the last few years in order to improve access to resources, to increase sales and to extend activities to external markets. Once a retail company has decided to penetrate a foreign market they must be aware of the unfamiliar working of external environment that they cannot control. Even the world’s leading retailers make mistakes when approaching markets they do not understand properly.

  8. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR DURING ONLINE GROCERY SHOPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hanus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Today consumers can buy almost any product using the Internet. Online nutritional and grocery shopping is becoming increasingly popular. The aim of this paper is to present the conditions of online grocery shopping and consumers’ attitude towards buying food via the Internet based. The assessment is based on secondary information sources. With online grocery supermarkets there are no limitations connected with localization and opening hours, and consumers have access to a large range of stores and products online across the world. The most important advantages of online shopping are convenience and time saving, while the most significant disadvantages for consumers involve the risk of incorrectly valuating some products and apprehension about the selection and handling of perishables, such as vegetables, eggs, and meat products.

  9. Application of social media tools by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alarcon-del-Amo, M.d.C.; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, E.; Eldon, Y.L.; Loh, S.; Evans, C.; Lorenzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The chapter explores the factors influencing the adoption process and the degree of engagement of the social media as part of the online marketing strategy by Spanish retailers. A retail industry survey identifies four different segments of retailers depending on the level of implementation of soci

  10. Application of social media tools by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alarcon-del-Amo, M.d.C.; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Eldon, Y.L.; Loh, S.; Evans, C.; Lorenzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The chapter explores the factors influencing the adoption process and the degree of engagement of the social media as part of the online marketing strategy by Spanish retailers. A retail industry survey identifies four different segments of retailers depending on the level of implementation of socia

  11. Application of social media tools by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alarcon-del-Amo, M.d.C.; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Eldon, Y.L.; Loh, S.; Evans, C.; Lorenzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The chapter explores the factors influencing the adoption process and the degree of engagement of the social media as part of the online marketing strategy by Spanish retailers. A retail industry survey identifies four different segments of retailers depending on the level of implementation of

  12. An Introduction to Retail Electricity Choice in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Retail electricity choice in the United States allows end-use customers (including industrial, commercial, and residential customers) to buy electricity from competitive retail suppliers. This brochure offers an overview of retail electricity choice in the United States, and its impact on prices and renewable energy procurement. It concludes with three lessons learned from the U.S. retail market experience that may serve as a reference for other countries and regions taking steps towards retail electricity market liberalization.

  13. Detection of shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at local retail markets in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Rowaida K S; Gomaa, Mohamed A E; Khalil, Mahmoud I M

    2015-03-16

    Leafy green vegetables, a popular and an indispensable ingredient of the daily menus of Egyptians' diets, currently presents a great concern in terms of microbiological hazards. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that provides scientific evidence for prevalence of shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at open air local retail markets and superstores in the Egyptian environment. A total of 486 conventional and organic leafy green samples that are eaten raw were collected from different areas in Alexandria, evaluated for total E. coli counts (ECCs), and screened for E. coli O157:H7 using conventional and molecular methods. Recovery of E. coli (≥10(2)CFU/g) from all studied types of leafy greens was indicative of fecal contamination. Total ECCs in conventional samples ranged from 5.47 to 2.56 log CFU/g. Based on their inability to ferment sorbitol on CT-SMAC media, 26 presumptive E. coli O157 isolates were detected in 71.4% (270/378) of the studied conventional samples. From all studied organic samples, only 2 types (organic cabbage and parsley, 16.7%) were contaminated with presumptive E. coli O157. All 28 isolates were further serotyped as E. coli O157 by latex agglutination test, and biochemically confirmed as E. coli. Multiplex PCR assays confirmed the ability of 21.4% (6/28) of the E. coli O157 strains to produce shiga-toxins (Stxs), and their virulence markers were as follows: stx1, 66.6% (4/6); stx2, 50% (3/6); stx1/stx2, 16.7% (1/6); eaeA, 83.3% (5/6); and hlyA, 16.7% (1/6). Only 2 strains recovered from conventional and organic parsley could possibly be classified as E. coli O157:H7 based on the presence of stx-genes (either stx1 or stx2 or both). Results of the present research highlight that high E. coli loads, together with recovery of STEC O157 isolates could pose serious health risks to the produce consumers. This emphasizes the urgent need for health authorities to value and utilize the existing knowledge to

  14. Causes for Retail Industry Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesha, M.

    2012-12-01

    The heading of this article itself pushing me to think why retail industry is globalizing! Because to increase their presence worldwide and profit on the onside and for the sake of ìname and fameî in industry is other side, but todayís trend and compitetitation force industrial giants to forget the word ìname and fameî globalization is the only strategy to compensate their market share or profit from one country to another country or domestic market. The presence of retail industry in the global level from centuries, but the global recognaization of retail industry came to limelight only two decades ago. As soon as restrictions are removed in this sector, all the retail industry big giants spread across the world to extend their operations especially in emerging markets. Is this a good sign for retailers? Off course it is good sign for some countries and some countries are stick to their own perceptions. Some of the countries welcome this move because the FDI will improve their economic structure. On the other side employment opportunity is also one of the issues in globalization of retail sector. Because retail industry needs huge workforce, so significance of retail has been undoubted.

  15. 网络零售市场信用机制优化研究%Research on the Optimization of Online Retail Market Credit Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬泉

    2014-01-01

    随着电子网络交易规模的扩展,信用风险阻碍网络经济进一步发展的问题日益凸显。尽管现行的一些网络零售网站设计的信用评价体系在一定程度上降低了网络交易的信用风险,但仍然存在明显不足。借鉴以往研究成果,基于信任传递原理改进信用计分机制,可有效改善我国网络零售商信用评价机制,有效降低用户虚假评价及其他蓄意破坏行为对我国网络零售市场信用系统的影响,反映店铺真实的信用度,降低买家因信息不对称和时空分隔带来的不信任,降低消费者购买的信用风险,同时为卖家提供一个公平的竞争环境,为我国网络零售市场健康发展奠定一个良好的信用基础。%Along with the rapid development of the network retail trade, credit risk has become the main bottlenecks of its further development. The current credit evaluation system provided by the online retail web site reduces the credit risk in a certain extent. There are however significant drawbacks with this approach. In this paper, based on the trust transfer principle and combining previous research results, the author puts forward an improved credit scoring mechanism which can effectively improve the existing evaluation mechanism of China’s online retailers’ credit, effectively reduce the impact of users’ false evaluation and other intended act of sabotage on the credit system of China’s online retail market, reflect the real credit situation of online shops, alleviate the distrust brought by information asymmetry and space-time separation, reduce the credit risk of customer purchasing and provide the sellers with a more fair competitive environment to lay the credit foundation for the health development of China’s online retail market.

  16. Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-13

    The substantial increase in deployment of customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has been driven by a combination of steeply declining costs, financing innovations, and supportive policies. Among those supportive policies is net metering, which in most states effectively allows customers to receive compensation for distributed PV generation at the full retail electricity price. The current design of retail electricity rates and the presence of net metering have elicited concerns that the possible under-recovery of fixed utility costs from PV system owners may lead to a feedback loop of increasing retail prices that accelerate PV adoption and further rate increases. However, a separate and opposing feedback loop could offset this effect: increased PV deployment may lead to a shift in the timing of peak-period electricity prices that could reduce the bill savings received under net metering where time-varying retail electricity rates are used, thereby dampening further PV adoption. In this paper, we examine the impacts of these two competing feedback dynamics on U.S. distributed PV deployment through 2050 for both residential and commercial customers, across states. Our results indicate that, at the aggregate national level, the two feedback effects nearly offset one another and therefore produce a modest net effect, although their magnitude and direction vary by customer segment and by state. We also model aggregate PV deployment trends under various rate designs and net-metering rules, accounting for feedback dynamics. Our results demonstrate that future adoption of distributed PV is highly sensitive to retail rate structures. Whereas flat, time-invariant rates with net metering lead to higher aggregate national deployment levels than the current mix of rate structures (+5% in 2050), rate structures with higher monthly fixed customer charges or PV compensation at levels lower than the full retail rate can dramatically erode aggregate customer

  17. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  18. Electronic Commerce and Retail Channel Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze a market where firms compete in a conventional and an electronic retail channel. Consumers easily compare prices online, but some incur purchase uncertainties on the online channel. We investigate the market shares of the two retail channels and the prices that are charged. We

  19. Regulated and unregulated Nordic retail prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Johnsen, Tor Arnt

    2011-01-01

    in Sweden but higher than in Norway and Finland. Because of market design Norwegian default contracts are competitive whereas Swedish contracts provide the retailer with some market power. We interpret the low Finnish margins as a result of municipal retailers continuing traditional pricing from...

  20. Food systems transformations, ultra-processed food markets and the nutrition transition in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon

    2016-12-03

    Attracted by their high economic growth rates, young and growing populations, and increasingly open markets, transnational food and beverage corporations (TFBCs) are targeting Asian markets with vigour. Simultaneously the consumption of ultra-processed foods high in fat, salt and glycaemic load is increasing in the region. Evidence demonstrates that TFBCs can leverage their market power to shape food systems in ways that alter the availability, price, nutritional quality, desirability and ultimately consumption of such foods. This paper describes recent changes in Asian food systems driven by TFBCs in the retail, manufacturing and food service sectors and considers the implications for population nutrition. Market data for each sector was sourced from Euromonitor International for four lower-middle income, three upper-middle income and five high-income Asian countries. Descriptive statistics were used to describe trends in ultra-processed food consumption (2000-2013), packaged food retail distribution channels (1999-2013), 'market transnationalization' defined as the market share held by TFBCs relative to domestic firms (2004-2013), and 'market concentration' defined as the market share and thus market power held by the four leading firms (2004-2013) in each market. Ultra-processed food sales has increased rapidly in most middle-income countries. Carbonated soft drinks was the leading product category, in which Coca-Cola and PepsiCo had a regional oligopoly. Supermarkets, hypermarkets and convenience stores were becoming increasingly dominant as distribution channels for packaged foods throughout the region. Market concentration was increasing in the grocery retail sector in all countries. Food service sales are increasing in all countries led by McDonalds and Yum! Brands. However, in all three sectors TFBCs face strong competition from Asian firms. Overall, the findings suggest that market forces are likely to be significant but variable drivers of Asia

  1. Retail innovation technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Commerce, as an important industry of any national economy, is a socially important complex of activities, which has to correspond to the general level of development and civilization of the community it serves. Considering this, the essential priorities commercial activity will turn to are represented by the increased power that consumers get through better informing, the assurance of a better connection between retail and innovation, more equitable and sustainable commercial relationships along the purchase chain, the improvement of retail services accessibility, the creation of a better work environment through the better correlation between employers’ needs and employers’ competences. Retail is permanently adapting to the changing market conditions, remaining a high competitive sector. Modern buyer is hurried, more mobile, better informed; more concerned about health, environment, comfort and aesthetics issues, more demanding in terms of quality and level of customization. Population migration, urbanization, and ageing, its absolute decrease, the average households size reduction, are all demographic trends to which retail must provide an appropriate answer. Retail businesses operating costs tend to increase, while buyers are warier under the impact of the global financial crisis, which will put additional pressure on profit margins.

