Jong, de R.
1. Pyrgus alveus caucasius Picard and Pyrgus jupei Alberti In a paper on Pyrgus bellieri, Picard (1949: 57) casually named the populations of Pyrgus alveus from the Caucasus and Transcaucasia caucasius. According to Picard, Reverdin (1915) confused this form with the Chinese sifanicus which has diff
California Department of Resources — The wandering skipper (Panoquina errans) is a small butterfly of the family Hesperiidae. It is identifiable by its rich dark brown color and cream-colored spots on...
Ab Ghani, Nor Atikah; Rambely, Azmin Sham
There are various kinds of jumping that can be done while performing rope skipping activity. This activity was always associated with injury. But, if the rope skipper can perform the activity in a right way, it is believed that the injury might be reduced. The main purpose of this paper is to observe the stability of rope skipper from a biomechanics perspective, which are the centre of mass, angle at the ankle, knee and hip joints and also the trajectory for the ipsilateral leg between the two types of skip which is one leg and two legs. Six healthy, physically active subject, two males and four females (age: 8.00±1.25 years, weight: 17.90±6.85 kg and height: 1.22±0.08 m) participated in this study. Kinematic data of repeated five cycles of rope skipping activity was captured by using Vicon Nexus system. Based on the data collected, skipping with two legs shows more stable behavior during preparation, flight and landing phases. It is concluded that landing on the balls of the feet, lowering the trajectory positions of the feet from the ground as well as flexion of each joint which would reduce the injury while landing.
Watson, A; Watson, B
The general aim of designated driver programs is to reduce the level of drink driving by encouraging potential drink drivers to travel with a driver who has abstained from (or at least limited) consuming alcohol. Designated driver programs appear to be quite widespread around the world, however a limited number have been subject to rigorous evaluation. This paper reports results from an outcome evaluation of a designated driver program called 'Skipper', which was trialled in a provincial city in Queensland, Australia. The outcome evaluation included surveys three weeks prior to (baseline), four months following (1st follow-up), and 16 months following (2nd follow-up) the commencement of the trial in both the 'intervention area' (baseline, n=202; 1st follow-up, n=211; 2nd follow-up, n=200) and a 'comparison area'(baseline, n=203; 1st follow-up, n=199; 2nd follow-up, n=201); and a comparison of random breath testing and crash data before and after the trial. The survey results indicate that awareness of the program in the intervention area was quite high four months following its introduction and that this was maintained at 16 months. The results also suggest that the 'Skipper' program and the related publicity had positive impacts on behaviour with an increase in the proportion of people participating in designated driver as a passenger. It is less clear, however, whether the 'Skipper' program impacted on other behaviours of interest, such as drink driving or involvement in alcohol-related crashes. Suggestions for further research and program improvement are discussed as well as limitations of the research.
Full Text Available The Grizzled Giant Squirrel is endemic to southern India and Sri Lanka. In India it is distributed in isolated populations with less than 500 mature individuals, restricted mostly to patchy riverine habitats. We have recorded the presence of this species (minimum 14 individuals across eight locations in Hosur forest division along the Cauvery riverine forest, north of earlier reported locations in the Eastern Ghats. The documentation of this species in the study area adds to our understanding of its distribution. These squirrels are canopy dwellers, hence discontinuous forest restricts their movement and dispersal. Measures including stop auctioning Tamarindus indica fruits on large scale for commercial purpose by Forest Department, restoration of habitat, maintenance of canopy continuity, reducing anthropogenic pressure and translocating squirrels from larger populations are suggested to enhance the long-term survival of this habitat specialist, which is on the brink of local extinction in the study area. We also suggest a comprehensive population assessment of the species to reevaluate its global status.
Daniel H Janzen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An intense, 30-year, ongoing biodiversity inventory of Lepidoptera, together with their food plants and parasitoids, is centered on the rearing of wild-caught caterpillars in the 120,000 terrestrial hectares of dry, rain, and cloud forest of Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG in northwestern Costa Rica. Since 2003, DNA barcoding of all species has aided their identification and discovery. We summarize the process and results for a large set of the species of two speciose subfamilies of ACG skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae and emphasize the effectiveness of barcoding these species (which are often difficult and time-consuming to identify. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adults are DNA barcoded by the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Guelph, Canada; and they are identified by correlating the resulting COI barcode information with more traditional information such as food plant, facies, genitalia, microlocation within ACG, caterpillar traits, etc. This process has found about 303 morphologically defined species of eudamine and pyrgine Hesperiidae breeding in ACG (about 25% of the ACG butterfly fauna and another 44 units indicated by distinct barcodes (n = 9,094, which may be additional species and therefore may represent as much as a 13% increase. All but the members of one complex can be identified by their DNA barcodes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Addition of DNA barcoding to the methodology greatly improved the inventory, both through faster (hence cheaper accurate identification of the species that are distinguishable without barcoding, as well as those that require it, and through the revelation of species "hidden" within what have long been viewed as single species. Barcoding increased the recognition of species-level specialization. It would be no more appropriate to ignore barcode data in a species inventory than it would be to ignore adult genitalia variation or caterpillar ecology.
... ``native vegetation of varying quality'' with a few asphalt and gravel roads interspersed (Skadsen in litt... permeability. Soil textures in Dakota skipper habitats are classified as loam, sandy loam, or loamy sand (Royer... permeability (Lenz 1999, pp. 4- 5). Cultivation changes the physical state of soil (Tomko and Hall 1986,...
Bauder, J A S; Morawetz, L; Warren, A D; Krenn, H W
Extremely long proboscides are rare among butterflies outside of the Hesperiidae, yet representatives of several genera of skipper butterflies possess proboscides longer than 50 mm. Although extremely elongated mouthparts can be regarded as advantageous adaptations to gain access to nectar in deep-tubed flowers, the scarcity of long-proboscid butterflies is a phenomenon that has not been adequately accounted for. So far, the scarceness was explained by functional costs arising from increased flower handling times caused by decelerated nectar intake rates. However, insects can compensate for the negative influence of a long proboscis through changes in the morphological configuration of the feeding apparatus. Here, we measured nectar intake rates in 34 species representing 21 Hesperiidae genera from a Costa Rican lowland rainforest area to explore the impact of proboscis length, cross-sectional area of the food canal and body size on intake rate. Long-proboscid skippers did not suffer from reduced intake rates due to their large body size and enlarged food canals. In addition, video analyses of the flower-visiting behaviour revealed that suction times increased with proboscis length, suggesting that long-proboscid skippers drink a larger amount of nectar from deep-tubed flowers. Despite these advantages, we showed that functional costs of exaggerated mouthparts exist in terms of longer manipulation times per flower. Finally, we discuss the significance of scaling relationships on the foraging efficiency of butterflies and why some skipper taxa, in particular, have evolved extremely long proboscides.
Kim, Min Jee; Wang, Ah Rha; Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Iksoo
We sequenced mitogenomes of five skippers (family Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) to obtain further insight into the characteristics of butterfly mitogenomes and performed phylogenetic reconstruction using all available gene sequences (PCGs, rRNAs, and tRNAs) from 85 species (20 families in eight superfamilies). The general genomic features found in the butterflies also were found in the five skippers: a high A+T composition (79.3%-80.9%), dominant usage of TAA stop codon, similar skewness pattern in both strands, consistently length intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Gln) and ND2 (64-87 bp), conserved ATACTAA motif between tRNA(Ser (UCN)) and ND1, and characteristic features of the A+T-rich region (the ATAGA motif, varying length of poly-T stretch, and poly-A stretch). The start codon for COI was CGA in four skippers as typical, but Lobocla bifasciatus evidently possessed canonical ATG as start codon. All species had the ancestral arrangement tRNA(Asn)/tRNA(Ser (AGN)), instead of the rearrangement tRNA(Ser (AGN))/tRNA(Asn), found in another skipper species (Erynnis). Phylogenetic analyses using all available genes (PCGs, rRNAS, and tRNAs) yielded the consensus superfamilial relationships ((((((Bombycoidea+Noctuoidea+Geometroidea)+Pyraloidea)+Papilionoidea)+Tortricoidea)+Yponomeutoidea)+Hepialoidea), confirming the validity of Macroheterocera (Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, and Geometroidea in this study) and its sister relationship to Pyraloidea. Within Rhopalocera (butterflies and skippers) the familial relationships (Papilionidae+(Hesperiidae+(Pieridae+((Lycaenidae+Riodinidae)+Nymphalidae)))) were strongly supported in all analyses (0.98-1 by BI and 96-100 by ML methods), rendering invalid the superfamily status for Hesperioidea. On the other hand, current mitogenome-based phylogeny did not find consistent superfamilial relationships among Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, and Bombycoidea and the familial relationships within Bombycoidea between analyses, requiring further
Witbracht, Megan; Keim, Nancy L; Forester, Shavawn; Widaman, Adrianne; Laugero, Kevin
Chronic stress and over-activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may link breakfast skipping and poor cardiometabolic health. Missing the first major meal of the day in rodents prolongs elevated circulating corticosterone at a time when it's normally decreasing. To extend these findings to humans, we hypothesized that habitual breakfast skippers would display a similar pattern of circulating cortisol and alterations in meal and stress-induced cortisol reactions. Normal weight to obese women aged 18-45 years old who were strictly defined as either breakfast skippers (n=30) or breakfast eaters (n=35) were invited to participate in our study. Normal breakfast habits were maintained for the entire study period and each participant attended 4 lab visits. Over the first 2 lab visits, body composition, fasting clinical chemistries, and self-reports of chronic stress were assessed. On each of 2 additional days (lab visits 3 and 4), salivary free cortisol was measured at home upon waking and at bedtime, and in the lab in response to a standard lunch, ad libitum afternoon snack buffet, and stress and control (relaxation) tasks. The order of the control and stress test visits was randomized. While body weight, body composition, HOMA-IR, total and HDL cholesterol did not statistically differ (p>0.05), both diastolic and systolic blood pressure was elevated (pbreakfast skipper group. Compared to the breakfast eaters and on the control task visit only, breakfast skippers had higher circulating cortisol from arrival to midafternoon (pbreakfast skippers. Self-reports of chronic stress did not differ between the groups. These data indicate that habitually skipping breakfast is associated with stress-independent over-activity in the HPA axis which, if prolonged, may increase risk (e.g., hypertension) for cardiometabolic disease in some people.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This status report summarizes background information on the habitat, biology, and ecology of the Dakota skipper (Hesperia dacotae) based on numerous publications,...
Xiangqun, Yuan; Ke, Gao; Feng, Yuan; Yalin, Zhang
Abstract Most species of Parnara and Pelopidas (Hesperiidae) are important pests of rice. In this study, the antennal morphology, types of sensilla, and their distribution of four skipper butterflies, including Parnara guttata (Bremer & Grey), Pa. bada (Moore), Pelopidas mathias (Fabricius) and Pe. agna (Moore), were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Six distinct morphological types of sensilla were found on the antennae of all of these species: sensilla squamiformia, sensilla trichodea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla auricillica, sensilla coeloconica, and Böhm sensilla. The sensilla trichodea are the most abundant sensilla among the four skipper butterflies, and the sensilla auricillica are confirmed on the antennae of butterflies for the second time. In addition, the possible functions of these sensilla are discussed in the light of previously reported lepidopteran insects, which may provide useful information for further study of the function of these antennal sensilla and for related pests control by applying sex pheromones. PMID:24843250
Putri, Rizka Apriani; Sukiya
One type of adaptation needed in fish that live in Intertidal Zone is morphological adaptation. When the tide is low, oxygen circulation in this area is limited, causing tidepools that occurred during this time hypoxic for species that live inside. This research aimed to study the microanatomical structure of respiratory organ of two group of fish that live in intertidal zone and to investigate whether skin of these species can be used as respiratory surface to overcome hypoxic condition. Two species of fish (Bathygobiusfuscus of remainers group and Blenniellabilitonensis of skippers, respectively), were caught and sacrificed, then gills and skin of them were harvested. The organs then undergone further processing for microanatomical preparation with paraffin method and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Microanatomical structure of gills and skin analyzed descriptively. Gills were observed to study whether additional structure is presence and modification (in structure of epithelial cells and/or the length of secondary lamelae) is occurred as part of morphological change to absorb more oxygen during low tide. In skin, the thickness of epidermal layers were measured and the number of blood capillaries were counted to investigate whether it can also be used as additional respiratory surface. Quantitative data of skin and gills were statistically analyzed using Student's T-test. Results showed that there were no differences in gills structure between remainers and skippers. Additional structure in gills were absent in both species. However, quantitative measurements in skin showed that skippers have less layers of epidermal cells and high number of blood capillaries compared to remainers' skin. This results indicated that skippers were able to use their skin as additional respiratory surface outside gills.
Nakade, Makiko; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Imai, Eri; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7593 adults to clarify lifestyle and psychosocial characteristics of breakfast skippers with different intention and self-efficacy toward eating breakfast. Data were obtained from Japan's national survey in 2009. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the characteristics of each breakfast skipper (having intention and self-efficacy toward eating breakfast [IS], having intention but not self-efficacy [INS], and not having intention to eat breakfast [NI]) compared with breakfast eaters. IS men were less likely to demonstrate understanding of healthy eating. INS and NI men were more likely to eat alone. INS and NI women were less likely to demonstrate understanding of healthy eating. NI men and women were less likely to report weight management behavior. Current smoking and being sleep-deprived were commonly associated with breakfast skipping in both sexes. Our results suggested the need for approaches considering type of breakfast skippers (eg, different intention and self-efficacy).
Full Text Available Erniwati, Ubaidillah R (2011 Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 76-85. Hymenopteran parasitoids of banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae from Java, Indonesia are reviewed and an illustrated key to 12 species is presented to include Theronia zebra zebra, Xanthopimpla gamsura, Casinaria sp., Charops sp., Cotesia (Apanteles erionotae, Brachymeria lasus, B. thracis, Ooencyrtus pallidipes, Anastatus sp., Pediobius erionotae, Agiommatus sumatraensis and Sympiesis sp. The surveys of the natural enemies of the banana-skipper were conducted in 1990-2006 in several localities in Java. The aim of this study was to assess the native natural enemies of E. thrax, especially the parasitic Hymenoptera. Infested eggs, larvae and pupae of E. thrax were collected and reared in the laboratory. Emerging parasitoids were preserved in both dry mounting and in 80% alcohol for the species identification. Members of families Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae were recorded as parasitoids of the banana skipper E. thrax from Java, Indonesia. Species distribution and alternative hosts of the parasitoids are presented.
Sahoo, Ranjit Kumar; Warren, Andrew D; Wahlberg, Niklas; Brower, Andrew V Z; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa
Despite multiple attempts to infer the higher-level phylogenetic relationships of skipper butterflies (Family Hesperiidae), uncertainties in the deep clade relationships persist. The most recent phylogenetic analysis included fewer than 30% of known genera and data from three gene markers. Here we reconstruct the higher-level relationships with a rich sampling of ten nuclear and mitochondrial markers (7,726 bp) from 270 genera and find two distinct but equally plausible topologies among subfamilies at the base of the tree. In one set of analyses, the nuclear markers suggest two contrasting topologies, one of which is supported by the mitochondrial dataset. However, another set of analyses suggests mito-nuclear conflict as the reason for topological incongruence. Neither topology is strongly supported, and we conclude that there is insufficient phylogenetic evidence in the molecular dataset to resolve these relationships. Nevertheless, taking morphological characters into consideration, we suggest that one of the topologies is more likely.
Ranjit Kumar Sahoo
Full Text Available Despite multiple attempts to infer the higher-level phylogenetic relationships of skipper butterflies (Family Hesperiidae, uncertainties in the deep clade relationships persist. The most recent phylogenetic analysis included fewer than 30% of known genera and data from three gene markers. Here we reconstruct the higher-level relationships with a rich sampling of ten nuclear and mitochondrial markers (7,726 bp from 270 genera and find two distinct but equally plausible topologies among subfamilies at the base of the tree. In one set of analyses, the nuclear markers suggest two contrasting topologies, one of which is supported by the mitochondrial dataset. However, another set of analyses suggests mito-nuclear conflict as the reason for topological incongruence. Neither topology is strongly supported, and we conclude that there is insufficient phylogenetic evidence in the molecular dataset to resolve these relationships. Nevertheless, taking morphological characters into consideration, we suggest that one of the topologies is more likely.
