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Sample records for grisea rice blast

  1. Variation in virulence in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea in São Paulo State

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    Urashima Alfredo Seiiti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistant varieties have been the preferred means to control Magnaporthe grisea, the causal organism of the rice blast disease. The objective of this study was to examine the degree of diversity of the pathogen in different rice growing regions of São Paulo State, Brazil. Blast samples collected from rice varieties in three different regions (Tremembé, Mococa and José Bonifácio were analyzed for race structure employing the Japanese rice differentials. The highest degree of virulence diversity was observed in Tremembé with 22 different races in three different varieties. Furthermore, no resistance gene in the Japanese differentials was effective to all isolates of M. grisea from São Paulo State.

  2. Sequence analysis and expression pattern of MGTA1 gene in rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiao-yu; LIU Xiao-hong; LU Jian-ping; LIN Fu-cheng

    2005-01-01

    MGTA1, a putative fungal Zn(Ⅱ)2Cys6 transcriptional activator-encoding gene, was isolated from rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe grisea, which is homologous to CLTA1 from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum with 51% identity at protein level.MGTA1 cassette contains a 2370 bp open reading frame, consisting of 6 exons, coding a 790 amino acid peptide. MGTA1 gene exists as a single copy in genomes of 7 strains of M. grisea, and is expressed in tip hyphae, conidia, and mature appressoria of strain Guy 11.

  3. Sequence analysis and expression pattern of MGTA1 gene in rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe grisea *

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    Wang, Jiao-yu; Liu, Xiao-hong; Lu, Jian-ping; Lin, Fu-cheng

    2005-01-01

    MGTA1, a putative fungal Zn(II)2Cys6 transcriptional activator-encoding gene, was isolated from rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe grisea, which is homologous to CLTA1 from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum with 51% identity at protein level. MGTA1 cassette contains a 2370 bp open reading frame, consisting of 6 exons, coding a 790 amino acid peptide. MGTA1 gene exists as a single copy in genomes of 7 strains of M. grisea, and is expressed in tip hyphae, conidia, and mature appressoria of strain Guy11. PMID:16052717

  4. A Lipoxygenase Pathway Is Activated in Rice after Infection with the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe grisea.

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    Ohta, H; Shida, K; Peng, Y L; Furusawa, I; Shishiyama, J; Aibara, S; Morita, Y

    1991-09-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid hydroperoxide-decomposing activity (LHDA) markedly increased in the fifth leaves of rice (Oryza sativa cv Aichiasahi) after infection with the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. The increases in the enzyme activities were significantly higher in response to infection with an incompatible strain (race 131) compared with infection with a compatible strain (race 007) of the fungus. Using ion-exchange chromatography, we isolated three LOX activities (leaf LOX-1, -2, -3) from both uninoculated and infected leaves. The activity of leaf LOX-3, in particular, increased in the incompatible race-infected leaves. The leaf LOX-3 had a pH optimum of 5.0 and produced preferentially 13-l-hydroperoxy-9,11 (Z,E)-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODD) from linoleic acid. 13-HPODD and 13-l-hydroxy-9,11 (Z,E)-octadecadienoic acid, one of the reaction products from 13-HPODD by LHDA, were highly inhibitory to the germination of conidia of the fungus. The present study provides correlative evidence for important roles of LOX and LHDA in the resistance response of rice against the blast fungus.

  5. Single spore isolation and morphological characterization of local Malaysian isolates of rice blast fungus Magnoporthe grisea

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    Mishra, Ankitta; Ratnam, Wickneswari; Bhuiyan, Md Atiqur Rahman; Ponaya, Ariane; Jena, Khisord K.

    2015-09-01

    Rice blast is a destructive disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. It causes considerable damage to rice and leads to crop loss in rice growing regions worldwide. Although fungicides can be used to control rice blast, they generate additional cost in rice production and contamination of environment and food. Therefore, the use of resistant varieties is thought to be one of the most economically and environmentally efficient ways of crop protection from the disease. Six new local Malaysian isolates of M. grisea were isolated using single spore isolation method. Five isolates were from infected leaf samples collected from Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah and one was from Kelantan. These isolates were identified using morphological characteristics and microscopic studies and later confirmed by ITSequences. These isolates were induced to sporulate and used for greenhouse screening on two differential rice varieties: Mahsuri (susceptible) and Pongsu Seribu 2 (resistant). Among the 6 isolates, isolate number 3 was found to be the most virulent showing high sporulation while isolate number 4 was very slow growing, and the least virulent.

  6. Physiological Macro-lesions Enhanced Resistance to Blast (Magnaporthe grisea) in Rice Near-isogenic Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shi-wen; LU Ji-ying; LUO Kun; ZHANG Xiu-fu; QIAN Qian

    2005-01-01

    Roll-leaf-1 (rl-1) and spot-leaf-1 (spl-1) were two near-isogenic lines, which were obtained after 3 to 4 backcrosses withearly season indica rice Zhefu 802 as recurrent parent. Henna macro-lesions, referred as physiological or morphological markers,began to appear on leaves at 4.5- to 6.0-leaf stage. The rice seedlings were inoculated at 3.5-, 5.0- and 7.0-leaf stages with highpathogenic races Zhong A1 and Zhong B1 of Magnaporthe grisea, respectively. The resistance of rl-1, spl-1 and Zhefu 802 againstblast was significantly different. The seedlings of Zhefu 802 at 3.5- to 7.0-leaf stage were susceptible to races Zhong A1 and ZhongB1 of M. grisea, whereas those of rl-1 and spl-1 at 3.5-, 5.0- and 7.0-leaf stages were susceptible, moderately resistant andresistant, respectively. These results suggested that the enhanced resistance of ri-1 and spl-1 related to the appearance of theirmorphological marker lesions. The experiment provided a basis for studying lesion mimic and hypersensitive response inassociation with disease resistance.

  7. Recovery and Biological Properties of Nitrate Non-utilizing Mutants of Rice Blast, Magnaporthe grisea

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    ZHANG Chuan-qing; ZHOU Ming-guo

    2004-01-01

    Eleven nitrate non-utilizing (nit) mutants were recovered from six isolates of Magnaporthe grisea cultured on MM media amended with 60 g/L potassium chlorate, with a frequency of 1.42 %. Some biological properties, such as growth rate, growth biomass, cultural characters, conidial production, sexual reproduction ability, and pathogenicity were compared between nit mutants and their parent isolates. Results showed that all the nit mutants were resistant to chlorate. Some important biological properties such as the growth rate on YPSA, conidial production ability on TPSA, pathogenicity, had no significant differences between nit mutants and their parent isolates. Mating type didn't change, but perithecia production ability of fertile isolates changed significantly as compared with that of their parent isolates. Therefore, the nit can be used as a genetic marker to study the genetics such as pathogenicity, fungicide resistance in Magnaporthe grisea.

  8. Preparation of Chitosan nanoparticles and its effect on detached rice leaves infected with Pyricularia grisea.

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    Manikandan, Appu; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare chitosan nanoparticles to evaluate their effect on protection of rice plants from blast fungus. Nanoparticles were prepared using the ionic gelation method by the interaction of Chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate. The particle size, polydispersity index, zetapotential and structure was confirmed by DLS, FTIR, TEM and XRD. The Chitosan nanoparticle was evaluated for suppression of rice blast fungus (Pyricularia grisea) under the detached leaf condition. It is evident from our results that chitosan nanoparticle have potential in suppressing blast disease of rice which can be used further under field condition to protect rice plants from the devastating fungus.

  9. Molecular dynamics of interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight pathogens

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    In an effort to develop the molecular strategies to control rice (Oryzae sativa) diseases, molecular interactions of rice with rice blast [Magnaporthe oryzae, formerly (Magnaporthe grisea] and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were analyzed. The interaction of rice with M. oryzae follows a b...

  10. Induced Pib Expression and Resistance to Magnaporthe grisea are Compromised by Cytosine Demethylation at Critical Promoter Regions in Rice.

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    Li, Yuan; Xia, Qiong; Kou, Hongping; Wang, Dan; Lin, Xiuyun; Wu, Ying; Xu, Chunming; Xing, Shaochen; Liu, Bao

    2011-10-01

    Pib is a well-characterized rice blast-resistance gene belonging to the nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily. Expression of Pib was low under non-challenged conditions, but strongly induced by the blast-causing fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea, thereby conferring resistance to the pathogen. It is generally established that cytosine methylation of the promoter-region often plays a repressive role in modulating expression of the gene in question. We report here that two critical regions of the Pib promoter were heavily CG cytosine-methylated in both cultivars studied. Surprisingly, induced expression of Pib by M. grisea infection did not entail its promoter demethylation, and partial demethylation by 5-azacytidine-treatment actually reduced Pib expression relative to wild-type plants. Accordingly, the blast disease-resistance was compromised in the 5'-azaC-treated plants relative to wild-type. In contrast, the disease susceptibility was not affected by the 5'-azaC treatment in another two rice cultivars that did not contain the Pib gene, ruling out effects of other R genes and non-specific genotoxic effects by the drug-treatment as a cause for the compromised Pib-conditioned blast-resistance. Taken together, our results suggest that promoter DNA methylation plays a novel enhancing role in conditioning high-level of induced expression of the Pib gene in times of M. grisea infection, and its conferred resistance to the pathogen.

  11. Phytochromes Regulate SA and JA Signaling Pathways in Rice and Are Required for Developmentally Controlled Resistance to Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Zhi Xie; Yan-Jiu Xue; Jin-Jun Zhoua; Bin Zhang; Hong Chang; Makoto Takano

    2011-01-01

    Old leaves of wild-type rice plants (Oryza sativa L. Cv. Nipponbare)are more resistant to blast fungus (Mag-naporthe grisea)than new leaves. In contrast, both old and new leaves of the rice phytochrome triple mutant (phyAphyB-phyC)are susceptible to blast fungus. We demonstrate that pathogenesis-related class 1 (PR1)proteins are rapidly and strongly induced during M. Grisea infection and following exogenous jasmonate (JA)or salicylic acid (SA)exposure in the old leaves, but not in the new leaves of the wild-type. In contrast, the accumulation of PR1 proteins was significantly attenuated in old and new leaves of the phyAphyBphyC mutant. These results suggest that phytochromes are required for the induction of PR1 proteins in rice. Basal transcription levels of Prla and PRlb were substantially higher in the wild-type as compared to the phyAphyBphyC mutant, suggesting that phytochromes also are required for basal expression of PR1 genes. Moreover, the transcript levels of genes known to function in SA-or JA-dependent defense pathways were regulated by leaf age and functional phytochromes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that phytochromes are required in rice for age-related resistance to M, grisea and may indirectly increase PR1 gene expression by regulating SA-and JA-dependent defense pathways.

  12. Resistance spectra of six elite breeding lines of upland rice to Pyricularia grisea

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    Prabhu Anne Sitarama

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the resistance spectra of six elite breeding lines of rice, developed for improved yield and grain quality, in inoculation tests in the greenhouse and in the field. Forty-six isolates of Pyricularia grisea collected from the cultivar Primavera, 31 from the cultivar Maravilha and 19 from six elite breeding lines, totaling 96 were utilized for inoculations. Out of 11 international and 15 Brazilian pathotypes, IC-1, IB-9, and BD-16, respectively, were identified as most frequent isolates collected from the cultivar Primavera. The isolates retrieved from Maravilha belong to four international and 11 Brazilian pathotypes, the predominant ones being IB-9 and IB-49 and BB-1 and BB-21, respectively. Lines CNAs 8711 and CNAs 8983 showed resistant reaction to all test isolates from Maravilha, while CNAs 8983 was susceptible to three isolates of Primavera pertaining to the pathotype IC-1. A majority of isolates exhibiting compatible reaction to Primavera were incompatible to Maravilha and vice-versa.Field assessment of rice blast utilizing the area under disease progress curve as a criterion for measuring disease severity showed significant differences among the six breeding lines. The isolates of P. grisea exhibiting differential reaction on breeding lines can be utilized in pyramiding resistance genes in new upland rice cultivars.

  13. Induced Pib Expression and Resistance to Magnaporthe grisea are Compromised by Cytosine Demethylation at Critical Promoter Regions in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Li; Qiong Xia; Hongping Kou; Dan Wang; Xiuyun Lin; Ying Wu; Chunming Xu; Shaochen Xing

    2011-01-01

    Pib is a well-characterized rice blast-resistance gene belonging to the nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily.Expression of Pib was low under non-challenged conditions,but strongly induced by the blast-causing fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea,thereby conferring resistance to the pathogen.It is generally established that cytosine methylation of the promoter-region often plays a repressive role in modulating expression of the gene in question.We report here that two critical regions of the Pib promoter were heavily CG cytosine-methylated in both cultivars studied.Surprisingly,induced expression of Pib by M.grisea infection did not entail its promoter demethylation,and partial demethylation by 5-azacytidine-treatment actually reduced Pib expression relative to wildtype plants.Accordingly,the blast disease-resistance was compromised in the 5’-azaC-treated plants relative to wild-type.In contrast,the disease susceptibility was not affected by the 5’-azaC treatment in another two rice cultivars that did not contain the Pib gene,ruling out effects of other R genes and non-specific genotoxic effects by the drug-treatment as a cause for the compromised Pib-conditioned blast-resistance.Taken together,our results suggest that promoter DNA methylation plays a novel enhancing role in conditioning high-level of induced expression of the Pib gene in times of M.grisea infection,and its conferred resistance to the pathogen.

  14. Registration of 42 blast resistant medium grain rice genetic stocks with suitable agronomic, yield, milling yield, and grain characteristics

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    Rice blast disease caused by the filamentous ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae Cav. [Magnaporthe grisea (Herbert) Barr.] is one of the most threatening rice diseases in the southern United States. In the present study, 42 rice (Oryza sativa L.) blast resistant genetic stocks (GSOR102501 to 201542...

  15. Obtaining transgenic rice resistant to rice fungal blast disease by controlled cell death strategy

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    MAO Shengji; GU Hongya; QU Lijia; CHEN Zhangliang

    2003-01-01

    The strategy of the two-component system, composed of Barnase and Barstar which encode RNase and a specific inhibitor to the RNase respectively, is adopted to obtain transgenic rice resistant to rice fungal blast disease. In this study, two chimeric promoters, induced by rice blast fungus pathogen (Magnaporthe grisea), are fused with Barnase respectively to construct two plant expression vectors, pWBNBS and pPBNBS together with the Barstar driven by CaMV 35S promoter. The resistance of the transgenic rice lines to rice blast fungus disease and rice blight disease are evaluated. The results show that (1) the expression of Barnase is induced in rice leaves when inoculated with the spores of Magnaporthe grisea; (2) the induced expression level of Barnase surpasses the level of Barstar, which elicits a similar hypersensitive response (HR) in the leaves, and the transgenic plant shows high resistance to the rice fungal blast disease; and (3) transgenic rice plants also show obvious resistance to rice bacterial blight disease. Taken together, these results suggest that the transgenic rice plants harboring this two-component system acquire relatively broad spectrum resistance against pathogens, especially high resistance to rice fungal pathogen.

  16. Studies on durable resistance of rice to blast in different latitudes

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    LIUErming; PENGShaoqiu; HUANGFeiyuan; XIAOFanghua

    1996-01-01

    It has been an important problem on resistant breeding that cultivar's resistance of rice to blast disease eaused by Magnaporthe grisea(Hebert)Barr. is easily broken down. In order to find out resources with durable, resistance to blast, the study was carried put during 1990-1994.

  17. Resistance Evaluation of Some Hybrid Rice, Conventional Early Indica and Late Japonica Rice to Magnaporthe grisea

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    SHEN Ying; Adreit Henry; ZHU Xu-dong; Milazzo Joelle; CHEN Hong-qi; Tharreau Didier

    2003-01-01

    Thirty isolates of Magnaporthe grisea collected from 18 provinces/cities representing 21 pathotypes and 9 different lineages were inoculated to rice varieties with known resistance genes and some hybrid rices,conventional early indica and late japonica varieties cultivated recently in China.Virulence spectrum of the 30 isolates was very different,showing that they recognize numerous different resistance genes.Varieties also revealed very different resistance patterns showing that they carry different resistance genes or combinations of resistance genes.On the basis of comparisons with international differential varieties with known resistance genes,resistance genes in certain Chinese varieties could be speculated.The results indicated that some of them were resistant to most of the isolates tested and that they could be of interest as resistance sources for hybrid parents or to be planted in the field directly.

  18. Novel rice genes involved in compatible and incompatible interaction with Magnaporthe grisea

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    DONGHaitao; HEZuhua; DONGJixin; WUYuliang; LIDebao

    1998-01-01

    The rice blast disease has been recognized asthe most devastative disease to rice. Because of the diversity of the fungus races, frequent resistance breakdown has become a barrier totraditional breeding.

  19. Analysis of Resistant Spectrum to Rice Blast in Transgenic Rice Lines Introduced Lysozyme Gene from T4 Phage

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    XU Ming-hui; LI Cheng-yun; LI Jin-bin; TAN Xue-lin; TIAN Wen-zhong; TANG Zuo-shun

    2003-01-01

    The receptor cultivar Nan29 and thirty-six T5 rice lines derived from ten T0 generation transgen-ic plants harboring lysozyme gene were challenged in the greenhouse by inoculating 63 isolates belonging to 48races of Magnaporthe grisea from Yunnan Province. The transgenic rice lines exhibited resistance to morethan 72% of isolates inoculated in this experiment, and 38.1% (24 isolates) of them could infect the receptorcultivar Nan29. The results indicated that the transgenic rice lines possessed wide-spectrum resistance againstvarious rice blast races and the resistant spectrum of rice lines were different although some lines derived fromsame T0 plant. The transgenic rice lines exhibited also high resistance to leaf and neck blast in the disease fieldevaluation, but not all of resistant lines against leaf blast were resistant to neck blast.

  20. Activities of defense related enzymes induced by benzothiadiazole in rice to blast fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Pretreatment of rice seedlings by foliar spraying with benzothiadiazole (BTH) could induce systematic acquired resistance (SAR) against blast (Magnaporthe grisea) and bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) diseases. To elucidate the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of the SAR induced by BTH, we analyzed the changes in activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamylalcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), peroxidase(POD), lipoxygenase(LOX),β 1,3 glucanase,and chitinase in rice seedlings of susceptible variety pretreated with BTH and challenged by M. grisea.

  1. Representative appressorium stage eDNA library of Magnaporthe grisea

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    LU Jian-ping; LIU Tong-bao; YU Xiao-yun; LIN Fu-cheng

    2005-01-01

    A mature appressorium cDNA library of rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, was constructed in a ?TriplEx2 vector by SMARTTM cDNA library containing 2.37?106 independent clones about 100% of which harbor foreign cDNA inserts with average size of 660 bp. Of 9 randomly selected clones, 2 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) sequences did not have homologous EST sequences of M. grisea in GenBank. The appressorium cDNA library is suitable for gene expression analysis and function analysis of the late stages of appressorium formation and the early stages of penetration of M. grisea.