  2. Nutrition marketing on processed food packages in Canada: 2010 Food Label Information Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermel, Alyssa; Emrich, Teri E; Arcand, JoAnne; Wong, Christina L; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2013-06-01

    The current study describes the frequency of use of different forms of nutrition marketing in Canada and the nutrients and conditions that are the focus of nutrition marketing messages. Prepackaged foods with a Nutrition Facts table (N = 10,487) were collected between March 2010 and April 2011 from outlets of the 3 largest grocery chains in Canada and 1 major western Canadian grocery retailer. The nutrition marketing information collected included nutrient content claims, disease risk reduction claims, and front-of-pack nutrition rating systems (FOPS). We found that nutrition marketing was present on 48.1% of Canadian food packages, with nutrient content claims being the most common information (45.5%), followed by FOPS on 18.9% of packages. Disease risk reduction claims were made least frequently (1.7%). The marketing messages used most often related to total fat and trans fat (15.6% and 15.5% of nutrient content claims, respectively). Limiting total and trans fats is a current public health priority, as recommended by Health Canada and the World Health Organization. However, other nutrients that are also recommended to be limited, including saturated fats, sodium, and added sugars, were not nearly as prominent on food labels. Thus, greater emphasis should be placed by the food industry on these other important nutrients. Repeated data collection in the coming years will allow us to track longitudinal changes in nutrition marketing messages over time as food marketing, public health, and consumer priorities evolve.

  3. Prevalence and multidrug-resistant pattern of Salmonella from the eggs and egg-storing trays of retail markets of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Mahmud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Salmonellosis is one of the most common and widely distributed foodborne illnesses in human, and multidrugresistance of Salmonella spp. has increased in developing countries with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the poultry production system. A cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected retail markets of Chittagong City Corporation to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella isolated from commercial layer eggs, eggshell surface, and egg-storing trays. Materials and Methods: Chicken eggs, egg surface, and egg-storing trays samples from the retail markets were collected for isolating Salmonella spp. (bacteriological culture methods followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disc diffusion method against Salmonella isolates during the period from July to December 2013. Results: Out of the 310 layer eggs, egg surface, and egg-storing trays samples, the highest prevalence of Salmonella spp. was found in eggs trays (57.15% and the lowest (13.33% in eggs and the prevalence differed significantly (p0.05. Isolated Salmonella was tested for resistance to eight different antimicrobial agents, using disc diffusion method. Among eight antimicrobial tested (n=111, 100% resistance were found to ampicillin and amoxicillin followed by erythromycin (60-100%, tetracycline (72-93%, ciprofloxacin (22-66%, colistin (27-66%, enrofloxacin (42-54%, and pefloxacin 23.07% across the study sites. Ciprofloxacin remained sensitive in 40.9% cases and, pefloxacin and colistin appeared to be almost sensitive (61-72% against Salmonella isolates at studied areas. Salmonella isolates showed multidrug-resistance pattern up to five of the eight antimicrobials tested. Conclusion: It can be said that the rational use of antibiotics needs to be adopted in commercial poultry farming system of Bangladesh to prevent the emergence of drug-resistance Salmonella to protect the public health consequences.

  4. Avaliação das perdas de manga (Mangifera indica L. no mercado varejista da cidade de Botucatu-SP Mango losses estimate in retail market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Matheus Yalenti Perosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O elevado percentual de perdas na comercialização de manga no Brasil faz com que apenas parcela da produção chegue à mesa do consumidor. O presente trabalho determinou, em equipamentos de varejo da cidade de Botucatu - SP, as perdas de manga, suas causas e emitir sugestões para a redução das mesmas. Foram selecionados 22 equipamentos entre supermercados, quitanda/sacolões e feiras livres. O volume estimado de manga comercializada neste município foi 114 t/ano. Verificaram-se as seguintes perdas médias por variedade de manga: 11,5% para 'Tommy Atkins', 12,4% para 'Haden' e 12,7% para as outras variedades. O valor total anual destas perdas no comércio varejista da cidade, em 2007, atingiu R$ 49.200,00 (US$ 25.231,00, correspondente a 14 toneladas. Os percentuais médios de perda mostram grande semelhança quando comparados a estudos realizados em outras localidades. Os resultados obtidos apontam para a necessidade de melhor gestão de estoques, de exposição da fruta para o consumidor e uso de tecnologia no transporte e armazenagem para a manutenção da qualidade e redução das perdas. Conclui-se também pela necessidade de maiores investimentos em capacitação técnica dos encarregados do setor de frutas e hortaliças.Losses in the mango commercialization process in Brazil has reduced its offer to the consumer. The present study aims at determining these losses in different purchase sites of the retail market, its causes and suggestions for reducing them. Twenty two retail points, including supermarkets, greengroceries and free fair were selected in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The total amount commercialized was 114 ton/year. The following average losses were verified for each mango variety: 'Tommy Atkins' (11, 5%, Haden (12, 4% and 12, 7% for other varieties. The total loss in retail market reached US$ 25.231, 00 corresponding to 14 tons. The average loss percentage observed is compatible with previous studies running

  5. Potential consequences of replacing a retail alcohol monopoly with a private licence system: results from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Thor; Miller, Ted; Holder, Harold; Osterberg, Esa; Ramstedt, Mats; Rossow, Ingeborg; Stockwell, Tim

    2010-12-01

    To examine the potential effects of replacing the Swedish alcohol retail system with a private licensing system on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. Two possible scenarios were analysed: (1) replacing the current alcohol retail monopoly with private licensed stores that specialize in alcohol sales or (2) making all alcohol available in grocery stores. We utilized a multiplicative model that projected effects of changes in a set of key factors including hours of sale, retail prices, promotion and advertising and outlet density. Next, we estimated the effect of the projected consumption increase on a set of harm indicators. Values for the model parameters were obtained from the research literature. Measures of alcohol-related harm included explicitly alcohol-related mortality, accident mortality, suicide, homicide, assaults, drinking driving and sickness absence. According to the projections, scenario 1 yields a consumption increase of 17% (1.4 litres/capita), which in turn would cause an additional 770 deaths, 8500 assaults, 2700 drinking driving offences and 4.5 million sick days per year. The corresponding figures for scenario 2 are a consumption increase of 37.4% (3.1 litres/capita) leading to an additional annual toll of 2000 deaths, 20 000 assaults, 6600 drinking driving offences and 11.1 million days of sick leave. Projections based on the research literature suggest that privatization of the Swedish alcohol retail market would significantly increase alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Microbial quality of industrial and retail market grated parmesan cheese in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Gamero Aguilar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: With the objective to evaluate the hygienic and sanitary conditions of grated parmesan cheese acquired from the retail business, total 120 cheese samples were acquired: 60 of which were obtained from four different brands of cheese that were grated in factories, and the other 60 samples were obtained from another four brands of cheese that are normally acquired by retailers (supermarkets in blocks and grated at the moment of sale. The population of heterotrophic mesophilic microorganisms ranged from 1.2×10³ to 1.1×107 colony-forming units (CFU·g-1. All samples analyzed contained Staphylococcus spp. with populations varying from 1.2×10³ to 8.7×106CFU·g-1, from which 60.0% were classified as coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and 52.5% of the samples possessed populations above the permissible limit set by legislation. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 57.5% of the samples. Population of molds and yeasts varied from <10 to 1.8×106CFU·g-1. Salmonella spp. was not isolated in this research. A difference was observed between the parmesan cheese grated in factories and that grated in supermarkets, where the former presented better microbiological quality than the latter. Thus, procedures must be proposed to minimize the presence of pathogenic agents reported in grated parmesan cheeses evaluated in the present study because of the public health risk associated with food bacterial contamination.

  7. Analysis of consumer´s attitudes to the retailing formats

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is focused on retail marketing and its main goal is to analyse consumer's attitudes to the various retailing formats. First part is dedicated to some theoretical terms of retailing, stores typology, consumer behaviour, segmentation and specifics of retail marketing. Next part analyses available information from public researches, articles and MML database to reveal present situation and trends on retail market. In the last part is executed own primary research with aim to discover ...

  8. The Association between Self-Reported Grocery Store Access, Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, and Obesity in a Racially Diverse, Low-Income Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren Nichol; DeFosset, Amelia Rose; Smith, Lisa V; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index (BMI). We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7%) and driving (59.9%) to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9%) and traveling 5 min or less to reach (50.3%) the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or BMI. Results suggest that the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes.

  9. The association between self-reported grocery store access, fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity in a racially diverse, low-income population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Nichol Gase

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index. We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7% and driving (59.9% to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9% and traveling five minutes or less to reach (50.3% the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or body mass index. Results suggest the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes.

  10. Why Does Gasoline Cost so Much? A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S. Retail Gasoline Market

    OpenAIRE

    KILIAN, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    There is an important distinction between the price of gasoline in the U.S. and the price of crude oil in global markets that is often ignored in discussions of the impact of higher energy prices. This paper makes explicit the relationship between demand and supply shocks in these two markets. Building on a recently proposed structural VAR model of the global crude oil market, it explores the implications of a joint VAR model of the global market for crude oil and the U.S. market for motor ga...

  11. Comparison of the Analytic Hierarchy Process and Incomplete Analytic Hierarchy Process for identifying customer preferences in the Texas retail energy provider market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher

    The competitive market for retail energy providers in Texas has been in existence for 10 years. When the market opened in 2002, 5 energy providers existed, offering, on average, 20 residential product plans in total. As of January 2012, there are now 115 energy providers in Texas offering over 300 residential product plans for customers. With the increase in providers and product plans, customers can be bombarded with information and suffer from the "too much choice" effect. The goal of this praxis is to aid customers in the decision making process of identifying an energy provider and product plan. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a hierarchical decomposition decision making tool, and the Incomplete Analytic Hierarchy Process (IAHP), a modified version of AHP, customers can prioritize criteria such as price, rate type, customer service, and green energy products to identify the provider and plan that best meets their needs. To gather customer data, a survey tool has been developed for customers to complete the pairwise comparison process. Results are compared for the Incomplete AHP and AHP method to determine if the Incomplete AHP method is just as accurate, but more efficient, than the traditional AHP method.

  12. NEW APPROACHES IN THE RETAIL BANKING SYSTEM FOR CREATING LONG TERM LOYALTY RELATIONSHIPS WITH CUSTOMERS: CASE STUDY ON THE ROMANIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lidia Melnic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of digital technologies, increasingly informed consumers expect banks to do more than connect with them, more than satisfy them and even more than delight them. They expect banks to listen and respond to them, with personalized offers, overdrawing their expectations. Consumers have access to online reviews, compare products and can move very quickly from one partner to another, being more demanding and more prepared than ever to appreciate the offer of financial services. However, only an attractive offer of banks is not the key to success today if is not supported by a superior service culture, that can make notable differentiation in the market as a competitive advantage. In order to highlight the new approach of superior service culture in the Retail Banking System I chose to make a qualitative research on the Romanian market since Romania is one of the most attractive destinations for the investors in the banking system considering the growth prospects of attracting European funds and financial intermediation. Through this analysis I present the customers’ expectations nowadays and how successful Banks carefully cultivate customer satisfaction and loyalty.