Sahoo, Ranjit Kumar; Warren, Andrew D; Collins, Steve C; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa
Skippers (Family: Hesperiidae) are a large group of butterflies with ca. 4000 species under 567 genera. The lack of a time-calibrated higher-level phylogeny of the group has precluded understanding of its evolutionary past. We here use a 10-gene dataset to reconstruct the most comprehensive time-calibrated phylogeny of the group, and explore factors that affected the diversification of these butterflies. Ancestral state reconstructions show that the early hesperiid lineages utilized dicots as larval hostplants. The ability to feed on monocots evolved once at the K-Pg boundary (ca. 65 million years ago (Mya)), and allowed monocot-feeders to diversify much faster on average than dicot-feeders. The increased diversification rate of the monocot-feeding clade is specifically attributed to rate shifts in two of its descendant lineages. The first rate shift, a four-fold increase compared to background rates, happened ca. 50 Mya, soon after the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, in a lineage of the subfamily Hesperiinae that mostly fed on forest monocots. The second rate shift happened ca. 40 Mya in a grass-feeding lineage of Hesperiinae when open-habitat grasslands appeared in the Neotropics owing to gradual cooling of the atmospheric temperature. The evolution of monocot feeding strongly influenced diversification of skippers. We hypothesize that although monocot feeding was an intrinsic trait that allowed exploration of novel niches, the lack of extensive availability of monocots comprised an extrinsic limitation for niche exploration. The shifts in diversification rate coincided with paleoclimatic events during which grasses and forest monocots were diversified.
Carneiro, Eduardo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Fiedler, Konrad
Species turnover across elevational gradients has matured into an important paradigm of community ecology. Here, we tested whether ecological and phylogenetic structure of skipper butterfly assemblages is more strongly structured according to altitude or vegetation type along three elevation gradients of moderate extent in Serra do Mar, Southern Brazil. Skippers were surveyed along three different mountain transects, and data on altitude and vegetation type of every collection site were recorded. NMDS ordination plots were used to assess community turnover and the influence of phylogenetic distance between species on apparent community patterns. Ordinations based on ecological similarity (Bray-Curtis index) were compared to those based on phylogenetic distance measures (MPD and MNTD) derived from a supertree. In the absence of a well-resolved phylogeny, various branch length transformation methods were applied together with four different null models, aiming to assess if results were confounded by low-resolution trees. Species composition as well as phylogenetic community structure of skipper butterflies were more prominently related to vegetation type instead of altitude per se. Phylogenetic distances reflected spatial community patterns less clearly than species composition, but revealed a more distinct fauna of monocot feeders associated with grassland habitats, implying that historical factors have played a fundamental role in shaping species composition across elevation gradients. Phylogenetic structure of community turned out to be a relevant additional tool which was even superior to identify faunal contrasts between forest and grassland habitats related to deep evolutionary splits. Since endemic skippers tend to occur in grassland habitats in the Serra do Mar, inclusion of phylogenetic diversity may also be important for conservation decisions. PMID:25272004
Ajai Kumar Srivastav
Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish. Conclusion: Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.
Burns, John M; Janzen, Daniel H; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Hallwachs, Winnie; Hebert, Paul D N
DNA barcodes can be used to identify cryptic species of skipper butterflies previously detected by classic taxonomic methods and to provide first clues to the existence of yet other cryptic species. A striking case is the common geographically and ecologically widespread neotropical skipper butterfly Perichares philetes (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae), described in 1775, which barcoding splits into a complex of four species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. Three of the species are new, and all four are described. Caterpillars, pupae, and foodplants offer better distinguishing characters than do adults, whose differences are mostly average, subtle, and blurred by intraspecific variation. The caterpillars of two species are generalist grass-eaters; of the other two, specialist palm-eaters, each of which feeds on different genera. But all of these cryptic species are more specialized in their diet than was the morphospecies that held them. The four ACG taxa discovered to date belong to a panneotropical complex of at least eight species. This complex likely includes still more species, whose exposure may require barcoding. Barcoding ACG hesperiid morphospecies has increased their number by nearly 10%, an unexpectedly high figure for such relatively well known insects.
Carol E. O'Neil
Full Text Available Most studies showing that children consuming breakfast have better nutrient intakes, diet quality, and lower weight than breakfast skippers have the incorrect premise that breakfast meals are homogeneous. The purpose of this study was to classify breakfast meals into patterns and determine the association of the breakfast patterns with daily and breakfast nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight. Data from children (2-18 years of age; N = 14,200 participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 were used. Intake was determined from one day 24-hour dietary recalls. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Body mass index (BMI z-scores were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [~19% of population], explaining 63% of the variance in energy from breakfast, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare outcome variables of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The p value was Bonferroni corrected (< 0.05/12 = < 0.0042. Consumers of the Eggs/Grain/Meat, Poultry, Fish (MPF/Fruit Juice (FJ and MPF/Grain/FJ patterns showed higher daily intakes of saturated fats, solid fats, and sodium and lower daily intakes of added sugars than breakfast skippers. Consumers of most breakfast patterns showed higher daily intakes of some nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium; however, those consuming the Grain or MPF/Grain/FJ pattern did not. Consumers of the Grain/Lower Fat Milk (LFM/Sweets/FJ, Presweetened (PS Ready-to-eat Cereal (RTEC/LFM, RTEC/LFM, Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ, and Whole Fruit patterns had higher total HEI-2005 scores than breakfast skippers; those consuming the MPF/Grain/FJ pattern had lower diet quality than breakfast skippers. Consumption of the Grain/LFM/Sweets/FJ, PSRTEC/whole milk, Soft Drinks/FJ/Grain/Potatoes, RTEC/whole milk, and Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ patterns was associated
Jokela, Karin J; Debinski, Diane M; Mcculley, Rebecca L
Invasive, exotic grasses are increasing in tallgrass prairie and their dominance may be contributing to the decline of grassland butterflies through alterations in forage quality. Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.), an exotic grass covering millions of acres in the United States, can host a fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala (Morgan-Jones & Gams). Alkaloids produced by the endophyte are known to be toxic to some foliar-feeding pest insects. Endophyte-infected tall fescue is commonly planted in hayfields, pastures, lawns, and is invading natural areas, but effects of the endophyte on nonpest insects such as butterflies are relatively unknown. Our objective was to investigate the role that tall fescue and its endophyte might play in the decline of grass skippers (Hesperiidae). We examined growth and survival parameters of tawny-edged skippers (Polites themistocles (Latreille)) that were reared on endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), endophyte-free tall fescue (E-), and Kentucky bluegrass (KBG). KBG was included as a comparison because it is a cool season grass known to be palatable to P. themistocles larvae. Interestingly, results showed that the endophyte did not affect growth and survival of larvae compared to uninfected tall fescue, even though significant amounts of loline alkaloids (average 740 ppm) were measured in endophyte-infected plant material. Larvae feeding on KBG grew faster with greater survival rates than larvae on both tall fescue treatments. These results confirm that tall fescue invasion and dominance may be deteriorating the quality of grassland habitats for native pollinators; however, this effect does not appear to be linked to endophyte infection.
Carol E. O'Neil; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni III, Victor L.
Most studies showing that children consuming breakfast have better nutrient intakes, diet quality, and lower weight than breakfast skippers have the incorrect premise that breakfast meals are homogeneous. The purpose of this study was to classify breakfast meals into patterns and determine the association of the breakfast patterns with daily and breakfast nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight. Data from children (2-18 years of age; N = 14,200) participating in the National Health and ...
Royer, R.A.; McKenney, R.A.; Newton, W.E.
Within the United States, the Dakota Skipper now occurs only in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota. In these states it has been associated with margins of glacial lakes and calcareous mesic prairies that host warm-season native grasses. Preliminary geographic information system (GIS) analysis in North Dakota has indicated a close congruency between historic distribution of the Dakota Skipper and that of specific near-shore glacial lake features and related soil associations. This study analyzed humidity-related non-biotic microhabitat characteristics within three remaining occupied Dakota Skipper sites in each state during the larval growth period in 2000. Measured parameters included topographic relief, soil compaction, soil pH, moisture, and temperature at various depths, soil bulk density, soil texture, and temperature and humidity within the larval nest zone. Results of these efforts reveal two distinctive habitat substrates, one of relatively low surface relief with dense but relatively less compact soils, and another of relatively high relief with less dense but more compact soils. In the low-relief habitat, grazing appears to compact soils unfavorably in otherwise similar prairies in the more xeric western portion of the range, potentially by affecting ground-water buffering of larval nest zone humidity.
Udaykumar, K; Joshi, B N
Ovarian follicular kinetics and gravimetric changes in the ovary and oviducts were studied in the skipper frog, Rana cyanophlyctis, following exposure to continuous light and melatonin treatment during the breeding season. Daily late-afternoon injections of melatonin (15 micrograms subcutaneous) for 30 days decreased the gonadosomatic index (GSI), whereas continuously available melatonin from subcutaneous implants did not influence the GSI compared to those of controls. Exposure to continuous light for 30 days stimulated the GSI, and melatonin given as daily injections prevented the continuous-light induced increase in GSI. Oviductal weights decreased only in the melatonin-injected groups. Data on follicular kinetics revealed a decrease in first-growth-phase (FGP) oocytes and an increase in medium-sized second-growth-phase (MSGP) and large-sized second-growth-phase (LSGP) oocytes following continuous-light exposure. Melatonin administered to continuous-light-exposed frogs did not change the FGP oocyte number; however, it reduced both the MSGP and LSGP oocytes. Melatonin administration to frogs held in a light and dark cycle increased FGP oocytes and decreased MSGP and LSGP oocytes. Atretic follicles increased in all melatonin-treated groups. The results suggest that continuous light stimulates and melatonin inhibits reproductive function in this species.
JUSTIN N. OKOLLE; MASHHOR MANSOR; ABU HASSAN AHMAD
Spatial distribution of immatures of the banana skipper (Erionota thrax L.) and their parasitisms from three major parasitoids were studied in a Cavendish banana plantation from April 2004 to December 2004. Infestation levels and parasitism ofE. thrax life stages were recorded from bunched plants (BP), flowering plants (FP), preflowered plants (PF),broad leaf followers (BLF) and narrow leaf followers (NLF), as well as on well managed and poorly managed plants. Mean numbers of the immatures and numbers parasitized from the nine blocks in the plantation were fitted to four dispersion indices. Significant numbers of E. thrax immatures and those parasitized by Ooencyrtus erionotae, Cotesia erionotae and Brachymeria albotibialis were recorded from BLF and PF; no eggs were found on BP and FP. Although infestation was higher on well managed plants, only larval parasitism was significandy different. Three of the four indices indicated that eggs and larvae were random while all the indices showed pupae to be clumped. Parasitized eggs and pupae were clumped (4/4 indices) while 3/4 indices revealed a random pattern for parasitized larvae.
Phuge, S K; Gramapurohit, N P
In amphibians, although genetic factors are involved in sex determination, gonadal sex differentiation can be modified by exogenous steroid hormones suggesting a possible role of sex steroids in regulating the process. We studied the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) and estradiol-17β (E2) on gonadal differentiation and sex ratio at metamorphosis in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis with undifferentiated type of gonadal differentiation. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the optimum dose and sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal. Our results clearly indicate the importance of sex hormones in controlling gonadal differentiation of E. cyanophlyctis. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L TP throughout larval period resulted in the development of 100% males at metamorphosis at all concentrations. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with 40μg/L TP during ovarian and testicular differentiation resulted in the development of 90% males, 10% intersexes and 100% males respectively. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L E2 throughout larval period likewise produced 100% females at all concentrations. Furthermore, exposure to 40μg/L E2 during ovarian and testicular differentiation produced 95% females, 5% intersexes and 91% females, 9% intersexes respectively. Both TP and E2 were also effective in advancing the stages of gonadal development. Present study shows the effectiveness of both T and E2 in inducing complete sex reversal in E. cyanophlyctis. Generally, exposure to E2 increased the larval period resulting in significantly larger females than control group while the larval period of control and TP treated groups was comparable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
SAMADHAN KRUSHNA PHUGE
Although sex determination in amphibians is believed to be a genetic process, environmental factors such as temperatureare known to influence the sex differentiation and development. Extremely low and high temperatures influence gonadaldevelopment and sex ratio in amphibians but the mechanism of action is not known. In the present study, effect of differenttemperatures on gonadal development, sex ratio and metamorphosis was studied in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctiscyanophlyctis. The embryos of Gosner stage 7 were exposed to 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32 deg C up to tadpole stage 42. Theembryos (stage 7) were also exposed to 20 and 32 deg C up to tadpole stage 25 (non-feeding stages). Tadpoles of stage 25 werereared at 20 and 32 deg C up to stage 42 (feeding stages). The results show that exposure to higher temperatures (28, 30 and32 deg C) during stages 7–42 produced male-biased sex ratio. Rearing of tadpoles at 32 deg C during stages 25–42 produced malebiasedsex ratio, while exposure during stages 7–25 did not affect sex ratio. Embryos and tadpoles exposed to lower temperatures (20 and 22 deg C) died during the early stages. High temperatures stimulated testis development, and disturbedovary development. Exposure to high temperatures resulted in the early metamorphosis of tadpoles with reduced body size.These results demonstrated that high temperatures influence gonadal development differently in male and female tadpoles,leading to male-biased sex ratio. These results suggest that high temperature probably acts through stress hormones andfavours the small-sized sex.
Mascarin, G M; Dunlap, C A; Barrigossi, J A F; Quintela, E D; de Noronha, N C
We report the first occurrence of an epizootic of the ascomycete fungus, Isaria tenuipes (teleomorph Cordyceps takaomontana), on the ocola skipper Panoquina ocola (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), an insect pest affecting rice in Brazil. Field surveys in flooded rice fields in the state of Goiás in Brazil were conducted, and a fungal pathogen of a caterpillar pest (P. ocola) was serendipitously found. This fungus inflicted high infection levels (average 86·2%) mainly to the pupal stage during warm, humid growing conditions. Typically, mycosed pupal cadavers produced milky-white to pale yellow synnemata bearing an average of 1·1 ± 0·2 × 10(9) conidia per cadaver. Based on phylogenetic analysis using beta-tubulin gene sequences, we confirmed that all 12 isolates obtained from field-mummified pupae were identifiable as I. tenuipes. Our data expand our knowledge on the host and geographical ranges of this mycopathogen and underscore its epizootic potential to affect a lepidopterous insect pest on rice in Brazil. This finding may facilitate the exploitation of this fungus as a mycoinsecticide. Isaria tenuipes may be used as an effective and environmentally friendly bioinsecticide against agricultural caterpillar pests due to its epizootic potential, as well as explored for medicinal purposes by pharmaceutical industry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Jong, de R.
The name Papilio fritillarius Poda, 1761, is shown to be a nomen dubium. It has caused much confusion and has been applied to five or six different species since the first publication and to three different species in the last 40 years. To put an end to the confusion a neotype is designated. For the
Koch, Christian; Haugen, Tore
The paper presents an ongoing evaluation of a national R&D program for ICT in architecture, engineering and construction industries (AEC), its mechanisms, its process and preliminary results. Such ICT-programs can focus on standards for implementation of configurations of generic software packages......, rather that development of new software or design methods. However the coordination of a multi vehicle national program becomes a major issue and embedding in the institutions of the sector crucially important. Although the program is still on its way, the final public orders law-regulating the sector...... are by july 2006 present as detailed drafts, which just passed a public hearing and are to be issued by the 1th of January 2007. The size of the program compared to research resources is a “poor fit”, but there is still room for national ICT- programs if a sector has a joint development agenda....
Full Text Available This story by Valentin Kachev, a Bulgarian writer, is for the first years of the astronomical observatory in Belogradchik. Then high school students were involved in recording the trajectories of the first artificial satellites of Earth. This information is transmitted by radio to the Soviet Space Center “Kosmos” in Moscow.
... Rose Pioneer Elementary School, 7110 Milford Road; and (5) Berlin, Wisconsin, on November 14, 2013, at...), strict blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium montanum), common goldstar (Hypoxis hirsuta), and black-eyed Susan... percent) composed primarily of leadplant, with prairie rose (Rosa arkansana), wormwood sage, or...
loaded with the whole parachute regiment. Some troopers jumped to check the timing. The pilots were already familiar with the details of the objective...after the aircraft reaches the ground. In airdrop, troops are moved by air transport and landed by means of parachutes . 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16...moved by air transport and landed by means of parachutes . The author assesses how the convergence of opportunity, capability, and conditions enabled
Chronic stress and over-activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may link breakfast skipping and poor cardiometabolic health. Missing the first major meal of the day in rodents prolongs elevated circulating corticosterone at a time when it’s normally decreasing. To extend these fi...
Marchal, P.; Andersen, B.; Bromley, E.H.C.; Iriondo, A.; Mahevas, S.; Quirijns, F.J.; Tien, N.S.H.
The scope of this paper is to quantify, for a wide selection of European fisheries, fishing tactics and strategies and to evaluate the benefits of adjusting the definition of. fishing effort using these elements. Fishing tactics and strategies were identified by metiers choices and a series of
Marchal, P.; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Bromley, D.
The scope of this paper is to quantify, for a wide selection of European fisheries, fishing tactics and strategies and to evaluate the benefits of adjusting the definition of. fishing effort using these elements. Fishing tactics and strategies were identified by metiers choices and a series of in...
Full Text Available This article recalls the part lieutenant-commander D.A. "Stoker" Hall, one of the South African naval heroes of World War II, and his last command, the fregate Natal, has played in the Battle of the Atlantic. Natal was one of the two South African warships that sank enemy submarines - and Lt Cmdr Hall was the only South African Naval Commander to destroy a German U-boat.