  2. Development of a warning system for wheat blast caused by Pyricularia grisea Desenvolvimento de sistema de previsão de brusome causada por Pyricularia grisea

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    Cinara Araújo de Andrade Cardoso

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. blast caused by Pyricularia grisea is a new disease in Brazil and no resistant cultivars are available. The interactions between temperature and wetness durations have been used in many early warning systems. Hence, growth chamber experiments to assess the effect of different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35ºC and the duration of spike-wetness (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 hours on the intensity of blast in cultivar BR23 were carried out. Each temperature formed an experiment and the duration of wetness the treatments. The highest blast intensity was observed at 30°C and increased as the duration of the wetting period increased while the lowest occurred at 25°C and 10 hours of spike wetness. Regardless of the temperature, no symptoms occurred when the wetting period was less than 10 hours but at 25°C and a 40 h wetting period blast intensity exceeded 85%. These variations in blast intensity as a function of temperature are explained by a generalized beta model and as a function of the duration of spike wetness by the Gompertz model. Disease intensity was modeled as a function of both temperature and the durations of spike wetness and the resulting equation provided a precise description of the response of P. grisea to temperatures and the durations of spike wetness. This model was used to construct tables that can be used to predict the intensity of P. grisea wheat blast based on the temperatures and the durations of wheat spike wetness obtained in the field.Em experimentos conduzidos em câmaras de crescimento, com o cultivar suscetível de trigo BR 23 (Triticum aestivum L. foram avaliadas as interações entre temperaturas e durações do período de molhamento contínuo das espigas sobre a intensidade da brusone (Pyricularia grisea. As temperaturas testadas foram de 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35 ºC e os períodos de duração do molhamento das espigas de 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 horas. Cada

  3. Indução de variabilidade na cultivar de arroz Metica-1 para resistência a Pyricularia grisea Induction of variability for resistance in the rice cultivar Metica-1 to Pyricularia grisea

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    Leila Garcês de Araújo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A brusone é um dos fatores limitantes da produtividade da cultivar Metica-1, no Estado do Tocantins. Objetivando obter somaclones resistentes, foi realizada a indução de calos e a regeneração de plantas a partir de panículas imaturas da cultivar Metica-1. Duzentas e oitenta plantas R2 foram submetidas a inoculação inóculo de patótipos de Pyricularia grisea, ID-14 e II-1, provenientes das cultivares Metica-1 e Cica-8, respectivamente. Enquanto todas as 280 plantas R2 de Metica-1 foram resistentes em relação ao patótipo II-1, as progênies de duas plantas R1 mostraram resistência ao patótipo ID14, indicando a indução de variação genética com relação à resistência à brusone na cultivar suscetível, nas gerações iniciais. A geração R3 foi avançada e entre 280 somaclones R4 foram selecionados 51, incluindo dois somaclones, CNAI10390 e CNAI10393, que mostraram resistência vertical no viveiro de brusone. Nas gerações avançadas de R5 e R6, estes dois somaclones apresentaram resistência no viveiro e nas inoculações com cinco isolados, provenientes das cultivares Metica-1, Cica-8 e Epagri 108, e poderão ser usados como novas fontes de resistência à brusone nos programas de melhoramento de arroz.Rice blast is one of the yield limiting factors of the rice cultivar Metica-1, in the State of Tocantins, Brazil. Plants of this cultivar were regenerated from the callus cultures derived from immature panicles with the objective of obtaining blast resistant somaclones. Two hundred eighty R2 plants were assessed utilizing pathotypes ID-14 and II-1 of Pyricularia grisea, retrieved from the cultivars Metica-1 and Cica-8, respectively. While all R2 plants of the cultivar Metica1 were resistant to the pathotype II-1, the progenies of two R1 plants showed resistance to pathotype ID-14, indicating thereby the induction of genetic variation for blast resistance in the susceptible rice cultivar, in early generations. The R3

  4. Expression of a Magnaporthe grisea Elicitor and Its Biological Function in Activating Resistance in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The expression of a protein elicitor from Magnaporthe griesea and its biological function in activating resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L) were reported. The gene of elicitor was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and produced a His6-fusion protein with 42 kD apparent molecular weight on SDS-PAGE. The purified protein could induce the resistance to blast disease, with the control efficiency of 46.47% and 36.41% at the 14th day and the 21st day after blast inoculation, respectively.After treatment with the expressed protein, the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and peroxidase (POD) activities were promoted in rice plants, meanwhile, the transcription levels of STKM, FAD, PBZ1 and PR1 genes were increased in rice plants. Moreover, after comparing the profile of total rice leaf proteins on two-dimensional eiectrophoresis gel, about 14proteins were found to be increased in expression level after the expressed protein treatment. All the results indicated that the expressed protein could act as an elicitor to trigger the resistance in rice.

  5. Relationship Between Resistance Gene Analogue and Blast Resistance in Rice

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    CHEN Yu-min; FAN Cheng-ming; YANG Yan; HE Yue-qiu

    2009-01-01

    DNA fragments of 43 rice varieties were amplified with 11 pairs of primers designed based on resistance gene analogue (RGA) of plants, and the blast resistance of the varieties was identified by inoculation with 33 isolates of Magnaporthe grisea collected from Yunnan Province, China. Clustering results revealed a significant correlation between the blast resistance and DNA bands with a correlation coefficient of 0.6117 (α=0.01), indicating that the resistance analysis based on RGA-PCR clustering analysis coincided with that based on inoculation. The correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.1701 to 0.535, however, depended on the primers. Five pairs of primers, S1/AS3, S1 INV/S2 INV, XLRR For/XLRR Rev, Pto-Kin1 IN/Pto-Kin2 IN, and NLRR For/NLRR Rev might be applied for blast resistance identification in consideration of their band numbers and polymorphisms, and their correlation coefficients with blast resistance were 0.5305, 0.4898, 0.4059, 0.3719 and 0.3524, respectively. Besides, indica and japonica rice except two highly susceptible varieties, CO39 and Lijiangxintuanheigu, could be well classified by the 11 pairs of primers.

  6. Genetic diversity and virulence pattern in field populations of Pyricularia grisea from rice cultivar Metica-1 Diversidade genética e padrão de virulência em populações de Pyricularia grisea provenientes da cultivar de arroz Metica-1

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    Marta Cristina Filippi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast is a major yield constraint of the irrigated rice in the State of Tocantins, Brazil. The objective of this investigation was to study the phenotypic and genetic diversity within the pathogen population of Pyricularia grisea in samples collected from four individual farms of rice cultivar Metica-1, under epidemic conditions of leaf blast. A set of 87 isolates was tested on 32 rice genotypes including eight international differentials. Considering 80% similarity in virulence, two groups comprising a total of 81 isolates were recognized, independently of the farms from which they were collected. Eighty percent of the isolates pertained to pathotype ID-14, indicating high cultivar specificity and narrow diversity of virulence in the sample population. The virulence in pathogen population on rice cultivars BR-IRGA 409 and Rio Formoso was low. Analysis of P. grisea isolates using rep-PCR with two primer sequences from Pot2 generated fingerprint profiles of one to nine bands. Cluster analysis revealed the occurrence of six fingerprint groups with similarities ranging from 0.09 to 1. There was no straight relationship between virulence of the isolates based on reaction pattern on 32 genotypes and grouping based on Pot2 rep-PCR analysis of P. grisea isolates collected from 'Metica-1'.A brusone é um dos fatores limitantes para a produção de arroz de várzea no Estado do Tocantins. A diversidade fenotípica e genética em população de Pyricularia grisea foi estudada, em amostras coletadas em quatro lavouras da cultivar Metica-1, sob condições de epidemias de brusone nas folhas. Foram testados 87 isolados em 32 genótipos, incluindo oito diferenciadoras internacionais. Considerando 80% de similaridade em virulência, dois grupos compostos por 81 isolados foram identificados, independentemente das lavouras onde foram coletados. Oitenta por cento dos isolados pertencem ao patótipo ID-14, indicando alta especificidade da cultivar e a

  7. Host Active Defense Responses Occur within 24 Hours after Pathogen Inoculation in the Rice Blast System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-hua; JIA Yu-lin; LIN Hui; Adair INTERN; Barbara VALENT; J. Neil RUTGER

    2007-01-01

    Phenotypical, cytological and molecular responses of rice to the fungus Magnaporthe grisea were studied using rice cultivars and lesion mimic plants. The cultivar Katy was susceptible to several virulent M. grisea isolates, and a Sekiguchi like-lesion mimic mutant of Katy (LmmKaty) showed enhanced resistance to these isolates. Lesion mimic phenotype of LmmKaty was rapidly induced by virulent M. grisea isolates or by avirulent ones only at high levels of inoculum.Autofluorescence (a sign of an active defense response) was visible under ultraviolet light 24 h after localized inoculation in the incompatible interaction, whereas, not evident in the compatible interaction. Autofluorescence was also observed in LmmKaty 20 h after pathogen inoculation, indicating that rapid cell death is a mechanism of LmmKaty to restrict pathogen invasion. Rapid accumulations of defense related (DR) gene transcripts, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and β-glucanase,were observed beginning at 6 h and were obvious at 16 h and 24 h after inoculation in an incompatible interaction. Rapid transcript accumulations of PR-1 and chitinase had occurred by 24 h after inoculation in an incompatible interaction.Accumulations of these transcripts were delayed in the compatible interaction. These results indicate that host active defense responses occur 24 h after pathogen inoculation and that LmmKaty exhibits enhanced resistance to M. grisea. It is suggested that the autofluorescence and expression of the DR genes after heavy inoculation are important cytological and molecular markers respectively for early determination of the host response to M. grisea in the rice blast system.

  8. DNA tagging of blast resistant gene(s in three Brazilian rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Sandhu

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast is the most important fungal disease of rice and is caused by Pyricularia oryzae Sacc. (Telomorph Magnoporthe grisea Barr.. Seven randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers OPA5, OPG17, OPG18, OPG19, OPF9, OPF17 and OPF19 showed very clear polymorphism in resistant cultivar lines which differed from susceptible lines. By comparing different susceptible lines, nine DNA amplifications of seven primers (OPA5(1000, OPA5(1200, OPG17(700, OPG18(850, OPG19(500, OPG19(600, OPF9(600, OPF17(1200 and OPF19(600 were identified as dominant markers for the blast resistant gene in resistant cultivar lines. These loci facilitate the indirect scoring of blast resistant and blast susceptible genotypes. The codomine RAPDs markers will facilitate marker-assisted selection of the blast resistant gene in two blast resistant genotypes of rice (Labelle and Line 11 and will be useful in rice breeding programs.

  9. HUBUNAGN KEMAMPUAN PERGANTIAN INANG DENGAN PLASTISITAS GENETIKA PADA CENDAWAN BLAS PADI (PYRICULARIA GRISEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Listiyowati; Utut Widyastuti; Gayuh Rahayu; Alex Hartana; Muhammad Jusuf

    2009-01-01

    The Digitaria ciliaris, wild grass grown around rice field, was a host for Pyricularia grisea (Cooke) Sacc., the fungi caused blast disease of rice. This fungi have a specific mechanism to regenerate new genetic variation in its life cycle. The aim of this research is to study the relation between the ability of the fungi to infect different species of host with its genetic plasticity. It was used three SCAR molecular markers Cut1, Pwl 1 and Erg2. P. grisea isolates (Dc4J1) originated from ...

  10. Identification of blast resistance genes for managing rice blast disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. In the present study, an international set of monogenic differentials carrying 24 major blast resistance (R) genes (Pia, Pib, Pii, Pik, Pik-h, Pik-m, Pik-p, Pik-s, Pish, Pit, Pita, Pita2,...

  11. Mating Type Alleles,Female Fertility and Genetic Diversity of Magnaporthe grisea Populations Pathogenic to Rice from Some Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ying; Joelle Milazzo; YUAN Xiao-ping; Henry Adreit; WANG Yan-li; Jean Loup Notteghem; Didier Tharreau

    2003-01-01

    Five hundred and twenty-two isolates of Magnaporthe grisea isolated from rice in 5 Asian countries were characterized for their mating type by crossing them with 4 hermaphroditic isolates (KA3 and TH2: MAT1.1; Guy11 and TH-16: MAT1.2). Among them, 41% were MAT1.1 and 25% were MAT1.2.The remaining 34% did not produce perithecia with any of the 4 hermaphroditic testers. In Bangladesh, India,Nepal, Vietnam and in most provinces of China, both mating types were present. Only one mating type was found in 3 provinces and 1 city of China. Almost all the isolates had very low fertility, as they were in general female sterile and sometimes also male sterile. Hermaphroditic isolates were recovered from the 5 countries. In these countries, they represented between 13% and 75% of the isolates. In Zhejiang, Guizhou, Guangdong,Hunan, Yunnan and H-ubei provinces of China, hermaphroditic isolates represented between 6% and 67%.The genetic diversity of 143 isolates from these countries and provinces, where hermaphroditic isolates had been collected, was analyzed using SCAR markers. Genetic diversity was high and population structure did not resemble classical clonal structure described in most rice growing regions. The existence of sexual reproduction in the field, localization of a center of diversity in China, and migration between countries were discussed in this paper.

  12. Cloning, sequencing and expression analysis of the NAR promoter activated during hyphal stage of Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The promoter of N4R gene in Magnaporthe grisea was isolated and sequenced. The promoter sequences contained the "TATA" box, the "CAAT" box, and binding sites for fungal regulatory proteins. Programs that predict promoter sequences indicated that promoter sequence lies between locations 430 and 857 of the NAR promoter fragment. GFP expression under the NAR promoter and NAR transcript analysis revealed that this promoter is activated primarily at the mycelial stage in the rice blast fungus and could be used to express native or extrinsic genes in the mycelia of the rice blast fungus.

  13. Identification of rice blast fungal elicitor-responsive genes by differential display analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C Y; Lee, S H; Park, H C; Bae, C G; Cheong, Y H; Choi, Y J; Han, C; Lee, S Y; Lim, C O; Cho, M J

    2000-04-01

    In order to study molecular interactions that occur between rice and rice blast fungus upon infection, we isolated fungal elicitor-responsive genes from rice (Oryza sativa cv. Milyang 117) suspension-cultured cells treated with fungal elicitor prepared from the rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) employing a method that combined mRNA differential display and cDNA library screening. Data base searches with the isolated cDNA clones revealed that the OsERG1 and OsERG2 cDNAs share significant similarities with the mammalian Ca2+-dependent lipid binding (C2) domains. The OsCPX1 cDNA is highly homologous to peroxidases. The OsHin1 cDNA exhibits homology to the tobacco hin1 gene, whose expression is induced by avirulent pathogens. The OsLPL1 and OsMEK1 cDNAs share homologies with lysophospholipases and serine/threonine mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinases, respectively. The OsWRKY1 and OsEREBP1 cDNAs are homologous to transcription factors, such as the WRKY protein family and the AP2/EREBP family, respectively. Transcripts of the OsERG1, OsHin1, and OsMEK1 genes were specifically elevated only in response to the avirulent race KJ301 of the rice blast fungus. Our study yielded a number of elicitor-responsive genes that will not only provide molecular probes, but also contribute to our understanding of host defense mechanisms against the rice blast fungus.

  14. The Use of Rice Varietal Diversity for Rice Blast Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU You-yong; LI Zuo-shen; LU Bao-rong; CHEN Hai-ru; FAN Jing-hua; WANG Yun-yue; LI Yan; FAN Jin-xiang; YANG Shi-sheng; MA Guan-liang; CHEN Jian-bin

    2003-01-01

    Field experiments of mixed- (intercropping) and pure-planting (monoculture) of four rice vari-eties, representing improved hybrid varieties (Shanyou63 and Shanyou22) and high-quality traditional varie-ties (Huangkenuo and Zigu) from Yunnan Province, were conducted based on their differences in genetic back-ground and agro-economical characteristics. The results demonstrated that the mixed-planting of the hybridrice and high-quality traditional rice varieties had a significantly greater effect on controlling rice blast diseasethan the monocuiture of these varieties, particularly the traditional ones. It is evident for the highly suscepti-ble traditional varieties in mixed-planting to achieve disease control, with significant decreases in blast inci-dences and severity indexes. The blast control efficiency reached up to 83 - 98 % under such planting model.This suggests that an appropriate mixed-planting of rice varieties with diverse genetic background and agro-e-conomical characteristics is an effective approach for rice blast control. In addition, resistance of the tradi-tional rice varieties to lodging was considerably increased in the plots with mixed-planting, compared with theplots with monoculture. The average rate of grain-yield increase ranged from 6.5 to 9.7 % in the plots withmixed-planting.

  15. Phenotypic virulence analysis of Pyricularia grisea isolates from Brazilian upland rice cultivars Análise fenotípica da virulência dos isolados de Pyricularia grisea, coletados em cultivares de arroz de terras altas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina Filippi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic virulence analysis was made on population of Pyricularia grisea isolates collected from 10 upland cultivars in three distinct rice breeding sites, with the objective of studying the degree of similarity in the phenotypic virulence among the isolates, the composition of races, and their virulence pattern. Sixteen races were identified based on the reaction type on eight standard international differentials, the predominant ones being IB9 and IB41. The virulence frequency was high on IAC47 and IAC165 among medium and early maturing cultivars, respectively. The frequency of isolates virulent was greater on upland rice cultivars (51.1% than on irrigated rice cultivars (21.8%. Both virulent and avirulent isolates were present in the population of P. grisea to the known genes in the near isogenic lines. Of72test isolates, 94.4% were virulent for genes Pi3 and Pi4a. Thevirulence frequencies were relatively lower in decreasing order on Pi1, Pi4b and Pi2. Thecoefficient of similarity ranged from 0.28 to1.0 among the isolates pertaining to different races, while within the race IB9, it varied from 0.56 to1.0. Considering the coefficient of similarity of 0.81, 72% of isolates of race IB9 exhibited similar pattern of virulence.Foi conduzido um estudo de virulência fenotípica da população de Pyricularia grisea, coletada de 10 cultivares de arroz de terras altas, em três locais distintos, objetivando determinar o grau de similaridade entre virulência fenotípica de isolados, a composição de raças fisiológicas e seu padrão de virulência nas cultivares de arroz. Identificaram-se 16 raças, com base no tipo de reação nas oito diferenciadoras internacionais, das quais IB-9 e IB-41 foram as predominantes. A freqüência de virulência foi alta nas cultivares IAC47 e IAC165 entre as de ciclo médio e precoce, respectivamente. A freqüência dos isolados virulentos nas cultivares de terras altas foi maior (51,1% do que nas cultivares

  16. New technique for identifying varieties resistance to rice blast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUPeiliang

    1994-01-01

    After 8 yrs lab experiments and field tests, an advanced technique for identifying varieties resistance to rice blast was developed by a research group in Plant Protection Institute, Zhejiang Academy of AgricuLltural Sciences. With this technique, the inoculum was prepared on a maizc-rice-straw-agar media which was suitable for sporulation of most rice blast pathogen isolates.

  17. Pathotype Structure of Magnaporthe grisea in the Fields of Chongyang and Yuan'an in Hubei Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-lin; ZHANG Shu; LU Liang; CHANG Xiang-qian; YUAN Bing; YU Da-zhao

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to explore the pathotype structure of Magnaporthe grisea in Chongyang and Yuan'an in Hubei Province,China.[Method] From the rice-growing fields of Chongyang and Yuan'an in Hubei Province where rice blast occurs frequently,60 isolates which were pathotyped against two sets of host differentials:Chinese host differentials and CO39 NILs,were obtained.Then,20 pathotypes with the six indica host differentials(CO39 NILs) were observed,while 13 pathotypes in four race groups were observed out of the same single spore isolates with Chinese host differentials which consists of three indica cultivars and four japonica cultivars.The diversity of the pathotypes of M.grisea populations tested by CO39 NILs was 2.54 and the pathotype 137.1 occurred at predominantly high frequency(21.67%).The diversity of physiological races of M.grisea populations tested by Chinese host differentials was 1.22 and the race group ZA occurred at predominantly high frequency(73.33%).The diversity of physiological races of M.grisea in Chongyang and Yuan'an were also calculated.Overall,the diversity of pathotypes of M.grisea in Yuan'an was higher than that in Chongyang with the two sets of the host differentials.[Conclusion] This study provided current information on the pathotype spectrum of M.grisea populations in the rice fields of Hubei Province to allow the formulation of viable strategies for blast resistance breeding programs in Hubei Province.

  18. Rice blast research: improving our arsenal and using it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease is a constant threat to U.S. rice production, and there have been sporadic outbreaks of the disease for many decades. However, the U.S. southern rice growing area has been fortunate because the pathogen population has been relatively stable compared to other rice producing areas i...

  19. Eficiência da disseminação aérea em Pyricularia grisea Efficiency of aerial dissemination of Pyricularia grisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seiiti Urashima

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Pyricularia grisea (teleomorfa Magnaporthe grisea é um patógeno que infecta mais de 80 gramíneas. No Brasil ataca importantes culturas como arroz e trigo, causando a brusone. Mais recentemente foi reportada na triticale, cultura alternativa para os produtores de trigo no sul do estado de São Paulo. Um dos principais meios de disseminação da doença é a dispersão aérea embora pouca informação esteja disponível sobre a distância que esses esporos podem atingir a partir de uma determinada fonte de inóculo. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a capacidade de disseminação de P. grisea a partir de um foco inicial, empregando ferramentas moleculares. A presença de clones do patógeno em campos distantes 4, 30 e 1000 metros a partir de um campo infectado sugere que esporos de um determinado foco podem atingir pelo menos essas distâncias.Pyricularia grisea (teleomorph Magnaporthe grisea infects more than 80 gramineous plants. In Brazil, it attacks important crops like rice and wheat causing blast disease. Recently the disease was reported in triticale, an alternative crop to wheat producers in Southern São Paulo state. Airborne conidia are one of the most important way of dissemination, although little reliable information is available on the distance traveled by spores from an inoculum source. The present work aimed to determine by molecular tools the efficiency of aerial dissemination of P. grisea from a known inoculum source. The presence of pathogen clones in fields distant 4, 30 and 1000 meters from an infected field suggested that spores can travel at least these distances.