  13. Product mix retail strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Miloš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The sales of appropriate merchandise is essential for performance of every retail enterprise. The way that products are displayed within retail sales object will be in so much important as the merchandise is considered a pad of the perceived image of that outlet. Thus, assorted products speak to their consumers as far as to what they [the consumers] can expect, and they signal off a number of marketing messages as well. Merchandising is the key element in attracting the consumers and in encouraging of repeated purchases. The question then could be: products or services?, yet the retailer's future will depend on his ability to develop the best sale offers. The selection of appropriate merchandise, and that would be the one [merchandise] that is in accordance with outlet's image, requires careful planning which, again, needs to be related with the direction the seller is following. Managing of the product assortments' dimensions emerges from the retailer's strategic planning, therefore, the decisions made on the inclusion of novel products as well as about deleting of the old stock are deemed (to be strategic.

  14. A study of inter-firm market orientation dimensions in Swedish, British and Italian supplier-retailer relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Elg, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that a firm’s market orientation is influ-enced by network factors, but few regard market orientation as an inter-firm phe-nomenon, i.e. as a part of cooperative inter-firm activities and relationships. The paper suggests inter-firm market orientation as an approach for studying this. It is based on Kohli and Jaworski’s three original components, but their meaning within an interorganizational relationship is modified and dimensions that enable us to systematica...

  15. Fostering Curiosity about Social Responsibility and Marketing Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat Yanamandram

    Full Text Available Last year, I was strolling through my local veggie shop after visiting the supermarket, and I noticed that the prices of avocados and apples were the same at both the retailers. Later that week, a news item on current affairs confirmed my suspicion that the supermarket was engaged in squeezing smaller grocery operators outof the market by adopting aggressive pricing tactics amongst many other unethical practices including selling some products at weights substantially less than those marked on the package and subsidising fuel discount by charging more at the checkout. Yet, this supermarket was involved in a broad range of community andenvironmental initiatives. These observations made me wonder if students ever assess the total impact of all marketing decisions.

  16. The retail market for electric power. Competition and consumer analysis; Denmark; Detailmarkedet for elektricitet. Konkurrence- og forbrugeranalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-12-15

    The Danish Competition and Consumer Authority has examined the market for electricity to consumers. It is a market that has great importance for the Danish consumers, and it is a market where competition could make a difference for consumers, businesses and the settlement of the Danish climate objectives. An average Danish household spends over DKK 7,000 a year on electricity. Average household expenditures for electricity will probably increase with the electric cars and electric-powered heat pumps will constitute a larger share of the Danish electricity consumption in the future. Simultaneously, the electricity market is difficult to understand for consumers, and there is generally a weak market competition. The analyses in this report show that there is a large untapped potential for economic gains through innovation, increased competition and a more efficient use of resources in the electricity sector. A realization of the potential for economic gains can be beneficial to consumers, businesses and environment. If the potential for economic gains is to be realized, it is necessary to change the regulation of the market. (LN)

  17. Discussion on Integrated Development Path of China's Drug Retail Markets with E-commerce%电子商务与我国药品零售市场融合发展路径探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗文华

    2015-01-01

    目的:为使电子商务促进我国药品零售市场健康持续发展,提出系统构想和设计具体路径。方法:揭示电子商务的作用,对目前我国药品零售市场存在的突出问题以及与电子商务结合所产生的社会经济价值,进行基本的理论研究和实证分析。结果:我国药品零售市场存在着“市场失灵”和“政府失灵”现象,电子商务与药品零售市场结合有多种模式,但存在着法律主体地位不明确、市场不完整和监管乏力等诸多问题。结论:构建基于B2C(Business-to-Customer)第三方平台的统一药品零售市场,为促进我国药品零售市场的公平健康发展提供了理论和实践可能性。电子商务与我国药品零售市场融合的效果一定程度上取决于政府高层的顶层设计和系统创新支持。%Objective: To promote the sound and sustainable development of the drug retail markets in China by means of e-commerce and offer a systematic framework for its development and present specipic paths. Methods: The roles of ecommerce were revealed and the issues arising from the evolution of China’s drug retail markets were highlighted, and the theoretical study and an empirical analysis of the social and economic values of ecommerce for drug retail business were conducted. Results:There are problems of"market failure"and"government failure"in China's retail markets. And a wide variety of modeles regarding the application of e-commerce are operated in the drug retail markets. However, problems exist, eg the unclear position of legal subject, the incompleteness of market, the lack of supervisory and so on. Conclusion: The construction of the third party platform based on B2C (Business to Customer) mode for China’s drug retail market provides both theoretical and practical possibilities for the fair and sound development of China’s drug retail markets. Meanwhile, the better application of e-commerce in China

  18. Retailers' choice of suppliers and products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    developing their marketing strategies. 2. The purpose of this paper is to review previous research on retailer buying behaviour in order to establish a state-of-the-art knowledge before launching an Europe-wide empirical study. 3. We reviewed the volumes from 1975 to 1996 of the Journal of Marketing...... references being reviewed in this paper. 4. No conceptual model of retailer buying behaviour has gained wide acceptance and this might be the reason that the research findings appear scattered and unrelated. We try to overcome this by organising the findings along the lines of a conceptual model by Sheth. 5......, the Journal of Marketing Research, the Journal of Retailing, the European Journal of Marketing, the International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research and the Journal of Marketing Channels. The reference lists of all articles were scrutinised for further references. This search resulted in 69...

  19. On the Application of Database Marketing to the Retail Industry%试论数据库营销在零售业的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施玉梅

    2011-01-01

    数据库营销是企业收集和积累客户信息,通过数据分析,从复杂的数据库中找出客户的购买规律,制定有效的营销策略,有针对性的使用现代信息交流工具进行客户深度挖掘与关系维护的一种营销方式。零售业拥有海量的客户资源和销售信息,是特别适合采取数据库营销的行业之一。在信息技术高度发达的今天,数据库营销的能力将成为企业在未来商战中决胜的关键。这种最新的营销工具可以帮助企业通过建立与消费者的交流渠道和信息管理,以求实现消费者的最大满意度和企业利润的最大化。%Database marketing is a kind of marketing strategy for an enterprise to collect and accumulate customers' information, to find customers' buying laws from complex database, to develop effective marketing strategies and to excavate potential customers and maintain relationship by using modern information communi- cation tools properly based on data analysis. Retail industry has huge customer resources and sales informa- tion, which is one of industries especially suited to database marketing. In days with highly developed informa- tion technology, database marketing ability will be the key for an enterprise to win victory in the future war of business. This latest marketing strategy is beneficial for an enterprise to realize consumers' biggest satisfaction and maximum profits by establishing communication channels with consumers and information management.

  20. Adoption of automatic identification systems by grocery retailersin the Johannesburg area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Darlington

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Retailers not only need the right data capture technology to meet the requirements of their applications, they must also decide on what the optimum technology is from the different symbologies that have been developed over the years. Automatic identification systems (AIS are a priority to decision makers as they attempt to obtain the best blend of equipment to ensure greater loss prevention and higher reliability in data capture. However there is a risk of having too simplistic a view of adopting AIS, since no one solution is applicable across an industry or business model. This problem is addressed through an exploratory, descriptive study, where the nature and value of AIS adoption by grocery retailers in the Johannesburg area is interrogated. Mixed empirical results indicate that, as retailers adopt AIS in order to improve their supply chain management systems, different types of applications are associated with various constraints and opportunities. Overall this study is in line with previous research that supports the notion that supply chain decisions are of a strategic nature even though efficient management of information is a day-to-day business operational decision.

  1. Customer satisfaction in European food retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai; Østergaard, Peder

    2002-01-01

    Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty is becoming an increasingly important factor in modern retailing - a market characterized by slow growth and intense competition. Big non-European chains such as Walmart are already present in some countries and consider to buy some of the retail chains...

  2. Marketing maloobchodu

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the situation of retail marketing in Czech republic, with a special focus on in-store marketing instruments and activities. The goal of this work is to evaluate the application of these marketing instruments in a specific retail store. This chosen store is supermarket Billa. The first part of the thesis is offering theoretical base for in-store marketing activities and also presents the history of retail marketing in Czech republic. The second part is focusing on the situ...

  3. New directions in the use of virtual reality for food shopping: marketing and education perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Barb

    2011-03-01

    Virtual reality is used in marketing research to shape food selection and purchase decisions. Could it be used to counteract the marketing of less-nutritious foods and teach healthier food selection? This article presents interviews with Raymond Burke, Ph.D., of Indiana University Bloomington, and Rachel Jones, M.P.H., of the University of Utah College of Health. Topics covered include new marketing research technologies, including virtual reality simulations; retailing and shopper behavior; and the use of virtual grocery stores to help students explore quality of diet and food/nutrient relationships. The interviewees discuss how the technologies they have developed fit into research and behavior change related to obesity and diabetes. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Strengthening Building Retrofit Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, Mary [Michigan Saves; Jackson, Robert [Michigan Energy Office

    2014-04-15

    The Business Energy Financing (BEF) program offered commercial businesses in Michigan affordable financing options and other incentives designed to support energy efficiency improvements. We worked through partnerships with Michigan utilities, lenders, building contractors, trade associations, and other community organizations to offer competitive interest rates and flexible financing terms to support energy efficiency projects that otherwise would not have happened. The BEF program targeted the retail food market, including restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and wholesale food vendors, with the goal of achieving energy efficiency retrofits for 2 percent of the target market. We offered low interest rates, flexible payments, easy applications and approval processes, and access to other incentives and rebates. Through these efforts, we sought to help customers strive for energy savings retrofits that would save 20 percent or more on their energy use. This program helped Michigan businesses reduce costs by financing energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling systems, insulation, refrigeration, equipment upgrades, and more. Businesses completed the upgrades with the help of our authorized contractors, and, through our lending partners, we provided affordable financing options.

  5. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Marketing and Fashion Merchandising (Program CIP: 08.0705--General Retailing Operations). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for marketing I-II and fashion merchandising. Presented first are a program…

  6. Innovation in Downstream Fashion Retail Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    and sales areas as main retail channels. In order to comprehend the retail network as an important organisational innovation system in relation to brand owners, the aim of this paper is to characterise key elements of innovation in retail networks. The approach of this work is a set of qualitative in......While product marketers and brand owners struggle to make new products, manufacturing processes and inbound logistics, innovation taking place in retail networks is often overlooked. Networks in retailing are comprised by varieties of single- and multi-brand stores, chains and departments stores......, technology and service providers, ownership structures and local level supply chain facilities. This paper analyses theoretical and empirical views of innovation in international retail networks using the fashion industry as a case because this industry better than other industries maintain branded stores...