Steinhauser, Stephen R.
Six new species of Mexican Hesperiidae, three Pyrginae, Bolla solitaria, B. fenestra and Zobera oaxaquena, from the state of Oaxaca, and three Heteropterinae, Piruna jonka and Dalla kemneri, also from Oaxaca, and Piruna millerorum from the state of Sinaloa, are described.
Tiffenberg, Javier [Fermilab; Sofo-Haro, Miguel [Balseiro Inst., San Carlos de Bariloche; Drlica-Wagner, Alex [Fermilab; Essig, Rouven [YITP, Stony Brook; Guardincerri, Yann [Fermilab; Holland, Steve [LBL, Berkeley; Volansky, Tomer [Tel Aviv U.; Yu, Tien-Tien [CERN
We have developed a non-destructive readout system that uses a floating-gate amplifier on a thick, fully depleted charge coupled device (CCD) to achieve ultra-low readout noise of 0.068 e- rms/pix. This is the first time that discrete sub-electron readout noise has been achieved reproducibly over millions of pixels on a stable, large-area detector. This allows the precise counting of the number of electrons in each pixel, ranging from pixels with 0 electrons to more than 1500 electrons. The resulting CCD detector is thus an ultra-sensitive calorimeter. It is also capable of counting single photons in the optical and near-infrared regime. Implementing this innovative non-destructive readout system has a negligible impact on CCD design and fabrication, and there are nearly immediate scientific applications. As a particle detector, this CCD will have unprecedented sensitivity to low-mass dark matter particles and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, while astronomical applications include future direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets.
Balletto, Emilio; Cassulo, Luigi A; Bonelli, Simona
We present here an updated checklist of the Italian butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) organised in the following sections (tables):1. Introduction, providing a broad outline of the paper.2. Checklist proper, summarised in a table, listing, in separate columns:a. Indications of endemicity (sub-endemic, Italian endemic).b. The relevant Annex in the Habitats Directive (legally protected species).c. Threat levels (in Europe: for threatened species only).d. A serial number (whose format is uniform across all Italian animal groups). This number runs throughout all the following tables (see 3, 4).e. Name, author, date of publication.f. Schematic overall indication of each specie's Italian range (N[orth], S[outh], Si[icily], Sa[rdinia]).3. Nomenclature, containing basic nomenclatural details for all listed genera, species and some of the generally or historically recognised subspecies and synonyms.4. Notes, where a variety of other information is provided, on a name by name (family, subfamily, genus, species, subspecies) basis. All remaining doubts as concerns each individual case are clearly stated. The number of nominal species listed in the previous edition of this checklist, published almost 20 years ago, was 275, whereas it has raised to 290 in the current list. The status of about a dozen of these remains controversial, as discussed in the text. The present checklist is meant to provide an update of the Italian butterfly fauna, taking into account all relevant publications, and tries to explain all nomenclatural changes that had to be introduced, in the appropriate section. Many detailed comments are offered, when necessary or useful, in the notes.
SWAPNIL C SUPEKAR; NARAHARI P GRAMAPUROHIT
In this study, we used larval Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis to determine the predator recognition mechanism. We conducted aseries of experiments to determine if larval E. cyanophlyctis have the innate ability to recognise predatory odour (kairomones)as a threat or if they learn to do so during ontogeny. In the case of learning, we wanted to determine thedevelopmental window during which learning is accomplished. Further, we tested the antipredator response of predatornaı ¨ve as well as predator-experienced tadpoles to chemical cues of different origins in order to assess if they exhibitdifferential responses. Our results clearly indicate that predator-naı¨ve tadpoles of E. cyanophlyctis do not reduce theiractivity against predatory cues of dragonfly nymphs, suggesting that they lack the innate ability to recognise kairomones.However, they could learn to do so when trained to perceive kairomones simultaneously along with alarm cues. Surprisingly,larval E. cyanophlyctis could learn to recognise kairomones through association during embryonic stages evenbefore the development of a nervous system. Although larval E. cyanophlyctis lack the innate ability to recognise kairomones,they were able to recognise conspecific alarm cues on the first encounter, indicating that they have the innateability to recognise alarm cues as a potential threat.
Gronostaj, Anna; Werner, Elise; Bochow, Eric; Vock, Miriam
Skipping a grade, one specific form of acceleration, is an intervention used for gifted students. Quantitative research has shown acceleration to be a highly successful intervention regarding academic achievement, but less is known about the social-emotional outcomes of grade-skipping. In the present study, the authors used the grounded theory…
Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell’Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik
Abstract Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007–2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal. PMID:27408571
Moraes, Alice R.; Greeney, Harold F.; Oliveira, Paulo S; Barbosa, Eduardo P.; André V L Freitas
The Neotropical genus Urbanus (Hbner) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) contains around 34 described species, and is widely distributed from the extreme southern United States to Argentina. Here, we describe the larval morphology and behavior of Urbanus esmeraldus (Hbner)(Hesperiidae) in Urera baccifera (Urticaceae), a plant producing food rewards and fleshy fruits that attract ants (including predacious species) in a Brazilian forest. Larvae pass through five instars and construct two kinds of leaf...
Moraes, Alice R; Greeney, Harold F; Oliveira, Paulo S; Barbosa, Eduardo P; Freitas, André V L
The Neotropical genus Urbanus (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) contains around 34 described species, and is widely distributed from the extreme southern United States to Argentina. Here, we describe the larval morphology and behavior of Urbanus esmeraldus (Hübner)(Hesperiidae) in Urera baccifera (Urticaceae), a plant producing food rewards and fleshy fruits that attract ants (including predacious species) in a Brazilian forest. Larvae pass through five instars and construct two kinds of leaf shelters. Experiments with ejected fecal pellets showed that these can serve as cues to ground-dwelling ants that climb onto host plants and potentially attack the larvae. Manipulation with pellets placed at different distances suggests that ejection behavior decreases larval vulnerability to ant predation. Larval preference for mature leaves may be related with increased predation risk at ant-visited young leaves. The study shows that a combination of natural history and experimental data can help understand the life history of a butterfly using a plant with high predation risk.
Moraes, Alice R.; Greeney, Harold F.; Oliveira, Paulo S.; Barbosa, Eduardo P.; Freitas, André V.L.
The Neotropical genus Urbanus (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) contains around 34 described species, and is widely distributed from the extreme southern United States to Argentina. Here, we describe the larval morphology and behavior of Urbanus esmeraldus (Hübner)(Hesperiidae) in Urera baccifera (Urticaceae), a plant producing food rewards and fleshy fruits that attract ants (including predacious species) in a Brazilian forest. Larvae pass through five instars and construct two kinds of leaf shelters. Experiments with ejected fecal pellets showed that these can serve as cues to ground—dwelling ants that climb onto host plants and potentially attack the larvae. Manipulation with pellets placed at different distances suggests that ejection behavior decreases larval vulnerability to ant predation. Larval preference for mature leaves may be related with increased predation risk at ant—visited young leaves. The study shows that a combination of natural history and experimental data can help understand the life history of a butterfly using a plant with high predation risk. PMID:22953699
establish ELISA and multiplex immunoassays using samples of serum which are less than 1 year old. The ELISA will focus on FABP5. The multiplex immunoassay ...prostate as “suspicious” for prostate cancer and molecular prostate cancer field effects. September 2015 16. Book Chapter in Press Burke HB , Grizzle WE...Burke HB , Grizzle WE. Clinical Validation ofMolecular Biomarkers in Translational Medicine in Biomarkers in Cancer Screening and Early Detection, Sudhir
... marmorata affinus), western toad (Bufo boreas), mardon skipper (Polites mardon), Puget blue butterfly... curtus), rose checker mallow (Sidalcea malviflora virgata), small-flowered trillium (Trillium...
Acad. Sci. U.SA. 97, 12278–12282. Zinn, K.R., Buchsbaum, D.J., Chaudhuri, T.R., Mountz, J.M., Grizzle, W.E., Rogers , B.E., 2000. Noninvasive...K.R., Chaudhuri, T.R., Krasnykh, V.N., Buchsbaum, D.J., Belousova, N., Grizzle, W.E., Curiel, D.T., Rogers , B.E., 2002. Gamma Camera Dual Imaging With...incorporation of polypeptide ligands into the fiber protein. J Virol 2002; 76: 8621–8631. 62 Chartier C, Degryse E, Gantzer M, Dieterle A, Pavirani A
... millimeters; less than 1 inch), tawny-orange butterfly with a stout, hairy body. The upper surface of the... distinctive morphological features (MacNeill 1993, p. 179). Like most Hesperiinae butterflies, mardon skippers... Description The mardon skipper is a butterfly in the Order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), superfamily...
... Bay skipper as an endangered species. Species Information The Bay skipper, a small butterfly, was... base to the margin (Shuey 1989, p. 165; Vaughan and Shepherd 2005, pp. 1-2; Butterflies and Moths of... (Karl et al. 2009, pp. 5-6). Researchers studying butterfly community response to hurricane and tropical...
2] 0. Hernandez-Lerma and S.I. Marcus, "Identification and Approximation of Queueing Systems," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , Vol. AC-29...of Systems Possessing r" Symmetries," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , Vol. AC-29, November 1984, pp. 1037-1040.  J.W. Grizzle and S.I
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report on a project to determine the status and current range of the Dakota skipper (Hesperia dacotae) and Poweshiek skipperling (Oarisma poweshiek) within...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The main goal of this study was to conduct inventories of butterflies and skippers on a number of prairie and wetland sites in North Dakota and determine the...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BLUE DOLPHIN... of the vessel BLUE DOLPHIN is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Skippered daysailing in...
... 1989; Vaughan and Shepherd 2005; Butterflies and Moths of North America (BMNA) 2009). The Bay skipper... wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate wildlife (e.g., birds, reptiles, amphibians, other...
mission; the Tower currently is used for military and civilian radio communication which can be mounted in other more cost effective locations on the...fishing, swimming, camping, hiking, rock climbing , hunting, archery, boating, cross-country skiing, ice fishing, ice skating, sledding, and snowmobiling...Butterflies and Skippers Appalachian brown Satyrodes appalachia - - S1? Delaware skipper Atrytone logan - - S3S4 Mulberry wing Poanes massasoit
Today, the services sector accounts for over 70 per cent of employment and activity in OECD countries (OECD, 2009) with the Economic and Social Research Institute of Ireland (2010) reporting that almost two-thirds of the Irish workforce is employed directly in the services sector. Within service industries, service workers are central to the service delivery and their performance, inextricably linked to the performance of the service organisation (Grizzle et al., 2009). Prior research has dem...
robot force control,” Robotica , vol. 15, no. 05, pp. 473–482, 1997.  N. Jarrassé, J. Paik, V. Pasqui, and G. Morel, “How can human motion prediction...2009.  C.-L. Shih, J.W. Grizzle, and C. Chevallereau, “From Stable Walking to Steering of a 3D Bipedal Robot with Passive Point Feet,” Robotica
Qvist Eliasen, Søren; Mortensen, Lars O.; Ulrich, Clara
In the Minidisc project 14 vessels fished under conditions corresponding to free choose of gear. Based on the skippers initial idea of gear adjustment and a subsequent interview 6 months later the experiences of the skippers´ choice of “free” gear, the process for adjusting it and the tools...... for evaluating the efficiency and selectivity are discussed. Only incremental development using elements from previous used gear and other fisheries were found. Gear development took place in an interaction between the skipper and trawl maker, while no research was involved. This indicates that free choice...... of gear (under monitored discard ban) would lead to incremental adjustments. Parts of the fleet would have difficulties in evaluating the gear and subsequently optimise by adjusting. This would leave a need for support for development of evaluation procedures, especially among the small vessels. Radical...
Most diesel engines will develop a problem at some point in their lives, but armed with the right knowledge a skipper needn't worry. The Reeds Diesel Engine Troubleshooting Handbook is a compact, pocket-sized guide to finding solutions to all of the most common engine problems, and many of the less common ones too. The perfect format for quick reference on board, this book will help skippers fix troublesome engines themselves, avoiding costly engineer fees if the problem is simple to sort out, or enabling an emergency patch-up for a more serious problem until they can get back to port. Each to
Pons Forn, Ariadna
It has been observed that up to 23 different model were racing the IOM worlds in 2014. These means that skippers has a broad range of designs when buying a new boat. This project aims to analyse different hull shapes of International One Metre Class in order to have the necessary technical information to know how the hull shapes affect the seakeeping and boat performance. Every year the number of skippers and design keep increasing (2825 last year), therefore understanding how an IOM boat per...
East Vivant (Facility No. 9216) Jade East (Facility No. 6117) Skippers II (Facility No. 6104) Lady Irene (Facility No. 9204) Pete’s Pride (Facility No...fiberglass 25 x 8.2 x 6 Vivant Albin 27 trawler fiberglass 27 x 10 x 9 R/V Oceaneer Long Line trawler fiberglass 34 x 13 x 7.5 Jade East Sail Cutter...Too III 5:1 = CG 252501 6 = Vivant 7 = Oceaneer 8 = Jade East 9 = Skippers U 10 = Lady Irene 11 = Pete’s Pride 12 =CG 41341 2. AN/APS-131 Side Looking
G, Plotnikov A, Tzimas C, Yang N, Rui H, Fuchs SY. Prolactin inhibits activity of pyruvate kinase M2 to stimulate cell proliferation. Mol Endocrinol. 2010 Dec;24(12):2356-65. Epub 2010 Oct 20. ...REPORTABLE OUTCOMES 1. Floryk D, Kurosaka S, Tanimoto R , Yang G, Goltsov A, Park S, Thompson TC. Castration- induced changes in mouse...migration and invasion. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Dec 15;10(24):8743-50. 5. Johnson-Holiday C, Singh R , Johnson E, Singh S, Stockard CR, Grizzle WE, Lillard
The traditional images of the French Army in World War I on the WesternFront from Cyril Falls’s to Marc Ferro’s surveys (both entitled The Great War 1914–1918) have been that of the grizzled yet determined French peasant or worker – thepoilu. It is clear from recent research that this is far from accurate and that theFrench forces were far more heterogeneous than portrayed by previous images.1Men were called from all over the French empire to serve in the frontline and inlogistics units. Virt...
... Basin Butterflies as Endangered or Threatened Species; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77... Petition To List Four Subspecies of Great Basin Butterflies as Endangered or Threatened Species AGENCY... of Great Basin butterflies (White River Valley skipper (Hesperia uncas grandiosa), Steptoe Valley...
This teacher's guide accompanies a series of telelessons designed to stimulate arts activities in grades 2 and 3. It follows a story line established in "Strawberry Square" which centers around the revitilization of Strawberry Square by Skipper, the owner of the Tune Shoppe in the square. Each of the 15 lessons has four sections, which contain a…
34Marine Corps Lessons Learned System," #00443- 81346 , 7 September 1989. 151 Charles O. Skipper, Col, USMC, "Can We Fuel OMFTS?," Gazette, January...html, 16 November 1996, Burkett, LtCol, USMC, "Marine Corps Lessons Learned System," #00443- 81346 , 7 September 1989. Brown, Neville
Grütters, G; Reichelt, J A; Ritz-Timme, S; Thome, M; Kaatsch, H J
So far in Germany, no legally binding standards for blood alcohol concentration exist that prove an impairment of navigability. The aim of our interdisciplinary project was to obtain data in order to identify critical blood alcohol limits. In this context the visual system seems to be of decisive importance. 21 professional skippers underwent realistic navigational demands soberly and alcoholized in a sea traffic simulator. The following parameters were considered: visual acuity, stereopsis, color vision, and accommodation. Under the influence of alcohol (average blood alcohol concentration: 1.08 per thousand ) each skipper considered himself to be completely capable of navigating. While simulations were running, all of the skippers made nautical mistakes or underestimated dangerous situations. Severe impairment in visual acuity or binocular function were not observed. Accommodation decreased by an average of 18% ( p=0.0001). In the test of color vision skippers made more mistakes ( p=0.017) and the time needed for this test was prolonged ( p=0.004). Changes in visual function as well as vegetative and psychological reactions could be the cause of mistakes and alcohol should therefore be regarded as a severe risk factor for security in sea navigation.
The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. NHANES 1999-2006
The goal of this study was to examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight /obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. Three breakfast groups were identified (breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat-cereal ...