  20. Variantes somaclonais da cultivar de arroz Bluebelle resistentes à brusone Blast resistant somaclonal variants of rice cultivar Bluebelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Garcês de Araújo

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A brusone, causada por Pyricularia grisea, constitui fator limitante da produtividade do arroz irrigado, principalmente no Estado do Tocantins. A detecção de variabilidade genética quanto à resistência à brusone em cultivares suscetíveis, como a Bluebelle, considerada uma das cultivares-padrões quanto à qualidade dos grãos, foi o principal objetivo deste trabalho. O procedimento adotado incluiu a indução de calos provenientes de panículas imaturas, regeneração, avaliação e seleção das plantas R2 resistentes à doença. O mesmo procedimento foi utilizado para nova indução de calos e regeneração de plantas a partir de três plantas R2 selecionadas. Foi realizada a avaliação e a seleção de plantas resistentes nas gerações R2 e R4 em viveiro de brusone. Nos testes realizados em casa de vegetação com três isolados coletados da cultivar Metica1, pertencentes aos patótipos IB41 e IB45 de P. grisea, todos os 47 somaclones R6 foram resistentes. Por outro lado, os somaclones apresentaram reações diferenciais frente a cinco isolados provenientes de somaclones da cultivar Bluebelle, e resistência a um isolado proveniente da cultivar Bluebelle, enquanto a cultivar Bluebelle foi suscetível a todos os isolados. Estes resultados indicaram variação genética no que diz respeito à resistência à brusone, na segunda fase de indução de calos e na regeneração de plantas. Dos 47 somaclones R6, 22 apresentaram alto grau de resistência vertical nos testes conduzidos nos viveiros de brusone em quatro locais, e poderão ser utilizados como novas fontes de resistência.Rice blast, caused by Pyricularia grisea, is the major yield constraint in irrigated rice mainly in the State of Tocantins. The detection of genetic variability for blast resistance in susceptible cultivars such as Bluebelle, considered as a standard for superior grain quality, was the main objective of the present investigation. The adopted procedure included

  1. Identification and Evaluation of Resistance of Rice to Magnaporthe grisea in Jiansanjiang Branch of Heilongjiang Land Reclamation General Bureau%建三江管理局水稻品种对稻瘟病的抗性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成; 张金成

    2012-01-01

    为筛选出适宜在建三江地区种植的抗稻瘟病水稻品种(系),2011年对建三江地区栽培的31个品种(系)进行叶瘟、穗颈瘟抗性监测并作出鉴定分析。稻瘟病抗病(R)品种(系)有:龙粳28、龙粳29、龙粳30、绥粳10号、龙生01—107、龙生01-028—2共6个品种(系),占总鉴定品种数量的19.35%;中抗病(MR)品种(系)有:垦稻12、垦鉴稻5号、龙盾107、龙粳27、龙育03-1789、龙交04—908共6个品种,占总鉴定品种数量的19.350.4;中感(MS)品种有:垦稻19、垦稻20、垦稻21、垦稻22、垦鉴稻6号、莲稻1号、龙交06-192、龙交06—2110、龙粳20、龙粳21、龙粳25、龙粳26、三江1号、绥粳8号共14个品种,占总鉴定品种数量的45.16%;感病(S)品种有:垦稻17、龙粳31、龙粳32、绥粳3号共4个品种,占总鉴定品种数量的12.90%;高感病(HS)品种有空育131,占总鉴定品种数量的3.23%。并就如何改进稻瘟病抗性鉴定技术提出了见解,讨论了稻瘟病抗性评价在水稻安全生产上的意义。%The resistance of 31 rice varieties to Magnaporthe grisea was analyzed in 2011 to select suitable blast resistance varieties in Jiansanjiang area. The results showed that:high resistance( HR )varieties(strains )were Longjiang 28, Longjiang 29, Longjiang 30, Suijing No. 10, Longsheng 01-107, Longsheng 01-028-2, accounting for 19. 35 % ; Medium resistance (MR) varieties (strains) were Kendao 12, Kenjiandao No. 5, Longdun 107, Longjiang 27, Longyu 03-11789 and Longjiao 04-908, accounting for 19.35 % ; Medium susceptible(MS) varieties(strains)were Kendao 19, Kendao 20, Kendao 21, Kendao 22, Kenjiandao No. 6, Liandao No. 1, Longjiao 06192 ,Longjiao 06-2110,Longjing 20, Longjing 21, Longjing 25, Longjing 26, Sanjiang No. 1 and Suijing No. 8, accounting for 45.16 % ; susceptible(S) varieties(strains ) were Kendao

  2. HUBUNAGN KEMAMPUAN PERGANTIAN INANG DENGAN PLASTISITAS GENETIKA PADA CENDAWAN BLAS PADI (PYRICULARIA GRISEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Listiyowati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Digitaria ciliaris, wild grass grown around rice field, was a host for Pyricularia grisea (Cooke Sacc., the fungi caused blast disease of rice. This fungi have a specific mechanism to regenerate new genetic variation in its life cycle. The aim of this research is to study the relation between the ability of the fungi to infect different species of host with its genetic plasticity. It was used three SCAR molecular markers Cut1, Pwl 1 and Erg2. P. grisea isolates (Dc4J1 originated from D. ciliaris at Jasinga-Bogor were able to infect rice cultivars Kencana Bali and Cisokan. The original Dc4J1, from D. ciliaris, and the Dc4J1 that were reisolated from the infected rice cultivars (reisolates-1 had the same ability to infect Kencana Bali and Cisokan. Molecular technique showed that there was a different molecular marker genotype between the original Dc4J1, from D. ciliaris, and the Dc4J1 reisolated from infected rice cultivars. The original Dc4J1 owned Cut1 but did not Pwl2 in contrary the reisolates Dc4J1 from rice cultivars (reisolates-1 had Pwl2 but did not Cut1. The Erg2 presented in both the original and the reisolated Dc4J1. These results indicated that there were a change of genotype of P. grisea at the same time with the change of host species. The Dc4J1 isolates originated from Kencana Bali and Cisokan (reisolates-2 that were infected by reisolate-1, had the same genotype with the reisolates-1

  3. Current progress on genetic interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulin JIA; Guangjie LIU; Stefano COSTANZO; Seonghee LEE; Yuntao DAI

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of genetic interactions between rice and its pathogenic fungi Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani should lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of host resistance, and the improvement of strategies to manage rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Currently, dozens office resistance (R) genes against specific races of the blast fungus have been described. Among them, ten were molecularly characterized and some were widely used for breeding for genetic resistance. The Pi-ta gene was one of the best characterized rice R genes. Following the elucidation of its molecular structure, interaction, distribution, and evolution, user friendly DNA markers were developed from portions of the cloned genes to facilitate the incorporations of the Pi-ta mediated resistance into improved rice varieties using marker assisted selection (MAS). However, rice blast is still a major threat for stable rice production because of race change mutations occurring in rice fields, which often overcome added resistance based on single R genes, and these virulent races of M. oryzae pose a continued challenge for blast control. For sheath blight, progress has been made on the exploration of novel sources of resistance from wild rice relatives and indica rice cultivars. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL), named qSB9-2, was recently verified in several mapping populations with different phenotyping methods, including greenhouse methods. The ability to identify qSB9-2 using greenhouse methods should accelerate the efforts on the qSB9-2 fine mapping and positional cloning.

  4. Detection of Sensitivity and Resistance Variation of Magnaporthe grisea to Kitazin P,Carbendazim and Tricyclazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chuan-qing; ZHOU Ming-guo; SHAO Zhen-run; LIANG Gui-mei

    2004-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine isolates of Magnaporthe grisea from Guangdong, Guangxi, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces of China were tested for resistance frequency to kitazin P and carbendazim, respectively by the distinctive concentration method.The resistance frequency of the isolates to kitazin P which had not been used in practice for about ten years was as high as 79.1%,and only one carbendazim-resistant isolate was detected in Gaoyao, Guangdong Province (with a frequency of 0.78%). Meanwhile,the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of hyphal melanization was adopted to detect the sensitivity of M. grisea to tricyclazole.There existed several different degrees of sensitivity to tricyclazole in the melanin biosynthesis of M. grisea, but no relationship was found between these MIC values completely inhibiting melanization in hyphae and the EC50 values of tricyclazole against rice blast tested in vivo. After the isolates were induced by chemical taming or UV irradiation in laboratory, kitazin P-resistant and carbendazim-resistant mutants were recovered by both the methods, but none of tricyclazole-resistant mutant was obtained.

  5. Exogenous superoxide dismutase may lose its antidotal ability on rice leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf diffusates of the resistant rice cultivars suppressed spore germination of blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea). Bovine Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) added to the diffusate abolished its toxicity. However, the enzyme added to the inoculum did not affect the toxicity of the diffusate. Even the s...

  6. Caracterização da virulência de Magnaporthe grisea em cultivares diferenciadoras japonesas e linhas quase-isogênicas das cultivares IAC-25 e de CO-39 de arroz Characterization of virulence of Magnaporthe grisea on Japanese differentials, near-isogenic lines of IAC-25 and CO-39 of rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Barata da Silva

    2007-12-01

    from eight upland rice farms of cultivars 'BRS Bonança' and 'Primavera', located in five municipalities in the State of Goiás was studied. A total of 681 isolates, 321 collected from BRS 'Bonança' and 360 from 'Primavera' were utilized for the analysis. The genotypes included for characterizing virulence were nine Japanese race differentials, six near-isogenic lines of 'IAC-25', five near-isogenic lines of 'CO-39' and the rice cultivars 'Primavera', 'BRS Bonança', 'IAC-25' and 'CO-39'. The isolates of M. grisea from 'BRS Bonança' were more virulent than those of 'Primavera' on NIL's of 'IAC-25'. The majority of isolates from leaf and panicle of both cultivars were avirulent to the near-isogenic line 'CNA 8212'. The virulence was present in low frequency in the pathogen subpopulations of 'BRS Bonança' and 'Primavera' to the genes Pi-z t (Toride-1 and Pi-z (Fukunishiki of the Japanese race differentials. A low percentage of isolates were virulent on 'C101 LAC' (Pi-1 e 'C101 A 51'(Pi-2. Considering the compatible and incompatible reactions on the NIL's of 'IAC-25' to the population of M. grisea retrieved from 'BRS Bonança', the dedrogram showed one group (90% similarity coefficient, distinct from its recurrent parent. On the other hand, the population from 'Primavera', with the exception of 'CNA-8199' formed one group (93% similarity coefficient, including its recurrent parent. The resistance genes Pi-z and Pi-z t of cultivars 'Fukunishiki' and 'Toride-1', respectively, Pi-1 and Pi-2 of NIL's and the unidentified genes in NIL's of 'IAC-25', that showed broad spectrum of resistance to the populations tested can be used for developing near-isogenic lines of rice cultivars 'BRS Bonança' and 'Primavera'.

  7. Padrão de integração de pAN7-1 em mutantes de Magnaporthe grisea com patogenicidade alterada em arroz pAN7-1 integration pattern in mutants of Magnaporthe grisea impaired in pathogenicity to rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Marchi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensaios foram conduzidos para verificar a presença, o número de cópias e de sítios de integração de pAN7-1 no genoma de mutantes de M. grisea I-22 com patogenicidade alterada em arroz. Foram analisados T41, T93, T251 (gerados por mutagênese REMI e T108 (oriundo de mutagênese convencional, os quais exibiram diferentes fenótipos mutantes. O DNA total desses mutantes foi submetido à reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR e às análises de hibridização com o vetor (Southern blot. A presença de pAN7-1 no genoma de todos os mutantes foi confirmada por PCR. Segundo as análises de Southern blot, T41 exibiu duas integrações do vetor, ambas na forma de cópia única. No genoma de T93 também foram detectados dois sítios de inserção de pAN7-1, um dos quais envolvendo múltiplas cópias do vetor. Os resultados indicaram a presença de apenas uma cópia do vetor em um único sítio nos genomas de T108 e T251. O padrão de integração em T251 foi o único a sugerir a ocorrência de evento REMI. As diferenças quanto ao tamanho dos fragmentos com homologia a pAN7-1 refletiram a possível aleatoriedade dos eventos de integração no genoma de M. grisea. Os resultados evidenciaram o potencial de REMI para a mutagênese insercional de M. grisea, quando conduzida com pAN7-1 e HindIIIExperiments were conducted to investigate the presence, number of copies and integration site of pAN7-1 in the genome of mutants of Magnaporthe grisea impaired in pathogenicity to rice. The mutants T41, T93, T251 (obtained by REMI and T108 (obtained by conventional mutagenesis exhibiting different alterations in pathogenicity were analyzed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Southern blot analyses were conducted with total DNA of mutants. The presence of pAN7-1 in genome of mutants was confirmed by PCR. Based in Southern blot analyses, two single-copy integration of vector were detected in T41. Two insertion sites of pAN7-1 were detected in the genome of T93

  8. Natural variation of rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studying natural variation of rice resistance (R) genes in cultivated and wild rice relatives can predict resistance stability to rice blast fungus. In the present study, the protein coding regions of rice R gene Pi-d2 in 35 rice accessions of subgroups, aus (AUS), indica (IND), temperate japonica (...

  9. Development of blast resistant somaclones of the upland rice cultivar araguaia Desenvolvimento de somaclones da cultivar araguaia resistentes à brusone em arroz de sequeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEILA GARCÊS DE ARAÚJO

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The degree of blast resistance of upland rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivar Araguaia has decreased over time causing significant yield losses. The major objective of this study was to obtain blast (Pyricularia grisea resistant somaclones, adapting greenhouse and field selection procedures. Rice blast resistance and agronomic traits were assessed in R2 to R6 generations derived from regenerant plants (R1 from immature panicles of Araguaia. The evaluation and selection procedures include testing of early segregating populations and fixed lines in the advanced generations, under natural field conditions, and artificial inoculations in the greenhouse, with prevalent races IB-1 and IB-9 of P. grisea. Somaclones with both vertical resistance and slow blasting resistance were obtained. Twenty of 31 somaclones developed with a high degree of vertical resistance and fan shaped plant type maintained resistance in field and blast nursery tests in the R6 generation. Greenhouse selection with two specific physiologic races yielded 44 somaclones with slow blasting resistance, similar plant type and yield potential as that of Araguaia.O grau de resistência à brusone da cultivar de arroz (Oryza sativa Araguaia tem decrescido ao longo dos anos, resultando em prejuízos significativos na produtividade. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi obter somaclones resistentes à brusone (Pyricularia grisea, adaptando os métodos de seleção em casa de vegetação e de campo. Foram avaliadas plantas regeneradas (R1 de panículas imaturas da cultivar Araguaia nas gerações R2 a R6 para resistência à brusone e características agronômicas. O método de avaliação e seleção de plantas envolveu avaliações de populações segregantes e linhagens fixadas, em condições naturais de infecção no campo, e infecções artificiais em casa de vegetação com duas raças prevalecentes de P. grisea IB-1 e IB-9. Foram obtidos somaclones com resistência vertical e progresso

  10. Analysis of rice blast resistance genes by QTL mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jichen; WANG Jiulin; LING Zhongzhuan; ZHU Lihuang

    2004-01-01

    Resistance to rice blast pathogen mostly shows a quantitative trait controlled by several minor genes. Its complexity and the mutable characteristic of rice blast isolates both hinder the development of the blast resistance research. The article here tried to explore the resistance gene distribution on rice chromosomes and the way of function. Totally 124 QTLs have been identified against 20 isolates using Cartographer software with a ZYQ8/JX17 DH population, which separately are at 100 loci of 72 marker intervals on 12 rice chromosomes. Of them, 16 QTLs were determined by the isolate HB-97-36-1. 82 QTLs (66.13%) are from the resistant parent alleles, ZYQ8, while 42 QTLs (33.87%) are from the susceptible parent alleles, JX17. In comparison of their positions on chromosome, most QTLs are clustered together and distributed nearby the major genes especially the regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 8, 10 and 12. Each QTL could account for the resistance variation between 3.52%-68.64%. And, a positional QTL might display the resistance to several different isolates with different contributions.

  11. Somaclones da cultivar de arroz aromático Basmati-370 resistentes à brusone Blast resistant somaclones of aromatic rice cultivar Basmati-370

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Garcês de Araújo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A cultivar de arroz aromático Basmati-370 é uma das preferidas no mercado mundial. Possui aroma agradável, grão extra-fino, e característica de alongamento após o cozimento; porém, é suscetível a alguns patótipos de Pyricularia grisea no Brasil. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o grau de resistência à brusone, e algumas características agronômicas nas gerações avançadas de seus somaclones. Foram estudadas gerações R5 a R9, no campo, em viveiro de brusone e em casa de vegetação. Não foram observadas variações significativas na qualidade de grãos e outras características agronômicas. Entretanto, alguns somaclones apresentaram alto grau de resistência à brusone. Foram registrados no Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão 19 somaclones como novas fontes de arroz aromático. Dois somaclones, SCBAS04 e SBAS16, exibiram alto grau de resistência à brusone, e foram superiores à cultivar Basmati-370 quanto ao aroma.Basmati-370 is one of the most preferred aromatic fine quality rice in the world market. It has a pleasant aroma, extra fine grain and a characteristic elongation after cooking, but it is susceptible to some pathotypes of Pyricularia grisea in Brazil. The objective of the present investigation was to assess the degree of blast resistance and some agronomic characteristics in the advanced generations of its somaclones. The evaluations were carried out in R5 to R9 generations, in field trials, in rice blast nursery and greenhouse. Significant variations in grain quality and other agronomic characteristics were not observed. However, some of the somaclones showed higher degree of blast resistance. Nineteen somaclones were registered in the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão as new aromatic rice sources. Two somaclones, SCBAS04 and SBAS16, exhibited a high degree of partial resistance to blast, and were found to be

  12. Analysis of rice blast resistance genes from domesticated and weedy species of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blast disease of rice caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is the most serious crop disease worldwide. The fungus is known to be highly adaptive to host environments and resistance (R) genes often do not last for an extended period of time after their deployment. In the USA, a dozen genetically diverse blas...

  13. Manejo integrado da brusone em arroz no plantio direto e convencional Integrated rice blast disease management under direct drilling and conventional tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Barata da Silva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver medidas adequadas para o manejo da brusone (Pyricularia grisea, integrando a resistência da cultivar, práticas culturais e o controle químico. Foram realizados dois experimentos no campo, um no plantio direto (PD e outro no plantio convencional (PC, nos anos agrícolas 1998/1999 e 1999/2000. Os tratamentos, num total de 16, em esquema fatorial 2(4, consistiram de duas cultivares, Carajás e Primavera, duas doses de N, 30 e 60 kg ha-1, sementes não tratadas e tratadas com fungicida pyroquilon e parcelas sem pulverização e com duas pulverizações, na parte aérea das plantas, da mistura dos fungicidas benomyl e difenoconazole. A incidência e a severidade da brusone nas folhas e nas panículas foram significativamente menores no PD em relação ao PC. A cultivar Primavera apresentou maior suscetibilidade à brusone nas folhas, independentemente do sistema de plantio. A dose de 60 kg ha-1 de N contribuiu para aumento da brusone nas folhas, no PD e no PC, no segundo ano. As pulverizações com a mistura de fungicidas reduziram a severidade da brusone nas panículas nos dois sistemas de plantio. A produtividade foi maior no PC do que no PD e a cultivar Carajás foi superior à Primavera.The objective of this work was to develop adequate measures for rice blast (Pyricularia grisea management integrating cultivar resistance, cultural practices and chemical control. Two field experiments were carried out, one under direct drilling and the other one under conventional tillage, during two consecutive rice growing seasons, 1998/1999 and 1999/2000. The treatments totaling 16, in a factorial scheme 2(4, included two cultivars, Carajás and Primavera, two levels of N, 30 and 60 kg ha-1, nontreated seed and seed treated with pyroquilon, plots nonsprayed and sprayed with two applications of fungicide mixture benomyl and difenoconazole. The incidence and severity of leaf and panicle blast were significantly lower

  14. Population structure analysis and association mapping of blast resistance in indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y Y; He, J B; Li, A H; Fang, N Y; He, W W; Dang, L L; Zeng, G Y; Huang, J; Bao, Y M; Zhang, H S

    2016-08-12

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. To understand the genetic diversity of indica landrace accessions and identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that are associated with blast resistance, a population of 276 indica landraces from across the world was constructed. This population was then used to evaluate the blast-resistance phenotype through artificial inoculation under controlled conditions in 2012 and 2013. The genetic diversity and association of the population with resistance were analyzed by examining the phenotype for 160 SSR markers distributed on 12 rice chromosomes. The 276 accessions were classified into seven groups using model- and distance-based cluster analyses. Associations between SSR markers and blast resistance showed that 26 SSR markers were significantly associated with blast resistance in 2012 and 2013 (P rice blast-resistance-breeding programs.

  15. Distribution of Magnaporthe grisea Population and Virulence of Predominant Race in Jiangsu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-feng; CHEN Zhi-yi; HU Ming; LI Lian; LIU You-zhou

    2004-01-01

    Three hundred and forty-two mono-conidial isolates were obtained from rice blast specimens collected from five typical areas in Jiangsu Province during 2000-2002. The isolates could be classified into seven groups, thirty races when assessed with seven Chinese differential rice cultivars. The race ZG1 was predominant one of Magnaporthe grisea with a frequency of 65.00% in 2000, 56.90% in 2001 and 60.38% in 2002; the races ZB and ZC groups were also important in Jiangsu Province. By inoculating 130 ZG1 race isolates on thirteen Japanese cultivars with known resistance genes, forty-two pathotypes were found. Among them,30.77% of ZG1 race isolates had virulence to rice cultivars Shin 2(Pita-ks, Pi-eh), K1 (Pi-ta), Pi 4(Pi-ta2, Pi-sh), being the predominant pathotype, indicating the resistances of cultivars Shin 2 (Pita-ks, Pi-sh), K1 (Pi-ta), Pi 4(Pi-ta2, Pi-sh) had lost the resistance in Jiangsu Province. Rice cultivar K3(Pi-kh) was highly resistant to Magnaporthe grisea with 100% resistance frequency, and resistant to the two single isolates, 2003-184(ZC5) and 2003-14-1(ZG1), however, it was infected by a mixture of the two isolates. It was suggested that the change in virulence stemmed from the interaction of different pathotype isolates was one of the reasons that made variety lose its resistance.