  7. Behavior of the vegetable crops section in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazil Desempenho da seção de hortaliças em equipamentos varejistas de alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario de O Lima-Filho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the fresh fruits and vegetable produce section was evaluated, under the point of view of the consumer, in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazilian southeast: a grocery store ("quitanda", a supermarket, and an open-air market. A quantitative-descriptive survey was conducted with 120 individuals, responsible for purchasing fresh fruit and vegetable produce for their homes. To accomplish that, twelve variables were investigated and adapted from the parameters used in the SERVQUAL model, in which the attributes of the retail outlet are pointed out, such as store hygiene and cleanliness and manner by which produce is displayed; employee training traits, such as courtesy and helpfulness; and quality, price range, and variety of the produce for sale. The results reveal that shopping for grocery is done weekly; 80% of the shoppers interviewed do their shopping in supermarkets and 94% do theirs in open-air markets. The open-air market had the best results in the attributes for which they were evaluated when compared with the grocery store and the supermarket. The study also points out that the older the shopper the more often he/she does grocery shopping.Neste estudo foi avaliado, sob o ponto de vista do consumidor, o desempenho da seção de hortaliças em três equipamentos varejistas de alimentos em Campo Grande(MS: uma mercearia (quitanda, um supermercado e uma feira-livre. Foi realizada uma pesquisa quantitativo-descritiva com 120 indivíduos, responsáveis pelas compras de hortaliças para suas residências. Para tanto, foram investigadas doze variáveis adaptadas das dimensões do modelo SERVQUAL, onde se destacam os atributos do equipamento varejista como higiene e limpeza da loja e exposição dos produtos; capacitação dos funcionários como atendimento e cortesia; e atributos do produto como qualidade, variedade e preço. Os resultados mostram que as compras de hortaliças são realizadas semanalmente

  8. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eva [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Rosenthal, Harald [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Kaeferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

  9. Prevalence of Listeria species in camel sausages from retail markets in Aydin province in Turkey and RAPD analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozbey Gokben

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Samples were taken from 100 camel sausages from the different retail markets in Aydin province in the south-west of Turkey and they were tested for the presence of Listeria spp by biochemical methods. Samples were enriched using Listeria Enrichment Broth and they were inoculated onto Listeria Selective Agar. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from nine samples (9%, Listeria innocua from 14 samples (14% and Listeria welshimeri from two samples(2%. A 701 bp fragment of listeriolysin O sequence for L. monocytogenes was amplified using specific primers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for confirmation of the identification. A random primer (OPA-11 was used in a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD assay. This detected five different band profiles amongst the L. monocytogenes isolates, indicating a relatively large amount of genetic heterogeneity amongst the nine isolates. The study has highlighted the need for improved strategies for food safety, in particular appropriate hygienic precautions to avoid contamination of sausage during the manufacturing process and appropriate preservation techniques during storage and transport, to prevent transmission of Listeria spp to consumers at home and abroad.

  10. Microbiological quality of fish grown in wastewater-fed and non-wastewater-fed fishponds in Hanoi, Vietnam: influence of hygiene practices in local retail markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Nguyen Thi Phong; Dalsgaard, Anders; Cam, Phung Dac; Mara, Duncan

    2007-06-01

    Mean water quality in two wastewater-fed ponds and one non-wastewater-fed pond in Hanoi, Vietnam was approximately 10(6) and approximately 10(4) presumptive thermotolerant coliforms (pThC) per 100 ml, respectively. Fish (common carp, silver carp and Nile tilapia) grown in these ponds were sampled at harvest and in local retail markets. Bacteriological examination of the fish sampled at harvest from both types of pond showed that they were of very good quality (2 - 3 pThC g(-1) fresh muscle weight), despite the skin and gut contents being very contaminated (10(2) - 10(3) pThC g(-1) fresh weight and 10(4) - 10(6) pThC g(-1) fresh weight, respectively). These results indicate that the WHO guideline quality of pThC g(-1) of chopped fresh fish (mainly flesh and skin contaminated with gut contents); this was due to the practice of the local fishmongers in descaling and chopping up the fish from both types of pond with the same knife and on the same chopping block. Fishmonger education is required to improve their hygienic practices; this should be followed by regular hygiene inspections.

  11. Antecedents of loyalty in an online retailing business

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Roshanak

    2013-01-01

    Retailing industry is challenged by empowered customers, scattered markets and intensified competition. Online retailing has a unique opportunity to take a leading role in the global marketplace by providing location free, customer controlled, and information rich retail service. Customer experience with an online retailer includes multiple factors. It is crucial to determine what website functions and features should be emphasized to create a satisfactory experience. Understanding an effecti...

  12. RETAIL READY PACKAGING – WHAT'S IN IT FOR FOOD MANUFACTURERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Davor Dujak; Martina Ferencic; Jelena Franjkovic

    2014-01-01

    Process of concentration in retail market, as well in Croatia as in other European countries, has insured for retailers stronger negotiating position in fast moving consumer goods supply chain, especially in food chain. Retailers have initiated retail supply chain management - a lot of different cost efficiency processes in food supply chain which they were able to force with their suppliers, usually with the absence of an equitable distribution of savings that this collaboration enables. One...

  13. Overpricing and Hidden Costs of Structured Products for Retail Investors: Evidence from the Danish Market for Principal Protected Notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte; Nørholm, Henrik; Skovmand, David

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide fast and accurate approximation schemes for the Monte Carlo pricing of derivatives in LIBOR market models. Standard methods can be applied to solve the stochastic differential equations of the successive LIBOR rates but the methods are generally slow. Our...... contribution is twofold. Firstly, we propose an alternative approximation scheme based on Picard iterations. This approach is similar in accuracy to the Euler discretization, but with the feature that each rate is evolved independently of the other rates in the term structure. This enables simultaneous...... calculation of derivative prices of different maturities using parallel computing. Secondly, the product terms occurring in the drift of a LIBOR market model driven by a jump process grow exponentially as a function of the number of rates, quickly rendering the model intractable. We reduce this growth from...

  14. Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were “confirmed” and 293 were “likely” to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore.

  15. Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Leu, Yu-Rui; Aitken, Robert J; Riediker, Michael

    2015-07-24

    Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were "confirmed" and 293 were "likely" to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore.

  16. 互联网金融与我国商业银行零售金融业务营销渠道的变革%Reform in China's Internet Banking and Retail Banking Marketing Channels of Commercial Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢治春

    2015-01-01

    Internet banking changed customer financial behaviors and retail banking business model, which eventually led to redesign of retail banking channels. There are few literatures on retail banking channels in China. Starting from the influence of internet banking on China's retail banking marketing channels of commercial banks, this paper analyzes the existing problems in the traditional commercial banks' channel management was developed, with corresponding suggestions being put forward at last.%互联网金融通过将金融服务生活化,改变了零售金融的商业模式及零售金融客户的金融行为和习惯,导致零售金融渠道发生重大变化.目前,研究互联网金融影响下传统商业银行渠道管理的文献几乎没有,本研究拟以互联网金融对我国商业银行零售金融业务渠道的影响为研究起点,分析商业银行零售渠道管理方面存在的问题,并提出相应建议.

  17. Proximate Composition, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Attributes of Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and Emperor Sea Bream (Lethrinus spp. Fillets Sold on Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Nicoleta Boițeanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The variety of seafood on the European market has considerably increased in recent years. This study presents data to the main nutritional values and the sensory properties of two exotic fish species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus and emperor sea bream (Lethrinus spp., sold on retail market in Germany. Information on the quality of frozen and glazed fillets is still missing, but is important to characterize these products. This also includes details on the substances added to increase the water-binding ability. Aims: The paper aims to assess the quality of exotic fish fillets sold on the German market, through the evaluation of physical and chemical parameters, microbiological quality and sensory attributes. Materials and methods: 10 samples of each fish species were analysed after homogenisation to determine the following parameters:  pH-value (with a pH meter; water (gravimetrically; ash (in  a muffle furnace at 550 °C; salt (NaCl; by auto-titration; fat (by a modified Smedes method; protein (with a LECO TruSpecN based on the principles of the Dumas combustion method; total phosphorus content (photometrically; total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, using the EU reference method; total viable bacteria count (TVC and specific fish spoiling bacteria (SSO (by decimal dilutions method. The sensory assessments were done with cooked and fried fillets by a panel consisting of 6 specialists, using a descriptive method. Results: Lipid, ash and salt contents of mahi-mahi were comparable to the emperor sea bream values. Due to low lipid content, both species can be classified as lean species. The protein amount of emperor sea bream was significantly higher compared to mahi-mahi and many other common fish species. In mahi-mahi samples, slightly higher values of total phosphates content were found. The pH values of emperor sea bream were in a normal range for fresh fish, whereas in mahi-mahi significantly higher values were determined which

  18. Food storage temperatures monitored at retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Sarno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present work is to report data concerning the maintenance of the cold chain by retail food business operators. A total of 401 refrigerators and 105 freezers from 112 retails (big, medium, small size were monitored for display temperatures. In addition, the surface temperature of 341 stored food products was recorded. Storage temperatures were respected in the majority of retail markets, with the exception of small retails, where cold chain was not respected. Among all food samples, yogurt was stored at temperature higher than law limits. Our findings show that retailers, in particular those from small markets, are not always familiar with cold chain maintenance. In our opinion, much more attention should be paid in keeping food at cold temperature in order to ensure food safety.

  19. Competition in the retail gasoline industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jedidiah

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by major oil companies. Instead, most stations are set up under other contractual relationships: lessee-dealer, open-dealer, jobber-owned-and-operated, and independent. Gasoline retailers make relatively low profits, as is the case in many other retail industries, and are substantially less profitable than major oil companies. Gas stations also make less money when retail prices are climbing than when they are falling. As prices rise, total station profits are near zero or negative. When retail prices are constant or falling, retailers can make positive profits. The third chapter describes the entry of big-box stores into the retail gasoline industry over the last decade. The growth of such large retailers, in all markets, has led to a great deal of controversy as smaller competitors with long-term ties to the local community have become less common. I estimate the price impact that big-box stores have on traditional gasoline retailers using cross-sectional data in two geographically diverse cities. I also examine changes in pricing following the entry of The Home Depot into a local retail gasoline market. The results show that big-box stores place statistically and economically significant downward pressure on the prices of nearby gas stations, offering a measure of the impact of the entry of a big-box store. Chapter 4 examines the nature of price competition in markets where some competing retailers sell the same brand. The price effect of having more retailers selling the same brand is theoretically unclear. High brand diversity could give individual retailers

  20. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  1. The Impact of Modern Retail Minimarket towards the Continuity of Traditional Retail Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masruroh, R.

    2017-03-01

    Today the business is growing rapidly minimarket with the development of socioeconomic conditions of society, and changes in value systems that result in changes to the pattern of life and needs of the community. In meeting the needs and desires, people tend to prefer a wide range of modern facilities expenditures. Thus increasing the number of modern minimarket store increasingly cornered the existence of traditional retail stores are stand-alone and based on social economy. This study aimed to analyze the changes in turnover and market traditional retail stores before and after the modern mini-market retail in the vicinity. To achieve these objectives, conducted survey research approach, this study uses primary and secondary data by distributing interviews and questionnaires to 40 respondents traditional retail store owners in the district of Kuningan which is selected by probability sampling. Descriptive qualitative were used to analyse this study. Based on the survey results revealed that there are significant differences between turnover and market traditional retail stores before and after the modern minimarket in the vicinity. This shows that the presence of modern retail stores provide a decrease in turnover and customers impact for traditional retail stores. But the research also shows that traditional retail stores that improve the quality of services and facilities are not affected by the presence of modern retail stores in the vicinity.

  2. Banning Tobacco Sales at the Retail Pharmacy: Natural Evolution of Drug Store As Responsible Health Provider Or Effective Marketing Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Trigo, Paula; Khanfar, Nile M; Alameddine, Sarah; Harrington, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    CVS Health has taken a strategic marketing move by banning tobacco sales. They risk losing customers who buy medications and cigarettes at their drugstores. They estimate they will lose 2 billion dollars by banning cigarette sales. CVS Health believes they will benefit from being regarded as health care partner by insurers and banning cigarette sales is an important step in being recognized as such. The Affordable Care Act expanded access to pharmacy-based medical clinics, increased affordability of medications, and expanded the clinical role of pharmacists. CVS Health is positioning itself to take advantage of these changes.