General Introduction The reefs surrounding the Houtman Abrolhos in Western Australia were a notorious hazard to shipping in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (fig. 1). The Dutch East India Company (VOC) made sure to mark this island group on its maps and skippers had strict instructions to a
Full Text Available ansposon Skipper, partial genomic sequence, 3' end. 222 1e-53 1 K03065 |K03065.1 Slime mold (D.discoideum) mRNA complementary...K03063 |K03063.1 Slime mold (D.discoideum) mRNA complementary to left inverted terminal repeat of transposon
Full Text Available Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2–16 years; n = 4487 to identify (a breakfast skippers and (b breakfast consumers, with breakfast consumers further sub-divided into (i non-cereal and (ii cereal consumers. Only 4% skipped breakfast and 59% of skippers were 14–16 years. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher intakes of calcium and folate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat than breakfast skippers. Cereal consumers were more likely to meet targets and consume significantly higher fibre, calcium, iron, had significantly higher intakes of folate, total sugars and carbohydrate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat and sodium than non-cereal consumers. The prevalence of overweight was lower among breakfast consumers compared to skippers, and among cereal consumers compared to-cereal consumers (p < 0.001, while no significant differences were observed for mean body mass index (BMI, BMI z-score, waist circumference and physical activity level across the categories. Breakfast and particularly breakfast cereal consumption contributes important nutrients to children’s diets.
Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Kim, Jean; Sritharan, Nilani; Petocz, Peter
Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal) on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2-16 years; n = 4487) to identify (a) breakfast skippers and (b) breakfast consumers, with breakfast consumers further sub-divided into (i) non-cereal and (ii) cereal consumers. Only 4% skipped breakfast and 59% of skippers were 14-16 years. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher intakes of calcium and folate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat than breakfast skippers. Cereal consumers were more likely to meet targets and consume significantly higher fibre, calcium, iron, had significantly higher intakes of folate, total sugars and carbohydrate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat and sodium than non-cereal consumers. The prevalence of overweight was lower among breakfast consumers compared to skippers, and among cereal consumers compared to-cereal consumers (p Breakfast and particularly breakfast cereal consumption contributes important nutrients to children's diets.
Shaw, Mary E.
Reports on the findings of an Australian survey of adolescents concerning the extent of skipping breakfast. Finds that skippers are more likely to be dissatisfied with their body shape and to be on a diet to lose weight. Findings suggest that skipping breakfast is a matter of individual choice rather than a result of poverty. (Author/GCP)
Full Text Available This qualitative descriptive research aimed to describe in detail the meaning of the values of religion and expression of women's resignation batik workers in the struggle of the production process, and the factors that influence it. Research was taken place in Pekalongan city and data obtained through observation, interviews, and literary studies. The results showed that deep belief in God is the foundation of understanding of the value of religion in the world of work as well when they interact with the skipper and other workers. The expression of resignation is seen almost in all stages from raw material procurement, production to marketing. Surrender women sanggan also evident in labor relations and outside the employment relationship, which is due to the fact that the religious elite is skipper and social conditions of patriarchal religious culture.
Butterflies and Skippers On site SAR Georgia leadplant Amorpha georgiana georgiana Vascular plant On site UR Sandhills milk-vetch Astragulus... butterfly Neonymphamitchellii francisci Insect On site E Cape Fear spatterdock Nuphar lutea sagittifolia Vascular plant On site UR Bachmann’s sparrow...Name Taxonomic Group On Site/Contiguous Status Streaked Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris strigata Bird On site T Taylor’s checkerspot butterfly
Back Home Chinese skipper Zhan Qixiong (right, front) is welcomed by family members after arriving in Fuzhou, capital of southeast China’s Fujian Province, on September 25 aboard a chartered plane. Zhan had been illegally detained by Japan since September 8 after his trawler and two Japan Coast Guard patrol ships collided in waters off China’s Diaoyu Islands the preced- ing day.
L., Sinks, T., and Walton, B. T. (1998) The U.S. Federal Framework for Research on Endocrine Disruptors and an Analysis of Research Programs...Supported During Fiscal Year 1996. Environ. Health Persp. 106, 105-113. 19 2. Crews D., Willingham E., and Skipper J. K. (2000) Endocrine Disruptors ...Identifying Novel Endocrine -Disrupting Chemicals PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laurel J. Standley, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION
Naval and Coast Guard operations, exemplified in the October 2005 Elektron incident. During an inspection by the Coast Guard, the skipper of a...Russian trawler, Elektron , decided to run for Russian territorial waters with two inspectors still on board. According to Rear Admiral Grytting, only bad...weather prevented the use of force to stop the vessel.83 The inspectors were released when Elektron eventually reached Russian territorial waters
deployment type and dates, age, gender, years of service, commissioning source, current rank, and marital status. 0212312011-SitippP.r/ Kinder 133...Please email the completed form or any questions you may have to HumanSubiects@afit.edu IRB Coordinator: Lori Ann Kinder , x4543, Lori.Kinder.ctr...afit.edu 0212312011-Skipper/ Kinder 134 Appendix B. Logistics Regression Tables of Results Model 1: Operations Model 1: Support Exp(B
Lin, Fang Ju
Fang Ju Lin1, Michael M Pierce1, Amita Sehgal2, Tianyi Wu1, Daniel C Skipper1, Radhika Chabba11Department of Biology, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, SC, USA; 2Department of Neuroscience, HHMI at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Caffeine and taurine are two major neuromodulators present in large quantities in many popular energy drinks. We investigated their effects on sleep–wake control in constant darkness using the fruit fly Drosophila as a model sy...
Austin,George T; Warren, Andrew D.
Thirteen species of skippers (six newly described; Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae: Hesperiini) from higher elevations of Mexico and Central America are reviewed. These are included in four genera (one newly described), some with proposed new combinations. Onespa Steinhauser, 1974, originally described as monotypic, is shown to include three species in addition to its type species, Onespa nubis Steinhauser, 1974. One of these, Atrytone gala Godman, 1900, that has been misplaced in sever...
ТИМЧЕНКО Виктор Леонидович
Full Text Available Based multifunctional anemometer system, block modeling of sea waves and a system of sensors (inclinometers developed an automated system that allows to forecast parameters of rolling small vessel on a given interval of pre-emption, whereby the skipper receives information on the projected values of the roll angles, which will reduce the level of accidents operating small vessels in adverse weather conditions.
Heist, Stefan; Lutzke, Peter; Schmidt, Ingo; Dietrich, Patrick; Kühmstedt, Peter; Tünnermann, Andreas; Notni, Gunther
A projector which uses a rotating slide structure to project aperiodic sinusoidal fringe patterns at high frame rates and with high radiant flux is introduced. It is used in an optical three-dimensional (3D) sensor based on coded-light projection, thus allowing the analysis of fast processes. Measurements of an inflating airbag, a rope skipper, and a soccer ball kick at a 3D frame rate of more than 1300 independent point clouds per second are presented.
used for military and civilian radio communication which can be mounted in other more cost effective locations on the base. Building 130 (former waste...recreational opportunities are available at NBAFS, including nature watching, fishing, swimming, camping, hiking, rock climbing , hunting, archery...appalachia - - S1? Delaware skipper Atrytone logan - - S3S4 Mulberry wing Poanes massasoit - - S1S3 Little glassywing Pompeius verna - - SU Reptiles
Flavia Fayet-Moore; Jean Kim; Nilani Sritharan; Peter Petocz
Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal) on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2–16 years; n = 4487) to identify (a) breakfast skippers and (b) breakfast consumers, with br...
van Buul, P P; Tuinenburg-Bolraap, A; Searle, A G; Natarajan, A T
In order to identify radiosensitive mutations in mice, 26 genetically well defined mutations in 26 different combinations of homozygous, hemizygous or heterozygous conditions, together with normal mice and mutagen-sensitive MS/Ae mice were analysed for the induction of micronuclei by X-rays in bone-marrow cells. For each mutant two doses of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy, two sampling times of 18 and 27 h after irradiation and unirradiated controls were studied. Using our criteria, homozygous contrasted allele of steel (Slcon), scabby (scb), viable dominant spotting (Wv), quaking (qk), fidget (fi) and postaxial hemimelia (px), heterozygous lurcher (Lc), hemizygous gyro (Gy), the compounds Slcon/grizzle-belly (SlgbH) and Wv/rump-white (Rw) and MS/Ae mice, were regarded as radiosensitive, with Slcon/Slcon the highest in rank order. Homozygous wabbler-lethal (wl) and wasted (wst) showed hyposensitivity which for the latter may be connected with enhanced cell killing.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to detect holiday habits of officers, their motivation of going to holiday, factors effecting them to decide The research was applied on 119 civil servants working in general headquarters of TEDAŞ in Ankara by using questionnaire technique. Frequency table, Mann-Whitney U and chi-square test were used for the analysis of data. As a result of the research, it is detected that half of them spend their holidays by participating in tourism facilities; spend their free times by reading, doing sports, doing grizzle walks and having picnic; spend their holidays in resorts and hometowns; generally have holidays once a year; give the decision of holiday together with family and make their reservations directly or via travel agencies.
During the last 30 years, many chemical compounds that are active against tumors have been discovered or developed. At the same time, new methods of testing drugs for cancer therapy have evolved. nefore 1964, drug testing on animal tumors was directed to observation of the incfease in life span of the host after a single dose. A new approach, in which the effects of multiple doses on the proliferation kinetics of the tumor in vivo as well as of cell lines in vitro are investigated, has been outlined by Skipper and his co-workers in a series of papers beginning in 1964 (Skipper, Schabel and Wilcox, 1964 and 1965). They also investigated the influence of the time schedule in the treatment of experimental tumors. Since the publication of those studies, cell population kinetics cannot be left out of any discussion of the rational basis of chemotherapy. When clinical oncologists began to apply cell kinetic concepts in practice about 15 years ago, the theoretical basis was still very poor, in spite of Skipper's pro...
Dreger, Dayna L; Schmutz, Sheila M
Melanocortin 1 Receptor (MC1R) has been studied in a wide variety of domestic animals (Klungland et al. 1995; Marklund et al. 1996; Våge et al. 1997; Kijas et al. 1998; Newton et al. 2000; Våge et al. 2003), and also several wild animals (Robbins et al. 1993; Ritland et al. 2001; Eizirik et al. 2003; Nachman et al. 2003; McRobie et al. 2009) in relation to coat color variation. A variety of phenotypic changes have been reported including coat colors from pure black to pure red, as well as some phenotypes with hairs with red and black bands. One phenotype, called grizzle in Salukis and domino in Afghan Hounds, appears to be unique to these 2 old dog breeds. This pattern is characterized by a pale face with a widow's peak above the eyes. The body hairs on the dorsal surface of Salukis and Afghan Hounds have both phaeomelanin and eumelanin portions, even though they had an a(t)/a(t) genotype at ASIP. In addition, all had at least one copy of a newly identified mutation in MC1R, g.233G>T, resulting in p.Gly78Val. This new allele, that we suggest be designated as E(G), is dominant to the E and e (p.Arg306ter) alleles at MC1R but recessive to the E(M) (p.Met264Val) allele. The K(B) allele (p.Gly23del) at DEFB103 and the a(y) allele (p.Ala82Ser and p.Arg83His) of ASIP are epistatic to grizzle and domino.
El Hamid Hussein, Rania Abd
Breakfast skipping is prevalent among adolescents and young women, and deprives the body of important nutrients. This study was conducted to assess the correlation between breakfast eating and sociodemographic and lifestyle criteria. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a convenient sample of 400 female students selected from the female sector of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Home breakfast habit and other lifestyle characteristics were studied using a standardized questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between home breakfast habit and different predictors. Home breakfast skippers constituted 71.75% of the whole sample. Breakfast eaters had a significantly higher BMI compared with breakfast skippers (22.66±4.88 vs. 21.58±4.09 in home breakfast skippers; P=0.025). Irrespective of other sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, fathers' education lower than university level negatively predicted home breakfast eating [Exp B=0.40, confidence interval (CI)=0.21-0.77], and being employed positively predicted breakfast eating (Exp B=2.31, CI=1.04-5.15). Likewise, consuming less amount of junk food and fewer soft drinks (Exp B=2.57, CI=1.54-4.28, and Exp B=2.59, CI=1.39-4.81, respectively) and consuming more milk and dairy products (Exp B=1.91, CI=1.16-3.15) correlated positively with home breakfast eating. Breakfast skipping was prevalent among adolescents and young women in the studied sample. Unhealthy dietary habits, father's education lower than university level, and father being unemployed positively predicted breakfast skipping of daughters at home. This implies that breakfast eating can be encouraged by approaching parents in addition to their daughters.
Afeiche, Myriam C; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Hopkins, Sinead; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M
Background: Mexico has experienced shifts in food availability and consumption patterns over the past few decades from traditional diets to those containing more high-energy density foods, resulting in the development of unhealthful dietary patterns among children and adults. However, to our knowledge it is not known whether breakfast consumption patterns contribute to the overall daily diet of Mexican children.Objective: We examined total-day diet among breakfast consumers compared with breakfast skippers, identified and investigated breakfast dietary patterns in relation to energy and nutrient intakes at breakfast and across the day, and examined these patterns in relation to sociodemographic characteristics.Methods: With the use of nationally representative dietary data (one 24-h recall) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, 3760 children aged 4-13 y were categorized into mutually exclusive breakfast patterns with the use of cluster analysis. The association between breakfast patterns and breakfast skippers with dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day was investigated with the use of multivariate linear regression.Results: Most children (83%) consumed breakfast. Six breakfast dietary patterns were identified (milk and sweetened breads, tortillas and beans, sweetened beverages, sandwiches and quesadillas, eggs, and cereal and milk) and reflected both traditional and more Westernized dietary patterns. Sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed across all patterns. Compared with all breakfast dietary patterns, breakfast skippers had the lowest intake of several nutrients of public health concern. Nutrients to limit that were high at breakfast tended to be high for the total day and vice versa for nutrients to encourage.Conclusions: There was not a single pattern that complied perfectly with the Mexican School Breakfast Guidelines, but changes such as increasing dietary fiber by encouraging more whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and
The boat 'Mic Mac' and its CERN's all-woman crew (left to right), Christine Theurillat, Ursula Haenger , Paola Catapano, Petra Riedler, and skipper Cristina Morone. Spectacular highlight of the Lake Leman sailing calendar is the annual Bol d'Or race. Held this year on 16 and 17 June, the event attracted nearly 500 teams who competed under extreme weather conditions for the honours. Among the competitors was an all-woman crew from the CERN Yachting Club, sailing their Surprise boat, Mic Mac. The team was not only among the 397 boats to finish, but also the first all-woman crewed single hull boat to cross the line.
Allen, Simon J; Tyne, Julian A; Kobryn, Halina T; Bejder, Lars; Pollock, Kenneth H; Loneragan, Neil R
The bycatch of small cetaceans in commercial fisheries is a global wildlife management problem. We used data from skippers' logbooks and independent observers to assess common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) bycatch patterns between 2003 and 2009 in the Pilbara Trawl Fishery, Western Australia. Both datasets indicated that dolphins were caught in all fishery areas, across all depths and throughout the year. Over the entire datasets, observer reported bycatch rates (n = 52 dolphins in 4,124 trawls, or 12.6 dolphins/1,000 trawls) were ca. double those reported by skippers (n = 180 dolphins in 27,904 trawls, or 6.5 dolphins/1,000 trawls). Generalised Linear Models based on observer data, which better explained the variation in dolphin bycatch, indicated that the most significant predictors of dolphin catch were: (1) vessel--one trawl vessel caught significantly more dolphins than three others assessed; (2) time of day--the lowest dolphin bycatch rates were between 00:00 and 05:59; and (3) whether nets included bycatch reduction devices (BRDs)--the rate was reduced by ca. 45%, from 18.8 to 10.3 dolphins/1,000 trawls, after their introduction. These results indicated that differences among vessels (or skippers' trawling techniques) and dolphin behavior (a diurnal pattern) influenced the rates of dolphin capture; and that spatial or seasonal adjustments to trawling effort would be unlikely to significantly reduce dolphin bycatch. Recent skipper's logbook data show that dolphin bycatch rates have not declined since those reported in 2006, when BRDs were introduced across the fishery. Modified BRDs, with top-opening escape hatches from which dolphins might escape to the surface, may be a more effective means of further reducing dolphin bycatch. The vulnerability of this dolphin population to trawling-related mortality cannot be assessed in the absence of an ongoing observer program and without information on trawler-associated dolphin community size
Fourcade, Yoan; Ranius, Thomas; Öckinger, Erik
Prediction of species distributions in an altered climate requires knowledge on how global- and local-scale factors interact to limit their current distributions. Such knowledge can be gained through studies of spatial population dynamics at climatic range margins. Here, using a butterfly (Pyrgus armoricanus) as model species, we first predicted based on species distribution modelling that its climatically suitable habitats currently extend north of its realized range. Projecting the model into scenarios of future climate, we showed that the distribution of climatically suitable habitats may shift northward by an additional 400 km in the future. Second, we used a 13-year monitoring dataset including the majority of all habitat patches at the species northern range margin to assess the synergetic impact of temperature fluctuations and spatial distribution of habitat, microclimatic conditions and habitat quality, on abundance and colonization-extinction dynamics. The fluctuation in abundance between years was almost entirely determined by the variation in temperature during the species larval development. In contrast, colonization and extinction dynamics were better explained by patch area, between-patch connectivity and host plant density. This suggests that the response of the species to future climate change may be limited by future land use and how its host plants respond to climate change. It is, thus, probable that dispersal limitation will prevent P. armoricanus from reaching its potential future distribution. We argue that models of range dynamics should consider the factors influencing metapopulation dynamics, especially at the range edges, and not only broad-scale climate. It includes factors acting at the scale of habitat patches such as habitat quality and microclimate and landscape-scale factors such as the spatial configuration of potentially suitable patches. Knowledge of population dynamics under various environmental conditions, and the
Brooks, Stephen J; Self, Angela; Toloni, Flavia; Sparks, Tim
Museum collections have the potential to provide valuable information on the phenological response of organisms to climate change. This is particularly useful for those species for which few data otherwise exist, but also to extend time series to the period before other observational data are available. To test this potential, we analysed data from 2,630 specimens of four species of British butterflies (Anthocharis cardamines, Hamearis lucina, Polyommatus bellargus and Pyrgus malvae), collected from 1876 to 1999 and stored in the Natural History Museum, London, UK (NHM). In A. cardamines, first-generation P. bellargus and P. malvae, we found that there was a strong significant negative relationship between spring temperature and 10th percentile collection dates, which approximates mean first appearance date, and median collection date, which approximates mean flight date. In all four species, there was a significant negative relationship between the 10th percentile collection date and the length of the collection period, which approximates flight period. In second-generation P. bellargus, these phenological measurements were correlated with summer temperature. We found that the rates of phenological response to temperature, based on NHM data, were similar to, or somewhat greater than, those reported for other organisms based on observational data covering the last 40 years. The lower rate of phenological response, and the significant influence of February rather than March or April temperatures, in recent decades compared with data from earlier in the twentieth century may indicate that early emerging British butterfly species are currently approaching the limits of phenological advancement in response to recent climate warming.
