WorldWideScience

Sample records for grocery retail market

  1. Market Concentration and Profitability of the Grocery Retailers in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřich Špička

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to internationally compare the market concentration of grocery retailers in the six countries of Central Europe – Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. The market concentration was measured by CR4 ratio, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and the GRS index. Data covered the period 2010 – 2015. The secondary data came from the Euromonitor International and Bureau van Dijk databases. The results showed that the market structure of the Central European grocery retailers has mostly a character of asymmetric oligopoly. The pairwise correlation did not reveal any strong relationship between the market power and profitability of the grocery retailers. The Central European grocery market is controlled by strong national retail chains and multinational companies which operate modern grocery retail formats. However, traditional grocery retailers are still popular in Hungary while traditional individual grocers in other countries are disappearing or gradually joining the networking system based on franchising.

  2. Retail grocery store marketing strategies and obesity: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Karen; Bader, Michael D M; Iyer, Shally

    2012-05-01

    In-store food marketing can influence food-purchasing behaviors and warrants increased attention given the dramatic rise in obesity. Descriptive and experimental studies of key marketing components have been conducted by consumer scientists, marketing researchers, and public health experts. This review synthesizes research and publications from industry and academic sources and provides direction for developing and evaluating promising interventions. Literature sources for the review were English-language articles published from 1995 to 2010, identified from multidisciplinary search indexes, backward searches of cited articles, review articles, industry reports, and online sources. Only articles that focused on physical grocery stores and food products were included. Data collection occurred in 2010 and 2011. Articles were classified in the categories of product, price, placement, and promotion and divided into controlled laboratory experiments, observation, and field experiments; 125 primary peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria. Narrative synthesis methods were used. Key findings were synthesized by category of focus and study design. Evidence synthesis was completed in 2011. Findings suggest several strategies for in-store marketing to promote healthful eating by increasing availability, affordability, prominence, and promotion of healthful foods and/or restricting or de-marketing unhealthy foods. Key results of research in controlled laboratory studies should be adapted and tested in real-world in-store settings. Industry methods for assessing consumer behavior, such as electronic sales data and individually linked sales information from loyalty card holders, can help public health researchers increase the scientific rigor of field studies. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and outlook of online grocery retail in the Czech Republic and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Biznár, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide a comprehensive understanding of successful strategies in retail trade, overview of the Czech online grocery retail market and provide recommendations how to succeed in this market. This diploma thesis is intended to help established big grocery retailers, start-ups venturing into the online grocery retail and prospective investors into such start-ups understand the Czech online grocery market. First, we provide a summary of the major developments in the h...

  4. Online grocery retailing: What do consumers think?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Kim Bjarne; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    2005-01-01

    beliefs in predicting internet shopping behavior. Practical implications: The findings could be used to direct attention to consumer beliefs about internet grocery shopping which have the potential of acting as barriers to this line of e-commerce. Originality/value: To shed some light on the role...... Kingdom and three in Denmark, were conducted among consumers with different degrees of experience with internet grocery shopping. This diversification of respondents was chosen to capture a broad range of the consumer beliefs that predict intentions to buy groceries online or not. The TPB framework...... of consumers in an underperforming and understudied branch of internet retailing. Barriers in the consumers' minds to shop for groceries online are identified using an established theoretical framework....

  5. The brand architecture of grocery retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how the brand architecture of grocery retailers set material and symbolic boundaries for consumer choice, thus limiting consumer sovereignty. The article first discusses previous work on store atmospherics, servicescapes and brand architecture. It is argued that work based...... on these concepts has taken an internal management perspective on how retailers can manipulate aspects of the retail setting to serve their own interests. Then, we develop an alternative conceptualisation of retailer brand architecture that takes into account that consumers (and other constituents) are active co......- constructors of material and symbolic aspects of retail settings. It is discussed how consumers participate in constructing retailer brand architecture and how this concept differs from previous research. Implications for both research and practice are discussed....

  6. THE RETAIL CONCENTRATION AND CHANGES OF THE GROCERY RETAIL STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević, Blaženka; Knego, Nikola; Delić, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Concentration is one of several key processes that are taking place in retail markets of the European countries. Retail concentration process occurs in all EU countries and it’s manifested with the decreasing number of leading retailers with simultaneous increase in their market share. Undergoing process of retail market concentration is bringing new challenges to all market participants: suppliers, existing retailers and customers. In this paper we will discuss concentration in retail indust...

  7. The Danish Retail Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Bjerre, Mogens; Kornum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Danish retail market. A detailed picture of the Danish grocery sector is provided, and we highlight issues from the specialty sectors of fashion and DIY as well as patterns of internationalisation among Danish retailers. We further profile the Danish consumer...... in terms of consumption patterns and demographic changes as well as some specific consumer tendencies with a special emphasis on sustainability issues. E-commerce is taken up as a special theme, both profiling the consumer side and the retailer side. This part is exemplified with books and groceries...

  8. MARKETING OBJECTIVES AMONG RURAL FOOD RETAILERS

    OpenAIRE

    Stegelin, Forrest E.

    1996-01-01

    Food retailers representing four retailer types (family operated grocery stores, produce markets, meat/egg/dairy markets, and convenience stores) in rural Georgia communities were surveyed as to their marketing objectives. Qualitative marketing objectives were ranked by the marketers as to marketing intentions, and by customers as to marketing expectations. More definitive and quantitative marketing objectives were also ranked by the food retailers as to the priority of implementation in thei...

  9. Toward retail product recognition on grocery shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Gül; Kuzu, Rıdvan S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of retail product recognition on grocery shelf images. We present a technique for accomplishing this task with a low time complexity. We decompose the problem into detection and recognition. The former is achieved by a generic product detection module which is trained on a specific class of products (e.g. tobacco packages). Cascade object detection framework of Viola and Jones [1] is used for this purpose. We further make use of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to recognize the brand inside each detected region. We extract both shape and color information; and apply feature-level fusion from two separate descriptors computed with the bag of words approach. Furthermore, we introduce a dataset (available on request) that we have collected for similar research purposes. Results are presented on this dataset of more than 5,000 images consisting of 10 tobacco brands. We show that satisfactory detection and classification can be achieved on devices with cheap computational power. Potential applications of the proposed approach include planogram compliance control, inventory management and assisting visually impaired people during shopping.

  10. Customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    , whereas hedonic value reflects the potential entertainment and emotional worth associated with the shopping trip. Recognising this duality, in addition to enabling customers to satisfy utilitarian needs related to product-acquisition, grocery retailers increasingly try to offer customers pleasurable...... shopping experiences, even to entertain them. Because there is evidence suggesting even satisfied customers sometimes switch brands and retailers due to boredom, it is important for retailers to continuously engage consumers and stir interest in a given store. Satisfying customers again and again...

  11. Loyalty Programmes of Selective Grocery Retailers in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Solarová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with long term loyalty programmes of selective grocery retailers who operate in the market within the Czech Republic. Only those loyalty programmes designed for the end customers are taken into account, so this study is concerned with the B2C area. A long term loyalty programmes last at least for one year, i.e. twelve months (this time determination is valid for purposes of this paper. The main aim of this paper is to identify the single elements and principles occurring in long term loyalty programmes and then to develop an illustrative model. The presented output is a model of long term loyalty programmes that captures the three following phases: the establishment, development (or building and termination of the relationship. In addition, from the empirical research, an interesting fact has emerged: two of the analysed long term loyalty programmes were launched at a similar time. This could be explained through the tendency for companies to copy the successful activities insigated by their competitors. Furthermore, the next remarkable phenomenon is that one grocery chain runs two long term loyalty programmes at the same time and the target groups of these programmes overlap. A possible explanation could be that the chain is making efforts to interest as many as possible of its different customers.

  12. Online grocery retailing: What do consumers think?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Kim Bjarne; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework to explore in depth the range of beliefs held by consumers about internet shopping in general and internet grocery shopping in particular. Design/methodology/approach: Seven focus group interviews, four in the United...... beliefs in predicting internet shopping behavior. Practical implications: The findings could be used to direct attention to consumer beliefs about internet grocery shopping which have the potential of acting as barriers to this line of e-commerce. Originality/value: To shed some light on the role...

  13. Gains and losses of exclusivity in grocery retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielens, K.J.P.; Gijsbrechts, E.; Dekimpe, M.G.

    Conventional wisdom dictates that convenience goods should be distributed as intensively as possible. Still, exclusivity arrangements are rapidly gaining way in grocery retailing. We discuss the possible performance outcomes of exclusivity deals, and propose a unified framework (i) to quantify the

  14. Developing a new Internet grocery retail shop concept for the Indian customers

    OpenAIRE

    Belkud, Ravikiran

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the thesis is to develop a new Internet grocery retail shop concept for Indian customers in the capital region of Finland. The aim is to understand the various factors to be considered when setting up an Internet grocery retail shop. The thesis report consists of an introduction, and chapters describing the theoretical framework, benchmarking, collection and analysis of empirical data and implementation details of the Internet grocery retail shop. The theoretical frame...

  15. Consumers' multifaceted deal knowledge in a grocery retail setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2017-01-01

    of deal price status, typical deal price knowledge, and deal-spotting ability. Results show reasonably stable knowledge of typical deal prices, while knowledge of deal price status and deal-spotting ability improves significantly during grocery shopping. Surprisingly, consumers’ deal knowledge...... typical deal price knowledge. Furthermore, the findings suggest that consumers store internal reference deal prices. Retailers are therefore well advised to consider mixed depth and creative discount patterns to prevent ‘perfect’ perceptions of typical deal prices.......Despite its relevance to retailers, studies of consumers’ deal knowledge have been few. This study explores consumers’ deal knowledge before, during, and after the store visit applying a between-subjects field-study design with 1204 respondents. In particular, the authors investigate perception...

  16. Multi-outlet/multi-format grocery retailing : Some issues and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haans, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Several trends and shifts in consumer behavior (e.g., desire for convenience) have resulted in grocery retailers opening more stores and new formats (e.g., AH ToGo and AH XL) next to their existing ones (regular supermarket). By using this strategy grocery retailers try to attract new customers

  17. COULD BE ONLINE GROCERIES AN ALTERNATIVE FOR ROMANIAN FOOD RETAIL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius T. STANCIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The new technologies, competition, consumer convenience and the lack of time for shopping are some factors that have encouraged the Romanian online retail food market. On the food market identifying the viable direction of development and business continuity represents a major concern for economic operators. For a new business online commerce is the most affordable and the fastest way to enter the market. The domestic online retail food market is estimated to reach 6 million euros in 2014. Studies carried out by specialized companies have identified the Romanian consumers' appetite for food shopping on the Internet. Although Romania is only at the beginning in online food market as compared to its European neighbours, experiments in other domestic sectors demonstrate the possibility of surprises in this domain. The article proposes a short analysis of the Romanian online food retail market, tendencies and opportunities in this new domain for local commerce.

  18. Evaluating the Impact of Business Intelligence Tools on Organizational Performance in Food and Groceries Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja Venuturumilli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While retailers are spending a significant portion of its information technology (IT budgets on BI and related technology in order to handle the ever increasing volumes of data, the actual benefits derived from these tools needs to be explored. The study focuses on the organized food and groceries retail, and explores benefits of business intelligence (BI and hypothesis‟s a structural causal relationship among its intrinsic attributes, and impact on organizational performance. A focus group of selected senior marketing employees was used to develop and validate the research model. Based on findings from the literature survey and focus group, a survey instrument was developed to empirically validate the research model. Data collected from senior marketing executives and managers from six organized food and groceries retail was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling. Five major categories of BI were identified: (1 access to data quality, (2 improved managerial effectiveness, (3 improved operational effectiveness, (4 improved customer orientation and (5 improved organizational efficiency. From the structural causal relationship analysis, a significant relationship was found between intrinsic attributes and benefits of BI and data quality. The structural equation model also suggests a significant relationship between BI and data quality on organizational performance.

  19. Making working in retailing interesting: A study of human resource management practices in Danish grocery retail chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Buck, Nuka

    In this paper we investigate the human resource management practices of five Danish grocery retail chains from the perspective of both retailers and employees. We present an analytical framework for analysing the social and institutional context of Danish retailing and interpret our case study...

  20. Multiple and Symbol Operators: the Battle for Market Leadership in the Irish Grocery Market

    OpenAIRE

    O'Callaghan, Edmund; Wilcox, Mary

    2002-01-01

    The Irish grocery retailing market, one of the most competitive in Europe, has undergone a metamorphosis in recent years. The demise of many small grocers, an increased concentration of multiples and the galvanization of the independent sector through symbol group participation has intensified competitive rivalry. The two largest multiples ie. Tesco Ireland and Dunnes Stores continually vie for number one position nationally. In recent years, Musgrave have galvanised the independent sector an...

  1. An integrative conceptual framework for analyzing customer satisfaction with shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Grocery retailers aim to satisfy customers, and because grocery shopping trips are frequently recurring, they must do socontinuously. Surprisingly, little research has addressed satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips. This article therefore develops a conceptual framework for analyzing...... customer satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trip experiences within a overall ‘disconfirmation of expectations model’ of customer satisfaction. The contribution of the framework is twofold. First, by focusing on satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips, previous research...... on satisfaction in the retailing literature. Second, the framework synthesizes and integrates multiple central concepts from different research streams into a common framework for analyzing shopping trip satisfaction. Propositions are derived regarding the relationships among the different concepts...

  2. Understanding Customer Attrition at an Individual Level: a New Model in Grocery Retail Context

    OpenAIRE

    Gautrais , Clément; Cellier , Peggy; Guyet , Thomas; Quiniou , René; Termier , Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a new model to detect and explain customer defection in a grocery retail context. This new model analyzes the evolution of each customer basket content. It therefore provides actionable knowledge for the retailer at an individual scale. In addition, this model is able to identify customers that are likely to defect in the future months.

  3. Proposals for enhancing tactical planning in grocery retailing with S&OP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Heidi Carin; Kiil, Kasper; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2018-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to explore tactical planning in grocery retailing and propose how process and integration mechanisms from sales and operations planning (S&OP) can enhance retail tactical planning.Design/methodology/approach-This work follows an explorative design with case...... studies from the grocery retailing industry in Finland, Norway, and the UK.Findings-The tactical planning process focuses on demand management and securing product availability from suppliers in order to reach sales targets. Less attention is directed toward balancing supply and demand or toward providing...... a single plan to guide company operations. Planning appeared to be functionally oriented with limited coordination between functional plans, but it did include external integration that improved forecast accuracy.Research limitations/implications-The study involves grocery retailer cases with variable...

  4. MEASURING GROCERY STORES SERVICE QUALITY IN INDONESIA: A RETAIL SERVICE QUALITY SCALE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonnard Leonnard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of modern grocery stores in Indonesia is a challenge for each grocery store to maintain and increase their number of consumers. The success of maintaining and improving service quality will affect long-term profitability and business sustainability. Therefore, in this study, we examined consumer perceptions of service quality in one of modern grocery stores in Indonesia. Data were collected from 387 consumers of grocery stores in Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Bekasi, Cibubur, and Subang. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM through Maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation was employed to analyze the data. The finding indicated that the five indicators of the retail service quality scale consisting of physical aspects, reliability, personal interactions, problem solving and policies provided  valid multi-item instruments in measuring consumer perceptions of service quality in grocery stores.

  5. Retailers test Ontario market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2000-01-01

    In anticipation of the full opening of the Ontario electricity market in November 2000, some of the newly-licensed electricity retailers are reported to be ready to begin testing the market early, hoping that all the uncertainties that still exist about pricing will be worked out in time. Among those jumping in now is Direct Energy Marketing, a retailer which claims 800,000 households in Ontario as electricity supply customers, as well as a wholesale gas marketing business. Direct Energy began retail electrical marketing on April 3, 2000, starting cautiously with small commercial operations as the initial target. Greengrid Electric, another of the new marketers, planned to begin marketing in mid-April, offering 100 per cent renewable-sourced electricity. Provident Energy Management, one of the new marketers whose licence is still pending, hopes to begin direct marketing as soon as its licence is confirmed. Another marketer ready to go as soon its license is issued is the former Sault Ste. Marie Hydro, now reorganized as PUC Energies Inc. PUC has the advantage of having a firm contract with a NUG (non-utility generator), Great Lakes Power, signed while PUC was still a municipal electric utility. As far as the other potential marketers are concerned, caution overrides opportunity for the present. Principal concerns are uncertainty over the retail settlement code, the electronic business data transfer system, transmission and distribution tariffs, whether existing non-utility generator contracts will allow for supply to another party, and over how quickly Ontario Power Generation Inc's (successor to Ontario Hydro) market power will be ratcheted down. Many of the potential marketers feel that despite the Ontario government's desire to see more competition, the power mitigation agreement, as it now reads, leaves little room for the small retailer to compete

  6. Retailers test Ontario market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2000-04-01

    In anticipation of the full opening of the Ontario electricity market in November 2000, some of the newly-licensed electricity retailers are reported to be ready to begin testing the market early, hoping that all the uncertainties that still exist about pricing will be worked out in time. Among those jumping in now is Direct Energy Marketing, a retailer which claims 800,000 households in Ontario as electricity supply customers, as well as a wholesale gas marketing business. Direct Energy began retail electrical marketing on April 3, 2000, starting cautiously with small commercial operations as the initial target. Greengrid Electric, another of the new marketers, planned to begin marketing in mid-April, offering 100 per cent renewable-sourced electricity. Provident Energy Management, one of the new marketers whose licence is still pending, hopes to begin direct marketing as soon as its licence is confirmed. Another marketer ready to go as soon its license is issued is the former Sault Ste. Marie Hydro, now reorganized as PUC Energies Inc. PUC has the advantage of having a firm contract with a NUG (non-utility generator), Great Lakes Power, signed while PUC was still a municipal electric utility. As far as the other potential marketers are concerned, caution overrides opportunity for the present. Principal concerns are uncertainty over the retail settlement code, the electronic business data transfer system, transmission and distribution tariffs, whether existing non-utility generator contracts will allow for supply to another party, and over how quickly Ontario Power Generation Inc's (successor to Ontario Hydro) market power will be ratcheted down. Many of the potential marketers feel that despite the Ontario government's desire to see more competition, the power mitigation agreement, as it now reads, leaves little room for the small retailer to compete.

  7. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, E.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation outlined the values of wholesale and retail marketing of natural gas to offer choice to all Canadians. The initial wholesale market dealt with physical bilaterals, financial bilaterals and transmission rights, while the mature wholesale market deals with futures contracts, reserve markets, dispatchable loads, swaps, trades and emissions trading. Wholesale prices include debt reduction charges, transmission charges transformation charges, ancillary charges, and independent market operator (IMO) fees. Retail rates offered by local distribution companies (LDC) include distribution charges, adjustments to SSS, and distribution losses. The role of marketers is to provide consumers with what they want, which is annual fixed rates with aggregation and load profiling as well as billing and procurement services

  8. Drivers and barriers of reverse logistics practices: A study of large grocery retailers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Meyer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reverse logistics (RL practices have previously been viewed as a cost drain, but have received greater attention from practitioners because of increasing competition and dwindling margins. Purpose: The purpose of this generic qualitative study was to uncover the main internal and external drivers and barriers of RL within major South African grocery retailers. Method: Eleven face-to-face, semi-structured interviews and one telephonic interview were conducted with participants from four large grocery retailers. Findings: Optimising profitability and cost reduction goals are the identified internal drivers, whereas the main external driver was to reduce the organisations’ environmental impact. A lack of information systems – such as enterprise resource planning systems or warehouse management system software – and infrastructure were revealed as the main internal barriers for organisations’ RL practices, whereas supplier non-compliance and transportation inefficiencies were the main external barriers exposed. Managerial implications: In order to optimise the efficiency of the reverse flow, managers are recommended to devote more capital to RL infrastructure, develop policies to manage supplier behaviour, focus on RL as a revenue generating stream as well as implement information systems to manage the entire reverse flow. Conclusion: All participating grocery retailers follow similar RL processes. Growth in RL practices as well as infrastructure to perform those practices is a future priority for all the reviewed grocery retailers. RL is no longer only a key cost driver, but also provides organisations with many additional opportunities.

  9. Marketing Sustainable Retail Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary benefits of sustainable retail over the long run has to be the marketing gain from having something other competitors do not: lower operating costs, a more socially responsible public profile, ease of gaining planning approval for new projects, better access to certain investment pools, higher rents (in the case of developers, ease of recruiting and retaining key people. Each of these benefits needs marketing and public relations support; each benefits from a clear and consistent corporate message that promotes sustainable retail. To date, there are very few retailers or developers who have championed sustainability long enough, consistently enough and with enough actual demonstration of changes in standard operations to gain the benefits of green marketing, but the very paucity of examples serves to underscore the point: the green marketing space is wide open for large retailers and developers. What would be the marketing steps that a company could take to benefit from its “sustainability focus?” The key to any marketing program is to differentiate a company’s actions from those of competitors and to do it along lines that its various stakeholders care about. This practice of differentiation is often expressed as “finding a difference that makes a difference, to someone who makes difference to you.” For retail developers, the first differentiator should be to attract more and better tenants to all of their centers, tenants who value lower operating costs and the developer’s program of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility.

  10. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, C.

    2001-01-01

    ECNG Inc. is a full service provider of independent and objective energy advice and management services to industrial, commercial and institutional end-users of all forms of energy. ECNG manages 10 per cent of the Ontario gas market and expects a 10 per cent share of electricity (14 TWh). ECNG has a balanced portfolio with expertise in both petroleum and electricity sectors. The company has also dealt extensively with retailers, marketers, wholesalers and suppliers on issues regarding deregulation

  11. The use of reverse logistics for waste management in a Brazilian grocery retailer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Karina T S; Braga Junior, Sergio S

    2016-01-01

    Retail growth is a result of the diversification of departments with the intention to look to consumer's needs and level of demand. Pressed by consumers and by the law, the adoption of environmental preservation practices is becoming stronger among grocery retailers. The objective of this research was to analyse the practices of reverse logistics performed by a retailer and measure the amount of waste generated by each department. To reach the proposed goal, a field research study was conducted to directly observe a grocery retailer in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, for a period of 6 months and monitor the amounts of cardboard and plastic discarded by each department. Using the Wuppertal method, the first result observed was that the retailer stopped its monthly production of approximately 20 tonne of biotic and abiotic material, which influence global warming and degradation of the ozone layer. Another result observed with the implementation of reverse logistics, was that the general grocery department mostly used cardboard and plastic. This sector includes products such as food cupboard, drinks, household, health and beauty, and pet articles. The fresh fruit and vegetable department and the meat, chicken and frozen department were increasingly using less plastic and cardboard packaging, increasing the use of returnable and durable packaging and thus promoting sustainability. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. The Impact of Frequent Shopper Programs in Grocery Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    David Bell; Rajiv Lal

    2002-01-01

    Frequent Shopper programs are becoming ubiquitous in retailing. Retailers seem unsure however about whether these programs are leading to higher loyalty, or to higher profits. In this paper we analyze data from a US supermarket chain that has used a number of frequent shopper rewards to improve sales and profitability. We find that while these programs are profitable, this is only because substantial incremental sales to casual shoppers (cherry pickers) oset subsidies to already loyal custome...

  13. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilby, M.

    2001-01-01

    Canadian Metering Services provides metrology expertise to power producers and has more than 40 years experience in the industry. The company is privately and nationally accredited in Canada and is an expert in data communications. This power point presentation focused on issues regarding prices and price stability. Graphs were included with the presentation which depicted the profiles of winners and losers in electricity marketing and retailing. The presentation also discussed the benefits of a market surveillance panel, AMV, and MDMA and how to go about choosing them. tabs., figs

  14. Electricity marketing and retailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilby, M. [Canadian Meter Services, Toronto ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Canadian Metering Services provides metrology expertise to power producers and has more than 40 years experience in the industry. The company is privately and nationally accredited in Canada and is an expert in data communications. This power point presentation focused on issues regarding prices and price stability. Graphs were included with the presentation which depicted the profiles of winners and losers in electricity marketing and retailing. The presentation also discussed the benefits of a market surveillance panel, AMV, and MDMA and how to go about choosing them. tabs., figs.

  15. Analyzing the Efficient Execution of In-Store Logistics Processes in Grocery Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiner, Gerald; Teller, Christop; Kotzab, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we examine in-store logistics processes for handling dairy products, from the incoming dock to the shelves of supermarkets and hypermarkets. The efficient execution of the in-store logistics related to such fast-moving, sensitive, and essential items is challenging and crucial...... for grocery retailers' sales, profits, and image. In our empirical study, we survey in-store logistics processes in 202 grocery supermarkets and hypermarkets belonging to a major retail chain in central Europe. Using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) and simulation, we facilitate process benchmarking....... In particular, we identify ways of improving in-store logistics processes by showing the performance impacts of different managerial strategies and tactics. The DEA results indicate different efficiency levels for different store formats; the hybrid store format of the small hypermarket exhibits a comparatively...

  16. Psychological Prices and Price Rigidity in Grocery Retailing: Analysis of German Scanner Data

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Roland; Moeser, Anke

    2005-01-01

    A substantial degree of price rigidity has been reported for branded foods in various studies with scanner data. One possible explanation for price rigidity is the existence of psychological pricing points. We analyze to which extent psychological pricing plays a role in grocery retailing and whether it contributes to price rigidity of branded foods in Germany. Psychological pricing defined here as just-below-the-round-figure-pricing is empirically analyzed with scanner data of weekly prices ...

  17. In search of loyalty: private label packaging solutions for the retail grocery industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bullen, Christine Angela Holly

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. corrugated packaging industry is highly concentrated, competitive and mature, facing only modest growth in the United States. The objective of this paper is to understand the opportunity that private label grocery products present to the corrugated packaging industry and how Weyerhaeuser Company might increase demand of corrugated boxes. Industry analyses of both the U.S. retail and corrugated packaging industry are provided in conjunction with summaries of major firms in the respect...

  18. UK retail marketing survey 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document draws together data on the United Kingdom (UK) petroleum market up to the end of 1993. Lists include suppliers of petrol to the UK market listed by brand name, a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets, UK outlets which retail derv. Average retail prices for motor spirit and derv per litre are given as are sites fitted with Vapour Recovery equipment. Other tables shown indicate various companies' share of the market in terms of the percentage of petrol sites, including supermarkets. The volumes of motor spirit and derv delivered to retail and commercial customers between 1984 and 1993 is also given. (UK)

  19. Towards Corporate Shared Value in Retail Sector: A Comparative Study over Grocery and Banking Between Italy and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Candelo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research investigates the extent to which Banking and Grocery retailers use Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in accordance to evolving consumers’ expectations and build a strategic model of Corporate Shared Value (CSV to strive for economic and social returns simultaneously. The paper adopts a qualitative approach, based on the comparative case study methodology by investigating a sample of twelve Banking and Grocery retailers in Italy and the UK. Differences and similarities in CSR as new strategic model among countries and retail sectors emerge, with UK companies from both the sectors showing the most formalized integration of CSR within their business strategy. The chance for both Italian and UK retail companies is to adopt the best practices emerging from the case studies to turn their CSR programs into a strategic business model of CSV that will allow a stronger retailer-consumer relationship based on social improvements and a reinforcement of their brand image.

  20. Retail Price Levels and Concentrations of Wholesalers, Retailers and Hypermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Marcus; Friberg, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines retail grocery price levels with a very large (unbalanced) panel of stores that operate in well-defined local markets. We explain price variation across grocery retailers by the concentration of wholesalers and retailers, and the market share of hypermarkets (and control for a number of store and region specific factors). Our most important result is that concentration at the wholesale level is an important determinant of retail prices. The price effect of retail concentra...

  1. Canadian retail petroleum markets study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    1998-02-01

    A retail petroleum market study was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the competitiveness of the downstream petroleum industry in Canada and to set a foundation for effective policy development. The downstream petroleum industry, which includes the petroleum refining and marketing sectors, faces a poor public image, competitive pressures from U.S. and offshore refiners, and a broad range of environmental challenges. In this study, 19 markets representing a wide range of conditions were chosen for a detailed review of outlet economics. A market-by-market and regional comparisons of key competitiveness indicators was made in order to identify market and regional competitive differences as potential issues or opportunities within the industry. The study also included a pump price/margin model and provided a general overview of the retail gasoline sub-sector in terms of infrastructure. A review of prices, margins and demand patterns over the past several years was also undertaken to show the relationship between consumer demand patterns and pump price fluctuations. The study presented 22 findings which led to several conclusions and recommendations regarding the competitiveness of Canada's petroleum marketing sector. Two of the key conclusions were that taxation is a significant factor in the price of retail gasoline (about 50 per cent) and that government intervention into petroleum marketing is likely to be a poor alternative to market-based regulation. 18 tabs., 37 figs

  2. Retail availability and marketing of electronic cigarettes in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; White, Christine M; Czoli, Christine D; Martin, Christina L; Magennis, Paul; Shiplo, Samantha

    2015-10-09

    Canada is among an increasing number of countries with restrictions on the sale of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). In Canada, e-cigarettes containing nicotine have not been approved for sale; however, e-cigarettes that do not contain nicotine and do not make health claims can be sold. To date, there is little empirical evidence assessing the retail availability and marketing of e-cigarettes in countries such as Canada. Audits were conducted at 59 brick-and-mortar retail outlets (grocery stores, convenience stores, tobacconist shops and vape shops) in four cities (Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal and Halifax) in August-October 2014. In addition, a total of 21 e-cigarette manufacturer/retailer websites were audited, and inquiries were made as to whether the companies sold nicotine-containing products. Overall, 76% of the retail outlets sold e-cigarette products. Of convenience stores, grocery stores and tobacconist shops with e-cigarettes for sale, the vast majority (94%) sold nicotine-free products only; in contrast, all the vape shops sold at least one nicotine-containing e-cigarette product. Front counter displays were the most common form of in-store promotions and were present in virtually all convenience stores, tobacconist shops and vape shops. Nicotine-containing e-cigarettes were available for purchase at approximately half (52%) of the online e-cigarette retailers surveyed. E-cigarettes with and without nicotine are widely available and marketed at a variety of retail outlets in Canada. "Illegal" sales of nicotinecontaining e-cigarettes were predominantly found at vape shops and online outlets, suggesting limited compliance with existing regulations.

  3. The main new driver of customer experience in Grocery retail - the Fresh opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISMANĂ -ILISAN Camelia -Maria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge of a modern retailer is how to delight customers in fresh products without risking profitability. To compete effectively, businesses must focus on the customer's shopping experience. To manage a customer's experience, retailers should understand what “customer experience” actually means. Customer experience includes every point of contact at which the customer interacts with the business, product, or service. Customer experience management represents a business strategy designed to manage the customer experience. This paper presents the results of a marketing research study conducted for reviewing perception versus reality of customer experience delivery in fresh products and product availability.

  4. Shopper marketing strategy in food retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogetić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The leading role of retailers in food industry marketing channels significantly contributes to shopper marketing affirmation. Shopper marketing is a new marketing paradigm which focuses on the shopper and point-of-sale. Results of thorough literature review on shopper marketing have been presented in this paper. In addition, research methodology includes surveying 1000 shoppers in food retail stores in Belgrade area. The paper considers and analyzes the characteristics of urban food retail market shoppers, and based on the findings of the conducted research concludes that adaptation of shopper marketing strategies is necessary. Significant research finding is that shoppers' perceptions in food retail market require a profiled approach to retail store strategy adjustments, which includes shopper marketing programs and activities. The paper opens a number of questions regarding possible approaches to shopper marketing by crisscrossing the variables of retail formats, sex, and shoppers' income categories.

  5. A Review on Methods for Assessing Risk Factors of the Upper Limb Disorders among Cashiers in Grocery Retail Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Zuhaidi Muhammad Fareez; Abdol Rahman Mohd Nasrull

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the various methods that have been developed for the assessment of risk factors for upper limb disorders among cashiers in grocery retail industries. This paper is essential as upper limb disorders have been known as one of the prime cause of work-related disability in various countries. The methods used for the assessment were the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, the Assessment of Repetitive Tasks (ART), the Job Strain Index ...

  6. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandre, L.

    2001-01-01

    PremStar Metering Inc. is a division of PremStar Energy Canada. In addition to providing full-service meter and data services PremStar Metering provides collection, validation, analysis and billing services, working closely with the Ontario Energy Board, independent market operator (IMO) and Measurements Canada. This presentation addressed the market power mitigation agreement (MPMA) as well as issues dealing with wholesale competition seen mostly in the power generation sector. It was noted that the goal of the MPMA is to promote competition in the marketplace. Issues regarding the short term revenue limitation and the long term generation limitation of the MPMA were also discussed. figs

  7. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  8. Musculoskeletal symptoms and ergonomic hazards among material handlers in grocery retail industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Zuhaidi, Muhammad Fareez Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    Grocery retail work can be physically demanding as material handler’s tasks involve manual lifting, lowering, carrying, pushing and pulling loads. The nature of this work puts them at a risk for serious low back pain, shoulder pain and other musculoskeletal injuries. This study was conducted by using two different types of tools which were Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) as a survey and Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act (WISHA) Checklist as a direct observation method. Among 46 males and 14 females material handlers were involved throughout this study. For NMQ, the highest body part trouble in the last 12 months was low back pain (88.3%), followed by upper back (68.3%), neck (55.3%) and shoulder (36.7%). While for WISHA Checklist, most of them experienced hazard level involving awkward posture and high hand force. From the research conducted, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and ergonomic risk factors (ERFs) do related as it showed that musculoskeletal disorders may arise if the workers ignored the safety in ergonomic hazards.

  9. Retail competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defeuilley, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of competition into retail electricity supply gave rise to great expectations. However, to date, its performance has proven less than stellar, owing primarily to the theoretical concepts underpinning this reform, which draw heavily on the Austrian school. Neither consumers' decision processes nor this sector's technical paradigm were adequately accounted for, leading to an uncorrect estimation of the expected impact of opening to competition. Short- and medium-term prospects for the evolution of retail markets must be reconsidered from the perspective of greater stability: not a generalization of competition, but rather a persistent segmentation between active and inactive clients; not a large and rapid diffusion of radical innovations in commercialisation, with the potential for undermining the incumbents' positions

  10. Retail competition in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defeuilley, Christophe [LARSEN and EDF R and D, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2009-02-15

    The introduction of competition into retail electricity supply gave rise to great expectations. However, to date, its performance has proven less than stellar, owing primarily to the theoretical concepts underpinning this reform, which draw heavily on the Austrian school. Neither consumers' decision processes nor this sector's technical paradigm were adequately accounted for, leading to an uncorrect estimation of the expected impact of opening to competition. Short- and medium-term prospects for the evolution of retail markets must be reconsidered from the perspective of greater stability: not a generalization of competition, but rather a persistent segmentation between active and inactive clients; not a large and rapid diffusion of radical innovations in commercialisation, with the potential for undermining the incumbents' positions. (author)

  11. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review’s key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light...... fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality...

  12. GENDER ASPECTS OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS IN RETAIL

    OpenAIRE

    DEPUTATOVA ELENA YURYEVNA

    2016-01-01

    Situation in Russian retail demonstrates a highly competitive structure. Irrespective of segmentation ways, many retailers have still been using common ways of marketing communications and the search of loyal customers remains an elusive target for many companies. The problem is that a great variety of retailers have similar offers both to men and women, ignoring the fact it should be different. The article deals with differences of men and women consumer behavior aspects in choosing shops, t...

  13. Clustering and Joint Marketing in Retail Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlin, Nils

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the idea that retail trade stories might cluster with their competitors to pool marketing expenses and thereby increase their individual visibility among consumers. In a model which presumes such a marketing technology we derive some new comparative statics results. In a small/mega center we expect more competing stores in retail trade markets where products are heterogenous and consumers like to compare products before they buy, i.e. where people like to shop around. The ...

  14. Developing Strategic Planning for the Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Retailers need a strategic plan that will enable them to adapt to changing trends and work with new ideas. Questions retailers should ask to shape the strategic plan and generic strategies--overall cost leadership, differentiation, and marketing to a particular group or offering a special service--are discussed. (SR)

  15. Comparative analysis of wholesale and retail frozen fish marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of wholesale and retail frozen fish marketing in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... from each market giving 30 retail marketers and 30 wholesale marketers. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  16. ASPECTS REGARDING THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT OF RETAILERS

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Cristian Dabija

    2011-01-01

    The marketing environment in which producers or retailers act consists of the totality of factors and forces that come under the immediate control of a production or retail company and that influence the maintenance or development of profitable relationships with customers [Balaure, 2002, p.76]. It also represents the grouping of actors and of external forces of a company capable of influencing the way in which it develops and maintains satisfactory exchanges with the target market [Kotler, K...

  17. The retail market : a consumer perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girvan, J.

    2002-01-01

    A consumer's perspective of the Ontario open retail electricity market was presented. The author, who believes the retail market in Ontario is flawed, presents some key decisions that were made regarding open competition, that may have been done differently or which have helped the market move forward. It was noted that the 1996 report by the Macdonald Committee clearly recommended that retail competition should be phased in only after the wholesale market was in place. That report also cautioned about the risks of proceeding with an open retail market without being properly prepared. The Ontario government rejected the recommendations of the Macdonald Committee and chose to open both wholesale and retail markets at the same time. Another important decision by the Ontario Energy Board was to determine that Standard Supply Service customers would be billed on the basis of a spot price pass-through model. It was noted that the lack of understanding by consumers regarding the new market and the absence of a comprehensive education campaign gave retailers an opportunity to deceive some customers. Allowing retailing prior to the introduction of unbundled bills has also led to the current state of customer confusion. Although the government has now made communication efforts, it is believed that these efforts must be greater in assuring that local distribution companies are providing what is necessary to understand the new billing format. The government has introduced Bill 58, a new legislation that includes a Customer Bill of Rights. Although this is a good initiative, it does not help the thousands of people who were misled and locked into long-term contracts. It was recommended that immediate action must be taken in the retail sector to maintain customer confidence

  18. A Review on Methods for Assessing Risk Factors of the Upper Limb Disorders among Cashiers in Grocery Retail Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zuhaidi Muhammad Fareez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the various methods that have been developed for the assessment of risk factors for upper limb disorders among cashiers in grocery retail industries. This paper is essential as upper limb disorders have been known as one of the prime cause of work-related disability in various countries. The methods used for the assessment were the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH questionnaire, the Assessment of Repetitive Tasks (ART, the Job Strain Index (JSI and the Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA Checklist. DASH questionnaire is a structured interview in determining the prevalence of the upper limb disorders, while ART, the JSI and OCRA Checklist act as a direct observation in examining the involvement of risk factors. Basically, these tools dealt with the measurements of symptoms, posture observation, and workplace risk assessment, as they are the most relevant tools for assessing the risk factors faced by the workers in grocery industries. The use of these tools assessed the risk factors and consequently reduces the risk of injuries among the workers.

  19. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 2. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  20. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 4. Quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  1. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 1. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  2. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 1. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  3. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 3. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-09-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  4. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 4. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  5. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 1. Quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  6. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 2. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  7. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 3. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  8. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 3. Quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  9. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 4. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  10. Electricity prices in the Finnish retail market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, Eero

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses, firstly, on the pricing of electricity in the Finnish retail market. In particular, the impact of the ownership structure on prices is tested empirically. Secondly, the influence of low-cost electricity sources on retail prices is considered. The question about whether the average fuel costs rather than the wholesale price determine the retail prices is thus addressed. The supply side behaviour characterised may explain the passivity of client activity in the seemingly competitive Finnish market. - Research highlights: → Ownership has a strong impact on retail prices in the Finnish electricity market. → Locally owned companies' rates are 5-15 per cent lower than investor owned companies' rates. → Own low cost acquisition of electricity helps local firms to keep prices at low levels.

  11. Jumping into the healthcare retail market: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollert, Pat; Dobberstein, Darla; Wiisanen, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Who among us has not heard of the retail-based clinic concept? Retail-based clinics have been springing up across the country in Target, Walmart, grocery stores, drugstores, and shopping malls. Due to multiple marketplace issues, others who have not traditionally been providers of healthcare saw an opportunity to meet the consumer's demand. Do retail and healthcare mix, and can this model be successful? MeritCare Health System in Fargo, ND made the decision to embrace and experiment with this new emerging consumerism model. This article reviews our experience in developing the first retail-based clinic in our service area and the state of North Dakota.

  12. Grocery e-commerce in the UK and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Bjerre, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a framework for the analysis of market creation and apply this to the grocery e-commerce business. The article develops a model of four forces that interplay when companies engage in the process of creating new markets. The applicability of the model...... is exemplified by examining the interaction of the forces having created grocery e-commerce markets in the UK and Denmark. The application of the model reveals that besides the usual identification of competition intensity, the persistency of market reach efforts of a focal firm and the value attraction of its...... offerings play a significant role in the creation of grocery e-commerce markets. The practical implications are that retailers should not just transfer a grocery e-commerce set-up from one national market to another without considering the mentioned four forces in their own national markets....

  13. One-to-one modeling and simulation: a new approach in customer relationship management for grocery retail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, Cem M.

    2002-03-01

    The ever-increasing competition in retail industry puts pressure on retailers to deal with their customers more efficiently. Currently most companies use Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems to maximize the customer satisfaction level by trying to understand more about their behaviors. However, one disadvantage of the current approaches is that they focus on the segmentation of customers into homogenous groups and they disregard examining the one-to-one relationship of each individual's behavior toward each product. Therefore, individual behavior cannot be captured in detail. Modeling individual behavior for each product enables several strategies of pricing by keeping the customer satisfaction at the maximum level. One example is offering a personal discount on a particular item to a customer who is price sensitive to that particular product. Therefore, you can still sell other products at the non-discounted level to this customer by keeping him satisfied. In this paper, individual pricing approach is discussed. The aim of this study is to develop a conceptual framework to analyze the feasibility of individual pricing. Customer behaviors can be modeled individually with respect to each product for a grocery store. Several factors can be used to determine these behaviors such as customer's need, brand loyalty and price sensitivity. Each customer can be modeled as an adaptive agent using qualitative descriptions of behaviors (i.e., highly price sensitive). Then, the overall shopping behavior can be simulated using a multi-agent Monte-Carlo simulation. It is expected that with this approach, retailers will be able to determine better strategies to obtain more profits, better sales and better customer satisfaction.

  14. Issues of innovations in large retailers marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona BĂLĂŞESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysing the way distribution systems evolved in various countries it can be seen that, in all areas of the globe, the distribution has become progressively dynamic, suffering mutations on all levels, changing constantly the methods of marketing and sale, distribution forms, geographic distribution, etc. Retail sector has become a dynamic sector, with a rapid evolution and various forms of organization, mainly due to economic development and technological progress we have witnessed in recent years. To the rapid development of retail contributed the innovation, allowing it to adapt rapidly to market conditions, to continuous growth in consumer demands and requirements and the need for traders to streamline their business activities.

  15. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R.; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R.; Kelly, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the efficacy of an easy-to-implement shopper marketing nutrition intervention in a pilot and two additional studies to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability or increasing shopper budgets. Methods We created grocery cart placards that detailed the number of produce items purchased (i.e., descriptive norm) at particular stores (i.e., provincial norm). The effect of these placards on produce spending was assessed across 971,706 individual person grocery store transactions aggregated by day. The pilot study designated a baseline period (in both control and intervention store) followed by installation of grocery cart placards (in the intervention store) for two weeks. The pilot study was conducted in Texas in 2012. In two additional stores, we designated baseline periods followed by 28 days of the same grocery cart placard intervention as in the pilot. Additional interventions were conducted in New Mexico in 2013. Results The pilot study resulted in a significant difference between average produce spending per day per person across treatment periods (i.e., intervention versus same time period in control) (16%) and the difference between average produce spending per day per person across stores in the control periods (4%); Furthermore, the same intervention in two additional stores resulted in significant produce spending increases of 12.4% and 7.5% per day per person respectively. In all stores, total spending did not change. Conclusions Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards) may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets. PMID:26844084

  16. Student Guide Presentation Retail Marketing (Merchandising)

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Vigaray, María Dolores de

    2010-01-01

    La asignatura se imparte íntegramente en inglés. Presentación de la asignatura RETAIL MARKETING con los contenidos, requisitos, métodos y técnicas de aprendizaje, sistema de evaluación, trabajo a realizar.