  16. Killing two birds with one stone: Natural rice rhizospheric microbes reduce arsenic uptake and blast infections in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalam Laksmanan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Our recent work has shown that a rice thizospheric natural isolate, a Pantoea sp (hereafter EA106 attenuates Arsenic (As uptake in rice. In parallel, yet another natural rice rhizospheric isolate a Pseudomonas chlororaphis (hereafter EA105, was shown to inhibit rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Considering the above, we envisaged to evaluate the importance of mixed stress regime in rice plants subjected to both As toxicity and blast infections. Plants subjected to As regime showed increased susceptibility to blast infections compared to As-untreated plants. Rice blast pathogen M. oryzae showed significant resistance against As toxicity compared to other non-host fungal pathogens. Interestingly, plants treated with EA106 showed reduced susceptibility against blast infections in plants pre-treated with As. This data also corresponded with lower As uptake in plants primed with EA106. In addition, we also evaluated the expression of defense related genes in host plants subjected to As treatment. The data showed that plants primed with EA106 upregulated defense-related genes with or without As treatment. The data shows the first evidence of how rice plants cope with mixed stress regimes. Our work highlights the importance of natural association of plant microbiome which determines the efficacy of benign microbes to promote the development of beneficial traits in plants.

  17. Inhibitory activity of antibiotic substances extraction induced by salicylic acid in rice leaves against Magnaporthe grisea%水杨酸诱导水稻抗菌物质对稻瘟病菌的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞霞; 王振中; 纪春艳; 李云锋; 董章勇

    2011-01-01

    采用平板法和气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)方法,研究水杨酸(salicylic acod,SA)诱导处理水稻后产生的小分子的抗菌物质对稻瘟病菌(Magnaporthe grisea)孢子萌发的影响以及含量的变化.结果表明:水杨酸诱导处理后的水稻叶片提取物质对稻瘟病菌孢子萌发具有抑制作用;水杨酸诱导处理后,水稻的2个品系CO39和CIA101A51产生了分支酸、丁子香酚、稻壳酮A(Momilactone A,MA)、稻壳酮B(Momilactone B,MB)4种化合物,且水杨酸甲酯、苯酚、豆甾醇和β-谷甾醇、2种酯类物质、十一碳烷等化合物含量均发生变化.水杨酸诱导处理可以调动抗病相关的次生代谢过程,合成植保素及其他抗菌物质,从而提高植物的抗病性.%The low-molecular-weight antibiotic substances of low molecular weight induced in rice leaves by salicylic acid(SA) treatment were studied. Plate method was used to detect the effect of the extract on spore germination and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) was used to analyse these low-molecular-weight antibiotic substances. The results showed that the induced substances can effectively inhibit spore germination in Ma gna porthe grisea. GC-MS analysis also revealed that SA could significantly induce many kinds of low-molecular-weight compounds in rice leaves and that their content was increased as compared to the control group. SA could cause the production of momilactone A, mo milactone B, eugenol, and chorismic acid evidently, SA could alter the levels of phenol, methyl salicy late, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, undecane and methyl ester. These results provided direct evidence that the rice plant produces phytoalexins in response to SA treatment.

  18. Population structure and dynamics of Magnaporthe grisea in the Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J; Nelson, R J; Zeigler, R S

    1999-07-01

    The population genetics of Magnaporthe grisea, the rice blast pathogen, were analyzed in a center of rice diversity (the Uttar Pradesh hills of the Indian Himalayas) using multilocus and single-, or low-copy, DNA markers. Based on DNA fingerprinting with the multilocus probe MGR586 and single-locus probes, 157 haplotypes clustered into 56 lineages (at >/=70% MGR586 band similarity, each with unique single-locus profiles) and high diversity indices were detected among 458 isolates collected from 29 sites during 1992-1995. Most valleys sampled had distinct populations (73% of the lineages were site specific) with some containing one or a few lineages, confirming the importance of clonal propagation, and others were very diverse. Widely distributed lineages suggested that migration occurs across the region and into the Indo-Gangetic plains. Repeated sampling at one site, Matli, (170 isolates, 1992-1995) yielded 19 lineages and diversity significantly greater than that reported from similar samples from Colombia and the Philippines. Analysis of allelic associations using pairwise comparisons and multilocus variance analysis failed to reject the hypothesis of gametic phase equilibrium. The Matli population shifted from highly diverse in 1992 to almost complete dominance by one lineage in 1995. Such population dynamics are consistent with recombination followed by differential survival of clonal descendants of recombinant progeny. At another site, Ranichauri, population (n = 84) composition changed from 2 to 11 lineages over 2 yr and yielded additional evidence for equilibrium. Sexually fertile and hermaphrodite isolates of both mating types were recovered from rice in both Matli and Ranichauri. We demonstrate that Himalayan M. grisea populations are diverse and dynamic and conclude that the structure of some populations may be affected to some extent by sexual recombination.

  19. Relationship between potassium fertilization and panicle blast severity in upland rice Relação entre adubação potássica e severidade de brusone nas panículas em arroz de sequeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sitarama Prabhu

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of K2O (0, 40, 80, 120 kg ha-1 at varying rates of N application (0, 30, 60 kg ha-1 at planting, on panicle blast (Pyricularia grisea (Cooke Sacc. was studied in a field experiment conducted during three consecutive years with the upland rice cultivar Douradão. Panicle blast severity decreased with increasing rates of potassium in the absence of nitrogen (N0. The relationship between panicle blast and K rates was quadratic at 30 kg ha-1 of nitrogen. Significant response to K fertilization was not obtained at 60 kg ha-1 of nitrogen in relation to panicle blast severity.Estudou-se a influência da adubação potássica (0, 40, 80, 120 kg ha-1 de K2O e da adubação nitrogenada (0, 30, 60 kg ha-1 no plantio sobre a ocorrência de brusone (Pyricularia grisea (Cooke Sacc. nas panículas de arroz de sequeiro, em um experimento de campo realizado durante três anos consecutivos, utilizando a cultivar Douradão. A severidade de brusone nas panículas diminuiu com o aumento das doses de potássio quando não se adubou com nitrogênio (N0. A relação entre brusone nas panículas e doses de K2O foi quadrática na dose de 30 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio. Não houve resposta significativa à adubação com potássio em relação à severidade de brusone na dose de 60 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio.

  20. Assessment of the Effect of Fungicide and Seed Rate on the Incidence of Leaf Blast (Magnaphorthe Grisea, On the Growth of Foxtail Millet (Setaria Italica (L. P. BEAUV in North-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. G. S. Turaki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 a multilocational trial was conducted in a split-plot using randomized complete block University of Maiduguri and Gashua Farm station to assess the effects of fungicide and seed rate on the incidence of leaf blast (Magnaphorte grisea, on the growth and yield of foxtail millet in the Northeastern Nigeria. The results showed that the lowest disease incidence of 20.8% and 0.4% were recorded from 100% recorded significantly (P < 0.05 the highest disease incidence of 80.0% and 64.3% at Maiduguri and Gashua respectively. The highest plant height and panicle length were recorded from plants grown at fungicide seed treatment ranging from 80-100% at seed rate of 5.0kg/ha. The lowest plant height and panicle length were obtained from plants grown from the untreated seed tate of 12.5kg/ha and while the lowest grain yields were recorded from untreated seed rate of 5.0kg/h at Maiduguri and Gashua respectively.

  1. Metabolomic analysis reveals a common pattern of metabolic re-programming during invasion of three host plant species by Magnaporthe grisea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David; Beckmann, Manfred; Zubair, Hassan; Enot, David P; Caracuel-Rios, Zaira; Overy, David P; Snowdon, Stuart; Talbot, Nicholas J; Draper, John

    2009-09-01

    The mechanisms by which biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic fungal pathogens simultaneously subdue plant defences and sequester host nutrients are poorly understood. Using metabolite fingerprinting, we show that Magnaporthe grisea, the causal agent of rice blast disease, dynamically re-programmes host metabolism during plant colonization. Identical patterns of metabolic change occurred during M. grisea infections in barley, rice and Brachypodium distachyon. Targeted metabolite profiling by GC-MS confirmed the modulation of a conserved set of metabolites. In pre-symptomatic tissues, malate and polyamines accumulated, rather than being utilized to generate defensive reactive oxygen species, and the levels of metabolites associated with amelioration of redox stress in various cellular compartments increased dramatically. The activity of NADP-malic enzyme and generation of reactive oxygen species were localized to pathogen penetration sites, and both appeared to be suppressed in compatible interactions. Early diversion of the shikimate pathway to produce quinate was observed, as well as accumulation of non-polymerized lignin precursors. These data are consistent with modulation of defensive phenylpropanoid metabolism by M. grisea and the inability of susceptible hosts to mount a hypersensitive reaction or produce lignified papillae (both involving reactive oxygen species) to restrict pathogen invasion. Rapid proliferation of M. grisea hyphae in plant tissue after 3 days was associated with accelerated nutrient acquisition and utilization by the pathogen. Conversion of photoassimilate into mannitol and glycerol for carbon sequestration and osmolyte production appear to drive hyphal growth. Taken together, our results suggest that fungal pathogens deploy a common metabolic re-programming strategy in diverse host species to suppress plant defence and colonize plant tissue.

  2. Estimativa de danos causados pela brusone na produtividade de arroz de terras altas Estimation of grain yield losses caused by blast in upland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sitarama Prabhu

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos determinar as perdas na produtividade de arroz causadas pela brusone (Pyricularia grisea e estabelecer as relações entre a severidade da doença e alguns componentes de produtividade, nas condições naturais de infecção no campo. Foram realizados dois experimentos em solos de cerrado, com e sem irrigação suplementar, com as cultivares melhoradas de arroz de terras altas (Bonança, Canastra, Caiapó e Primavera. O método de regressão múltipla foi utilizado, incluindo severidade de brusone nas folhas e de brusone nas panículas como variáveis independentes e produtividade como variável dependente, para estimativa das perdas na produtividade. No experimento com irrigação suplementar, a severidade de brusone nas folhas não contribuiu para variação da produtividade. No experimento sem irrigação, a perda média na produtividade das quatro cultivares, estimada com base na equação de regressão, foi de 59,6%, considerando as médias de 33,6% e 49,9% de brusone nas folhas e panículas, respectivamente. A perda estimada em biomassa, causada pela brusone nas folhas, foi de 28,6%. As relações entre severidade de brusone nas panículas e a porcentagem de espiguetas vazias foram lineares e positivas e resultaram em 5,0% e 43,9% de perdas, nos experimentos com e sem irrigação, respectivamente. A brusone nas panículas reduziu a massa de 100 grãos em 5,9% no experimento irrigado e em 47,8% no experimento não irrigado.The objectives of this work were to determine rice grain yield losses caused by blast (Pyricularia grisea and to establish the relationships between blast severity and some yield components. Two field experiments were carried out, on cerrado soil, with and without supplementary irrigation, with upland rice cultivars (Bonança, Canastra, Caiapó and Primavera improved for superior grain quality. Multiple regression procedure was utilized including leaf and panicle blast severities as

  3. Cloning of novel rice blast resistance genes from two rapidly evolving NBS-LRR gene families in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changjiang; Sun, Xiaoguang; Chen, Xiao; Yang, Sihai; Li, Jing; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Most rice blast resistance genes (R-genes) encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains. Our previous study has shown that more rice blast R-genes can be cloned in rapidly evolving NBS-LRR gene families. In the present study, two rapidly evolving R-gene families in rice were selected for cloning a subset of genes from their paralogs in three resistant rice lines. A total of eight functional blast R-genes were identified among nine NBS-LRR genes, and some of these showed resistance to three or more blast strains. Evolutionary analysis indicated that high nucleotide diversity of coding regions served as important parameters in the determination of gene resistance. We also observed that amino-acid variants (nonsynonymous mutations, insertions, or deletions) in essential motifs of the NBS domain contribute to the blast resistance capacity of NBS-LRR genes. These results suggested that the NBS regions might also play an important role in resistance specificity determination. On the other hand, different splicing patterns of introns were commonly observed in R-genes. The results of the present study contribute to improving the effectiveness of R-gene identification by using evolutionary analysis method and acquisition of novel blast resistance genes.

  4. Promoter trapping in Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-hong; LU Jian-ping; WANG Jiao-yu; MIN Hang; LIN Fu-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Application of promoter trapping based on transformation in Magnaporthe grisea is reported in this paper. Two promoter-trapping vectors, designated as pCBGFP and pEGFPHPH, were constructed and transformed into protoplasts of M.grisea. A library of 1077 transformants resistant to hygromycin B was generated. Of which, 448 transformants were found to express eGFP gene in different structures ofM. grisea. Three transformants grew slowly, 5 transformants decreased in conidiafion and 7 transformants reduced in pathogenicity greatly among these 448 transformants. Eleven transformants were checked by genomic southern blot randomly, and 9 of which were single-copy insertions. The promoter trapping technique has been applied successfully in M. grisea and can be used as a tool for functional genomic analysis.

  5. Biosynthesis of UDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose and UDP-rhamnose in pathogenic fungi Magnaporthe grisea and Botryotinia fuckeliana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez, Viviana; Ingwers, Miles; Smith, James; Glushka, John; Yang, Ting; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2012-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, little is known about the pathways for the synthesis of these glycans. We show that rhamnose is present in glycans isolated from the rice pathogen Magnaporthe grisea and from the plant pathogen Botryotinia fuckeliana...

  6. Nucleotide Base Variation of Blast Disease Resistance Gene Pi33 in Rice Selected Broad Genetic Background

    OpenAIRE

    DWINITA WIKAN UTAMI; KALIA BARNITA; SITI YURIAH; IDA HANARIDA

    2011-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops for human beings, thus increasing productivity are continually persecuted. Blast disease can reduce the rate of productivity of rice cultivation. Therefore, the program of blast disease-resistant varieties needs to do effectively. One of broad-spectrum blast disease-resistant gene is Pi33. This study was aimed to identify the variation in the sequence of nucleotide bases of Pi33 gene in five interspesific lines which derived from Bio46 (IR64/Oryza rufip...

  7. A six-gene phylogeny reveals the evolution of mode of infection in the rice blast fungus and allied species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Shuang; Shen, Qirong

    2011-01-01

    The family Magnaporthaceae contains devastating fungal cereal and grass pathogens, such as Magnaporthe oryzae (rice blast fungus, formerly known as M. grisea), M. poae (summer patch pathogen of turf grasses) and Gaeumannomyces graminis (take-all fungus of various cereals and grasses), which are popular model organisms in fungal biology and host-pathogen interaction studies. Despite their ecological and economic importance, the phylogenetic relationships among the constituent species remain ambiguous due to the lack of convincing morphological characters and paucity of molecular data for the majority of the non-model species in the family. In this study our multilocus phylogeny suggests that both Magnaporthe and Gaeumannomyces are polyphyletic genera. The phylogeny also provides insights into fungal biology and pathogenesis. Magnaporthe oryzae formed a basal clade, while M. poae and M. rhizophila formed another well supported clade with G. incrustans and G. graminis. The basal species infect both root and aerial parts of the plant host, while the aerial infection capacity seems to be lost in the taxa of the latter clade. The phylogeny is corroborated by evolution of the anamorphs and a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CPKA) gene. Magnaporthe oryzae produces Pyricularia, while taxa in the latter clade all produce Phialophora-like anamorphs. CPKA is present in animals and many fungal lineages with various functions. In M. oryzae CPKA is essential for the formation of functional appressoria for leaf penetration. In root-infecting G. graminis var. tritici and M. poae however only non-functional CPKA homologous pseudogenes were found in their genomes. The study indicates that anamorphic and ecological features are more informative than the teleomorphic characters in defining monophyletic groups among these taxa.

  8. The Potential of Streptomyces as Biocontrol Agents against the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Khan, Tahir M.; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Pusparajah, Priyia; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a staple food source for more than three billion people worldwide. However, rice is vulnerable to diseases, the most destructive among them being rice blast, which is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae). This fungus attacks rice plants at all stages of development, causing annual losses of approximately 10–30% in various rice producing regions. Synthetic fungicides are often able to effectively control plant diseases, but some fungicides result in serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is growing interest in discovering and developing new, improved fungicides based on natural products as well as introducing alternative measures such as biocontrol agents to manage plant diseases. Streptomyces bacteria appear to be promising biocontrol agents against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi, which is not surprising given their ability to produce various bioactive compounds. This review provides insight into the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces against the rice blast fungus, M. oryzae. The ability of various Streptomyces spp. to act as biocontrol agents of rice blast disease has been studied by researchers under both laboratory and greenhouse/growth chamber conditions. Laboratory studies have shown that Streptomyces exhibit inhibitory activity against M. oryzae. In greenhouse studies, infected rice seedlings treated with Streptomyces resulted in up to 88.3% disease reduction of rice blast. Studies clearly show that Streptomyces spp. have the potential to be used as highly effective biocontrol agents against rice blast disease; however, the efficacy of any biocontrol agent may be affected by several factors including environmental conditions and methods of application. In order to fully exploit their potential, further studies on the isolation, formulation and application methods of Streptomyces along with field experiments are required to establish them as effective biocontrol agents. PMID:28144236

  9. The Potential of Streptomyces as Biocontrol Agents against the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Khan, Tahir M; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Pusparajah, Priyia; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a staple food source for more than three billion people worldwide. However, rice is vulnerable to diseases, the most destructive among them being rice blast, which is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae). This fungus attacks rice plants at all stages of development, causing annual losses of approximately 10-30% in various rice producing regions. Synthetic fungicides are often able to effectively control plant diseases, but some fungicides result in serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is growing interest in discovering and developing new, improved fungicides based on natural products as well as introducing alternative measures such as biocontrol agents to manage plant diseases. Streptomyces bacteria appear to be promising biocontrol agents against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi, which is not surprising given their ability to produce various bioactive compounds. This review provides insight into the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces against the rice blast fungus, M. oryzae. The ability of various Streptomyces spp. to act as biocontrol agents of rice blast disease has been studied by researchers under both laboratory and greenhouse/growth chamber conditions. Laboratory studies have shown that Streptomyces exhibit inhibitory activity against M. oryzae. In greenhouse studies, infected rice seedlings treated with Streptomyces resulted in up to 88.3% disease reduction of rice blast. Studies clearly show that Streptomyces spp. have the potential to be used as highly effective biocontrol agents against rice blast disease; however, the efficacy of any biocontrol agent may be affected by several factors including environmental conditions and methods of application. In order to fully exploit their potential, further studies on the isolation, formulation and application methods of Streptomyces along with field experiments are required to establish them as effective biocontrol agents.

  10. Characterization and Fine Mapping of a Blast Resistant Gene Pi-jnw1 from the japonica Rice Landrace Jiangnanwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruisen; Fang, Nengyan; Guan, Changhong; He, Wanwan; Bao, Yongmei; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast is a destructive disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, and it has a large impact on rice production worldwide. Compared with leaf blast resistance, our understanding of panicle blast resistance is limited. The japonica landrace Jiangnanwan from Taihu Lake region in China shows highly resistance to panicle and leaf blast. In this study, three generations (F2:5, F2:6, F2:7) consisting of 221 RILs (recombination inbreeding lines), developed from the cross of Jiangnanwan and Suyunuo, a susceptible-blast japonica variety, were evaluated for panicle blast resistance in the fields and leaf blast resistance in greenhouse in Nanjing in 2013, 2014 and 2015. A blast resistance gene Pi-jnw1 referring to panicle blast resistance and leaf blast resistance was identified in the three generations and located in the region of RM27273 and RM27381 in chromosome 11. The RIL18 line harboring Pi-jnw1 was selected to be backcrossed with Suyunuo to develop BC2F2 populations. According to the genotyping of 1,150 BC2F2 individuals and panicle blast and leaf blast resistance evaluation of 47 recombinants between RM27150 and RM27381, Pi-jnw1 was finally mapped to the 282 kb region between markers W28 and BS39. This study revealed that Jiangnanwan harboring a panicle blast and leaf blast resistance gene Pi-jnw1 could be a genetic source for breeding new rice cultivars with panicle blast resistance.

  11. Characterization and Fine Mapping of a Blast Resistant Gene Pi-jnw1 from the japonica Rice Landrace Jiangnanwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruisen; Fang, Nengyan; Guan, Changhong; He, Wanwan; Bao, Yongmei; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast is a destructive disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, and it has a large impact on rice production worldwide. Compared with leaf blast resistance, our understanding of panicle blast resistance is limited. The japonica landrace Jiangnanwan from Taihu Lake region in China shows highly resistance to panicle and leaf blast. In this study, three generations (F2:5, F2:6, F2:7) consisting of 221 RILs (recombination inbreeding lines), developed from the cross of Jiangnanwan and Suyunuo, a susceptible-blast japonica variety, were evaluated for panicle blast resistance in the fields and leaf blast resistance in greenhouse in Nanjing in 2013, 2014 and 2015. A blast resistance gene Pi-jnw1 referring to panicle blast resistance and leaf blast resistance was identified in the three generations and located in the region of RM27273 and RM27381 in chromosome 11. The RIL18 line harboring Pi-jnw1 was selected to be backcrossed with Suyunuo to develop BC2F2 populations. According to the genotyping of 1,150 BC2F2 individuals and panicle blast and leaf blast resistance evaluation of 47 recombinants between RM27150 and RM27381, Pi-jnw1 was finally mapped to the 282 kb region between markers W28 and BS39. This study revealed that Jiangnanwan harboring a panicle blast and leaf blast resistance gene Pi-jnw1 could be a genetic source for breeding new rice cultivars with panicle blast resistance. PMID:28036378

  12. Perspectivas del uso de bacterias rizosféricas en el control de Pyricularia grisea (Cooke Sacc. en el cultivo del arroz (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Acebo Guerrero

    2011-04-01

    .  Among fungi, Pyricularia grisea, the blast fungus is responsible for up to 100% of reduction in yields, being the blast the most important rice disease in Latin America. To control this pathogen, a strategy of sustainable agriculture might be developed, combining accurately chemical and biological products. PGPB based bioproducts have been considered as an eco-friendly alternative, which favours environment preservation. This work was aimed to approach the current status and outlook of the use of rhizobacteria in the biocontrol of Pyricularia grisea on rice. Main diseases attacking rice, most beneficial PGPB and its mechanisms of action will be discussed too in this review.Key words: Plant growth promoting bacteria, rice, biological control, blast fungus.