Full Text Available We here report the first complete mitochondrial (mt genome of a skipper, Ctenoptilum vasava Moore, 1865 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae. The mt genome of the skipper is a circular molecule of 15,468 bp, containing 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 24 putative transfer RNA (tRNA, genes including an extra copy of trnS (AGN and a tRNA-like insertion trnL (UUR, 13 protein-coding genes and an AT-rich region. All protein-coding genes (PCGs are initiated by ATN codons and terminated by the typical stop codon TAA or TAG, except for COII which ends with a single T. The intergenic spacer sequence between trnS (AGN and ND1 genes also contains the ATACTAA motif. The AT-rich region of 429 bp is comprised of nonrepetitive sequences, including the motif ATAGA followed by an 19 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT3 (TA9 element next to the ATTTA motif, an 11 bp poly-A adjacent to tRNAs. Phylogenetic analyses (ML and BI methods showed that Papilionoidea is not a natural group, and Hesperioidea is placed within the Papilionoidea as a sister to ((Pieridae + Lycaenidae + Nymphalidae while Papilionoidae is paraphyletic to Hesperioidea. This result is remarkably different from the traditional view where Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea are considered as two distinct superfamilies.
Rhone CC v CERN CC at Parc de Parilly, Lyon on Sunday 11th September 2011 CERN travelled to Lyon to play our old friends Rhone at their new ground in the pretty and busy Parilly Parc. With no traffic problems CERN were at the ground in good time and even had time for a pre game kick around before skipper Elvin won the toss and decided to bowl. Onions and Chaudhuri opened the bowling and were penalized by some strict wide calling from the Rhone umpires. Onions finally made the breakthrough with the help of a brilliant running catch from the athletic Price. Chaudhuri then picked up 2 more Rhone wickets in a fiery opening spell as CERN took control. Rhone then rallied and Shiva made 50 before S. Ahmed had him trapped LBW. Skipper Elvin then turned to McFayden and the evergreen I. Ahmed to try and wrestle control back and McFayden was unlucky not to have Bala caught behind when the only person who did not think he had edged it was the umpire! Price again took another stunning catch in the deep to give I. Ahmed ...
TRAVERSEE DU LAC MEETS BOL D’OR It is not entire coincidence that your ever-attentive YCC Committee schedules our Traversée du Lac (dinghies, catamarans, windsurfs - although admittedly not many of the latter these last few seasons) for the same weekend as the rather larger-scale Bol d’Or: it enables our intrepid crews to practise their priority rules as Dona Bertarelli sweeps past with LadyCat and gives you something to watch should the wind drop momentarily ... The rest is history, as we say and your scribe will not repeat here the results, either of the Traversée or of the Bol - go find them on our respective Webs! But many thanks to John and Sarah Fullerton for organising this event and to Wolfgang Adam for ably skippering our new Q-boat. And a gentle reminder to us all, please, that we are fairly short of volunteers on all fronts: not merely routine maintenance, remembering to clean the boat you enjoy from time to time but also - urgently - Q-boat skippers (she&...
Retinular fine structure has been compared in the superposition compound eyes of three sphingid moths, one nocturnal, Cechenena, and two diurnal, Cephonodes and Macroglossum. Cechenena and Cephonodes have tiered retinas with three kinds of retinular cells: two distal, six regular and one basal. The distal retinular cells in Cechenena are special in having a complex partially intracellular rhabdomere not present in Cephonodes. Macroglossum lacks the distal retinular cell. In Cephonodes a unique rhabdom type, formed by the six regular retinular cells in the middle region of the retinula, is divided into three separate longitudinal plates arranged closely parallel to one another. Their constituent microvilli are consequently all nearly unidirectional. The ratio of rhabdom volume to retinular cell volume in the two diurnal sphingids is 10-27%; this is about the same as that (25%) of skipper butterflies, but significantly smaller than in the nocturnal Cechenena (60%). In the diurnal sphingids retinular cell membranes show elongate meandering profiles with septate junctions between adjacent retinular cells. From the comparative fine structure of their eyes the diurnal sphingids and the skippers would appear to be phylogenetically closely related.
Regattas everywhere (bis)! A fornight ago, we reported on imminent Match-Racing of the Surprises as the highlight of the season: it has now happened of course, and been written up on the Website Blog - along with the results of the Semaine du Soir of Versoix, which happened a week later, with many YCC teams competing: it is nice to report that our dinghies (either club-owned or skippered) wiped up the opposition! Sanja’s photo herewith from the Bol d’Or implies that there were some Surprises (and others) actually ahead of our Mic Mac - truth be told, there were, at different stages, but the event June 18/19 was a good regatta, if a very hard one as the wind strengths were Bf 6 with Bf7 gusts. Sanja reports that this regatta was more impressive and much harder than the SdS: skipper Thierry, on Mic Mac, did a great job, from an excellent start which kept her among the first ten Surprises for 4 hours - not bad, when they finished the regatta after ~13 hours, with 26th position out of 109 Su...
Barrios, Beyte; Pena, Sean R; Salas, Andrea; Koptur, Suzanne
Pollination studies often use visitation frequency of potential pollinators as an indicator of their importance, but this is only one component and may not reflect actual pollen transfer rates. In this study, we determine the most effective pollinator group of Angadenia berteroi, a tropical perennial subshrub with large yellow flowers that set few fruits. We determined visitation frequency and pollen transfer effectiveness of the four most common groups of visitors (long- and short-tongued bees, and skipper and non-skipper butterflies). Using potted plants, we exposed flowers to single visits from different types of pollinators to measure fruit set. We demonstrate that A. berteroi is most effectively pollinated by long-tongued bees, though many other species visit the flowers; the most frequent visitor group is not the most important pollinator, because they neither carry nor deposit much pollen, as the width of their proboscis is small compared with long-tongued bees. In this system, the width of the proboscis of the pollinators correlates with pollen transfer efficiency. Our results demonstrate the importance of pollen removal, pollen deposition, and fruit set, in determining the most effective pollinators, rather than visitor frequency. The distinctive morphology of these flowers, with a large bell and a narrow, short tube, suggests that other flowers of this shape may similarly benefit more from visitors with mouthparts shorter than previously considered optimal.
Pearlstine, L.G.; Smith, S.E.; Brandt, L.A.; Allen, C.R.; Kitchens, W.M.; Stenberg, J.
The Florida Gap (FI-Gap) project provides an assessment of the degree to which native animal species and natural communities are or are not represented in existing conservation lands. Those species and communities not adequately represented in areas being managed for native species constitute 'gaps' in the existing network of conservation lands. The United States Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program is a national effort and so, eventually, all 50 states will have completed it. The objective of FI-Gap was to provide broad geographic information on the status of terrestrial vertebrates, butterflies, skippers and ants and their respective habitats to address the loss of biological diversity. To model the distributions and potential habitat of all terrestrial species of mammals, breeding birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, skippers and ants in Florida, natural land cover was mapped to the level of dominant or co-dominant plant species. Land cover was classified from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery and auxiliary data such as the national wetlands inventory (NWI), soils maps, aerial imagery, existing land use/land cover maps, and on-the-ground surveys, Wildlife distribution models were produced by identifying suitable habitat for each species within that species' range, Mammalian models also assessed a minimum critical area required for sustainability of the species' population. Wildlife species richness was summarized against land stewardship ranked by an area's mandates for conservation protection. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri; Mutanen, Marko; Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas
Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI, and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland. The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life.
Tribble Md, Curt
During my training and my early faculty tenure, there was a picture of a dust-caked, grizzled cowboy that hung between the two primary cardiac operating rooms. Beneath the picture was written, "There are a lot of things about this job they didn't tell me when I signed on." When we moved into our new hospital, the picture did not resurface. However, I never forgot the lesson conveyed by that picture. One of the most important obligations faculty members have is to help their trainees find a job. While their trainees have likely had part-time jobs and, of course, they've held training positions, they usually have not had a 'real' job before. The job that each hopes to land at this point in their lives is vastly different from any that they've had before, and the issues that they need to consider are numerous, substantial, and, generally, unfamiliar to them. Therefore, a brief review of some of these considerations may be useful to those giving advice about the post-residency job search. I will not cover one major issue in choosing a 'first' job: whether to look at academic jobs, non-academic jobs, or jobs that are hybrids of the two. As most know, in academics it's dog eat dog, while in non-academic jobs, it's just the opposite.
Full Text Available The traditional images of the French Army in World War I on the WesternFront from Cyril Falls’s to Marc Ferro’s surveys (both entitled The Great War 1914–1918 have been that of the grizzled yet determined French peasant or worker – thepoilu. It is clear from recent research that this is far from accurate and that theFrench forces were far more heterogeneous than portrayed by previous images.1Men were called from all over the French empire to serve in the frontline and inlogistics units. Virtually every part of the French Empire responded, althoughsomewhat grudgingly, even including Tahiti, which provided a Bataillon Pacifique.Bringing men to a foreign land and culture to fight in a new type of horrific war wasquite a strain on these 600 000 soldiers.2 The bulk of these soldiers were drawn fromNorth and West Africa, with smaller numbers coming from Madagascar, Indochinaand Equatorial Africa. This article is an attempt at giving an impressionistic glimpseof this subject describing colonial morale both at the frontlines and behind the lines,seeing how they compare to their metropole comrades and trying to gain anunderstanding of the vie quotiedienne of the colonial soldier.
Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that meal frequencies influence the risk of obesity in children and adolescents. It has also been shown that multiple genetic loci predispose to obesity already in youth. However, it is unknown whether meal frequencies could modulate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the risk of obesity. We examined the effect of two meal patterns on weekdays -5 meals including breakfast (regular and ≤ 4 meals with or without breakfast (meal skipping - on the genetic susceptibility to increased body mass index (BMI in Finnish adolescents. Eight variants representing 8 early-life obesity-susceptibility loci, including FTO and MC4R, were genotyped in 2215 boys and 2449 girls aged 16 years from the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. A genetic risk score (GRS was calculated for each individual by summing the number of BMI-increasing alleles across the 8 loci. Weight and height were measured and dietary data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Among meal skippers, the difference in BMI between high-GRS and low-GRS (<8 and ≥ 8 BMI-increasing alleles groups was 0.90 (95% CI 0.63,1.17 kg/m(2, whereas in regular eaters, this difference was 0.32 (95% CI 0.06,0.57 kg/m(2 (p interaction = 0.003. The effect of each MC4R rs17782313 risk allele on BMI in meal skippers (0.47 [95% CI 0.22,0.73] kg/m(2 was nearly three-fold compared with regular eaters (0.18 [95% CI -0.06,0.41] kg/m(2 (p interaction = 0.016. Further, the per-allele effect of the FTO rs1421085 was 0.24 (95% CI 0.05,0.42 kg/m(2 in regular eaters and 0.46 (95% CI 0.27,0.66 kg/m(2 in meal skippers but the interaction between FTO genotype and meal frequencies on BMI was significant only in boys (p interaction = 0.015. In summary, the regular five-meal pattern attenuated the increasing effect of common SNPs on BMI in adolescents. Considering the epidemic of obesity in youth, the promotion of regular eating may have
李爱民; 邓合黎; 左燕
报道了42种重庆蝶类新纪录，其中凤蝶科1种，粉蝶科1种，眼蝶科9种，蛱蝶科8种，灰蝶科13种，弄蝶科10种，加上历史记载的506种，重庆市已记载的蝶类种数上升至548种。%42 newly recorded butterflies ,including 10 species of skippers ,13 species of blues ,8 species of Nymphalidae ,9 species of satyr ,1 species of White butterfly and 1 species of Swallowtail ,which have been found in Chongqing ,have been reported his paper reports .The sum of Chongqing butterfly species increases to 548 species .
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Moncini is the tribe of Hesperiidae that comprises the greatest diversity of small, brown, hard to identify skippers. The group is peculiarly classified as having many monotypic genera, thus offering low informative value to its systematics. This study presents a review of the genus Gallio Evans, 1955, a genus formerly recognized as monotypic, and describes three new species, Gallio imperatriz sp. nov. from Maranhão, Brazil, Gallio furtadoi sp. nov. from Mato Grosso, Brazil and Gallio eti sp. nov. from Madre de Díos, Peru and Acre, Brazil (type locality. A lectotype for Vehilius carasta Schaus, 1902 is designated. Gallio is therefore redescribed and illustrations and diagnosis to its species are provided.
Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Østergaard, Helle; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis
compared to low work load. Multinomial logistic regression models showed that workload was the only predictor for all pain sites, in particular regarding upper and lower limb pain. CONCLUSION: Although changes were implemented to improve the fishermen's work environment, the work continues to be physically......BACKGROUND: Fishermen work in a physically challenging work environment. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence and predictors of musculoskeletal pain among Danish fishermen. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey in a random sample of Danish fishermen was done with application...... of the Nordic questionnaire regarding musculoskeletal pain considering lower back, shoulders, hand neck, knee, upper back elbow, hip and feet. In total, 270 fishermen participated in the study (response rate: 28%). Workload, vessel type, skipper, duration of work, sideline occupation, days/weeks of fishing...
Jiang, Weibin; He, Haiyan; Li, Yingdong; Ren, Mengyi; Ma, Yazhong; Zheng, Lingli; Zhu, Jianqing; Yu, Weidong
The skipper Polytremis theca species complex is widely distributed in the south of the Qinling Mountains in China. A recent study of the Polytremis genus suggested that this species might encompass two differentiated lineages. We tested this hypothesis, by carrying out a phylogenetic study of this agricultural pest based on nationwide sampling and the evaluation of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. We show that this species is actually an amalgamation of two sibling taxa (P. t. theca and P. t. fukia), which displayed levels of genetic divergence as great as those generally found between sister species in the Polytremis genus, suggesting that they actually correspond to two distinct species. The Divergence time estimates suggest that an active period of speciation within Polytremis occurred within the Pleistocene eras. Based on its distinct phylogenetic placement and geographical isolation, we suggest that the subspecies should be elevated to full species status under the phylogenetic species concept, which has significant management implications.
Cock, Matthew J W
Partial life histories are presented for Spialia kituina (Karsch), S. spio (Linnaeus), S. diomus (Hopffer), S. colotes transvaaliae (Trimen), S. dromus (Plötz), S. ploetzi (Aurivillius), S. zebra bifida Higgins and Gomalia elma elma (Trimen). All feed on species of Malvaceae. An earlier record from Kenya of Melhania velutina as the food plant of S. depauperata depauperata (Strand) was based on a misidentification and there are no known records of the food plant of this subspecies. Spialia ferax (Wallengren) stat. rev. is considered a valid species rather than a subspecies of S. diomus, based on significant differences in wing patterns, the shape of the valves, a zone where neither occurs, no signs that a cline is involved, and differences in the colouring and markings of the caterpillars. The convergence of the biology of the chequered skippers of the tribes Carcharodini, Pyrgini and Celaenorrhini is discussed.
Yuan, Xiangqun; Gao, Ke; Yuan, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Yalin
Hesperiidae is one of the largest families of butterflies. Our knowledge of the higher systematics on hesperiids from China is still very limited. We infer the phylogenetic relationships of the subfamilies of Chinese skippers based on three mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b (Cytb), the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) and cytochrome oxidase I (COI)). In this study, 30 species in 23 genera were included in the Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The subfamily Coeliadinae, Eudaminae, Pyrginae and Heteropterinae were recovered as a monophyletic clade with strong support. The subfamily Hesperiinae formed a clade, but support for monophyly was weak. Our results imply that the five subfamilies of Chinese Hesperiidae should be divided into: Coeliadinae, Eudaminae, Pyrginae, Heteropterinae and Hesperiinae. The relationships of the five subfamilies should be as follows: Coeliadinae + (Eudaminae + (Pyrginae + (Heteropterinae + Hesperiinae))).