  17. Internet Retailing as a Marketing Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the incentives for incumbent bricks-and-mortar firms and new entrants to start an online retail channel in a differentiated goods market. To this end we set up a two-stage model where firms first decide whether or not to build the infrastructure necessary to start an online

  18. The efficiency, energy intensity and visual impact of the accent lighting in the retail grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, topics of displaying, presentation, lighting, energy saving and issues related to the environment while selling the fresh food (fruits, vegetable, bakery products, meat are becoming an important matter among traders. However, just bigger companies with transnational capital have devoted their attention to this issue yet. Generally, the energy costs make up 70% of operating costs in retail stores where the cooling system and lighting are the most energy consuming. Accent lighting in modern retails is largely involved in the overall design and atmosphere in shops and plays a crucial role in presenting the goods as well. Using of accent lighting can draw the customer's attention to a specific part of the sales area and achieve the overall harmonization in the store. With the rational using of combination of energy saving and effective accent lighting retailers can achieve not only attractive presentation of displayed products but also appreciable savings in the operation of their stores. It is the only factor that can be exactly measured and controlled. Using a Colour and Lux Meters we found out the intensity and color temperature of accent lighting used in domestic and foreign retail chains for the different kinds of fresh food products. Based on the obtained values we have compiled graphs, which are showing visual comfort. We also identified different types of accent lighting, which we assigned to their impact on emotional involvement of consumers. The starting points were the tests we conducted in simulated laboratory conditions. While searching of a compromise between effective and energy efficient accent lighting we take into consideration consumers' emotional response as well as the annual electricity consumption of different types of light sources. At the end we recommend options for energy-efficient, effective and spectacular lighting while using the optimal number of light sources and their logical organization

  19. Internet Retailing as a Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Maarten; Noll, R.

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the incentives for incumbent bricks-and-mortar firms and new entrants to start an online retail channel in a differentiated goods market. To this end we set up a two-stage model where firms first decide whether or not to build the infrastructure necessary to start an online retail channel and then compete in prices using the channels they have opened up. Consumers trade-off the convenience of online shopping and the ease to compare prices, with online uncertainties. Wit...

  20. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  1. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets? —a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatah Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Prevalence of obesity and overweight has been increasing in many countries. Many factors have been identified as contributing to obesity including the food environment, especially the access, availability and affordability of healthy foods in grocery stores and supermarkets. Several interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review’s key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light on the effectiveness of food store interventions intended to promote the consumption of healthy foods and the methodological quality of studies reporting them. Methods Systematic literature search spanning from 2003 to 2015 (inclusive both years, and confined to papers in the English language was conducted. Studies fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality of all included articles has been determined using a validated 16-item quality assessment tool (QATSDD. Results The literature search identified 1580 publications, of which 42 met the inclusion criteria. Most interventions used a combination of information (e.g. awareness raising through food labeling, promotions, campaigns, etc. and increasing availability of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Few used price interventions. The average quality score for all papers is 65.0%, or an overall medium methodological quality. Apart from few studies, most studies reported that store interventions were effective in promoting purchase of healthy foods. Conclusion Given the diverse study settings and despite the challenges of methodological

  2. The gasoline retail market in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapointe, A.

    1998-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the current status of the gasoline market in Quebec was presented. The study includes: (1) a review of the evolution of the retail market since the 1960s, (2) the development of a highly competitive sales environment, (3) a discussion of governmental interventions in the retail sales of gasoline, and (4) a discussion of the problems associated with the imposition of a minimum gasoline price. The low increase in demand for gasoline in Quebec since the 1980s has led to a considerable restructuring of the gasoline market. Consumers have little loyalty to specific brands but seek the lowest prices or prefer the outlets that offer the widest variety of associated services such as convenience stores, fast-food and car washes. Gasoline has clearly become a commodity in Quebec. An econometric model of gasoline price adjustments for the Montreal and Toronto urban areas and a summary of government interventions in the retail marketing of gasoline in Canada and the USA are included as appendices. tabs

  3. Interaction among actors in retail market competition in malang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, B.; Ma'ruf, M. F.

    2018-01-01

    In several countries, traditional market lose in competition with supermarket. Supermarket has several advantages compared with traditional market. It can provides consumers with lower prices, offer more varieties of products and higher quality products than traditional retailers, has more comfortable place for shopping. In Malang City, the existence of traditional traders was threatened. In a competitive retail market, traditional traders get less protection from the Government of Malang Municipality. Massive demonstrations conducted by traditional traders along with other society elements unable to stem the rapid growth of modern retail. This paper focus on the interaction of Malang Municipality actors in the local retail market competition. How those interaction can make imbalance retail market competition. The author uses descriptive-analytic method with a qualitative approach in this work. As a result, the interaction tend to produce imbalance retail market competition. Interaction between legislative, executive, bureaucracy and mass media tend to support modern retail growth than traditional one.

  4. Barriers in EU retail financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Micuda, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Looking at the retail financial markets and identifing a number of ‘‘natural’’ and ‘‘policy induced’’ obstacles to free trade. We use the term ‘‘natural’’ barriers to refer to those arising as a result of different cultures or consumer preferences, while different state tax policies or regulations are classified as ‘‘policy induced’’ barriers.

  5. Active Market Share: measuring competitiveness in retail energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, D.; Malm, E.

    1999-01-01

    As retail electric and gas markets deregulate, market share measurement becomes critical for marketers, regulators, and incumbent utilities. Yet traditional market share measures miss important features of these network industries. In this paper we model provider choice in network industries and develop two alternate market share measures - The Active Market Share (AMS) and the New Mover Market Share (NMMS), that are based on 'active demand'. These measures are shown to provide more accurate real-time measures of market activity. The NMMS is a special case of the AMS which is easy to measure empirically. Numerical simulations are used to provide comparisons between each measure over time. Both the AMS and NMMS will be important tools for anyone interested in measuring the competitiveness of deregulating markets. (author)

  6. HOW RETAILING HAS CHANGED? WHAT MARKETING DID FOR THIS CHANGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica ERDEI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retailing is carried on by those business which sell goods to the final consumer. The obvious example is provided by the shops we all know and deal with. The retailing stage, therefore, is the one where goods reach the end of their journey from the manufacturer. This does not that in those instances there is not retailing. The manufacturer or wholesaler who sells direct to the consumer is acting as a retailer; he adds retailing to his other activities. What ever channel of distribution is used, the retailing function always exists. In the past almost all retailers confined their activities to retailing; they did not combine it with other activities. These we can call “traditional” retailers. The functions of the traditional retailer where/and are: they break bulk into saleable portions; they put the goods in a saleable condition; they make goods immediately available to consumers; they measure consumer preferences. But the times have changed! In the “new” retailing the retailer provides a long range of services to whom he sells and to those from whom he buys. We’ll have in mind in this paper the refrigeration engineering and the “artificial cold”, the creative services at the point of sale (POS, the POS marketing, the marketing activities a the point of promotion (POP, the international diversity. In recent years most retail businesses tend to grow, and the statistics proves this, as it is shown in the paper.

  7. Marketing promotion in the consumer goods’ retail distribution process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Bălăşescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental characteristic of contemporary marketing is the total opening towards three major directions: consumer needs, organization needs and society’s needs. The continuous expansion of marketing has been accompanied by a process of differentiation and specialization. Differentiation has led to the so called “specific marketing”. In this paper, we aim to explain that in the retail companies, the concept of sales marketing can be distinguished as an independent marketing specialization. The main objectives for this paper are: the definition and delimitation of consumer goods’ sales marketing in the retail business and the sectoral approach of the marketing concept and its specific techniques for the retail activities.

  8. MARKET SEGMENTATION PRACTICES OF RETAIL CROP INPUT FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Akridge; Mike Boehlje; Allan Gray; Aaron Reimer

    2007-01-01

    While market segmentation and the associated idea of target marketing are not new, there are questions about how the strategy of market segmentation and target marketing is being used in retail agribusiness firms. Previous research has demonstrated that distinct groups of farmers/customers exist (Alexander). However, retail crop input firms tend to be of modest size and are geographically bound. Both lack of resources and confinement to a specific geographic market present challenges for succ...

  9. Observations of marketing on food packaging targeted to youth in retail food stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Moise, Imelda K; Geiger, Sarah D

    2011-09-01

    There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices. Consequently, we sought to examine: (i) the extent to which foods marketed on the internet and television to youth are also available and marketed in retail food stores, and (ii) whether differences exist in the marketing practices across store types and by neighborhood racial composition. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey of 118 food stores was conducted in four Midwestern cities in the United States. Results showed that 82% of stores assessed carried items commonly marketed to youth via television or the internet. The items most likely to have some type of marketing technique were noncarbonated drinks (97.7%), fruit and cereal bars (76.9%), and soda (62.2%). Grocery stores were significantly more likely than convenience stores to have marketing for breads and pastries (34.6% vs. 17.9%), breakfast cereals (52.0% vs. 22.9%), cookies and crackers (54.2% vs. 25.3%), dairy (70.8% vs. 42.7%), and ice cream (23.8% vs. 9.8%). Stores located in black neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have marketing, in comparison to white neighborhoods, for breads and pastries (35.7% vs. 17.1%), breakfast cereals (44.4% vs. 25.0%), and cookies and crackers (48.1% vs. 26.3%). Our results highlight the importance of examining food marketing techniques in the retail food store environment, where visual cues from television and the internet may be reinforced.

  10. Directory of Post-Secondary Retailing and Marketing Vocational Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This directory lists 357 general and 135 special retailing and marketing vocational programs at the post secondary level. Institutions vary somewhat in the identification of general programs; for example, they may be called retailing, merchandising, marketing, mid-management, or distributive education programs. Specialized programs offered by…

  11. THE STUDY FOR REGIONAL RETAIL PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Sokolova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacy organizations are an element of regional pharmaceutical market infrastructure formation. They have different character and activity type, organizational and legal forms, types of properties. The revelation of the features of retail pharmaceutical market of Yaroslavl oblast was the purpose of the study. The analysis of the data of regional department of Federal Service on Surveillance in Healthcare and Social Development of Russian Federation  n Yaroslavl oblast in the beginning of 2014 showed that there are 137 acting commercial entities, which have licenses for pharmaceutical activity. The region has 487  pharmacy organizations which implement pharmaceutical activity of state (14.6%, municipal (7.4%, and private (78.0% forms of ownership. Some companies function in Yaroslavl (43.9% and Rybinsk (22.4% municipal district. The analysis of organization and legal forms revealed that 48.9% of pharmacy organizations are registered as ltd, 14.6% are state, and 14.2% are private entrepreneurs, public limited companies amount to 10.9%, the rest pharmacy organizations are included into municipal unitary enterprises and private limited companies – 7.39% and 4.1% correspondingly. The structure of retail market is represented by single pharmacy organizations (51.1% as well as organizations joined into pharmacy chains from two and more PO (48.9%. The share of commercial entities which include one PO amounted to 14.4% of all PO. Share of pharmacy chains (42.3% which include from 2 to 9 PO are 46.8% of all PO. Pharmacy chains, which have more than 9 retails spots amount to 6.6% of the total number of commercial entities. 38.8% of PO function within them. Pharmacy chains prevalence (42.3%, joined into 9 PO; pharmacy chains, which have more than 9 PO, and include state sector PO (14.6% are the features of the regional market.

  12. Reliability of a retail food store survey and development of an accompanying retail scoring system to communicate survey findings and identify vendors for healthful food and marketing initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Observational. Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store scoring methodology weighted to emphasize availability of healthful food. Type A intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) with absolute agreement definition or a κ test for measures using ranges as categories. Measures of availability and price of fruits and vegetables performed well in reliability testing (κ = 0.681-0.800). Items for vegetable quality were better than for fruit (ICC 0.708 vs 0.528). Kappa scores indicated low to moderate agreement (0.372-0.674) on external store marketing measures and higher scores for internal store marketing. "Next to" the checkout counter was more reliable than "within 6 feet." Health departments using the store scoring system reported it as the most useful communication of neighborhood findings. There was good reliability of the measures among the research pairs. The local store scores can show the need to bring in resources and to provide access to fruits and vegetables and other healthful food. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Retail gas markets - a case of regulated deregulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.

    2001-01-01

    While much has been said recently on the introduction of full retail contestability in Australia's gas markets, the process is far from over. The General Manager (Retail) with Origin Energy-and a new addition to the Australian Gas Association Board-provides an overview of the process to date, and how it might progress in the future. He concluded that in Australia, the retail gas market is relatively small and the processes initiated to achieve full retail competition are still largely fragmented across jurisdictions. These factors have potential to generate costs which could severely dent, if not exceed the anticipated benefit of competition

  14. Restructuring of LDCs and retail marketing by producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, D.

    1998-01-01

    The restructuring of local distribution companies (LDCs) and retail marketing producers and the challenges facing market participants were discussed. In Canada, LDC operations are regulated by provincial utilities commissions. This presentation focused on Ontario because it has the largest and most active retail gas market in Canada where some significant LDC restructuring initiatives are taking place. The current state of retail gas pricing in Ontario was also reviewed. Consumers Gas or Union Gas are the two utilities that serve most of the 2.2 million natural gas customers in Ontario. Both utilities have fully integrated supply and marketing businesses which include the sale and delivery of natural gas, related products and services. Suncor's recent entry into the retail natural gas market has been successful. Suncor currently has the third largest number of retail customers in Ontario and a significant share of that market. LDCs will become delivery companies who focus on providing reliable and safe distribution of natural gas to all customers and will provide open access to all gas marketers on a non-discriminatory basis. This will result in more sophisticated marketing to retail customers, retail customer contracts will change to fixed term, fixed price agreements, and there will be strong brand identification. Additional opportunities will be created as a result of deregulation of the electricity industry

  15. The Influence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak on Online and Offline Markets for Retail Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunae Jung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS outbreak in Korea affected online and offline retail sales and determines the presence of a substitution or delay effect between the two. We analyze the monthly retail sales of electronic goods, semi-luxury goods, and groceries using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model with intervention. The findings are as follows. First, offline sales of electronic goods declined by 7.9%, while online sales increased by 7.03%, indicating that these markets can act as substitutes. Second, the offline sales of semi-luxury goods decreased for two months, while online sales remained the same, indicating that there can be a delay effect in the offline market. Finally, despite the slight increase in online sales and the moderate decrease in offline sales, the MERS outbreak did not have a statistically significant effect on grocery sales. Our research findings imply that stakeholders such as the government and retail provided useful information on how to deal with the unexpected outbreak

  16. Retail competition in electricity markets. Expectations, outcomes and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    In 'Retail competition in electricity markets' (Energy Policy, 37(2), February 2009, Pages 377-386) it is argued by Defeuilly that the introduction of retail competition into electricity markets gave rise to great expectations that it failed to meet, and that this was primarily the fault of Austrian economic thinking. The main purpose of this note is to explain why both of these propositions are incorrect. A few further comments challenge his subsequent suggestion that the competitive process in electricity is so constrained by the limitations of consumer decision-making and electricity technology as to cast doubt on the policy of opening the retail market to competition

  17. The retail market : competition choice and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation includes a brief overview of the corporate structure of Veridian Corporation and discusses the concept of customer choice and competition regarding the electric power industry in Ontario. Pricing and price stability was also discussed with reference to the outlook of electricity retailing. The Veridian holding company employs a total of 149 employees within its corporate structure which includes Veridian Energy Inc., Veridian Connections Inc. (a local electric distribution company), and Firstsource Inc. (an energy retailing business). Veridian operates in the Ontario cities of Pickering, Ajax, Clarington, and Belleville. The author notes that true customer choice occurs when customers have accurate price information before they buy a product, or when they have choice regarding who they buy the product from. Likewise, true competition occurs when there are multiple suppliers, when there is sufficient supply, and when prices are determined by demand. Although the electricity market in Ontario was opened to competition on May 1, 2002, customers do not really have a choice, nor does true competition exist. The author suggests that the Pickering generating station must be brought back on-line, as well as an investment climate that will attract new investors in power generation to Ontario. It was noted that government intervention is not helpful in stimulating investment in the power system. Pricing and price stability was discussed with reference to current trends in the import/export balance. The volatility in prices is expected to get worse in the near future, which is particularly detrimental to large power users who are seeking the assurance of a fixed price so that they could predict their production costs. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  18. The retail market : competition choice and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, J. [Veridian Corp., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation includes a brief overview of the corporate structure of Veridian Corporation and discusses the concept of customer choice and competition regarding the electric power industry in Ontario. Pricing and price stability was also discussed with reference to the outlook of electricity retailing. The Veridian holding company employs a total of 149 employees within its corporate structure which includes Veridian Energy Inc., Veridian Connections Inc. (a local electric distribution company), and Firstsource Inc. (an energy retailing business). Veridian operates in the Ontario cities of Pickering, Ajax, Clarington, and Belleville. The author notes that true customer choice occurs when customers have accurate price information before they buy a product, or when they have choice regarding who they buy the product from. Likewise, true competition occurs when there are multiple suppliers, when there is sufficient supply, and when prices are determined by demand. Although the electricity market in Ontario was opened to competition on May 1, 2002, customers do not really have a choice, nor does true competition exist. The author suggests that the Pickering generating station must be brought back on-line, as well as an investment climate that will attract new investors in power generation to Ontario. It was noted that government intervention is not helpful in stimulating investment in the power system. Pricing and price stability was discussed with reference to current trends in the import/export balance. The volatility in prices is expected to get worse in the near future, which is particularly detrimental to large power users who are seeking the assurance of a fixed price so that they could predict their production costs. 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. THE ASSIMILATION OF MARKETING CONCEPT BY RETAIL COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BĂLĂŞESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present evolution on consumption goods market generates serious andcomplex issues to retail companies. Under the circumstances of seriouscompetition, retail companies in Romania confront themselves with the needof finding solutions to different aspects regarding integration on the market,identifying solutions concerning competition issues, initializing anddeveloping businesses or determining the profitability of every activity. Morethan this, having a relation with the market they act, retailers must know andfollow permanently the needs and the requires on the market, phenomenonthat implies marketing research, studies and analysis that allow a betterunderstanding of the economic processes, and also social ones, cultural,demographical, and so on. These present realities (and even possibleevolutions that characterize the sector of retail have been the element thatdetermined the initiation of the present scientific action. The retail company isthe link within a value chain that comes in direct contact with the finalconsumer. Therefore, our intention is to determine the place, role andimportance of marketing within the general policies of retail companies.Naturally, this generated the question: is distribution marketing a specializeddomain that implies policies, strategies and specific techniques, or theassimilation of the classic concept is sufficient in solving marketing andmanagement problems?

  20. Hedging strategies in energy markets: the case of electricity retailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroumand, Raphael Homayoun; Goutte, Stephane; Porcher, Simon; Porcher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As market intermediaries, electricity retailers buy electricity from the wholesale market or self-generate for re(sale) on the retail market. Electricity retailers are uncertain about how much electricity their residential customers will use at any time of the day until they actually turn switches on. While demand uncertainty is a common feature of all commodity markets, retailers generally rely on storage to manage demand uncertainty. On electricity markets, retailers are exposed to joint quantity and price risk on an hourly basis given the physical singularity of electricity as a commodity. In the literature on electricity markets, few articles deals on intra-day hedging portfolios to manage joint price and quantity risk whereas electricity markets are hourly markets. The contributions of the article are twofold. First, we define through a VaR and CVaR model optimal portfolios for specific hours (3 a.m., 6 a.m.,...,12 p.m.) based on electricity market data from 2001 to 2011 for the French market. We prove that the optimal hedging strategy differs depending on the cluster hour. Secondly, we demonstrate the significantly superior efficiency of intra-day hedging portfolios over daily (therefore weekly and yearly) portfolios. Over a decade (2001-2011), our results clearly show that the losses of an optimal daily portfolio are at least nine times higher than the losses of optimal intra-day portfolios. (authors)

  1. Retail store image in emerging markets: An initial study among Chinese retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    differences regarding store characteristics, purchasing behavior, and supplier selection criteria among the three identified store image segments are revealed. The implications of these findings for practitioners and for future research on store image in emerging markets are highlighted....... their stores to defend and sustain the image (i.e. retailers' perspective). Here Chinese food retailing is used as an example of emerging markets. The study finds three unique store images, corresponding to up-market, middle-range, and down-market store segments. Contrasting the two studies, significant...

  2. Retailers' risk management and vertical arrangements in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroumand, Raphaël Homayoun; Zachmann, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The failure of the asset-light retailer's organizational model is indicative of the incapacity of this organizational structure to manage efficiently the combination of sourcing and market risks in the current market environment. Because of the structural dimensions of electricity's market risks, a retailer's level of risk exposure is unknown ex ante and will only be revealed ex post when consumption is known. In contrast to the “textbook model” of electricity reforms, the paper demonstrates through numerical simulations that in the current market context pure portfolios of contracts are incomplete risk management instruments compared to physical hedging. The latter is critical to overcome the asset-light retailer's curse. - Highlights: ► The paper analyses the risks faced by electricity retailers. ► We study the limits of contractual hedging. ► Through numerical simulations, we compare the risk profiles of different portfolios of hedging. ► We demonstrate the superior efficiency of physical hedging.

  3. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin R. Payne

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets.

  4. Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market - end 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market (as at 31.12.94) are tabulated, with brand names and company names, areas of operation, and total numbers of retail petrol outlets displaying brand names, self-service sites, company-owned sites and outlets retailing Derv given. Statistics resulting from a retail marketing survey (1995) are listed and cover UK petrol sites from 1985-1994; motorway brands; a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets; UK outlets retailing derv; average UK prices for petrol and derv per litre; percentage of petrol sites per company (1994); number of company petrol sites as a percentage of total; number of outlets at hypermarkets/supermarkets; and vapour recovery sites. (UK)

  5. E-Cigarette Market Trends in Traditional U.S. Retail Channels, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenco, Daniel P; Hammond, David; Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-10-01

    E-cigarette sales continue to increase in the United States. To date, little surveillance research has documented the specific product attributes driving growth. This study uses national market scanner data to describe sales trends in traditional U.S. tobacco retail channels between 2012 and 2013 and identifies product features associated with sales increases. Data on e-cigarette sales in convenience stores, drug stores, grocery stores, and mass merchandisers in the United States were obtained from the Nielsen Company. Each product was coded for attributes such as brand, flavor, and unit size. Total sales volume, market share, and percent growth were calculated for various product attributes. E-cigarette sales more than doubled between 2012 and 2013, from $273.6 million to $636.2 million, respectively. Growth was particularly strong in the convenience store channel. Blu eCigs quickly emerged as the best-selling brand and in 2013 constituted nearly half (44.1%) of overall sales. Although fruit-flavored and other flavored products experienced marked growth, unflavored and menthol e-cigarettes overwhelmingly dominated the market. Sales of single unit products (likely disposable e-cigarettes) increased by 216.4%, a much faster rate than multi-unit packs and cartridge refills. In traditional U.S. retail channels, particularly the convenience store channel, sales of e-cigarettes continue to grow, with brands like blu and disposable products as the likely drivers. Given the rapidly-changing market, expanded surveillance is needed to monitor sales not only in traditional retail locations, but sales online and in specialty "vape shops," as well. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. E-Cigarette Market Trends in Traditional U.S. Retail Channels, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Corey, Catherine G.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: E-cigarette sales continue to increase in the United States. To date, little surveillance research has documented the specific product attributes driving growth. This study uses national market scanner data to describe sales trends in traditional U.S. tobacco retail channels between 2012 and 2013 and identifies product features associated with sales increases. Methods: Data on e-cigarette sales in convenience stores, drug stores, grocery stores, and mass merchandisers in the United States were obtained from the Nielsen Company. Each product was coded for attributes such as brand, flavor, and unit size. Total sales volume, market share, and percent growth were calculated for various product attributes. Results: E-cigarette sales more than doubled between 2012 and 2013, from $273.6 million to $636.2 million, respectively. Growth was particularly strong in the convenience store channel. Blu eCigs quickly emerged as the best-selling brand and in 2013 constituted nearly half (44.1%) of overall sales. Although fruit-flavored and other flavored products experienced marked growth, unflavored and menthol e-cigarettes overwhelmingly dominated the market. Sales of single unit products (likely disposable e-cigarettes) increased by 216.4%, a much faster rate than multi-unit packs and cartridge refills. Conclusions: In traditional U.S. retail channels, particularly the convenience store channel, sales of e-cigarettes continue to grow, with brands like blu and disposable products as the likely drivers. Given the rapidly-changing market, expanded surveillance is needed to monitor sales not only in traditional retail locations, but sales online and in specialty “vape shops,” as well. PMID:25542918

  7. An analysis of strategic price setting in retail gasoline markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguiberry, Florencia

    This dissertation studies price-setting behavior in the retail gasoline industry. The main questions addressed are: How important is a retail station's brand and proximity to competitors when retail stations set price? How do retailers adjust their pricing when they cater to consumers who are less aware of competing options or have less discretion over where they purchase gasoline? These questions are explored in two separate analyses using a unique datasets containing retail pricing behavior of stations in California and in 24 different metropolitan areas. The evidence suggests that brand and location generate local market power for gasoline stations. After controlling for market and station characteristics, the analysis finds a spread of 11 cents per gallon between the highest and the lowest priced retail gasoline brands. The analysis also indicates that when the nearest competitor is located over 2 miles away as opposed to next door, consumers will pay an additional 1 cent per gallon of gasoline. In order to quantify the significance of local market power, data for stations located near major airport rental car locations are utilized. The presumption here is that rental car users are less aware or less sensitive to fueling options near the rental car return location and are to some extent "captured consumers". Retailers located near rental car locations have incentives to adjust their pricing strategies to exploit this. The analysis of pricing near rental car locations indicates that retailers charge prices that are 4 cent per gallon higher than other stations in the same metropolitan area. This analysis is of interest to regulators who are concerned with issues of consolidation, market power, and pricing in the retail gasoline industry. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the empirical analysis.

  8. A Study of the Role of Small Ethnic Retail Grocery Stores in Urban Renewal in a Social Housing Project, Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komakech, Morris D C; Jackson, Suzanne F

    2016-06-01

    Urban renewal often drives away the original residents, replacing them with higher income residents who can afford the new spaces, leading to gentrification. Urban renewal that takes place over many years can create uncertainties for retailers and residents, exacerbating the gentrification process. This qualitative study explored how the urban renewal process in a multi-cultural social housing neighborhood in Toronto (Regent Park) affected the small ethnic retail grocery stores (SERGS) that supplied ethnic foods and items to the ethnic populations living there. Interviews were conducted with ten SERGS store owners/managers and 16 ethnic residents who lived in Regent Park before renewal and were displaced, or who were displaced and returned. The SERGS stated that they provided culturally familiar items and offered a social credit scheme that recognized existing social relationships and allowed low-income residents to afford food and other amenities in a dignified manner and pay later, without penalty or interest. At the same time, the SERGS were unsupported during the renewal, were excluded from the civic planning processes, could not compete for space in the new buildings, and experienced declining sales and loss of business. The residents stated that the SERGS were trusted, provided a valued cultural social spaces for ethnic identity formation, and ethnic food security but they faced many uncertainties about the role of SERGS in a renewed neighborhood. Based on this study, it is recommended that ethnic retailers be recognized for the role they play in formulating ethnic identities and food security in mixed-use mixed-income communities and that they be included in planning processes during urban renewal. Such recognition may enable more former residents to return and lessen the gentrification.

  9. Green power marketing in retail competition: an early assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, R.; Porter, K.; Fang, J.

    1999-01-01

    With retail competition being introduced throughout the United States, green power marketing offers the promise of customer-driven markets for renewable energy. This paper summarizes early experience with green marketing under full retail competition. We conclude that (1) niche markets exist today among residential and non-residential consumers for green power; (2) green demand may ultimately offer an important strategic market for renewable technologies, but the market is currently rather small and the long-term prospects remain uncertain; (3) the success of green markets will depend critically on the regulatory rules established at the onset of restructuring; and (4) the biomass industry will be forced to better communicate the environmental benefits of its technology in order to play a strong role within the green market. This paper is based on a more detailed NREL Topical Issues Brief, which is available on the Internet. (author)

  10. Shopping for fruits and vegetables. Food and retail qualities of importance to low-income households at the grocery store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Caroline B; Sobal, Jeffery; Dollahite, Jamie S

    2010-04-01

    Purchasing fruits and vegetables is an integral part of managing food consumption and dietary quality. This study examined how low-income adults who had primary responsibility for household food purchases considered retail produce decisions. We used a qualitative research approach based on grounded theory and an ecological conceptual framework. Twenty-eight low-income rural, village, and inner city heads of households in upstate New York, USA, were selected by purposive and theoretical sampling and interviewed about fruit and vegetable shopping habits, attitudes toward local food stores, and where and how they would prefer to buy produce. Analyses revealed their concerns were organized around five themes: store venue; internal store environment; product quality; product price; relationships with the stores. An unanticipated finding was the differing social relations that appear to exist between participant consumers, store employees and management, and the store itself as a representation of the larger retail food system. Attitudes toward retail food stores in this study are described as passive or fatalistic indifference, supportive, opportunistic, and confrontational (change agents). These attitudes are related to how shoppers considered retail fruit and vegetable choice, access, and availability. These findings suggest ways to individualize nutrition education and consumer education messages. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Retail market opening plan : key activities and milestones to market opening on May 1, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ontario Energy Board (OEB) published its Retail Market Readiness Plan in January 2000 with particular focus on what is needed by distributors to become ready for self certification on December 14, 2001. The market opening date has now been set for May 1, 2002 so the framework has been updated to focus on what is needed to open the electricity market to retail competition. This report describes the activities required for the opening of the retail electricity market with reference to the activities that the participants, distributors and retailers need to complete to properly interact at market opening. The measures that other organizations such as EBT hubs should take were also identified for cases where the measures involve cooperation and interaction with distributors and retailers to ensure a smooth transition to competition within the industry. While schedules of individual organizations will vary, market participants should try to align with the overall framework at key milestones. The mandatory requirements associated with milestones were included in Appendix B. These included requirements for: market opening baseline; market readiness activities; participant systems and organizational preparations; loading of new rates into systems; cutover to new systems by market participants; data scrubbing; multiple contract resolution; pre-market processing; distributor-retailer service agreement; retail prudential posting; inter-participant testing; contingency arrangements; stability period; and, market opening. Appendix A includes the Market Opening Gantt Chart. 1 tab

  12. Green Power Marketing in Retail Competition: An Early Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R. (LBL); Fang, J.; Porter, K.; Houston, A. (NREL)

    1999-02-26

    Green power marketing-the business of selling electricity products or services based in part on their environmental values-is still in an early stage of development. This Topical Issues Brief presents a summary of early results with green power marketing under retail competition, covering both fully competitive markets and relevant direct access pilot programs. The brief provides an overview of green products that are or were offered, and discusses consumers' interest in these products. Critical issues that will impact the availability and success of green power products under retail competition are highlighted.

  13. Green Power Marketing in Retail Competition: An Early Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin Porter; Ryan Wiser

    1999-01-01

    Green power marketing-the business of selling electricity products or services based in part on their environmental values-is still in an early stage of development. This Topical Issues Brief presents a summary of early results with green power marketing under retail competition, covering both fully competitive markets and relevant direct access pilot programs. The brief provides an overview of green products that are or were offered, and discusses consumers' interest in these products. Critical issues that will impact the availability and success of green power products under retail competition are highlighted

  14. The determining trends of the retail payment market

    OpenAIRE

    BERGQVIST, CHRISTIAN; PETTERSSON, ERIK

    2016-01-01

    The retail payment market can be seen as a high velocity market, where the rate of change is high. The future for the retail payment market is uncertain to a large extent. A relatively new phenomenon is the entrance of third party payment providers (hereafter; TPP) who are utilizing the incumbent banks account infrastructure in order access information or initiate payments. A legislation named PSD2 will increase the TPP’s possibilities to utilize the bank’s infrastructure. This makes it possi...

  15. Multinational retailers and home country food exports

    OpenAIRE

    Cheptea, Angela; Latouche, Karine; Emlinger, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This article questions whether food exports to a given national market are impacted by a domestic retailer opening in that market. To answer this question, we considered an empirical gravity-type trade model. We tested our model with data on bilateral exports of food products sold in supermarkets (groceries) on a large panel of countries, as well as the foreign grocery sales of the world’s 100 largest retail companies from 2001–2010. We found a strong positive effect of the overseas presence ...

  16. Improving the competitiveness of Alberta's retail electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    Navigant Consulting Limited (Navigant) was commissioned by Alberta Energy to provide an independent review of the issues and recommendations contained in the Report of the Retail Issues Subcommittee, published in September 2001, on the Alberta Retail Electricity Markets. It was also asked to identify and other significant issues, and making recommendations pertaining to the issues. The principles of a well-functioning retail market followed an introduction to the document. A definition of a competitive market, according to that used by the Retail Issues Subcommittee (RIS) was provided, and a discussion of each of the elements of such a market was included. Highlights from the United Kingdom retail electricity market were provided. A detailed discussion of each of the major issues identified in the RIS report was presented, and recommendations on each topic areas from the RIS report included. The expected impact of the recommendations was explored. A summary of the recommendations and implementation considerations was provided in the last section of the document. tabs., figs

  17. The impact of the number of retail outlets on the market share of consumer goods' retail brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahović Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of effects of retail brands of consumer goods on the market share they have in Serbia. In particular, the research includes the impact of the retail format on the growth or decrease in market share. The data were obtained from market retailing research of consumer goods on the Internet and the research carried out by the GFK agency. The study used a statistical method of data processing by the method of descriptive statistics. The survey showed that the Serbian retail market is still underdeveloped, and that the strongest impact on the market share of retail chain stores of consumer goods has the size of the retail network, as well as a strong dominance of traditional trade in comparison to organized one. The retail market in Serbia has a long period of consolidation forthcoming and also taking over such a status that organized trades or TOP 10 retail chains have already had in the most developed countries. The market share of TOP 10 retail chains in Serbia is now at the level slightly bigger than 30%, while those in developed market economies have a market share moving up to 75%.

  18. Local Retailers Response to Retail Internationalisation:Malaysia Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Poh Ling

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the entirety of grocery retail internationalisation, and the happening in the Malaysian Grocery Retail. The results of a field study suggest that local retailers were generally optimistic about the industry in the next ten years, and the examination on their strategic behaviour in the face of grocery retail internationalisation suggests that local retailers have learned and understood the need for modernised strategies in their strategic posture as well as their competitiv...

  19. New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S M

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail-tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change.

  20. IMPACT OF GLOBAL RETAILERS ON REGIONAL MARKET PARTICIPANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Evtyugina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The given article is focused on a topical subject of global trade networks and the current trends of their development on a regional retail market. The authors believe that deep integration of international networks in the regions significantly increases the competition among network operators in the trade sector and creates a certain challenge for Russian retailers, and require introduction of innovative management techniques, automation of operational processes, expansion of assortment, better service, lower prices, etc. Research and assessment of the parameters given in the article help verifying an effect of international networks on the development process of regional market participants.

  1. New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. Results: As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. Conclusions: Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail–tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change. PMID:14645954

  2. Customer retention: maintaining the competitive edge in the retail market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, T. [CitiPower Ltd., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1997-09-01

    The current market environment in the electricity industry is one of changing regulations with many of the rules being developed. There is a great deal of customer confusion and uncertainty with some customers unaware of their contestable status and many are insecure about mixing retail and distribution supplies. This paper discusses customer retention and maintaining the competitive edge in the retail market. It draws on some conclusions from a survey released by the Australian Chamber of Manufacturers entitled `Customer feedback on Victoria`s competitive electricity market`. An overview is presented of the retail market in Australia which is one of very strong price-based competition, with as yet little differentiation. A process is described for retaining customers which involves asking the customer what he/she wants in a language which they understand. The best way to determine customer needs is through a combination of internal and external sources. Enhancing customer loyalty and differentiating and marketing the product are also discussed. As the market matures, customer retention and satisfaction will be based on value added services at a reasonable cost. (author). 6 figs.

  3. Mergers in the GB Electricity Market: effects on Retail Charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salies, Evens

    2006-05-01

    The opening up of the UK residential electricity sector in 1999 prompted several studies of the impact this had on both the level and structuring of retail charges, and on incumbent players' market power. Drawing on observations of regional tariffs for the month of January 2004, this paper supports previous conclusions based on simulated retail charges, looking at the response of real tariffs to distribution and transmission costs, customer density, and the length of low voltage underground circuit. We also investigate whether vertically integrated suppliers have a particular effect on charges ceteris paribus the effect of cost drivers and supplier-related factors. (author)

  4. Generic penetration in the retail antidepressant market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Jeffrey; Kalali, Amir H

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we explore the accelerated penetration of generic antidepressants in the United States market following the availability of generic citalopram and sertraline. Analysis suggests that overall, generic penetration into the antidepressant market has grown from approximately 41 percent in January 2004 to over 73 percent in January 2010. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  5. Innovative Positioning as a Marketing Tool of Retailers on the Food Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Śmigielska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the paper is to develop the theory of retail business positioning as a part of marketing innovation-based strategy. It is proposed that innovative retail formats and business models should be included in it. Research Design & Methods: The critical literature review on the existing dimensions of business positioning as well as the new, suggested dimensions is made. General trends in food retailers’ positioning in Poland and the positioning strategy development of Carrefour are analysed in the form of examples and a short case study. They are based on the secondary sources like academic papers, retail magazines and companies’ web sites. Findings: On the fragmented food markets retailers position themselves by introducing format innovations and stressing low price. Then they have to reposition themselves by attributes other than price. Big mass merchandisers are now segmenters. Implications & Recommendations: In Poland the tendencies for buying natural, Fair Trade, diabetics, organic or functional products, as well as the focus on the elderly segment are opportunities for retailers. Yet, trading up creates new opportunities for discounters. Contribution & Value Added: The paper contributes to the theory of retail positioning by linking elements of the marketing and the entrepreneurship approaches. It also develops knowledge about the Polish retail food market.

  6. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... retail food stores of products for sale at a stated price. You can file a comment online or on paper. For... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices..., and regulatory and economic impact of the FTC's rule for ``Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing...

  7. Strategic positioning of retail entrepreneurship in marketing channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Miloš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the actual market flows and dynamiting of power ratios bring about the revolutionary changes within the marketing strategies and basic management approaches, while completely deranging the traditional value system (i.e. system established through marketing channel members' interaction. What is being altered are the market performance patterns, channel communication standards, and forms of institutional pressure manifestation toward the remainder of members which is being performed by the institution with highest economic and negotiating power. Retail company becomes the leader in development of break-the-rule strategies as well as the mutual revolutionary and innovational processes in marketing channel functioning. The final objectives of initiation of co-revolutionary retail strategy with the remainder of marketing channel members are identification and removal of all non-efficient points in the process of development and the process of adding value at all levels of distribution. In addition, these goals are the advanced management of supply chain and integration of consumers with appropriate marketing channel on a long-term basis.

  8. Clothing Company Pegs Chinese Retail Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuAlun

    2003-01-01

    Using a flurry of brand and marketing strategies, Zheng Yonggang has staged the most astonishing turnaround in China's clothing industry. The once insolvent State-owned factory that Zheng was transferred to in 1989 now boasts the country's top fashion brands, and is quickly becoming a multi-business conglomerate. In 1994, the FIRS

  9. Market readiness update : updated status of preparations for Ontario's competitive retail electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Market Readiness Project Team of the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) is instrumental in ensuring the readiness of retail participants in Ontario's competitive electricity market. The team, led by the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO), provides information and advice regarding the technical readiness of the retail industry, with particular focus on the readiness of distributors to carry out their roles in a competitive market. This report provides an assessment of the team regarding the industry's technical readiness based on information as of April 24, 2002. In January 2002, the Ontario Government announced that it would open the electricity industry to competition on May 1, 2002. 54 of Ontario's 94 licensed electricity distributors claimed they were ready to offer retail choice by May 1. As of March 2002, about 858,000 customers (or 20 per cent of Ontario's 4.2 million customers) had signed a retail electricity contract with one of 9 active electricity retailers. By April 2002, 73 distributors, representing 93 per cent of Ontario's customers signed a contract with a retailer. Those customers who choose not to sign a contract will continue to receive service from their distributor but at energy prices set hourly by the IMO. It is expected that after May 1, the transition to a competitive market will proceed for several weeks as distributors progress through their billing cycles. 7 tabs., 2 figs

  10. A Services Marketing Perspective on E-Retailing: Implications for E-Retailers and Directions for Further Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Mark B.; Galbraith, R. Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Applying a body of theory and empirical research in the study of customer loyalty drivers in the services sector, this paper sets out a number of marketing and Web site design implications for e-retailers. It then suggests several means by which e-retailers can manage customer perceptions to increase sales and develop greater customer loyalty.…

  11. Retail experience in the de-regulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the experience gained to date in the de-regulated electricity market through an examination of the commercial market. In 2001, chaos provided opportunity, while in 2002 the emphasis was on operations. In 2003, the landscape reflected hyper-competition, selling second services, and a changing landscape. A discussion followed on the residential market with a look at market structure, economics, and uncertainty concerning the future. The following components were identified as working well: wholesale market, commercial market, market model/data, and innovation in offerings and green supply. Areas requiring further improvement were also identified. It was suggested that the residential de-regulated roadmap should be clarified and retail friendly transactions should be imposed. Other improvements involve education and operations/system capabilities. The author concluded that the deregulated electricity market is still an immature market, where progress is being made in the commercial market. The residential market is in a critical period, with a market model still evolving. figs

  12. Implementation Plan for a Common Nordic Retail Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    For several years NordREG has been working to promote and facilitate a common Nordic end user market. Given the political support that was expressed at the meeting of the Nordic energy ministers in the autumn of 2009, the work has become even more concrete. With this implementation plan, NordREG outlines what should be done, by whom and when in order to create a common Nordic end user market over the coming years. As the plan shows the need for contributed efforts from all stakeholders will be vital in the coming years in order to make a reality of the plans of creating a common Nordic end user market. The transition from national retail markets to a single Nordic market will take a great deal of work from regulators, DSOs, suppliers and TSOs. The benefits that a single Nordic end user market will bring will however make it worthwhile. In the long run, the integrated Nordic end user market will be a more efficient solution than keeping the four national markets. This is also a step towards the integration of European markets. The process of creating a single Nordic market also brings a unique opportunity to find new efficient solutions on different issues. Hence, the goal is not only to integrate the Nordic end user markets, but rather to develop a more customer oriented market with a high degree of competition between the suppliers

  13. Who Is Hurt by E-Commerce? Crowding out and Business Stealing in Online Grocery

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Pozzi

    2011-01-01

    I study the impact of e-commerce on competition in retail markets. Using scanner data from a large chain that markets grocery online and through traditional stores, I illustrate that selling online reduces the barrier of geographic differentiation and allows stealing business from competitors. Between 60% and 70% of the sales made online by the chain are stolen from other grocers, the rest coming from self cannibalization. I show that small stores are suffering the largest losses from this re...

  14. Eco-Labeling and Retailer Pricing Strategies: The U.K. Haddock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Dengjun Zhang; Geir Sogn-Grundvåg; Frank Asche; James A. Young

    2018-01-01

    In attempts to differentiate their store imagery, grocery retailers frequently introduce new products, which are often rich in extrinsic attributes such as claims regarding healthiness and environmental sustainability. This paper explores retailers’ pricing strategies for product attributes of haddock in the United Kingdom. The results show that retailers’ pricing strategies vary, in particular for extrinsic product attributes such as eco-labels and country-of-origin. The high pri...

  15. Contributions to the Foundation of the Marketing Mix for Retail Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Balasescu, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the particularities of the marketing mix for a company from the retail sector. In this sector there are some specific activities which influence the marketing approach, in terms of decisions regarding the policies and strategies. New elements are added to the traditional marketing mix, specific to the retail activity, and this triggers the marketing mix for the retail company. All the elements are extensively presented in the paper, with emphasis on their importa...

  16. Contributions to the Foundation of the Marketing Mix for Retail Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasescu, S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the particularities of the marketing mix for a company from the retail sector. In this sector there are some specific activities which influence the marketing approach, in terms of decisions regarding the policies and strategies. New elements are added to the traditional marketing mix, specific to the retail activity, and this triggers the marketing mix for the retail company. All the elements are extensively presented in the paper, with emphasis on their importance and relevant examples.

  17. Methodological and Practical Issues of Scientific Research on the Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasescu, M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the role and importance of marketing research in a dynamic and complex sector such as retail. The paper approaches the theoretical issues related to the methods and instruments of marketing research appropriate for the retail market. The theory about qualitative and quantitative research methods is supported by relevant examples which lead to a better understanding of the marketing research process and of its effectiveness on retail activities.

  18. Retail Experience Marketing : A study on customer perceptions of successful in-store experience marketing within retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Tengström, Michaela; Björkman, Hanna; Egardsson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that in today’s society, businesses will need to consider not only selling products or services, but also experiences in order to fulfil customers’ increasing demand for more stimuli in purchase situations. Additionally, brick and mortar retailers will need to respond to the increased use of online sales channels through finding ways of attracting customers to their stores. One way of responding to both trends can be to practise Experience Marketing and thereby offer holisti...