  3. Opportunity and Implications of Grocery E-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, Mads

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To incorporate the element of sustainability of advantages into the concept ofFirst-Mover Advantage for analysis on grocery e-commerce. Grocery e-commerce is a relatively unexplored phenomenon in Denmark and I seek to explain this via the concept of FMA. In order to fully understand...... and coupled with previous empirical findings on grocery e-commerce. Findings: a) Providing insights into the concept of first- mover advantage, b) sustainability of advantages and c) providing a framework for analysis on advantages sought by acting entrepreneurial. Value: The applicability of the concept...... of first-mover advantage is very descriptive to date. With thispaper and hopefully more to follow, I wish to transform the FMA concepts into a tool for analysis addressing the very crucial element that is not dealt with today -sustainability.Keywords : First-Mover Advantage; e-commerce; grocery industry...

  4. Fast-food outlets and grocery stores near school and adolescents' eating habits and overweight in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Hanne; Ervasti, Jenni; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Kouvonen, Anne; Halonen, Jaana I; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2015-08-01

    Environmental factors may affect adolescents' eating habits and thereby body weight. However, the contribution of school neighbourhood environment is poorly understood. This study examined the association between proximity of a fast-food outlet or grocery store to school and adolescents' eating habits and overweight. Participants were 23 182 adolescents (mean age 15 years) who responded to a classroom survey in 181 lower secondary schools in Finland (2008-09). School location was linked to data on distance from school to the nearest fast-food outlet or grocery store (≤100 m, 101-500 m, >500 m) using global positioning system-coordinate databases. Outcomes were irregular eating habits (skipping breakfast, skipping free school lunch, skipping free school-provided snacks and not having family dinners), the accumulation of these habits and overweight, including obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Thirteen percentage of the participants were overweight. Having a fast-food outlet or grocery store near school was associated with skipping often breakfast and free school lunch, and the accumulation of irregular eating habits. The proximity of a fast-food outlet or grocery store was associated with a 1.25-fold (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.52) risk of overweight among adolescent with a low socioeconomic status but not among those with higher socioeconomic status. This association was partly (12%) explained by the accumulation of irregular eating habits. Among adolescents from low socioeconomic background, the presence of fast-food retailers near schools is associated with accumulation of irregular eating habits and greater overweight. These findings suggest that obesogenic school neighbourhoods may contribute to social inequalities in overweight. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Geisinger's Retail Innovation Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Denise B; Graf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, Geisinger Health System formed a new group, Geisinger Ventures (GV), to accelerate the growth of new lines of business that were extensions of the core mission of the organization. Careworks, the convenient care clinic line of business, began in early 2006 as one of the early components of the GV portfolio. Over the past nine years, Geisinger has tested several retail and walk-in models, including in-store clinics, separate retail sites, and models colocated with primary care practices and emergency departments. Each site and model presents different benefits and challenges with respect to patient care, marketing, staffing, and clinical integration. With the implementation of healthcare reform and a decision to participate in Medicaid'managed care, Geisinger's strategic need for convenient care options has intensified, and new models, including e-visits and telemedicine specialty consultations, are being actively explored. Geisinger's view is that healthcare is rapidly changing, being affected by demographic shifts, diagnostic and treatment options, payment changes, and communication technologies. Healthcare delivery must flex to adjust to these and other trends, and retail clinics are part of that response. Careful examination of the critical elements necessary for optimal care (including wellness, prevention, and management of chronic disease and severe multimorbid disease) and then matching those elements to the optimal mode and site of care will lead to a streamlined healthcare system. The historical--and still most prevalent--methodology of traditional office, emergency department, and inpatient care options are not ideal for all patients' care needs in the twenty-first century. A thoughtful, deliberate extension of those options will be necessary. Rather than simply adding a static retail or virtual offering, medical professionals should develop a process to continually assess patients, technology, payment, and disease changes so that they are

  6. ADOPTION OF ECR PRACTICES IN MINNESOTA GROCERY STORES

    OpenAIRE

    Paul F. PHUMPIU; King, Robert P.

    1997-01-01

    Efficient Consumer Response (ECR) is an industry-wide, collaborative initiative to re-engineer the grocery supply chain. This report presents findings from a study of ECR adoption in Minnesota grocery stores. Data were collected through interviews with managers of forty stores that are broadly distributed over store sizes, locations, and organizational forms. The interviews focused on business practices and technologies related to inventory management and ordering, shelf-space allocation and ...

  7. Energy and Environmental Effects of Grocery Distribution: Transportation Means Catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The report serves as a background report for the project "Energy and Environmental Effects of Grocery Distribution". It contains a systematic overview of physical characteristics of the typical technologies, including energy and environmental effects.......The report serves as a background report for the project "Energy and Environmental Effects of Grocery Distribution". It contains a systematic overview of physical characteristics of the typical technologies, including energy and environmental effects....

  8. A new era in retail : Private-label production by national-brand manufacturers and premium-quality private labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Braak, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Private labels have witnessed considerable growth in grocery retailing. While existing academic studies have provided valuable insights concerning the evolution of private labels, several issues remain largely unexplored. First, in the face of these large private-label volumes, private-label

  9. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eva; Rosenthal, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Käferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

  10. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance; Grocery Stores (Revised) (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, B.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed the Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) to provide specific methodologies, information, and guidance to help energy managers and other stakeholders successfully plan and execute energy efficiency improvements. Detailed technical discussion is fairly limited in these guides. Instead, we emphasize actionable information, practical methodologies, diverse case studies, and unbiased evaluations of the most promising retrofit measures for each building type. A series of AERGs is under development, addressing key segments of the commercial building stock. Grocery stores were selected as one of the highest priority sectors, because they represent one of the most energy-intensive market segments.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ON THE SEGMENTATION OF RETAIL SALES OF CONSUMER GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Marić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of modern retailing is certainly diversification of retail formats. The structure of retail formats in a particular market is conditioned by the needs and behavior of consumers in this market. Depending on the intensity of the impact of certain factors on consumer behavior, the segmentation of the retail sales, that is, division into various retail formats is brought about. Therefore, in order to establish optimal retail structures, it is necessary to perform a detailed analysis of the market and the influence of economic, sociological, psychological, geographic and demographic factors on consumer behavior in a given market. Understanding the structure of retail formats is very important both for the retail chains and for suppliers and manufacturers of consumer goods, as it facilitates the movement of products through marketing channels and delivery to end consumers.

  12. The Effects of Application of Lean Concept in Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean principles and techniques can be successfully applied in the retail sector. In the retail sector, lean approach improves operational flows. Lean retail encourages manufacturers to produce standard products in accordance with the created (placed orders from retailers pursuant to the demand of their consumers. Characteristics of the retail market are: strong competition, shorter product life cycle, longer product development time and high sensitivity of demand. In order to be more competitive and profitable today's retailers operate strategically oriented to lower prices and gain exemption from holding unnecessary stocks. Lean retail is an example of best practices of successful operational strategies which management need to accept - to maximize the operating efficiency of the retail process.

  13. Strategy of Fast Fashion Retailers in the Czech Republic - A Case Study Analysis of Three Chosen Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Kučmašová, Hana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to define fast fashion and fast fashion retailing, and describe specifics of their business activities with deep focus on the Czech market. The theoretical part reviews literature dealing with international strategy and management and fashion and fast fashion retailing. The empirical part then focuses on real-life business cases. In order to illustrate the behaviour of fast fashion retailers on the Czech market, a case study method is employed. The attention i...

  14. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  15. Trading Area Analysis and the importance of location to Retail CompaniesKeywords: European Standard, energy management, enterprises, strengths and weaknesses

    OpenAIRE

    TANASE, George Cosmin

    2010-01-01

    Retail location is considered to be one of the most important elements in retail marketing strategy, because it is a long-term decision, associated with long-term capital commitment. The selection of retail store locations is one of the most significant decisions in retail marketing, because in store based retailing, good locations are key elements for attracting customers to the outlets and sometimes can even compensate for a mediocre retail strategy mix. A good location therefore can lead t...

  16. Making business with giants- impact of retail internationalization in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Jon Henrich; Dautzenberg, Kirsti; Pall, Zsombor

    2009-01-01

    Due to increasingly globalized markets and internationalization, the food retail business has undergone a number of structural changes. Former nationally oriented retailers have suddenly become global. This process in the retail sector affects also new structures in the agribusiness, most notably as general retailers export their business models. A comparison of the development and the impact of globalization in the retail sectors of different Central and Eastern European countries reveal var...

  17. Sectoral Innovation Foresight. Wholesale and Retail Trade Sector. Final Report. Task 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesecke, S.; Schaper-Rinkel

    2010-01-01

    The internationalization, concentration and differentiation of retailing is challenging the traditional retail and wholesale sector organisation and its distribution structures that firms have employed to get goods and services to market. With the intensification of competition and speed of change

  18. A Study of Remanufactured Product Marketing Strategy of Retailers in New Product Distribution%新产品分销下零售商销售再制造产品的策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊中楷; 黄芳; 刘勇

    2013-01-01

    考虑消费者对新产品、再制造产品有不同的接受程度,在制造商、第三方再制造商进行再制造模式下,运用Stackelberg博弈分析零售商销售新产品、再制造产品的策略研究.研究表明:与销售制造商再制造产品相比,零售商销售第三方再制造商的产品更有利,同时也有益于第三方再制造商.从市场利润角度看,零售商销售第三方再制造的产品为较优的选择.通过数值仿真,对比分析了零售商销售制造商、第三方再制造产品两种模式下,消费者接受度对新产品、再制造产品批发价、零售价格、销售数量以及零售商利润的影响.%It is known that consumers have different acceptance degree for new products and remanufactured products. The supply chain considered in this paper is composed of manufacturers, retailers and third-party remanufacturers who perform the remanufacturing. For such a supply chain, retailers' sales strategy of new and remanufactured products is analyzed by using Stackelberg game. It demonstrates that, for a retailer, it is better to sell the third-part remanufacturers' products than the manufacturers' remanufactured products, for, by doing so, it is more beneficial to himself and the third-party remanufacturer. From the perspective of the marketing profit, it is better for the retailer to sell the third-party remanufacturers' products. At last, through numerical simulation, the impact of degree of consumer acceptance to the remanufactured products on the price, the quality, and the equilibrium profits of the retailer under the two kinds of marketing strategy are analyzed.

  19. Analyzing Consumer Behavior Towards Contemporary Food Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Dursun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is analyzing consumer behaviors towards to contemporary food retailers. Food retailing has been changing during recent years in Turkey. Foreign investors captivated with this market potential of food retailing. Retailer‟s format has been changed and featuring large-scale, extended product variety and full service retailers spreading rapidly through the nation-wide. Consumers‟ tend to shop their household needs from contemporary retailers due mainly to urbanism, increasing women workforce and income growth. In this research, original data collected through face-to-face interview from 385 respondents which are located in Istanbul. Different Socio-Economic Status (SES groups‟ ratio for Istanbul was forming sampling distribution. Consumers prefer closest food retailers which are mainly purchasing food products. Consumers purchase more than their planned what their needs; especially C SES group average comes first for the spending money for unplanned shopping. Chain stores and hypermarkets are the most preferred retailers in food purchasing. Moreover, consumer responses to judgments related to retailing are being investigating with factor analysis.