Dissanayake Mudiyanselage Suratissa
Full Text Available Faunal diversity and distribution in the Nasese Shore, Suva, Fiji Islands were studied April–August 2014. The belt transect method was employed to study the species richness and abundance of the fauna. Opportunistic observations were performed to supplement the species richness of the selected habitat types: sandy, rocky and muddy (SRM; Habitat 1; mangrove and sandy (MNS; Habitat 2; muddy and sandy (MS; Habitat 3; and rocky and coral (RC; Habitat 4. Sampling was performed during high and low tide. Faunal density was highest in the RC substrate. The density of mud skippers was significantly higher in the MNS habitat than in the other habitats. This findings could well indicate the environmental pollution levels of this habitat. The Shanon–Weiner Index indicated that the RC habitat possesses the highest diversity, whereas the MS habitat possesses the lowest diversity. In addition, major threats to the biota existed.
Heist, Stefan; Lutzke, Peter; Schmidt, Ingo; Dietrich, Patrick; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther
Pattern projection-based three-dimensional (3-D) measurement systems are well established in various application fields. However, for some time, there has been an increasing demand in terms of a higher measurement speed in order to analyze fast processes. We introduce a GOBO slide-based projector (GOes Before Optics) providing high speed, high radiant flux, and eye-safe incoherent light at low cost. We present its setup as well as the generation and change of the projected patterns. We explain the 3-D measurement principle and show first measurements of an inflating airbag and a rope skipper conducted at a 3-D frame rate of more than 1.3 kHz.
Full Text Available SKiPPER is a SKeleton-based Parallel Programming EnviRonment being developed since 1996 and running at LASMEA Laboratory, the Blaise-Pascal University, France. The main goal of the project was to demonstrate the applicability of skeleton-based parallel programming techniques to the fast prototyping of reactive vision applications. This paper deals with the special features embedded in the latest version of the project: algorithmic skeleton nesting capabilities and a fully dynamic operating model. Throughout the case study of a complete and realistic image processing application, in which we have pointed out the requirement for skeleton nesting, we are presenting the operating model of this feature. The work described here is one of the few reported experiments showing the application of skeleton nesting facilities for the parallelisation of a realistic application, especially in the area of image processing. The image processing application we have chosen is a 3D face-tracking algorithm from appearance.
Mommaerts, J L
Computers have made possible an explosive increase of information flow. In this ocean of information it becomes more and more easy to get lost. Computers again may provide answers to this problem. This article describes principles of small-volume hypertext, large-volume hypertext and expertext as up-to-date navigation tools for the beginning as well as the advanced skipper. In addition, it is argued that the orthodontist should take responsibility in guiding these developments on his or her domain. He can do this by getting acquainted with the possibilities and choosing the right software. Ultimately, technology should not be developed for its own sake, but for the benefit of orthodontists and their patients.
Dhurandhar, Emily J; Dawson, John; Alcorn, Amy
effectiveness of a recommendation to eat or skip breakfast on weight loss in adults trying to lose weight in a free-living setting. DESIGN: We conducted a multisite, 16-wk, 3-parallel-arm randomized controlled trial in otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) between 25 and 40......] aged 20-65 y. Our primary outcome was weight change. We compared weight change in a control group with weight loss in experimental groups told to eat breakfast or to skip breakfast [no breakfast (NB)]. Randomization was stratified by prerandomization breakfast eating habits. A total of 309 participants...... were randomly assigned.RESULTS: A total of 283 of the 309 participants who were randomly assigned completed the intervention. Treatment assignment did not have a significant effect on weight loss, and there was no interaction between initial breakfast eating status and treatment. Among skippers, mean...
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to examine the association between breakfast habits, nutritional status, and health related quality of life of adolescents in Bosowa Bina Insani Junior High School Bogor. A cross sectional study was conducted and simple random sampling was used to determine the subjects. Subjects were 60 adolescent students of Bosowa Bina Insani Junior High School Bogor aged 13—15 years old. The study found there was no significant difference in nutritional status between breakfast skippers and breakfast eaters (p>0.05. However, regular breakfast eaters were more likely to have lower body weight (r=-0.160, p=0.222. There was no significant difference of health related quality of life based on nutritional status (p>0.05. Breakfast eaters tended to have better quality of life than breakfast skippers even though there was no significant difference between them (p>0.05.Keywords: adolescents, breakfast habits, food consumption, health related quality of life, nutritionalstatusABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji hubungan kebiasaan sarapan, status gizi, dan kualitas hidup pada remaja SMP Bosowa Bina Insani Bogor. Desain penelitian ini adalah cross sectional dengan penarikan subjek secara simple random sampling. Subjek berjumlah 60 remaja berusia 13—15 tahun yang merupakan siswa-siswi SMP Bosowa Bina Insani Bogor. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbedaan signifikan status gizi berdasarkan kebiasaan sarapan (p>0.05 namun terdapat kecenderungan semakin sering konsumsi sarapan, berat badan semakin menurun (r=-0.160, p=0.222. Tidak terdapat perbedaan signifikan kualitas hidup berdasarkan status gizi (p>0.05. Kualitas hidup pada kelompok yang biasa sarapan cenderung lebih tinggi dibandingkan kelompok yang tidak biasa sarapan, namun tidak terdapat perbedaan signifikan secara statistik (p>0.05.Kata kunci: kebiasaan sarapan, konsumsi pangan, kualitas hidup, remaja, status gizi
Association of breakfast consumption with objectively measured and self-reported physical activity, sedentary time and physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.
Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Labayen, Idoia; González-Gross, Marcela; Moreno, Luis A; Gomez-Martinez, Sonia; Ciarapica, Donatella; Hallström, Lena; Wästlund, Acki; Molnar, Dénes; Gottrand, Frederic; Manios, Yannis; Widhalm, Kurt; Kafatos, Anthony; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Castillo, Manuel J
To examine the association of breakfast consumption with objectively measured and self-reported physical activity, sedentary time and physical fitness. The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Cross-Sectional Study. Breakfast consumption was assessed by two non-consecutive 24 h recalls and by a 'Food Choices and Preferences' questionnaire. Physical activity, sedentary time and physical fitness components (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and speed/agility) were measured and self-reported. Socio-economic status was assessed by questionnaire. Ten European cities. Adolescents (n 2148; aged 12·5-17·5 years). Breakfast consumption was not associated with measured or self-reported physical activity. However, 24 h recall breakfast consumption was related to measured sedentary time in males and females; although results were not confirmed when using other methods to assess breakfast patterns or sedentary time. Breakfast consumption was not related to muscular fitness and speed/agility in males and females. However, male breakfast consumers had higher cardiorespiratory fitness compared with occasional breakfast consumers and breakfast skippers, while no differences were observed in females. Overall, results were consistent using different methods to assess breakfast consumption or cardiorespiratory fitness (all P ≤ 0·005). In addition, both male and female breakfast skippers (assessed by 24 h recall) were less likely to have high measured cardiorespiratory fitness compared with breakfast consumers (OR = 0·33; 95% CI 0·18, 0·59 and OR = 0·56; 95%CI 0·32, 0·98, respectively). Results persisted across methods. Skipping breakfast does not seem to be related to physical activity, sedentary time or muscular fitness and speed/agility as physical fitness components in European adolescents; yet it is associated with both measured and self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness, which extends previous findings.
This dissertation explores various problems in the control of the rigid body and related dynamical systems with symmetry, utilizing various modeling approaches and control techniques. We first derive a control law that asymptotically stabilizes an unbalanced top to the sleeping motion. We rewrite the classical Euler-Poisson equations by projecting the phase space onto IRsp5. The control law is based on the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman theory with zero dynamics and partial stability. Lyapunov techniques are used in the analysis. Next, the control of rotor imbalance with magnetic bearings is considered in the adaptive virtual autobalancing and adaptive autocentering approaches. We derive single-plane and two-plane balancing control algorithms that provide asymptotic estimates of the rotor imbalance, and that guarantee consistent performance under varying spin rate. These algorithms are based on emulation of the mechanical autobalancer. We discuss the theory based on linear analysis, and simulation and experimental results. We go on to investigate symmetry properties associated with mechanical control systems and certain nonlinear control systems. First, we generalize the classical Serret-Andoyer transformation for the free rigid body to left-invariant, hyperregular Hamiltonian systems on Tsp*SO(3), employing the notion of symplectic (Marsden-Weinstein) reduction. We then apply this result to the controlled rigid body, and show that for Hamiltonian controls that preserve the rigid body structure, the generalized Serret-Andoyer transformation yields a two dimensional representation of the closed-loop motion in canonical form. Applications to the stability analysis of relative equilibria and numerical integration are also discussed. Finally, we apply the concept of reduction to certain regulation problems on smooth manifolds. Following the works of Van der Schaft (1981) and Grizzle and Marcus (1985), we show that an output feedback regulation problem possessing certain
Full Text Available Hadiyah N Green,1,2 Stephanie D Crockett,3 Dmitry V Martyshkin,1 Karan P Singh,2,4 William E Grizzle,2,5 Eben L Rosenthal,2,6 Sergey B Mirov11Department of Physics, Center for Optical Sensors and Spectroscopies, 2Comprehensive Cancer Center, 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive Medicine, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Shared Facility, 5Department of Pathology, 6Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAPurpose: Nanoparticle (NP-enabled near infrared (NIR photothermal therapy has realized limited success in in vivo studies as a potential localized cancer therapy. This is primarily due to a lack of successful methods that can prevent NP uptake by the reticuloendothelial system, especially the liver and kidney, and deliver sufficient quantities of intravenously injected NPs to the tumor site. Histological evaluation of photothermal therapy-induced tumor regression is also neglected in the current literature. This report demonstrates and histologically evaluates the in vivo potential of NIR photothermal therapy by circumventing the challenges of intravenous NP delivery and tumor targeting found in other photothermal therapy studies.Methods: Subcutaneous Cal 27 squamous cell carcinoma xenografts received photothermal nanotherapy treatments, radial injections of polyethylene glycol (PEG-ylated gold nanorods and one NIR 785 nm laser irradiation for 10 minutes at 9.5 W/cm2. Tumor response was measured for 10–15 days, gross changes in tumor size were evaluated, and the remaining tumors or scar tissues were excised and histologically analyzed.Results: The single treatment of intratumoral nanorod injections followed by a 10 minute NIR laser treatment also known as photothermal nanotherapy, resulted in ~100% tumor regression in ~90% of treated tumors, which was statistically significant in a
Full Text Available Foram confrontadas nesta pesquisa a afirmação piagetiana de que o ensino da matemática deve basear-se no desenvolvimento das estruturas mentais da criança e a realidade do ensino dessa matéria na 1.ª série do primeiro grau. Estudou-se a relação existente entre a noção de conservação e o grau de desempenho em matemática. Constituíram a amostra 47 sujeitos da 1.ª série do 1.° grau (17 do sexo masc. e 30 do fem., nível sócio-econômico médio-inferior para baixo-superior, idade de 6 anos e meio a 11 anos, sem escolarização anterior. A avaliação do desempenho relativo ao domínio da noção de conservação foi feita através do teste de conservação de quantidades descontínuas, e a do desempenho em matemática, através da observação sistemática e de uma prova. O coeficiente de correlação de postos de Good man e Kruskal (1945 e 1963] mostrou relação significante a um nível de 1% para conservação e porcentagem de acertos na prova (g = 0,7 e a um nível de 5% para a conservação e conceitos atribuídos pelo professor (G = 0,44. A análise dos dados categorizados pela técnica de Grizzle, Starmer e Koch (1969 a um nível de 5% indicou apenas efeito do fator sexo sobre a noção de conservação. Os resultados obtidos estão de acordo com a teoria piagetiana que indica ser a noção de conservação uma condição necessária para a aprendizagem da matemática, embora não suficiente.
Baker, Andrew M; Mutton, Thomas Y; Hines, Harry B; Dyck, Steve Van
We describe a new species of dasyurid marsupial within the genus Antechinus that was previously known as a northern outlier of Dusky Antechinus (A. swainsonii). The Black-tailed Antechinus, Antechinus arktos sp. nov., is known only from areas of high altitude and high rainfall on the Tweed Volcano caldera of far south-east Queensland and north-east New South Wales, Australia. Antechinus arktos formerly sheltered under the taxonomic umbrella of A. swainsonii mimetes, the widespread mainland form of Dusky Antechinus. With the benefit of genetic hindsight, some striking morphological differences are herein resolved: A. s. mimetes is more uniformly deep brown-black to grizzled grey-brown from head to rump, with brownish (clove brown-raw umber) hair on the upper surface of the hindfoot and tail, whereas A. arktos is more vibrantly coloured, with a marked change from greyish-brown head to orange-brown rump, fuscous black on the upper surface of the hindfoot and dense, short fur on the evenly black tail. Further, A. arktos has marked orange-brown fur on the upper and lower eyelid, cheek and in front of the ear and very long guard hairs all over the body; these characters are more subtle in A. s. mimetes. There are striking genetic differences between the two species: at mtDNA, A. s. mimetes from north-east New South Wales is 10% divergent to A. arktos from its type locality at Springbrook NP, Queensland. In contrast, the Ebor A. s. mimetes clades closely with conspecifics from ACT and Victoria. A. arktos skulls are strikingly different to all subspecies of A. swainsonii. A. arktos are markedly larger than A. s. mimetes and A. s. swainsonii (Tasmania) for a range of craniodental measures. Antechinus arktos were historically found at a few proximate mountainous sites in south-east Queensland, and have only recently been recorded from or near the type locality. Even there, the species is likely in low abundance. The Black-tailed Antechinus has plausibly been detrimentally
Lottery results, Fleet launch The Lottery for places in this season’s sailing courses was held a while back; results thrilled some people but disappointed many more. Yes, as usual, more candidates tried than there are places available but don’t despair: there is still a lot to do in your Club and dedicated sailors can secure skipper-rights fairly easily within a couple of months of practice. Successful students will be told more about their class soon, reminded about the need (or otherwise) for a wetsuit and invited to start practising knots already: you learn proportionate to the effort you put into it! The season really starts up when we launch the fleet, Saturday 14 April at Port Choiseul from 9:00 a.m. - Gijs will shortly be soliciting those owners of trailer-hooks (preferably attached to the car) willing to help transport the fleet from CERN. Our Gipsy, in Kirill’s picture, remained in the water (or ice) throughout and will welcome cleaning and some TLC. T...
Yachting Club CERN
New President, new committee, new season The YCC General Meeting was a long time ago, November, but elected itself a new President, Alex Cerri, and a Committee with a few changes as well. It also remembered to thank outgoing President Tomasz Ładziński for his excellent leadership and personal hard work over many seasons. And then we rounded off the evening with the Closing Dinner and awards of prizes: skippers, crew-member, and photographic cultminations of a very enjoyable season. This new Committee has met a couple of times already, and planned the season carefully: check it out on http://yachting.web.cern.ch/yachting/ . We are highlighting a Winter Evening next week: see the Blog on the opening page, and join us for some insights on owning, running, sailing, an Atlantic cruiser - solo! It is also not too early to contemplate signing up for a course: not just newcomers, but those moving from the early experiences in to more demanding boats. We are planning courses very similar to the previous season, pl...
Club life - and solo sailing We tend to forget that ResQ, our trusty Surveillance boat, is as much a part of Club life as those mere unmotored boats everyone is so keen on, so here is a nice picture of ResQ in action taken by Makiko Takayama during the most recent Match Racing. The crew look a bit cold and windswept despite August sun, so all our thanks for doing a necessary - but always fun - job. We have recruited several new Q-boat skippers this season but more are needed: it is no secret that we periodically have difficulty in manning her 5 - 6 times a week. If you have a Permis Moteur or aspire to it, please let the Committee know. Most sailors will know (and if not, you should be checking our website Blogs more often!) that YCC was represented in the Translémanique solo regatta this year as well as last year, by Thierry and Andrea respectively - both of whom did very well. Our website gives you links to their Blogs too. The question resulted however, how come they were allowed to sail a...
Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.
Wang, Ah Rha; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Han, Yeon Soo; Kim, Iksoo
The mountainous duskywing, Erynnis montanus, belongs to a lepidopteran family Hesperiidae. The 15,530-bp long complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the species has the typical gene content of animals (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and one major non-coding A+T-rich region). As typical in lepidopteran mitogenome E. montanus mitogenome also contained a high A/T content in the whole genome (81.7%) and the CGA (arginine) as the start codon for the COI gene. Unlike other lepidopteran species, including two sequenced skippers, the E. montanus mitogenome has a unique arrangement tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn), instead of the tRNA(Asn)-tRNA(Ser) found unanimously in other lepidopteran species, providing a new gene arrangement in Lepidoptera. Such rearrangement probably was likely caused by duplication of gene block tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn) and subsequent random loss of tRNA(Asn) in the first copy and tRNA(Ser) in the second copy, resulting in the arrangement tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn).