  19. MARKETING OBJECTIVES OF RETAILERS WITH DIFFERENTIATED GOODS: AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiaojun XIAO; Gang YU

    2006-01-01

    In the real world, revenue maximization behavior may prevail in various markets. To understand this phenomenon, we develop a two-population model with two-vertically integrated channels. Every channel consists of one manufacturer and many (a sufficiently large number of) retailers that sell products in different markets by adopting pure marketing objective strategies: profit maximization and revenue maximization. We study the marketing objective behaviors in the quantity-setting duopoly and the price-setting duopoly situations respectively from an indirect evolutionary point of view. In the quantity-setting duopoly situation, we find that whether the equilibrium is an evolutionarily stable strategy depends on the type of strategic interaction (substitutes or complements), relative unit cost, market scale, etc. We extend it to the case with continuous preferences. We argue that revenue maximization may be an evolutionarily stable strategy and profit maximization strategy may be unstable. Under proper conditions, revenue maximization behavior can coexist with profit maximization behavior. In the price-setting duopoly situation with linear demand functions, we find that profit maximization is always an evolutionarily stable strategy and revenue maximization behavior will gradually become extinct. The extended model has a similar result but the retailers may compromise the two pure strategies.

  20. Analysis of Website and Marketing Promotion To Facilitate Online Marketing in Printing Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Patankar, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    In today’s era of internet with evolution of Web 2.0, all the organisations dealing in retail are going online. In fact online presence has been mandatory requirement today and does no longer hold any competitive advantage by far. In country like India, printing retail industry has been found to be in a state of growth. There is wide array of literature available that analyzes critical success factors for online marketing in general as well as precisely for retail industry. This management pr...

  1. Forecasting the Electricity Demand and Market Shares in Retail Electricity Market Based on System Dynamics and Markov Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Qingyou Yan; Chao Qin; Mingjian Nie; Le Yang

    2018-01-01

    Due to the deregulation of retail electricity market, consumers can choose retail electric suppliers freely, and market entities are facing fierce competition because of the increasing number of new entrants. Under these circumstances, forecasting the changes in all market entities, when market share stabilized, is important for suppliers making marketing decisions. In this paper, a market share forecasting model was established based on Markov chain, and a system dynamics model was construct...

  2. On the measurement of retail marketing mix effects in the presence of different economic regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bode (Ben); J. Koerts (Johan); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThis study deals with the measurement of the effects of retail marketing instruments on annual sales in retail stores. We assume that the sales level in retail stores is determined by an interplay of supply capacity and demand factors. In some stores sales are supply-determined, whereas

  3. French retail electricity and gas markets functioning - 2011-2012 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    French retail electricity and gas markets are progressively opening to competition. These changes reflect the development of more competitive market offers with respect to regulated sales tariffs in both energies, as well as a better knowledge of these markets by end-users. In this context of retail markets development, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) pays attention to the monitoring of actors behaviour, in particular in the domain of price and offer transparency. This report presents, first, the situation of the French retail electricity and gas markets by December 31, 2011. Then, an economic analysis of the supplies on retail market is made. Next, a qualitative analysis of transparency and operation on retail markets is presented. Finally, CRE makes some proposals for the improvement of the transparency and operation of these markets

  4. Retail gentrification. Staged spaces and the gourmet market model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz de Lourdes Cordero Gómez del Campo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retail gentrification is understood as a process in which commercial activity is transformed to meet the needs of a sector of the population with higher incomes resulting in the displacement of merchants and products, seen from the implementation of the model of the gourmet market. This process, which is seen in the interest of copying the commercial formats of successful cases from gourmet markets such as the San Miguel Market in Madrid or the Borough Market in London, is linked to an offer aimed at satisfying consumption demands produced by a sector of the population that although not being equivalent concepts, different authors identify as cultural omnivores or creative class, coinciding in that these groups have a high cultural and economic capital. In the present work it is discussed how in Mexico City in the absence of the transformation of public markets into gourmet markets and with the inauguration of the Roma Market in 2014, the staging of commercial spaces labeled as gourmet markets has intensified and they are inserted in neighborhoods where they seek to generate development and links with the community, but because of their prices and the characteristics of the products they offer, they are beyond the reach of the local population.

  5. Market readiness report : status of preparation for Ontario's competitive retail electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ontario Energy Board (OEB) assumes a leadership role in the electricity sector to ensure the readiness of retail participants in Ontario's competitive electricity market. The Market Readiness Project Team is instrumental in this activity. The team, led by the Independent Electricity Market Operator, provides information and advice regarding the technical readiness of the retail industry, with particular focus on the readiness of distributors to carry out their important functions in a competitive market. This report provides an assessment of the team regarding the industry's technical readiness based on information as of December 14, 2001. The status of retail market readiness was reviewed in terms of the viability of the design of the new competitive market and on the status of Ontario distributors in enabling a competitive market. The workplan for the remaining industry activities needed to achieve market opening were then summarized along with the contingency arrangements for any distributors that are not ready for market opening. Based on several projections, an estimated 88 per cent of Ontario contracts will be served by a distributor starting on a May 1, 2002 market opening. tabs., figs., appendices

  6. Directions in healthcare research: pointers from retailing and services marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, Thomas L J; Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Although the importance of the environment in relation to healing processes has been well established, empirical evidence for environmental effects on patient well-being and behavior is sparse. In addition, few attempts have been made to integrate insights from related fields of research such as retailing and services marketing with findings from healthcare studies. In this paper, relevant findings and insights from these domains are discussed. What insights and findings from retailing and services marketing are (potentially) of interest to the healthcare context, and how should one interpret and follow up on these results in healthcare environments? Research in retailing and services marketing indicates that physical environmental factors (i.e., music and scent) and social environmental factors (i.e., crowded conditions) may affect consumer satisfaction and well-being. In addition, environmental effects have been shown to vary with contextual factors (e.g., the type of environment) and consumer needs (e.g., the extent to which consumers value social contact or stimulation in a specific setting). Although the evidence base for environmental factors in health environments is steadily growing, few attempts have been made to integrate findings from both domains. The findings presented indicate that environmental variables such as music and scent can contribute to patient well-being and overall satisfaction. In addition, findings suggest that these variables may be used to counteract the negative effects resulting from crowded conditions in different healthcare units. Taking into account recent developments in the healthcare industry, the importance of creating memorable and pleasant patient experiences is likely to grow in the years to come. Hence, the finding that subtle and relatively inexpensive manipulations may affect patient well-being in profound ways should inspire follow-up research aimed at unraveling the specifics of environmental influences in health

  7. Common Nordic Retail Market. Organisation of the further work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    For several years NordREG has been working to promote and facilitate a common Nordic end user market. Given the political support that was expressed at the meeting of the Nordic energy ministers in the autumn of 2009, the work has become even more concrete. It should also be noted that the energy ministers expressed their support for the NordREGs implementation plan for a common Nordic retail market at their yearly meeting on the 25th of October 2010. With this organization document, NordREG define the organization of the future work and the governance rules of the whole process. The document shows which bodies needs to be established, what their roles are and how the decision-making and the consultation of stakeholders will be organized. As the document shows, the need for contributed efforts from all stakeholders will be vital in the coming years in order to make a reality of the plans for creating a common Nordic end user market. The organization document has been prepared by the NordREG Retail and Distribution Working Group. Nordenergi and Nordic TSOs have had an opportunity to comment the document before it was finalized. NordREG appreciates all the comments and has taken them into consideration before finalizing the document

  8. The Impact of Relationship Marketing Strategy in Indonesia Retail Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Pandapotan Simbolon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the impact of relationship marketing strategy on customer loyalty in Indonesia’s retail industries. A questionnaire derived from previous studies and the relevant literature was completed by 182 retail customers in Jakarta. Multiple regression analysis assessed the impact on customer loyalty of four key constructs of relationship marketing (trust, commitment, communication, and conflict handling. The two variables (trust and commitment had a significant effect and predicted a good proportion of the variance in customer loyalty. Moreover, they were significantly related to one another. The relationships investigated in this study deserved further research. Since the data analyzed were collected from one sector of the service industry in one region, more studies were required before general conclusions can be drawn. It is reasonable to conclude, on this evidence, that customer loyalty can be created, reinforced, and retained by marketing plans aimed at building trust, demonstrating a commitment to service, communicating with customers in a timely, reliable and proactive fashion, and handling conflict efficiently, reinforces and refines the body of knowledge relating to customer loyalty in service industries.

  9. Diagnosis of the retail flower market of Santa Maria, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Farias Menegaes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to diagnose the flowers retail market and ornamental plants in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, by means of a research in loco, from January to June of 2013, based on questionnaires and interviews applied to the managers of the establishment, as well as of an application of a visual and phytosanitary scale to other establishments that sell flowers and ornamental plants, such as agricultural shops, fairs of horticultural products, supermarkets and providers of funeral services - cemeteries and funeral homes. The diagnosis aims to know the steps of the dynamics observed from the market of flowers until the final consumer, and to segment the types of floricultures, distinguishing them according to the commercial focus — floricultures of arrangements and bouquets, and producing flowers and landscape floricultures. Based on the diagnosis it can be concluded that the Santa Maria retail flowers and ornamental plants follows the national trend of floral arrangements and bouquets shops, with the increase of the companies focused on landscaping and gardening. Among the most marketed plants are the rose as the best-selling cut flower, the begonia as potted flower, the fern for foliage arrangements, the cactus as potted plant, the raffia as garden plant and the pansy as the best-selling plant in boxes.

  10. Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-Based Pricing, and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Noel

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines dynamic pricing behavior in retail gasoline markets for 19 Canadian cities over 574 weeks. I find three distinct retail pricing patterns: 1. cost-based pricing, 2. sticky pricing, and 3. steep, asymmetric retail price cycles that, while seldom documented empirically, resemble those of Maskin & Tirole[1988]. Using a Markov switching regression, I estimate the prevalence of patterns and the structural characteristics of the cycles. Retail price cycles prevail in over 40% of ...

  11. Price asymmetry in the Dutch retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettendorf, Leon; Geest, Stephanie A. van der; Varkevisser, Marco

    2003-01-01

    This article analyses the retail price adjustments in the Dutch gasoline market. We estimate an asymmetric error correction model on weekly price changes for the years 1996-2001. We construct five datasets, one for each working day. The conclusions on asymmetric pricing are shown to differ over these datasets, suggesting that the choice of the day for which the prices are observed matters more than commonly believed. In our view, the insufficient robustness of the outcomes might explain the mixed conclusions found in the literature. Using these two approaches, we also show that the effect of asymmetry on the Dutch consumer costs is negligible. (Author)

  12. Price asymmetry in the Dutch retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettendorf, L.; Van der Geest, S.A.; Varkevisser, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses retail price adjustments in the Dutch gasoline market. We estimate an asymmetric error correction model on weekly price changes for the years 1996 to 2001. We construct five datasets, one for each working day. The conclusions on asymmetric pricing are shown to differ over these datasets, suggesting that the choice of the day for which prices are observed matters more than commonly believed. In our view, the insufficient robustness of outcomes might explain the mixed conclusions found in the literature. Using two approaches, we also show that the effect of asymmetry on Dutch consumer costs is negligible

  13. Testing for asymmetric pricing in the Canadian retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godby, R.; Lintner, A.M.; Stengos, T.; Wandschneider, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper applies a Threshold Regression model to test for asymmetric pricing in the retail gasoline market in Canada, using weekly data for the period January 1990 to December 1996. We present results for 13 Canadian cities for both premium and regular gasoline. Within the context of an error correction model we test for the presence of asymmetric price behaviour using average changes in crude prices as well as various lags for the change in crude as possible thresholds. We are unable to find any evidence to support this view. 23 refs

  14. Consumer preferences for over-the-counter drug retailers in the reregulated Swedish pharmacy market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove

    2016-03-01

    Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Restructuring and the retail residential market for power in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleit, Andrew N.; Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    In January 2010 electricity retail residential rate caps expired in a large part of Pennsylvania, allowing consumers to shop for electricity in the retail market. In this paper we employ customer-level data from the relevant territory to analyze what residential customer and community characteristics impacted the decision of whether or not to switch to an alternative electricity provider, and when to make the switch. Results show that customers with higher usage levels (especially around the time of the program's introduction), electric heating, and those living in more urban and more educated communities with lower unemployment rates and higher median household incomes were both more likely to switch, and more likely to do so faster. Lower switching rates and a slower switching response was observed from customers with more variable month to month usage (perhaps this made them unsure of future benefits from switching), those on alternative residential electricity rates (time-of-day and thermal storage programs), and those new to the relevant area (perhaps due to lack of information about the residential choice program). Critics of retail electricity competition have suggested that it disadvantages poor and elderly ratepayers. Our results do not support this contention. Customers living in communities with higher poverty rates were actually more likely to switch (and do so faster) than middle-income consumers. Communities with higher shares of senior population were not found to have lower switching rates from younger communities. - Highlights: ► We analyze introduction of retail competition in Pennsylvania's electricity sector. ► We evaluate what characteristics influence consumers to switch electric providers. ► Higher usage and electric heat influence customers to switch and to do so faster. ► More variable usage and being new to service area deter switching. ► High poverty rates induce switching; older communities no less likely to switch.

  16. Equilibria in the competitive retail electricity market considering uncertainty and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrati, Saeed; Kazemi, Mostafa; Ehsan, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In a medium term planning horizon, a retailer should determine its forward contracting and pool participating strategies as well as the selling price to be offered to the customers. Considering a competitive retail electricity market, the number of clients being supplied by any retailer is a function of the selling prices and some other characteristics of all the retailers. This paper presents an equilibrium problem formulation to model the retailer's medium term decision making problem considering the strategy of other retailers. Decision making of any single retailer is formulated as a risk constraint stochastic programming problem. Uncertainty of pool prices and clients' demands is modeled with scenario generation method and CVaR (conditional value at risk) is used as the risk measure. The resulting single retailer planning problem is a quadratic constrained programming problem which is solved using the Lagrangian relaxation method and the Nash equilibrium point of the competitive retailers is achieved by successive solving of this problem for all the retailers. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated using a realistic case study of Texas electricity market. - Highlights: • Presenting an equilibrium problem formulation for the retailer's decision-making. • Modeling consumer's retail choice behavior with an econometric model. • Managing the retailer's risk caused by rivals' strategy through CVaR. • Approximating the nonlinear price-quota curve with a piecewise-linear function. • Decomposing the nonlinear optimization problem using Lagrangian relaxation method.

  17. Quantitative data systemization and visualisation in marketing research: groceries selection determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Janová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to fill in the gap in effective interpretation of the results obtained when systemizing the marketing data by cluster analysis. The graphic visualization of the cluster analysis results is developed in the way the marketing information can be more easily readable and interpretable. Using the primary research data concerning decision making process of consumer when purchasing gro­ce­ries, the systemization of consumers using hierarchical cluster analysis is performed for several sets of consumers’ characteristics and for each case the graphic visualization is developed. The graphical information is interpreted and the marketing impacts of the results obtained by the cluster analysis and presented by the visualization are discussed. Range of possible applications of the procedure constructed encompasses also other spheres of primary and secondary marketing research and ge­ne­ral­ly is useful for the effective analyses of various statistical surveys.

  18. Eco-Labeling and Retailer Pricing Strategies: The U.K. Haddock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengjun Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In attempts to differentiate their store imagery, grocery retailers frequently introduce new products, which are often rich in extrinsic attributes such as claims regarding healthiness and environmental sustainability. This paper explores retailers’ pricing strategies for product attributes of haddock in the United Kingdom. The results show that retailers’ pricing strategies vary, in particular for extrinsic product attributes such as eco-labels and country-of-origin. The high price premium generated from the most advocated eco-labels and an emphasis upon promotion strategies appear to play a role in the success of high-end retailers, and may have implications for any heightened competitive responses by larger retail chains in the future.

  19. Understanding household switching behavior in the retail electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yingkui

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of the Danish retail electricity market nearly a decade ago has produced little consumer switching among suppliers or renegotiation of supplier service contracts. From an energy policy perspective, a certain amount of supplier switching is an important indicator of the success of market deregulation. This argues that poor relationship management and a lack of economic benefits are two critical barriers to consumer switching. Latent class analysis indicates that only 11.4% of consumers are non-switchers, whereas 41.1% can be considered potential switchers and approximately one-half (47.5%) can be considered apathetic consumers. We also discuss the managerial implications for both electricity suppliers and policy makers. - Highlights: • This paper investigates the barriers for electricity supplier switching in Denmark. • Four switching barriers were identified. • Relationship management and economic benefits are critical for consumer switching. • Three consumer segments for electricity supplier switching were identified

  20. Perlindungan Hukum Hak Kekayaan Intelektual (Hki) Dalam Waralaba Retail Mini Market Di Yogyakarta Mini Market Di Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Hariyanto Hariyanto, S.H., M.KN

    2009-01-01

    The Law Protection Intellectual Property Right in Mini Market Retail Franchise in YogyakartaFranchise business is more happening in Indonesia. This fast development indicates an interesting investment which on the same time helps the business subjects in starting their own business with a low risk. The franchise business which commonly stable is retail business. One of retail business which serves the main needs and daily needs is mini market Alfamart and Indomaret.This research aims to ident...

  1. The role of vibrant retail electricity markets in assuring that wholesale power markets operate effectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, A.J.; Rufin, C.; Swinand, G.

    1999-01-01

    Barriers to competitive supplier entry such as California's wholesale-price pass-through model can provide an almost insurmountable barrier to effective retail competition. The telecommunications, airline, and software industries provide lessons--positive and negative--on how creating competitive wholesale markets is insufficient to bring the benefits of competition to smaller consumers

  2. The role of vibrant retail electricity markets in assuring that wholesale power markets operate effectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulding, A.J.; Rufin, C.; Swinand, G.

    1999-12-01

    Barriers to competitive supplier entry such as California's wholesale-price pass-through model can provide an almost insurmountable barrier to effective retail competition. The telecommunications, airline, and software industries provide lessons--positive and negative--on how creating competitive wholesale markets is insufficient to bring the benefits of competition to smaller consumers.

  3. Modeling Demand Response in Electricity Retail Markets as a Stackelberg Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    We model the retail market with dynamic pricing as a Stackelberg game where both retailers (leaders) and flexible consumers (followers) solve an economic cost-minimization problem. The electricity retailer optimizes an economic objective over a daily horizon by setting an hourly price-sequence, w......We model the retail market with dynamic pricing as a Stackelberg game where both retailers (leaders) and flexible consumers (followers) solve an economic cost-minimization problem. The electricity retailer optimizes an economic objective over a daily horizon by setting an hourly price...... with Equilibrium Constraints (MPEC) and cast as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP), which can be solved using off-the-shelf optimization software. In an illustrative example, we consider a retailer associated with both flexible demand and wind power production. Such an example shows the efficiency of dynamic...

  4. The Retail Romanian Market and the Functional Integrated Commercial Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian trade is passing through a transforming process, both for what the nature of the involved economic agents are concerned and the methods, techniques, knowledge etc. necessary for the activities within this economic field. Many of the favourable changes have been produced both under the influence of the large foreign retail groups (especially the European ones, present at themoment on the Romanian market too, and the impact of certain legislativeregulations applicable in this field. Right from the beginning of the “postDecember” period, there was an imperative need as far as the trade developmentwas concerned, as well as the creation of an urban framework that should offeroptimal conditions to carry out trading activities. The implementation of the foreignretail groups (including the large commercial centers has brought to our countrythe practices and commercial policies encountered in the civilized world, imposing at the same time the practice of the real competition, accompanied by a series of more or less favourable consequences, both at the local and national level. By the mid of March 2008, the hypermarket and supermarket type of market chains, discount and cash & carry markets (over 40 is going through an extension process, a fact which is to be observed in the huge number of markets in Romania, the Romanian market being open for the foreign investments.

  5. CHINESE RETAIL MARKET: REAL POTENTIAL TO BECOME THE GREATEST WORLDWIDE BEFORE 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECATERINA STǍNCULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to capture current market developments of the Chinese retail sales in the last 4-5 years, emphasising its tendency to become the first global market before 2020. The author makes a brief analysis of the Chinese retail market sales characteristics including growth rates, sales structure, influencing factors (population growing income, urbanization, consumer goods imports. The characteristics of the constantly changing retail consumer market and the main challenges faced by the trans-national companies activating on the Chinese market represent distinct points in the analysis undertaken in this article.

  6. Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Heffner, Grayson; Sedano, Richard

    2008-05-27

    The Organization of Midwest ISO States (OMS) launched the Midwest Demand Resource Initiative (MWDRI) in 2007 to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) region and develop policies to overcome them. The MWDRI stakeholders decided that a useful initial activity would be to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This additional detail could then be used to assess any"seams issues" affecting coordination and integration of retail DR resources with MISO's wholesale markets. Working with state regulatory agencies, we conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs, dynamic pricing tariffs, and their features in MISO states. Utilities were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g., seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. This report describes the results of this comprehensive survey and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into organized wholesale markets. Survey responses from 37 MISO members and 4 non-members provided information on 141 DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs with a peak load reduction potential of 4,727 MW of retail DR resource. Major findings of this study area:- About 72percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;18percent. Almost 90percent of the DR resources included in this survey are provided by investor-owned utilities. - Approximately, 90percent of the DR resources are available with less than

  7. Canadian retail petroleum markets study : a review of competitiveness in the Canadian refined petroleum marketing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    A retail petroleum market study was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the competitiveness of the downstream petroleum industry in Canada, as well as to provide a foundation for effective policy development. A model which illustrates the interrelationships between the many stakeholders who receive revenue from the sale of gasoline was presented. It was shown that although there has been an upward trend in world crude prices since 1991, both refiners and marketers have experienced a decline in margins due to price competition at the rack and at the retail pump. Government intervention into petroleum marketing was considered to be of questionable value and a poor alternative to market-based regulation. In this study, 19 markets representing a broad range of conditions, were chosen for a detailed review of outlet economics. Market-by-market and regional comparisons of key competitiveness indicators were reviewed and discussed. Improving public understanding and awareness of competition in the petroleum marketing sector and developing cooperative industry research into marketing sector competitive issues were recommended. 7 refs., 15 tabs., 37 figs

  8. Eligibility in the electricity and gas retail markets in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, F.

    2003-01-01

    The true liberalization of the electricity and gas retail markets in Spain was initiated in 1997 and 1998 respectively with the approval of the Electricity Act and the Hydrocarbons Act that set up the regulatory framework for both sectors. The initial eligibility calendars established were speeded up by later legal dispositions which set the full eligibility in January 2003. Therefore in January the number of eligible consumers increased from 65,000 electricity consumers to 22 million and from around 5,000 gas consumers to 4.5 million. In Spain there has been however a coexistence of a liberalized market and a regulated market. While in the liberalized market the consumer will pay a regulated Third Party Access (TPA) tariff for the use of the network and a free price for the energy, in the regulated market the consumer will pay all-inclusive tariffs which are established by the Government in the case of the electricity tariffs and by the Ministry of Economy in the case of the gas tariffs. Today any electricity and gas consumer can choose whether he wants to be supplied through the regulated market or through the liberalized one. Only the electricity HV (High Voltage Supply) all-inclusive tariffs are to disappear in 2007. No date has been set for the others. Also important is to highlight the increase in the consumption of both energy sources. The electricity demand has increased about 38 percent from 1997 (155 TWh/year) to 2002 (214 TWh/year). The gas sector, on the other hand, has increased at a higher rate. From 150 TWh/year in January 1999 to almost 270 TWh/year in July 2003, an 80 percent increase in four and a half years.(author)

  9. Marketing de relacionamento entre fabricantes e varejistas Relationship marketing between manufacturers and retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Crescitelli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Para os fabricantes, o relacionamento com o canal de distribuição é uma atividade essencial, que se torna crítica em virtude da tendência de concentração do varejo em redes de grande porte. O uso do marketing de relacionamento junto a atacadistas e varejistas pode ser um instrumento valioso, desde que aplicado de forma adequada. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as relações entre fabricantes e redes de varejo. A intenção é identificar em quais circunstâncias o marketing de relacionamento pode contribuir para a melhoria das relações e, conseqüentemente, potencializar o desempenho dos fabricantes. Para isso, foi feita uma pesquisa bibliográfica sobre marketing de relacionamento e canais de distribuição, além de uma pesquisa de campo envolvendo entrevistas em profundidade com representantes de fabricantes e de redes varejistas do setor de eletrodomésticos. O estudo permite concluir que o marketing de relacionamento pode exercer influência positiva, contribuindo para a melhoria das relações entre fabricante e varejista, mas a efetividade de seus efeitos depende das condições em que ele é aplicado.The relationship of manufacturers with the distribution channel is an essential activity that is becoming more critical as retailing tends to concentrate in large specialized companies. Relationship marketing with wholesalers and retailers can be a valuable tool if appropriately used. Circumstances where relationship marketing between manufacturers and retailers may contribute to improve relations as well as maximize the performance of manufacturers were investigated. Literature was reviewed on the subjects of relationship marketing and marketing channels. Field research included in depth interviews with manufacturers' representatives and appliance retailer networks. Results show that relationship marketing may have a positive influence by contributing to better relations between manufacturers and retailers; however

  10. Coastal Contacts’ Business Development in the North American Online Retail Eyeglass Market

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    The following paper is an analysis of Coastal Contacts Inc. and the North American retail eyeglass industry. Coastal Contacts is an online retailer of contact lenses and prescription eyeglasses. At the time of writing the company has recently entered the eyeglasses market. This industry has an underdeveloped online retail channel. The reason the channel has not developed as quickly as other products such as contact lenses is because eyeglasses are a more complicated purchase. As more purchase...

  11. Retail Productivity: Investigating the Influence of Market Size and Regional Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Özge

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the productivity of independent retail stores in Sweden by focusing on the impact of market size and regional hierarchy while controlling for several store and employee characteristics over time. The analysis utilizes Swedish store-level data for the years 2002–2008. To capture the urban-periphery interaction in retail markets, the analysis (i) uses an accessible market potential measure, which captures the impact of the potential demand both in clo...

  12. Assessing Reliability and Validity of the "GroPromo" Audit Tool for Evaluation of Grocery Store Marketing and Promotional Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F.; Bromby, Erica; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate reliability and validity of a new tool for assessing the placement and promotional environment in grocery stores. Methods: Trained observers used the "GroPromo" instrument in 40 stores to code the placement of 7 products in 9 locations within a store, along with other promotional characteristics. To test construct validity,…

  13. EVALUATION OF COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES OF COFFEE RETAILING IN ASPECT OF MARKET ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı ÖZTOPÇU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coffee retailers are trying to improve both their products and services and to increase their market share. Companies are both competing and developing different strategies such as issues production, R&D, business model, customers, and innovations. The aim of this study is to determine the competitive strategies in the coffee retailing aspect of the market economy. For this purpose, firstly, in this sector, the major competitors, suppliers, and customers were researched and the general structure of the sector was determined. Secondly, size of the global market, industry, and demand growth rate and the future status of the coffee retail industry were determined. Finally, the bargaining power of customers and suppliers of the sector were evaluated. According to the evaluation obtained, it was understood that coffee retailing is an attractive, large and dynamic sector. In the analysis according to the study of Porter’s five force model, important information was obtained for coffee retailing.

  14. THE MODEL OF THE FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES ON ROMANIAN RETAIL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    SILVIA PUIU

    2010-01-01

    The paper is about the model of the five competitive forces of Michael Porter. In the first part, I have presented the theoretical aspects of the model and after that, I tried to apply the model on the retail market in Romania. I used data gathered from national and international institutes of market research and also from the information offered by the main retailers on their web sites. The retail market in our country is not very good crystalized, but has had a good evolution in the last ye...

  15. SEGMENTING RETAIL MARKETS ON STORE IMAGE USING A CONSUMER-BASED METHODOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEENKAMP, JBEM; WEDEL, M

    1991-01-01

    Various approaches to segmenting retail markets based on store image are reviewed, including methods that have not yet been applied to retailing problems. It is argued that a recently developed segmentation technique, fuzzy clusterwise regression analysis (FCR), holds high potential for store-image

  16. Energy to the masses : a blueprint for competition in Alberta's retail energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topp, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for competition in Alberta's retail energy market and its influence on Direct Energy Marketing Limited . The main factors for successful retail energy competition were identified as being a level playing field for all retailers; a stable and committed regulatory framework; customer education; brand trust and visibility; regulated pricing which reflects market conditions; customer service and billing; unrestricted customer choice; and, conformity between electricity and gas markets. Direct Energy is a wholly owned subsidiary of British-based Centrica plc, one of the top 30 companies in the United Kingdom in terms of market capitalization. It was created during Britain's regulatory reform of the energy industry and operates through 4 retail brand units. Centrica entered the North American market in 2000 when it acquired Direct Energy Marketing Limited which supplies energy and services to half of the households in Ontario. Direct Energy is expected to increase its customer base with the pending closure of ATCO Gas and ATCO Electric in Alberta, making it Canada's largest provider of retail energy services. In a competitive energy market, retailers can offer a wider range of products than energy alone. Cost-to services can be reduced by offering services such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning

  17. Forecast Collaboration in Grocery Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Gammelgaard, Britta

    -requisites, degree of forecast collaboration, demand related contingency factors and outcomes/KPIs based. The hypotheses are tested in a survey among Danish grocery suppliers. The survey findings provide evidence of a positive effect of collaborative orientation and retailer competencies and trustworthiness...

  18. New Strategies of the Retail Market to Attract Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Cãlin Mariana Floricica

    2012-01-01

    New realities of the digital age (continuous growth of internet penetration, card payments and mobile applications) forcing large retailers to rethink their tactics to increase business. The consequences of this development are manifold and manifest more and more that consumers want the ability to get information online on a retailer, you can compare prices - so an increasing demand for transparency - and you can order anytime, anywhere in a simple manner. Online retail allows introducing a w...

  19. Travel Distance and Market Size in Food Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Youngbin

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the process of change in urban systems, specifically the changes in the relationships between urban transportation and food retail distribution activities. The dynamic properties of food retailing and transportation systems are identified by tracing location patterns of food stores in Seattle, Washington. Increases in travel demand due to food shopping trips are estimated based on changes in spatial arrangement of food retail activities over the past 50 years. The study ...

  20. Influence of wholesale lamb marketing options and merchandising styles on retail yield and fabrication time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, C L; Martin, A M; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1997-01-01

    Lamb carcasses (n = 94) from five packing plants, selected to vary in weight class and fat thickness, were used to determine retail yield and labor requirements of wholesale lamb fabrication. Carcasses were allotted randomly according to weight class to be fabricated as whole carcasses (n = 20), three-piece boxes (n = 22), or subprimals (n = 52). Processing times (seconds) were recorded and wholesale and retail weights (kilograms) were obtained to calculate retail yield. Subprimals were fabricated into bone-in retail cuts or boneless or semi-boneless retail cuts. Retail yield for subprimal lamb legs decreased from 85.3 +/- .6% for bone-in to 68.0 +/- .7% for a completely boneless retail product. Correspondingly, processing times increased from 126.1 +/- 5.4 s to 542.0 +/- 19.2 s for bone-in and boneless legs, respectively. For all subprimals, retail yield percentage tended to decrease and total processing time increase as cuts were fabricated to boneless or semi-boneless end points compared with a bone-in end point. Percentage retail yield did not differ (P > .05) among whole carcass, three-piece box, and subprimal marketing methods. Total processing time was shorter for subprimals (P < .05) than for the other two marketing methods.

  1. The Grocery Sector from the 1960s to the Present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    , the paper serves as a case study of the introduction of the motor vehicle in Denmark. Both the supply of goods to the retail outlets (the wholesale side) and the shopping transport are covered. The period covered has seen both a profound restructuring of the grocery sector structure (incl. a reduction...... of the retail shops by some 60%) and a complete change in shopping patterns. The transport demand for grocery shopping has grown 3.8 times, while freight transport of groceries has tripled. Fuel consumption and CO2-emissions are about 2.5 times higher today compared to 1960, whereas NOx-emissions are 3.6 times...

  2. Antibiotic resistance profile and RAPD analysis of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from vegetables farms and retail markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Yew Huat Tang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: C. jejuni contamination in vegetables at retail markets was due to cross contamination. Current finding proved that C. jejuni in small scale vegetables production was less expose towards antibiotic abuse.

  3. To buy or not to buy? An experimental study of consumer boycotts in retail markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tyran, J. R.; Engelmann, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 285 (2005), s. 1-16 ISSN 0013-0427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : retail market * consumers * prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2005

  4. Competition, regulation, and pricing behavior in the Spanish retail gasoline market

    OpenAIRE

    Contín Pilart, Ignacio; Correljé, Aad F.; Palacios, María Blanca

    2006-01-01

    The restructuring of the Spanish oil industry produced a highly concentrated oligopoly in the retail gasoline market. In June 1990 the Spanish government introduced a system of ceiling price regulation in order to ensure that "liberalization" was accompanied by adequate consumer protection. This paper examines the pricing behavior of the retail gasoline market using multivariate error correction models over the period January 1993 (abolishment of the state monopoly)-December 2004. The results...

  5. The Importance of Management in the Deregulated Retail Electricity Distribution Market in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Drago Papler; Stefan Bojnec

    2006-01-01

    This paper underlines the importance of management in the deregulated retail electricity distribution market, entrepreneurship and business behaviours toward consumers’ satisfaction with quality of services. The coefficients of concentration indicate a high concentration of electricity suppliers and users in the deregulated electricity retail market for industry. The production function reveals the importance of education and electricity infrastructure, and to a lesser extent of capital inten...

  6. Did the expiration of retail price caps affect prices in the restructured Texas electricity market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Linhong; Zarnikau, Jay

    2009-01-01

    On January 1, 2007, the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) market became the first restructured market in the US to completely remove caps on the prices which could be charged to residential energy consumers by the retailers associated with the traditional or incumbent utility service providers. Our analysis suggests that the expiration of the price-to-beat (PTB) price caps may have led to a reduction in the average prices charged by competitive retail electric providers (REPs). (author)

  7. Strategic evaluation of bilateral contract for electricity retailer in restructured power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karandikar, R.G.; Khaparde, S.A.; Kulkarni, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    In a competitive market scenario, consumers make payments for the consumption of electricity to retailers at fixed tariff. The retailers buy power at the Market Clearing Price (MCP) in spot market and/or through bilateral contract at agreed upon price. Due to these different modes at buying and selling ends, the retailers are faced with an involved task of estimating their payoffs along with the risk-quantification. The methodology presented in this paper gives a range of bilateral quantity and associated price for a retailer to ensure risk-constrained payoff. The exercise is carried out with a single retailer in the market as well as for a case of competition amongst two retailers. Risk is quantified using Risk Adjusted Recovery on Capital (RAROC). The problem is evaluated to get a range of bilateral quantity to be quoted for a particular bilateral price at fixed tariff of loyal load and fixed value of switching load. This summary combined with risk-averseness of the retailer leads him to make a judicial choice about bilateral transactions such that it leads to a risk-constrained payoff. (author)

  8. French retail electricity and gas markets functioning - 2012-2013 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    French retail electricity and gas markets are still progressively opening to competition. Competition dynamics, even if more limited on the electricity market, is changing in a favorable way. These changes reflect the development of more competitive market offers with respect to regulated sales tariffs in both energies, as well as a better knowledge of these markets by end-users. In this context of retail markets development, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) pays more and more attention to the monitoring of actors behaviour, in particular in the domain of price and offer transparency. This activity is going to become reinforced in the future with the scheduled disappearance of regulated sales tariffs. This report presents the situation of the French retail electricity and gas markets by December 31, 2012 (supplies, offers and prices), with a comparison with other European countries (Germany, UK, Belgium)

  9. Analysis of the Italian generic medicines retail market: recommendations to enhance long-term sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Italy is among the European countries with the lowest uptake of generic medicines. This paper provides a perspective on the Italian generic medicines retail market. Fast market entrance of generic medicines in Italy is hindered by several factors: the existence of Complementary Protection Certificates in the past, the large market for copies and multiple cases of patent linkage. Prices of generic medicines in Italy are low compared to other European countries. To contain pharmaceutical expenditure, pharmaceutical companies are currently forced to pay back in case of overspending, which disproportionally penalizes small and fast growing companies, to which most generic companies belong to. Current demand-side policies do not successfully stimulate the use of generic medicines. The current market environment surrounding the Italian generic medicines retail market (i.e., low prices, low volumes) threatens its long-term sustainability. Recommendations to enhance the long-term sustainability of the Italian generic medicines retail market round off this perspective paper.

  10. THE MODEL OF THE FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES ON ROMANIAN RETAIL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA PUIU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is about the model of the five competitive forces of Michael Porter. In the first part, I have presented the theoretical aspects of the model and after that, I tried to apply the model on the retail market in Romania. I used data gathered from national and international institutes of market research and also from the information offered by the main retailers on their web sites. The retail market in our country is not very good crystalized, but has had a good evolution in the last years. The competition is intense, the barriers are relatively high, the power of national supplyers is diminished by the integration of Romania in European Union, the power of consumers is moderate and the substitutes appear as discount stores and e-retailing.

  11. Optimal selling price and energy procurement strategies for a retailer in an electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatami, A.R.; Seifi, H.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    In an electricity market, the retailer sets up contracts with the wholesale side for purchasing electricity and with the customers for its selling. This paper proposes a mathematical method based on mixed-integer stochastic programming to determine the optimal sale price of electricity to customers and the electricity procurement policy of a retailer for a specified period. The retailer has multiple choices for electricity procurement, such as spot market, forward contracts, call options and self-production. Risk is considered and modeled by conditional value-at-risk methodology. Also, the competition between retailers is modeled using a market share function. A case study is illustrated to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method. (author)

  12. Understanding the Online : Jewellery Retail Market : an integrated model to conduct SEM

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yihong

    2013-01-01

    Research into e-commerce is becoming more and more popular; however the jewellery industry is somewhat special. There are very few studies having adapted a strategic marketing perspective on the online jewellery retail market. This study suggested an integrated online marketing strategy which focuses on the search engine marketing (SEM) approach. A detailed procedure of conducting search engine marketing (SEM) is introduced. Through the method of online questionnaires, with the help of soc...

  13. AN OVERVIEW ON RETAIL REVERSE LOGISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical approach on retail reverse logistics. Environmental concern and the current marketing strategy have spurred retailers to implement strategies to facilitate product returns from end customers. Reverse logistics, indicating the process of this return flow, encompasses such activities as the movement of returned products, facilities to accommodate returned items, and overall remedy process for returned items. The retail industry, under great competitive pressure, has used return policies as a competitive weapon. Grocery retailers were the first to begin to focus serious attention on the problem of returns and to develop reverse logistics innovations. Grocery retailers first developed innovations such as reclamation centers. Reclamation centers, in turn, led to the establishment of centralized return centers. Centralizing returns has led to significant benefits for most firms that have implemented them. Over the last several years, retailers have consolidated. Now, more than ever, reverse logistics is seen as being important. This reverse distribution activity can be crucial to the survival of companies, because the permanent goodwill of the company is at stake. Businesses succeed because they respond to both external and internal changes and adjust in an effective manner to remain competitive.

  14. Sustainability Analysis and Market Demand Estimation in the Retail Industry through a Convolutional Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyao Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese retail industry is expected to grow dramatically over the next few years, owing to the rapid increase in purchasing power of Chinese consumers. Retail managers should analyze the market demands and avoid dull sales to promote the sustainable development of the retail industry. Economic sustainability in the retail industry, which refers to a suitable return of investment, requires the implementation of precise product allocation strategies in different regions. This study proposed a hybrid model to evaluate economic sustainability in the preparation of goods of retail shops on the basis of market demand evaluation. Through a grid-based convolutional neural network, a regression model was first established to model the relationship between consumer distribution and the potential market demand. Then, another model was proposed to evaluate the sustainability among regions based on their supply-demand analysis. An experiment was conducted based on the actual sales data of retail shops in Guiyang, China. Results showed an immense diversity of sustainability in the entire city and three classes of regions were distinguished, namely, high, moderate, and limited. Our model was proven to be effective in the sustainability evaluation of supply and demand in the retail industry after validation showed that its accuracy reached 92.8%.

  15. Concentration and drug prices in the retail market for malaria treatment in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Catherine; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim; Bloland, Peter; Mills, Anne

    2009-06-01

    The impact of market concentration has been little studied in markets for ambulatory care in the developing world, where the retail sector often accounts for a high proportion of treatments. This study begins to address this gap through an analysis of the consumer market for malaria treatment in rural areas of three districts in Tanzania. We developed methods for investigating market definition, sales volumes and concentration, and used these to explore the relationship between antimalarial retail prices and competition.The market was strongly geographically segmented and highly concentrated in terms of antimalarial sales. Antimalarial prices were positively associated with market concentration. High antimalarial prices were likely to be an important factor in the low proportion of care-seekers obtaining appropriate treatment.Retail sector distribution of subsidised antimalarials has been proposed to increase the coverage of effective treatment, but this analysis indicates that local market power may prevent such subsidies from being passed on to rural customers. Policymakers should consider the potential to maintain lower retail prices by decreasing concentration among antimalarial providers and recommending retail price levels. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Fecal Contamination on Produce from Wholesale and Retail Food Markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angela R; Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Unicomb, Leanne; Boehm, Alexandria B; Luby, Stephen; Davis, Jennifer; Pickering, Amy J

    2018-01-01

    Fresh produce items can become contaminated with enteric pathogens along the supply chain at the preharvest (e.g., irrigation water, soil, fertilizer) or postharvest (e.g., vendor handling or consumer handling) stages. This study assesses the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli , enterococci (ENT), and Bacteriodales on surfaces of carrots, eggplants, red amaranth leaves, and tomatoes obtained from both a wholesale market (recently harvested) and neighborhood retail markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We detected E. coli in 100% of carrot and red amaranth rinses, 92% of eggplant rinses, and 46% of tomato rinses. Using a molecular microbial source tracking assay, we found that 32% of produce samples were positive for ruminant fecal contamination. Fecal indicator bacteria were more likely to be detected on produce collected in retail markets compared with that in the wholesale market; retail market produce were 1.25 times more likely to have E. coli detected ( P = 0.03) and 1.24 times more likely to have ENT detected ( P = 0.03) as compared with wholesale market produce. Bacteriodales was detected in higher concentrations in retail market produce samples compared with wholesale market produce samples (0.40 log 10 gene copies per 100 cm 2 higher, P = 0.03). Our results suggest that ruminant and general fecal contamination of produce in markets in Dhaka is common, and suggest that unsanitary conditions in markets are an important source of produce fecal contamination postharvest.

  17. Status of French electricity and natural gas retail markets. Report 2015-2016 Control. Energy retail markets: how does competition progress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication aims at making data and indicators available to provide a view on recent evolutions of electric power and natural gas retail markets in France. After a presentation of some key figures produced by a survey on the knowledge of French people about market opening, this report first addresses the electric power market. It proposes an assessment of the electricity market opening by the end of December 2015: number of actors, number of large and non residential sites submitted to regulated prices, development of alternate providers, control of EDF commitments regarding long term contracts, assessment of competition intensity, follow-up of key processes and power cuts for non-payment. The report also proposes an analysis of the status of the power market on the territory of the main local distribution companies, and an analysis of electric power offers proposed to consumers (regulated prices, retail prices). The second part of the report addresses the same issues, but regarding the gas retail market

  18. Response to DOE's call for comments on its discussion paper on wholesale and retail market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, T.

    2005-01-01

    The options available to the Government of Alberta concerning retail electricity policy were reviewed by the Office of the Utilities Consumer Advocate. The Council claims that the deregulation of Alberta's electricity market has been a success because competition has added new generation and removed inefficient generation from service. However, the Council is concerned that the transition to competitive retail electricity market can impose additional costs and risks on small consumers. Therefore, it proposes that electricity be bought on a central basis for small consumers using a suitable mix of 3 to 5 year hedges; that competitive and regulated retailers be given full access to a centrally purchased hedge supply; that regulated retailers be offered a small customer service margin price incentive per kWh over the hedged energy rate; and that the regulated rate option be reviewed in 4 years. 1 fig

  19. Content Marketing for Small/Medium Online Re-tailers: Case Lamnia

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Mai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to acquire a deeper knowledge of content marketing, its relevance to small and medium online retailing businesses, and to examine the implementation of content marketing strategy by the case company. The research is done in parallel with the case company’s marketing development activities, thus it also determines the effectiveness of different content marketing tactics that were used. The data for the theoretical part of this thesis was collected from secondary da...

  20. An examination of the factors affecting consumer’s purchase decision in the Malaysian retail market

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Rajeh Hanaysha

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of corporate social responsibility, social media marketing, sales promotion, store environment and perceived value on a purchase decision in the retail sector. Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative research methodology was used and the data were collected from 278 customers of retail stores in Malaysia. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 19 and structural equation modelling on AMOS. Findings – The findings showed th...

  1. Perlindungan Hukum Hak Kekayaan Intelektual (Hki) Dalam Waralaba Retail Mini Market Di Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Hariyanto Hariyanto, S.H., M.KN

    2009-01-01

    Franchise business is more happening in Indonesia. This fast development indicates an interesting investment which on the same time helps the business subjects in starting their own business with a low risk. The franchise business which commonly stable is retail business. One of retail business which serves the main needs and daily needs is mini market Alfamart and Indomaret. This research aims to identify the IPR which the franchise's object between franchisor and franchisee in the mini mark...