  20. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  1. Growing Role of Retail in Distribution Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the growing role of retail trade (retail) in the channels of distribution of goods both in domestic and international markets. Technical-technological development has provided great opportunities for all production of material goods, so that the focus of problem in the economic possibilities of playing shifted from production to sales opportunities, or consumption. The ultimate consumers and their needs and requirements have become a central area of study, bas...

  2. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  3. Hispanic immigrant women's perspective on healthy foods and the New York City retail food environment: A mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoosun; Quinn, James; Florez, Karen; Jacobson, Judith; Neckerman, Kathryn; Rundle, Andrew

    2011-07-01

    Much has been written about the role of dietary acculturation in the epidemic of obesity among Hispanic immigrants in the United States. Yet little is known about the role of beliefs and preferences in immigrants' dietary practices and their relationship to the retail food environment in which the practices occur. We conducted a mixed-methods convergence study of these issues. Twenty-eight foreign-born Hispanic adult women, recruited from families enrolled in a childhood asthma study and mainly living in New York City took part in 60-90 min, semi-structured interviews regarding their dietary beliefs, preferences, and practices. The findings were then used to formulate hypotheses for analyses of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data collected from the 345 New York Hispanic women enrolled in the asthma study. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine whether characteristics of the retail food environment within 0.5 km of the home predicted diet, adjusting for individual and neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics. In the interviews, healthy food was rarely discussed in terms of nutritional content. Instead, considerations of freshness, as indicated by time since harvest or slaughter and thus local sourcing; purity, as indicated by the absence of preservatives and processing; and naturalness, as indicated by chemical free farming practices, were the primary axes around which healthy food was defined. Quantitative results were consistent with the qualitative findings: 1) the presence of a farmers' market within the home neighborhood was associated with consumption of more total servings per day of fruit, vegetables, and juice, and 2) the presence of a farmers' market and/or a livestock market was associated with consumption of more servings per day of meat. Proximity to supermarkets or medium-sized grocery stores was not associated with consumption. The results suggest that the availability of fresh produce and meat from local farms may

  4. The Effects of Retailers' Power on Market Performance Based on the Analysis of Oligopolistic Markets%零售商买方势力对市场绩效的影响——基于寡头垄断市场的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 周红云

    2012-01-01

    The theory of retailers' monopoly power and vertical restraints becomes the focus of attention in recent years. Most of the existing literature, however, mixed monopoly power and countervailing power into one. This paper re - differentiates the definition of buyer' s monopoly power and buyer' s countervailing power, and theo-retically proves the Galbraith' s hypothesis will be true in certain conditions, through the view of dominant retailer" s power and the model of "Rebate" sales. The research shows that retailers' moderate countervailing power is good for the market power, and also good for society. According to the characteristics of Chinese retailing market, the author finally presents the antitrust policy meaning of retailers" countervailing power.%基于零售商垄断势力的纵向约束理论成为近年来关注的焦点之一,然而现有的文献大都将垄断势力和抗衡势力混为一谈。本文重新区分了买方垄断势力和买方抗衡势力,分别从主导零售商垄断势力、“返点”销售模式下的抗衡势力角度论证了加尔布雷斯假说是有条件成立的。研究表明:适度的零售商势力其绩效是良好的,对社会是有利的。最后作者根据我国零售市场的实际特点,提出零售商势力的反垄断政策意义。

  5. COMPLEX PROMOTIONSIN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yusupova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex promotions used by retailers introduce to the consumers several rules that must be satisfied in order to get some benefits and usually refer to multiple products (e.g. “buy two, get one free”. Rules of complex promotions can be quite sophisticated and complicated themselves. Since diversity of complex promotions limited only by marketers’ imagination we can observe broad variety of promotions’ rules and representa¬tions of those rules in retailers’ commercials. Such diversification makes no good for fellow scientist who’s trying to sort all type of promotions into the neatly organized classification. Although we can simple add every single set of rules offered by retailers as a separate form of sales promotion it seems not to be the best way of dealing with such a problem. The better way is to realize that mechanisms underlying that variety of promotions are basically the same, namely changes in demand or quantity demanded. Those two concepts alone provide powerful insight into classification of complex promotions and allow us to comprehend the variety of promotions offered by marketers nowadays.

  6. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Rose, Shyanika W.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  7. Next-Generation Retailing In India: An Empirical Study Using Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Smita Dash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The retail landscape in India is changing rapidly and is being scrutinized by large scale investments by foreign and domestic players. Market liberalization and changing consumer behaviour have sown the seeds of a retail transformation. Indian retailing is growing fast and imparting the consumer preferences across the country. Today retailing is largest contributing sector to country's GDP i.e. 10% as compared to 8% in China, 6% in Brazil. Modern retailing is capable of generating employment opportunities for 2.5 million people by 2010 in various retail operations and over 10 million additional workforces in retail support activities. Organised retail which presently account for only 4-6 percent of the total market is likely to increase its share to over 30% by 2013.It offers huge potential for growth in coming years. India is becoming most favoured retail destination in the world.

  8. 在线零售站点的自适应和商业智能的发现%Adaptive Online Retail Web Site and Discovering Internet Marketing Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王实; 高文; 郎金文; 李锦涛

    2002-01-01

    There are two important problems in online retail:1)The conflict between the different interest of all customers to the different commodities and the commodity classification structure of Web site;2)Many customers will simultaneously buy both the beer and the diaper that are classified in different classes and levels in the Web site,which is the typical problem in data mining.The two problems will make majority customers access overabundant Web pages.To sove these problems,we mine the Web page data,server data,and marketing data to build an adaptive model.In this model,the frequently purchased commodities and their association commodity sets that are discovered by the association rule discovery will be put into the suitable Web page according to the placing method and the backing off method.At last the navigation Web pages become the navigation content Web pages.The Web site can be adaptive according to the users''''''''accesa and purchase information.In online retail,the designers require to understand the latent users''''''''interest in order to convert the latent users to purchase users.In this paper,we give the approach to discover the Internet marketing intelligence through OLAP in order to help the designers to improve their service.

  9. Shanghai Top 10 Department Stores Retail Sales Value + 2.6% m/m in May Clothing Markets Enter off-season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Shanghai Apparel Association, CNY360 million was spent in Shanghai top 10 department stores in May 2011, edging down 5.2 per cent m/m (-16.9% y/y). We’ve seen slight growth in the retail volume of about 2.6

  10. A CONCEPTUAL STUDY OF BOOMING RETAIL SECTOR- OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN INDIAN SCENARIO

    OpenAIRE

    Deekshitha

    2016-01-01

    India is one of the fastest growing retail markets in the world and emerging as one of the largest sector in the economy. It comprise of both organised and unorganised retail sectors. The Indian retail market is estimated to the worth of US$ 600 billion by considering the economic value hence it has become one of the top five retail markets in the world comprising 35% of GDP. The organized or modern retailing with 6% share stands at $26 billion and projected to reach US$ 1.3 trillion by 2018 ...

  11. Raising the Barcode Scanner: Technology and Productivity in the Retail Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Emek Basker

    2011-01-01

    Barcodes and barcode scanners transformed the grocery industry in the 1970s. I use store-level data from the 1972, 1977, and 1982 Census of Retail Trade, matched to data on store scanner installations, to estimate scanners' effect on labor productivity. I find that early scanners increased a store's labor productivity, on average, by approximately 4.5 percent in the first few years. The effect was larger in stores carrying more packaged products, consistent with the presence of network extern...

  12. Characterizing the Bacterial Communities in Retail Stores in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    biofilms on HVAC heat exchangers (Hugenholtz et al. , 1995; Schmidt 12 et al. , 2012), residences ( Martin et al. , 2009) and even in the human eye (Dong...English by ( Martin and Kowallik, 1999)). The presence of groceries in the retail sector did not correlate with the relative abundance of Streptophyta...community diversity in a phylogenetic context, BMC Bioinformatics, 7, 371. Lundin, D., Severin, I., Logue, J.B., Ostman, O., Andersson, A.F. and Lindstrom

  13. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many

  14. The adoption and effectiveness of loyalty programs in retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Leenheer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Loyalty programs have widely appeared in several sectors, with the aim of enhancing customer loyalty and profitability. This dissertation examines which role loyalty programs can play in the company's marketing-mix, with a special focus on retailing. The dissertation consists of three independent projects. The first project studies the determinants of retailers' decision to adopt loyalty programs and the effectiveness of loyalty programs by means of a retailer survey. The second project studi...

  15. Essays On the Empirical Analysis of Grocery Retailing and Consumer Shopping behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Florez Acosta, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Cette thèse est composée de trois essaies portant sur l'analyse empirique de la grande distribution et le comportement d'achat des consommateurs. Le premier chapitre est dédié à l'étude des programmes de fidélité des supermarchés et leur impact sur la demande de marques de distributeur (MDD). Souvent les supermarchés lient les avantages fidélité à l'achat en marques de distributeurs, quelles sont les motivations des supermarchés à faire cela? C'est la question que cette étude cherche à répond...

  16. Prevalence of phosphorus containing food additives in grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeen B. Leon

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, phosphorus additives are commonly present in groceries and contribute significantly to the phosphorus content of foods. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than additive-free foods. As a result, phosphorus additives may be an important contributor to hyperphosphatemia among persons with chronic kidney disease

  17. Effective Factors in Environmental Health Status of Grocery Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Asadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.

  18. O2O模式下服装零售业的营销现状与对策研究%Apparel Retailing Marketing Situation and Countermeasure in the O2O Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会丽

    2015-01-01

    The market segmentation strategy of apparel retailing of the O2O mode is more accurate with more extensive promotion strat-egy, and pays more attention to brand experience marketing. The marketing difficulties are how to take advantage of traditional channels to improve physical stores' marketing performance;how to realize the online collaboration to integrate the whole channel marketing, and how to enhance the customer experience to increase customer loyalty. This paper puts forward the countermeasures in terms of business advantage of physical stores, differentiation marketing strategy, reverse marketing thinking and synchronous online marketing.%O2O模式下服装零售业的市场细分策略更精准、促销应用策略较广泛、更注重品牌体验营销.O2O模式下服装零售业面临的营销难题是:如何发挥传统渠道优势,提升实体店营销绩效;如何实现线上线下协作,整合全渠道营销;如何增强客户体验,提高顾客的忠诚度.从拓展实体店的经营优势、实施差别化营销战略、采用反向营销思维和线上线下同步营销等方面提出了解决对策.

  19. Multi-Channel Retail Supply Chain Management: Fulfillment systems in Multi-Channel Retailing - Customer Expectations and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Increasingly, store-based retailers are opening an additional online sales channel and becoming multi-channel retailers. The integration of these different channels raises the question how to redefine the strategic marketing elements and the operations, as the two channels have different constraints and require different competences. This multi-channel retailing has major impacts on the operations and the supply-chain management. Order fulfillment for the customers usi...