  13. Intercropping of rice varieties increases the efifciency of blast control through reduced disease occurrence and variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Guang-yu; LANG Jie; SUN Yan; WANG Yun-yue; ZHU You-yong; LU Bao-rong

    2016-01-01

    Creating a crop-heterogeneous system by intraspeciifc mixtures of different rice varieties can substantialy reduce blast diseases. Such variety mixtures provide an ecological approach for effective disease control, maintaining high yields with the minimum fungicide applications. Whether such an approach is universaly applicable for random rice variety combina-tions and what is the variation pattern of the diseases under intercropping stil remains unclear. We conducted two-year large-scale ifeld experiments involving 47 rice varieties/lines and 98 variety-combinations to compare the occurrence of rice blast in monoculture and intercropping plots at multiple sites. In the experiments, the plant height of the selected tradi-tional varieties was about 30 cm taler, and their life cycle was 10 days longer, than that of the improved rice varieties. The monoculture included either traditional or modern rice varieties grown in separate plots. The intercropping included both traditional and modern rice varieties planted together in the same plots. Results from the ifeld experiments under natural disease conditions demonstrated signiifcant reduction for rice blast disease in intercropping plots, compared with that in monoculture plots. For traditional varieties, the average blast incidence reduced from ~26% in monoculture to ~10% in intercropping, and the disease severity reduced from ~17 in monoculture to ~5 in intercropping. For modern varieties, the average blast incidence reduced from ~19% in monoculture to ~10% in intercropping, and the severity from ~10 in mono-culture to ~4 in intercropping. Traditional rice varieties (~72%) had a much greater increase in the efifciency of disease control than modern varieties (~60%). In addition, substantialy lower values of variance in the blast incidence and severity was detected among the variety combinations in intercropping plots than in monoculture plots. Based on these results, we conclude that the intercropping or mixture of

  14. Molecular Breeding Strategy and Challenges toward Improvement of Blast Disease Resistance in Rice Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh eAshkani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a staple and most important security food crop consumed by almost half of the world’s population. More rice production is needed due to the rapid population growth in the world. Rice blast caused by the fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop in different part of the world. Breakdown of blast resistance is the major cause of yield instability in several rice growing areas. There is a need to develop strategies providing long-lasting disease resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, giving protection for a long time over a broad geographic area, promising for sustainable rice production in the future. So far, molecular breeding approaches involving DNA markers, such as QTL mapping, marker-aided selection, gene pyramiding, allele mining and genetic transformation have been used to develop new resistant rice cultivars. Such techniques now are used as a low-cost, high-throughput alternative to conventional methods allowing rapid introgression of disease resistance genes into susceptible varieties as well as the incorporation of multiple genes into individual lines for more durable blast resistance. The paper briefly reviewed the progress of studies on this aspect to provide the interest information for rice disease resistance breeding. This review includes examples of how advanced molecular method have been used in breeding programs for improve blast resistance. New information and knowledge gained from previous research on the recent strategy and challenges toward improvement of blast disease such as pyramiding disease resistance gene for creating new rice varieties with high resistance against multiple diseases will undoubtedly provide new insights into the rice disease control.

  15. Molecular Breeding Strategy and Challenges Towards Improvement of Blast Disease Resistance in Rice Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkani, Sadegh; Rafii, Mohd Y; Shabanimofrad, Mahmoodreza; Miah, Gous; Sahebi, Mahbod; Azizi, Parisa; Tanweer, Fatah A; Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed; Nasehi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Rice is a staple and most important security food crop consumed by almost half of the world's population. More rice production is needed due to the rapid population growth in the world. Rice blast caused by the fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop in different part of the world. Breakdown of blast resistance is the major cause of yield instability in several rice growing areas. There is a need to develop strategies providing long-lasting disease resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, giving protection for a long time over a broad geographic area, promising for sustainable rice production in the future. So far, molecular breeding approaches involving DNA markers, such as QTL mapping, marker-aided selection, gene pyramiding, allele mining and genetic transformation have been used to develop new resistant rice cultivars. Such techniques now are used as a low-cost, high-throughput alternative to conventional methods allowing rapid introgression of disease resistance genes into susceptible varieties as well as the incorporation of multiple genes into individual lines for more durable blast resistance. The paper briefly reviewed the progress of studies on this aspect to provide the interest information for rice disease resistance breeding. This review includes examples of how advanced molecular method have been used in breeding programs for improving blast resistance. New information and knowledge gained from previous research on the recent strategy and challenges towards improvement of blast disease such as pyramiding disease resistance gene for creating new rice varieties with high resistance against multiple diseases will undoubtedly provide new insights into the rice disease control.

  16. Graus de resistência à brusone e produtividade de cultivares melhoradas de arroz de terras altas Degree of blast resistance and grain yield of improved upland rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sitarama Prabhu

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o nível de resistência à brusone nas folhas e panículas e seu efeito sobre a produtividade de 12 cultivares de arroz, em experimento de campo, durante três anos consecutivos. O grau de resistência das cultivares à brusone nas folhas e panículas foi determinado utilizando-se o critério de área sob curva de progresso e severidade de brusone nas panículas dez dias antes de colheita, respectivamente. As cultivares Progresso, Cuiabana, Caiapó, Carajás e Araguaia, em ordem decrescente, foram as mais resistentes à brusone nas folhas. As cultivares Carajás e Progresso apresentaram severidades da brusone, nas panículas, menores do que as demais cultivares em dois anos. A produtividade das cultivares nos três anos de avaliações, que variou de 83 kg/ha na IAC 201 a 3.617 kg/ha na Rio Paraguai, é explicada principalmente pela severidade da brusone nas panículas, já que as correlações foram negativas e significativas. As raças de Pyricularia grisea, IB-9, IB-41, IB-13 e IC-27, provenientes de 13 cultivares, apresentaram interações diferenciais. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o grau de resistência de algumas cultivares é inadequado e necessita de outras medidas de controle.The aim of this work was to study the levels of leaf and panicle blast resistance and their effect on grain yield of 12 rice cultivars, in a field experiment, during consecutive three years. The degree of leaf blast and panicle blast resistance was determined by the assessment criteria of area under disease progress curve and disease severity ten days before the harvest, respectively. The cultivars Progresso, Cuiabana, Caiapó, Carajás and Araguaia were superior in descending order for leaf blast resistance. For panicle blast, Carajás and Progresso, exhibited lower disease severities than the rest of the cultivars in the first two years. The grain yields during three years ranged from 83 kg/ha for IAC 201 to 3

  17. Molecular evolution of the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta in invasive weedy rice in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghee Lee

    Full Text Available The Pi-ta gene in rice has been effectively used to control rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae worldwide. Despite a number of studies that reported the Pi-ta gene in domesticated rice and wild species, little is known about how the Pi-ta gene has evolved in US weedy rice, a major weed of rice. To investigate the genome organization of the Pi-ta gene in weedy rice and its relationship to gene flow between cultivated and weedy rice in the US, we analyzed nucleotide sequence variation at the Pi-ta gene and its surrounding 2 Mb region in 156 weedy, domesticated and wild rice relatives. We found that the region at and around the Pi-ta gene shows very low genetic diversity in US weedy rice. The patterns of molecular diversity in weeds are more similar to cultivated rice (indica and aus, which have never been cultivated in the US, rather than the wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon. In addition, the resistant Pi-ta allele (Pi-ta found in the majority of US weedy rice belongs to the weedy group strawhull awnless (SH, suggesting a single source of origin for Pi-ta. Weeds with Pi-ta were resistant to two M. oryzae races, IC17 and IB49, except for three accessions, suggesting that component(s required for the Pi-ta mediated resistance may be missing in these accessions. Signatures of flanking sequences of the Pi-ta gene and SSR markers on chromosome 12 suggest that the susceptible pi-ta allele (pi-ta, not Pi-ta, has been introgressed from cultivated to weedy rice by out-crossing.

  18. Molecular evolution of the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta in invasive weedy rice in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seonghee; Jia, Yulin; Jia, Melissa; Gealy, David R; Olsen, Kenneth M; Caicedo, Ana L

    2011-01-01

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been effectively used to control rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae worldwide. Despite a number of studies that reported the Pi-ta gene in domesticated rice and wild species, little is known about how the Pi-ta gene has evolved in US weedy rice, a major weed of rice. To investigate the genome organization of the Pi-ta gene in weedy rice and its relationship to gene flow between cultivated and weedy rice in the US, we analyzed nucleotide sequence variation at the Pi-ta gene and its surrounding 2 Mb region in 156 weedy, domesticated and wild rice relatives. We found that the region at and around the Pi-ta gene shows very low genetic diversity in US weedy rice. The patterns of molecular diversity in weeds are more similar to cultivated rice (indica and aus), which have never been cultivated in the US, rather than the wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon. In addition, the resistant Pi-ta allele (Pi-ta) found in the majority of US weedy rice belongs to the weedy group strawhull awnless (SH), suggesting a single source of origin for Pi-ta. Weeds with Pi-ta were resistant to two M. oryzae races, IC17 and IB49, except for three accessions, suggesting that component(s) required for the Pi-ta mediated resistance may be missing in these accessions. Signatures of flanking sequences of the Pi-ta gene and SSR markers on chromosome 12 suggest that the susceptible pi-ta allele (pi-ta), not Pi-ta, has been introgressed from cultivated to weedy rice by out-crossing.

  19. Nucleotide Base Variation of Blast Disease Resistance Gene Pi33 in Rice Selected Broad Genetic Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWINITA WIKAN UTAMI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important crops for human beings, thus increasing productivity are continually persecuted. Blast disease can reduce the rate of productivity of rice cultivation. Therefore, the program of blast disease-resistant varieties needs to do effectively. One of broad-spectrum blast disease-resistant gene is Pi33. This study was aimed to identify the variation in the sequence of nucleotide bases of Pi33 gene in five interspesific lines which derived from Bio46 (IR64/Oryza rufipogon and CT13432 crossing. DNA of five rice lines were amplified using the spesific primer for Pi33, G1010. Amplification results purified through Exonuclease 1 and Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatase protocols. Labelling using fluorescent dyes done before sequencing nucleotide base using CEQ8000 instrument. The results showed that lines number 28 showed introgesion of the three control parent genome (subspecies of Indica, subspecies of Japonica, and O. rufipogon while the Lines number 79, 136, and 143 were identical to Indica genome. Strain number 195 was identical to Japonica genome. These broad genetic background lines promise as durable performance to attack the expansion of the dynamic nature of the pathogen to blast. The result of ortholog sequence analysis found conserved nucleotide base sequence (CAGCAGCC which involved in heterotrimeric G-protein group. This protein has role as plant receptor for recognizing pathogen elicitor in interaction of rice and blast pathogen.

  20. Isolation and manipulation of quantitative trait loci for disease resistance in rice using a candidate gene approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ke-Ming; Qiu, De-Yun; Shen, Xiang-Ling; Li, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Shi-Ping

    2008-09-01

    Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and fungal blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea result in heavy production losses in rice, a main staple food for approximately 50% of the world's population. Application of host resistance to these pathogens is the most economical and environment-friendly approach to solve this problem. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling quantitative resistance are valuable sources for broad-spectrum and durable disease resistance. Although large numbers of QTLs for bacterial blight and blast resistance have been identified, these sources have not been used effectively in rice improvement because of the complex genetic control of quantitative resistance and because the genes underlying resistance QTLs are unknown. To isolate disease resistance QTLs, we established a candidate gene strategy that integrates linkage map, expression profile, and functional complementation analyses. This strategy has proven to be applicable for identifying the genes underlying minor resistance QTLs in rice-Xoo and rice-M. grisea systems and it may also help to shed light on disease resistance QTLs of other cereals. Our results also suggest that a single minor QTL can be used in rice improvement by modulating the expression of the gene underlying the QTL. Pyramiding two or three minor QTL genes, whose expression can be managed and that function in different defense signal transduction pathways, may allow the breeding of rice cultivars that are highly resistant to bacterial blight and blast.

  1. Pyramiding blast, bacterial blight and brown planthopper resistance genes in rice restorer lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Zhi-juan; Yang Shu-dong; ZENG Yu-xiang; LIANG Yan; YANG Chang-deng; QIAN Qian

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast, bacterial blight (BB) and brown planthopper (BPH) are the three main pests of rice. This study investigated pyr-amiding genes resistant to blast, BB and BPH to develop restorer lines. Ten new lines with blast, BB and/or BPH resistance genes were developed using marker-assisted selection (MAS) technique and agronomic trait selection (ATS) method. Only HR13 with resistance genes to blast, BB and BPH was obtained. In addition to blast and BB resistance, four lines (HR39, HR41, HR42, HR43) demonstrated moderate resistance to BPH, but MAS for BPH resistance genes were not conducted in developing these four lines. These data suggested that there were unknown elite BPH resistance genes in the Zhongzu 14 donor parent. A more effective defense was demonstrated in the lines withPi1 andPi2 genes although the weather in 2012 was favorable to disease incidence. Blast resistance of the lines with a single resistance gene,Pita, was easily inlfuenced by the weather. Overal, the information obtained through pyramiding multiple resistance genes on developing the restorer lines is helpful for rice resistance breeding.

  2. Spatial modelling of rice yield losses in Tanzania due to bacterial leaf blight and leaf blast in a changing climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duku, Confidence; Sparks, Adam H.; Zwart, Sander J.

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the most rapidly growing staple food in Africa and although rice production is steadily increasing, the consumption is still out-pacing the production. In Tanzania, two important diseases in rice production are leaf blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and bacterial leaf blight caused by

  3. Investigating the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in greater Mwea region of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihoro, Joseph; Bosco, Njoroge J; Murage, Hunja; Ateka, Elijah; Makihara, Daigo

    2013-12-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in Kenya coming third after maize and wheat. It forms a very important diet for a majority of families in Kenya. The demand for rice in Kenya has seen a dramatic increase over the last few years while production has remained low. This is because rice production has been faced by serious constraints notably plant diseases of which the most devastating is rice blast. Rice blast is known to cause approximately 60% -100% yield losses. It is caused by an Ascomycete fungus called Magnaporthe Oryzae. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in Greater Mwea region and develop a rice blast disease distribution map using GIS approach. The study methodology employed a questionnaire survey which were subjected to sample population of households in the 7 sections with 70 blocks within Mwea region. The collected data was analysed using SAS Version 9.1. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the household characteristics, the farm characteristics and the farmers' perceptions of rice blast disease. In the questionnaire, farmers' response on whether they had been affected by rice blast disease and the total production per acreage was used to develop an attribute table with GPS points. The GPS points were interpolated to create a geographical distribution map of rice blast disease. From the research findings almost all the farmers' had awareness and knowledge of rice blast disease, 98% of the farmers interviewed were aware of rice blast disease. Out of the 98% with knowledge and awareness 76% have been affected by the disease, while 24% have never been affected. Farmers attributed rice blast disease to a range of different causes, including excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer, water shortage, lack of proper drainage canal and due to climate change. Majority of the farmers interviewed (72%) did not engage themselves in any other socio-economic activity even after

  4. Crucial roles of abscisic acid biogenesis in virulence of rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eSpence

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice suffers dramatic yield losses due to blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105, a bacterium that was isolated from the rice rhizosphere, inhibits M. oryzae. It was shown previously that pre-treatment of rice with EA105 reduced the size of blast lesions through JA- and ETH-mediated ISR. ABA acts antagonistically towards SA, JA, and ETH signaling, to impede plant defense responses. EA105 may be reducing the virulence of M. oryzae by preventing the pathogen from up-regulating the key ABA biosynthetic gene NCED3 in rice roots, as well as a β-glucosidase likely involved in activating conjugated inactive forms of ABA. However, changes in total ABA concentrations were not apparent, provoking the question of whether ABA concentration is an indicator of ABA signaling and response. In the rice-M. oryzae interaction, ABA plays a dual role in disease severity by increasing plant susceptibility and accelerating pathogenesis in the fungus itself. ABA is biosynthesized by M. oryzae. Further, exogenous ABA increased spore germination and appressoria formation, distinct from other plant growth regulators. EA105, which inhibits appressoria formation, counteracted the virulence-promoting effects of ABA on M. oryzae. The role of endogenous fungal ABA in blast disease was confirmed through the inability of a knockout mutant impaired in ABA biosynthesis to form lesions on rice. Therefore, it appears that EA105 is invoking multiple strategies in its protection of rice from blast including direct mechanisms as well as those mediated through plant signaling. ABA is a molecule that is likely implicated in both tactics.

  5. Gene interactions and genetics of blast resistance and yield attributes in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. Divya; A. Biswas; S. Robin; R. Rabindran; A. John Joel

    2014-08-01

    Blast disease caused by the pathogen Pyricularia oryzae is a serious threat to rice production. Six generations viz., P1, P2, F1, F2, B1 and B2 of a cross between blast susceptible high-yielding rice cultivar ADT 43 and resistant near isogenic line (NIL) CT13432-3R, carrying four blast resistance genes Pi1, Pi2, Pi33 and Pi54 in combination were used to study the nature and magnitude of gene action for disease resistance and yield attributes. The epistatic interaction model was found adequate to explain the gene action in most of the traits. The interaction was complementary for number of productive tillers, economic yield, lesion number, infected leaf area and potential disease incidence but duplicate epistasis was observed for the remaining traits. Among the genotypes tested under epiphytotic conditions, gene pyramided lines were highly resistant to blast compared to individuals with single genes indicating that the nonallelic genes have a complementary effect when present together. The information on genetics of various contributing traits of resistance will further aid plant breeders in choosing appropriate breeding strategy for blast resistance and yield enhancement in rice.

  6. Simultaneous RNA-seq analysis of a mixed transcriptome of rice and blast fungus interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Kawahara

    Full Text Available A filamentous fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is a causal agent of rice blast disease, which is one of the most serious diseases affecting cultivated rice, Oryza sativa. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying both rice defense and fungal attack are not yet fully understood. Extensive past studies have characterized many infection-responsive genes in the pathogen and host plant, separately. To understand the plant-pathogen interaction comprehensively, it is valuable to monitor the gene expression profiles of both interacting organisms simultaneously in the same infected plant tissue. Although the host-pathogen interaction during the initial infection stage is important for the establishment of infection, the detection of fungal gene expression in infected leaves at the stage has been difficult because very few numbers of fungal cells are present. Using the emerging RNA-Seq technique, which has a wide dynamic range for expression analyses, we analyzed the mixed transcriptome of rice and blast fungus in infected leaves at 24 hours post-inoculation, which is the point when the primary infection hyphae penetrate leaf epidermal cells. We demonstrated that our method detected the gene expression of both the host plant and pathogen simultaneously in the same infected leaf blades in natural infection conditions without any artificial treatments. The upregulation of 240 fungal transcripts encoding putative secreted proteins was observed, suggesting that these candidates of fungal effector genes may play important roles in initial infection processes. The upregulation of transcripts encoding glycosyl hydrolases, cutinases and LysM domain-containing proteins were observed in the blast fungus, whereas pathogenesis-related and phytoalexin biosynthetic genes were upregulated in rice. Furthermore, more drastic changes in expression were observed in the incompatible interactions compared with the compatible ones in both rice and blast fungus at this stage. Our

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF A MAJOR QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS CONFERRING RICE BLAST RESISTANCE USING RECOMBINANT INBRED LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobrizal Sobrizal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Blast disease caused by Pyricularia oryzae is one of the limiting factors for rice production world wide. The use of resistant varieties for managing blast disease is considered as the most eco-friendly approaches. However, their resistances may be broken down within a few years due to the appearance of new virulent blast races in the field. The objective of the present study was to identify the quantitative trait locus (QTL conferring resistance to blast disease using 126 recombinant inbred (RI lines originated from a crossing of a durably resistant upland rice genotype (Laka and a highly susceptible rice accession cultivar (Kencana Bali. The RI population was developed through a single seed descent method from 1997 to 2004. Resistance of the RI lines was evaluated for blast in an endemic area of Sukabumi, West Java, in 2005. Disease intensity of the blast was examined following the standard evaluation system developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI. At the same year the RI lines were analyzed with 134 DNA markers. Results of the study showed that one major QTL was found to be associated with blast resistance, and this QTL was located near RM2136 marker on the long arm of chromosome 11. This QTL explained 87% of the phenotypic variation with 37% additive effect. The map position of this QTL differed from that of a partial resistant gene, Pi34, identified previously on chromosome 11 in the Japanese durably resistant variety, Chubu 32. The QTL, however, was almost at the same position as that of the multiple allele-resistant gene, Pik. Therefore, an allelic test should be conducted to clarify the allelic relationship between QTL identified in this study and the Pik. The RI lines are the permanent segregating population that could be very useful for analysing phenotypic variations of important agronomic traits possibly owned by the RI lines. The major QTL identified in this study could be used as a genetic resource in

  8. Molecular progress on the mapping and cloning of functional genes for blast disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.): current status and future considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkani, S; Rafii, M Y; Shabanimofrad, M; Ghasemzadeh, A; Ravanfar, S A; Latif, M A

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast disease, which is caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is a recurring problem in all rice-growing regions of the world. The use of resistance (R) genes in rice improvement breeding programmes has been considered to be one of the best options for crop protection and blast management. Alternatively, quantitative resistance conferred by quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is also a valuable resource for the improvement of rice disease resistance. In the past, intensive efforts have been made to identify major R-genes as well as QTLs for blast disease using molecular techniques. A review of bibliographic references shows over 100 blast resistance genes and a larger number of QTLs (∼500) that were mapped to the rice genome. Of the blast resistance genes, identified in different genotypes of rice, ∼22 have been cloned and characterized at the molecular level. In this review, we have summarized the reported rice blast resistance genes and QTLs for utilization in future molecular breeding programmes to introgress high-degree resistance or to pyramid R-genes in commercial cultivars that are susceptible to M. oryzae. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the significant studies in order to update our understanding of the molecular progress on rice and M. oryzae. This information will assist rice breeders to improve the resistance to rice blast using marker-assisted selection which continues to be a priority for rice-breeding programmes.