  2. Organizational form, local market structure and corporate social performance in retail

    OpenAIRE

    Utgård, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    I study how organizational form and local market structure influence retail firms' corporate social performance (CSP). The theoretical model is based on agency theory, which in its origin focuses on the dyad between the principal and the agent. I extend this perspective and examine how characteristics of the environment outside the dyad influence the outcomes. Retail stores vary in their organizational form and thereby in their incentives to maximize profits. I hypothesize that the different ...

  3. Role of social media in retail network operations and marketing to enhance customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, U; Subramanian, N; Parrott, G

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The technology evolution compels retail networks to introduce unique business models to retain customers and to gain a competitive advantage. Customer reviews available through social media need to be taken into account by retail networks to design a model with unique service operations and marketing approaches that will improve loyalty by adding value to customers. Furthermore, the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer spending behaviour is very weak and needs furt...

  4. Product Market Deregulation and Employment Outcomes: Evidence from the German Retail Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Senftleben-König

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the short- and medium-term effects of the deregulation of shopopening hours legislation on retail employment in Germany. In 2006, the legislative competence was shifted from the federal to the state level, leading to a gradual deregulation of shop opening restrictions in most of Germany’s sixteen federal states. The paper exploits regional variation in the legislation in order to identify the effect product market deregulation has on retail employment. We find robust...

  5. Dynamic Customer Management and the Value of One-to-One Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Romana Khan; Michael Lewis; Vishal Singh

    2009-01-01

    The concept of one-to-one marketing is intuitively appealing, but there is little research that investigates the value of individual-level marketing relative to segment-level or mass marketing. In this paper, we investigate the financial benefits of and computational challenges involved in one-to-one marketing. The analysis uses data from an online grocery and drug retailer. Like many retailers, this firm uses multiple promotional instruments including discount coupons, free shipping offers, ...

  6. A History of Danish Advertising, Market Research, and Retailing: 1920-1960

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Kloppenborg

    2016-01-01

    The period from1920 to1960 witnessed the development of two new marketing institutions in Denmark; the advertising agency and the market research agency. And in the latter part of the period a much older and already established institution, retailing, underwent a complete transformation. Self...

  7. A Retail Center Facing Change: Using Data to Determine Marketing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kristen L.; Curren, Mary T.; Kiesler, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Plaza del Valle is an open-air shopping center in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles. The new marketing manager must review primary and secondary data to determine a target market, a product positioning strategy, and a promotion strategy for the retail shopping center with the ultimate goal of increasing revenue for the Plaza. She is…

  8. Consumer perceptions of the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and grocery stores among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Pallavi; McMillen, Robert; Winickoff, Jonathan P

    2013-07-09

    Pharmacy-based tobacco sales are a rapidly increasing segment of the U.S. retail tobacco market. Growing evidence links easy access to tobacco retail outlets such as pharmacies to increased tobacco use. This mixed-mode survey was the first to employ a nationally representative sample of consumers (n = 3057) to explore their opinions on sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and grocery stores. The majority reported that sale of tobacco products should be either 'allowed if products hidden from view' (29.9%, 25.6%) or 'not allowed at all' (24.0%, 31.3%) in grocery stores and pharmacies, respectively. Significantly fewer smokers, compared to non-smokers, reported agreement on point-of-sale restrictions on sales of tobacco products (grocery stores: 27.1% vs. 59.6%, p sales of tobacco in grocery stores and pharmacies or allowing sales only if the products are hidden from direct view. Both policy changes would represent a departure from the status quo. Consistent with the views of practicing pharmacists and professional pharmacy organizations, consumers are also largely supportive of more restrictive policies.

  9. Security of supply and retail competition in the European gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, Ibrahim, E-mail: ibrahim.abada@polytechnique.edu [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); EDF Research and Development, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France); EconomiX-CNRS, University of Paris Ouest (France); Massol, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.massol@ifpen.fr [Center for Economics and Management, IFP School, 228-232 av. Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Department of Economics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of uncertain disruptions in gas supply upon gas retailer contracting behavior and consequent price and welfare implications in a gas market characterized by long-term gas contracts using a static Cournot model. In order to most realistically describe the economical situation, our representation divides the market into two stages: the upstream market that links, by means of long-term contracts, producers in exporting countries (Russia, Algeria, etc.) to local retailers who bring gas to the consuming countries to satisfy local demands in the downstream market. Disruption costs are modeled using short-run demand functions. First we mathematically develop a general model and write the associated KKT conditions, then we propose some case studies, under iso-elasticity assumptions, for the long-short-run inverse-demand curves in order to predict qualitatively and quantitatively the impacts of supply disruptions on Western European gas trade. In the second part, we study in detail the German gas market of the 1980s to explain the supply choices of the German retailer, and we derive interesting conclusions and insights concerning the amounts and prices of natural gas brought to the market. The last part of the paper is dedicated to a study of the Bulgarian gas market, which is greatly dependent on the Russian gas supplies and hence very sensitive to interruption risks. Some interesting conclusions are derived concerning the necessity to economically regulate the market, by means of gas amounts control, if the disruption probability is high enough. - Highlights: > We model retail competition using a Nash-Cournot framework. > Risk-neutral retailers decide their import policy among a set of risky producers. > Case 1: the German gas trade of the 1980s to understand the gas sources' choices. > Case 2: the current Bulgarian gas trade to study the market properties. > Conclusions about the market regulation for welfare optimization reasons.

  10. Security of supply and retail competition in the European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Ibrahim; Massol, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of uncertain disruptions in gas supply upon gas retailer contracting behavior and consequent price and welfare implications in a gas market characterized by long-term gas contracts using a static Cournot model. In order to most realistically describe the economical situation, our representation divides the market into two stages: the upstream market that links, by means of long-term contracts, producers in exporting countries (Russia, Algeria, etc.) to local retailers who bring gas to the consuming countries to satisfy local demands in the downstream market. Disruption costs are modeled using short-run demand functions. First we mathematically develop a general model and write the associated KKT conditions, then we propose some case studies, under iso-elasticity assumptions, for the long-short-run inverse-demand curves in order to predict qualitatively and quantitatively the impacts of supply disruptions on Western European gas trade. In the second part, we study in detail the German gas market of the 1980s to explain the supply choices of the German retailer, and we derive interesting conclusions and insights concerning the amounts and prices of natural gas brought to the market. The last part of the paper is dedicated to a study of the Bulgarian gas market, which is greatly dependent on the Russian gas supplies and hence very sensitive to interruption risks. Some interesting conclusions are derived concerning the necessity to economically regulate the market, by means of gas amounts control, if the disruption probability is high enough. - Highlights: → We model retail competition using a Nash-Cournot framework. → Risk-neutral retailers decide their import policy among a set of risky producers. → Case 1: the German gas trade of the 1980s to understand the gas sources' choices. → Case 2: the current Bulgarian gas trade to study the market properties. → Conclusions about the market regulation for welfare optimization

  11. Electricity and natural gas retail markets - Observatory 3. Quarter 2017 (Figures as at 30/09/2017)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  12. Electricity and natural gas retail markets - Observatory 4. Quarter 2016 (Figures as at 31/12/2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  13. Electricity and natural gas retail markets - Observatory 3. Quarter 2016 (Figures as at 30/09/2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  14. Electricity and natural gas retail markets - Observatory 2. Quarter 2016 (Figures as at 30/06/2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  15. Electricity and natural gas retail markets - Observatory 2. Quarter 2017 (Figures as at 30/06/2017)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  16. Electricity and natural gas retail markets - Observatory 1. Quarter 2017 (Figures as at 31/03/2017)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  17. Electricity and natural gas retail markets - Observatory 4. Quarter 2017 (Figures as at 31/12/2017)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  18. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to {open_quotes}play the market{close_quotes}. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers.

  19. STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR IN RETAIL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Dubey; Dr. Siddharth Saini; Dr. Srishti Umekar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study are determining the impact of the most used tools of sales promotion in retail sector such as coupons, sample, price discount and buy one get one free on consumer buying behavior from two aspects are brand switching and customer loyalty. Consumer promotions should stimulate purchases, sustain brand-name recognition, and gain audience participation. Themes are underlying messages. Media should be selected. In this way include direct mail, newspapers, magazines, televis...

  20. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen...

  1. Slotting allowances to coordinate manufacturers’ retail sales effort

    OpenAIRE

    Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sand, Jan Yngve

    2007-01-01

    Slotting allowances are fees paid by manufacturers to get access to retailers’ shelf space. Although the main attention towards slotting allowances has been within the grocery industry, slotting allowances have also been applied within e.g. e-commerce and mobile telephony. In these industries we observe that distributors have large market power due to their control of access to customers. We analyse how shifting bargaining power from manufacturers to retailers and the use of slotting allowanc...

  2. Labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Meloni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25% presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35% and open-air markets (25% compared with the big retailing chains (20%. The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  3. Labelling and Marketing of Bivalve and Gastropod Molluscs Retailed in Sardinia, Italy Between 2009 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico

    2015-05-28

    The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25%) presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35%) and open-air markets (25%) compared with the big retailing chains (20%). The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  4. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to open-quotes play the marketclose quotes. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers

  5. Competition, regulation, and pricing behaviour in the Spanish retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contin-Pilart, Ignacio; Correlje, Aad F.; Blanca Palacios, M.

    2009-01-01

    The restructuring of the Spanish oil industry produced a highly concentrated oligopoly in the retail gasoline market. In June 1990, the Spanish government introduced a system of ceiling price regulation in order to ensure that 'liberalization' was accompanied by adequate consumer protection. By 1998, prices were left to the 'free' market. This paper examines the pricing behaviour of the retail gasoline market using multivariate error correction models over the period January 1993 (abolishment of the state monopoly)-December 2004. The results suggest that gasoline retail prices respond symmetrically to increases as well as to decreases in the spot price of gasoline both over the period of price regulation (January 1993-September 1998) and over the period of free market (October 1998-December 2004). However, once the ceiling price regulation was abolished, cooperation emerged between the government and the major operators, Repsol-YPF and Cepsa-Elf, to control the inflation rate. This resulted in a slower rate of adjustment of gasoline retail prices when gasoline spot prices went up, as compared with the European pattern. Finally, the Spanish retail margin was by the end of our timing period of analysis, as in the starting years after the abolishment of the state monopoly, above the European average. This pattern confirms our political economic hypothesis, which suggests that the Spanish government and the oil companies were working together in reducing the inflation, in periods of rising oil and gasoline prices. It is also inferred that explaining the pricing pattern in energy markets may require different hypothesis than the classical perspective, involving just firms taking advantage of market power

  6. Competition, regulation, and pricing behaviour in the Spanish retail gasoline market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contin-Pilart, Ignacio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Correlje, Aad F. [Section Economics of Infrastructures, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5015, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Clingendael International Energy Programme (Netherlands); Blanca Palacios, M. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The restructuring of the Spanish oil industry produced a highly concentrated oligopoly in the retail gasoline market. In June 1990, the Spanish government introduced a system of ceiling price regulation in order to ensure that 'liberalization' was accompanied by adequate consumer protection. By 1998, prices were left to the 'free' market. This paper examines the pricing behaviour of the retail gasoline market using multivariate error correction models over the period January 1993 (abolishment of the state monopoly)-December 2004. The results suggest that gasoline retail prices respond symmetrically to increases as well as to decreases in the spot price of gasoline both over the period of price regulation (January 1993-September 1998) and over the period of free market (October 1998-December 2004). However, once the ceiling price regulation was abolished, cooperation emerged between the government and the major operators, Repsol-YPF and Cepsa-Elf, to control the inflation rate. This resulted in a slower rate of adjustment of gasoline retail prices when gasoline spot prices went up, as compared with the European pattern. Finally, the Spanish retail margin was by the end of our timing period of analysis, as in the starting years after the abolishment of the state monopoly, above the European average. This pattern confirms our political economic hypothesis, which suggests that the Spanish government and the oil companies were working together in reducing the inflation, in periods of rising oil and gasoline prices. It is also inferred that explaining the pricing pattern in energy markets may require different hypothesis than the classical perspective, involving just firms taking advantage of market power. (author)

  7. Dynamic peak demand pricing under uncertainty in an agent-based retail energy market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ansarin (Mohammad); W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractFor a transition to a sustainable energy future, smart grids must adapt to the mass introduction of renewable energy sources and their inherent unpredictability. The Power TAC competition is a simulation of distribution grid market dynamics with autonomous retail broker agents. It seeks

  8. Retailing I: A Foundation for Marketing and Distributive Education Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn Scruggs

    Designed to serve as a foundation for competency-based marketing and distributive education curriculum development, this package consists of task lists, performance objectives, and performance guides for use in planning an introductory level retailing course. Job descriptions are given for receiving clerks, stock clerks, and salespersons/sales…

  9. Marketing and Retailing. A Curriculum Guide for a Two-Year Postsecondary Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, R. Jean; Proffitt, Sally

    This manual was developed to provide a comprehensive curriculum guideline for postsecondary marketing and retailing programs. It contains competence-based materials and integrates the Interstate Distributive Education Curriculum Consortium (IDECC) Learning Activity Packages into the curriculum. The first of seven chapters in this manual presents…

  10. Analytical Business Model for Sustainable Distributed Retail Enterprises in a Competitive Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courage Matobobo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Retail enterprises are organizations that sell goods in small quantities to consumers for personal consumption. In distributed retail enterprises, data is administered per branch. It is important for retail enterprises to make use of data generated within the organization to determine consumer patterns and behaviors. Large organizations find it difficult to ascertain customer preferences by merely observing transactions. This has led to quantifiable losses, such as loss of market share to competitors and targeting the wrong market. Although some enterprises have implemented classical business models to address these challenging issues, they still lack analytics-based marketing programs to gain a competitive advantage to deal with likely catastrophic events. This research develops an analytical business (ARANN model for distributed retail enterprises in a competitive market environment to address the current laxity through the best arrangement of shelf products per branch. The ARANN model is built on association rules, complemented by artificial neural networks to strengthen the results of both mutually. According to experimental analytics, the ARANN model outperforms the state of the art model, implying improved confidence in business information management within the dynamically changing world economy.

  11. [Occupational risks in grocery stores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Francesca; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Violante, Francesco S

    2014-01-01

    This work provides an overview of the spectrum of possible occupational risk factors in the retail grocery store/supermarket workplace. Literature on this theme, obtained consulting PubMed database and Google Scholar, was checked. We also exjlore results from the National bInstitute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). RESULTs: Contacts with objects, use of dangerous equipment (cutter, food slicer) and falls to the same level (slips, trips and falls) are the mainly described workplace hazards. Exposure to chemical (flour dust, components of detergents or disinfectants, volatile organic compounds and contact with nickel) and physical agents (cold exposure, nonionizing radiation and whole bpdy vibration) are reported by many authors. Relations between biomechanical and ergonomic risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders represent the main subjects of study. Few studies are found about biological agents (particularly among butchers). Data regarding psychosocial risks factors in this setting are still limited. Musculoskeletal disorders continue to be the most recurrent health problem between the grocery store workers (particularly low back pain and carpal tunnel syndrome among cashiers). Many technical documents and international Srecommendations are present to prevent these kinds of disorders. Psychosocial risk factors and risk of workplace violence should deserve further investigation.

  12. MARKETING AS A BEHAVIORAL SYSTEM: An Illustration of Retail Loans

    OpenAIRE

    Pamir, Can; Tosun, Petek; Sezgin, Selime

    2015-01-01

    Marketing management, which has elevated the position of marketing to a strategic level in institutions, is generally executed within complex systems. These complex marketing systems are inherently not only “open” but also “behavioral” paradigms, which continuously and overtly interact with their environment and adjust themselves accordingly. Taking the open and behavioral aspects of systems approach into consideration, this paper analyzes the marketing management practice of consumer loans i...

  13. Strategic choices for retail development in the context of marketing management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kazantsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Working out the retail development strategy is a crucial and the most time-consuming task to be solved by retailers in the context of marketing management. The lack of theoretical and methodological frameworks constrains working out strategic directions for retail development. In this regard, the authors define the concept of the strategy and its role in marketing management in retailing. The basis for the retail development strategies is to establish relationships with suppliers, customers and within the network, the effectiveness of which is determined by the effectiveness of selected methods for this purpose, exercises and principles of conduct. In the au-thors’ opinion, in the circumstances concerned one of the directions of the strategy realization should be establishing control over con-tractors’ activities in the framework of horizontal and vertical co-operation strategies. The authors state that in case of the horizontal cooperation strategy realization general guidelines should be strategic alliances conclusion and franchising development. While implementing the vertical cooperation strategy suppliers and retailers should establish sustainable relationships. In order to evaluate the rela-tionships between the supplier and the retailer the paper provides a procedure of calculating the interrelationship force indicator. The procedure is based on scoring a satisfaction level taking into account mutual requirements, followed by weighting and averaging these indicators. The proposed procedure can be used for configuring a suppliers’ portfolio. Supplier Relationship Management within SCM models, as well as assessment of the level of commitment will allow time to adapt to the changes associated with the structure of suppliers.

  14. Contribution of green labels in electricity retail markets to fostering renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, Machiel; Zomer, Sigourney P.E.

    2016-01-01

    In European countries, retailers are obliged to disclose the energy source and the related environmental impacts of their portfolio over the preceding year. The electricity supplied in the Dutch retail market is presented as renewable energy for 34%, but this relatively high share is for 69% based on certificates (Guarantees of Origin) which are imported from in particular Norway. The certificates are used to sell green electricity to consumers. The premium for green electricity which is actually paid by Dutch consumers is no more than a few percentages of the retail price. The low level of this premium is related to the abundant supply of certificates at low marginal costs from Norway. This also means that the premium for green electricity is too low to give an incentive for investments in new capacity. Hence, the current labelling system for renewable electricity is mainly valuable, besides being an instrument for tracking and tracing of renewable energy, as a marketing instrument for electricity retailers. The effectiveness of Guarantees of Origin as a policy instrument to foster renewable electricity sources is weak. This effectiveness can be raised by implementing restrictions on the international trade or the issuance of new certificates. - Highlights: • In Europe, electricity retailers are obliged to disclose the energy source. • In the Netherlands, most renewable energy is based on imported certificates. • The certificates system does not result in more renewable energy. • Restrictions on international trade may improve the effectiveness.

  15. Behaviour of subjects of the independent retail market in distribution process of food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Záboj

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deal with the actual situation on the Czech independent retail market. Multinational retail chains represent the thread to small and medium sized trade firms due to large range of products, stronger position in negotiations with suppliers and financial power. That is reason why others independent retailers have to co-operate together and obtain the same advantages. Nowadays the discuss among Czech wholesale stocks with their retail nets is in progress. This discussion is aimed to establishing the Czech trade strategic alliance (TSA CZ as an instrument for increasing of competitive ability. That is necessary also for connection with some other foreign or global trade alliance. Present situation offers to collaborate with two trade systems. The first is CBA operating in nine countries of the Central and Eastern Europe and the second is MARKANT working mainly in Germany and Austria. It seems TSA CZ has to decide between two business concepts – east or west. During the decision making is important to re-cognize what is more sufficient not only for the Czech trade firms on independent market but also for the Czech customer because satisfaction his needs and wants should be the mission of all retailers.

  16. A bilevel model for electricity retailers' participation in a demand response market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Demand response programmes are seen as one of the contributing solutions to the challenges posed to power systems by the large-scale integration of renewable power sources, mostly due to their intermittent and stochastic nature. Among demand response programmes, real-time pricing schemes for small consumers are believed to have significant potential for peak-shaving and load-shifting, thus relieving the power system while reducing costs and risk for energy retailers. This paper proposes a game theoretical model accounting for the Stackelberg relationship between retailers (leaders) and consumers (followers) in a dynamic price environment. Both players in the game solve an economic optimisation problem subject to stochasticity in prices, weather-related variables and must-serve load. The model allows the determination of the dynamic price-signal delivering maximum retailer profit, and the optimal load pattern for consumers under this pricing. The bilevel programme is reformulated as a single-level MILP, which can be solved using commercial off-the-shelf optimisation software. In an illustrative example, we simulate and compare the dynamic pricing scheme with fixed and time-of-use pricing. We find that the dynamic pricing scheme is the most effective in achieving load-shifting, thus reducing retailer costs for energy procurement and regulation in the wholesale market. Additionally, the redistribution of the saved costs between retailers and consumers is investigated, showing that real-time pricing is less convenient than fixed and time-of-use price for consumers. This implies that careful design of the retail market is needed. Finally, we carry out a sensitivity analysis to analyse the effect of different levels of consumer flexibility. - Highlights: ► We model the game between electricity retailers and consumers under dynamic pricing. ► The retailer cuts procurement costs by shifting demand in time via price-incentive. ► Imbalance costs for the retailer taper

  17. Mobile marketing: A literature review on its value for consumers and retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Ström, Roger; Vendel, Martin; Bredican, John

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the existing knowledge of how mobile marketing can increase the value for consumers and retailers. Mobile device shopping, and consumers0 use of mobile devices while shopping is shown to be both an extension of consumers0 shopping behaviours developed on Internet-connected desktop and laptop computers (PC), and potentially new behaviours based on a mobile devices0 uniquely integrated features such as camera, scanners and GPS. The article focuses on how mobile marketing c...

  18. Retail margins and the effects of an integrated Nordic end user market for electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damsgaard, Niclas; Roempoetti, Marie

    2007-09-15

    There is an ongoing discussion about the need for further and deeper integration of the Nordic electricity market. Following the Nordic Council of Minister's summit in Akureyri in 2004 this work has been intensified. NordREG and Nordel have produced several studies on the integration of the market. Work is currently being done on a Nordic common market platform for balancing services and a Nordic balancing agreement, the market design for a common market and a common model for supply switches and several other issues. This study should be seen in relationship with these other studies and we have deliberately aimed at avoiding overlaps. An integrated Nordic retail market for electricity would in principle imply a common market for 14 million customers served by several hundred retail companies. The question asked in this study is what are the benefits for the customers of such a development? In order to create a common Nordic market there are several barriers that needs to be overcome. There are technical barriers such as differences in IT-systems, regulatory barriers caused by differences in e.g. the responsibilities and the regulation of the DSOs and finally of course business barriers that exists for all cross-border businesses. A well-functioning Nordic retail market would lead to price equalisation - at least if the costs are equal. This would mean that particularly customers in areas with high retail margins could benefit from a joint Nordic market. Furthermore, dilution of market power could lead to more intense competition which in turn both could lead to lower costs and lower margins. In this report we focus on the possible direct effects on prices. In addition to this it is likely that there are efficiency gains, for instance through decreased costs in developing IT-systems etc. for a larger market which would decrease costs both for the suppliers and for DSOs. There might also be other economies-of-scales arising from a larger market. The possible

  19. THE IMPACT OF MARKETING EXPERIMENTS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOFTWARE PRODUCERS AND THEIR RETAILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERȚANU ANDREEA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a marketing experiment done on the Romanian software market. The main purpose of this research is to determine how the marketing campaigns of software manufacturers can influence the decisions of software retailers. Through this marketing experimental research an evaluation and an analysis of the impact that marketing policies of software companies have on the retailers from all over the country is made. Three different marketing campaigns were proposed to three groups of software vendors from the most important cities of the country. The total number of software retailers included in this experiment is of 45, and the marketing campaigns proposed by the authors in this experiment refer to the Microsoft brand. Promotion strategies such as: sales promotion by encouraging sales force and promotional pricing or even the policy of partner relationship management have a great impact on three aspects regarding software retailers: loyalty, purchase and resale intention and attitude towards a brand. The results of the experiment show a high interest for the strategy of promotional pricing. The representatives of the software vendors have a positive orientation towards sales promotion by encouraging sales force. Regarding the influences of the manipulations used in the experiment, the greatest impact on the loyalty of the software vendors it has the strategy of promotional pricing. Also the policy of sales promotion by encouraging sales force has the biggest impact on the purchase and sale intention of the software retailers. All three manipulations have also an impact on the attitude towards a brand of the vendors, but the differences are too small to determine which of the proposed stimuli has a greater impact on this aspect. The results of the experiment may help and could have a great influence on the future marketing decisions of manufacturers regarding the strategies and marketing policies used on the Romanian

  20. Avaliação do serviço de distribuição física: a relação entre a indústria de bens de consumo e o comércio atacadista e varejista Evaluation of physical distribution service: relationship between the grocery industry, retailers and wholesalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Fleury

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar os resultados de pesquisa sobre a avaliação da qualidade do serviço de distribuição física prestado por fornecedores da indústria de bens de consumo ao comércio atacadista e varejista. Para tanto, foi desenvolvida uma metodologia para medir a qualidade do serviço de distribuição física, que foi aplicada em dois momentos distintos: logo após a implementação do plano real, em 1994 e no final de 1995. Os resultados indicam fortes mudanças de comportamento do mercado ao longo do período decorrido entre as duas pesquisas. Os resultados demonstram que a importância do serviço ao cliente, como variável de decisão de compra entre a indústria de bens de consumo e comércio, tem crescido substancialmente ao longo do período considerado nas duas pesquisas. A pesquisa também demonstrou que, se por um lado, o cliente tornou-se mais exigente por melhores serviços, por outro, os fornecedores pioraram o nível de serviço de distribuição física. O percentual de clientes insatisfeitos, por conseguinte, aumentou substancialmente entre junho de 1994 e o fim de 1995.The objective of this paper is to present the results of research developed to determine the quality of physical distribution services offered by the grocery industry as perceived by retailers and wholesalers. A methodology was developed in order to measure the service quality, which was applied at two different moments: soon after the implementation, in 1994, of the Brazilian economic plan called the "Plano Real", and at the end of 1995. The results show great changes in the market behavior over the time interval between the two phases of the research. The results also show customer service as a purchasing variable that is increasing in importance. Retailers and wholesalers are raising their service requirements as suppliers are decreasing their service quality level. As a result, the percentage of unsatisfied client firms

  1. Relations between retail market and distribution in LPG range: analyzing the cooperation and alliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Alves

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to proceed with the evaluation of relationship between retail market and distribution in liquefied petroleum gas range (LPG, according to Network Theory. This is an exploratory research, with qualitative characteristic, about the dynamics of cooperation relations. The results, although could not be considered as conclusive, by reason of the study of only one case, shows that an alliance with relationship problems and competition, between point-of-sale and resale, probably will be dissolved as soon as the retailer become a reseller.

  2. Retail Marketing. Una visión en España. Módulo 3

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Vigaray, María Dolores de

    2014-01-01

    En este módulo se habla del retailing y las funciones minoristas. El término retailing hace referencia a la actividad final, así como a los pasos necesarios para hacer llegar un producto o facilitar servicios a los consumidores. En el contexto del comercio electrónico, el término correcto a utilizar es e-tailing, que está añadiendo una nueva dimensión competitiva al minorismo, así como el digital marketing. La radical separación entre el momentos “inicial y final” del ciclo de los productos h...

  3. E-cigarette marketing in UK stores : an observational audit and retailers' views

    OpenAIRE

    Eadie, D; Stead, M; MacKintosh, A M; MacDonald, L; Purves, R; Pearce, J; Tisch, C; van der Sluijs, Winfried; Amos, A; MacGregor, A; Haw, S

    2015-01-01

    This study was supported by grant 10/3000/07 from the National Institute for Health Research. OBJECTIVES: To explore how e-cigarettes are being promoted at point of sale in the UK and how retailers perceive market trends. SETTING: Fixed retail outlets subject to a ban on the display of tobacco products. PARTICIPANTS: Observational audit of all stores selling tobacco products (n=96) in 4 Scottish communities, conducted over 2 waves 12 months apart (2013-2014), and qualitative interviews wit...

  4. A bilevel model for electricity retailers' participation in a demand response market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    (followers) in a dynamic price environment. Both players in the game solve an economic optimisation problem subject to stochasticity in prices, weather-related variables and must-serve load. The model allows the determination of the dynamic price-signal delivering maximum retailer profit, and the optimal......-time pricing is less convenient than fixed and time-of-use price for consumers. This implies that careful design of the retail market is needed. Finally, we carry out a sensitivity analysis to analyse the effect of different levels of consumer flexibility....

  5. Vaping versus JUULing: how the extraordinary growth and marketing of JUUL transformed the US retail e-cigarette market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Duan, Zongshuan; Kwok, Julian; Binns, Steven; Vera, Lisa E; Kim, Yoonsang; Szczypka, Glen; Emery, Sherry L

    2018-05-31

    While national surveys showed declines in e-cigarette use in the USA between 2015 and 2016, recent reports indicate that JUUL, a sleekly designed e-cigarette that looks like a USB drive, is increasingly being used by youth and young adults. However, the extent of JUUL's growth and its marketing strategy have not been systematically examined. A variety of data sources were used to examine JUUL retail sales in the USA and its marketing and promotion. Retail store scanner data were used to capture the retail sales of JUUL and other major e-cigarette brands for the period 2011-2017. A list of JUUL-related keywords was used to identify JUUL-related tweets on Twitter; to identify JUUL-related posts, hashtags and accounts on Instagram and to identify JUUL-related videos on YouTube. In the short 3-year period 2015-2017, JUUL has transformed from a little-known brand with minimum sales into the largest retail e-cigarette brand in the USA, lifting sales of the entire e-cigarette category. Its US$150 million retail sales in the last quarter of 2017 accounted for about 40% of e-cigarette retail market share. While marketing expenditures for JUUL were moderate, the sales growth of JUUL was accompanied by a variety of innovative, engaging and wide-reaching campaigns on Twitter, Instagram and YouTube, conducted by JUUL and its affiliated marketers. The discrepancies between e-cigarette sales data and the prevalence of e-cigarette use from surveys highlight the challenges in tracking and understanding the use of new and emerging tobacco products. In a rapidly changing media environment, where successful and influential marketing campaigns can be conducted on social media at little cost, marketing expenditures alone may not fully capture the influence, reach and engagement of tobacco marketing. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Making working in retailing interesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Buck, Nuka; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how five retail chains in the Danish grocery industry attempt to make low-wage, low-status store-level retail jobs as checkout operators and sales assistants interesting from the perspective of both retailers and employees. Following analysis of the social and institutional...... and make store-level retail jobs interesting to them. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we...

  7. Relationship marketing of small to medium sized textile retailers in the Northwest Province / Fred Angels Amulike Musika

    OpenAIRE

    Musika, Fred Angels Amulike

    2002-01-01

    This study concentrated on the concept of relationship marketing and its implementation by small and medium sized textile retailers in the Northwest province of South Africa. This study addressed the gap between the relationship marketing theory and its implementation by small and medium sized textile retailers in the textile industry of the Northwest province. Researchers in relationship marketing have started to realise that there is a definite need for detailed empirical ...

  8. How can the Japanese specialty retailers of private-label apparel (SPAs) go into the German fast fashion market?

    OpenAIRE

    Ka Yu, Setu; Zastezhko, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Date: 2008 May 28 Course: Master Thesis Authors: Ka Yu Seto and Olena Zastezhko Tutor: Carl Thunman Title: How can the Japanese specialty retailers of private-label apparel (SPAs) go into the German fast fashion market? Introduction: Japan is one of the largest and most sophisticated clothing markets in the world, and its fashion designs and products quality enjoy high reputation from world-wide. Because of keen competition in the domestic market, fashion retail chains find it necess...

  9. PRICING POLICY AND MARKETING STRATEGIES AS A PART OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF RETAILS STORES IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslava Gburová; Róbert Štefko; Radovan Baèík

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with price and marketing pricing strategies of retail chain stores in the Slovak Republic. The aim of this paper is to highlight the perception of the impact of economic recession in the retail chain stores. To determine the most used marketing pricing strategies has been used analysis of variance ANOVA. The global finance crisis does not have influence to selection and implementation of pricing strategy, which is used by branches of chain stores marketing management of in are...

  10. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen french fried potatoes 78/g; dried instant mashed potatoes, 1.1 x 10(3)/g; and potato salad, 3.6 x 10(3)/g. Mean values of coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were less than 10/g. PMID:6758695

  11. Price regulation and relative price convergence: Evidence from the retail gasoline market in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvankulov, Farrukh; Lau, Marco Chi Keung; Ogucu, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores price regulation and relative price convergence in the Canadian retail gasoline market. We use monthly data (2000–2010) on retail gasoline prices in 60 Canadian cities to investigate (i) whether the retail gasoline market in Canada has experienced a relative price convergence to the mean, which is expected, given the increased economic integration across Canadian provinces; and (ii) whether the introduction of price regulation mechanisms in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in July 2006 had any impact on the price convergence in these provinces. We use a nonlinear panel unit root test and find solid evidence that Canadian retail gasoline markets are well integrated across locales; however, the share of converging cities reveals a significant decline since July of 2006. The impact of price regulation on price convergence is mixed; our results indicate that since the enactment of the regulation in all New Brunswick cities (9) included in the dataset, gasoline prices converge to the national mean. Volatility of price is also significantly reduced. In contrast, in the wake of price regulation in Nova Scotia, all 6 cities of the province are non-convergent to the mean with increased volatility and overall price level. - Highlights: ► The paper examines price regulation and convergence of gasoline prices in Canada. ► Overall in 2000–2010 the Canadian retail gasoline market was well integrated. ► Price convergence across cities has significantly declined since July 2006. ► The impact of price regulation at province level on a price convergence is mixed. ► The paper relies on the most advanced nonlinear panel unit root test.

  12. Perdas de frutas frescas no comércio varejista de Mineiros-GO: um estudo de caso Fresh fruit losses at the retail markets in Mineiros, state of Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Brasil Dias Tofanelli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar levantamento das perdas de frutas frescas nos mercados varejistas do município de Mineiros-GO, bem como suas causas e providências a serem tomadas. Para isso, foram realizadas pesquisas mediante visitação aos equipamentos varejistas (supermercados, quitandas/sacolões e feira livre para aplicação de questionário. Os resultados demonstraram que, semanalmente, são perdidos 3,2% do volume de frutas comercializado em Mineiros e que os supermercados, por serem os principais mercados varejistas, são predominantes no volume de perdas. Os mercados varejistas citaram o armazenamento inadequado (falta de refrigeração e as más condições de transporte (rodovias sob condições ruins de conservação como as principais causas das perdas de frutas frescas. O controle de estoque, a educação do consumidor final e a melhoria da qualidade das frutas são medidas prioritárias a serem tomadas conforme a rede varejista. Conclui-se que os mercados varejistas de Mineiros precisam desenvolver ações mais enérgicas e apresentar atitudes a fim de diminuir as perdas dos produtos frutícolas.The present work had as objective to carry through survey the losses of fresh fruits in the retail markets of the city of Mineiros-GO, as well as its causes and steps to be taken. For this research, visitation to the retail markets (supermarkets, groceries stores and street market for an application of a questionnaire was realized. The results showed that 3.2% of the volume of fruits commercialized in Mineiros are lost weekly and that the supermarkets, being the main retail markets, are predominant in the volume of losses. The retail markets had cited the inadequate storage (refrigeration lack and the bad conditions of transport (highways under bad conditions of conservation as the main causes of the losses of fresh fruits. Supplying control, the education of the consumer, and fruit quality improvement are priority

  13. Generic penetration in the retail atypical antipsychotic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderts, Susan; Kalali, Amir H; Buckley, Peter

    2010-03-01

    In this article, we explore the penetration of generic atypical antipsychotics in the United States market before and after the availability of generic risperidone in July 2008. Analysis suggests that, overall, generic penetration into the atypical antipsychotic market has grown from approximately three percent in January 2008 to more than 25 percent in December 2009. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  14. The Relevance of Shopper Logistics for Consumers of Store-Based Retail Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teller, Christoph; Kotzab, Herbert; Grant, David B.

    2012-01-01

    influence consumers' perceptions of shopping related costs. Nevertheless, shopper logistics does not affect consumer behaviour in terms of the share of visits of a store. These results are moderated by age, hedonic shopping orientation, shopping frequency, average spending per trip and store format......This paper discusses and empirically evaluates the relevance of shopping-related logistics for consumers of store-based retail formats. Based on a literature review a conceptual model was developed and subsequently tested using a survey of more than six hundred consumers in the grocery retail...... sector. Respondents were those primarily responsible for grocery shopping in their households located in a highly concentrated European urban retail market. Variance based structural equation modelling reveals that shopper logistics has a major impact on the convenience of store-based shopping and partly...

  15. Competition in the U. K. retail petrol market 1960-73

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, J F

    1976-03-01

    Changes in the gasoline retailing industries of England since 1960 are discussed, and the causative factors are analyzed. Competition for oil consumers in the United Kingdom was at the retail level, making it difficult for monopoly activity to materialize and causing a shift in the market structure since 1964. The shift in structure was a result of a few new independent wholesaling firms and numerous subsidiaries of international companies entering the market rather than any action of the Monopolies Commission. Gasoline is not a typical good. On the supply side it is a joint product and firms can, at a cost, interchange one product for another in promotion or alter the price of one to affect the price of another. Demand for gasoline, on the other hand, is relatively price inelastic because of the lack of product substitutes and the fact that gasoline represents only about 30% of the total cost of a car. Company price cuts in the 1960's were usually made by new firms breaking into the market. There was very little price competition among the established firms, and the retailers accounted for most price variations. New firms also used distribution and site ownership to gain inroads into the market as well as advertising and promotional techniques like trading stamps. (22 references) (DCK)

  16. Security of supply and retail competition in the European gas market. Some model-based insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Ibrahim; Massol, Olivier

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of uncertain disruptions in gas supply upon gas retailer contracting behavior and consequent price and welfare implications in a gas market characterized by long-term gas contracts using a static Cournot model. In order to most realistically describe the economical situation, our representation divides the market into two stages: the upstream market that links, by means of long-term contracts, producers in exporting countries (Russia, Algeria, etc.) to local retailers who bring gas to the consuming countries to satisfy local demands in the downstream market. Disruption costs are modeled using short-run demand functions. First we mathematically develop a general model and write the associated KKT conditions, then we propose some case studies, under iso-elasticity assumptions, for the long-short-run inverse-demand curves in order to predict qualitatively and quantitatively the impacts of supply disruptions on Western European gas trade. In the second part, we study in detail the German gas market of the 1980's to explain the supply choices of the German retailer, and we derive interesting conclusions and insights concerning the amounts and prices of natural gas brought to the market. The last part of the paper is dedicated to a study of the Bulgarian gas market, which is greatly dependent on the Russian gas supplies and hence very sensitive to interruption risks. Some interesting conclusions are derived concerning the necessity to economically regulate the market, by means of gas amounts control, if the disruption probability is high enough. (authors)

  17. Relationship marketing in the retail sector: an insight in the determination of customer loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Niculae

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years we see a loss of power of individual brands, despite the money and the effortinvested in them. The power is now in the hands of retailers. The final challenge of an individual band is thebattle it has to win in the store. One way of winning the retail battle is to grow, to expand your offer, to sellfood, clothing, electronic consumer durables, luxury goods, etc., to become the mastodon of your market.But, growing, being the easy way into bigger profits, it is sure you will be soon followed by others.You have to differentiate; you have to expand not only the product range but also the services. This isthe age of relationship marketing.

  18. Market Intelligence Precursors for the Entrepreneurial Resilience Approach: The Case of the Romanian Eco-Label Product Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Micu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The entrepreneurial resilience of eco-label product retailers emphasises their adaptive capability for renewal after the economic crisis. This paper explores the resilience of the market intelligence techniques adopted by the eco-label product retailers in order to contribute to sustainable development of this market in Romania. The research, conducted on a sample of Romanian retailers of eco-label products, analyses the main sources for gathering data about their competitors, the reasons for monitoring the strategic options of their competitors and the specific market intelligence techniques employed within the entrepreneurial resilience approach, aiming to overcome the negative crisis effects. The research outlines, from an entrepreneurial resilience perspective, several positioning opportunities of the eco-label product retailers after the crisis, which have affected the Romanian economy in the period 2008–2009 and have implicitly affected the eco-label market.

  19. THE ROLE OF THE RETAILERS IN CAUSE-RELATED MARKETING: A REFERENCE TO THE SPANISH CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mercedes Galán - Ladero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cause-Related Marketing (CRM is one of the most relevant Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR initiatives nowadays. Its most important characteristic is that corporate donation is conditioned by sales, that is, CRM ultimately depends on consumer behavior. In this paper, we focus on CRM programs and its application in a specific industry: distribution sector. Thus, our aim is to understand the fundamental features or the practice of these programs in the distribution sector in Spain, to study the role played by retailers and their possible influence on the consumer behavior, so that companies can better design these campaigns and achieve greater success. Hence, the paper is organized as follows. First, we review the CRM conceptual framework in which the theoretical development of this work is based. Secondly, and from a list of companies associated to the National Association of Large Distribution Companies (ANGED, the most representative retail association in Spain, we observe the Spanish situation and analyze the main campaigns carried out by these retailers during the last years. This information was completed consulting each retailer´s website, asking them for additional information by email, and with a general internet search. After that, we present and discuss the main results, and summarize the most relevant conclusions, as well as the theoretical contribution and managerial implications. One of the most important findings shows the retailer´s influence on consumer behavior and the key role of the retailers in the success of CRM programs. Finally, we also include possible limitations and further research.

  20. PRICE-RESPONSE ASYMMETRY IN DOMESTIC WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DIESEL 2 MARKETS IN PERU

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Vasquez Cordano

    2005-01-01

    This paper tests and confirms the hypothesis that retail and wholesale Diesel 2 prices respond more quickly to increases than to decreases in wholesale and crude oil prices, respectively. Among the possible sources of this asymmetry, we find: production / inventory adjustment lags, refining adjustments, market power of some sellers, searching costs, among others. By analyzing price transmission at different points of the distribution chain, this paper attempts to shed light on these theories ...

  1. Firm expansion, size spillovers and market dominance in retail chain dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Blevins, JR; Khwaja, Ahmed Wali; Yang, N

    2017-01-01

    We develop and estimate a dynamic game of strategic firm expansion and contraction decisions to study the role of firm size on future profitability and market dominance. Modeling firm size is important because retail chain dynamics are more richly driven by expansion and contraction than de novo entry or permanent exit. Additionally, anticipated size spillovers may influence the strategies of forward looking firms making it difficult to analyze the effects of size without explicitly accountin...

  2. The opening of electricity and gas retail markets - Assessment 2009, Assessment 2010, Assessment 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Three articles present and comment data related to the evolution of the electricity and gas retail markets after their opening in July 2007 and during respectively 2009, 2010 and 2011. This evolution is notably addressed in terms of number of residential and non-residential clients and sites, in terms of annual consumption for residential and non-residential sites, and in terms of site location in France

  3. Perspectives of small retailers in the organic market: Customer satisfaction and customer enthusiasm

    OpenAIRE

    Bolten, Jan; Kennerknecht, Raphael; Spiller, Achim

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper we discuss the impact of customer satisfaction and enthusiasm on the performance of small retailers in the organic food market. The analysis of customer satisfaction and shop data confirm essential economic effects. The study is based on 948 customer interviews and an analysis of management ratios of 12 organic food shops in Germany. The results show that customer satisfaction is a relevant key to sales performance. Regression analysis reveals that overall customer sat...

  4. On the Possibility of an Unsuccessful Merger : Implications from Stock Market and Retail Scanner Data

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    Industrial economists and competition policymakers have traditionally assumed that a horizontal or vertical merger raises involved parties' joint profits, whereas whether consumers benefit or lose should be judged on a case-by-case basis. However, if a completed merger is not as successful as expected, its observed effects on the retail market may not necessarily be a result of the integrated firm's anti-competitive conduct. How can one assess whether a merger has achieved its initial objecti...

  5. The value of mobile marketing for consumers and retailers : a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ström, Roger; Vendel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this review mobile device shopping, consumers' use of mobile devices while shopping, is assumed to be an extension of consumers' shopping behaviors developed on internet connected desktop and laptop computers (PC). The purpose is to describe existing knowledge on how mobile marketing can increase value for consumers and retailers, enabling more precise research and development of managerial concepts and tools, providing both managers and academ­ics with increased understanding of ...