Full Text Available Marine mammal interactions with Portuguese purse-seine fisheries operating in four different ports (Figueira da Foz, Sesimbra, Setúbal, Sines were studied (July-October 2003. Observers accompanied commercial fishing vessels and monitored 48 fishing trips. An interview survey of skippers was also carried out (n = 36. Three species of marine mammals were observed in 31 sightings during the commercials trips but only the species Delphinus delphis and the category Delphinidae were observed to interact with fishing activities. Small cetaceans were observed to sink, gather or disperse school fishes and damage gear. Mean CPUE and fishing effort values did not change significantly in the presence of dolphins (H = 0.06 and H = 0, both p>0.05. Results from Figueira da Foz indicate that cetaceans are attracted to fishing grounds with a high abundance of their prey-species. Fishermen reported three by-catch events off Figueira da Foz. Compared with other fisheries, purse-seine fishing does not seem to be among the most damaging to marine mammals.
Full Text Available Members of the skipper tribe Baorini generally resemble each other and are characterized by dark brown wings with hyaline white spots. These shared characteristics have caused difficulties with revealing the relationships among genera and species in the group, and some conflicting taxonomic views remain unresolved. The present study aims to infer a more comprehensive phylogeny of the tribe using molecular data, to test the monophyly of the tribe as well as the genera it includes in order to clarify their taxonomic status, and finally to revise the current classification of the group. In order to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree, the mitochondrial COI-COII and 16S genes as well as the nuclear EF-1α and 28S genes were analyzed using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The analysis included 67 specimens of 41 species, and we confirmed the monophyly of Baorini, and revealed that 14 genera are well supported. The genus Borbo is separated into three clades: Borbo, Pseudoborbo, and Larsenia gen. nov. We confirmed that Polytremis is polyphyletic and separated into three genera: Polytremis, Zinaida, and Zenonoida gen. nov., and also confirmed that the genus Prusiana is a member of the tribe. Relationships among some genera were strongly supported. For example, Zenonia and Zenonoida were found to be sister taxa, closely related to Zinaida and Iton, while Pelopidas and Baoris were also found to cluster together.
Tin, Sze Pui Pamela; Ho, Sai Yin; Mak, Kwok Hang; Wan, Ka Leung; Lam, Tai Hing
Although breakfast is associated with different benefits, breakfast skipping is increasingly common among children. This study aimed to identify lifestyle and socioeconomic correlates of breakfast skipping in Hong Kong schoolchildren. 68,606 primary 4 participants of the Department of Health Student Health Service in 1998-2000 reported breakfast habit and other lifestyle characteristics using a standardized questionnaire. Height and weight were measured by trained SHS nurses. Socioeconomic data were reported by parents. In cross-sectional analysis, multivariate logistic regression was used to identify lifestyle and socioeconomic correlates of breakfast skipping. 3,598 subjects (5.2%) usually skipped breakfast. Breakfast skipping was associated with being overweight (Odds ratio=1.59, 95% CI: 1.46 to 1.73) and obese (2.06, 1.80 to 2.36), and unhealthy dietary habits including more frequent junk food (1.23, 1.14 to 1.33) but less frequent fruit/vegetable (1.23, 1.13 to 1.34) and milk (1.98, 1.80 to 2.16) intake. Breakfast skippers tended to skip lunch, do less extra-curricular physical activity, watch more television and have less educated parents. Breakfast skipping was significantly related to various health-compromising lifestyle characteristics and lower parental education. Breakfast habit can be a potential lifestyle indicator. Education programmes aimed at specific target groups should encourage regular breakfast consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study explores the technical and scale efficiency of two types of Greek fishing vessels, small-scale vessels and bottom trawlers, using a bias-corrected input-oriented Data Envelopment Analysis model. Moreover, the associations between efficiency scores and vessel’s and skipper’s characteristics are also explored. The results indicate that small-scale vessels achieve a very low average technical efficiency score (0.42 but a much higher scale efficiency score (0.81. Conversely, bottom trawlers achieve lower scale but higher technical efficiency scores (0.68 and 0.73, respectively. One important finding of this study is that the technical efficiency of small-scale vessels, in contrast to trawlers, is positively associated with the experience of the skipper. In a looser context, it can be said that small-scale fisheries mainly rely on skill, whereas bottom trawlers rely more on technology. This study concludes that there is space for improvement in efficiency, mainly for small-scale vessels, which could allow the achievement of the same level of output by using reduced inputs.
CERN CC v Cossonay CC at CERN on Sunday, August 22nd, 2010 On a hot sunny August afternoon, CERN entertained Cossonay in a friendly match at CERN. Skipper Elvin won the toss and elected to bat, thus ignoring groundsman Osborne’s suggestion to bat second due to residual dew dampening the outfield. CERN started and were fortunate not to lose a wicket in the opening couple of overs, however this luck would soon run out as Osborne, going for a typical lofted drive was well caught at mid-on. CERN soon found themselves in trouble at 30-4 after 9 overs, but the introduction of Ahmed would demonstrate that boundary scoring was possible as he powered his way to 54, ably helped by Elvin (25), before informing his partner he was tired, and a shot that looked to be bound for another 6 was caught at wide long on from the last ball of the over. Crook (14) would then face the next delivery, and in typical fashion, he told his new partner S. Kumar that there was plenty of time and that the big shots ...
Fireworks and tests Diligent YCC members will already have seen the Blog on our website offering a future social outing (we hope, like the La Liberté cruise that it will prove a success!). This one is to go watch the Fêtes de Genève Fireworks from the comfort of your own yacht! We probably have some eighteen places on three boats since your Committee has decided this year to make a real Club event of the traditional flotilla to fireworks evening and booked Mamma Mia, Mic Mac and Gipsy in anticipation. Therefore we have opened a Doodle under External Regattas (but don’t let that put you off because you do not need racing experience); we are inviting qualified skippers, who may nominate one crew member with themselves, to offer to take a boat, 6 p.m. Saturday 11 August, down to anchor in La Rade to watch the Fêtes de Genève Fireworks. Crews are of course welcome too: all sign-ups at: https://apex.cern.ch/pls/htmldb_ycc/f?p=200:48 by 3 August, at...
Kawahara, Akito Y.; Breinholt, Jesse W.
Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly–moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318
Have you set a date for your test yet? Most sailing courses have already ended (keelboats) or will shortly (dinghies), so it is time to ensure you have a date for your test and an examiner set up. Every year, the teachers find that towards September, candidates suddenly discover that they are leaving it too late, that those well-intentioned extra Thursday outings never seem to have happened, even that examiners have other things to do too, or are less enthusiastic about going out in the autumn. By all means, get in some more practice, but also remember that once you have passed your “key”, you may have access for the rest of the season as a skipper just like all the other Club members. Do it now! Adjacent is a photo (thank you, Loic Le Canderff) of what is proving to be a most popular choice ofboat, the Laser 1. We probably all know already that these two boats are the only ones which can be sailed solo among the Club fleet: maybe that is some of the attraction, since a member has ...
Alamgir, Kabir Md; Hojo, Yuko; Christeller, John T; Fukumoto, Kaori; Isshiki, Ryutaro; Shinya, Tomonori; Baldwin, Ian T; Galis, Ivan
Plants defend against attack from herbivores by direct and indirect defence mechanisms mediated by the accumulation of phytoalexins and release of volatile signals, respectively. While the defensive arsenals of some plants, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis are well known, most of rice's (Oryza sativa) defence metabolites and their effectiveness against herbivores remain uncharacterized. Here, we used a non-biassed metabolomics approach to identify many novel herbivory-regulated metabolic signatures in rice. Most were up-regulated by herbivore attack while only a few were suppressed. Two of the most prominent up-regulated signatures were characterized as phenolamides (PAs), p-coumaroylputrescine and feruloylputrescine. PAs accumulated in response to attack by both chewing insects, i.e. feeding of the lawn armyworm (Spodoptera mauritia) and the rice skipper (Parnara guttata) larvae, and the attack of the sucking insect, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH). In bioassays, BPH insects feeding on 15% sugar solution containing p-coumaroylputrescine or feruloylputrescine, at concentrations similar to those elicited by heavy BPH attack in rice, had a higher mortality compared to those feeding on sugar diet alone. Our results highlight PAs as a rapidly expanding new group of plant defence metabolites that are elicited by herbivore attack, and deter herbivores in rice and other plants.
Wyner, Lawrence Michael
The hundredth anniversary of the worst ever civilian maritime disaster was also the fiftieth anniversary of the death of arguably its most controversial character, Captain Stanley Lord, skipper of the Californian, a "tramp" steamer that became entrapped in ice just off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland on April 14, 1912. Although Lord was faulted in two widely publicized inquiries for failing to respond to Titanic's distress signals, there may have actually been a medical reason for his behavior because he suffered from chronic renal disease and most likely had some secondary cognitive impairment due to this disease. An assessment of Lord's health history shows that he fractured his leg as a young man; suffered from poor eyesight, which led to his premature retirement from the sea by the age of 50; and eventually died from renal failure. Furthermore, his death certificate alludes to previous uremic episodes, perhaps encompassing the time period of the Titanic accident. Lord may have been under some pressure not to reveal his infirmity because doing so could have further jeopardized his career. The literature abounds with evidence that renal insufficiency negatively affects cognition, often years before progression to end-stage renal disease. Captain Lord's failure to act in a crisis situation may serve as a case in point.
Alexander, Katharine E; Ventura, Emily E; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Weigensberg, Marc J; Goran, Michael I; Davis, Jaimie N
Few studies have investigated the relationship between breakfast consumption and specific adiposity or insulin dynamics measures in children. The goal of this study is to determine whether breakfast consumption is associated with adiposity, specifically intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), and insulin dynamics in overweight Latino youth. Participants were a cross-sectional sample of 93 overweight (> or =85th percentile BMI) Latino youth (10-17 years) with a positive family history of type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-h recalls, IAAT, and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin dynamics by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling. Participants were divided into three breakfast consumption categories: those who reported not eating breakfast on either day (breakfast skippers; n = 20), those who reported eating breakfast on one of two days (occasional breakfast eaters; n = 39) and those who ate breakfast on both days (breakfast eaters; n = 34). Using analyses of covariance, breakfast omission was associated with increased IAAT (P = 0.003) independent of age, Tanner, sex, total body fat, total body lean tissue mass, and daily energy intake. There were no significant differences in any other adiposity measure or in insulin dynamics between breakfast categories. Eating breakfast is associated with lower visceral adiposity in overweight Latino youth. Interventions focused on increasing breakfast consumption are warranted.
Renato Soares Cardoso
Full Text Available Fishery resources in the Amazon region are exploited by both industrial and artisanal fishing fleets, that differ in their use of fishing gear and fishing grounds. Data on the physical characteristics of the vessels belonging to the fishing fleets using the Solimões/Amazonas river and estuaries are limited. This article presents an analysis of some physical characteristics of the commercial fishery fleet using the middle stretch of the Madeira river. Data were quantitative collected using interviews of the owners and/or skippers of fishery vessels between January 2003 and May 2004. The boats used for fishing in the region varied in size from 8 to 14 meters and had an average storage capacity ranging from 4.5 to 6.1 tons. Canoes were also used for fishing and ranged in length from 5 to 9 meters, with an average storage capacity of 0.2 tons. The results of this study demonstrate that boats in the Madeira river fleet had similar characteristics to the fishery fleet of the Solimões/Amazonas river with respect to length, use of gear, and fish storage.
The ATLAS eNews are now established since many years as a lively source of stories about the construction of our detector as well as the preparations for the physics running to come. The human touch in telling these stories is important, and to stimulate and motivate the article writers to include also this side of our work is one of the tasks for the Scientific Editor of the eNews. Joleen ('Jo') Pater has been the enthusiastic and competent 'skipper' for the last two years keeping the eNews on track. The whole Collaboration owes her a great and very hearty thank-you! Pauline Gagnon has kindly accepted to take up the challenge for the next couple of years. She will have the privilege to be the editor when we will see the first collisions with ATLAS! I wish her all the best for this new task. Outgoing and incoming editors of the ATLAS E-news: Jo Pater (left) and Pauline Gagnon (right)
Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W
Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Sommeil et course au large en solitaire : comportements des coureurs et étude de faisabilité d’un « agenda interactif de sommeil » Sleep and solo sailing racing : behaviour of racers and feasibility study of an “interactive sleep diary” Sueño y regata a vela en solitario : comportamientos de los corredores y Estudio de factibilidad de una “agenda interactiva de sueño”
Full Text Available La course au large en solitaire associe un effort physique et cognitif intense et prolongé durant 10 à 100 jours dans des conditions extrêmes. Elle implique le recours à un sommeil fractionné et des périodes de repos courtes réparties sur l’ensemble du nycthémère. Ces difficultés sont évoquées pour expliquer les incidents, accidents et altérations des performances.Cette étude recense les stratégies mises en œuvre par neuf des meilleurs skippers de la spécialité pour préparer puis gérer ces contraintes au cours d’une course, puis suit un skipper durant une course autour du monde en solitaire et sans escale d’une durée de cent jours.A partir de ces observations, il a été proposé à un skipper expérimenté de tester un agenda interactif de « sommeil » afin d’apprendre à gérer de façon optimale ses périodes de repos durant une course.Ce travail met en évidence que les sujets sont conscients de l’importance de gérer leurs périodes de repos, mais mettent en œuvre peu de stratégies de préparation et de gestion du sommeil avant et durant leur course. Ils présentent une période d’adaptation à ces conditions extrêmes allant de 24 à 72 heures et rencontrent ensuite des périodes de fatigue extrême avec hallucinations. Cette fatigue a des conséquences sur la performance, mais aussi sur l’accidentologie qui apparaît nettement majorée avec un possible délai allant jusqu’à 72h après l’installation d’une dette de sommeil trop importante. Les outils de laboratoire, qui ne pourraient donner des informations intéressantes que sur la base d’une utilisation continue, sont très difficiles à mettre en œuvre ici.Dans ces circonstances, le recours à un agenda de sommeil « interactif », utilisé par le sujet pour comptabiliser et gérer la répartition et la durée de ses périodes de sommeil, semble être une solution individuelle de gestion des alternances veille sommeil. Il pourrait
Full Text Available Turtle is one of the vulnerable of megafauna and as a by-catch in tuna longline fisheries, however, management practices have not been done yet. This paper described the efforts to avoid the capture of turtles on the tuna longline fishery and its handling recommendation. It has been written based on the research results and observer programs of activities that have been implemented since 2005. It’s also including a literature review rules and regulations regarding the management of sea turtles. The record results during 2005 - 2014 conducted by an independent scientific board on tuna longline in the Indian Ocean with 72 times number of setting and 89,441number of hooks. There are 105 turtles caught, which are leatherback, olive ridley turtles, hawksbill, loggerhead sea turtles as well as the unknown green turtle where the current status of turtles in the Indian Ocean is in a state of vulnerable, endangered, critically even endangered. The olive ridley turtle, loggerhead and leatherback turtles are in a vulnerable status. While, the green turtles are in a state endangered and even hawksbill in a state extremely endangered. Policy measures for handling of turtles in tuna longline fishery needs to be taken in order to be implemented include the socialization of the use of intensified circle hooks and if necessary the government issued regulations regarding the use of circle hooks, the implementation of the placement of fishing monitoring (observer aboard the tuna longline in order to assist the skippers monitoring the catch of turtles and turtle handling training for the skippers and crew in order to hold the caught turtles can be handled directly on the boat to reduce the mortality turtles which can be released back into the sea alive. Penyu merupakan salah satu biota yang rawan punah dan sebagai hasil tangkapan sampingan pada perikanan rawai tuna dimana pengelolaannya belum banyak dilakukan. Makalah ini membahas tentang upaya bagaimana
A composição dos custos de armação e a renda das expedições de pesca da frota pesqueira artesanal da região do Médio rio Madeira, Amazonas, Brasil The composition of cost and income of fishing expedictions of small-scale fishing fleet in the Medium Madeira River region, state of Amazonas, Brazil
Renato Soares Cardoso
and collected information about maintenance, cost and income of fishing expeditions, from June 2003 until May 2004, using questionnaires applied to skippers and fishers of boats and motorized canoes. The gear it was most expensive item on acquisition and the fishers the financer. The fishing expeditions of vessels were financed by six agents, fishers and ice plant owner were the principal financers. Fuel was the main items of cost on fishing expeditions of boats, fuel and ice to motorized canoes. The skippers and owners of fishing boats had a clear gain of 0.6 and 0.5 living wages by fishing expeditions and the fishers 0.3 while fishers of motorized canoes had a clear gain of 0.5 living wages.