  9. Identification of blast resistance expression in rice genotypes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... genotypes were evaluated for resistance to blast disease under induced epiphytotic conditions obtained in the ..... desirable changes in the population through selection ..... that resistance sources are non-allelic for resistance.

  10. The wheat durable, multipathogen resistance gene Lr34 confers partial blast resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krattinger, Simon G; Sucher, Justine; Selter, Liselotte L; Chauhan, Harsh; Zhou, Bo; Tang, Mingzhi; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Mieulet, Delphine; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Weidenbach, Denise; Schaffrath, Ulrich; Lagudah, Evans S; Keller, Beat

    2016-05-01

    The wheat gene Lr34 confers durable and partial field resistance against the obligate biotrophic, pathogenic rust fungi and powdery mildew in adult wheat plants. The resistant Lr34 allele evolved after wheat domestication through two gain-of-function mutations in an ATP-binding cassette transporter gene. An Lr34-like fungal disease resistance with a similar broad-spectrum specificity and durability has not been described in other cereals. Here, we transformed the resistant Lr34 allele into the japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare. Transgenic rice plants expressing Lr34 showed increased resistance against multiple isolates of the hemibiotrophic pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease. Host cell invasion during the biotrophic growth phase of rice blast was delayed in Lr34-expressing rice plants, resulting in smaller necrotic lesions on leaves. Lines with Lr34 also developed a typical, senescence-based leaf tip necrosis (LTN) phenotype. Development of LTN during early seedling growth had a negative impact on formation of axillary shoots and spikelets in some transgenic lines. One transgenic line developed LTN only at adult plant stage which was correlated with lower Lr34 expression levels at seedling stage. This line showed normal tiller formation and more importantly, disease resistance in this particular line was not compromised. Interestingly, Lr34 in rice is effective against a hemibiotrophic pathogen with a lifestyle and infection strategy that is different from obligate biotrophic rusts and mildew fungi. Lr34 might therefore be used as a source in rice breeding to improve broad-spectrum disease resistance against the most devastating fungal disease of rice.

  11. Overexpression of phosphomimic mutated OsWRKY53 leads to enhanced blast resistance in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Chujo

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades have been shown to play pivotal roles in the regulation of plant defense responses. We previously reported that OsWRKY53-overexpressing rice plants showed enhanced resistance to the rice blast fungus. In this study, we identified OsWRKY53 as a substrate of OsMPK3/OsMPK6, components of a fungal PAMP-responsive MAPK cascade in rice, and analyzed the effect of OsWRKY53 phosphorylation on the regulation of basal defense responses to a virulence race of rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae strain Ina86-137. An in vitro phosphorylation assay revealed that the OsMPK3/OsMPK6 activated by OsMKK4 phosphorylated OsWRKY53 recombinant protein at its multiple clustered serine-proline residues (SP cluster. When OsWRKY53 was coexpressed with a constitutively active mutant of OsMKK4 in a transient reporter gene assay, the enhanced transactivation activity of OsWRKY53 was found to be dependent on phosphorylation of the SP cluster. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing a phospho-mimic mutant of OsWRKY53 (OsWRKY53SD showed further-enhanced disease resistance to the blast fungus compared to native OsWRKY53-overexpressing rice plants, and a substantial number of defense-related genes, including pathogenesis-related protein genes, were more upregulated in the OsWRKY53SD-overexpressing plants compared to the OsWRKY53-overexpressing plants. These results strongly suggest that the OsMKK4-OsMPK3/OsMPK6 cascade regulates transactivation activity of OsWRKY53, and overexpression of the phospho-mimic mutant of OsWRKY53 results in a major change to the rice transcriptome at steady state that leads to activation of a defense response against the blast fungus in rice plants.

  12. Establishment and Application of a Set of Material System for Studying the Resistance to Blast in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-fang; LUO Wen-yong; XIAO Xin; MAO Xing-xue; LIU Yan-zhuo

    2003-01-01

    The study used Waixuan35, a blast resistant rice material adopted widely previously in South China, Yuexiangzhan, a rice variety with the largest planting area in Guangdong Province at present and with the characteristics of horizontal blast resistance and high harvest index, and Qisizhan, the earliest good eating quality variety in Guangdong Province as parent materials, and created an important material systems for studying agricultural characters such as rice blast resistance genes, their resistance mechanisms and quality by hybridization offspring single grain transfer method and DNA hybridization method, namely recombination inbred line RIL, extend recombination inbred line ERIL and transferred-mutant recombination inbred line TRIL assemblages. In RIL assemblage, various materials of resistance gene combinations for identifying rice blast pathogen strains had been identified from the material system, providing direct material evidence for gene to gene theory. Using the same control and same method, in ERIL assemblage, it was proved that there were several main resistance genes and several minor resistance genes in horizontal resistant Yuexiangzhan,providing preliminary evidences for multigene control in horizontal resistance. A set of stable material assemblage for studying future horizontal resistance had been created. A mutation material of Yuexiangzhan from horizontal resistance to vertical resistance was obtained by wild rice external DNA electric stimulation introduction, and variation in mutation assemblage was certified by SSLP. These studies and materials provided important new materials for studying rice blast resistance mechanisms, gene cloning, resistance genes especially horizontal resistance.

  13. Suppression of Rice Blast by Preinoculation with Avirulent Pyricularia oryzae and the Nonrice Pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, H K; Lyngs Jørgensen, H J; Mathur, S B; Smedegaard-Petersen, V

    1998-07-01

    ABSTRACT Avirulent isolates of Pyricularia oryzae and isolates of Bipolaris sorokiniana, a nonrice pathogen, were used to suppress rice blast caused by P. oryzae. In greenhouse experiments, both fungi substantially reduced leaf blast when applied 24 h or more before the pathogen. B. sorokiniana, but not avirulent isolates of P. oryzae, systemically reduced disease in leaf 5 when applied to whole plants at the four-leaf stage. In field experiments, both fungi were able to reduce neck blast significantly. No increase in grain yield was obtained by using avirulent isolates of P. oryzae, whereas five sprays with B. sorokiniana from seedling to heading stages increased the grain yield in two of three experiments conducted at two locations in Nepal. The significant increase in yield was observed under high inoculum pressure of P. oryzae. Induced resistance is suggested to be involved in the suppression of disease.

  14. Modern elite rice varieties of the 'Green Revolution' have retained a large introgression from wild rice around the Pi33 rice blast resistance locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballini, Elsa; Berruyer, Romain; Morel, Jean-Benoît; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Nottéghem, Jean-Loup; Tharreau, Didier

    2007-01-01

    During the breeding process of cultivated crops, resistance genes to pests and diseases are commonly introgressed from wild species. The size of these introgressions is predicted by theoretical models but has rarely been measured in cultivated varieties. By combining resistance tests with isogenic strains, genotyping and sequencing of different rice accessions, it was shown that, in the elite rice variety IR64, the resistance conferring allele of the rice blast resistance gene Pi33 was introgressed from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon (accession IRGC101508). Further characterization of this introgression revealed a large introgression at this locus in IR64 and the related variety IR36. The introgressed fragment represents approximately half of the short arm of rice chromosome 8. This is the first report of a large introgression in a cultivated variety of rice. Such a large introgression is likely to have been maintained during backcrossing only if a selection pressure was exerted on this genomic region. The possible traits that were selected are discussed.

  15. Screening of sporogenous medium for Pyricularia grisea (Cooke) Sacc%灰梨孢菌产孢培养基筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍秀娟; 李朝生; 韩美丽; 陆荣生

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To provide technical support for Pyricularia grisea research, common effective sporogenous medium with simple, suitable operation was screened in the present experiment. [ Method ] Six Pyricularia grisea isolates obtained from rice, banana, and crab-grass were inoculated on nine kinds of media, e.g., C. communis, sorghum grain and barleycorn, etc. Effects of different media on sporulation quantity of Pyricularia grisea were investigated, and pathogenicity of Pyricularia grisea as assayed in C. communis media. [Result]Sorghum grain, barleycorn and C. communis media pronouncedly stimulated the sporulation in six strains with C. communis bested. Compared to commonly -used sorghum grain medium, spores cultured in C. communis media had similar pathogenicity towards rice and banana. Magna-porthe oryzae and banana blast strains in C. communis medium could be preserved at 4℃ for two years. [Conclusion]C. communis media was found to be the most suitable media for spores of Pyricularia grisea, and it was also found to conserve Pyricularia grisea.%[目的]筛选操作方法简便、产孢效果好、适宜于大多数灰梨孢菌的产孢培养基,为灰梨孢菌研究提供一定的技术支持.[方法]从水稻、香蕉和杂草马唐上分离获得6个灰梨孢菌菌株,接种于紫花鸭趾草、高粱粒和大麦粒等9种培养基上,测定不同培养基对灰梨孢菌产孢量的影响,并比较分析紫花鸭趾草培养基对病菌致病力的影响.[结果]高粱粒、大麦粒和紫花鸭趾草培养基对6个菌株孢子形成均有明显的促进作用,以紫花鸭趾草培养基的促进作用最明显.与常用的高粱粒培养基相比,6个菌株在紫花鸭趾草培养基上形成的病菌分生孢子对香蕉和水稻的致病力没有明显差异.在4℃冰箱中,用紫花鸭趾草培养基保存蕉瘟病和稻瘟病菌菌种,两年后病菌仍具有生活力.[结论]紫花鸭趾草培养基是适宜于灰梨孢菌分生孢子形成的理想

  16. Characterization of rue extract and its potential for controlling rice blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karinna Bannach Reis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to purify and standardize the rue (Ruta graveolens extract and evaluate its effect on Magnaporthe oryzae as an alternative to the integrated management of rice blast. The drug was characterized, the liquid extract was obtained, and the methodology for quantifying the standard markers psoralen and bergapten was validated. Rue extract and the markers, solely or in combination, were assayed in vitro, as well as in greenhouse conditions, for their ability to suppress leaf blast, by the evaluation of mycelial growth, conidial germination, and appressorium formation. Rue extract inhibited M. oryzae mycelial growth (100%, conidial germination (LD50=0.237 mg, and the appressorium formation (LD50=0.121 mg; besides, the extract reduced leaf blast severity by 80.84%. Fluorescence microscopy showed that rue extract did not damage M. oryzae cell wall and plasma membrane, indicating another mode of action. Rue extract has a great potential for controlling rice leaf blast.

  17. Enhancing disease resistances of Super Hybrid Rice with four antifungal genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A plant expression vector harboring four antifungal genes was delivered into the embryogenic calli of ‘9311’, an indica restorer line of Super Hybrid Rice, via modified biolistic particle bombardment. Southern blot analysis indicated that in the regenerated hygromycin-resistant plants, all the four anti-fungal genes, including RCH10, RAC22, β-Glu and B-RIP, were integrated into the genome of ‘9311’, co-transmitted altogether with the marker gene hpt in a Mendelian pattern. Some transgenic R1 and R2 progenies, with all transgenes displaying a normal expression level in the Northern blot analysis, showed high resistance to Magnaporthe grisea when tested in the typical blast nurseries located in Yanxi and Sanya respectively. Furthermore, transgenic F1 plants, resulting from a cross of R2 homo-zygous lines with high resistance to rice blast with the non-transgenic male sterile line Peiai 64S, showed not only high resistance to M. grisea but also enhanced resistance to rice false smut (a disease caused by Ustilaginoidea virens) and rice kernel smut (another disease caused by Tilletia barclayana).

  18. Vegetative Compatibility and Asexual Recombination in Magnaporthe grisea from Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-li; ZHANG Zheng-guang; ZHENG Xiao-bo

    2003-01-01

    Vegetative compatibility among isolates of different races in Magnaporthe grisea collectedfrom Jiangsu Province and asexual recombination among compatible isolates by anastomosis were tested.Twenty isolates involving seven races from diseased rice plants were paired on polished rice rose bengal mediumand incubated at 25℃ in darkness for 18 days. Among 173 pairings tested, solid hyphai fusion lines formed byanastomosis between 124 pairings, indicated that these isolates were vegetative compatible with each other.The result showed that most M. grisea isolates were vegetative compatible. Furthermore, 17 vegetative com-patible pairings between monoconidial isolates with MBCsIPTr marker and isolates with MBCrIPTs markerwere selected to detect the asexual recombination between the compatible isolates of different races. The asexu-al recombinants with MBCrIPTr marker were detected in single hyphal fragment progenies in thirteen of theseventeen pairings. The percentage of recombinants was about 0.6 - 11.3%. Results showed that vegetative com-patibility was prevailing among isolates of M. grisea in Jiangsu Province in vitro. These results also suggested thatasexual recombination may be an important mechanism for M. grisea to maintain genetic diversity in nature.

  19. Eumicetoma por Madurella grisea: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available E relatado um caso de micetoma por Madurella grisea de localização podai em uma mulher do lar. A identificação da amostra foi feita através das características macro e microscópicas do agente em ágar Sabouraud e através da assimilação de açúcares. Este é o quinto caso de micetoma por Madurella grisea relatado no Brasil.One case of mycetoma produced by Madurella grisea localised on the foot of a house wife is reported. The identification of the strain was made through the following features: aspect of the grains, micro e macromorphology in Sabouraud agar and capacity of assimilation of the sugars. This is the fifth case of mycetoma by Madurella grisea reported from Brasil.

  20. Eumycotic mycetoma due to Madurella grisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Belda Júnior

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors reported one case of eumycotic mycetoma due to Madurella grisea (black grains occurred on the right foot of the patient studied. The structure, microscopic morphology and therapeutic evolution are also studied and reported.

  1. Investigating the biology of plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Oses-Ruiz, Miriam; Ryder, Lauren S; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2016-05-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is responsible for the most serious disease of rice and is a continuing threat to ensuring global food security. The fungus has also, however, emerged as a model experimental organism for understanding plant infection processes by pathogenic fungi. This is largely due to its amenability to both classical and molecular genetics, coupled with the efforts of a very large international research community. This review, which is based on a plenary presentation at the 28th Fungal Genetics Conference in Asilomar, California in March 2015, describes recent progress in understanding how M. oryzae uses specialised cell called appressoria to bring about plant infection and the underlying biology of this developmental process. We also review how the fungus is then able to proliferate within rice tissue, deploying effector proteins to facilitate its spread by suppressing plant immunity and promoting growth and development of the fungus.

  2. Inheritance patterns and identification of microsatellite markers linked to the rice blast resistance in BC2F1 population of rice breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gous Miah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The BC2F1 population was derived from a cross between rice variety, MR219 (susceptible to blast and Pongsu Seribu 1 (resistant to blast. The objectives of this research were to know the inheritance pattern of blast resistance and to identify the linked markers associated with blast resistance in BC2F1 population. Sixteen microsatellite markers were found as polymorphic between the parents related to blast resistant genes (Pi-genes. Among the selected blast resistant linked markers, two markers RM6836 and RM8225 showed expected testcross ratio (1:1 for single-gene model in the BC2F1 population with the association between resistant and susceptible progeny. A total of 333-BC2F1 plants were challenged with the most virulent pathotype P7.2 of Magnaporthe oryzae. Chi-square (χ2 analysis for phenotypic segregation in single-gene model showed goodness of fit (P = 0.4463 to the expected segregation ratio (1:1. In marker segregation analysis, two polymorphic markers (RM6836 and RM8225 clearly showed goodness of fit to the expected segregation testcross ratio (1:1 for the single-gene model. The marker RM8225 and RM6836 showed significant R2 values higher than 10 for the trait of the blast lesions degree (BLD. The positions of RM6836 and RM8225 markers on rice chromosome 6 and the distance between these two markers is 0.2 cM. We conclude that single dominant gene control the blast resistance in Pongsu Seribu 1 located on chromosome 6, which is linked to RM8225 and RM6836 microsatellite markers. This information could be useful in marker-assisted selection for blast resistance in rice breeding involving Pongsu Seribu 1.

  3. Panicle blast 1 (Pb1) resistance is dependent on at least four QTLs in the rice genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Haruhiko; Nakamura, Mitsuru; Mizubayashi, Tatsumi; Takahashi, Akira; Sugano, Shoji; Fukuoka, Shuuichi; Hayashi, Nagao

    2017-12-01

    Rice blast is the most serious disease afflicting rice and there is an urgent need for the use of disease resistance (R) genes in blast tolerance breeding programs. Pb1 is classified as a quantitative resistance gene and it does not have fungal specificity. Pb1-mediated resistance develops in the latter stages of growth. However, some cultivars, such as Kanto209 (K209), cultivar name Satojiman, despite possessing Pb1, do not exert resistance to rice blast during the reproductive stage. We found that the expression of WRKY45 gene downstream of Pb1 was weakly induced by rice blast inoculation at the full heading stage in K209. Genetic analysis using the SNP-based Golden Gate assay of K209 crossing with Koshihikari Aichi SBL (KASBL) found at least four regions related to the resistance in the rice genome (Chr8, Chr9, Chr7, Chr11). Mapping of QTL related to Chr7 confirmed the existence of factors that were required for the resistance of Pb1 in the 22 to 23 Mbp region of the rice genome. We clarified how the K209 cultivar is vulnerable to the blast disease despite possessing Pb1 and found the DNA marker responsible for the quantitative resistance of Pb1. We identified the QTL loci required for Pb1-mediated resistance to rice panicle blast. Pb1 was negatively dependent on at least three QTLs, 7, 9 and 11, and positively dependent on one, QTL 8, in the K209 genome. This finding paves the way for creating a line to select optimal QTLs in order to make use of Pb1-mediated resistance more effectively.

  4. Rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae) infects Arabidopsis via a mechanism distinct from that required for the infection of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju-Young; Jin, Jianming; Lee, Yin-Won; Kang, Seogchan; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2009-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes rice (Oryza sativa) blast. Although M. oryzae as a whole infects a wide variety of monocotyledonous hosts, no dicotyledonous plant has been reported as a host. We found that two rice pathogenic strains of M. oryzae, KJ201 and 70-15, interacted differentially with 16 ecotypes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Strain KJ201 infected all ecotypes with varying degrees of virulence, whereas strain 70-15 caused no symptoms in certain ecotypes. In highly susceptible ecotypes, small chlorotic lesions appeared on infected leaves within 3 d after inoculation and subsequently expanded across the affected leaves. The fungus produced spores in susceptible ecotypes but not in resistant ecotypes. Fungal cultures recovered from necrotic lesions caused the same symptoms in healthy plants, satisfying Koch's postulates. Histochemical analyses showed that infection by the fungus caused an accumulation of reactive oxygen species and eventual cell death. Similar to the infection process in rice, the fungus differentiated to form appressorium and directly penetrated the leaf surface in Arabidopsis. However, the pathogenic mechanism in Arabidopsis appears distinct from that in rice; three fungal genes essential for pathogenicity in rice played only limited roles in causing disease symptoms in Arabidopsis, and the fungus seems to colonize Arabidopsis as a necrotroph through the secretion of phytotoxic compounds, including 9,12-octadecadienoic acid. Expression of PR-1 and PDF1.2 was induced in response to infection by the fungus, suggesting the activation of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent signaling pathways. However, the roles of these signaling pathways in defense against M. oryzae remain unclear. In combination with the wealth of genetic and genomic resources available for M. oryzae, this newly established pathosystem allows comparison of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying

  5. Molecular Scree ning of Blast Resistance Genes in Rice Germplasms Resistant to Magnaporthe oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular screening of major rice blast resistance genes was determined with molecular markers, which showed close-set linkage to 11 major rice blast resistance genes (Pi-d2, Pi-z, Piz-t, Pi-9, Pi-36, Pi-37, Pi5, Pi-b, Pik-p, Pik-h and Pi-ta2, in a collection of 32 accessions resistant to Magnaporthe oryzae. Out of the 32 accessions, the Pi-d2 and Pi-z appeared to be omnipresent and gave positive express. As the second dominant, Pi-b and Piz-t gene frequencies were 96.9% and 87.5%. And Pik-h and Pik-p gene frequencies were 43.8% and 28.1%, respectively. The molecular marker linkage to Pi-ta2 produced positive bands in eleven accessions, while the molecular marker linkage to Pi-36 and Pi-37 in only three and four accessions, respectively. The natural field evaluation analysis showed that 30 of the 32 accessions were resistant, one was moderately resistant and one was susceptible. Infection types were negatively correlated with the genotype scores of Pi-9, Pi5, Pi-b, Pi-ta2 and Pik-p, although the correlation coefficients were very little. These results are useful in identification and incorporation of functional resistance genes from these germplasms into elite cultivars through marker-assisted selection for improved blast resistance in China and worldwide.