  6. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. E-cigarette marketing in UK stores: an observational audit and retailers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, D; Stead, M; MacKintosh, A M; MacDonald, L; Purves, R; Pearce, J; Tisch, C; van der Sluijis, W; Amos, A; MacGregor, A; Haw, S

    2015-09-11

    To explore how e-cigarettes are being promoted at point of sale in the UK and how retailers perceive market trends. Fixed retail outlets subject to a ban on the display of tobacco products. Observational audit of all stores selling tobacco products (n=96) in 4 Scottish communities, conducted over 2 waves 12 months apart (2013-2014), and qualitative interviews with small retailers (n=25) in 4 matched communities. The audit measured e-cigarette display characteristics, advertising materials and proximity to other products, and differences by area-level disadvantage. Interviews explored retailers' perceptions of e-cigarette market opportunities and risks, and customer responses. The number of e-cigarette point-of-sale display units and number of brands displayed increased between waves. E-cigarettes were displayed close to products of interest to children in 36% of stores. Stores in more affluent areas were less likely to have external e-cigarette advertising than those in deprived areas. Although e-cigarettes delivered high profit margins, retailers were confused by the diversity of brands and products, and uncertain of the sector's viability. Some customers were perceived to purchase e-cigarettes as cessation aids, and others, particularly low-income smokers, as a cheaper adjunct to conventional tobacco. E-cigarette point-of-sale displays and number of brands displayed increased over 12 months, a potential cause for concern given their lack of regulation. Further scrutiny is needed of the content and effects of such advertising, and the potentially normalising effects of placing e-cigarettes next to products of interest to children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Marketing strategy for luxury retail : how to attract international consumers of luxury in Portugal : Fashion Clinic case study

    OpenAIRE

    Candeias, Marta Pimentel

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays the luxury market is characterized by the high competitiveness and current globalization, with retailers and brands themselves making a great effort to achieve success. In Portugal, despite the unfavorable economic situation that the country undergoes, the luxury retail market has accompanied this increase global trend. Such a growth is meaningfully due to the increasing demand of international luxury brands by foreigners from emerging countries like Angola or Brazil. These consumers...

  9. Models and Practice of Retail Location on the Romanian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Cazabat,

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a review of the main types of location, respectively of probability models, gravity models, utility models, location- allocation, but also of new spatial analysis instruments. In this context, we emphasize the fact that the new location models, based on a geographic information system and the Big Data analysis instruments, open new opportunities for the practical location decision based on a larger set of criteria and by taking the market dynamics into account. The paper has the following objectives: to study the theoretical basis of location models, i.e. of the criteria (the variables used and to compare them with the criteria used currently in decision-making practice. The study is based on qualitative research investigating the opinions of decision -makers in the area of distribution regarding the location strategy of new stores. The research findings confirm the existence of differences between the criteria retained by location models and the practice of distribution companies on the Romanian market. This type of approach – models and practices of location for distribution companies – is a novelty for the Romanian market. The study can be useful both for research (perfecting the location models vis-a-vis present-day evolutions of the business environment, as well as for the decision makers in distribution (the valorization of research findings in decisionmaking practice.

  10. Green marketing in the Massachusetts electric company retail competition pilot program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, S.M.; Fang, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    With electric industry restructuring initiatives being introduced on the state and federal levels, retail access pilot programs serve an important function for examining competitive market issues, as well as marketing strategies and customer reactions to different power supply options. The experience gained through these pilots provides important insights into future power market operations, including the market for green power. The Massachusetts Electric Company`s (MECo`s) Choice: New England pilot for residential and small-business customers was a voluntary program developed primarily to test the billing and metering logistics that distribution companies will need in the competitive market. The pilot also offered a preview of program implementation and marketing under customer choice. It was the first retail competition pilot to explicitly include green power options in program design. The MECo pilot`s energy suppliers were selected through the issuance of a request for proposals (RFP). Respondents were asked to submit bids in one or more of three energy supply categories-price, green, and other options. These options were developed by the pilot administrator through internal meetings, discussions with state officials and other stakeholders, and a review of information from other similar pilots. For the green option, the pilot administrator did not establish a green standard. Instead, suppliers were allowed to submit offers that promoted environmental stewardship. Customer response to the different green options are reported. The pilot results clearly demonstrate that, in a competitive situation, there is interest in a variety of energy supply options, including green options. 2 tabs.

  11. Update on the supplier certification and the status of the retail electric market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingwall, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of rulemaking and code of conduct for energy marketers in Ontario is discussed. As the Ontario government is deregulating the electric power industry, it seems as though it is creating more rules, regulations and codes of conduct than in the previous regulated market. This paper presents an overview of the existing Consumer Protection Legislation, including the Consumer Protection Act, the Business Practices Act, and the Competition Act. Some of the major issues facing the electric retail market are reviewed. These are: (1) alternate contracting methods, (2) rebundling other products and services, (3) green power disclosure, (4) standard supply, (5) unbundling of competitive functions from monopoly providers, (6) exemptions for different utilities, and (7) disconnection of service. Text of the Ontario Energy Board's papers entitled 'Code of conduct for gas marketers', and the 'Code of conduct for energy marketers' are attached

  12. Power procurement on the open market for wholesale and retail customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshan, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Some key facts about the new Toronto Hydro, created from the amalgamation of six municipal utilities belonging to Toronto's former satellite cities (and now all of them part of Metro Toronto), are highlighted. Toronto Hydro distributes electricity to 25 per cent of the Ontario market. Their rates are slightly higher than others, but they provide a high level of power reliability to the downtown core. The Toronto market is the most attractive market in Ontario because of its load profile and customer density. Toronto Hydro's strategy to remain competitive in Ontario's restructured energy market is examined. From the beginning, the utility has approached amalgamation assuming that it will be a full player in the retail market. Toronto Hydro's product mix will include cogeneration ventures, green energy options, and an energy procurement business. Issues regarding risk management and what Toronto Hydro is doing to deal with them, are also discussed

  13. Grocery E-commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Bjerre, Mogens

    Kornum and Mogens Bjerre bring key researchers together to investigate the factors contributing to the success of "Grocery e-commerce", particularly in countries that had the earliest and most extensive experiences in this field: the USA, the UK and Scandinavia. The authors argue that "Grocery e......-commerce" is especially difficult to implement because it differs from other types of consumer sales in numerous aspects including low profit margins, low value density of products and high frequency purchases. As well as examining these unique characteristics, the authors present research on consumer behaviour, cross...

  14. Contextual Marketing Based on Customer Buying Pattern in Grocery E-Commerce: The Case of Bigbasket.com (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesya Vanessa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to identify customer purchase behavior, obtain the number of customer clusters, and form customer profile in order to find situation-based customer purchase be- havior pattern. From the given data, the RFM method and K-Means clustering are used to identify the customer purchase behavior and profiles. The result of this research showed that the customer clusters are formed differently in every product category based on the RFM value and K-Means clustering. There are also differences in peak hour for each customer cluster. The best time to deliver notifica- tions and personal messages is near the peak hour. Indeed, this matter is useful to create contextual marketing and targeted advertising that is designed based on customer cluster and purchase behavior.

  15. Vertical Marketing Systems, Supply Chains and the New Indicators of Retailing’s Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segetlija Zdenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In modern vertical marketing systems (i.e., in grocery sector, the greatest power is demonstrated by retail chains, and producers depend thereupon. This paper analyzes vertical marketing systems and the role of retailing therein. Specially analyzed is the power of retail chains’ demand with regard to the entire supply chains they head, as well as the present-day new competition in retailing and modern business concepts related to the vertical marketing systems. Additionally, analyzed are also select indicators to examine the significance of retailing in an individual national economy. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the new indicators of significance of retailing in economy with regard to the realized GDP, as a component of value chains. These indicators complement the usual retailing significance analyses from the point of view of its share in the number of employees and the number of companies.

  16. Sheep meat commercialization in the retail market in Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Firetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper explored the mix market characteristics of sheep meat as a product for sale in different cities in the states of São Paulo and Paraná. For this, 81 products were purchased in 21 outlets sampled in a “non-probabilistic” manner for convenience and then subjected to analysis of yield of meat, bone, and fat. Imported products represented 20% of the total, being marketed in hypermarkets. It was observed that 37% of the total products were obtained in hypermarkets, 31% in supermarkets, 23% in butcher shops, and 8.6% in meat outlets. Almost 9% of the products had not undergone the official slaughter inspection system. The main types of products identified were palettes and legs with bones (33.3 and 24.7%, respectively; however, only 25% were satisfactorily displayed to consumers. The yields obtained in meat and deboned portions were 74% and 59% of the total weight, significantly affecting the average adjusted sales prices of the products, respectively US$13.01/kg sale price; US$17.82/kg deboned; and US$22.52/kg lean meat. The low yield of clean and boned meat observed in the samples can lead to negative experiences of these products by consumers.

  17. A model of customer loyalty in the retail banking market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hajiyan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there has been growing trend in Iranian banking industry due to change in banking regulations. Private sector has grown rapidly and there have been several new banks on the market, which has created very competitive market. Therefore, customer loyalty is the key factor for running a successful banking business and customer relationship management (CRM appears to be important for the success in this industry. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between CRM and customer loyalty in one of the oldest Iranian banks named Bank Melli Iran. The proposed study prepares a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some regular customers of this bank. The preliminary results of this survey have indicated that consumer’s gender, age and educational background had no meaningful impact on quality of services. In other words, people with different personal characteristics expect the same quality of services from banking industry and there is a positive and meaningful relationship between quality of services and customer loyalty.

  18. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS): Mapping the Indian Online Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Vikrant R; Chahar, Puneet; Balappanavar, Aswini Y; Yadav, Vipul

    2017-11-01

    Motivating tobacco consumers to change their behavior, and harm reduction strategies, are the predominant traditional approaches to tobacco cessation. Recent trends worldwide have shown the emergence of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), as a purported harm reduction strategy to traditional cigarettes. Considering the global rise in the popularity of ENDS, our study aims to survey the online retail market for ENDS in India. The current study was conducted in September-October, 2015 and 4 keywords were used to search Google India to identify online retail websites marketing ENDS. Each website was searched using the same keywords and all specific website pages displaying ENDS models were considered. Thus, data was obtained for various measures of ENDS present on the model descriptions. A total of 6 retail shopping websites were searched which revealed 65 different models of ENDS (34 brands). Forty-five models (69%) were flavored and 21 models (33%) mentioned about nicotine strengths. Seventeen models (26%) provided health warnings in their product descriptions. "No tar no tobacco" was most common claim accounting to 34 models (51%). This article provide insight into the current status of evident online sales of ENDS in India. There is urgent need to implement regulations on online sales of these products and protect the future from such approaches of tobacco control which still have divided opinions. The study permits the use of web search engine to explore market availability of ENDS at various online retail websites. Recommendations from the study can be used to guide policy makers in developing strategies tailored to regulate availability and online sales of ENDS in India. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Numeric model to predict the location of market demand and economic order quantity for retailers of supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradinata, Edy; Marli Kesuma, Zurnila

    2018-05-01

    Polynomials and Spline regression are the numeric model where they used to obtain the performance of methods, distance relationship models for cement retailers in Banda Aceh, predicts the market area for retailers and the economic order quantity (EOQ). These numeric models have their difference accuracy for measuring the mean square error (MSE). The distance relationships between retailers are to identify the density of retailers in the town. The dataset is collected from the sales of cement retailer with a global positioning system (GPS). The sales dataset is plotted of its characteristic to obtain the goodness of fitted quadratic, cubic, and fourth polynomial methods. On the real sales dataset, polynomials are used the behavior relationship x-abscissa and y-ordinate to obtain the models. This research obtains some advantages such as; the four models from the methods are useful for predicting the market area for the retailer in the competitiveness, the comparison of the performance of the methods, the distance of the relationship between retailers, and at last the inventory policy based on economic order quantity. The results, the high-density retail relationship areas indicate that the growing population with the construction project. The spline is better than quadratic, cubic, and four polynomials in predicting the points indicating of small MSE. The inventory policy usages the periodic review policy type.

  20. Effects of Demand Response on Retail and Wholesale Power Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-26

    Demand response has grown to be a part of the repertoire of resources used by utilities to manage the balance between generation and load. In recent years, advances in communications and control technology have enabled utilities to consider continuously controlling demand response to meet generation, rather than the other way around. This paper discusses the economic applications of a general method for load resource analysis that parallels the approach used to analyze generation resources and uses the method to examine the results of the US Department of Energy’s Olympic Peninsula Demonstration Testbed. A market-based closed-loop system of controllable assets is discussed with necessary and sufficient conditions on system controllability, observability and stability derived.

  1. A Structural Model of the Retail Market for Illicit Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galenianos, Manolis; Gavazza, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    We estimate a model of illicit drugs markets using data on purchases of crack cocaine. Buyers are searching for high-quality drugs, but they determine drugs' quality (i.e., their purity) only after consuming them. Hence, sellers can rip off first-time buyers or can offer higher-quality drugs to induce buyers to purchase from them again. In equilibrium, a distribution of qualities persists. The estimated model implies that if drugs were legalized, in which case purity could be regulated and hence observable, the average purity of drugs would increase by approximately 20 percent and the dispersion would decrease by approximately 80 percent. Moreover, increasing penalties may raise the purity and affordability of the drugs traded by increasing sellers’ relative profitability of targeting loyal buyers versus first-time buyers.

  2. An examination of the factors affecting consumer’s purchase decision in the Malaysian retail market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Rajeh Hanaysha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of corporate social responsibility, social media marketing, sales promotion, store environment and perceived value on a purchase decision in the retail sector. Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative research methodology was used and the data were collected from 278 customers of retail stores in Malaysia. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 19 and structural equation modelling on AMOS. Findings – The findings showed that corporate social responsibility has significant positive effects on a purchase decision, whereas sales promotion has a negative effect on purchase decision. The outcomes of this study also indicated that store environment has a significant positive effect on consumers’ purchase decisions. Contrary to expectations, the findings revealed that the effect of social media marketing on purchase decision is insignificant. Finally, the results showed that perceived value has a significant positive effect on a purchase decision. Originality/value – The findings of this study contribute to an understanding of the importance of the selected factors in affecting a consumer’s purchase decision in the retail industry.

  3. Relationship Marketing: An Analysis of Relationship Business-To-Business at Multi Brand Retailers From Surfwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Pinheiro Lamarca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current market environment, a good relationship with clients proves to be an essential item to be worked on maintaining competitive advantages. Especially in  relationships business-to-business, between retailers and their suppliers where transactions have high economic value. The level of difficulty in managing this relationship further increases in multi brand companies, which have high offer from suppliers. Therefore, this article aims to study the degree of satisfaction of multi brand retailers in surfwear apparel segment when it comes to the relationship with their suppliers. The survey was applied to a closed mailing of companies in the sector, and the responses were analyzed to verify the accuracy of the hypotheses raised by the authors, from the previously studied literature. Specific items on the actions of relationship marketing have had higher degree of dissatisfaction, and presented interesting links between the degree of satisfaction of retailers and the years of relationship with the supplier, the number of stores and the volume of purchases effected.

  4. Mothers' self-reported grocery shopping behaviours with their 2- to 7-year-old children: relationship between feeding practices and mothers' willingness to purchase child-requested nutrient-poor, marketed foods, and fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Kathryn; Babawale, Oluborode; Thompson, David M; Morris, Amanda S; Harris, Jennifer L; Sisson, Susan B; Cheney, Marshall K; Lora, Karina R

    2017-12-01

    To assess relationships between mothers' feeding practices (food as a reward, food for emotion regulation, modelling of healthy eating) and mothers' willingness to purchase child-marketed foods and fruits/vegetables (F&V) requested by their children during grocery co-shopping. Cross-sectional. Mothers completed an online survey that included questions about feeding practices and willingness (i.e. intentions) to purchase child-requested foods during grocery co-shopping. Feeding practices scores were dichotomized at the median. Foods were grouped as nutrient-poor or nutrient-dense (F&V) based on national nutrition guidelines. Regression models compared mothers with above-the-median v. at-or-below-the-median feeding practices scores on their willingness to purchase child-requested food groupings, adjusting for demographic covariates. Participants completed an online survey generated at a public university in the USA. Mothers (n 318) of 2- to 7-year-old children. Mothers who scored above-the-median on using food as a reward were more willing to purchase nutrient-poor foods (β=0·60, Ppurchase nutrient-poor foods (β=0·29, Ppurchase nutrient-dense foods (β=0·22, Ppurchase child-requested, nutrient-poor foods. Parental feeding practices may facilitate or limit children's foods requested in grocery stores. Parent-child food consumer behaviours should be investigated as a route that may contribute to children's eating patterns.

  5. A retail market study of organic and conventional potatoes (Solanum tuberosum): mineral content and nutritional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Andrea M; Cook, David M; Eggett, Dennis L; Christensen, Merrill J

    2012-06-01

    Whether or not all foods marketed to consumers as organic meet specified standards for use of that descriptor, or are nutritionally different from conventional foods, is uncertain. In a retail market study in a Western US metropolitan area, differences in mineral composition between conventional potatoes and those marketed as organic were analysed. Potatoes marketed as organic had more copper and magnesium (p potatoes. Comparison of individual mineral concentrations between foodstuffs sold as organic or conventional is unlikely to establish a chemical fingerprint to objectively distinguish between organic and conventional produce, but more sophisticated chemometric analysis of multi-element fingerprints holds promise of doing so. Although statistically significant, these differences would only minimally affect total dietary intake of these minerals and be unlikely to result in measurable health benefits.

  6. Shopping for Society? Consumers’ Value Conflicts in Socially Responsible Consumption Affected by Retail Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Myong Lee; Hyo-Jung Kim; Jong-Youn Rha

    2017-01-01

    Consumers have a dual role as economic actors who purchase products and as citizens comprising society. Thus, consumers may experience conflict between pursuing personal values (i.e., low price and high quality) and social values (i.e., equity and common good). In addition, these choices can be affected by governmental regulation of retail markets. This study aimed to identify consumer perspectives toward socially responsible consumption (SRC) in the choice of grocery store format and to inve...

  7. Incentive-based demand response programs designed by asset-light retail electricity providers for the day-ahead market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotouhi Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali; Faria, Pedro; Ramos, Sergio; Morais, Hugo; Vale, Zita

    2015-01-01

    Following the deregulation experience of retail electricity markets in most countries, the majority of the new entrants of the liberalized retail market were pure REP (retail electricity providers). These entities were subject to financial risks because of the unexpected price variations, price spikes, volatile loads and the potential for market power exertion by GENCO (generation companies). A REP can manage the market risks by employing the DR (demand response) programs and using its' generation and storage assets at the distribution network to serve the customers. The proposed model suggests how a REP with light physical assets, such as DG (distributed generation) units and ESS (energy storage systems), can survive in a competitive retail market. The paper discusses the effective risk management strategies for the REPs to deal with the uncertainties of the DAM (day-ahead market) and how to hedge the financial losses in the market. A two-stage stochastic programming problem is formulated. It aims to establish the financial incentive-based DR programs and the optimal dispatch of the DG units and ESSs. The uncertainty of the forecasted day-ahead load demand and electricity price is also taken into account with a scenario-based approach. The principal advantage of this model for REPs is reducing the risk of financial losses in DAMs, and the main benefit for the whole system is market power mitigation by virtually increasing the price elasticity of demand and reducing the peak demand. - Highlights: • Asset-light electricity retail providers subject to financial risks. • Incentive-based demand response program to manage the financial risks. • Maximizing the payoff of electricity retail providers in day-ahead market. • Mixed integer nonlinear programming to manage the risks

  8. How German Online Retailers Price Foods: An Empirical Analysis for Chocolate Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Fedoseeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing importance of online grocery retailing, little is known about price dispersion across online providers, the relation between online and offline prices as well as the frequency of price adjustments. We employ means of descriptive and inductive statistics as well as panel econometrics to address these issues for German online food retailers. Daily online prices for twelve chocolate products charged by eight pure online and multichannel retailers and collected over three months are investigated. Information economics suggests that a maturing online market will call forth more price homogeneity online due to lower search costs by consumers as well as more flexible prices due to lower costs of price adjustments by retailers. Our results suggest, however, that neither homogenous prices nor frequent price adjustments do occur on the German online chocolate market.

  9. Uncovering Market Positioning Coordinates Using In-Depth Interviews. Evidence from the Romanian Modern Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negricea Iliuta Costel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Market positioning is not anymore just an outcome of the marketing endeavour but actually the essence of it. Organisations must develop and implement proper market positioning plans if they want to pursue an enduring existence. In this direction, an organisation must perform a brand situation analysis, its results being the starting point of a successful market positioning. This analysis entails collecting data about the brand and its competitors being performed through various qualitative and quantitative research methods. The current study focuses on the use of in-depth interviews, a very important qualitative research instrument, in collecting data necessary to build a market position in the form of inconspicuous consumer behaviour factors, such as perceptions, attitudes and motivations. The peculiarities and advantages of this tool are detailed in an analysis of the Romanian modern retail. The findings through their richness made possible configuring market positions for several companies under study. There is no doubt about the effectiveness of this tool in collecting essential data for an effective market positioning. However, in some instances an organisation might need data of quantitative nature in making market positioning decisions, situations in which the use of the indepth interview should be complemented with a survey.

  10. Adolescence and the path to maturity in global retail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, Bart; Ellickson, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses retail modernization in the developed and developing world using data from the grocery trade and internet retailing across a global set of nations. Retail modernization leads to more variety, lower prices, and more time savings for consumers relative to a traditional retailing

  11. Implementation Plan for a Common Nordic Retail Market. Evaluation of the responses on the public consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    Draft implementation plan for a common Nordic Retail Market was developed in close cooperation with relevant stakeholders in the Nordic electricity market during winter and spring 2010. The implementation plan outlines what should be done, by whom and when in order to create a common Nordic end user market over the coming years. NordREG organised a public consultation on the draft implementation plan from the end of June until the beginning of the August, 2010 and received 25 responses from stakeholders. This evaluation report includes summary of stakeholders' responses and NordREG comments on stakeholders' views. The evaluation of the responses has been taken into account during the finalization of the implementation plan

  12. National Beef Market Basket Survey - 2006: External fat thickness measurements and separable component determinations for beef from US retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, C L; Nicholson, K L; Brooks, J C; Delmore, R J; Henning, W R; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Wasser, B E; Gwartney, B L; Harris, K B; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Savell, J W

    2009-02-01

    A market basket survey for beef retail cut composition at the retail level (four stores each from two chains in each city) was conducted in 11 US cities from January to March 2006. Beef cuts (n=17,495) were measured for external fat thickness with cuts from the chuck (0.05cm), round (0.05cm), and miscellaneous (0.04cm) having less (Pmarketing purposes.

  13. 3D Printing and Retail : The Effects of Additive Manufacturing Techniques to the Retail Market in the Next Decade

    OpenAIRE

    Wallenius, Ville

    2014-01-01

    The thesis takes a practical approach to assess the uses of 3D printing on both consumer and professional levels, tries to identify the type of internal processes in retail where 3D printing could be used, and the threats and opportunities 3D printing creates to retail. The first part of the thesis, the overview of 3D printing, explains what 3D printing is, finds out about its history, categories, current and future applications, expected diffusion rate, the advantages and disadvantages ...

  14. The New Hampshire retail competition pilot program and the role of green marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, E.A. [Ed Holt and Associates, Inc. (United States); Fang, J.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Most states in the US are involved in electric industry restructuring, from considering the pros and cons in regulatory dockets to implementing legislative mandates for full restructuring and retail access for all consumers. Several states and utilities have initiated pilot programs in which multiple suppliers or service providers may compete for business and some utility customers can choose among competing suppliers. The State of New Hampshire has been experimenting with a pilot program, mandated by the State Legislature in 1995 and implemented by the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (NHPUC), before it implements full retail access. Green marketing, an attempt to characterize the supplier or service provider as environmentally friendly without referring to the energy resource used to generate electricity, was used by several suppliers or service providers to attract customers. This appeal to environmental consumerism was moderately successful, but it raised a number of consumer protection and public policy issues. This issue brief examines the marketing methods used in New Hampshire and explores what green marketing might mean for the development of renewable energy generation. It also addresses the issues raised and their implications.

  15. Restrictions on the reimbursement policy with regard to retail marketing of medicinal products in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    On January 1, 2012, the law of 12 May 2011 on the reimbursement of medicines, food products of special nutritional purpose and medicinal products, intended to tighten up the reimbursement system, came into force in Poland. The new legislative act has significantly altered the previous principles of retail marketing of products subject to publicly financed reimbursement. First of all, the prices of reimbursed products have been unified through the introduction of fixed margins and prices and a ban--completely unknown until now--on using free market sales practices. These regulations are intended to lead to the abolition of price competition and its replacement with competition as to the quality of services provided by pharmacies. At the same time, entities engaged in retail marketing of medicinal products have been imposed a number of new obligations and highly repressive penalties for failure to fulfill them. The paper analyzes the legislative changes and points out the consequences, both those which can already be seen and the predictable ones. The assumed priority and criterion of evaluation of the reimbursement policy in question is its impact on the functioning of pharmacies which, according to the premises of Polish pharmaceutical law, should play the role of public health protection institutions.

  16. Optimal electricity price calculation model for retailers in a deregulated market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusta, J.M.; Dominguez-Navarro, J.A. [Zaragoza Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Zaragoza (Spain); Ramirez-Rosado, I.J. [La Rioja Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Logrono (Spain); Perez-Vidal, J.M. [McKinnon and Clarke, Energy Services Div., Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The electricity retailing, a new business in deregulated electric power systems, needs the development of efficient tools to optimize its operation. This paper defines a technical-economic model of an electric energy service provider in the environment of the deregulated electricity market in Spain. This model results in an optimization problem, for calculating the optimal electric power and energy selling prices that maximize the economic profits obtained by the provider. This problem is applied to different cases, where the impact on the profits of several factors, such as the price strategy, the discount on tariffs and the elasticity of customer demand functions, is studied. (Author)

  17. Optimal electricity price calculation model for retailers in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusta, J.M.; Dominguez-Navarro, J.A.; Ramirez-Rosado, I.J.; Perez-Vidal, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The electricity retailing, a new business in deregulated electric power systems, needs the development of efficient tools to optimize its operation. This paper defines a technical-economic model of an electric energy service provider in the environment of the deregulated electricity market in Spain. This model results in an optimization problem, for calculating the optimal electric power and energy selling prices that maximize the economic profits obtained by the provider. This problem is applied to different cases, where the impact on the profits of several factors, such as the price strategy, the discount on tariffs and the elasticity of customer demand functions, is studied. (Author)

  18. The development and pilot testing of the marijuana retail surveillance tool (MRST): assessing marketing and point-of-sale practices among recreational marijuana retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Henriksen, Lisa; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Schauer, Gillian L; Freisthler, Bridget

    2017-12-01

    As recreational marijuana expands, it is critical to develop standardized surveillance measures to study the retail environment. To this end, our research team developed and piloted a tool assessing recreational marijuana retailers in a convenience sample of 20 Denver retailers in 2016. The tool assesses: (i) compliance and security (e.g. age-of-sale signage, ID checks, security cameras); (ii) marketing (i.e. promotions, product availability and price) and (iii) contextual and neighborhood features (i.e. retailer type, facilities nearby). Most shops (90.0%) indicated the minimum age requirement, all verified age. All shops posted interior ads (M = 2.6/retailer, SD = 3.4), primarily to promote edibles and other non-smoked products. Price promotions were common in shops (73.7%), 57.9% used social media promotions and 31.6% had take-away materials (e.g. menus, party promotions). Nearly half of the shops (42.1%) advertised health claims. All shops offered bud, joints, honey oil, tinctures, kief, beverages, edibles and topicals; fewer sold clones and seeds. Six shops (31.6%) sold shop-branded apparel and/or paraphernalia. Prices for bud varied within and between stores ($20-$45/'eighth', ∼3.5 g). Twelve were recreational only, and eight were both recreational and medicinal. Liquor stores were commonly proximal. Reliability assessments with larger, representative samples are needed to create a standardized marijuana retail surveillance tool. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Marketing Research on the Retail Market in Braşov with a View to Obtaining Solutions to Diminish the Negative Effects of the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăşescu S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the present circumstances of the economic crisis, studying the retail market is a must. The tendencies emphasize a diminution of consumption. Retailers face a long series of problems in the present context. These problems refer to the reduction of turnover, as the number of clients reduces as well. The research in the domain shows what instruments retailers use in order to diminish the negative effects of the crisis. The present work presents some of the results of the qualitative research, as well as of the quantitative one.

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolates from Chicken Carcasses in Retail Markets in Yangon, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Aung Zaw; Paulsen, Peter; Pichpol, Duangporn; Fries, Reinhard; Irsigler, Herlinde; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Oo, Kyaw Naing

    2017-06-01

    A cross-sectional investigation was conducted concerning prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, multidrug resistance patterns, and serovar diversity of Salmonella in chicken meat sold at retail in Yangon, Myanmar. The 141 chicken meat samples were collected at 141 retail markets in the Yangon Region, Myanmar, 1 November 2014 to 31 March 2015. Information on hygienic practices (potential risk factors) was retrieved via checklists. Salmonella was isolated and identified according to International Organization for Standardization methods (ISO 6579:2002) with minor modifications. Twelve antimicrobial agents belonging to eight pharmacological groups were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disk diffusion method). Salmonella was recovered from 138 (97.9%) of the 141 samples. The isolates were most frequently resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70.3% of isolates), tetracycline (54.3%), streptomycin (49.3%), and ampicillin (47.1%). Resistance was also found to chloramphenicol (29.7%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (17.4%), ciprofloxacin (9.4%), tobramycin (8.7%), gentamicin (8%), cefazolin (7.2%), lincomycin-spectinomycin (5.8%), and norfloxacin (0.7%). Among the 138 Salmonella isolates, 72 (52.2%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobial agents. Twenty-four serovars were identified among the 138 Salmonella-positive samples; serovars Albany, Kentucky, Braenderup, and Indiana were found in 38, 11, 10, and 8% of samples, respectively. None of the potential risk factors were significantly related to Salmonella contamination of chicken carcasses. This study provides new information regarding prevalence and antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella serovar diversity in retail markets in Yangon, Myanmar.

  1. Testing optimal punishment mechanisms under price regulation : the case of the retail market for gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, R.; Versaevel, B.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a price floor on price wars in the retail market for gasoline were analyzed. The authors selected a theoretical model which assumed a Bertrand oligopoly supergame, where firms initially collude by charging the monopolistic price. Once a deviation from this strategy is detected by the firms, a switch to a lower price is made in what can be called a punishment phase (price war), before returning to collusive prices. A natural experiment for the testing of the model was provided by the introduction of a price floor regulation in the Quebec retail market for gasoline in 1996. A Markov Switching Model with two latent states was used to simultaneously identify the periods of price-collusion/price war, and also to estimate the parameters which characterized each state. The results indicated that the intensity of price wars was reduced by the introduction of the price floor, but the expected duration of those wars was raised. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  2. Testing optimal punishment mechanisms under price regulation : the case of the retail market for gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne, R. [Montreal Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales; Van Norden, S. [Montreal Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales]|[Centre for Interuniversity Research and Analysis on Organizations, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Versaevel, B.

    2003-09-01

    The effects of a price floor on price wars in the retail market for gasoline were analyzed. The authors selected a theoretical model which assumed a Bertrand oligopoly supergame, where firms initially collude by charging the monopolistic price. Once a deviation from this strategy is detected by the firms, a switch to a lower price is made in what can be called a punishment phase (price war), before returning to collusive prices. A natural experiment for the testing of the model was provided by the introduction of a price floor regulation in the Quebec retail market for gasoline in 1996. A Markov Switching Model with two latent states was used to simultaneously identify the periods of price-collusion/price war, and also to estimate the parameters which characterized each state. The results indicated that the intensity of price wars was reduced by the introduction of the price floor, but the expected duration of those wars was raised. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  3. Roadmap of retail electricity market reform in China: assisting in mitigating wind energy curtailment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dezhao; Qiu, Huadong; Yuan, Xiang; Li, Yuan; Shao, Changzheng; Lin, You; Ding, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Among the renewable energies, wind energy has gained the rapidest development in China. Moreover wind power generation has been penetrated into power system in a large scale. However, the high level wind curtailment also indicates a low efficiency of wind energy utilization over the last decade in China. One of the primary constraints on the utilization of wind energy is the lack of an electricity market, in which renewable energies can compete equally with traditional fossil fuel generation. Thus the new round electric power industry reform is essential in China. The reform involves implementing new pricing mechanism, introducing retail-side competition, promoting the consumption of renewable energy. The new round reform can be a promising solution for promoting the development and consumption of wind energy generation in China. Based on proposed reform policies of electric power industry, this paper suggests a roadmap for retail electricity market reform of China, which consists of three stages. Barriers to the efficient utilization of wind energy are also analysed. Finally, this paper introduces several efficient measures for mitigating wind curtailment in each stage of reform.

  4. Stakeholder management in a multicultural environment : A case-study of a global retailer entering the Russian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Izmaylova, Dinara; Zuccon, Federica

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, an increasing number of global retailers such as IKEA, Carrefour and Auchan, are expanding their business internationally: internationalization is seen as a way to face competitors as well as to enhance position on the market. In particular, emerging markets are becoming a fertile field for investing resources due to their fast economic development and growing disposable income of the local population. A number of market actors (or stakeholders) affect or are affected by the interna...

  5. In-person retail marketing claims in tobacco and E-cigarette shops in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joshua S; Wood, Michele M; Peirce, Katelynn

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarette use has been increasing in the United States, though knowledge of potential risks and harms associated with e-cigarette use is low. Marketing of e-cigarettes may serve as a source of information to shape beliefs and attitudes toward e-cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to identify the most common marketing claims made within "vape" and tobacco shops in sales interactions with customers in demographically diverse cities. Vape and tobacco shops from three diverse cities in Southern California were selected for inclusion in the study. From May 2015 to July 2015, simulated customers asked salespeople in vape and tobacco shops how e-cigarettes compare to conventional cigarettes, and then recorded the resulting claims that were made using a standardized form designed for this purpose. Data were analyzed from January to March 2016. The most frequent claims made by sales staff were that: smoking e-cigarettes helps one quit smoking (57% of the simulated shopping interactions), e-cigarettes come in multiple flavors (54%), and e-cigarettes are healthier than conventional cigarettes (50%). Simulated customer interactions that took place in vape shops included more positive marketing claims than those that occurred in tobacco shops; this relationship approached statistical significance ( p  = .087). There was a significant relationship between city and the average number of positive e-cigarette claims made ( p  marketing claims are made about e-cigarettes in retail settings. These may vary by geographic location, community demographics, and type of retail outlet.

  6. Designing pharmacy services based on grocery store patron preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Nicolette S Raya; Casper, Kristin A; Green, Tara R; Pedersen, Craig A

    2007-01-01

    To assess preferences of grocery store patrons concerning pharmacy services and identify study participant characteristics that may predict the success of pharmacy services in the community setting. Self-administered survey. Central Ohio from December 16, 2005, to January 12, 2006. 163 grocery store patrons. Eight grocery store survey events. Responses to survey items about (1) perceived importance of 28 pharmacy services, (2) identification of the 3 most important services, (3) frequency of grocery store and pharmacy use, (4) preferred methods of advertising pharmacy services, and (5) socioeconomic demographics. Preferred services delineated by various demographics also were analyzed. A total of 163 surveys were returned from study participants. Nine services appeared in both the top 12 overall preferred services and the 12 highest-ranked services. Statistically significant differences were observed among services ranked as important or very important by age, race, employment, income, caregiver status, and prescription drug coverage status. The three advertising tools selected most frequently included: weekly grocery store ads (68.6%), in-store signs (51.0%), and flyers attached to prescription bags (36.0%). Grocery store patrons would like a wide range of nontraditional pharmacy services that could be implemented into community pharmacies. Pharmacies in grocery stores need to provide both traditional and expanded pharmacy services to meet the desires and expectations of current and potential patients, and expanded marketing methods should be considered.

  7. Retailer adherence to Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, North Carolina, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Myers, Allison E; D'Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2013-04-04

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act's provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers' adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, "light" cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions.

  8. Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a U.S. retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolong; Pan, Xiaojun; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Qiquan

    2013-10-02

    With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 μg/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention.

  9. Factors Influencing Consumers Intention for Online Grocery Shopping - A Proposed Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzi, SFF; Thoo, AC; Tan, LC; Muharam, FM; Talib, NA

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, Internet is one of the most popular platforms for people to do online shopping including grocery items. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the determinants of customer intentions for online grocery shopping. Till now, there is no consensus on what are the factors that actually influencing people to shop grocery items through Internet. This paper aims to explore the factors such as social influences, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivations, perceived risk and perceived trust that influence the consumer intention to purchase grocery online. Questionnaires will be the main instrument of the study and they will be distributed to target respondents using Internet survey. Respondents of the study will be selected using convenience sampling. After data collection, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) will be employed for data analysis. Overall, the result of the study is important to retailers to identify the important factors in increasing their customers’ intention to purchase grocery online.

  10. Mapping of Grocery Stores in Slovak Countryside in Context of Food Deserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Bilková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on mapping grocery stores in the Slovak countryside with an emphasis on identifying potential food deserts in rural areas. Grocery stores are analyzed in the time period 2001–2011. Food deserts in rural areas are identified by two accessibility measures. The results show the development of food retailing in the Slovak countryside and in potentially threatened localities which can be defined as food deserts.

  11. Marketing strategy for retailing small-scale wind energy turbines in Indian markets

    OpenAIRE

    Harjula, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The study analyzes the small-scale wind energy markets in Mumbai, focusing on questions: How feasible is the wind energy for SME businesses in Mumbai, and what are the main challenges and opportunities of small-scale wind energy in Mumbai? The study is a qualitative case study, in which, the data has been collected through observing the markets by visiting wind energy sites and companies, interviewing and meeting potential customers and other stakeholders in the market. Theoretical frame...

  12. Retail LNG handbook. Retail LNG and The Role of LNG Import Terminals. Report by the GIIGNL Technical Study Group on the possible role of LNG import terminals within the emerging Retail LNG Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industries are changing. The influx of supply, low prices, and environmental benefits of natural gas are driving consumers to convert from other fossil fuels. Natural gas consumers on pipeline systems have the ability to benefit, but for those not connected, LNG may be the only opportunity to convert to natural gas. As this market evolves, a unique opportunity may emerge for some existing participants in the LNG market and could lead to a shift in business focus, potentially adding to or even transforming the traditional role of LNG Import Terminals. As surmised by the GIIGNL's Technical Study Group (TSG) at the outset of their endeavor, virtually every member company had historical experience with, was in the midst of expanding its services to include, or was actively engaged in the study of, Retail LNG. The market drivers, value propositions, trends and future prospects for Retail LNG that have widely been publicized were generally confirmed although in an overall more conservative outlook. As a representative body of experienced, long term LNG Import Terminal operators, GIIGNL was uniquely qualified to stress in its Handbook the importance of managing the inherent risk associated with LNG, the application of suitable codes and standards and the use of proper equipment. The study of the aspects of LNG supply and use including safety, security, staffing, equipment siting, and operations is hoped to provide an illustrative framework form which the industry can jointly move towards best practices. While Retail LNG is considered by many to be 'new' there is substantial historical experience with all aspects of the market. LNG Import Terminals, including the experience and competence of their staffing, can play a key role in not only the incubation and growth of the Retail market, but the molding and shaping of regulatory framework, applicable codes and standards and operational best practices. GIIGNL

  13. An empirical investigation of spatial differentiation and price floor regulations in retail markets for gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Jean-Francois

    In the first essay of this dissertation, I study an empirical model of spatial competition. The main feature of my approach is to formally specify commuting paths as the "locations" of consumers in a Hotelling-type model of spatial competition. The main consequence of this location assumption is that the substitution patterns between stations depend in an intuitive way on the structure of the road network and the direction of traffic flows. The demand-side of the model is estimated by combining a model of traffic allocation with econometric techniques used to estimate models of demand for differentiated products (Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995)). The estimated parameters are then used to evaluate the importance of commuting patterns in explaining the distribution of gasoline sales, and compare the economic predictions of the model with the standard home-location model. In the second and third essays, I examine empirically the effect of a price floor regulation on the dynamic and static equilibrium outcomes of the gasoline retail industry. In particular, in the second essay I study empirically the dynamic entry and exit decisions of gasoline stations, and measure the impact of a price floor on the continuation values of staying in the industry. In the third essay, I develop and estimate a static model of quantity competition subject to a price floor regulation. Both models are estimated using a rich panel dataset on the Quebec gasoline retail market before and after the implementation of a price floor regulation.

  14. A novel application of point-of-sales grocery transaction data to enhance community nutrition monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiya, Hiroshi; Moodie, Erica E M; Buckeridge, David L

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy eating is the most important preventable cause of global death and disability. Effective development and evaluation of preventive initiatives and the identification of disparities in dietary patterns require surveillance of nutrition at a community level. However, nutrition monitoring currently relies on dietary surveys, which cannot efficiently assess food selection at high spatial resolution. However, marketing companies continuously collect and centralize digital grocery transaction data from a geographically representative sample of chain retail food outlets through scanner technologies. We used these data to develop a model to predict store-level sales of carbonated soft drinks, which was applied to all chain food outlets in Montreal, Canada. The resulting map of purchase patterns provides a foundation for developing novel, high-resolution nutrition indicators that reflect dietary preferences at a community level. These detailed nutrition portraits will allow health agencies to tailor healthy eating interventions and promotion programs precisely to meet specific community needs.

  15. Impact of cigarette minimum price laws on the retail price of cigarettes in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Michael A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Loomis, Brett R

    2013-05-01

    Cigarette price increases prevent youth initiation, reduce cigarette consumption and increase the number of smokers who quit. Cigarette minimum price laws (MPLs), which typically require cigarette wholesalers and retailers to charge a minimum percentage mark-up for cigarette sales, have been identified as an intervention that can potentially increase cigarette prices. 24 states and the District of Columbia have cigarette MPLs. Using data extracted from SCANTRACK retail scanner data from the Nielsen company, average cigarette prices were calculated for designated market areas in states with and without MPLs in three retail channels: grocery stores, drug stores and convenience stores. Regression models were estimated using the average cigarette pack price in each designated market area and calendar quarter in 2009 as the outcome variable. The average difference in cigarette pack prices are 46 cents in the grocery channel, 29 cents in the drug channel and 13 cents in the convenience channel, with prices being lower in states with MPLs for all three channels. The findings that MPLs do not raise cigarette prices could be the result of a lack of compliance and enforcement by the state or could be attributed to the minimum state mark-up being lower than the free-market mark-up for cigarettes. Rather than require a minimum mark-up, which can be nullified by promotional incentives and discounts, states and countries could strengthen MPLs by setting a simple 'floor price' that is the true minimum price for all cigarettes or could prohibit discounts to consumers and retailers.

  16. Validated Competency Task Lists for General Merchandise Retailing, Food Service Management, and Business and Personal Services Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Suzanne G.

    This publication contains competency task lists that address principal entry-level and career-sustaining jobs in the occupational categories of general merchandise retailing, food service management, and business and personal services marketing. Section I, Development of the Competency Task Lists, provides details on how the competencies were…

  17. AÇAÍ PULP DEMAND IN THE RETAIL MARKET OF BELÉM, STATE OF PARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIO CORDEIRO DE SANTANA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to estimate the parameters associated to the demand for açaí pulp in the retail market of Belém. Multiple regression analysis was applied to identify the key variables that impact on product consumption and to estimate the price and income elasticities and cross demand. The econometric estimation method applied was the least squares to correct heteroscedastic variance problems. Results have shown that the demand for açaí pulp is price and income inelastic. Fish and cassava flour were confirmed as complementary products of strong influence on the decisions of consumers. Product quality, with regard to its association to Chagas disease, also revealed a strong influence on product choice for household consumption. Finally, the socio-economic benefit of açaí pulp was R$ 762.78 million per year.

  18. Assessment of Coumarin Levels in Ground Cinnamon Available in the Czech Retail Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blahová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the coumarin content of ground cinnamon purchased from retail markets in the Czech Republic. No sample was labelled with information on the botanical source, but, in some cases, the countries of origin were specified. For comparison, a single cinnamon sample imported directly from a plantation in Sri Lanka that came from Cinnamomum verum was analyzed. Results from 60 ground cinnamon samples comprising twelve brands confirmed a high content of coumarin, with mean levels ranging from 2 650 to 7 017 mg · kg−1. The high coumarin content confirmed that these cinnamon samples obtained from cassia cinnamon were in contrast to the sample from Sri Lanka, which was coumarin-free.

  19. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry and poultry products for sale on the Polish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkiw, Elżbieta; Rzewuska, Katarzyna; Stoś, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Korsak, Dorota

    2011-06-01

    In 2007 and 2008, a monitoring study was carried out in Poland to examine the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in raw and cooked chicken products available on the retail market. A total of 912 samples were tested: 443 samples of raw chicken meat, 146 samples of giblets, and 323 ready-to-eat poultry products (150 samples of spit-roasted chicken, 56 samples of smoked chicken, and 117 samples of pâté and cold meats). A high level of contamination of raw chicken meat (51.7% of samples) and chicken giblets (47.3% of samples) was detected. However, thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were found in only 1.2% of the ready-to-eat poultry products.