  20. Indian Organized Retail Sector: Impediments and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Mehta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The winds of globalization have yielded rich dividends to the social and economic growth of India. The boom in Indian market has widened the horizons for the customers to be selective while purchasing any product. On the other hand, the sellers are more proactive in facilitating their customers’ quality services and cater to their growing demands. There is a paradigm shift in the customer’s perception and purchasing tendencies. The traditional shops and shopkeepers are now being slowly but gradually replaced by big/mini retail stores (shopping malls and retailers (top corporate houses. Indian consumers are evolving and accepting modern retail formats. In the context of Indian retail sectors, Big Bazaar, More, Pantaloon Retail India Ltd, ITC's e-choupal Reliance Retail Ltd, Vishal Mega Mart, Titan Industries, Archies, Bata India Ltd etc. are dominating the scene and have a wide spread network to execute their operation. The present paper is an attempt to study impediment and opportunities related to organized retailing in India.

  1. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  2. 汽车市场中租赁渠道对传统零售渠道的影响%The Importance of Retail Channels in the Automobile Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁喜; 熊中楷

    2011-01-01

    在零售与租赁混合渠道供应链中,占主导地位的单个汽车制造商向单个零售商和单个租赁商分别销售产品,然后零售商在零售市场销售产品,租赁商在租赁市场出租产品.在两周期设置下根据制造商是否向租赁商提供回购合同,将渠道结构划分为独立式、冲突式和回购式三类,并分析了租赁渠道对传统零售渠道的影响以及对制造商的启示.%Manufacturers are in the upstream automobile supply chain, whereas used car buyers or leasing customers are in the downstream supply chain. The leasing automobile industry is a closed-loop supply chain because a car needs to go through the product life cycle of selling, leasing, buying back, refurbishing, reselling, and recycling. The key for the success of the closed loop supply chain is to ensure that manufacturer and leaseholder sign a buy-back contract to optimize the recovery and utilization of old cars.Retail and leasing are two main marketing channels. A car manufacturer needs to deal with two major problems. First, a car manufacturer needs to specify reasonable buy-back contract items, such as repurchase price, units and time, in order to strengthen cooperation with leaseholders and coordination with the leasing supply chain. Second, in order to strengthen hybrid channel management that consists of retail channel and leasing channel, a car manufacturer needs to analyze the effect of the buy-back contract on retail and hybrid channels, and to determine a reasonable channel management strategy. Current literature on durable product leasing primarily offers the perspectives of industrial organizations and yields management, but rarely offers the perspective of supply chain management.Our paper investigates the impact of buy-back contract on retail and hybrid channels from the perspectives of closed-loop supply chain management in the automobile industry. We categorize the hybrid channel structure into three types

  3. Retail Structured Products for Socially Responsible Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Institutional investors are the main drivers of demand for socially responsible investment (SRI). Preferences for non- nancial goals such as social and environmental sustainability are also held by small retail agents who, nonetheless, are almost non-existent in the market. This paper studies how...... and when it can be utility enhancing to engage in SRI: It proposes a quantitative method to incorporate responsibility into the investment decision and investigates how structured financial instruments can facilitate access to SRI for small retail agents. The goal is to demonstrate market potential...

  4. Retail Structured Products for Socially Responsible Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Institutional investors are the main drivers of demand for socially responsible investment (SRI). Preferences for non- nancial goals such as social and environmental sustainability are also held by small retail agents who, nonetheless, are almost non-existent in the market. This paper studies how...... and when it can be utility enhancing to engage in SRI: It proposes a quantitative method to incorporate responsibility into the investment decision and investigates how structured financial instruments can facilitate access to SRI for small retail agents. The goal is to demonstrate market potential...

  5. 我国大型零售业发展自有品牌营销策略研究%Research on the Brand Marketing Strategy of Chinese Mega Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭庆环

    2013-01-01

    When confronted with the change in commercial circulation field, mega retailers in China use the business phi-losophy of "private brand" to nurture their own well-known brands, and gradually the implementation of private brand strategy becomes a new profit growth as well as an important way to promote the core competitiveness of enterprises. By analyzing the situation of private brand development among the Chinese mega retailer in recent years and drawing lessons from the success-ful experience by foreign commercial private brands, this research not only concludes the discussion about how Chinese mega retailers value and develop their private brands, but also provides an analysis of the formulation of appropriate private brand development marketing strategy.%面对商业流通领域的市场变化,我国大型零售业借鉴“自有品牌”的经营理念,培育自身的知名品牌,逐渐将实施自有品牌战略作为新的利润增长点和提升企业核心竞争力的重要手段。通过对我国大型零售业开发自有品牌的发展现状分析,借鉴国外成功的商业自有品牌开发经验,制定适宜我国大型零售业的自有品牌营销策略。

  6. Weaving New Retail and Consumer Landscapes in the Scottish Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Anne; Sparks, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    New retail locations and formats and changing consumer capabilities and behaviours (including "switching") have encouraged "outshopping" from rural to urban areas. Rural areas have been suffering from a decline in the provision of services, including retailing. One "solution" has been the strengthening of market towns…

  7. Asymmetries in import-retail cost pass-through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Bronnmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    a certain nonzero threshold value. In most cases, retail outlets exercise market leadership in the Alaska pollock and cod chains while some bidirectional adjustments are observed in the salmon value chains. Overall, import prices adjust to deviations above the threshold value following a shock to the retail...

  8. Weaving New Retail and Consumer Landscapes in the Scottish Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Anne; Sparks, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    New retail locations and formats and changing consumer capabilities and behaviours (including "switching") have encouraged "outshopping" from rural to urban areas. Rural areas have been suffering from a decline in the provision of services, including retailing. One "solution" has been the strengthening of market towns…

  9. Weaving New Retail and Consumer Landscapes in the Scottish Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Anne; Sparks, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    New retail locations and formats and changing consumer capabilities and behaviours (including "switching") have encouraged "outshopping" from rural to urban areas. Rural areas have been suffering from a decline in the provision of services, including retailing. One "solution" has been the strengthening of market towns in rural areas by the…

  10. Did Liberalization Start A Retail Revolution In Brazil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Gaaitzen J. de

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, Brazil opened up its retail sector to foreign direct investment. It was expected that the entry and market expansion of retail chains would spur the development of a sector long characterized by small family-run stores. However, the effects on growth have been disappointing. Our result

  11. Is retailing really unique? Insights into retail internationalization using business theories

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Jon Henrich; Pall, Zsombor

    2009-01-01

    Internationalization is one of the most important trends in retailing today. This process is not new, however has accelerated in the last two decades. It was less than 30 years ago that almost all of the world’s retail firms were pure national firms with a negligible share in foreign markets. That scenario has changed dramatically. Taking a look at the top 200 global retailers, almost all players except those in the US operate in numerous countries, having established a noteworthy business ca...

  12. The Changing Structure of Retail Industry: Case Studies on Competitive Advantage of Small Companies in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Knežević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are two key trends in retail industry since 1990s till nowadays: rapid internationalization and intensive retail concentration. In such a dynamic environment, small companies are striving to preserve their markets and to maintain their business activity. The objectives of the paper are twofold: (1 to explain trends of retail internationalization and concentration and (2 to highlight the possibilities for improving the competitive ability of small retailers. Research Design & Methods: The paper is based on analysis of secondary data available in research papers, studies and official statistics. Firstly, the consequences of retail internationalization and concentration are described. Then, the literature on competitive advantage creation is systemized. In addition, the case study method is used to illustrate successful strategies of competitive advantage creation. Findings:  In a changed retail market, small retailers seek the way to improve their competitiveness. As suitable competitiveness strategies, authors describe: (1 retail alliances and (2 differentiation by assortment. Implications & Recommendations: The key trends and their impact on small companies in retail industry are scrutinized. Recommendations to small retailers how to adjust to new market conditions, together with some practical examples, are given. Contribution & Value Added: The paper gives an insight into dynamics of changes in retail structure. Retail alliances and differentiation by assortment are described as two key streams of competitiveness improvement suitable for small retailers.

  13. 77 FR 42016 - Product Change-Every Door Direct Mail-Retail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Change--Every Door Direct Mail--Retail AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal... Door Direct Mail--Retail to the market-dominant product list within the Mail Classification Schedule... Direct Mail--Retail to the Mail Classification Schedule, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642. Documents...

  14. 基于零售市场绿色供应链营销模式下的政府补贴政策研究%Study on Government Subsidy Policy for Green Supply Chain Marketing Mode of Retailing Businesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国利; 刘军肖

    2014-01-01

    以Hotelling模型为基础,综合考虑绿色供应链中不同实力零售商的影响以及消费者喜好等因素,构建了绿色供应链的空间差异模型,并对供应链中双寡头零售商在不同营销策略下的收益进行分析,最终得出政府对零售市场绿色营销实施补贴的适用条件和最佳补贴策略。%In this paper, on the basis of the Hotelling model, we comprehensively considered the influence of retailers of different roles in the green supply chains and of such factors as consumer preference, etc., built the spatial differentiation model of the green supply chains and at the end, arrived at the suitable conditions for the government to subsidize the retailing businesses practicing the green marketing mode as well as the optimal subsidy policy.

  15. Implications of foreign direct investment in India's retail sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Patibandla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain is the backbone of retail business. Adoption of an efficient supply chain between producers and consumers by modern large retailers could reduce average transaction and information costs of market exchange; generate surplus for stakeholders such as producers, farmers, and consumers; expand output; and could thereby contribute to economic growth and net employment gains. Foreign players can introduce a highly advanced supply chain and develop local producers and generate externalities. This paper develops a simple theory of supply chain and economic growth. It shows the implications of adaptation of the Wal-Mart model of retailing on India's retail business.

  16. Effort Levels of Capital-constrained Retailer under Bank Financing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing LIU; Xingzheng AI; Xiaowo TANG

    2015-01-01

    In a supply chain with a retailer confronted with financial constraints,impacts on profits of the supply chain can be alleviated by increasing the retailer’s efforts and market demand through external financing( bank). If the cost of bank lending is not very high,the capitalconstrained retailer can borrow money and make efforts. The reduction of bank interest rates,however,increases the retailer’s efforts. We prove that there is a unique equilibrium point between the retailers. We find out the optimal interest rate of the bank and the optimal efforts by the retailer through numerical analysis and verify validity of the results.

  17. Consumer preferences for retailer brand architectures: Results from a conjoint study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Esbjerg, Lars; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how three dimensions of retailer brand architecture - share or retailer brands, quality of retailer brands and visibility of retailer brands - affect consumer intention to shop at stores Design/methodology/approach: A conjoint analysis......, with dominantly manufacturer brands, with quality of retailer brands at the same level as manufacturer brands, and with good visibility of retailer brands. Research limitations/implications: The results are based on the evaluation of hypothetical stores, and many additional factors affect store choice in the real...... world. Practical implications: Results suggest that we may be heading towards a polarized retail market, mainly divided between discount concepts and high quality retailer brand concepts. Originality/value: The paper is innovative in isolating the effect of dimensions of retailer brand architecture...

  18. Modeling the Effects of Mergers in the Retail Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomgren-Hansen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    would most likely significantly affect retail prices. The harmful effects are markedly intensified through the possible abuse of buyer power to raise barriers to the market and curb the competitiveness of minor rivals. However, the dominant position is vulnerable if increased profits induce the entrance...... marginal costs, the optimal (Nash equilibrium) wholesale price is unaffected by the structure in the retail sector. (2) The effect of buyer power- induced quantity discounts depends crucially on the specific design of the rebate scheme: A relative discount on the list price that the independent shops...... are charged increases the average retail price, whereas a fixed reduction relative to the pre-merger price reduces the average retail price. (3) Buyer power-induced retail price maintenance (RPM) increases the average retail price. RPM increases the competitiveness and profits of the merged shops only...