  6. Quantification of rice blast disease progressions through Taqman real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'udi, Mukhamad; Kim, Jinyeong; Park, Jong-Mi; Bae, Shin-Chul; Kim, Donghern; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2013-09-01

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is a major disease in the paddy field and also a representative model system in the investigation of plant-microbe interactions. This study was undertaken to provide the quantitative evaluation method that specifically determines the amount of M. oryzae proliferation in planta. Real-time PCR was used as the detection strategy in combination with the primer pair and Taqman probe specific to MHP1, a unigene encoding HYDROPHOBIN that is indispensable for normal virulence expression. Based on the crossing point values from the PCR reactions containing a series of increasing concentration of cloned amplicon or fungal genomic DNA, correlation among the template's copy number or its amount and amplification pattern was calculated. Reliability of this equation was further confirmed using the DNA samples from the rice leaves infected with compatible or incompatible strains of M. oryzae. The primer pair used in the Taqman real-time PCR reaction can recognize the existence of fungal DNA as low as 1 pg. In sum, our quantitative evaluation system is applicable and reliable in the blast diagnosis and also in the estimation of objective blast disease progression.

  7. Genome analysis of rice-blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae field isolates from southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malali Gowda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Indian subcontinent is the center of origin and diversity for rice (Oryza sativa L.. The O. sativa ssp. indica is a major food crop grown in India, which occupies the first and second position in area and production, respectively. Blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is a major constraint to rice production. Here, we report the analysis of genome architecture and sequence variation of two field isolates, B157 and MG01, of the blast fungus from southern India. The 40 Mb genome of B157 and 43 Mb genome of MG01 contained 11,344 and 11,733 predicted genes, respectively. Genomic comparisons unveiled a large set of SNPs and several isolate specific genes in the Indian blast isolates. Avr genes were analyzed in several sequenced Magnaporthe strains; this analysis revealed the presence of Avr-Pizt and Avr-Ace1 genes in all the sequenced isolates. Availability of whole genomes of field isolates from India will contribute to global efforts to understand genetic diversity of M. oryzae population and to track the emergence of virulent pathotypes.

  8. Geographically Distinct and Domain-Specific Sequence Variations in the Alleles of Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Kumar; Vera Cruz, Casiana M; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast is caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, which is the most destructive fungal pathogen affecting rice growing regions worldwide. The rice blast resistance gene Pib confers broad-spectrum resistance against Southeast Asian M. oryzae races. We investigated the allelic diversity of Pib in rice germplasm originating from 12 major rice growing countries. Twenty-five new Pib alleles were identified that have unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions and/or deletions, in addition to the polymorphic nucleotides that are shared between the different alleles. These partially or completely shared polymorphic nucleotides indicate frequent sequence exchange events between the Pib alleles. In some of the new Pib alleles, nucleotide diversity is high in the LRR domain, whereas, in others it is distributed among the NB-ARC and LRR domains. Most of the polymorphic amino acids in LRR and NB-ARC2 domains are predicted as solvent-exposed. Several of the alleles and the unique SNPs are country specific, suggesting a diversifying selection of alleles in various geographical locations in response to the locally prevalent M. oryzae population. Together, the new Pib alleles are an important genetic resource for rice blast resistance breeding programs and provide new information on rice-M. oryzae interactions at the molecular level.

  9. Structure and Expression of Several Putative Cdc42-Interacting Proteins in Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wu; CHEN Ji-sheng; ZHENG Shi-qin; LU Guo-dong; WANG Zong-hua

    2006-01-01

    MgCdc42 (Cdc42 in Magnaporthe grisea), with high homology to ScCdc42 (Cdc42 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae), has been demonstrated to involve in the morphogenesis and infection process. To further understand the signaling network,the putative MgCdc42-interacting proteins were analyzed. ScCdc42-interacting protein sequences were first used to BLAST against the M. grisea genome database to retrieve their corresponding analogs. Subsequently, conserved domains of these proteins were compared and expression patterns of their encoding genes in different MgCdc42 mutation states were analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. All retrieved analogs of ScCdc42-interacting proteins from the M.grisea database have conserved domains as those in S. cerevisiae. Expression of their encoding genes increased in MgCdc42CA mutant and decreased in MgCdc42KO mutant. However, MgBem1, Chm1, and MgGic1 in MgCdc42DN mutant had the same expression level as that in the wild type, although MgBem4, MgBoi2, MgCdc24, MgGic2, MgRga1,and Mst20 had decreased expression level, as expected. Overall, it is concluded that there may exist a similar Cdc42 signal pathway in M. grisea as in S. cerevisiae and MgCdc42 plays a key role in the pathway.

  10. Marker-assisted introgression of broad-spectrum blast resistance genes into the cultivated MR219 rice variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Latif, Mohammad A

    2017-07-01

    The rice cultivar MR219 is famous for its better yield and long and fine grain quality; however, it is susceptible to blast disease. The main objective of this study was to introgress blast resistance genes into MR219 through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The rice cultivar MR219 was used as the recurrent parent, and Pongsu Seribu 1 was used as the donor. Marker-assisted foreground selection was performed using RM6836 and RM8225 to identify plants possessing blast resistance genes. Seventy microsatellite markers were used to estimate recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. Our analysis led to the development of 13 improved blast resistant lines with Piz, Pi2 and Pi9 broad-spectrum blast resistance genes and an MR219 genetic background. The RPG recovery of the selected improved lines was up to 97.70% with an average value of 95.98%. Selected improved lines showed a resistance response against the most virulent blast pathogen pathotype, P7.2. The selected improved lines did not express any negative effect on agronomic traits in comparison with MR219. The research findings of this study will be a conducive approach for the application of different molecular techniques that may result in accelerating the development of new disease-resistant rice varieties, which in turn will match rising demand and food security worldwide. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Chloroplast-Expressed MSI-99 in Tobacco Improves Disease Resistance and Displays Inhibitory Effect against Rice Blast Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Peng Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast is a major destructive fungal disease that poses a serious threat to rice production and the improvement of blast resistance is critical to rice breeding. The antimicrobial peptide MSI-99 has been suggested as an antimicrobial peptide conferring resistance to bacterial and fungal diseases. Here, a vector harboring the MSI-99 gene was constructed and introduced into the tobacco chloroplast genome via particle bombardment. Transformed plants were obtained and verified to be homoplastomic by PCR and Southern hybridization. In planta assays demonstrated that the transgenic tobacco plants displayed an enhanced resistance to the fungal disease. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity revealed that the crude protein extracts from the transgenic plants manifested an antimicrobial activity against E. coli, even after incubation at 120 °C for 20 min, indicating significant heat stability of MSI-99. More importantly, the MSI-99-containing protein extracts were firstly proved in vitro and in vivo to display significant suppressive effects on two rice blast isolates. These findings provide a strong basis for the development of new biopesticides to combat rice blast.

  12. Evidence for Biotrophic Lifestyle and Biocontrol Potential of Dark Septate Endophyte Harpophora oryzae to Rice Blast Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-Zhu Su; Li-Juan Mao; Na Li; Xiao-Xiao Feng; Zhi-Lin Yuan; Li-Wei Wang; Fu-Cheng Lin; Chu-Long Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The mutualism pattern of the dark septate endophyte (DSE) Harpophora oryzae in rice roots and its biocontrol potential in rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae were investigated. Fluorescent protein-expressing H. oryzae was used to monitor the colonization pattern. Hyphae invaded from the epidermis to the inner cortex, but not into the root stele. Fungal colonization increased with root tissue maturation, showing no colonization in the meristematic zone, slight colonization in the e...

  13. Evidence for biotrophic lifestyle and biocontrol potential of dark septate endophyte Harpophora oryzae to rice blast disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zhu Su

    Full Text Available The mutualism pattern of the dark septate endophyte (DSE Harpophora oryzae in rice roots and its biocontrol potential in rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae were investigated. Fluorescent protein-expressing H. oryzae was used to monitor the colonization pattern. Hyphae invaded from the epidermis to the inner cortex, but not into the root stele. Fungal colonization increased with root tissue maturation, showing no colonization in the meristematic zone, slight colonization in the elongation zone, and heavy colonization in the differentiation zone. H. oryzae adopted a biotrophic lifestyle in roots accompanied by programmed cell death. Real-time PCR facilitated the accurate quantification of fungal growth and the respective plant response. The biocontrol potential of H. oryzae was visualized by inoculation with eGFP-tagged M. oryzae in rice. H. oryzae protected rice from M. oryzae root invasion by the accumulation of H2O2 and elevated antioxidative capacity. H. oryzae also induced systemic resistance against rice blast. This systemic resistance was mediated by the OsWRKY45-dependent salicylic acid (SA signaling pathway, as indicated by the strongly upregulated expression of OsWRKY45. The colonization pattern of H. oryzae was consistent with the typical characteristics of DSEs. H. oryzae enhanced local resistance by reactive oxygen species (ROS and high antioxidative level and induced OsWRKY45-dependent SA-mediated systemic resistance against rice blast.

  14. Evidence for biotrophic lifestyle and biocontrol potential of dark septate endophyte Harpophora oryzae to rice blast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhen-Zhu; Mao, Li-Juan; Li, Na; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Yuan, Zhi-Lin; Wang, Li-Wei; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Zhang, Chu-Long

    2013-01-01

    The mutualism pattern of the dark septate endophyte (DSE) Harpophora oryzae in rice roots and its biocontrol potential in rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae were investigated. Fluorescent protein-expressing H. oryzae was used to monitor the colonization pattern. Hyphae invaded from the epidermis to the inner cortex, but not into the root stele. Fungal colonization increased with root tissue maturation, showing no colonization in the meristematic zone, slight colonization in the elongation zone, and heavy colonization in the differentiation zone. H. oryzae adopted a biotrophic lifestyle in roots accompanied by programmed cell death. Real-time PCR facilitated the accurate quantification of fungal growth and the respective plant response. The biocontrol potential of H. oryzae was visualized by inoculation with eGFP-tagged M. oryzae in rice. H. oryzae protected rice from M. oryzae root invasion by the accumulation of H2O2 and elevated antioxidative capacity. H. oryzae also induced systemic resistance against rice blast. This systemic resistance was mediated by the OsWRKY45-dependent salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway, as indicated by the strongly upregulated expression of OsWRKY45. The colonization pattern of H. oryzae was consistent with the typical characteristics of DSEs. H. oryzae enhanced local resistance by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and high antioxidative level and induced OsWRKY45-dependent SA-mediated systemic resistance against rice blast.

  15. Sensitivity Detection Technique and Resistance Risk Assessment of Magnaporthe grisea to Tricyclazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In vitro detection method for the sensitivity of Magnaporthe grisea to tricyclazole was studied, and the potential resistance risk of blast disease to tricyclazole was assessed. Both EC50 of hyphal melanization (EC50-H) and minimum inhibitive concentration of melanization in appressorial (MIC-A) by inhibitortricyclazole showed positive correlation to the EC50 of tricyclazole against blast disease tested in vivo, with relative co-efficiency (R2) of 0.8995 and 0.8244, respectively. However, stability and reproducibility of EC50-H were better than those of MIC-A, suggesting that it could be used to detect the sensitivity of M. grisea to tricyclazole in vitro. Tricyclazole sensitivity of the progenies derived from single spores of the most sensitive isolate DY2 and the least sensitive isolate GY6 detected in sensitivity monitoring in 2000 was not stable, with mean EC50 values of 4.4968 μg/mL and 5.4010 μg/mL, respectively, indicating that the difference in EC50 between DY2 and GY6 was not caused probably by resistance variation. EC50 of GY6 did not increase significantly when continuously selected for twenty generations under the selection pressure of tricyclazole in vivo. However, the sensitivity of DY2 was decreased by 10-fold after selected for twenty generations.The results suggested that tricyclazole was still low resistance risk for M. grisea in China.

  16. Osa-miR169 Negatively Regulates Rice Immunity against the Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Sheng-Li; Li, Jin-Lu; Hu, Xiao-Hong; Wang, He; Cao, Xiao-Long; Xu, Yong-Ju; Zhao, Zhi-Xue; Xiao, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Nan; Fan, Jing; Huang, Fu; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2017-01-01

    miR169 is a conserved microRNA (miRNA) family involved in plant development and stress-induced responses. However, how miR169 functions in rice immunity remains unclear. Here, we show that miR169 acts as a negative regulator in rice immunity against the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae by repressing the expression of nuclear factor Y-A (NF-YA) genes. The accumulation of miR169 was significantly increased in a susceptible accession but slightly fluctuated in a resistant accession upon M. oryzae infection. Consistently, the transgenic lines overexpressing miR169a became hyper-susceptible to different M. oryzae strains associated with reduced expression of defense-related genes and lack of hydrogen peroxide accumulation at the infection site. Consequently, the expression of its target genes, the NF-YA family members, was down-regulated by the overexpression of miR169a at either transcriptional or translational level. On the contrary, overexpression of a target mimicry that acts as a sponge to trap miR169a led to enhanced resistance to M. oryzae. In addition, three of miR169’s target genes were also differentially up-regulated in the resistant accession upon M. oryzae infection. Taken together, our data indicate that miR169 negatively regulates rice immunity against M. oryzae by differentially repressing its target genes and provide the potential to engineer rice blast resistance via a miRNA. PMID:28144248

  17. Development of transgenic finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) resistant to leaf blast disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ignacimuthu; S Antony Ceasar

    2012-03-01

    Finger millet plants conferring resistance to leaf blast disease have been developed by inserting a rice chitinase (chi11) gene through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Plasmid pHyg-Chi.11 harbouring the rice chitinase gene under the control of maize ubiquitin promoter was introduced into finger millet using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 (pSB1). Transformed plants were selected and regenerated on hygromycin-supplemented medium. Transient expression of transgene was confirmed by GUS histochemical staining. The incorporation of rice chitinase gene in R0 and R1 progenies was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Expression of chitinase gene in finger millet was confirmed by Western blot analysis with a barley chitinase antibody. A leaf blast assay was also performed by challenging the transgenic plants with spores of Pyricularia grisea. The frequency of transient expression was 16.3% to 19.3%. Stable frequency was 3.5% to 3.9%. Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of 3.1 kb chitinase gene. Western blot analysis detected the presence of 35 kDa chitinase enzyme. Chitinase activity ranged from 19.4 to 24.8. In segregation analysis, the transgenic R1 lines produced three resistant and one sensitive for hygromycin, confirming the normal Mendelian pattern of transgene segregation. Transgenic plants showed high level of resistance to leaf blast disease compared to control plants. This is the first study reporting the introduction of rice chitinase gene into finger millet for leaf blast resistance.

  18. Blast-Resistance Inheritance of Space-Induced Rice Lines and Their Genomic Polymorphism by Microsatellite Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Wu-ming; YANG Qi-yun; CHEN Zhi-qiang; WANG Hui; GUO Tao; LIU Yong-zhu; ZHU Xiao-yuan

    2009-01-01

    To understand the resistance inheritance basis of space-induced rice lines to blast,and to probe mutants'genomic DNA polymorphism compared with ground control by microsatellite markers,three space-induced lines were crossed with a highly susceptible variety LTH,and their F1 and F2 populations were inoculated by two representative blast isolates with broad pathogenicity to analyze their resistance inheritance basis.Meanwhile three mutant lines and the ground control were analyzed by 225 rice SSR(simple sequence repeat)primer pairs selected throughout the 12 chromosomes of whole rice genome,to scan the mutagenesis in genome of the mutant lines.The results indicated the blast-resistant genes harbored in these mutant lines were dominant.It was demonstrated that the resistance of mutant H1 to isolate GD0193 and GD3286 was controlled by a single gene,respectively;while mutants H2 and H3 were controlled by two pairs of major genes against isolate GD3286 and H2 showed complicated genetic mechanism to isolate GD0193.H3's resistance to isolate GD0193 was verified to be controlled by a single gene.According to the results of SSR analysis,three mutant lines showed different mutant rates as compared with the ground control,and the mutant rates also varied.Resistance genes can be induced from rice by space mutation,and different genomic variations were detected in blast-resistant lines.

  19. Retromer Is Essential for Autophagy-Dependent Plant Infection by the Rice Blast Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunlong; Xie, Qiurong; Chen, Ahai; Zheng, Huawei; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Chengkang; Huang, Qingping; Fang, Kunhai; Lu, Guodong; Ebbole, Daniel J.; Li, Guangpu; Naqvi, Naweed I.; Wang, Zonghua

    2015-01-01

    The retromer mediates protein trafficking through recycling cargo from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network in eukaryotes. However, the role of such trafficking events during pathogen-host interaction remains unclear. Here, we report that the cargo-recognition complex (MoVps35, MoVps26 and MoVps29) of the retromer is essential for appressorium-mediated host penetration by Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal pathogen of the blast disease in rice. Loss of retromer function blocked glycogen distribution and turnover of lipid bodies, delayed nuclear degeneration and reduced turgor during appressorial development. Cytological observation revealed dynamic MoVps35-GFP foci co-localized with autophagy-related protein RFP-MoAtg8 at the periphery of autolysosomes. Furthermore, RFP-MoAtg8 interacted with MoVps35-GFP in vivo, RFP-MoAtg8 was mislocalized to the vacuole and failed to recycle from the autolysosome in the absence of the retromer function, leading to impaired biogenesis of autophagosomes. We therefore conclude that retromer is essential for autophagy-dependent plant infection by the rice blast fungus. PMID:26658729

  20. Isolation and Manipulation of Quantitative Tra it Loci for DIsease Resistance in Rice Using a Candid ate Gene Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Ming Hu; De-Yun Qiu; Xiang-Ling Shen; Xiang-Hua Li; Shi-Ping Wang

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae and fungal blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea result in heavy production losses in rice,a main staple food for approximately 50%of the world's population.Application of host resistance to these pathogens iS the most economical and environment-friendly approach to solve this problem.Quantitative trait loci(QTLs)controlling quantitative resistance are valuable sources for broad.spectrum and durable disease resistance.Although large numbers of QTLs for bacteriaI blight and blast resistance have been identified.these sources have not been used effectively in rice improvement because of the complex genetic controI of quantitative resistance and because the genes underlying resistance QTLs are unknown.To isolate disease resistance QTLs,we established a candidate gene strategy that integrates linkage map,expression profile,and functionaI complementation analyses.This strategy has proven to be applicable for identifying the genes underlying minor resistance QTLs in rice-Xoo and rice-M grisea systems and it may also help to shed light on disease resistance QTLs of other cereals.Our results also suggest that a single minor QTL can be used in rice improvement by modulating the expression of the gene underlying the QTL.Pyramiding two or three minor QTL genes,whose expression can be managed and that function in different defense signaI transduction pathways,may allow the breeding of rice cultivars that are highly resistant to bacteriaI blight and blast.

  1. Resistance to rice blast(Pyricularia oryzae) caused by the expression of trichosanthin gene in transgenic rice plants transferred through agrobacterium method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The gene of trichosanthin has been transferred into rice plants through agrobacterium method.The single copy insertion and the expression of foreign gene have been proved in regenerated plants.In antifungal assay the degrees of rice blast (Pyricularia oryzae) infection of the transgenic plants expressing trichosanthin and expressing GUS gene as control have been evaluated.The differences such as the time of disease symptom observed,the number of infected plants and damaged leaves,the growth of infected plants of the two transgenic plants after being inoculated by rice blast (Pyricularia oryzae) are significant.The transgenic plants with trichosanthin gene grew faster than the plants with GUS gene,even when humidity environment was removed.The results show that the transgenic plants that expressed trichosanthin are able to delay the infection of rice blast compared with the plants as control.In addition,no damage caused by the expression of trichosanthin gene in transgenic plants has been observed.

  2. Characterization of rice blast resistance genes in rice germplasm with monogenic lines and pathogenicity assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance (R) genes have been effectively deployed in preventing rice crop losses due to the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. In the present study, we studied the interaction between 24 monogenic lines carrying at least one major R gene, Pia, Pib, Pii, Pik, Pik-h, Pik-m, Pik-p, Pik-s, Pish, Pit, Pita, Pi...