  20. Research on the Complexity of Dual-Channel Supply Chain Model in Competitive Retailing Service Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Li, Ting; Ren, Wenbo

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the optimal decisions of dual-channel game model considering the inputs of retailing service. We analyze how adjustment speed of service inputs affect the system complexity and market performance, and explore the stability of the equilibrium points by parameter basin diagrams. And chaos control is realized by variable feedback method. The numerical simulation shows that complex behavior would trigger the system to become unstable, such as double period bifurcation and chaos. We measure the performances of the model in different periods by analyzing the variation of average profit index. The theoretical results show that the percentage share of the demand and cross-service coefficients have important influence on the stability of the system and its feasible basin of attraction.

  1. Tracking cross-contamination transfer dynamics at a mock retail deli market using GloGerm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Jessica; Boyer, Renee; Gallagher, Dan; Duncan, Susan; Bauer, Nate; Kause, Janell; Eifert, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meats are considered a food at high risk for causing foodborne illness. Deli meats are listed as the highest risk RTE food vehicle for Listeria monocytogenes. Cross-contamination in the retail deli market may contribute to spread of pathogens to deli meats. Understanding potential cross-contamination pathways is essential for reducing the risk of contaminating various products. The objective of this study was to track cross-contamination pathways through a mock retail deli market using an abiotic surrogate, GloGerm, to visually represent how pathogens may spread through the deli environment via direct contact with food surfaces. Six contamination origination sites (slicer blade, meat chub, floor drain, preparation table, employee's glove, and employee's hands) were evaluated separately. Each site was inoculated with 20 ml of GloGerm, and a series of standard deli operations were completed (approximately 10 min of work). Photographs were then taken under UV illumination to visualize spread of GloGerm throughout the deli. A sensory panel evaluated the levels of contamination on the resulting contaminated surfaces. Five of the six contamination origination sites were associated with transfer of GloGerm to the deli case door handle, slicer blade, meat chub, preparation table, and the employee's gloves. Additional locations became contaminated (i.e., deli case shelf, prep table sink, and glove box), but this contamination was not consistent across all trials. Contamination did not spread from the floor drain to any food contact surfaces. The findings of this study reinforce the need for consistent equipment cleaning and food safety practices among deli workers to minimize cross-contamination.

  2. Designing a retail store environment for the mature market: A European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Petermans, Ann; Van Cleempoel, Koenraad

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses elderly consumers’ physical and social needs and wants in the marketplace, and presents case studies of two European food retail stores that were designed to meet these concerns. The authors review information on the elderly consumers’ segment and discuss literature on retail design and retail branding and question how designers should be more aware of multiple modes of interpreting brands, given generational differences and the existence of various types of retail sett...

  3. The Spanish retail petroleum market: New patterns of competition since the liberalization of the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, Alejandro; Cavero, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the recent development of the Spanish automotive fuels market, in the context of a long process of liberalization and competition. Our aims are twofold. First, to overview the market's current patterns of competition, while taking into account the political, structural and strategic aspects that have marked the industry's recent evolution. Second, to study in depth one competitive strategy that nowadays significantly influences competition and final prices, the vertical relationships between operators and service stations. Our analysis draws attention to several indicators that may demonstrate the success of the opening and liberalization process. Increased levels of competition have stimulated the sector's growth, development and modernization, and given national firms an excellent platform for competing with newcomers. Furthermore, studying the vertical agreements has produced interesting results. We have found that relative price differences among brands increase in line with perceived quality differences, and that the vertical separation of refineries and retailers eases price competition in the final market. The empirical evidence was backed up with a database of 4164 Spanish service stations. (author)

  4. A cluster analysis study based on profitability and financial indicators in the Italian gas retail market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capece, Guendalina; Di Pillo, Francesca; Levialdi, Nathan; Cricelli, Livio

    2010-01-01

    In the European Union, the natural gas market is increasingly being liberalized. The liberalization process is aimed at leading to lower prices and higher volumes, and hence higher consumer welfare. This paper focuses on the changes in performance in the natural gas retail market by analyzing the profit and financial position of the companies concerned over the first three years following the market liberalization. The balance sheets of 105 Italian companies in this sector are analyzed, after which a cluster analysis is performed employing the most significant performance indexes. The companies are then analyzed within each cluster with respect to age, size, geographical location and business diversification. The results of our analysis show that the majority of companies attained a high level of performance, although this positive outcome was mitigated by the gradual decrease of the average values of performance indicators during the period concerned. The companies that achieve the best performances belong to longstanding business groups, are medium-large sized and are located in the north of the country. Regarding business diversification, in the first two years, the specialised companies outperformed the diversified companies. (author)

  5. A cluster analysis study based on profitability and financial indicators in the Italian gas retail market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, Guendalina; Di Pillo, Francesca; Levialdi, Nathan [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Impresa, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cricelli, Livio [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio, Universita di Cassino, Via G. Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    In the European Union, the natural gas market is increasingly being liberalized. The liberalization process is aimed at leading to lower prices and higher volumes, and hence higher consumer welfare. This paper focuses on the changes in performance in the natural gas retail market by analyzing the profit and financial position of the companies concerned over the first three years following the market liberalization. The balance sheets of 105 Italian companies in this sector are analyzed, after which a cluster analysis is performed employing the most significant performance indexes. The companies are then analyzed within each cluster with respect to age, size, geographical location and business diversification. The results of our analysis show that the majority of companies attained a high level of performance, although this positive outcome was mitigated by the gradual decrease of the average values of performance indicators during the period concerned. The companies that achieve the best performances belong to longstanding business groups, are medium-large sized and are located in the north of the country. Regarding business diversification, in the first two years, the specialised companies outperformed the diversified companies. (author)

  6. HOW IN-STORE MARKETING AFFECTS PURCHASE AND SALESMAN’S RECOMMENDATION RATE IN TELECOM RETAIL STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melik Karabıyıkoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors study in-store marketing for telecom retail stores in GSM sector in Turkey which handset manufacturers practice special application in stores for increasing purchasing and improving suggestion rates of their products. They develop a theoretical model of dealers, and manufacturers behavior based on observations about key aspects of the mobile phone market. The analysis provides important insights about in-store marketing and their applications. For example, owner of the store and salesmen would like to support in-store marketing applications of manufacturers in spite of operators’s in-store rules. The authors find empirical support when they test the theoretical results.

  7. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    With centralised buying organisations, growth in market coverage and turn over retailers have become gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers. W review the literature on retailer buying behaviour...... committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  8. CHANGES IN CONSUMER’S BEHAVIOUR ON THE ROMANIAN RETAIL MARKET IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catana Adina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to observe the impact of the economic crisis of consumer’s behaviour on the Romanian retail market, I focused my research on the evolution of consumption expenditure of households. I studied aspects from European Union and Romania. The study is based on the research taken in the project of PhD research with the theme: The impacts of Economic Integration on Romanian Retail. I used data from Eurostat, the Romanian Statistical Institution, specialised studies etc.

  9. How Retailers Handle Complaint Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Wilke, Ricky; Zaichkowsky, Judy

    2009-01-01

    This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained as to the......This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained...... as to the links between CM and redress of consumers’ complaints. The results suggest that retailers who attach large negative consequences to consumer dissatisfaction are more likely than other retailers to develop a positive strategic view on customer complaining, but at the same time an increase in perceived...

  10. Retail Price Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Retail Price Model is a tool to estimate the average retail electricity prices - under both competitive and regulated market structures - using power sector projections and assumptions from the Energy Information Administration.

  11. Enriching the ECSI model using brand strength in the retail setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Sarantidou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of the retailer’s brand strength as a potential predictor of loyalty. It also examines the role of customer satisfaction (CS to the retailer’s loyalty as well as its impact on the retailer’s brand strength. Design/methodology/approach - The study was conducted in the grocery context and in a market under recession using the European Customer Satisfaction Index (ECSI model. Data were collected through a telephone survey from 2,000 participants responsible for the household grocery shopping with a quota of 250 respondents from each of the leading grocery retailers in Greece. A formative measurement model was developed and the collected data were analyzed using partial least square path modeling. Findings - The findings revealed that the strength of the retailer’s brand and CS influence retail loyalty and that brand strength mediate the strength of CS to loyalty. Results also suggested that the expectations and the perceptions toward the retailer’s product offering are the most important drivers of CS and loyalty. Thus, the study has proved the importance of the functional store attributes to CS and loyalty in the grocery store setting. Originality/value - Research examining the suitability of the ECSI model in the grocery setting and in a market under economic crisis is scarce. This paper addresses these shortcomings by examining a customer loyalty model which incorporates the brand strength construct and investigates the role of brand strength as a potential predictor of loyalty as well as the role of CS in the brand strength and loyalty.

  12. Price learning during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    Many attempts have been made to measure consumers' price knowledge for groceries. However, the results have varied considerably and conflict with results of reference price research. This is the first study to examine price knowledge before, during, and after store visit, thus enabling a study...... of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

  13. The Next-Generation U.S. Retail Electricity Market with Customers and Prosumers—A Bibliographical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapidly-changing technologies in the power industry, many new references addressing the frameworks and business models of the next-generation retail electricity market are entering the research community. In particular, considering new customers with considerable demand response awareness and so-called prosumers with localized power generation based on distributed energy resources (DERs, the next-generation retail electricity market infrastructure will be a level playing field for local energy transactions, strategic pricing scheme design, new business model design and building an innovative energy ecosystem. Consequently, there is an urgent need to keep track of international experiences and activities taking place in the field of the market mechanism design problem at the distribution level. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of recent technology developments and aims to inspire awareness of the further deregulation of the electricity market, especially in areas close to customers. We mainly bring attention to the more than 90 articles published during the past five years. The collected literature has been divided into different sections to discuss different aspects of the next-generation retail electricity market under the deregulated power industry.

  14. "Hello Jumbo!” The spatio-temporal rollout and traffic to a new grocery chain after acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lin, Arjen; Gijsbrechts, Els

    Grocery retailers increasingly use acquisitions to expand their presence. Such acquisitions are risky, especially when retailers decide to subsume the acquired stores under their own banner, which can take years and demands careful planning. We show how the dynamics of consumer valuations of the old

  15. IS ONLINE GROCERY SHOPPING INCREASING IN STRENGTH?

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, James J.

    2001-01-01

    Online grocery shopping is a relatively new innovation with regard to the way in which one purchases groceries. Some interesting concepts- designed to enhance the process of making grocery products available for consumption of the ever-changing consumer- have entered the food distribution industry channels. A telephone survey was conducted in the Boston trading area to determine the profile of online grocery consumers who are familiar with online grocery shopping.

  16. Investment Strategy in a Closed Loop Supply Chain: The Case of a Market with Competition between Two Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Yoon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To survive in the ceaseless cycle of competition, businesses have developed strategies to become sustainable. These strategies include reusing products, which can lead not only to the creation of economic benefits but also to improvements in a corporation’s social and environmental responsibility. Product reuse can also increase the profit earned on new products by compensating customers who bring in old products to buy new ones, as the ensuing remanufacturing process allows for the reuse of materials and thus drives down costs. As businesses have come to recognize these values, the marketing competition to retrieve used products from customers has intensified. This research focuses on identifying effective compensation strategies to determine the appropriate advertising investment and trade-in value in a market where two homogeneous retailers compete. Retailers advertise to secure more customers to trade in their used products and to generate more trade-in sales than competitors do. A retailer’s results may vary according to its competitor’s investment strategy, which makes it useful to employ information on past competitor investment patterns to plan future investment strategies. However, as competitors using one another’s information may intensify the competition, better investment results could be obtained by ignoring competitor investment information. Therefore, this study suggests four competition strategies that determine the advertisement costs and trade-in allowance spent by retailers and discusses the difference in the profits obtained by the retailers under each of the four strategies.

  17. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  18. Retail Tactical Planning: An Aligned Process?

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyer , Heidi; Dukovska-Popovska , Iskra; Kiil , Kasper; Kaipia , Riikka

    2016-01-01

    Part 9: Quality in Production Management; International audience; This paper addresses tactical planning in retailing through a case study approach in one grocery retailing company. The issues are how tactical planning is conducted and how the different plans are connected. The study complements earlier retail planning studies by showing the sequence of planning phases and by studying the fragmented plans as a process. The master category planning is important and sets borders for the other p...

  19. Identifying the unique characteristics of independent fashion retailers in Scotland by utilising Porter’s generic competitive strategy model and the marketing mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola O’HARE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El mismo texto del Independent retailers in the fashion sector make a substantial contribution to the UK economy at the time of significant change on the high street due to financial pressures and the growth of online trade. They provide an element of creativity and innovation to a homogenous retail landscape. The independent fashion retailer creates a destination and individual identity by presenting a unique offering and differentiated experience. Whilst independent retailers are important to the future of our high street, research is limited, particularly in the area of fashion independents. Therefore this research examines and identifies the unique characteristics of independent fashion retailers within Scotland. The research adopts a case study approach, qualitative methods of data collection in order to fulfil the aim and objectives of the study. Porter’s Generic Competitive Strategies and the marketing mix were utilised as a means of drawing out the individual aspects and unique characteristics of the independent fashion retailer.

  20. SATISFACTION OF RETAIL INVESTORS ON THE STRUCTURAL EFFICIENCY OF THE MARKET: EVIDENCE FROM A DEVELOPING COUNTRY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamunur Rashid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Satisfied investors are a necessary element of the stock market. They help to finance rapid expansion in developing countries. This study explores the components of market structure that contribute to the satisfaction level of retail investors. Around 300 retail investors from 25 randomly selected brokerage houses registered with the Dhaka Stock Exchange, Bangladesh were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Analyses reveal that most investors were young and inexperienced but educated, with shortages of skills and income. The investors put the strongest emphasis on effective investment analysis, followed by ease of the transaction process, effective information management and timely risk management. The trading experience of these investors was used as a moderating variable to investigate the impact of demographic variables and found to be insignificant. The study suggests the importance of effective regulation, disclosure requirements to ensure a supply of quality information, investor education and technology driven trading in brokerage houses for overall investor satisfaction.

  1. Pomen managementa na dereguliranem maloprodajnem trgu električne energije v Sloveniji = The Importance of Management in the Deregulated Retail Electricity Distribution Market in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Drago Papler; Stefan Bojnec

    2006-01-01

    This paper underlines the importance of management in the deregulated retail electricity distribution market, entrepreneurship and business behaviours toward consumers’ satisfaction with quality of services. The coefficients of concentration indicate a high concentration of electricity suppliers and users in the deregulated electricity retail market for industry. The production function reveals the importance of education and electricity infrastructure, and to a lesser extent of capital inte...

  2. Regulations as a Tool to Increase Consumer Protection on the European Retail Payment Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Harasim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The purpose of the paper is to identify the main areas of customers' threats concerning using financial services and the in-depth review of European industry- -specific consumer regulations concerning current accounts and payments. Design/methodology/approach - Desk research including in-depth analysis of industry- specific consumer regulations referring to current accounts and payment services having the character of EU directives and regulations, European Commission reports, and documents. Findings - The paper shows that consumers' interests are threatened even when they use basic financial services as current account and combined payment instruments. The analysis based on of desk resources has revealed that the regulations give effect to customer protection only if they strictly correspond to defined areas of threats and particular types of risks. Research implications/limitations - The experience of the recent financial crisis proved that the asymmetry of knowledge and information was one of the crucial reasons disrupting customers' position on financial markets. Research findings will help to identify gaps in regulations and develop the quality of further initiatives aimed on informing customers about the implementation of regulations and improving their financial literacy level. Originality/value/contribution - The payment products are rarely discussed in the literature in the context of consumers' protection and financial regulations. This paper contributes to the debate by providing an overview of financial consumer protection issues concerning retail payments.(original abstract

  3. Design of Product Placement Layout In Retail Shop Using Market Basket Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isti Surjandari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Retailing is an industry with high level of competition.  It is a customer-based industry which depends on how it could be aware of what the customers' needs and requirements are. One technique most used in supermarkets is the mix merchandise. The purpose of this paper is to identify associated products, which then grouped in mix merchandise with the use of market basket analysis. This association between products then will be applied in the design layout of the product in the supermarket. The process of identifying the related products bought together in one transaction is done by using data mining  technique. Apriori algorithm is chosen as a method in the data mining process. Using WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis software, the association rule between products is calculated. The results found five category association rules and fourteen sub-category association rules. These associations then will be interpreted as confidence and support to become consideration for the product layout.

  4. Characteristics of Escherichia coli from raw vegetables at a retail market in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skočková, Alena; Karpíšková, Renáta; Koláčková, Ivana; Cupáková, Šárka

    2013-10-15

    A large epidemic caused by shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) in spring 2011 in Germany resulted in reduction of trust in the health safety of raw vegetables and sprouted seeds. This study focused on the detection and characterization of E. coli in raw vegetables and sprouted seeds sold in the Czech Republic. Out of 91 samples, 24 (26.4%) were positive for the presence of E. coli. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was determined by the disk diffusion method and E-test. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of selected genes encoding virulence--eaeA, hly, stx1, and stx2 and genes encoding resistance to tetracycline--tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), and tet(G) and to β-lactams--blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX. The blaTEM gene was detected in two isolates, the tet(B) gene in three and tet(A) in one isolate. No hly, stx1, or stx2 genes were present, but the eaeA gene was found in three (11.1%) isolates from imported vegetables. These isolates can be considered as potentially enteropathogenic. Results of this study show that raw vegetables and sprouted seeds sold in the retail market can represent a potential risk for consumers. © 2013.

  5. Factor structure of essential social skills to be salespersons in retail market: implications for psychiatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Leo C C; Tsang, Hector W H

    2005-12-01

    This study continued the effort to apply social skills training to increase vocational outcomes of people with severe mental illness. We planned to identify factor structure of essential social skills necessary for mental health consumers who have a vocational preference to work as salesperson in retail market. Exploratory factor analysis of the results of a 26-item questionnaire survey suggested a five-factor solution: social skills when interacting with customers, problem-solving skills, knowledge and attitudes, flexibility, and skills for conflict prevention, which accounted for 65.1% of the total variance. With the factor solution, we developed a job-specific social skills training program (JSST) to help consumers who want to be salespersons. The structure and session design followed the basic format of a typical social skills training program. The way this JSST is to be used with the work-related social skills training model previously developed by the corresponding author to produce better vocational outcomes of consumers is suggested.

  6. Analysis of the competition on the retail market for electric power; Analyse af konkurrencen pae detailmarkedet for el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    This year it is almost ten years ago, that it was made possible for all electricity consumers to choose their supplier. Specifically, this was done by changes in the Electricity Supply Act, whereby increased competition was designated as the central means of achieving the energy policy objectives of security of supply, economics, environment, and consumer protection. The retail electricity market's turnover today is approx. 43 billion. DKK, but it is expected to grow significantly in the coming years because consumers are increasingly expected to use electricity from renewable energy for heating and transport. It is obvious that it is also for this reason essential to the economy that competition in the retail market works as well as possible. In practice, competition as an instrument is aimed at production and retail sales in the electricity market, with the significant exception that the smaller consumers are protected by both the competition itself as well as by the special supply regulation. The protective supply regulation means that a majority of consumers and small and medium-sized enterprises do not have sufficient incentive to trade electricity on the free market, which in turn means that there is not exercised pressure on suppliers that can lead to innovation, product development, or to provide electricity at the lowest possible prices. The Secretariat of the Danish Energy Regulatory Authority has against this background made an in-depth analysis of the competition in the retail market for electricity and for the general supply regulation. The analysis shows that there are a number of barriers that stand in the way of effective competition in the retail market, and thus of fostering innovation, product development and potential improvements in infrastructure. The Danish government and parliament have taken a number of initiatives that remove some of the barriers. But challenges still remain. They all originate from inertia and low mobility at

  7. Pangasius in the EU market; Prospects for the position of (ASC-certified) pangasius in the EU retail and food service sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, R.; Pijl, van der W.; Duijn, van A.P.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this market study is to investigate the potential short- and long-term benefits for investors to invest in the production of pangasius with a trademark based on ASC certification, for the retail and food service market segments in the EU market.

  8. The operation of French electric power and natural gas retail markets - Report 2014-2015. Report 2015 by the CRE on the operation of French electricity and natural gas markets - Press file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteil, Anne; Casadei, Cecile

    2015-11-01

    After a presentation of some key figures illustrating the French electricity and natural gas markets (customers, number of providers, and so on), and an executive summary, this voluminous report proposes a presentation of CRE's missions regarding the survey and control of retail markets, and of the methodology adopted to survey retail markets, and a recall of the main steps of electricity market and natural gas market opening. Then, it its first chapter, the report proposes a detailed picture and analysis by the end of 2014 for the electricity retail market, for the natural gas retail market, and a discussion about key process follow-up and power cut-off for unpaid bills. The second chapter addresses supplies and prices. It analyses the levels and evolutions of electricity regulated tariffs, of regulated tariffs for gas sales, and of the various market supplies. The third chapter addresses issues related to competition and to the operation of the retail market: the end of sales regulated tariffs, general framework for the survey of providers' practices, provider price practices, analysis of commercial practices implemented by providers, evolutions of the competitive environment on the retail market. An appendix briefly addresses retail markets and regulated tariffs in Europe. A second report proposes a more synthetic presentation which is used as a press file, proposes an executive summary, and addresses the following issues: status of competition (key data for 2014 and 2015), the end of sales regulated tariffs for professionals as a major step of market opening to competition, favourable regulatory context and market price leading to an intensified competition on the residential market, the preferred market supplies for residential consumers, comparison between fixed price and regulated tariffs, an almost non-existent opening in the competition of local distribution utilities, and regulated tariffs in Europe

  9. Dietetics and Nutrition Students Response to Grocery Store Tour Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Elizabeth D.; Brunt, Ardith; Froelich, Christa; Borr, Mari

    2018-01-01

    Retail dietetics is a growing field, however, there is very little research available on effective teaching strategies for preparing students to enter this part of the profession. This paper is the second paper to report on the results of produce-focused grocery store tour training program. This paper focuses on the trained students' perception of…

  10. The Development and Pilot Testing of the Marijuana Retail Surveillance Tool (MRST): Assessing Marketing and Point-of-Sale Practices among Recreational Marijuana Retailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; Henriksen, Lisa; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Schauer, Gillian L.; Freisthler, Bridget

    2017-01-01

    As recreational marijuana expands, it is critical to develop standardized surveillance measures to study the retail environment. To this end, our research team developed and piloted a tool assessing recreational marijuana retailers in a convenience sample of 20 Denver retailers in 2016. The tool assesses: (i) compliance and security (e.g.…

  11. Pomen managementa na dereguliranem maloprodajnem trgu električne energije v Sloveniji = The Importance of Management in the Deregulated Retail Electricity Distribution Market in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Papler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the importance of management in the deregulated retail electricity distribution market, entrepreneurship and business behaviours toward consumers’ satisfaction with quality of services. The coefficients of concentration indicate a high concentration of electricity suppliers and users in the deregulated electricity retail market for industry. The production function reveals the importance of education and electricity infrastructure, and to a lesser extent of capital intensity, in labour productivity growth in the retail electricity distribution enterprise. Electricity demand in industry is determined positively by real income growth and negatively by real electricity price increases. Multivariate factor analysis confirms two main common components of efficient retail electricity supply and satisfaction of consumers in industry. In the first group of factors of efficient retail electricity supply the highest weights are for consumption, quality of services, expenses and advice. In the second group of factors of consumers’ satisfaction the highest weights are for response, needs, reliability and personnel. The impacts of changes in the dynamics of competition in the deregulated retail electricity market on management and organisational behaviours are found significant for quality of services, marketing and marketing strategies, supply-chain and customer relationship management.

  12. The impact of the multi-channel retail mix on online store choice: Does online experience matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Melis, Kristina; Campo, Katia; Breugelmans, Els; Lamey, Lien

    2015-01-01

    More and more grocery retailers are becoming multi-channel retailers, as they are opening an online alternative next to their traditional offline supermarkets. While the number of multi-channel grocery shoppers is also expanding at a fast growth rate, there are still large differences in online shopping frequency, and as a result, in the levels of experience with buying in the online grocery channel. This study wants to (i) identify the underlying drivers of online store choice and (ii) explo...

  13. A study about Social Media Marketing for Local Grocery Stores : How Social media can be used to create a better customer relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Fahid; Sindakovski, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The role of internet and the digitalized world are more relevant than ever before. The new phenomena of digital marketing has created a paradigm shift of existing marketing with new ways to market. Social media plays a significant role in this change, since it allows businesses to easily engage with its customers and to maintain relationships. For small and local businesses, this change has created great opportunities to interact more with the local audience. However, not all such businesses ...

  14. Vertical integration, credit ratings and retail price settings in energy-only markets: Navigating the Resource Adequacy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simshauser, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Energy-only markets are prone to the Resource Adequacy problem, i.e. the timely entry of new plant. The reason for this is that competitive energy-only markets struggle to be remunerative given reliability constraints and market price caps. Historically, Australia's 45,000 MW National Electricity Market has managed to navigate this well understood problem, albeit with government entities directly or indirectly responsible for a surprisingly large 73% of all new plant investments to 2007. But government involvement in direct investment has now ceased. So what will enable the industry to navigate the Resource Adequacy problem into the future? Quite simply, industrial organisation, the presence of merchant utilities with investment-grade credit ratings and setting any regulated retail prices or 'price to beat' with an LRMC floor.

  15. Incentive-based demand response programs designed by asset-light retail electricity providers for the day-ahead market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotouhi Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali; Faria, Pedro; Ramos, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    how a REP with light physical assets, such as DG (distributed generation) units and ESS (energy storage systems), can survive in a competitive retail market. The paper discusses the effective risk management strategies for the REPs to deal with the uncertainties of the DAM (day-ahead market) and how...... to hedge the financial losses in the market. A two-stage stochastic programming problem is formulated. It aims to establish the financial incentive-based DR programs and the optimal dispatch of the DG units and ESSs. The uncertainty of the forecasted day-ahead load demand and electricity price is also...... taken into account with a scenario-based approach. The principal advantage of this model for REPs is reducing the risk of financial losses in DAMs, and the main benefit for the whole system is market power mitigation by virtually increasing the price elasticity of demand and reducing the peak demand....

  16. Vertical integration, credit ratings and retail price settings in energy-only markets. Navigating the Resource Adequacy problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simshauser, Paul [Level 22, 101 Miller Street, North Sydney, NSW 2060 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Energy-only markets are prone to the Resource Adequacy problem, i.e. the timely entry of new plant. The reason for this is that competitive energy-only markets struggle to be remunerative given reliability constraints and market price caps. Historically, Australia's 45,000 MW National Electricity Market has managed to navigate this well understood problem, albeit with government entities directly or indirectly responsible for a surprisingly large 73% of all new plant investments to 2007. But government involvement in direct investment has now ceased. So what will enable the industry to navigate the Resource Adequacy problem into the future? Quite simply, industrial organisation, the presence of merchant utilities with investment-grade credit ratings and setting any regulated retail prices or 'price to beat' with an LRMC floor. (author)

  17. Vertical integration, credit ratings and retail price settings in energy-only markets: Navigating the Resource Adequacy problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simshauser, Paul, E-mail: psimshauser@agl.com.a [Level 22, 101 Miller Street, North Sydney, NSW 2060 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Energy-only markets are prone to the Resource Adequacy problem, i.e. the timely entry of new plant. The reason for this is that competitive energy-only markets struggle to be remunerative given reliability constraints and market price caps. Historically, Australia's 45,000 MW National Electricity Market has managed to navigate this well understood problem, albeit with government entities directly or indirectly responsible for a surprisingly large 73% of all new plant investments to 2007. But government involvement in direct investment has now ceased. So what will enable the industry to navigate the Resource Adequacy problem into the future? Quite simply, industrial organisation, the presence of merchant utilities with investment-grade credit ratings and setting any regulated retail prices or 'price to beat' with an LRMC floor.

  18. A new form of nicotine retailers: a systematic review of the sales and marketing practices of vape shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Orlan, Elizabeth N; Sewell, Kerry B; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-12-05

    Retailers that primarily or exclusively sell electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or vaping products represent a new category of tobacco retailer. We sought to identify (a) how vape shops can be identified and (b) sales and marketing practices of vape shops. A medical librarian iteratively developed a search strategy and in February 2017 searched seven academic databases (ABI/INFORM Complete, ECONLit, Embase, Entrepreneurship, PsycINFO, PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus). We hand searched Tobacco Regulatory Science and Tobacco Prevention & Cessation . We used dual, independent screening. Records were eligible if published in 2010 or later, were peer-reviewed journal articles and focused on vape shops. We used dual, independent data abstraction and assessed risk of bias. Of the 3605 records identified, 22 were included. We conducted a narrative systematic review. Researchers relied heavily on Yelp to identify vape shops. Vape shop owners use innovative marketing strategies that sometimes diverge from those of traditional tobacco retailers. Vape shop staff believe strongly that their products are effective harm-reduction products. Vape shops were more common in areas with more White residents. Vape shops represent a new type of retailer for tobacco products. Vape shops have potential to promote e-cigarettes for smoking cessation but also sometimes provide inaccurate information and mislabelled products. Given their spatial patterning, vape shops may perpetuate inequities in tobacco use. The growing literature on vape shops is complicated by researchers using different definitions of vape shops (eg, exclusively selling e-cigarettes vs also selling traditional tobacco products). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Supply Chain Innovation-prospects for Supply Chain Managment in the Irish Grocery Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Joan; O'Callaghan, Edmund; Wilcox, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Supply chain management is one of the most significant strategic challenges currently facing the Irish grocery sector. The UK grocery market with its emphasis on composite deliveries via regional distribution centres is extremely sophisticated; the Irish grocery sector, however, is in the embryonic stage of implementing central distribution. The potential to develop innovative supply chain systems is mediated by both national logistic-related variables and company characteristics. In additio...

  20. Institute for Commerce & International Marketing at the Saarland University, Germany: A Research Center in the Field of Retail Management and E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Zentes

    2005-01-01

    Over the years, a lot of experience in the field of new developments in retail management and marketing and the necessary innovations in the IT-support tools for retailers as well as in the application of e-commerce - B2C and B2B - has been accumulated. The institute has come to notice, that e-commerce in all its forms has become a major source of change for retail companies and therefore dedicates a large share of its resources to the investigation of this highly relevant topic.

  1. Legal analysis of contract models in a common Nordic electricity retail market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerneby, Henrik; Alvik, Ivar

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to consider the legal advantages and disadvantages with different contract models given NordREG's choice of a supplier centric model with mandatory combined billing in a future Nordic end-user market for electricity.At the outset, there are today three relevant categories of agreements in place between customers, suppliers and DSOs in the Nordic electricity retail markets: the electricity supply agreements between customers and suppliers, the grid use agreements between customers and DSOs, and the grid connection agreements usually entered into between customers and DSOs. We have assumed that issues governed by the grid connection agreements will still be entered into by DSOs under a supplier centric model. Two general contract models have on this basis been considered as possible approaches to regulation of electricity supply and grid use terms under a future supplier centric model. The subcontractor model is considered in more detail in chapter 7 of this report. Under this model, the customer enters into a contract with the supplier governing both electricity supply and grid use. The supplier then enters into a separate contract with the DSO for grid use, making the DSO a subcontractor for this service. The Danish wholesale model which will be implemented from 1 October 2014 represents one example of a subcontractor model.The main advantage of the subcontractor model is that it will entitle the customer to envisage the electricity supply, including grid services, as a single service delivered by the supplier. On the other hand, the sub-contractor model will extend the responsibilities of suppliers towards customers. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this model further in section 7.2. The power of attorney model is considered in more detail in chapter 8 of this report. Under this model, the customer and the DSO will still formally be contract parties to the grid use agreement, but the supplier will act with a

  2. Retail promotions and perceptions of R.J. Reynolds' novel dissolvable tobacco in a US test market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Laura M; Saxton, M Kim; Coan, Lorinda L; Christen, Arden G

    2011-05-15

    With declining cigarette sales, tobacco manufacturers have been developing and marketing new smokeless products, such as R. J. Reynolds' dissolvable tobacco, Camel Sticks, Strips and Orbs. This study assessed the availability, price and point-of-purchase promotional strategies for Camel Dissolvables, and investigated consumer awareness, interest and perception of these products in the Indiana test market. An exploratory retail audit of point-of-purchase promotions was conducted in a random sample of retailers from 6 store categories (n = 81) in the test market area. Data included: store type, location, product placement, forms/flavors carried, price, types and locations of advertisements and promotions, and ad messages. An Awareness-Attitude-Usage (AAU) survey was used to gauge consumer awareness and knowledge of tobacco products including Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were shown promotional materials from a package onsert and perceptions and interest in the Camel Dissolvables were assessed. An Intended Target Survey (ITS) compared subjects' perceptions of ad targets for several non-tobacco products, as well as Camel Snus, Camel No. 9 and Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were asked to identify each ad's intended target category, perceived targetedness, and purchase intent. The products were carried by 46% of stores, most frequently gas stations (100%) and convenience stores (75%). They were shelved near smokeless tobacco (70%), cigarettes (25%) or candy (5%). Prices ranged from $3.59 -$4.19 per package; most stores carried at least 1 promotional item. Ad messages included: "Dissolvable Tobacco" (60%). "Free Trial" (24%), "Special Price" (24%), "What's Your Style?" (22%). At 14% of stores, free trial packs of Camel Dissolvables were offered with another Camel purchase. Awareness was reported by 42% of respondents (n = 243), and trial by 3%. Consumer interest was very low, but younger respondents ( 40 years, p targeted smokers. Current retail promotional strategies

  3. Retail promotions and perceptions of R.J. Reynolds' novel dissolvable tobacco in a US test market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coan Lorinda L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With declining cigarette sales, tobacco manufacturers have been developing and marketing new smokeless products, such as R. J. Reynolds' dissolvable tobacco, Camel Sticks, Strips and Orbs. This study assessed the availability, price and point-of-purchase promotional strategies for Camel Dissolvables, and investigated consumer awareness, interest and perception of these products in the Indiana test market. Methods An exploratory retail audit of point-of-purchase promotions was conducted in a random sample of retailers from 6 store categories (n = 81 in the test market area. Data included: store type, location, product placement, forms/flavors carried, price, types and locations of advertisements and promotions, and ad messages. An Awareness-Attitude-Usage (AAU survey was used to gauge consumer awareness and knowledge of tobacco products including Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were shown promotional materials from a package onsert and perceptions and interest in the Camel Dissolvables were assessed. An Intended Target Survey (ITS compared subjects' perceptions of ad targets for several non-tobacco products, as well as Camel Snus, Camel No. 9 and Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were asked to identify each ad's intended target category, perceived targetedness, and purchase intent. Results The products were carried by 46% of stores, most frequently gas stations (100% and convenience stores (75%. They were shelved near smokeless tobacco (70%, cigarettes (25% or candy (5%. Prices ranged from $3.59 -$4.19 per package; most stores carried at least 1 promotional item. Ad messages included: "Dissolvable Tobacco" (60%. "Free Trial" (24%, "Special Price" (24%, "What's Your Style?" (22%. At 14% of stores, free trial packs of Camel Dissolvables were offered with another Camel purchase. Awareness was reported by 42% of respondents (n = 243, and trial by 3%. Consumer interest was very low, but younger respondents ( 40 years, p Conclusions

  4. The Impact of Structural Transformation in the Retail Sector on the Producer and Consumer Market in Bursa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru SEÇKİN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been transformation of the food retail sector in the last 20 years, accompanied by multi-nationalization of the supermarket sector itself. Modern supply chains comprise the production and trade of high-value produce, usually destined for export to high-income markets or for supermarket retail. Two striking changes in the retail food sector have been the movement of supermarket chains towards specialized wholesalers in the organization of their procurement systems, and the emergence of strict quality and safety standards. Debates on the supermarket revolution and its impact on small farmers continue in the literature. Some writers suggest that small farmers are excluded from modern supply chains because they cannot meet supermarkets’ requirements. However, some writers imply that small farmers are not under threat. In this context, this paper aimed to examine the relationship between buyer and supplier, and reveal the structural and behavioural stresses of the modern supply chain in the context of the pear supply chain in Bursa (Gürsu. There are two research questions: 1 Are small farmers excluded from modern supply chains? 2 Are there differences between farmers in modern and traditional supply chains? The study concluded that there is a dual structure at work, in which traditional and modern supply chains intertwine and operate side by side. The study also found that small farmers are not excluded from the modern supply chain, and that there are no differences between farmers in modern and traditional supply chains.

  5. Fatty acid and cholesterol profiles and hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic, and thrombogenic indices of table eggs in the retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Youssef A; Al-Harthi, Mohammed A; Korish, Mohamed A; Shiboob, Mohamed M

    2015-10-27

    Eggs are an important source of food due to its favorable effects on human health derived from the protein, fats, minerals, vitamins and bioactive components. We studied the effects of source of eggs in the retail market on fatty acids, lipid profiles and antioxidant status in eggs. Eggs from four sources named A, B, C, and D in the retail market were collected to determine fatty acid, total lipid, and cholesterol profiles; hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic and thrombotic indices; antioxidant status (e.g., of malondialdehyde); and total antioxidant capacity in the whole edible parts of eggs (albumen + yolk) and egg yolk. Samples were collected four times and pooled over times to represent 5 and 10 samples per source for determinations of fatty acids and determinations of lipid profiles and antioxidant status, respectively. Fatty acid, total lipid, and cholesterol profiles; hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic and thrombotic indices; presence of malondialdehyde; and total antioxidant capacity in the whole edible parts of eggs and egg yolk showed significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) among different sources of eggs in retail market. Source D showed higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and linoleic and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)/polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio but lower levels of MUFA and linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaeonic (EPA), decohexaenoic (DHA), and total ω9 fatty acids and lower unsaturated fatty acids (UFA)/SFA ratio. Similar trend was shown in fatty acids profiles of the whole edible parts of eggs. On the other hand, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, and atherogenic and thrombogenic indices and total antioxidant capacity of source D were significantly higher than those of other source, but levels of hypocholesterolemic index, and malondialdehyde levels were lower for source D. Eggs in the retail market in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia, from May to August 2015 showed a

  6. RETAIL STORE DESIGN AND ENVIRONMENT AS BRANDING SUPPORT IN THE SERVICES MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor NISTORESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The services are intangibles, therefore their quality is difficult to be evaluatedby the client and building a strong brand image is a challenging task. Theservices are distributed using diverse channels such as: company retailstores, dealers, franchise. The service companies are interested in theenvironment of the location, not only to increase sells but also in order toboost the image of the company. The excitement that a retail store induces toa client can modify the perception of the brand. The client values more abrand that distributes its services in a luxury, high-tech retail environmentthan a discount store. In this paper we intended to investigate the techniquesthat a service company is using to enhance the brand image in a retaillocation. For this purpose, the various aspects of the retail store design andenvironment were analyzed in connection with the customer-based brandequity model. This original association will offer the services companies’ newperspectives on how to leverage brand image.

  7. The retail market for fresh cassava root tubers in the European Union (EU)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind-Hansen, Lotte; Brimer, Leon

    2010-01-01

    A number of retail shops in Copenhagen sell fresh cassava roots. Cassava roots contain the toxic cyanogenic glucoside linamarin. A survey was made of the shop characteristics, origin of the roots, buyers, shop owner's knowledge of toxicity levels, and actual toxicity levels.......A number of retail shops in Copenhagen sell fresh cassava roots. Cassava roots contain the toxic cyanogenic glucoside linamarin. A survey was made of the shop characteristics, origin of the roots, buyers, shop owner's knowledge of toxicity levels, and actual toxicity levels....

  8. German Grocery Discounters: Dynamics and Regional Impact. the Case of Schleswig-Holstein (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgens Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grocery discount stores have long dominated developments in the German food retail sector, and they continue to grow. This paper discusses the reasons for this long-term success based on internal decision-making parameters such as price, adjustment of product range, choice of location, and size of new stores. The result is significant customer acceptance, but also adverse developments viewed critically in various governance constellations. The paper is based on expert interviews and a comprehensive collection of data on grocery discount stores and supermarkets in the German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein

  9. Managing Food Allergens in the U.K. Retail Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael J; Gowland, M Hazel; Points, John

    2018-01-01

    The U.K. food and grocery market is highly significant financially and dominated by 10 retailers within a regulated and extremely economically competitive environment. We summarize the approach of U.K. retailers to allergen risk assessment (RA) and risk management (RM) within the U.K. legal framework and explore public visibility of retailers' allergen policies. RA and RM of allergens appear effective in curtailing retail-triggered severe food allergy reactions. However, allergen recalls remain high, precautionary allergen labeling (PAL) remains an area of confusion, and there is no consistent Web-based provision of information for consumers who have allergies. Resolution of PAL awaits an agreed-on threshold framework, but a key challenge is to engage with patients and gain their trust rather than thrust education at them. It would be helpful for retailers to publish their allergen RA and RM policies. A target should be agreed on between government and retailers for a reduction in the proliferation of PAL wording variants by a given date within the next 3 years. A further hurdle is potentially flawed allergen analysis-development of reference methods and reference materials are acknowledged needs. Laboratories should report allergen results in an informative manner, communicating uncertainty and caveats. Ideally a laboratory representative would be included on any incident control team. Efforts must continue to standardize preparedness for protecting and defending food and drink from deliberate attack.

  10. Which categories should direct marketers feature for which customers when using targeted promotions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reutterer, Thomas; Boztug, Yasemin; Breugelmans, Els

    -stage procedure. For deriving segment-specific promotions at the product category level, this procedure takes both interdependencies in purchase behaviour across categories and customer heterogeneity with respect to cross-category effects in response to marketing actions into account. The resulting...... recommendations are empirically evaluated vis-à-vis alternative approaches in a controlled field experiment conducted in cooperation with a major online grocery retailer....

  11. Comparison of the Microbial Quality of Lamb and Goat Meat Acquired from Internet and Local Retail Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chyer; Stein, Roslyn A; Pao, Steven

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial quality of lamb and goat meat sold through local (Virginia) and Internet (U. S.) retail markets. A total of 134 frozen meat products consisting of locally purchased lamb ground (LLG) and lamb chops and Internet-procured lamb ground, goat ground, lamb chops (ILC), goat chops (IGC), lamb stew, and goat stew were tested. Significantly higher levels of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and coliforms were found in the meat locally acquired than in the meat procured from the Internet. Similar average prevalence (27%) of Escherichia coli was observed regardless of market source. Ground meat had significantly high levels and prevalence of mesophiles, psychrotrophs, coliforms, and Listeria spp. One sample of LLG contained Campylobacter, and one sample of IGC contained Salmonella. Listeria spp. were present in 23 to 40% and 17 to 80% of samples from local and Internet markets, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of isolated E. coli strains revealed brand specificity and genomic diversity. No isolate from different brands and market sources had matching PFGE profiles. The average price of Internet meat ($23.4/kg) was about 1.2 times higher than the price of local meat, except for ILC, whose price was 2.7 times higher. This study revealed differences in microbial quality of lamb and goat meat based on market source; thus, meat products should be handled carefully regardless of market source because of the presence of high microbial levels and the high prevalence of pathogens.

  12. The Internet and Services Marketing--The Case of Danish Retail Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    2000-01-01

    Examines various aspects of the motives, perceptions, and expectations connected with the introduction of Internet banking in Danish retail banking. Responses from questionnaires and results from a factor analysis and a hierarchical cluster analysis indicate a belief that Internet banking will become more important in the future. (Author/LRW)

  13. Retailer branding of consumer sales promotions. A major development in food marketing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Robert P; Lindsay, Sophie; Insch, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    This article examines retailer branding of consumer price promotions. It discusses the mechanics of price promotions, consumers' reactions to them and the benefits that accrue to those that use them. It describes how large food retailers can now deploy branded price promotion systems that are fundamentally different to 'traditional' price promotions in both their mechanics and their effects on consumer decision processes. The article describes a field experiment that compared the performance of a food retailer's branded price promotion system with that of a generic (manufacturer) price promotion. The research involved three experiments that covered two food categories (sliced bread and margarine) and two levels of discount (10% and 20%). The results indicate that food retailers are able to attach powerful brands to their price promotion systems, and these brand heuristics can significantly increase consumer purchase intent relative to an equivalent generic/manufacturer promotion. This incremental heuristic effect was stable in both categories and for both levels of price discount studied. These results are consistent with the predictions of alternative, non-cognitive and heuristic based models of food consumer choice that have been published recently in 'Appetite'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social media as marketing strategy: an explorative study on adoption and use by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Alarcón-Del-Amo, M.-D.-C.; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, E.; Alarcön-Del-Amo, M.-D.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose — This study examines a cross section of the Spanish retailing branch on the adoption and use of Social Media tools, identifying users and nonusers and their impact on management experiences. The use of 2.0 technologies has also been analyzed based on company size. Methodology — An online

  15. The potential for segmentation of the retail market for electricity in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyland, Marie; Leahy, Eimear; Tol, Richard S J

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the gross margin that is earned from the supply of electricity to households in Ireland. Using half hourly electricity demand data, the system marginal price (also called the wholesale price) and the retail price of electricity, we analyse how the gross margin varies across customers

  16. Learning Business Practices from Peers : Experimental Evidence from Small-scale Retailers in an Emerging Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, Patricio; Rüschenpöhler, Julius; Uras, Burak; Zia, Bilal

    This paper studies whether small-scale businesses can learn and adopt protable practices of their successful peers. We identify such practices through a detailed business survey in urban Indonesia and disseminate the information to a randomly selected sample of small retailers through a

  17. Promoting Problem-Based Learning in Retailing and Services Marketing Course Curricula with Reality Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Mark S.; Otalora, Mauricio Losada; Ramírez, Germán Contreras

    2015-01-01

    This research provides business educators who teach retailing and services courses with an innovative way to encourage students to engage in problem-based learning solving by incorporating reality television into their curricula. The authors explore the reality television genre from several theoretical perspectives to lend support to the…

  18. Innovations in retail business models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorescu, A.; Frambach, R.T.; Singh, J.; Rangaswamy, A.; Bridges, C.