  19. Internationalization and Performance of Retail Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; T. Ratchford, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a fresh approach to the literature examining the effect of internationalization on retail-firm performance. We draw on the organizational learning theory to test the moderating effect of four variables which are hypothesized to affect the performance of internationalizing...... retailers through facilitating the transfer of learning in international markets. The study innovates by introducing a new performance metric, and an advanced methodology to account for the dynamic aspects of organizational learning. Testing our hypotheses on a sample of international retailers, we find...... that the relationship between internationalization and performance is U-shaped, and moderated by mergers and acquisitions, age at entry to international markets and country of origin. The findings extend prior research by providing more comprehensive evidence regarding the conditions under which internationalization...

  20. Optimization Analysis of the Marketing Strategy of Online Retail Enterprise:Taking VANCL for Example%网上零售企业营销策略优化分析——以凡客诚品为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷毅

    2012-01-01

    Taking VANCL far example, this paper analyzes the marketing strategy of the online retail enterprise, and proposes the optimization countermeasures. The reasons for the success of VANCL are analyzed through the SWOT, 4P, and other ways, and the problems in the course of its operations are discovered to identify the optimization strategy.%本文以凡客诚品为例,对网上零售企业营销策略进行分析,并且提出优化对策.通过SWOT、4P等方式分析凡客诚品的成功原因,以及发现其运营过程中存在的问题并找出优化策略.

  1. Honolulu Retail Monitoring Price Data Collection (2007-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains a time series of consumer-level prices for a sample of retail markets in Honolulu between 2007-2011. Data include weekly prices for fish...

  2. UNDERSTANDING THE BARRIERS: GROCERY STORES AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED SHOPPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Khattab

    2015-11-01

    Grocery stores include many different zones and services with the aisles area being one of the main barriers to access for people with impaired vision.  This area features many different sections such as canned goods, dry packaged goods, spices, drinks and snacks, baking supplies, baby items, cereals, cleaning products, pet supplies, and health and beauty items.  For visually impaired individuals, however, it can be hard to reach these various sections and to find the relevant products.  The purpose of this paper is to present a study that sought to understand the barriers that shoppers with vision impairment (VI face in the grocery store`s built environment. The research approach was based on the application of the ethnography method, Think-aloud Protocol (TAP, Interviews, and behavioural mapping method.

  3. The discussion on the issues related to online retail in the regional market%区域市场网上零售相关问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃兆祥

    2010-01-01

    网上零售(e-Retail)是指通过互联网或其他电子渠道,针对个人或者家庭的需求销售商品或者提供服务.文章分析了区域市场网上零售相对其它零售方式的优势,指出其发展制约因素,并探讨了相应的发展对策.

  4. 刍议移动互联网传统零售企业营销能力的提升%Promoting the Marketing Ability of Traditional Retail Business in the Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江友农

    2013-01-01

      Facing the competition of new business model brought by the use of modern information technology, traditional retail business is in a disadvantageous position in terms of management ideas, talent pool, infrastructure and innovative spirit. Traditional retail business should innovate the marketing business and methods with the help of wireless Internet technology and the successful experience of e-com-merce businesses, develop LBC (Location Based Service);occupy the desktop of mobile phones by APPs (Applications), make use of cus-tomer fragmentation time, open smart shops, provide mobile online service, and increase customer data mining to make wireless marketing campaigns more targeted.%  面对运用现代信息技术而形成的新型商业模式的竞争,传统零售业在经营观念、人才储备、基础设施、创新精神上,都处于不利的位置。传统零售企业可以借助无线互联网技术,借鉴电子商务企业的成功经验,开展营销业务与手段的创新;开展基于LBS服务创新;通过APP占领消费者手机桌面;利用顾客碎片化时间;开设智能商店;提供移动在线客服;加大客户数据挖掘,使无线营销活动更具有针对性。

  5. Hierarchical dispatch using two-stage optimisation for electricity markets in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Guoshan; Ma, Kai

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical dispatch method for the electricity markets consisting of wholesale markets and retail markets. In the wholesale markets, the generators and the retailers decide the generation and the purchase according to the market-clearing price. In the retail markets, the retailers set the retail price to adjust the electricity consumption of the consumers. Due to the two-way communications in smart grid, the retailers can decide the electricity purchase from the wholesale markets based on the information on electricity usage of consumers in the retail markets. We establish the hierarchical dispatch model for the wholesale markets and the retail markets and develop distributed algorithms to search for the optimal generation, purchase, and consumption. Numerical results show the balance between the supply and demand, the profits of the retailers, and the convergence of the distributed algorithms.

  6. Attitudes of meat retailers to animal welfare in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction.

  7. Influence of retail cigarette advertising, price promotions, and retailer compliance on youth smoking-related attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Loomis, Brett R; Busey, Andrew H; Farrelly, Matthew C; Willett, Jeffrey G; Juster, Harlan R

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to retail tobacco marketing is associated with youth smoking, but most studies have relied on self-reported measures of exposure, which are prone to recall bias. To examine whether exposure to retail cigarette advertising, promotions, and retailer compliance is associated with youth smoking-related outcomes using observational estimates of exposure. Data on retail cigarette advertising and promotions were collected from a representative sample of licensed tobacco retailers in New York annually since 2004. County-level estimates of retail cigarette advertising and promotions and retailer compliance with youth access laws were calculated and linked to the New York Youth Tobacco Survey, administered to 54,671 middle and high school students in 2004, 2006, and 2008. Regression models examined whether cigarette advertising, promotions, and retailer compliance were associated with youth's awareness of retail cigarette advertising, attitudes about smoking, susceptibility to smoking, cigarette purchasing behaviors, and smoking behaviors. Living in counties with more retail cigarette advertisements is associated with youth having positive attitudes about smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.19, P advertising and promotions may help reduce youth smoking.

  8. [Organization and technology in the grocery store sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetti, Edy

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, grocery stores develop an annual turnover of 92 billion of , (data referred to 2013) and have 28.232 stores spread over a commercial area of 17.224.000 m2. The business involved are 252, linked with 30 important distribution leader companies. The total workforce is about 280.000 people. The grocery stores structure is composed by suppliers and producers warehouses and different kinds of stores (hypermarkets, supermarkets, shops and discounts). In the stores, the technological progress concerns fundamentally back-office operations; the improvement of information and computer science is the main renewal source. Other tasks as receiving goods and stocking shelves are still executed without specific inovations. In terms of organization, we observed a strong increase of part-time workers, the development of atypical contract and thie inclination to contract the easiest jobs (for example, stocking shelves). Also the warehouses often use to sub-contract the picking tasks. The increase of on-line shopping, also concerning the groceries, represents the most relevant evolution in tire near future.

  9. Volatile organic compounds in fourteen U.S. retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirlo, E L; Crain, N; Corsi, R L; Siegel, J A

    2014-10-01

    Retail buildings have a potential for both short-term (customer) and long-term (occupational) exposure to indoor pollutants. However, little is known about volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the retail sector and influencing factors, such as ventilation, in-store activities, and store type. We measured VOC concentrations and ventilation rates in 14 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania. With the exception of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, VOCs were present in retail stores at concentrations well below health guidelines. Indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 4.6 ppb to 67 ppb. The two mid-sized grocery stores in the sample had the highest levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde, with concentrations up to 2.6 ppm and 92 ppb, respectively, possibly due to the preparation of dough and baking activities. Indoor-to-outdoor concentration ratios indicated that indoor sources were the main contributors to indoor VOC concentrations for the majority of compounds. There was no strong correlation between ventilation and VOC concentrations across all stores. However, increasing the air exchange rates at two stores led to lower indoor VOC concentrations, suggesting that ventilation can be used to reduce concentrations for some specific stores.

  10. HIV / AIDS and the retail sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K

    1999-01-01

    Employing approximately 1.5 million employees and comprised of 80,000 employers, the retail and wholesale sector accounted for 16.1% of South Africa's gross domestic product in 1996. HIV/AIDS threatens the retail sector, but it is unclear whether the pandemic threatens equally every sub-sector of the industry. The 4 main sub-sectors are fast-moving consumer goods; clothing, footwear, and textiles; vehicles; and furniture and major appliances. The nature of retail infrastructure and competitive and economic trends are described. Over the next decade, AIDS may reduce the size of consumer markets through increased mortality, and will certainly slow growth in spending. The pandemic may also divert spending away from retail merchandise to health care, and threaten businesses which extend credit and offer death benefits and funeral policies to clients. AIDS morbidity and mortality could also disrupt supply chains, especially for retailers who buy their products locally. The vulnerability of retail activities is discussed, with reference to the Living Standards Measure (LSM) developed by the South African Advertising Research Foundation.

  11. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Marketing Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, T.; Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers the fundamental concepts of the marketing and distribution field, including the operations of wholesale and retail businesses. The course is comprised of three units: (1) The Marketing Process, (2) Wholesaling, and (3) Retailing. Each unit begins with a…

  12. Prices for Tobacco and Nontobacco Products in Pharmacies Versus Other Stores: Results From Retail Marketing Surveillance in California and in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Schleicher, Nina C; Barker, Dianne C; Liu, Yawen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-10-01

    To examine disparities in the price of tobacco and nontobacco products in pharmacies compared with other types of stores. We recorded the prices of Marlboro, Newport, the cheapest cigarettes, and bottled water in a random sample of licensed tobacco retailers (n = 579) in California in 2014. We collected comparable data from retailers (n = 2603) in school enrollment zones for representative samples of US 8th, 10th, and 12th graders in 2012. Ordinary least squares regressions modeled pretax prices as a function of store type and neighborhood demographics. In both studies, the cheapest cigarettes cost significantly less in pharmacies than other stores; the average estimated difference was $0.47 to $1.19 less in California. We observed similar patterns for premium-brand cigarettes. Conversely, bottled water cost significantly more in pharmacies than elsewhere. Newport cost less in areas with higher proportions of African Americans; other cigarette prices were related to neighborhood income and age. Neighborhood demographics were not related to water prices. Compared with other stores, pharmacies charged customers less for cigarettes and more for bottled water. State and local policies to promote tobacco-free pharmacies would eliminate an important source of discounted cigarettes.

  13. Food marketing targeting youth and families: what do we know about stores where moms actually shop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Rooney, Mary R

    2013-01-01

    Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC), and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop.

  14. Food Marketing Targeting Youth and Families: What Do We Know about Stores Where Moms Actually Shop?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S. Grigsby-Toussaint

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC, and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop.

  15. Food Marketing Targeting Youth and Families: What Do We Know about Stores Where Moms Actually Shop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Rooney, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC), and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop. PMID:24163701

  16. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale that evaluates the environmental elements in retail supply chains and to examine the environmental supply chain management initiatives of the world's largest 100 retailing companies. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical evaluation has...... short-term oriented (green operations). Long-term oriented green design initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the UK were compared. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study investigates supply chain...... operations of retailers and excludes other areas of retail management. The results are based on material that is published by the respective companies and thus do not include internal reports. Originality/value – The main contribution of this paper is to test the proposition that global retailers follow...

  17. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  18. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  19. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  20. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)