Toumazou, V.; Greiner, E.; Blanc, F.; Lellouche, J. M.; Nouel, L.
MERCATOR-Ocean is the french group aiming at developing an operational capacity for global ocean analysis and forecasting monitoring, based on near-real-time assimilation of satellite and in situ ocean observations in three-dimensional ocean models. MERCATOR-Ocean is supported by the six major french agencies involved in oceanography : CNES (French Space Agency), CNRS (National Center for Scientific Research), IFREMER (French Institute of Research and Exploitation of the Sea), IRD (Research Institute for Development), Météo-France (French Meteorological Agency) and SHOM (Navy Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service) - with a strong engagement of their subsidiaries CERFACS (European Center for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation) and CLS (Collecte Localisation Satellite) in the success of the project. Every week since January 17, 2001, MERCATOR provides the oceanographic community with a set of maps and data about the underlying variables of the ocean, such as velocity, salinity, temperature and sea level anomalies, which describe the ocean in all its dimensions, from instantaneous analysis to 2-week forecasts, from the sea surface to the sea floor. Since november 2002, MERCATOR-Ocean has been involved in two major events. Early november 2002, the project provided skippers of the Route du Rhum transatlantic yacht race with prevision of sea-surface currents. In the mean time, on Tuesday November 19, the oil tanker Prestige sank in the Atlantic off the Portuguese and Spanish coasts. Called upon from the outset, MERCATOR OCEAN began November 20 to provide analyses and forecasts for two weeks in the future for the state of the ocean in the area, both on the surface and at depth, to teams of specialists of the crisis unit coordinated by CEDRE. This talk details these recent activities and draws the main lines of MERCATOR-Ocean actuality and future.
Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Azadbakht, Leila
Family dinner is a proxy of family connectedness that may affect mental health. The present study aimed to examine the associations of frequency of family dinner with mental disorders and obesity in a nationally-representative sample of Iranian adolescents. A total of 5528 Iranians adolescents aged 10-18 years were enrolled in 2009-2010 in the third survey of a national surveillance program, entitled Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable disease (CASPIAN-III) study. The frequency of family dinner meal was assessed. Mental health assessments were done as part of the World Health Organization-Global School-based Student Health Survey. The odds of having mental disorders and obesity were assessed by logistic regression. No significant difference was found in dietary intake between family dinner consumers (≥5 times (night)/wk) and skippers (dinner consumers had lower odds for all types of mental disorders (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.47-0.64), anxiety (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.4-0.54), insomnia (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.53-0.7), and confusion (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6-0.86), as well as the body mass index- z score (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.73-0.84). The current study showed an inverse relationship between the frequency of family dinner consuming and mental disorders and obesity in a nationally-representative sample of Iranian adolescents. Such simple recommendations for consuming family dinner for families may be feasible, sustainable, and effective for health promotion and disease prevention.
邓合黎; 李爱民; 吴立伟
横断山南部边缘地区调查获得蝶类258种,隶属于10科,128属.其中蛱蝶最多,为65种;其次是灰蝶和弄蝶,分别是51种和50种,这3科蝴蝶占总数约2/3(166/258).优势种12个(4.7%)、常见种91个(35.3%)、少见种43个(16.7%)、罕见种112个(43.3%);个体数分布的规律接近对数级数法则.仅3个横断山特有种符合本调查区域处于边缘的性质,东洋种占总数的79.1%,说明了本地区蝴蝶东洋区的基本属性.%On the basis of survey, the paper reports 258 species of the butterflies, belonging to 10 families and 128 genera at south border region in Hengduan Mountains.65 species of them are Nymphs, which is maximum, second is 51 species of Blues, third is 50 species of Skippers, the butterflies of this three families are nearly two thirds of the total at south border region in Hengduan Mountains.The faunistic composition of butterflies is made up by 3 specialized species, 204 Oriental species, 15 Palaearctic species, 13 species wide species and other 60 species, it shows the basic Oriental and its property of border region at south border region in Hengduan Mountains.The patterns of butterfly species abundance and distribution at south border region in Hengduan Mountaines approached a logarithmic progression distribution, favoring a niche pre-emption hypothesis.
Martin, K L
Over 70 species of intertidal fishes from 12 families breathe air while emerging from water. Amphibious intertidal fishes generally have no specialized air-breathing organ but rely on vascularized mucosae and cutaneous surfaces in air to exchange both oxygen and carbon dioxide. They differ from air-breathing freshwater fishes in morphology, physiology, ecology and behaviour. Air breathing and terrestrial activity are present to varying degrees in intertidal fish species, correlated with the tidal height of their habitat. The gradient of amphibious lifestyle includes passive remainers that stay in the intertidal zone as tides ebb, active emergers that deliberately leave water in response to poor aquatic conditions and highly mobile amphibious skipper fishes that may spend more time out of water than in it. Normal terrestrial activity is usually aerobic and metabolic rates in air and water are similar. Anaerobic metabolism may be employed during forced exercise or when exposed to aquatic hypoxia. Adaptations for amphibious life include reductions in gill surface area, increased reliance on the skin for respiration and ion exchange, high affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen and adjustments to ventilation and metabolism while in air. Intertidal fishes remain close to water and do not travel far terrestrially, and are unlikely to migrate or colonize new habitats at present, although in the past this may have happened. Many fish species spawn in the intertidal zone, including some that do not breathe air, as eggs and embryos that develop in the intertidal zone benefit from tidal air emergence. With air breathing, amphibious intertidal fishes survive in a variable habitat with minimal adjustments to existing structures. Closely related species in different microhabitats provide unique opportunities for comparative studies.
Nishiyama, Midori; Muto, Takashi; Minakawa, Toshihiro; Shibata, Toshie
Skipping breakfast has been considered a representative unhealthy behavior, but there is little information about the combined effects of breakfast skipping and other unhealthy health habits, especially smoking. First this cross-sectional study investigated unhealthy behaviors among breakfast skippers, and then examined the impact of the combined association of skipping breakfast and smoking on health. A total of 1,200 adults living in one Japanese community were sent questionnaires to elicit data on age, gender, breakfast-eating frequency, and other lifestyle habits. A total 603 of people returned their questionnaires (response rate: 50.3%), and 493 (230 men and 263 women) questionnaires were considered appropriate for analysis. Smoking rate in men (mean age, 53.7 years) and women (mean age, 50.4 years) was 41.3%, and 9.5%, respectively. Skipping breakfast was more prevalent in people under age 50 years (p breakfast skipping (3.10, 95%CI 1.50-6.39). Other factors included, age younger than 50 years (3.04, 95%CI 1.31-7.06) and poor sleeping quality (2.06, 95%CI 1.00-4.25). After examining the combined impact of skipping breakfast and smoking, the highest odds ratio for a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was found among those who smoked and skipped breakfast (4.68, 95% CI: 1.46-15.05). Moreover, skipping breakfast among non-smokers showed a high association with perceived stress (2.83, 95% CI: 1.05-7.61). In conclusion, the combined unhealthy behaviors of skipping breakfast and smoking are associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.
Reutrakul, Sirimon; Hood, Megan M; Crowley, Stephanie J; Morgan, Mary K; Teodori, Marsha; Knutson, Kristen L
Breakfast skipping is associated with obesity and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Later chronotypes, individuals who have a preference for later bed and wake times, often skip breakfast. The aim of the study was to explore the relationships among breakfast skipping, chronotype, and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. We collected sleep timing and 24-h dietary recall from 194 non-shift-working type 2 diabetes patients who were being followed in outpatient clinics. Mid-sleep time on free days (MSF) was used as an indicator of chronotype. Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) values were obtained from medical records. Hierarchical linear regression analyses controlling for demographic, sleep, and dietary variables were computed to determine whether breakfast skipping was associated with HbA1C. Additional regression analyses were performed to test if this association was mediated by chronotype. There were 22 participants (11.3%) who self-reported missing breakfast. Breakfast skippers had significantly higher HbA1C levels, higher body mass indices (BMI), and later MSF than breakfast eaters. Breakfast skipping was significantly associated with higher HbA1C values (B = 0.108, p = 0.01), even after adjusting for age, sex, race, BMI, number of diabetes complications, insulin use, depressive symptoms, perceived sleep debt, and percentage of daily caloric intake at dinner. The relationship between breakfast skipping and HbA1C was partially mediated by chronotype. In summary, breakfast skipping is associated with a later chronotype. Later chronotype and breakfast skipping both contribute to poorer glycemic control, as indicated by higher HbA1C levels. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine whether behavioral interventions targeting breakfast eating or sleep timing may improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Third Edition [Formula: see text] [Box: see text] Printed with permission from the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER) © 2011 ISBER All Rights Reserved Editor-in-Chief Lori D. Campbell, PhD Associate Editors Fay Betsou, PhD Debra Leiolani Garcia, MPA Judith G. Giri, PhD Karen E. Pitt, PhD Rebecca S. Pugh, MS Katherine C. Sexton, MBA Amy P.N. Skubitz, PhD Stella B. Somiari, PhD Individual Contributors to the Third Edition Jonas Astrin, Susan Baker, Thomas J. Barr, Erica Benson, Mark Cada, Lori Campbell, Antonio Hugo Jose Froes Marques Campos, David Carpentieri, Omoshile Clement, Domenico Coppola, Yvonne De Souza, Paul Fearn, Kelly Feil, Debra Garcia, Judith Giri, William E. Grizzle, Kathleen Groover, Keith Harding, Edward Kaercher, Joseph Kessler, Sarah Loud, Hannah Maynor, Kevin McCluskey, Kevin Meagher, Cheryl Michels, Lisa Miranda, Judy Muller-Cohn, Rolf Muller, James O'Sullivan, Karen Pitt, Rebecca Pugh, Rivka Ravid, Katherine Sexton, Ricardo Luis A. Silva, Frank Simione, Amy Skubitz, Stella Somiari, Frans van der Horst, Gavin Welch, Andy Zaayenga 2012 Best Practices for Repositories: Collection, Storage, Retrieval and Distribution of Biological Materials for Research INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL REPOSITORIES (ISBER) INTRODUCTION T he availability of high quality biological and environmental specimens for research purposes requires the development of standardized methods for collection, long-term storage, retrieval and distribution of specimens that will enable their future use. Sharing successful strategies for accomplishing this goal is one of the driving forces for the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER). For more information about ISBER see www.isber.org . ISBER's Best Practices for Repositories (Best Practices) reflect the collective experience of its members and has received broad input from other repository professionals. Throughout this document
In order to reduce the crew training equipment cost of using real echo sounder, and as a part of marine simulator, it is necessary to develop its simulation equipment. To achieve the highly consistent between real equipment and simulator in the operation and function, a seabed echo generation algorithm has been designed, and simulated the seabed echo and clutter echo to display. And then this paper designed a mouse can pull knob algorithms to simulate the operation of echo sounder. In addition, described the implementation of interface. On that basis, the GDS101 Echo Sounder of SKIPPER is simulated. Practice result shows that the function of the echo sounder can be fully realized by the simulator. And it has been applied in the navigational instruments intelligent assessment system.%为了减小船员培训中使用回声测深仪真实设备的成本，以及作为航海模拟器的一部分，开发回声测深仪的仿真设备很有必要。为了与真实设备在操作和功能上达到高度一致，设计了一种海底回波生成的算法，模拟了海底回波与杂波的显示，以及设计了一种能用鼠标拉动旋钮旋转的算法对回声测深仪真实设备的旋钮操作进行了模拟，并且对界面的实现进行了简单的阐述。在此基础上，利用Visual Studio 2010对SKIPPER公司GDS101型号的回声测深仪进行了仿真实现。实践表明该仿真设备可模拟回声测深仪的全部功能，仿真效果良好，并已应用在航海仪器智能评估系统中。
张欢; 罗米扬; 王质蕙; 罗家有; 石艳玲
目的 了解我国农村地区1～7岁儿童饮食行为及其与生长发育的关系,为儿童饮食行为干预提供科学依据.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样选择13692名1～7岁农村儿童,对其进行问卷调查和体格测量；采用x2检验,多因素非条件logistic回归分析等方法分析饮食行为与生长发育的关系.结果 在被调查者中,53.1％偶尔或从不饮牛奶/豆奶,48.1％几乎每天吃零食,22.5％挑食,7.3％偶尔或从不吃早餐,1.9％不能按时就餐.多因素非条件logistic回归分析显示:偶尔或从不吃早餐、偶尔或从不饮牛奶/豆奶、偶尔或从不吃零食与儿童生长迟缓有关；偶尔或从不吃早餐、偶尔或从不吃零食与儿童低体重有关；消瘦和超重/肥胖与饮食行为没有关联.结论 农村地区儿童不良饮食行为发生率较高,且不良饮食行为与儿童生长迟缓、低体重等有关.%Objective To explore the status of dietary behaviors of 1-7 years old children and its relationship with growth-development in Chinese rural areas and to provide scientific evidences for corresponding intervention.Methods 13 692 1-7 years old children from seven provinces in Chinese rural areas were randomly identified by multistage stratified cluster sampling.The ascertainment methods included face to face questionnaires and anthropometric measurements.Chi-square test and non-conditional logistic regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between dietary behaviors and growth-development.Results Among the respondents,53.1％ occasionally/never drank milk/soymilk,48.1％ ate snacks almost everyday,22.5％ were picky eaters,7.3％ were breakfast-skippers,1.9％ couldn't dine on time.Multivariate nonconditional logistic regression analysis showed that occasionally/never have breakfast,occasionally/never drink milk or soymilk,occasionally/never eat snacks were associated with stunting.Occasionally/never have breakfast or eat snacks
Full Text Available Sitor Situmorang, Toba na Sae; Sejarah lembaga sosial politik abad XIII-XX (Johann Angerler Raul Pertierra, Science, technology, and everyday culture in the Philippines (Greg Bankoff Françoise Gérard and François Ruf (eds, Agriculture in crisis; People, commodities and natural resources in Indonesia, 1996-2000 (Peter Boomgaard Kennet Sillander, Acting authoritatively; How authority is expressed through social action among the Bentian of Indonesian Borneo (Aurora Donzelli Kathleen M. Nadeau, Liberation theology in the Philippines; Faith in a revolution (Gareth Fisher Roy Ellen, On the edge of the Banda Zone; Past and present in the social organization of a Moluccan trading network (Gregory Forth Roy Ellen, On the edge of the Banda Zone; Past and present in the social organization of a Moluccan trading network (J.M. Gullick I.H.N. Evans, Bornean diaries, 1938-1942 (Fiona Harris S. Margana, Kraton Surakarta dan Yogyakarta 1769-1874 (Mason C. Hoadley Henry Frei, Guns of February; Ordinary Japanese soldiers’ views of the Malayan campaign and the fall of Singapore 1941-42 (Russell Jones Gerrit Knaap and Heather Sutherland, Monsoon traders; Ships, skippers and commodities in eighteenth-century Makassar (J. Thomas Lindblad David W. Fraser and Barbara G. Fraser, Mantles of merit; Chin textiles from Myanmar, India and Bangladesh (Sandra A. Niessen Kees Snoek, E. du Perron; Het leven van een smalle mens (Frank Okker Arthur J. Dommen, The Indochinese experience of the French and the Americans; Nationalism and communism in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam (Vatthana Pholsena J.H.M.C. Boelaars and A.C. Blom, Mono Koame; ‘Wij denken ook’ (Anton Ploeg James J. Fox and Dionisio Babo Soares (eds, Out of the ashes; Destruction and reconstruction of East Timor (Johanna van Reenen Anke Niehof and Firman Lubis (eds, Two is enough; Family planning in Indonesia under the New Order 1968-1998 (Elisabeth Schr
Olaf H. H. Mielke
from Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil: 70 years of records with special reference to faunal composition of Vila Velha State Park. The municipality of Ponta Grossa has a peculiar ecosystem, originally composed of Mixed Ombrophilous Forest and natural isolated fragments of Araucaria forest interconnected by large areas of the steppe phytophysionomy known as the Brazilian "campos" (grasslands. However, both ecosystems have been continually reduced by human occupation, with remnants still found in the Vila Velha State Park, whose floristic composition has been recently related to the Cerrado biome. Few studies have been dedicated to recognize the characteristic fauna of these grasslands and its relationship with other Brazilian vegetation types, which has motivated this study. After gathering information from more than 70 years of collecting in the region, a list of 225 species of Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Hesperioidea recorded within the municipality is provided, of which 162 are indicator species of forest environments and 53 of open areas. The Vila Velha State Park contributes to the conservation of 65% of the species and its skipper community shows a closer affinity to the Pampas and Cerrado instead of forested habitats. This relation may be attributed to its precise localization between both ecosystems, since geographical distances affect similarities on Hesperiidae assemblages. The flora of Vila Velha can also influence the observed pattern, since a considerably number of species found in the region are also found in Cerrado. Further studies are still required among Brazilian grassland habitats, especially in the Cerrado enclaves within the states of Paraná and São Paulo in attempt to better understand the mechanisms that drive the community dynamics in those areas.