    2011-01-01

    A retail business model articulates how a retailer creates value for its customers and appropriates value from the markets. Innovations in business models are increasingly critical for building sustainable advantage in a marketplace defined by unrelenting change, escalating customer expectations,

  19. Consumer Online Grocery Buying Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Jan Møller; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the ability of two consumer theories - the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior - in predicting consumer online grocery buying intention. In addition, a comparison of the two theories is conducted. Data were collected from two web-based surveys of Danish (n=1222) and Swedish (n=1038) consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Lisrel results suggest that the theory of planned behavior (with the inclusion of a path from subjective norm to attitude...

  20. Retail Shopping Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    categories. An association between the frequency of a brand's appearance on lists and the amount of money spent on advertising the brand could not be found. A strong link between brands, prices and store names is revealed. Price in the majority of cases refers to brands rather than to product categories......The paper addresses consumers' shopping lists. The current study is based on a survey of 871 lists collected at retail grocery stores. Most items on shopping lists appear on the product category level rather than the brand level. The importance of the brand level varies considerably across product...

  1. Retail marketing a in-store promotion společnosti Samsung Electronics Czech and Slovak s.r.o.

    OpenAIRE

    Košťál, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the retail marketing and the in-store promotion. It is prima-rily focused on merchandising, sales promotion and other selected activities. The work itself is devoted to Samsung Electronics Czech and Slovak s.r.o. and is mostly based on a practical experience gained from a position of an employee. Firstly, the amount of investments in marketing of Samsung in comparison with the competition is introduced. The following part describes the basic retail acti-vities across th...

  2. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  3. « Retail Brand Equity: A PLS Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Jara

    2009-01-01

    In large retail stores, France is characterized by market saturation and even a decline of several retail concepts such as variety stores, or even supermarkets and hypermarkets (Cliquet, 2000). This situation leads to a fierce competition and raises questions which affect marketing strategies of French retail companies. Given the legal context, the French retailers can increase sales through retail brands which appear to be henceforth among the most effective marketing tools. Indeed, product ...

  4. Retail inventory management with lost sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu - Stefanut, A.

    2012-01-01

    The inventory control problem of traditional store-based grocery retailers has several challenging features. Demand for products is stochastic, and is typically lost when no inventory is available on the shelves. As the consumer behavior studies reveal, only a small percentage of customers are

  5. Capital Discipline and Financial Market Relations in Retail Globalization: Insights from the Case of Tesco plc

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Steven; Wrigley, N; Coe, NM

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth study of leading transnational food retailer Tesco plc to explore how its financial management and relations with the investment community – notably its reputation for capital discipline – underpinned successful expansion. Informed by close dialogue with equity analysts, we investigate how this model deteriorated since the late 2000s with declining returns, leading to high-profile international divestitures. The analysis assesses the drivers of these difficulti...

  6. Exposure to Marijuana Marketing After Legalization of Retail Sales: Oregonians' Experiences, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Steven C; Dilley, Julia A; Firth, Caislin L; Maher, Julie E

    2018-01-01

    To assess exposure to marijuana advertising in Oregon after the start of retail marijuana sales in October 2015. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional online survey of 4001 Oregon adults aged 18 years and older in November 2015 and April-May 2016. We assessed subgroup differences by using the Pearson χ 2 test. More than half of adults (54.8%) statewide reported seeing marijuana advertising in the past month. These adults reported that they most frequently saw storefront (74.5%), streetside (66.5%), and billboard (55.8%) advertising. Exposure did not significantly differ by participant's age or marijuana use but was higher among those living in counties with retail sales (56.5%) than in counties without (32.5%). Most adults reported exposure to marijuana advertising following the start of retail marijuana sales in Oregon. People who do not use marijuana and those aged 18 to 24 years were as exposed to advertising as other groups. Public Health Implications. Advertising restrictions may be needed to protect youths and young adults from pro-use messages. Commercial free speech afforded by the First Amendment makes advertising restrictions challenging, but public policy experts note that restrictions aimed at protecting youths may be allowed.

  7. Retail Marijuana Purchases in Designer and Commercial Markets in New York City: Sales Units, Weights, and Prices per Gram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Ream, Geoffrey L.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the bifurcation of the market for commercial marijuana from the market for designer marijuana in New York City. Commercial marijuana is usually grown outdoors, imported to NYC, and of average quality. By contrast, several strains of designer marijuana are usually grown indoors from specially-bred strains and carefully handled for maximum quality. The mechanisms for selling include street/park sellers, delivery services, private sales, and storefronts. Retail sales units vary from $5 to $50 and more, but the actual weights and price per gram of retail marijuana purchases lacks scientific precision. Ethnographic staff recruited marijuana purchasers who used digital scales to weigh a purposive sample of 99 marijuana purchases. Results indicate clear differences in price per gram between the purchases of commercial (avg. $8.20/gram) and designer (avg. $18.02/gram) marijuana. Designer purchases are more likely to be made by whites, downtown (Lower East Side/Union Square area), via delivery services, and in units of $10 bags, $50 cubes, and eighth and quarter ounces. Commercial marijuana purchases are more likely to be made by blacks, uptown (Harlem), via street dealers, and in units of $5 and $20 bags. Imported commercial types Arizona and Chocolate were only found uptown, while designer brand names describing actual strains like Sour Diesel and White Widow were only found downtown. Findings indicate clear divisions between commercial and designer marijuana markets in New York City. The extent that these differences may be based upon different THC potencies is a matter for future research. PMID:17055670

  8. EXTENDED SPECTRUM BETA-LACTAMASE PRODUCING E. COLI CONTAMINATION OF CHICKEN MEAT IN THE IRISH RETAIL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dearbháile Morris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals represent potential reservoirs for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. Twenty domestically produced chicken meat samples were collected from 19 retail outlets in Ireland, inoculated into Bolton broth and cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mCCDA and Preston agars. Selected representative coliforms included 16 E.coli and 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All E.coli isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers, 15 isolates harbored a blaCTX-M group-1 gene, and none belonged to the E.coli 025b:H4-ST131 clonal group. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis identified 13 distinct pulsed field profiles and comparison with more than 300 human clinical isolates of ESBL producing E. coli did not reveal any similarities. ESBL producing E. coli were detected on retail meats in the Irish market place. Although no similarity was apparent between poultry and human isolates this does not preclude a role for ESBL-producing E.coli in meat in dissemination of antimicrobial resistance.

  9. A restructuring agenda for developing competitive retail electric markets that is based on a low-cost, real-time, smart-kilowatt-hour meter adapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasek, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes six agenda items that should expedite a politically smooth transition into a most efficient economically viable market-driven public power system. The agenda would introduce: the virtual marketplace for retail electric power, smart meters, smart meter readers, near-real-time load balancing and load apportionment, advanced supply and demand or commodity-style pricing, and reliability metering

  10. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat at retail markets in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thung, T Y; Mahyudin, N A; Basri, D F; Wan Mohamed Radzi, C W J; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Radu, S

    2016-08-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the major food-borne diseases in many countries. This study was carried out to determine the occurrence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, as well as to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. The most probable number (MPN) in combination with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) method was used to quantify the Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in the samples. The occurrence of Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in 120 chicken meat samples were 20.80%, 6.70%, and 2.50%, respectively with estimated quantity varying from retail chicken meat could be a source of multiple antimicrobial-resistance Salmonella and may constitute a public health concern in Malaysia. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Strategic pricing possibilities of grocery retailers : an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Länsiluoto, Aapo; Back, Barbro; Vanharanta, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    The right pricing of products is one of the most important issues concerning the development of companies’ financial performance. Prices should be low enough to attract customers and at the same time high enough to cover all the emerged costs and expected profits. This research illustrates how self-organizing maps (SOM) can be used for pricing purposes. We show how changes in a company’s pricing policies would affect the company’s pricing position. The study illustrates clearly that companies...

  12. The retailing of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, T; Wong, J

    1984-01-01

    A number of striking parallels between recent developments in health care marketing and changes in the retailing industry exist. The authors have compared retailing paradigms to the area on health care marketing so strategists in hospitals and other health care institutions can gain insight from these parallels. Many of the same economic, demographic, technological and lifestyle forces may be at work in both the health care and retail markets. While the services or products offered in health care are radically different from those of conventional retail markets, the manner in which the products and services are positioned, priced or distributed is surprisingly similar.

  13. The correlation between cherry picking and the distance that consumers travel to do grocery shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Van Scheers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Retailers often use price promotions to discriminate between consumers who can shift purchases over time and those who cannot. Retailers consistently tend to charge lower prices than necessary, pricing defensively to prevent loyal customers from cherry picking, or shifting to competitors. Knowledge about cherry picking behaviour will enable retailers to obtain a higher share of disposable income from even price-sensitive shoppers, while at the same time charging higher prices. Recent studies indicate that effective cherry picking entails saving costs through price searching over time, price searching across stores, or both. This study examines the relationship between cherry picking and the distance that consumers travel to do grocery shopping. Interviews were conducted at ten different retail outlets over three days, and the results show that there is a highly significant correlation between cherry picking and the distance that consumers travel to do grocery shopping.These results should help retailers to benefit from cherry picking by taking a proactive approach to store switching and store location, two of the main influences on cherry picking behaviour.

  14. STUDY ON RETAIL BRAND AWARENESS IN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija Dan Cristian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brand awareness, together with other behavioural indicators (sympathy, trust, image, satisfaction or loyalty, is one of the main vectors that has an essential contribution to the outline of brand equity in general and to that of retail brand, in particular. The perception upon these indicators must be taken into consideration by production, service or retail companies in order to be able to identify their position on target markets, and in order to be able to create an adequate strategy that would help them reach the desired positioning. The aim of this paper is, on one hand, to reveal both the dimensions of brand awareness, and the relationship between these and consumers brand perception and, on the other hand, to offer a suitable instrument to measure awareness level of various retail chains. Questioning of almost 4.000 consumers indicates a significant awareness of the retailers that have been on the selected market for a longer period of time.

  15. ORGANIC FOOD AS AN EMERGING MARKET: PERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMPTION, SUPPLY GOVERNANCE AND RETAIL STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Aertsens, Joris

    2011-01-01

    The literature and my own empirical research indicate that most consumers hold a positive attitude towards organic food and agree that there are good reasons to motivate the purchase and consumption of organic products. However organic consumption remains very limited -with a market share, for organic food, of only 3.4% in 2008 in Germany, the largest European market. This study sheds more light on the factors influencing (slowing down) growth in the emerging organic market, both on the c...

  16. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolates Recovered from Retail Pork in Major Village Markets in Tai'an Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zengmin; Li, Song; Qin, Kun; Zhou, Yufa

    2017-10-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate Salmonella contamination in retail pork at major village markets of the Tai'an region, China. In total, 200 retail pork samples were collected from four village markets between June 2015 and February 2016, of which 69 samples (34.5%) were determined to be positive for Salmonella. Eleven serotypes were identified from the 69 Salmonella isolates, and Salmonella Derby was the most common (18 of 69, 26.1%), followed by Typhimurium (17 of 69, 24.6%) and Meleagridis (11 of 69, 15.9%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that antimicrobial resistance against tetracycline was the most prevalent (42 of 69, 60.9%), but antimicrobial resistance against both ceftriaxone and cefotaxime was 1.4% (1 of 69) and 2.9% (2 of 69), respectively. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that the 69 Salmonella isolates were divided into 11 sequence types (STs), among which ST40 (18 of 69, 26.1%) was the most common, followed by ST34 (15 of 69, 21.7%) and ST64 (13 of 69, 18.8%). Collectively, retail pork at village markets in the Tai'an region has a high Salmonella contamination rate, and these isolates exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial resistance. However, the absence of a dominant ST demonstrates that the Salmonella isolates from retail pork may be of diverse origins.

  17. Marketing support of putting on the own trade marks in the retail sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsova S.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the practical experience of putting own trade mark by the domestic enterprise on the food market of Ukraine. The author has investigated the marketing strategy of putting on the own trade mark and evaluated its results for the enterprise, formed and implemented to the practice the measures for evaluating the attractiveness of company’s own trade mark.

  18. Determining Performance Levels of Competencies for Job Entry. Final Report. Marketing and Retail Sales Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Warren; And Others

    To provide input for curriculum evaluation, a study to identify basic competencies required for entry-level positions in the marketing/merchandising field was conducted in Wisconsin vocational education districts. Marketing and merchandising graduates and their employers were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to determine the degree of performance…

  19. FOOD SAFETY SYSTEMS’ FUNCTIONING IN POLISH NETWORKS OF GROCERY STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł NOWICKI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the way how the food safety systems are functioning in Polish networks of grocery stores. The study was conducted in the fourth quarter of 2012 in the south‐eastern Poland. There were chosen three organizations that meet certain conditions: medium size Polish grocery network without participation of foreign capital and up to 30 retail locations within the group. Studies based on a case study model. The research found that regular and unannounced inspections carried out to each store's, impact on increasing safety of food offered and the verification of GHP requirements on the headquarters level has a significant impact on the safety of food offered as well as on the knowledge and behavior of employees. In addition it was found that the verification and analysis of food safety management system is an effective tool for improving food safety. It was also shown that in most cases there is no formal crisis management system for the food protection in the surveyed companies and employees are only informed of what to do in case of an emergency.

  20. European Retail Payments Market: New Opportunities to Mergers and Acquisition Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Novickytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of European banks will not be able to allocate funds successfully participating in the SEPA. Some of them have to look for opportunities to reduce the cost in collaboration with other institutions in the execution of the payment or provision of services to carry out transmission of the third party. The other part will have to find a merger partner. In future there can be more active participants in the market lead to acquisitions. In order to assess possible changes in the payment market, noted that its participants – service providers – consolidation will be inevitable. The assessment of the Lithuanian bank sector shows that banks with the parent banks that invest and develop the activities of subsidiaries of banks, are likely to remain in the market. However, banks that are not ready to participate and get involved in a single market, will be taken over or disappear.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Market Power and the Demsetz Quality Critique: An Evaluation for Food Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.; Harper, C. David

    1994-01-01

    This study analyzes supermarket firm prices to determine whether prices are related to market structure and whether the Demsetz quality critique is valid. Factor analysis is used to identify five service factors that are modeled with price as endogenous variables in a simultaneous equations framework to test whether a more concentrated market structure is related to higher service levels which, in turn, are related to higher prices (the Demsetz hypothesis) and whether a more concentrated mark...

  2. The potential for segmentation of the retail market for electricity in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyland, Marie; Leahy, Eimear; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the gross margin that is earned from the supply of electricity to households in Ireland. Using half hourly electricity demand data, the system marginal price (also called the wholesale price) and the retail price of electricity, we analyse how the gross margin varies across customers with different characteristics. The wholesale price varies throughout the day, thus, the time at which electricity is used affects the gross margin. The main factor in determining gross margin, however, is the level of demand. The highest gross margins are earned from supplying customers that have the following characteristics: being aged between 46 and 55, having a household income of at least €75,000 per annum, being self-employed, having a third-level education, having a professional or managerial occupation, living in a household with seven or more people, living in a detached house, having at least five bedrooms or being a mortgage holder. An OLS regression shows that gross margin is partly explained by the energy conservation measures which are present in a household; the number of household members; the number of bedrooms; age; occupation; and accommodation-type. - Highlights: • We calculate the gross margin associated with supplying electricity customers. • Gross margin is highly linked to the level of electricity demand. • Gross margin is highest for the richest households in our sample. • Energy conservation measures have a negative impact on gross margin. • Age, occupation and accommodation type are significant predictors of gross margin

  3. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers' Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Pan, William K; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-07-28

    The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated) cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers' tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people.

  4. On the Competitive Interaction Between Private Label and Branded Grocery Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald W. Cotterill; Ravi Dhar; William P. Putsis Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Recent research in marketing has focused on cross-category variation in the market share of private label products, while recent work in the economics and industrial organization literature has focused on the determinants of firm price setting behavior. In this paper, the authors develop a framework for estimating market share and price reaction equations simultaneously in an attempt to understand the nature of competitive interaction in the market for private label and branded grocery produc...

  5. Impact Of The International Grocery Chain On The US Online Grocery Business

    OpenAIRE

    Louis J. Zivic; Timothy P. Shea

    2011-01-01

    The established, United States based brick-and-mortar grocery chains have been slow to enter the online grocery business. This paper, the third in a series, explores whether that is still the case in 2001, how the new pure-play online grocers are doing in the aftermath of the collapse of the technical sector of stocks in early 2001, and the role that internationally-based grocery chains are taking in the US marketplace. Somewhat surprisingly, some internationally-based grocery chains are movi...

  6. Barriers to retail marketing of renewable energy products in an energy-rich province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haner, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Personal experiences in attempting to market photovoltaics and other renewable energy products in Alberta, a province rich in energy sources, are recounted as part of an exploration of ways to help industry to develop strategies that will advance the acceptance of renewable energy products, particularly in areas of the world that are not concerned about energy supply. Social acceptability, emphasis on a healthy and convenient lifestyle associated with renewable energy products, practical, user-friendly products, and competitive prices, are some of the key elements in successfully marketing renewable energy products

  7. Measurement of the Marketing Mix of Service, Satisfaction and Loyalty of Customers in a Retail Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Brito Pereira de Souza; UFMG; Marlusa Mendonça Gosling; UFMG; Carlos Alberto Gonçalves; FUMEC e UFMG

    2013-01-01

    Especificidades dos serviços, tais como a intangibilidade, a inseparabilidade, a variabilidade e a perecibilidade fazem dos serviços um assunto que deve ser tratado de forma diferente em relação ao marketing industrial. Gilmore (2003) e Kotler, Hayes e Bloom (2002), dentre outros, apresentam o mix de marketing de serviços (7Ps): os processos, as pessoas, as evidências físicas, o produto, a praça, a promoção e o preço....

  8. Energy Efficiency in Grocery Distribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)......Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)...

  9. Do auctions and forced divestitures increase competition? Evidence for retail gasoline markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.; Haan, M.A.; Heijnen, P.

    2008-01-01

    Where markets are insufficiently competitive, governments can intervene by auctioning licenses to operate or by forcing divestitures. The Dutch government has done exactly that, organizing auctions to redistribute tenancy rights for highway gasoline stations and forcing the divestiture of outlets of

  10. Cross-national differences in price–role orientation and their impact on retail markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Stephan; Komor, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes differences in price–role orientations between economically developed and emerging markets and how these differences influence store brand and store format preferences. It extends cross-national research on price–role orientations by (1) focusing on culturally similar...

  11. The development of demand elasticity model for demand response in the retail market environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babar, M.; Nguyen, P.H.; Kamphuis, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of liberalized energy market, increase in distributed generation, storage and demand response has expanded the price elasticity of demand, thus causing the addition of uncertainty to the supply-demand chain of power system. In order to cope with the challenges of demand uncertainty

  12. 3C, Internet Dynamics and Retail: Towards a new market segmentation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs. Frans van den Reep; Peter van den Heuvel

    2006-01-01

    The Internet introduces new business choices for customer interaction. In this article we introduce two claims. Firstly, we will show that the way companies shape their customer interaction, and not their sector or size, determine the market segmentation. Secondly, Internet dynamics and its effect

  13. Digital marketing in retail : what are the benefits a Swiss premium department store could reap when adapting to the changing environment of digitization? A maturity model

    OpenAIRE

    Schöni, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    The force of digitization has empowered customers with an omni-present access to a worldwide bazar of products and information. This shift has compelled traditional retailers to expand their channels and touchpoints to wherever the customer wishes to be served. The new scattered landscape of touchpoints and the rapid development of increasingly sophisticated technology have confronted marketers with new challenges and opportunities alike. Meanwhile, Swiss premium department sto...

  14. Prevalence of Listeria species in camel sausages from retail markets in Aydin province in Turkey and RAPD analysis of Listeria monocytogenes isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Ozbey, Gokben; Ertas, Hasan Basri; Kok, Filiz

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Samples were taken from 100 camel sausages from the different retail markets in Aydin province in the south-west of Turkey and they were tested for the presence of Listeria spp by biochemical methods. Samples were enriched using Listeria Enrichment Broth and they were inoculated onto Listeria Selective Agar. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from nine samples (9%), Listeria innocua from 14 samples (14%) and Listeria welshimeri from two samples(2%). A 701 bp fragment of listeriolysi...

  15. The missing path to gain customers loyalty in pharmacy retail: The role of the store in developing satisfaction and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Sandro; Grosso, Monica; Mallarini, Erika; Rindone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    An evolution led to community pharmacies experiencing increased competition both between themselves and with new entrants in the sector, for example, grocery retailers. Applying certain retail marketing strategies aimed at developing store loyalty may be an appropriate strategic path for pharmacies wanting to compete in this new arena. This study aimed to develop and test a two-step model to identify the determinants of store loyalty for community pharmacies in Italy. Based on the retail literature, qualitative research was conducted to identify key variables determining loyalty to community pharmacies. The model was then tested by means of a phone survey. A total of 735 usable questionnaires was collected. The study highlights the key role of the relationship between pharmacists and their customers in the loyalty-building path; trust in pharmacists is the first driver of satisfaction and a direct and indirect (through satisfaction) driver of trust in pharmacies, which leads to store loyalty. Retail-level levers, such as the store environment, assortment, and communication, influence trust in pharmacies. This model is a first step toward investigating loyalty-building by applying the retail management literature's concepts to the community pharmacy sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables sold at retail markets in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Minju; Kim, Eun-Gyeong; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung

    2014-09-01

    Fresh produce is usually eaten raw without cooking or heating, which may increase the probability of foodborne infection. The microbiological quality of 11 types of fresh, raw vegetables (romaine lettuce, sesame leaves, crown daisy, garlic chives, iceberg lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, leek, chili pepper, capsicum, and zucchini) purchased at retail markets in Iksan, Korea as affected by cultivation method (environmentally friendly vegetables [organic, pesticide-free, and low-pesticide vegetables] and conventionally grown vegetables) and harvest season was determined. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were not detected in all samples of vegetables tested. Aerobic mesophiles (>6 log cfu/g) were detected in environmentally friendly romaine lettuce and crown daisy and environmentally friendly and conventionally grown garlic chives, which also contained coliforms (>3 log cfu/g). Sesame leaf and crown daisy (regardless of cultivation method), as well as conventionally grown romaine lettuce and leek, contained >1 log cfu/g of E. coli. The overall microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables was not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, there were seasonal effects on populations of coliforms and generic E. coli on vegetables. The greatest numbers of microorganisms were isolated from environmentally friendly or conventionally grown vegetables purchased in winter. The vegetables, regardless of cultivation method or season, should be subjected to appropriate antimicrobial treatment to enhance their microbial safety. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. ICT, an effectiveness factor in the application of digital marketing to retail businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Prada Ospina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg The need for organizational development has led companies to review their business model and to find the way to redesign it to face the existing competition and to remain sustainable in the market. The rapid growth of organizations is accompanied by an increase of their functions, as well as an increase in their amount of activities. As situations change, companies are transformed to face new challenges almost instantly. Currently, digital marketing seems to be an important alternative for performing their sales. This evidence of fast increase and change is supported by ICT new technologies, performing a key role on the way to survival, the generation of competitive advantages and much more added value to avoid bottlenecks and restrictions in their processes unless they use appropriate tools and set up coincidental synergies between customers and new technologies so that they won´t turn into appropriation relations better than into representation relations.

  18. Inherent Complexity Research on the Bullwhip Effect in Supply Chains with Two Retailers: The Impact of Three Forecasting Methods Considering Market Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important phenomenon in supply chain management which is known as the bullwhip effect suggests that demand variability increases as one moves up a supply chain. This paper contrasts the bullwhip effect for a two-stage supply chain consisting of one supplier and two retailers under three forecasting methods based on the market share. We can quantify the correlation coefficient between the two retailers clearly, in consideration of market share. The two retailers both employ the order-up-to inventory policy for replenishments. The bullwhip effect is measured, respectively, under the minimum mean squared error (MMSE, moving average (MA, and exponential smoothing (ES forecasting methods. The effect of autoregressive coefficient, lead time, and the market share on a bullwhip effect measure is investigated by using algebraic analysis and numerical simulation. And the comparison of the bullwhip effect under three forecasting methods is conducted. The conclusion suggests that different forecasting methods and various parameters lead to different bullwhip effects. Hence, the corresponding forecasting method should be chosen by the managers under different parameters in practice.

  19. 75 FR 61128 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ....6 cm). PRCBs are typically provided without any consumer packaging and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants... of polyethylene film and (2) polyethylene bags that are packed in consumer packaging with printing...

  20. 75 FR 23670 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... provided without any consumer packaging and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants to their customers to package and...) polyethylene bags that are packed in consumer packaging with printing that refers to specific end-uses other...

  1. 75 FR 38978 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, and Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... 40 inches (101.6 cm). PRCBs are typically provided without any consumer packaging and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount... closeable with drawstrings made of polyethylene film and (2) polyethylene bags that are packed in consumer...

  2. 78 FR 50376 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... cm). PRCBs are typically provided without any consumer packaging and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants... of polyethylene film and (2) polyethylene bags that are packed in consumer packaging with printing...

  3. Species composition of the international shark fin trade assessed through a retail-market survey in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Andrew T; Fischer, Gunter A; Shea, Stanley K H; Zhang, Huarong; Abercrombie, Debra L; Feldheim, Kevin A; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Chapman, Demian D

    2018-04-01

    The shark fin trade is a major driver of shark exploitation in fisheries all over the world, most of which are not managed on a species-specific basis. Species-specific trade information highlights taxa of particular concern and can be used to assess the efficacy of management measures and anticipate emerging threats. The species composition of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, one of the world's largest fin trading hubs, was partially assessed in 1999-2001. We randomly selected and genetically identified fin trimmings (n = 4800), produced during fin processing, from the retail market of Hong Kong in 2014-2015 to assess contemporary species composition of the fin trade. We used nonparametric species estimators to determine that at least 76 species of sharks, batoids, and chimaeras supplied the fin trade and a Bayesian model to determine their relative proportion in the market. The diversity of traded species suggests species substitution could mask depletion of vulnerable species; one-third of identified species are threatened with extinction. The Bayesian model suggested that 8 species each comprised >1% of the fin trimmings (34.1-64.2% for blue [Prionace glauca], 0.2-1.2% for bull [Carcharhinus leucas] and shortfin mako [Isurus oxyrinchus]); thus, trade was skewed to a few globally distributed species. Several other coastal sharks, batoids, and chimaeras are in the trade but poorly managed. Fewer than 10 of the species we modeled have sustainably managed fisheries anywhere in their range, and the most common species in trade, the blue shark, was not among them. Our study and approach serve as a baseline to track changes in composition of species in the fin trade over time to better understand patterns of exploitation and assess the effects of emerging management actions for these animals. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Factors affecting Purchase behavior of Women grocery consumer- An Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, Dr. Anu Nagpal

    2014-01-01

    Women are most powerful consumers in the world as they control almost 80 percent of the household spending. And no longer can the womens spending powers and influence be neglected. The role of women in the society and their effects has changed. Most of the marketers know that women are different, but we actually need a deep rooted understanding of how and why they are different. Studying women could be interesting as Family grocery shopping is the accepted domain of women; however, modern so...

  5. The effects of recent volatility in international petroleum markets on Canadian wholesale and retail gasoline prices : a report prepared for the Competition Bureau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseman, F.

    2005-03-01

    This report addresses concern over high retail prices of gasoline and the low margins earned on gasoline sales in the Greater Toronto Area and in Ottawa, Ontario. The focus of this report was to understand reasons behind fluctuating prices, and to ascertain whether or not escalations in price were in fact anti-competitive acts that the Competition Bureau would have authority to take action over. Information requests were made by the author to all principal petroleum companies and to importers and marketers of gasoline. Detailed information on pricing was provided. Issues of supply and demand were responsible for spikes in prices. Information on petroleum refining and retailing of gasoline was reviewed, as well as information provided from dialogue and shareholder reports. Average refinery and retail margins in Ontario were discussed. It was concluded that fluctuating prices are the result of the petroleum industry's struggle to meet high demand. Any unscheduled maintenance or unanticipated increases in demand resulted in temporary shortfalls in supply, which led to higher prices. Exports were not a factor in increases in retail prices. In addition, domestic supply and the high cost of meeting environmental regulations with regard to sulphur levels in gasoline and diesel may have also played a role. It was also suggested that prices in Canada reflect overall pricing trends in the United States. tabs., figs

  6. Frequency distributions of Escherichia coli in the confectionery products offered in retail market in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Rezaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Raw ingredients used in confectionary carry high risk of infection with Escherichia coli. Since confectionaries are offered in the market in quite varied forms and types and there is a great difference in the sanitary status of the confectionaries, this study aimed at evaluation of E.coli   frequency distribution in different types of confectionery products in Isfahan market. In addition, the effect of moisture content, products category and the sanitary level of the confectionaries as well as product types (Industrially or traditionally produced on the contamination level were studied. Materials and methods: A total of 200 samples were randomly collected from confectioneries in Isfahan city through simple random sampling method. Preparation and dilution procedures were conducted under sterile conditions. Samples were cultured on EMB agar medium. Later, some of the positive isolates were randomly selected and confirmed by TSI and IMVIC test. Data analysis was performed using descriptive indices. Also, one way ANOVA and LSD test or independent t test were applied to determine the statistically significant difference between the mean E.coli cell numbers in the categorized groups of sweets. Results: It was found that 19% of the total tested samples were contaminated with E.coli strains. The mean, median and maximum of contamination were (35±.5, (0 and (3.4 CFU/gr, respectively. Moisture content, products category and being traditionally or industrially produced have significant effects on the level of contamination; while, the sanitary status of the traditional confectionaries as graded in this study has no impact on the average E.coli cell count. Discussion and conclusion: Regarding the microbial quality, at least about 25% of the sweets in the market do not meet the national standards of confectionary products. Implementation of strict hygiene regulation in the traditional confectionaries is in need to provide the public with

  7. State sales tax rates for soft drinks and snacks sold through grocery stores and vending machines, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eidson, Shelby S; Bates, Hannalori; Kowalczyk, Shelly; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2008-07-01

    Junk food consumption is associated with rising obesity rates in the United States. While a "junk food" specific tax is a potential public health intervention, a majority of states already impose sales taxes on certain junk food and soft drinks. This study reviews the state sales tax variance for soft drinks and selected snack products sold through grocery stores and vending machines as of January 2007. Sales taxes vary by state, intended retail location (grocery store vs. vending machine), and product. Vended snacks and soft drinks are taxed at a higher rate than grocery items and other food products, generally, indicative of a "disfavored" tax status attributed to vended items. Soft drinks, candy, and gum are taxed at higher rates than are other items examined. Similar tax schemes in other countries and the potential implications of these findings relative to the relationship between price and consumption are discussed.

  8. Analysis of the competition situation in the Danish and Norwegian retail market for electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In connection with the revision of the Danish Energy Act, Energitilsynet (The Danish Energy Regulatory Authority DERA) has worked out directions for how to determine the electric power prices for customers whose annual consumption is less than 100 000 kWh and hourly metered customers with so-called obliged supply agreements. The directions were first applied in the first quarter of 2005 and led to down-regulation of prices for a number of supply companies. The analysis shows that the competition works satisfactorily and should rather be supplied with other steps such as increased information. Moreover the analysis points out that the price regulation that is currently done cannot easily be combined with the goal of a free electricity market. Price regulation will hamper new business start-ups and innovation, in addition to the fact that market-based contracts run the risk of being ousted. The method that is now in use in the price regulation is questioned. The Energy Authority obtains reference figures for mark-up, for one thing, from the Norwegian Competition Authority. The emphasis placed on the Norwegian reference figures is not known. But a direct comparison is difficult because the consumption figures are different.

  9. The Establishment of the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS): A Pilot Project on Poultry Farms, Slaughterhouses and Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Godoy, P; Castellanos, R; León, M; Arevalo, A; Clavijo, V; Bernal, J; León, D; Tafur, M A; Byrne, B A; Smith, W A; Perez-Gutierrez, E

    2015-04-01

    The development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria (AMR) is currently one of the world's most pressing public health problems. The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals has resulted in AMR which has narrowed the potential use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections in humans. To monitor AMR and to develop control measures, some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Denmark, have established national integrated surveillance systems (FDA, , CIPARS, 2007, DANMAP,2002). The components of these programs monitor changes in susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobial agents of selected zoonotic pathogens and commensal organisms recovered from animals, retail meats and humans. The rapid development of Colombia's animal production industry has raised food safety issues including the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Colombian Integrated Surveillance Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (COIPARS) was established as a pilot project to monitor AMR on poultry farms, slaughter houses and retail markets. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. The Food Marketing Institute and the National Council of Chain Restaurants: animal welfare and the retail food industry in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K H; Hollingsworth, J

    2005-08-01

    In order to achieve real change, there must be a motivating force and all the stakeholders need to be involved. This is the premise of the animal welfare programme developed for the food retail, wholesale and chain restaurant industries in the United States of America (USA) by the Food Marketing Institute (FMI) and the National Council of Chain Restaurants (NCCR). This paper outlines a collaborative process that retailers and producers in the USA are using to enhance the care and welfare of animals in commercial food production. Although the efforts of the FMI and the NCCR are still underway, the process provides one example of how different parts of the food production system can work together to achieve positive change.

  11. Evaluation of fungal bio burden and mycotoxins presence in irradiated samples of medicinal plants purchased from wholesale and retail market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Simone

    2007-01-01

    This present study evaluated the effect of gamma radiation on the fungal survival in packed medicinal plants, purchased from wholesale and retail market, in different period (0 and 30 days) after the treatment. Five kind of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, Paullinia cupana and Cassia angustifolia), were collected from different cities of Sao Paulo State, and submitted to irradiation treatment using a 60 Co source (type Gammacell 220) with doses of 5,0 kGy and 10 kGy and at dose rate of 3.0 kGy/h. Non-irradiated samples (control group) were used for fungal counts and serial dilutions from 10 -1 to 10 -6 of the samples were seeded in duplicates and plated using the surface culture method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG 18) and were counted after five days at 25 deg C. The control group revealed the presence of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known as toxigenic fungi and a few samples of control group were within the safety limits of World Health Organization (WHO, 1998) to medicinal plants. In response to resistance of ionizing treatment, in the dose of 5 kGy, it was observed that the genera Aspergillus, Phoma and Syncephalastrum were radio-resistant after the process (day 0 and 30th day). The treatment by gamma radiation was effective in decontamination of all irradiated samples of medicinal plants, after 30 days, with the dose of 10 kGy and kept of veiled conditions. It was not detected aflatoxins in samples of control group, even though these samples were heavily contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. (author)

  12. Consumer views on safety of over-the-counter drugs, preferred retailers and information sources in Sweden: after re-regulation of the pharmacy market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Tommy; Barzi, Sahra; Bernsten, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The availability of over-the-counter drugs (OTCs) has increased in Sweden since a re-regulation of the pharmacy market in 2009, through which non-pharmacy retailers became permitted to provide certain OTCs. To examine the adult general public's views on safety, purchasing and information channels, storage and disposal of OTCs in Sweden, three years after the re-regulation of the pharmacy market. A questionnaire study in 2012-13 in a stratified, random sample of all inhabitants in Sweden ≥ 18 years old. Totally 8,302 people (42%) answered the questionnaire. Seven percent found OTCs completely harmless regardless of how they are being used, 18% felt they should be used only on health professionals' recommendation. Differences in how OTCs are perceived were however found with regards to respondents' country of birth, family type, educational level and income. The pharmacy was still the preferred OTC drug retailer by 83% of the respondents and preferred information source by 80% Reasons for preferred retailers were primarily due to out of habit (45%), counseling provided (35%), the product range (34%) and the confidence in staff (27%). Analgesics are the most common OTCs to have at home (90%). The bathroom cabinet is the primary site for storage (42%) and 16% throw their OTC leftovers in the trash. The study population does not consider OTCs as harmless regardless of how they are used, but on the other hand feels they should not be taken on health professionals' recommendation only. The pharmacy is still the preferred retailer and information source, and there is room for further improvement in the storage and disposal of OTCs. A return of OTC drug leftovers to the pharmacy should be further encouraged. Due to several limitations, great caution should however be observed when generalizing the results to the adult population of Sweden.

  13. Consumer views on safety of over-the-counter drugs, preferred retailers and information sources in Sweden: after re-regulation of the pharmacy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerlund T

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The availability of over-the-counter drugs (OTCs has increased in Sweden since a re-regulation of the pharmacy market in 2009, through which non-pharmacy retailers became permitted to provide certain OTCs. Objective: To examine the adult general public’s views on safety, purchasing and information channels, storage and disposal of OTCs in Sweden, three years after the re-regulation of the pharmacy market. Methods: A questionnaire study in 2012-13 in a stratified, random sample of all inhabitants in Sweden ≥ 18 years old. Results: Totally 8,302 people (42% answered the questionnaire. Seven percent found OTCs completely harmless regardless of how they are being used, 18% felt they should be used only on health professionals’ recommendation. Differences in how OTCs are perceived were however found with regards to respondents’ country of birth, family type, educational level and income. The pharmacy was still the preferred OTC drug retailer by 83% of the respondents and preferred information source by 80% Reasons for preferred retailers were primarily due to out of habit (45%, counseling provided (35%, the product range (34% and the confidence in staff (27%. Analgesics are the most common OTCs to have at home (90%. The bathroom cabinet is the primary site for storage (42% and 16% throw their OTC leftovers in the trash. Conclusions: The study population does not consider OTCs as harmless regardless of how they are used, but on the other hand feels they should not be taken on health professionals’ recommendation only. The pharmacy is still the preferred retailer and information source, and there is room for further improvement in the storage and disposal of OTCs. A return of OTC drug leftovers to the pharmacy should be further encouraged. Due to several limitations, great caution should however be observed when generalizing the results to the adult population of Sweden.

  14. Manufacturer Allowances and Retailer Pass-Through Rates in a Competitive Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Yong Kim; Richard Staelin

    1999-01-01

    A commonly held belief has grocery and mass merchandise retailers gaining power relative to the upstream consumer package goods manufacturers. One of the major justifications for this belief is that manufacturers are now giving retailers more side payments such as trade allowances, slotting allowances, etc. However, a number of researchers have shown that these concessions have not translated into increased profit for the retailer relative to the manufacturer. This paper explores, via an anal...

  15. ETHICAL EVALUATIONS OF RETAILERS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON FOOD AND CLOTHING RETAILERS IN KAYSERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Kurtoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in retailing sector bring about some ethical problems. Retailing is a faceto-face marketing activity by its nature. Thus, ethical problems in retailing directly affect consumers and consumer reactions turn directly to retailers. Therefore, defining and solving the ethical problems in retailing is an important issue for retailers. The main purpose of this study is to identify the food and clothing retailers’ perspective about ethical purchase decision making process and their evaluations on this subject. Beside this, identifying the differences of these evaluations in terms of the demographic characteristics of retailers is another objective of this study. Findings show that retailers generally approve ethical behaviors and disapprove unethical behaviors. In addition, evaluations of retailers differ in terms of some demographic characteristics. Results of the study also show that retailers are sensitive about unethical actions and behaviors and they believe that all the retailers must act according to ethical principles.

  16. Development of Food Retailing and Factors Affecting the Competition in Food Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Kilic; Gokhan Senol

    2010-01-01

    Retailing is a dynamic and complex sector that offers wide range of products and services to consumers. This sector which includes different types of enterprises, has an important position within the supply chain. Food retailing has also a big potential within retailing sector. On the other hand, an intensive competition exists in food retailing. Taking place in the competitive market, food retailers attempt to gain a competitive advantage against their rivals with their geographic location,...

  17. TENDENCIES OF INTERNATIONALIZATION IN RETAILING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing companies took advantage of internationalization as early as in the seventies and eighties of the last century, whereas retail companies have used these chances not before the last few years in order to improve access to resources, to increase sales and to extend activities to external markets. Once a retail company has decided to penetrate a foreign market they must be aware of the unfamiliar working of external environment that they cannot control. Even the world’s leading retailers make mistakes when approaching markets they do not understand properly.

  18. Density and type of food retailers surrounding Canadian schools: variations across socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliske, Laura M; Pickett, William; Boyce, William F; Janssen, Ian

    2009-09-01

    Lower socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods may have differential access to food retailers, potentially explaining the varying area-level obesity rates. The food retail environment around 188 schools across Canada was examined, including full-service restaurants, fast food restaurants, sub/sandwich retailers, donut/coffee shops, convenience stores, and grocery stores. School addresses were linked to census data to obtain area-level SES measures. Access to food retailers was generally not associated with the neighbourhood SES in the immediate proximity. Within the broader neighbourhood, lower SES neighbourhoods had access to fewer food retailers of all types. This effect was diminished after taking population density into account.

  19. Rethinking the grocery store: inclusive wayfinding system for visually impaired shoppers in grocery stores

    OpenAIRE

    Khattab, Doaa

    2015-01-01

    Many people with disabilities face considerable barriers while shopping in grocery stores.  One such barrier is that they cannot find their way around easily, especially when they visit the grocery store for the first time and have not yet built a cognitive map in their memory. They may also experience delays in finding the right product or waiting for assistance from store employees, thus leading them to rely on family, friends, relatives, or volunteers to help them with their shopping. Prob...

  20. Risk factors and spatial distribution of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing- Escherichia coli at retail poultry meat markets in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Aliyu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The significant role of retail poultry meat as an important exposure pathway for the acquisition and transmission of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC into the human population warrants understanding concerning those operational practices associated with dissemination of ESBL-EC in poultry meat retailing. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, spatial distribution and potential risk factors associated with the dissemination of ESBL-EC in poultry meat retail at wet-markets in Selangor, Malaysia. Methods Poultry meat (breast, wing, thigh, and keel as well as the contact surfaces of weighing scales and cutting boards were sampled to detect ESBL-EC by using culture and disk combination methods and polymerase chain reaction assays. Besides, questionnaire was used to obtain data and information pertaining to those operational practices that may possibly explain the occurrence of ESBL-EC. The data were analysed using logistic regression analysis at 95 % CI. Results The overall prevalence of ESBL-EC was 48.8 % (95 % CI, 42 – 55 %. Among the risk factors that were explored, type of countertop, sanitation of the stall environment, source of cleaning water, and type of cutting board were found to be significantly associated with the presence of ESBL-EC. Conclusions Thus, in order to prevent or reduce the presence of ESBL-EC and other contaminants at the retail-outlet, there is a need to design a process control system based on the current prevailing practices in order to reduce cross contamination, as well as to improve food safety and consumer health.

  1. Risk factors and spatial distribution of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing- Escherichia coli at retail poultry meat markets in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, A B; Saleha, A A; Jalila, A; Zunita, Z

    2016-08-02

    The significant role of retail poultry meat as an important exposure pathway for the acquisition and transmission of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) into the human population warrants understanding concerning those operational practices associated with dissemination of ESBL-EC in poultry meat retailing. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, spatial distribution and potential risk factors associated with the dissemination of ESBL-EC in poultry meat retail at wet-markets in Selangor, Malaysia. Poultry meat (breast, wing, thigh, and keel) as well as the contact surfaces of weighing scales and cutting boards were sampled to detect ESBL-EC by using culture and disk combination methods and polymerase chain reaction assays. Besides, questionnaire was used to obtain data and information pertaining to those operational practices that may possibly explain the occurrence of ESBL-EC. The data were analysed using logistic regression analysis at 95 % CI. The overall prevalence of ESBL-EC was 48.8 % (95 % CI, 42 - 55 %). Among the risk factors that were explored, type of countertop, sanitation of the stall environment, source of cleaning water, and type of cutting board were found to be significantly associated with the presence of ESBL-EC. Thus, in order to prevent or reduce the presence of ESBL-EC and other contaminants at the retail-outlet, there is a need to design a process control system based on the current prevailing practices in order to reduce cross contamination, as well as to improve food safety and consumer health.

  2. Application of social media tools by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alarcon-del-Amo, M.d.C.; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Eldon, Y.L.; Loh, S.; Evans, C.; Lorenzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The chapter explores the factors influencing the adoption process and the degree of engagement of the social media as part of the online marketing strategy by Spanish retailers. A retail industry survey identifies four different segments of retailers depending on the level of implementation of

  3. An Introduction to Retail Electricity Choice in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Retail electricity choice in the United States allows end-use customers (including industrial, commercial, and residential customers) to buy electricity from competitive retail suppliers. This brochure offers an overview of retail electricity choice in the United States, and its impact on prices and renewable energy procurement. It concludes with three lessons learned from the U.S. retail market experience that may serve as a reference for other countries and regions taking steps towards retail electricity market liberalization.

  4. Season plays a role in variability in vitamin C content of fresh fruits and vegetables in a local retail market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal variation of vitamin C in fresh fruits and vegetables is not reflected in food composition database average values, yet many factors influence content and retention. Fresh fruits and vegetables were sampled on three occasions in each season, from the same local retail outlets, for one or tw...

  5. ENERGY STAR® Retail Products Platform (RPP): Conditions and Considerations in Evaluating Market Transformation Programs and Evaluation Guidance for RPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [U.S. Department of Energy; Banwell, Peter [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2018-01-09

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a resource for state utility regulators, utilities, the evaluation community and regulatory stakeholders on methods to measure energy savings from the ENERGY STAR Retail Products Platform (link is external). The guidelines outlined in this document were developed by evaluation experts.

  6. Relationships among grocery nutrition label users and consumers' attitudes and behavior toward restaurant menu labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary G; Mathe-Soulek, Kimberly; Higgins, Joseph A

    2013-12-01

    In the United States (US), based on the 2010 Affordable Care Act, restaurant chains and similar retail food establishments with 20 or more locations are required to begin implementing calorie information on their menus. As enacting of the law begins, it is important to understand its potential for improving consumers' healthful behaviors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore relationships among users of grocery nutrition labels and attitudes toward restaurant menu labeling, along with the caloric content of their restaurant menu selection. Study participants were surveyed and then provided identical mock restaurant menus with or without calories. Results found that participants who used grocery nutrition labels and believed they would make healthy menu selections with nutrition labels on restaurant menus made healthier menu selections, regardless of whether the menu displayed calories or not. Consumers' nutrition knowledge and behaviors gained from using grocery nutrition labels and consumers' desire for restaurants to provide nutrition menu labels have a positive effect on their choosing healthful restaurant menu items. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gamma radiation treatment applied to microbial decontamination of products derived from eggs collected from the retail market in São Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, S.; Lui, C.C., E-mail: siaq06@hotmail.com [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Corrêa, B. [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    The quality of products derived from eggs depends on the quality of the raw material source and the industrial production. The contamination by fungi and bacteria can occur after exposure of the product in the retail market. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of 60 samples of derived egg products and evaluate the effects of gamma radiation of cobalt-60, using the dose of 5 and 10 kGy, for decontamination of products collected in the retail market in the São Paulo city. The bacterial count was performed by the most probable number (MPN) and the fungal counts by serial dilution after plating surface. It was observed a decrease in the humidity and water activity (Aw) values of irradiated whole egg powder and white egg powder samples (p<0.05), but there was no significant change in the pH of the same samples irradiated with 5 and 10 kGy (p>0.05). In the powdered yolk the values of pH and Aw presented a significant difference (p<0.05), but no significant difference in the humidity values of 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples (p>0.05). Effective microbial sterilization of all products occurred at the dose of 10 kGy. (author)

  8. Gamma radiation treatment applied to microbial decontamination of products derived from eggs collected from the retail market in São Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, S.; Lui, C.C.; Corrêa, B.

    2017-01-01

    The quality of products derived from eggs depends on the quality of the raw material source and the industrial production. The contamination by fungi and bacteria can occur after exposure of the product in the retail market. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of 60 samples of derived egg products and evaluate the effects of gamma radiation of cobalt-60, using the dose of 5 and 10 kGy, for decontamination of products collected in the retail market in the São Paulo city. The bacterial count was performed by the most probable number (MPN) and the fungal counts by serial dilution after plating surface. It was observed a decrease in the humidity and water activity (Aw) values of irradiated whole egg powder and white egg powder samples (p<0.05), but there was no significant change in the pH of the same samples irradiated with 5 and 10 kGy (p>0.05). In the powdered yolk the values of pH and Aw presented a significant difference (p<0.05), but no significant difference in the humidity values of 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples (p>0.05). Effective microbial sterilization of all products occurred at the dose of 10 kGy. (author)

  9. Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-13

    The substantial increase in deployment of customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has been driven by a combination of steeply declining costs, financing innovations, and supportive policies. Among those supportive policies is net metering, which in most states effectively allows customers to receive compensation for distributed PV generation at the full retail electricity price. The current design of retail electricity rates and the presence of net metering have elicited concerns that the possible under-recovery of fixed utility costs from PV system owners may lead to a feedback loop of increasing retail prices that accelerate PV adoption and further rate increases. However, a separate and opposing feedback loop could offset this effect: increased PV deployment may lead to a shift in the timing of peak-period electricity prices that could reduce the bill savings received under net metering where time-varying retail electricity rates are used, thereby dampening further PV adoption. In this paper, we examine the impacts of these two competing feedback dynamics on U.S. distributed PV deployment through 2050 for both residential and commercial customers, across states. Our results indicate that, at the aggregate national level, the two feedback effects nearly offset one another and therefore produce a modest net effect, although their magnitude and direction vary by customer segment and by state. We also model aggregate PV deployment trends under various rate designs and net-metering rules, accounting for feedback dynamics. Our results demonstrate that future adoption of distributed PV is highly sensitive to retail rate structures. Whereas flat, time-invariant rates with net metering lead to higher aggregate national deployment levels than the current mix of rate structures (+5% in 2050), rate structures with higher monthly fixed customer charges or PV compensation at levels lower than the full retail rate can dramatically erode aggregate customer

  10. Attitudes of Chinese consumers towards retail formats

    OpenAIRE

    Staack, Tosten; Schramm, Matthias; Spiller, Achim

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese consumer goods market is widely considered to be one of the economic hot spots of the world. China seems to be the market with the largest growth potential within the next decade. Multina - tional retail companies, for example, Wal-Mart, Metro and Carrefour have made large investments to open up this new market. However, parallel to the positive aspects of the market development, foreign retail companies entering the market encounter numerous risks and difficulties. Whereas questi...

  11. RETHINKING THE GROCERY STORE: INCLUSIVE WAYFINDING SYSTEM FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED SHOPPERS IN GROCERY STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Khattab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many people with disabilities face considerable barriers while shopping in grocery stores.  One such barrier is that they cannot find their way around easily, especially when they visit the grocery store for the first time and have not yet built a cognitive map in their memory. They may also experience delays in finding the right product or waiting for assistance from store employees, thus leading them to rely on family, friends, relatives, or volunteers to help them with their shopping. Problems start when these people are not available, in which case the individual is forced to cancel their visit to the grocery store and reschedule the trip. Grocery stores include many different zones and services, the aisles area being one of the main barriers to access for people with different disabilities. This area features many different sections such as canned goods, dry packaged goods, spices, drinks and snacks, baking supplies, baby items, cereals, cleaning products, pet supplies, and health and beauty items. For visually impaired individuals, however, it can be hard to reach these various sections and find the relevant products. The objective of this research is to design an inclusive and innovative wayfinding system in grocery stores for visually impaired shoppers in order to help them find the center zone, orient between different aisles, decide where to go, move easily between different sections, and select products with ease. The research approach will be based on the literature review and the application of the Delphi method.

  12. Influence of Economic Value and Fundamental Analysis Toward Stock Market (Studies on the Retail Trade Industry Sector)

    OpenAIRE

    Widyatmini, Widyatmini; Damanik, Michael Valentino

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research is to measure the influence of economics value added and fundamental analysis toward stock price on retail industry. Data which was deployed on this research are company financial report and stock price. Further, data was analyzed using regression method by deploying SPSS software. Research result shows that all independent variables proposed (economics value added, current ratio, quick ratio, total asset turnover ratio, inventory turnover ratio, gross profit ma...

  13. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  14. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetovic, Alexander; Munoz, Cristian M.

    2011-01-01

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  15. Shopping for Society? Consumers’ Value Conflicts in Socially Responsible Consumption Affected by Retail Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Myong Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers have a dual role as economic actors who purchase products and as citizens comprising society. Thus, consumers may experience conflict between pursuing personal values (i.e., low price and high quality and social values (i.e., equity and common good. In addition, these choices can be affected by governmental regulation of retail markets. This study aimed to identify consumer perspectives toward socially responsible consumption (SRC in the choice of grocery store format and to investigate actual store choice behavior across consumer groups with those different perspectives while considering the role of retail regulation. For this purpose, we conducted a Q methodological study in which 30 South Korean consumers rank-ordered 40 statements regarding SRC. After performing Q factor analysis using PQ-Method software, we classified four distinctive consumer groups: “ethical conformist”, “market liberalist”, “ambivalent bystander”, and “internally conflicted”. After investigating similarities and differences between these consumer groups, we found major criteria for understanding consumer perspectives to SRC such as the priority of values pursued, the experience of a value-action gap, and internal conflicts in the decision-making process.

  16. Understanding retail gasoline pricing : An empirical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruzikas, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    Retail gasoline markets offer an abundance of price data at the daily and, more recently, hourly level. Firms in this industry use sophisticated price strategies. Moreover, there have been a number of important recent market developments. All this makes retail gasoline a promising industry to study

  17. Electronic Commerce and Retail Channel Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze a market where firms compete in a conventional and an electronic retail channel. Consumers easily compare prices online, but some incur purchase uncertainties on the online channel. We investigate the market shares of the two retail channels and the prices that are charged. We

  18. Retail innovation technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Commerce, as an important industry of any national economy, is a socially important complex of activities, which has to correspond to the general level of development and civilization of the community it serves. Considering this, the essential priorities commercial activity will turn to are represented by the increased power that consumers get through better informing, the assurance of a better connection between retail and innovation, more equitable and sustainable commercial relationships along the purchase chain, the improvement of retail services accessibility, the creation of a better work environment through the better correlation between employers’ needs and employers’ competences. Retail is permanently adapting to the changing market conditions, remaining a high competitive sector. Modern buyer is hurried, more mobile, better informed; more concerned about health, environment, comfort and aesthetics issues, more demanding in terms of quality and level of customization. Population migration, urbanization, and ageing, its absolute decrease, the average households size reduction, are all demographic trends to which retail must provide an appropriate answer. Retail businesses operating costs tend to increase, while buyers are warier under the impact of the global financial crisis, which will put additional pressure on profit margins.

  19. Food systems transformations, ultra-processed food markets and the nutrition transition in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon

    2016-12-03

    Attracted by their high economic growth rates, young and growing populations, and increasingly open markets, transnational food and beverage corporations (TFBCs) are targeting Asian markets with vigour. Simultaneously the consumption of ultra-processed foods high in fat, salt and glycaemic load is increasing in the region. Evidence demonstrates that TFBCs can leverage their market power to shape food systems in ways that alter the availability, price, nutritional quality, desirability and ultimately consumption of such foods. This paper describes recent changes in Asian food systems driven by TFBCs in the retail, manufacturing and food service sectors and considers the implications for population nutrition. Market data for each sector was sourced from Euromonitor International for four lower-middle income, three upper-middle income and five high-income Asian countries. Descriptive statistics were used to describe trends in ultra-processed food consumption (2000-2013), packaged food retail distribution channels (1999-2013), 'market transnationalization' defined as the market share held by TFBCs relative to domestic firms (2004-2013), and 'market concentration' defined as the market share and thus market power held by the four leading firms (2004-2013) in each market. Ultra-processed food sales has increased rapidly in most middle-income countries. Carbonated soft drinks was the leading product category, in which Coca-Cola and PepsiCo had a regional oligopoly. Supermarkets, hypermarkets and convenience stores were becoming increasingly dominant as distribution channels for packaged foods throughout the region. Market concentration was increasing in the grocery retail sector in all countries. Food service sales are increasing in all countries led by McDonalds and Yum! Brands. However, in all three sectors TFBCs face strong competition from Asian firms. Overall, the findings suggest that market forces are likely to be significant but variable drivers of Asia

  20. Comparative Study of Raw and Boiled Silver Pomfret Fish from Coastal Area and Retail Market in Relation to Trace Metals and Proximate Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huque, Roksana; Munshi, M. Kamruzzaman; Khatun, Afifa; Islam, Mahfuza; Hossain, Afzal; Hossain, Arzina; Akter, Shirin; Kabir, Jamiul; Nahar Jolly, Yeasmin; Islam, Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    Trace metals concentration and proximate composition of raw and boiled silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) from coastal area and retail market were determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. The effects of cooking (boiling) on trace metal and proximate composition of silver pomfret fish were also investigated. Trace element results were determined by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer wherein fish samples from both areas exceeded the standard limits set by FAO/WHO for manganese, lead, cadmiumm and chromium and boiling has no significant effects on these three metal concentrations. Long-term intake of these contaminated fish samples can pose a health risk to humans who consume them. PMID:26904650

  1. Prevalence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from small Mexican retail markets of queso fresco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Beltran, Marcela; Gerba, Charles P; Porto Fett, Anna; Luchansky, John B; Chaidez, Cristobal

    2015-01-01

    Queso fresco (QF) is a handmade cheese consumed and produced in Latin America. In Mexico, QF production is associated with a microbiological risk. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in QF from retail markets of the north-western State of Sinaloa, Mexico, and to assess the effect of physicochemical parameters on Listeria presence. A total of 75 QF samples were obtained. L. monocytogenes, E. coli, and coliforms were detected in 9.3, 94, and 100%, respectively. Salmonella was not detected. STEC isolates showed virulence genes. Microbial loads were above the maximum values recommended by the Official Mexican Standards. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity (aw), moisture content, pH, and salinity played a role in Listeria prevalence in QF. Rigorous control in QF made in Culiacan, Mexico is needed to reduce the risk of foodborne pathogens.

  2. Comparative Study of Raw and Boiled Silver Pomfret Fish from Coastal Area and Retail Market in Relation to Trace Metals and Proximate Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Huque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace metals concentration and proximate composition of raw and boiled silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus from coastal area and retail market were determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. The effects of cooking (boiling on trace metal and proximate composition of silver pomfret fish were also investigated. Trace element results were determined by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF Spectrometer wherein fish samples from both areas exceeded the standard limits set by FAO/WHO for manganese, lead, cadmiumm and chromium and boiling has no significant effects on these three metal concentrations. Long-term intake of these contaminated fish samples can pose a health risk to humans who consume them.

  3. Nutrition marketing on processed food packages in Canada: 2010 Food Label Information Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermel, Alyssa; Emrich, Teri E; Arcand, JoAnne; Wong, Christina L; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2013-06-01

    The current study describes the frequency of use of different forms of nutrition marketing in Canada and the nutrients and conditions that are the focus of nutrition marketing messages. Prepackaged foods with a Nutrition Facts table (N = 10,487) were collected between March 2010 and April 2011 from outlets of the 3 largest grocery chains in Canada and 1 major western Canadian grocery retailer. The nutrition marketing information collected included nutrient content claims, disease risk reduction claims, and front-of-pack nutrition rating systems (FOPS). We found that nutrition marketing was present on 48.1% of Canadian food packages, with nutrient content claims being the most common information (45.5%), followed by FOPS on 18.9% of packages. Disease risk reduction claims were made least frequently (1.7%). The marketing messages used most often related to total fat and trans fat (15.6% and 15.5% of nutrient content claims, respectively). Limiting total and trans fats is a current public health priority, as recommended by Health Canada and the World Health Organization. However, other nutrients that are also recommended to be limited, including saturated fats, sodium, and added sugars, were not nearly as prominent on food labels. Thus, greater emphasis should be placed by the food industry on these other important nutrients. Repeated data collection in the coming years will allow us to track longitudinal changes in nutrition marketing messages over time as food marketing, public health, and consumer priorities evolve.

  4. Avaliação das perdas de manga (Mangifera indica L. no mercado varejista da cidade de Botucatu-SP Mango losses estimate in retail market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Matheus Yalenti Perosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O elevado percentual de perdas na comercialização de manga no Brasil faz com que apenas parcela da produção chegue à mesa do consumidor. O presente trabalho determinou, em equipamentos de varejo da cidade de Botucatu - SP, as perdas de manga, suas causas e emitir sugestões para a redução das mesmas. Foram selecionados 22 equipamentos entre supermercados, quitanda/sacolões e feiras livres. O volume estimado de manga comercializada neste município foi 114 t/ano. Verificaram-se as seguintes perdas médias por variedade de manga: 11,5% para 'Tommy Atkins', 12,4% para 'Haden' e 12,7% para as outras variedades. O valor total anual destas perdas no comércio varejista da cidade, em 2007, atingiu R$ 49.200,00 (US$ 25.231,00, correspondente a 14 toneladas. Os percentuais médios de perda mostram grande semelhança quando comparados a estudos realizados em outras localidades. Os resultados obtidos apontam para a necessidade de melhor gestão de estoques, de exposição da fruta para o consumidor e uso de tecnologia no transporte e armazenagem para a manutenção da qualidade e redução das perdas. Conclui-se também pela necessidade de maiores investimentos em capacitação técnica dos encarregados do setor de frutas e hortaliças.Losses in the mango commercialization process in Brazil has reduced its offer to the consumer. The present study aims at determining these losses in different purchase sites of the retail market, its causes and suggestions for reducing them. Twenty two retail points, including supermarkets, greengroceries and free fair were selected in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The total amount commercialized was 114 ton/year. The following average losses were verified for each mango variety: 'Tommy Atkins' (11, 5%, Haden (12, 4% and 12, 7% for other varieties. The total loss in retail market reached US$ 25.231, 00 corresponding to 14 tons. The average loss percentage observed is compatible with previous studies running

  5. The association between self-reported grocery store access, fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity in a racially diverse, low-income population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Nichol Gase

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index. We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7% and driving (59.9% to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9% and traveling five minutes or less to reach (50.3% the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or body mass index. Results suggest the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes.

  6. The Association between Self-Reported Grocery Store Access, Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, and Obesity in a Racially Diverse, Low-Income Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren Nichol; DeFosset, Amelia Rose; Smith, Lisa V; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index (BMI). We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7%) and driving (59.9%) to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9%) and traveling 5 min or less to reach (50.3%) the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or BMI. Results suggest that the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes.

  7. "People over profits": retailers who voluntarily ended tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco retailers are key players in the ongoing tobacco epidemic. Tobacco outlet density is linked to a greater likelihood of youth and adult smoking and greater difficulty quitting. While public policy efforts to address the tobacco problem at the retail level have been limited, some retailers have voluntarily ended tobacco sales. A previous pilot study examined this phenomenon in California, a state with a strong tobacco program focused on denormalizing smoking and the tobacco industry. We sought to learn what motivated retailers in other states to end tobacco sales and how the public and media responded. We conducted interviews with owners, managers, or representatives of six grocery stores in New York and Ohio that had voluntarily ended tobacco sales since 2007. We also conducted unobtrusive observations at stores and analyzed media coverage of each retailer's decision. Grocery store owners ended tobacco sales for two reasons, alone or in combination: health or ethics-related, including a desire to send a consistent health message to employees and customers, and business-related, including declining tobacco sales or poor fit with the store's image. The decision to end sales often appeared to resolve troubling contradictions between retailers' values and selling deadly products. New York retailers attributed declining sales to high state tobacco taxes. All reported largely positive customer reactions and most received media coverage. Forty-one percent of news items were letters to the editor or editorials; most (69%) supported the decision. Voluntary decisions by retailers to abandon tobacco sales may lay the groundwork for mandatory policies and further denormalize tobacco. Our study also suggests that high tobacco taxes may have both direct and indirect effects on tobacco use. Highlighting the contradictions between being a responsible business and selling deadly products may support voluntary decisions by retailers to end tobacco sales.

  8. Potential consequences of replacing a retail alcohol monopoly with a private licence system: results from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Thor; Miller, Ted; Holder, Harold; Osterberg, Esa; Ramstedt, Mats; Rossow, Ingeborg; Stockwell, Tim

    2010-12-01

    To examine the potential effects of replacing the Swedish alcohol retail system with a private licensing system on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. Two possible scenarios were analysed: (1) replacing the current alcohol retail monopoly with private licensed stores that specialize in alcohol sales or (2) making all alcohol available in grocery stores. We utilized a multiplicative model that projected effects of changes in a set of key factors including hours of sale, retail prices, promotion and advertising and outlet density. Next, we estimated the effect of the projected consumption increase on a set of harm indicators. Values for the model parameters were obtained from the research literature. Measures of alcohol-related harm included explicitly alcohol-related mortality, accident mortality, suicide, homicide, assaults, drinking driving and sickness absence. According to the projections, scenario 1 yields a consumption increase of 17% (1.4 litres/capita), which in turn would cause an additional 770 deaths, 8500 assaults, 2700 drinking driving offences and 4.5 million sick days per year. The corresponding figures for scenario 2 are a consumption increase of 37.4% (3.1 litres/capita) leading to an additional annual toll of 2000 deaths, 20 000 assaults, 6600 drinking driving offences and 11.1 million days of sick leave. Projections based on the research literature suggest that privatization of the Swedish alcohol retail market would significantly increase alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Retail payments and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Iftekhar; De Renzis, Tania; Schmiedel , Heiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and overall economic growth. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995–2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates overall economic growth, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers and direct debits. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macro...

  10. Differences in healthy food supply and stocking practices between small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the practices for stocking and procuring healthy food in non-traditional food retailers (e.g., gas-marts, pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) compare availability of healthy food items across small food store types; and (ii) examine owner/manager perceptions and stocking practices for healthy food across store types. Descriptive analyses were conducted among corner/small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores. Data from store inventories were used to examine availability of twelve healthy food types and an overall healthy food supply score. Interviews with managers assessed stocking practices and profitability. Small stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA, not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. One hundred and nineteen small food retailers and seventy-one store managers. Availability of specific items varied across store type. Only corner/small grocery stores commonly sold fresh vegetables (63% v. 8% of gas-marts, 0% of dollar stores and 23% of pharmacies). More than half of managers stocking produce relied on cash-and-carry practices to stock fresh fruit (53%) and vegetables (55%), instead of direct store delivery. Most healthy foods were perceived by managers to have at least average profitability. Interventions to improve healthy food offerings in small stores should consider the diverse environments, stocking practices and supply mechanisms of small stores, particularly non-traditional food retailers. Improvements may require technical support, customer engagement and innovative distribution practices.

  11. Food retailing and food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  12. Retail firewood can transport live tree pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, W R; Hardin, J G; Goodrich, B A; Cleaver, C M

    2012-10-01

    Untreated firewood can harbor destructive insects and pathogens and transport them to uninfested areas. In a national survey of retail locations selling firewood in 18 states, over half (52%) of the firewood was from sources out of the purchase state and 50% showed evidence of insect infestation. In a three state survey of southern Rocky Mountain retailers, the most common retailer types carrying firewood were grocery stores and department or big box stores followed by gas stations or convenience stores. In 2007-2009, we purchased 419 firewood bundles from retailers in Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming and caged the firewood to quantify insect emergence. Live insects emerged from 47% of firewood bundles over 18 mo of rearing time. Approximately 11 insects emerged on average from each infested bundle (1-520 per bundle). Pine, fir, and mixed-conifer bundles yielded the greatest number of insects. Beetles (Coleoptera) were prominent and made up the majority of individuals (3-60 individuals in each of 24 families). Most Coleoptera were bark and ambrosia beetles (subfamily Scolytinae) while wood borers (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Siricidae) occurred in lower numbers. Firewood with evidence of previous or current insect infestation was more likely to have insects emerge than firewood without such evidence. The risk of moving live native or nonindigenous insects in untreated firewood is high because insects emerged up to 558 d from purchase date. Retail firewood should be heat treated in a manner to eliminate insects that is uniformly accepted across North America.

  13. 76 FR 30102 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    .... See the ``Selection of Respondents'' section below. The order on PRCBs from Thailand was revoked in... establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants... convenience and customs purposes, the written description of the scope of the order is dispositive. Selection...

  14. 75 FR 53953 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants... convenience and customs purposes, the written description of the scope of the order is dispositive. Selection... information available at the time of selection, or exporters and producers accounting for the largest volume...

  15. Nutritional quality of new food products released into the Australian retail food market in 2015 - is the food industry part of the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Sheree A; Olstad, Dana Lee; Woods, Julie L

    2018-02-07

    Food manufacturers have made public statements and voluntary commitments, such as the Healthier Australia Commitment (HAC), to improve the nutritional quality of foods. However, limited information about the nutritional quality or healthfulness of new products makes it difficult to determine if manufacturers are doing this. The purpose of this study was to assess the healthfulness of new food products released into the Australian retail market in 2015, and whether those companies who were HAC members released healthier food options compared to non-HAC members. This cross-sectional study assessed the healthfulness of all new retail food products launched in Australia in 2015 as indexed in Mintel's Global New Products Database. Healthfulness was assessed using three classification schemes: Healthy Choices Framework Victoria, Australian Dietary Guidelines and NOVA Food Classification System. Descriptive statistics and chi-squared tests described and compared the number and proportions of new foods falling within each of the food classification schemes' categories for companies that were and were not HAC members. In 2015, 4143 new food products were launched into the Australian market. The majority of new products were classified in each schemes' least healthy category (i.e. red, discretionary and ultra-processed). Fruits and vegetables represented just 3% of new products. HAC members launched a significantly greater proportion of foods classified as red (59% vs 51% for members and non-members, respectively) discretionary (79% vs 61%), and ultra-processed (94% vs 81%), and significantly fewer were classified as green (8% vs 15%), core foods (18% vs 36%) and minimally processed (0% vs 6%) (all p food market in 2015 were classified in each of three schemes' least healthy categories. A greater proportion of new products launched by companies that publicly committed to improve the nutritional quality of their products were unhealthy, and a lower proportion were healthy

  16. COLLABORATION BETWEEN SMALL RETAIL STORES AND SUPPLIERS OF FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Branska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Small grocery stores are forced to look for ways to retain customers. One possibility is through collaboration with suppliers. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the forms of collaboration between small Czech grocery stores and suppliers and to specify the differences in this collaboration depending on store location and the possible affiliation of the store with a retail chain. To achieve this goal, quantitative research was carried out among 65 Czech retail stores using face-to-face interviews with predetermined questions. Collaboration was assessed on the basis of four criteria defined by the authors. It was found that the most frequently occurring element of collaboration was the provision of trade credit to retailers – less often, long-term contracts and synchronization of replenishment. The least used was information sharing. The research results show that the form of collaboration is significantly affected by customer value. Therefore, the level of collaboration can be improved by building horizontally interconnected retail chains. The paper enriches theoretical knowledge by specifying possible elements of collaboration between small retail stores and suppliers and mapping the frequency of their implementation.

  17. NEW APPROACHES IN THE RETAIL BANKING SYSTEM FOR CREATING LONG TERM LOYALTY RELATIONSHIPS WITH CUSTOMERS: CASE STUDY ON THE ROMANIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lidia Melnic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of digital technologies, increasingly informed consumers expect banks to do more than connect with them, more than satisfy them and even more than delight them. They expect banks to listen and respond to them, with personalized offers, overdrawing their expectations. Consumers have access to online reviews, compare products and can move very quickly from one partner to another, being more demanding and more prepared than ever to appreciate the offer of financial services. However, only an attractive offer of banks is not the key to success today if is not supported by a superior service culture, that can make notable differentiation in the market as a competitive advantage. In order to highlight the new approach of superior service culture in the Retail Banking System I chose to make a qualitative research on the Romanian market since Romania is one of the most attractive destinations for the investors in the banking system considering the growth prospects of attracting European funds and financial intermediation. Through this analysis I present the customers’ expectations nowadays and how successful Banks carefully cultivate customer satisfaction and loyalty.

  18. Small-Scale Vegetable Farmers’ Participation in Modern Retail Market Channels in Indonesia: The Determinants of and Effects on Their Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Setiawan Slamet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rise of supermarkets in Indonesia since the end of the 1990s have been transforming the food retail sector and providing further market opportunities for small-scale farmers, in which most of Indonesia’s farmer falls into this category. The aim of this paper is to examine the supermarket participation and its effect on the well-being of small-scale farmers. We compare the differences between participants and non-participants in supermarket channels in order to explore the constraints on supermarket participation. By applying a treatment effects model which allows capturing the possibility of selection bias, we examine the factors that determine farmers’ participation as well as the effect on their income. The results show that younger farmers with higher levels of education, irrigated land, who have packaging equipment and storage facilities, and are located near paved roads, are more likely to participate in the supermarket channels. On the other hand, farmers who have sprayer equipment are more likely to participate in the traditional market channels. The effect analysis shows that small-scale farmer participation in the supermarket channels can boost their income.

  19. FRESH FISH TRADE NETWORKS IN THE STREET MARKETS OF PALMAS, TOCANTINS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bessa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on fresh fish trade networks found in the street markets of Palmas, capital of Tocantins state, Brazil, so as to identify the economic agents involved and the various geographical spaces which interact as a result of these networks. Fresh fish trade in Palmas takes place in distributor warehouses, grocery stores, supermarkets and hypermarkets, fish shops, and fishing communities, but it is street markets that constitute the most popular sale venues. Market sellers establish upstream supply networks with sectors in the fish food system (suppliers in primary and secondary production, distribution, and retail, whose interactions generate connections in Palmas (fishermen, distributors, retailers on a local scale, as well as connections with locations in Tocantins and Pará states (fishermen, fisheries, cold storage companies on a regional scale. Sellers also establish downstream trade networks with the end consumer at markets and with establishments in the food and small retail sectors, whose interactions produce mostly local connections, in Palmas and in the Luzimangues district (close to Palmas. Such connections are marked by consumption processes in these urban areas. Key-words: network, fresh fish trade, street markets.

  20. Product mix retail strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Miloš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The sales of appropriate merchandise is essential for performance of every retail enterprise. The way that products are displayed within retail sales object will be in so much important as the merchandise is considered a pad of the perceived image of that outlet. Thus, assorted products speak to their consumers as far as to what they [the consumers] can expect, and they signal off a number of marketing messages as well. Merchandising is the key element in attracting the consumers and in encouraging of repeated purchases. The question then could be: products or services?, yet the retailer's future will depend on his ability to develop the best sale offers. The selection of appropriate merchandise, and that would be the one [merchandise] that is in accordance with outlet's image, requires careful planning which, again, needs to be related with the direction the seller is following. Managing of the product assortments' dimensions emerges from the retailer's strategic planning, therefore, the decisions made on the inclusion of novel products as well as about deleting of the old stock are deemed (to be strategic.

  1. Adoption of automatic identification systems by grocery retailersin the Johannesburg area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Darlington

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Retailers not only need the right data capture technology to meet the requirements of their applications, they must also decide on what the optimum technology is from the different symbologies that have been developed over the years. Automatic identification systems (AIS are a priority to decision makers as they attempt to obtain the best blend of equipment to ensure greater loss prevention and higher reliability in data capture. However there is a risk of having too simplistic a view of adopting AIS, since no one solution is applicable across an industry or business model. This problem is addressed through an exploratory, descriptive study, where the nature and value of AIS adoption by grocery retailers in the Johannesburg area is interrogated. Mixed empirical results indicate that, as retailers adopt AIS in order to improve their supply chain management systems, different types of applications are associated with various constraints and opportunities. Overall this study is in line with previous research that supports the notion that supply chain decisions are of a strategic nature even though efficient management of information is a day-to-day business operational decision.

  2. Market integration of local energy systems: Is local energy management compatible with European regulation for retail competition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eid, C.; Bollinger, L.A.; Koirala, B.P.; Scholten, D.J.; Facchinetti, E.; Lilliestam, J.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing penetration of distributed energy resources is opening up opportunities for local energy management (LEM) – the coordination of decentralized energy supply, storage, transport, conversion and consumption within a given geographical area. Because European electricity market liberalization

  3. Retail payments and the real economy

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Iftekhar; De Renzis, Tania; Schmiedel, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and the real economy. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995-2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates the overall economy, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macroeconomic impact. Retail payme...

  4. New Trends in Logistics as Retail Support

    OpenAIRE

    Sanda Renko; Dejan Ficko; Kristina Petljak

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Informatisation, internationalisation and globalisation have dramatically changed retail sector; speeding up the retail processes, creating new sale formats, fastening the increase of income etc. During the last decade, logistics influenced the development of retailing by cutting down costs and increasing the service quality level. The main purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of market trends that affected logistics and directly caused changes in Croatian retailin...

  5. The retail market for electric power. Competition and consumer analysis; Denmark; Detailmarkedet for elektricitet. Konkurrence- og forbrugeranalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-12-15

    The Danish Competition and Consumer Authority has examined the market for electricity to consumers. It is a market that has great importance for the Danish consumers, and it is a market where competition could make a difference for consumers, businesses and the settlement of the Danish climate objectives. An average Danish household spends over DKK 7,000 a year on electricity. Average household expenditures for electricity will probably increase with the electric cars and electric-powered heat pumps will constitute a larger share of the Danish electricity consumption in the future. Simultaneously, the electricity market is difficult to understand for consumers, and there is generally a weak market competition. The analyses in this report show that there is a large untapped potential for economic gains through innovation, increased competition and a more efficient use of resources in the electricity sector. A realization of the potential for economic gains can be beneficial to consumers, businesses and environment. If the potential for economic gains is to be realized, it is necessary to change the regulation of the market. (LN)

  6. Incidence of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Herbal Medicines from German Retail Markets: Risk Assessments and Implications to Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsyo, Emmanuel; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Lindigkeit, Rainer; Beuerle, Till

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence of potentially toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in herbal medicines (HMs) is currently intensely being discussed in Europe. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids, particularly the 1,2-unsaturated PAs, are undesired compounds in HMs due to their potential hepatotoxic and carcinogenic properties. In this study, 98 widely patronized HMs from six popular German retail supermarkets/drugstores, as well as from pharmacies, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for the presence of PAs. The results showed that about 63% of the HMs were PA positive, whereas the average PA concentration of the samples was 201 μg/kg, the highest concentration of PAs (3270 μg/kg) was attributed to a product that was purchased from the pharmacy and contained Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) as an active ingredient. In addition, H. perforatum-containing products were frequently contaminated with PAs from Echium spp., while both Cynara cardunculus L. products and fixed-combination products of Gentiana lutea L., Rumex acetosa L., Verbena officinalis L., Sambucus nigra L., and Primula veris L. products were commonly contaminated with PAs of Senecio spp. The study showed that H. perforatum, C. cardunculus, Urtica dioica L., and fixed-combination products were frequently contaminated with PA levels above the recommended values of both the German and European Medicines Agencies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Fostering Curiosity about Social Responsibility and Marketing Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat Yanamandram

    Full Text Available Last year, I was strolling through my local veggie shop after visiting the supermarket, and I noticed that the prices of avocados and apples were the same at both the retailers. Later that week, a news item on current affairs confirmed my suspicion that the supermarket was engaged in squeezing smaller grocery operators outof the market by adopting aggressive pricing tactics amongst many other unethical practices including selling some products at weights substantially less than those marked on the package and subsidising fuel discount by charging more at the checkout. Yet, this supermarket was involved in a broad range of community andenvironmental initiatives. These observations made me wonder if students ever assess the total impact of all marketing decisions.

  8. Dietary risk evaluation for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea preparations made of teas available on the Polish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2018-01-02

    The aim of this work was to assess dietary risk resulting from consumption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with tea infusions. To this end, levels of 28 PAHs in black, green, red and white teas available on the Polish retail market have been assessed. Profiles and correlation between concentrations of individual PAHs have been identified. A model study on transfer of PAHs from tea leaves into tea preparations has been conducted. Relatively high concentrations of 28 evaluated PAHs have been found in 58 tested samples of black, green, red and white teas sampled on the Polish retail market. Total concentration ∑28PAH ranged from 57 to 696 µg kg -1 with mean 258 µg kg -1 (dry tea leaves). The most mature tea leaves fermented to a small degree contained relatively the highest PAH levels among all four tested tea types. Relatively low PAH transfer rates into tea infusions and limited volumes of the consumed tea keep the risks associated with PAH dietary intake at a safely low level. The worst-case scenario dietary intake values were 7.62/0.82/0.097 ng kg -1 b.w. day -1 (estimated on the basis of the maximum found concentrations 696/113/23 µg kg -1 and maximum observed transfer rates 24/16/9%) for ∑28PAH/∑PAH4/B[a]P, respectively. MOE values calculated using the above worst case estimates exceeded 700,000 and 400,000 (BMDL 10 0.07 and 0.34 mg kg -1 b.w. day -1 ) for B[a]P and PAH4, respectively. Both B[a]P and PAH4 concentrations may be used as indicators of total PAH concentration in tea leaves; PAH4 slightly better fits low molecular weight PAHs. Several correlations between various PAHs/groups of PAHs have been identified, the strongest one (R 2 = 0.92) between PAH4 and EU PAH 15+1.

  9. Innovation in Downstream Fashion Retail Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    While product marketers and brand owners struggle to make new products, manufacturing processes and inbound logistics, innovation taking place in retail networks is often overlooked. Networks in retailing are comprised by varieties of single- and multi-brand stores, chains and departments stores...

  10. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Marketing and Fashion Merchandising (Program CIP: 08.0705--General Retailing Operations). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for marketing I-II and fashion merchandising. Presented first are a program…

  11. Overpricing and Hidden Costs of Structured Products for Retail Investors: Evidence from the Danish Market for Principal Protected Notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte; Nørholm, Henrik; Skovmand, David

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide fast and accurate approximation schemes for the Monte Carlo pricing of derivatives in LIBOR market models. Standard methods can be applied to solve the stochastic differential equations of the successive LIBOR rates but the methods are generally slow. Our...

  12. Strengthening Building Retrofit Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, Mary [Michigan Saves; Jackson, Robert [Michigan Energy Office

    2014-04-15

    The Business Energy Financing (BEF) program offered commercial businesses in Michigan affordable financing options and other incentives designed to support energy efficiency improvements. We worked through partnerships with Michigan utilities, lenders, building contractors, trade associations, and other community organizations to offer competitive interest rates and flexible financing terms to support energy efficiency projects that otherwise would not have happened. The BEF program targeted the retail food market, including restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and wholesale food vendors, with the goal of achieving energy efficiency retrofits for 2 percent of the target market. We offered low interest rates, flexible payments, easy applications and approval processes, and access to other incentives and rebates. Through these efforts, we sought to help customers strive for energy savings retrofits that would save 20 percent or more on their energy use. This program helped Michigan businesses reduce costs by financing energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling systems, insulation, refrigeration, equipment upgrades, and more. Businesses completed the upgrades with the help of our authorized contractors, and, through our lending partners, we provided affordable financing options.

  13. Prevalence of Listeria species in camel sausages from retail markets in Aydin province in Turkey and RAPD analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozbey Gokben

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Samples were taken from 100 camel sausages from the different retail markets in Aydin province in the south-west of Turkey and they were tested for the presence of Listeria spp by biochemical methods. Samples were enriched using Listeria Enrichment Broth and they were inoculated onto Listeria Selective Agar. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from nine samples (9%, Listeria innocua from 14 samples (14% and Listeria welshimeri from two samples(2%. A 701 bp fragment of listeriolysin O sequence for L. monocytogenes was amplified using specific primers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for confirmation of the identification. A random primer (OPA-11 was used in a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD assay. This detected five different band profiles amongst the L. monocytogenes isolates, indicating a relatively large amount of genetic heterogeneity amongst the nine isolates. The study has highlighted the need for improved strategies for food safety, in particular appropriate hygienic precautions to avoid contamination of sausage during the manufacturing process and appropriate preservation techniques during storage and transport, to prevent transmission of Listeria spp to consumers at home and abroad.

  14. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Eva; Rosenthal, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Kaeferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union

  15. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eva [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Rosenthal, Harald [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Kaeferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

  16. New Directions in the Use of Virtual Reality for Food Shopping: Marketing and Education Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Barb

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality is used in marketing research to shape food selection and purchase decisions. Could it be used to counteract the marketing of less-nutritious foods and teach healthier food selection? This article presents interviews with Raymond Burke, Ph.D., of Indiana University Bloomington, and Rachel Jones, M.P.H., of the University of Utah College of Health. Topics covered include new marketing research technologies, including virtual reality simulations; retailing and shopper behavior; and the use of virtual grocery stores to help students explore quality of diet and food/nutrient relationships. The interviewees discuss how the technologies they have developed fit into research and behavior change related to obesity and diabetes. PMID:21527099

  17. New directions in the use of virtual reality for food shopping: marketing and education perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Barb

    2011-03-01

    Virtual reality is used in marketing research to shape food selection and purchase decisions. Could it be used to counteract the marketing of less-nutritious foods and teach healthier food selection? This article presents interviews with Raymond Burke, Ph.D., of Indiana University Bloomington, and Rachel Jones, M.P.H., of the University of Utah College of Health. Topics covered include new marketing research technologies, including virtual reality simulations; retailing and shopper behavior; and the use of virtual grocery stores to help students explore quality of diet and food/nutrient relationships. The interviewees discuss how the technologies they have developed fit into research and behavior change related to obesity and diabetes. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Behavior of the vegetable crops section in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazil Desempenho da seção de hortaliças em equipamentos varejistas de alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario de O Lima-Filho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the fresh fruits and vegetable produce section was evaluated, under the point of view of the consumer, in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazilian southeast: a grocery store ("quitanda", a supermarket, and an open-air market. A quantitative-descriptive survey was conducted with 120 individuals, responsible for purchasing fresh fruit and vegetable produce for their homes. To accomplish that, twelve variables were investigated and adapted from the parameters used in the SERVQUAL model, in which the attributes of the retail outlet are pointed out, such as store hygiene and cleanliness and manner by which produce is displayed; employee training traits, such as courtesy and helpfulness; and quality, price range, and variety of the produce for sale. The results reveal that shopping for grocery is done weekly; 80% of the shoppers interviewed do their shopping in supermarkets and 94% do theirs in open-air markets. The open-air market had the best results in the attributes for which they were evaluated when compared with the grocery store and the supermarket. The study also points out that the older the shopper the more often he/she does grocery shopping.Neste estudo foi avaliado, sob o ponto de vista do consumidor, o desempenho da seção de hortaliças em três equipamentos varejistas de alimentos em Campo Grande(MS: uma mercearia (quitanda, um supermercado e uma feira-livre. Foi realizada uma pesquisa quantitativo-descritiva com 120 indivíduos, responsáveis pelas compras de hortaliças para suas residências. Para tanto, foram investigadas doze variáveis adaptadas das dimensões do modelo SERVQUAL, onde se destacam os atributos do equipamento varejista como higiene e limpeza da loja e exposição dos produtos; capacitação dos funcionários como atendimento e cortesia; e atributos do produto como qualidade, variedade e preço. Os resultados mostram que as compras de hortaliças são realizadas semanalmente

  19. Market integration of local energy systems: Is local energy management compatible with European regulation for retail competition?

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Cherrelle; Bollinger, L. Andrew; Koirala, Binod; Scholten, Daniel; Facchinetti, Emanuele; Lilliestam, Johan; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    The growing penetration of distributed energy resources is opening up opportunities for local energy management (LEM) – the coordination of decentralized energy supply, storage, transport, conversion and consumption within a given geographical area. Because European electricity market liberalization concentrates competition at the wholesale level, local energy management at the distribution level is likely to impose new roles and responsibilities on existing and/or new actors. This paper prov...

  20. El modelo de Hulten, Broweus y Van Dijk de marketing sensorial aplicado al retail español. Caso textil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria JIMÉNEZ-MARÍN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de este estudio se pretende dar relevancia a los elementos que componen el marketing sensorial, destacando su potencial para la mejora de la experiencia de compra del usuario en el punto de venta. Para llevar la investigación a cabo, se ha adaptado el modelo de Hulten, Broweus y Van Dijk (2009 sobre el marketing sensorial con el objetivo principal de analizar la percepción y las actitudes de los consumidores ante distintos elementos sensoriales de comunicación propuestos por la tienda sevillana Blanco Número 1. El método que se utilizó fue, por un lado, una investigación documental y, por el otro, un estudio exploratorio causal-cuantitativo consistente en crear una estrategia sensorial. Los resultados obtenidos arrojan luz sobre la importancia del marketing sensorial, pues, en este caso real, existe un aumento considerable de las ventas, el tiempo de permanencia de los clientes e, incluso, la satisfacción de los mismos después de aplicar las estrategias pertinentes. Por ello, se ha concluido que el modelo de Hulten, Broweus y Van Dijk es válido y fiable para un establecimiento comercial pequeño como el que ha sido objeto de estudio.