  3. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

    2017-05-09

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea CeI7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  4. Comparative analysis of the genomes of two field isolates of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minfeng Xue

    Full Text Available Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive diseases of rice worldwide. The fungal pathogen is notorious for its ability to overcome host resistance. To better understand its genetic variation in nature, we sequenced the genomes of two field isolates, Y34 and P131. In comparison with the previously sequenced laboratory strain 70-15, both field isolates had a similar genome size but slightly more genes. Sequences from the field isolates were used to improve genome assembly and gene prediction of 70-15. Although the overall genome structure is similar, a number of gene families that are likely involved in plant-fungal interactions are expanded in the field isolates. Genome-wide analysis on asynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rates revealed that many infection-related genes underwent diversifying selection. The field isolates also have hundreds of isolate-specific genes and a number of isolate-specific gene duplication events. Functional characterization of randomly selected isolate-specific genes revealed that they play diverse roles, some of which affect virulence. Furthermore, each genome contains thousands of loci of transposon-like elements, but less than 30% of them are conserved among different isolates, suggesting active transposition events in M. oryzae. A total of approximately 200 genes were disrupted in these three strains by transposable elements. Interestingly, transposon-like elements tend to be associated with isolate-specific or duplicated sequences. Overall, our results indicate that gain or loss of unique genes, DNA duplication, gene family expansion, and frequent translocation of transposon-like elements are important factors in genome variation of the rice blast fungus.

  5. A review of microsatellite markers and their applications in rice breeding programs to improve blast disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Islam, Kh Nurul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2013-11-14

    Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR), and they are typically composed of 1-6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS in rice breeding

  6. A Review of Microsatellite Markers and Their Applications in Rice Breeding Programs to Improve Blast Disease Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Latif

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR, and they are typically composed of 1–6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS

  7. Tailor-made TALEN system for highly efficient targeted gene replacement in the rice blast fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazoe, Takayuki; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Miyoshi, Kennosuke; Yamato, Tohru; Ohsato, Shuichi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Arie, Tsutomu; Kuwata, Shigeru

    2015-07-01

    Genetic manipulation is key to unraveling gene functions and creating genetically modified strains of microbial organisms. Recently, engineered nucleases that can generate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at a specific site in the desired locus within genome are utilized in a rapidly developing genome editing technology via DSBs repair. However, the use of engineered nucleases in filamentous fungi has not been validated. In this study, we demonstrated that tailor-made transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) system, Platinum-Fungal TALENs (PtFg TALENs), could improve the efficiency of homologous recombination-mediated targeted gene replacement by up to 100% in the rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae. This high-efficiency PtFg TALEN has great potential for basic and applied biological applications in filamentous fungi.

  8. Evidence for a transketolase-mediated metabolic checkpoint governing biotrophic growth in rice cells by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Fernandez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae threatens global food security through the widespread destruction of cultivated rice. Foliar infection requires a specialized cell called an appressorium that generates turgor to force a thin penetration hypha through the rice cuticle and into the underlying epidermal cells, where the fungus grows for the first days of infection as a symptomless biotroph. Understanding what controls biotrophic growth could open new avenues for developing sustainable blast intervention programs. Here, using molecular genetics and live-cell imaging, we dismantled M. oryzae glucose-metabolizing pathways to reveal that the transketolase enzyme, encoded by TKL1, plays an essential role in facilitating host colonization during rice blast disease. In the absence of transketolase, Δtkl1 mutant strains formed functional appressoria that penetrated rice cuticles successfully and developed invasive hyphae (IH in rice cells from primary hyphae. However, Δtkl1 could not undertake sustained biotrophic growth or cell-to-cell movement. Transcript data and observations using fluorescently labeled histone H1:RFP fusion proteins indicated Δtkl1 mutant strains were alive in host cells but were delayed in mitosis. Mitotic delay could be reversed and IH growth restored by the addition of exogenous ATP, a metabolite depleted in Δtkl1 mutant strains. We show that ATP might act via the TOR signaling pathway, and TOR is likely a downstream target of activation for TKL1. TKL1 is also involved in controlling the migration of appressorial nuclei into primary hyphae in host cells. When taken together, our results indicate transketolase has a novel role in mediating--via ATP and TOR signaling--an in planta-specific metabolic checkpoint that controls nuclear migration from appressoria into primary hyphae, prevents mitotic delay in early IH and promotes biotrophic growth. This work thus provides new information about the metabolic strategies employed by M

  9. Tagging microsatellite marker to a blast resistance gene in the irrigated rice cultivar Cica-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Martins Pinheiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The rice cultivar Cica-8 exhibit differential reaction to several pathotypes of Magnaporthe oryzae. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the number of alleles involved in the expression of resistance to leaf blast and identify microsatellite markers linked to these alleles. A cross between cultivar Metica-1 and Cica-8 susceptible and resistant, respectively, to pathotype IB-1 (Py1049 was made to obtain F1, F2, BC1:1 and BC1:2 progenies. Greenhouse tests for leaf blast reaction showed that resistance is controlled by a monogenic dominant gene. For testing microsatellite markers, DNA of both resistant and susceptible parents and F1 and F2 populations was extracted. As expected for single dominant gene the F2 populations segregated at a ratio of 3:1. Of the 11 microsatellite markers tested, one marker RM 7102 was found to be closely linked to the resistant allele at a distance of 2.7 cM, in the cultivar Cica-8 to pathotype IB-1.

  10. Increase of Fungal Pathogenicity and Role of Plant Glutamine in Nitrogen-Induced Susceptibility (NIS) To Rice Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huichuan; Nguyen Thi Thu, Thuy; He, Xiahong; Gravot, Antoine; Bernillon, Stéphane; Ballini, Elsa; Morel, Jean-Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Highlight  Modifications in glutamine synthetase OsGS1-2 expression and fungal pathogenicity underlie nitrogen-induced susceptibility to rice blast. Understanding why nitrogen fertilization increase the impact of many plant diseases is of major importance. The interaction between Magnaporthe oryzae and rice was used as a model for analyzing the molecular mechanisms underlying Nitrogen-Induced Susceptibility (NIS). We show that our experimental system in which nitrogen supply strongly affects rice blast susceptibility only slightly affects plant growth. In order to get insights into the mechanisms of NIS, we conducted a dual RNA-seq experiment on rice infected tissues under two nitrogen fertilization regimes. On the one hand, we show that enhanced susceptibility was visible despite an over-induction of defense gene expression by infection under high nitrogen regime. On the other hand, the fungus expressed to high levels effectors and pathogenicity-related genes in plants under high nitrogen regime. We propose that in plants supplied with elevated nitrogen fertilization, the observed enhanced induction of plant defense is over-passed by an increase in the expression of the fungal pathogenicity program, thus leading to enhanced susceptibility. Moreover, some rice genes implicated in nitrogen recycling were highly induced during NIS. We further demonstrate that the OsGS1-2 glutamine synthetase gene enhances plant resistance to M. oryzae and abolishes NIS and pinpoint glutamine as a potential key nutrient during NIS. PMID:28293247

  11. Blast fungus-induction and developmental and tissuespecific expression of a rice P450 CYP72A gene cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yaling; LI Qun; HE Zuhua

    2004-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 gene superfamily is widely involved in diverse processes of plant development and environmental responses including defense response to pathogens. We previously isolated a rice cDNA fragment in a DD-PCR screening for blast fungus-induced genes. In the current study, we isolated a CYP72A gene cluster consisting of 7 P450 CYP72A genes (CYP72A17~23) with the conserved cDNA sequence through the public rice genome data. There are total 14 putative CYP72A members in the rice genome, with high diversity at N-terminal sequences while high homology at C-terminal sequences of those 14 putative proteins. We analyzed expression profiles of the cloned 7 CYP72A genes during pathogen infection and development. The results showed that expression of CYP72A18, 19, 22 and 23 was differentially regulated in the incompatible and compatible interactions between rice and blast fungus. Except CYP72A20, a pseudogene, other 6 CYP72A genes also exhibited temporal and spatial expression patterns, respectively. These findings provide fundamental data for rice P450 gene function analysis.

  12. Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Ashok; Nair, Bipin G; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent.

  13. Breeding of R8012, a Rice Restorer Line Resistant to Blast and Bacterial Blight Through Marker-Assisted Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Xiao-deng; ZHOU Hai-peng; CHAI Rong-yao; ZHUANG Jie-yun; CHENG Shi-hua; CAO Li-yong

    2012-01-01

    Genetic improvement Is one of the most effective strategies to prevent rlce from blast and bacterial blight (BB)diseases,the two most prevalent diseases jeopardizing rice production.Rice hybrids with dural resistance to blast and BB are needed for sustainable production of food.An incomplete diallels design resulted in 25 crosses between five blast and five BB resistant germplasrn accesslons.Only one pair of parents,DH146 × TM487,showed polymorphism for all the markers to Identify one blast resistance gene P125 and three BB resistance genes,Xa21,xa13 and xa5,thus it was used in the marker-assisted selection (MAS).F2 individuals of DH148 × TM487 were genotyped using flanking markers of RM3330and sequence tagged site (STS) marker SAT for P125.The resistant F2 plants with P125 were used for pyramiding BB resistance genes Xa21,xa13 and xa5 identified by the markers pTA248,RM264 and RM153,respectively In subsequent generations.Finally,after selection for agronomic traits and restoration ability among 12 pyramided lines,we acquired an elite restorer line,R8012 including all four target genes (P125+Xa21+xa13+xa5).Hybrid Zhong 9A/R8012 derived from the selected line showed stronger resistance to blast and BB,and higher grain yield than the commercial checks uniformally in experimental plots,2007 state-wide yield trial and 2008 nation-wide yield trial.This study provides a paradigmatic example to show that MAS is a practically feasible tool in effectively pyramiding multiple resistance genes.The resultant restoring line and its hybrid would play an important role in securing rice production in China.

  14. 稻瘟病抗病基因Pita和Pib在中国水稻地方品种中的分布%Distribution of Two Blast Resistant Genes Pita and Pib in Landrace Rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杰; 杨金欢; 王军; 范方军; 朱金燕; 曹卿; 田胜尼; 仲维功

    2011-01-01

    主效抗稻瘟病基因Pita和Pib在我国很多稻区表现高水平的稻瘟病抗性,被广泛应用于我国的水稻育种和生产.但这2个基因在国内品种资源中的分布及利用情况缺乏详细的资料,致使育种利用上存在着盲目性.本研究利用Pita和Pib基因的功能标记,检测和分析了我国115份水稻地方品种的Pita和Pib基因型.结果表明,Pita在我国浙江、福建、广东、广西、贵州、四川、安徽、江西、河南、河北、吉林均有分布,在江苏、上海、山东、湖南、湖北、辽宁没有发现;而只有来自四川的地方品种桂东籼和来自河南的德国稻携带Pib,其他省均未发现.在江苏的主要推广粳稻品种中,晚粳品种几乎都携带这两个基因,部分迟熟中粳携带这两个基因,中熟中粳多数不携带.%The two major blast resistance genes, Pita and Pib, showed broad resistance spectrum to Magna-porthe grisea isolates in many rice planting areas of China and has been utilized in rice breeding and commercial production. However,the distribution of this two genes in present rice germplasms has not been well investigated,resulting in the blindness of their utilization in rice breeding. In the present study, the existence of the two genes in 115 landrace rice germlpasms and 19 rice leading cultivars were rapidly determined using the functional markers of Pita/pita and Pib/pib alleles. The results showed that 20 landrace accessions harbored Pita resistant allele and only 2 landrace accessions harbored Pib resistant allele. The Pita resistant allele distribute widely in china including Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province, Cuangxi Province, Sichuan Province, Guizhou Province , Anhui Province, Jiangxi Province, Henan Province, Hebei Province, Jilin Province, but not found in Jiangsu Province, Shandong Province, Hunan Province, Hubei Province and Shanghai City. Only two landrace harbored the Pib resistant allele. However, 11

  15. Using Network Extracted Ontologies to Identify Novel Genes with Roles in Appressorium Development in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Ames

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease, the most important infection of rice worldwide. Half the world’s population depends on rice for its primary caloric intake and, as such, rice blast poses a serious threat to food security. The stages of M. oryzae infection are well defined, with the formation of an appressorium, a cell type that allows penetration of the plant cuticle, particularly well studied. However, many of the key pathways and genes involved in this disease stage are yet to be identified. In this study, I have used network-extracted ontologies (NeXOs, hierarchical structures inferred from RNA-Seq data, to identify pathways involved in appressorium development, which in turn highlights novel genes with potential roles in this process. This study illustrates the use of NeXOs for pathway identification from large-scale genomics data and also identifies novel genes with potential roles in disease. The methods presented here will be useful to study disease processes in other pathogenic species and these data represent predictions of novel targets for intervention in M. oryzae.

  16. Phylogenomic analysis uncovers the evolutionary history of nutrition and infection mode in rice blast fungus and other Magnaporthales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Qiu, Huan; Cai, Guohong; Wagner, Nicole E; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Zhang, Ning

    2015-03-30

    The order Magnaporthales (Ascomycota, Fungi) includes devastating pathogens of cereals, such as the rice blast fungus Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) oryzae, which is a model in host-pathogen interaction studies. Magnaporthales also includes saprotrophic species associated with grass roots and submerged wood. Despite its scientific and economic importance, the phylogenetic position of Magnaporthales within Sordariomycetes and the interrelationships of its constituent taxa, remain controversial. In this study, we generated novel transcriptome data from 21 taxa that represent key Magnaporthales lineages of different infection and nutrition modes and phenotypes. Phylogenomic analysis of >200 conserved genes allowed the reconstruction of a robust Sordariomycetes tree of life that placed the monophyletic group of Magnaporthales sister to Ophiostomatales. Among Magnaporthales, three major clades were recognized: 1) an early diverging clade A comprised of saprotrophs associated with submerged woods; 2) clade B that includes the rice blast fungus and other pathogens that cause blast diseases of monocot plants. These species infect the above-ground tissues of host plants using the penetration structure, appressorium; and 3) clade C comprised primarily of root-associated species that penetrate the root tissue with hyphopodia. The well-supported phylogenies provide a robust framework for elucidating evolution of pathogenesis, nutrition modes, and phenotypic characters in Magnaporthales.

  17. Construction of chimeric inducible promoters by elicitors of rice fungal blast pathogen and their expression in transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The promoter fragments of wheat GstA1 and potato Gst1 have been amplified by PCR, cloned and fused respectively to the minimal promoter sequence of rice actin gene (Act1)) and its 5′ untranslated leader sequence together with GUS. The constructs with 2 chimeric promoters (WGA and PGA) have been transferred into rice in order to analyze their inducibility patterns in transgenic rice plants. The results show that: WGA and PGA are both inducible by elicitors of Pyricularia oryzae in transgenic rice cells; the intronⅠ of rice Act1 gene is important for the heterogenic expression of monocot and dicot promoter elements in rice; and the Act1 minimal promoter and its 5′untranslated leader sequence produced low level background expression in rice.

  18. Two Rab5 Homologs Are Essential for the Development and Pathogenicity of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng D. Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, infects many economically important cereal crops, particularly rice. It has emerged as an important model organism for studying the growth, development, and pathogenesis of filamentous fungi. RabGTPases are important molecular switches in regulation of intracellular membrane trafficking in all eukaryotes. MoRab5A and MoRab5B are Rab5 homologs in M. oryzae, but their functions in the fungal development and pathogenicity are unknown. In this study, we have employed a genetic approach and demonstrated that both MoRab5A and MoRab5B are crucial for vegetative growth and development, conidiogenesis, melanin synthesis, vacuole fusion, endocytosis, sexual reproduction, and plant pathogenesis in M. oryzae. Moreover, both MoRab5A and MoRab5B show similar localization in hyphae and conidia. To further investigate possible functional redundancy between MoRab5A and MoRab5B, we overexpressed MoRAB5A and MoRAB5B, respectively, in MoRab5B:RNAi and MoRab5A:RNAi strains, but neither could rescue each other’s defects caused by the RNAi. Taken together, we conclude that both MoRab5A and MoRab5B are necessary for the development and pathogenesis of the rice blast fungus, while they may function independently.

  19. Evaluation and Genetic Analysis of Five Parental Varieties Resistant to Rice Blast Pathogen in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhong-chen; Liu Hong-liang; Gao Hong-xiu; Liu Hai-ying; Jin Zheng-xun

    2012-01-01

    Five F2 segregation populations, derived from crosses between the susceptible japonica cultivars (cvs.) Kongyul31 and donor cvs. Aichi Asahi (AA), BL1, Digu, Pai-kan-tao (PKT) and Oryzica Llanos 5 (ORL5), were used to evaluate their natural resistance to blast in cold region. The field test of their blast resistance was conducted in 858 Farm, which showed that Aichi Asahi, BL 1 and Digu were highly resistant to either leaf blast or neck blast and could be used to develop molecular breeding by design, and genetic analysis indicated that the field resistance of Aichi Asahi, BLland Digu to leaf blast and neck blast was controlled by a single dominant gene, and the leaf blast and neck blast resistance in the donor cv. Pai-kan-tao was inherited as a single recessive gene, the neck blast resistance of the donor cv. Oryzica Llanos 5 was controlled by a single recessive gene while its leaf blast resistance was not controlled by this gene. These results suggested that five parental varieties positively contributed to resistance to either leaf blast or neck blast and could be used to expand the genetic germplasms resistant to blast in cold region using molecular assisted selection.

  20. Construction and Evaluation of a TAC Library of Magnaporthe grisea%稻瘟菌TAC文库的构建与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏士平; 王扬; 刘耀光; 国立耘; 李家瑞; 彭友良

    2003-01-01

    A TAC library of rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, was constructed in a vector pYLTAC7. The librarycontains 16 128 individual clones and approximately 74% of the clones harbor foreign DNA inserts with an average size of59 kb. The content of the library corresponds to 18 equivalents of the genome. To confirm the representative of the library,three single-copy DNA markers were used as probes to hybridize with the library clones on the high-density membranes. Six-teen, 17 and 16 positive clones were obtained respectively from the library screening, and the numbers of positive clonesmatching corresponding probes are consistent with the estimated coverage of the library. Further analysis of the restrictionenzyme maps of 8 positive clones screened with a single copy marker, MH18S1, revealed that the contigs covered a 153 kbregion without chimerism or deletion. It is suggested that the TAC library is suitable for genome analysis of M. grisea.%本文构建了一个包含16128个克隆的稻瘟菌基因组的TAC文库,74%的克隆含有外源插入片段,其插入片段大小平均为59kb,该库相当于稻瘟菌基因组的18倍.本文并对文库的代表性进行了评价,采用3个单拷贝的标记作为探针筛库,分别得到16,17和16个阳性克隆,这与估算的该库的覆盖率是一致的;从MH18S1为探针所筛选的阳性克隆中,随机挑取8个并对其限制性酶切图谱进行分析,结果表明:其组成的重叠群跨度为153kb,未发现嵌合和缺失现象.以上结果表明,此TAC文库适合用于稻瘟菌基因组的分析.

  1. Over-Expression of the Pikh Gene with a CaMV 35S Promoter Leads to Improved Blast Disease (Magnaporthe oryzae) Tolerance in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a rice blast fungus and plant pathogen that causes a serious rice disease and, therefore, poses a threat to the world's second most important food security crop. Plant transformation technology has become an adaptable system for cultivar improvement and to functionally analyze genes in plants. The objective of this study was to determine the effects (through over-expressing and using the CaMV 35S promoter) of Pikh on MR219 resistance because it is a rice variety that is ...

  2. Cyanide, a Coproduct of Plant Hormone Ethylene Biosynthesis, Contributes to the Resistance of Rice to Blast Fungus1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Shigemi; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Feng, Jiao; Iwai, Takayoshi; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Ohashi, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) plants carrying the Pi-i resistance gene to blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae restrict invaded fungus in infected tissue via hypersensitive reaction or response (HR), which is accompanied by rapid ethylene production and formation of small HR lesions. Ethylene biosynthesis has been implicated to be important for blast resistance; however, the individual roles of ethylene and cyanide, which are produced from the precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, remain unevaluated. In this study, we found that Pi-i-mediated resistance was compromised in transgenic rice lines, in which ethylene biosynthetic enzyme genes were silenced and then ethylene production was inhibited. The compromised resistance in transgenic lines was recovered by exogenously applying cyanide but not ethephon, an ethylene-releasing chemical in plant tissue. In a susceptible rice cultivar, treatment with cyanide or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid induced the resistance to blast fungus in a dose-dependent manner, while ethephon did not have the effect. Cyanide inhibited the growth of blast fungus in vitro and in planta, and application of flavonoids, secondary metabolites that exist ubiquitously in the plant kingdom, enhanced the cyanide-induced inhibition of fungal growth. These results suggested that cyanide, whose production is triggered by HR in infected tissue, contributes to the resistance in rice plants via restriction of fungal growth. PMID:21075959

  3. Effect of flour-blasting of brown rice on reduction of cooking time and resulting texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long grain non-parboiled, long grain parboiled, and American basmati-type brown rice were bombarded with parboiled rice flour sufficient to create microperforations in the water-resistant outer coat of the seed. These microperforations in the treated rice significantly increased the rate of hydratio...

  4. Two independent S-phase checkpoints regulate appressorium-mediated plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osés-Ruiz, Míriam; Sakulkoo, Wasin; Littlejohn, George R.; Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    To cause rice blast disease, the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae develops a specialized infection structure called an appressorium. This dome-shaped, melanin-pigmented cell generates enormous turgor and applies physical force to rupture the rice leaf cuticle using a rigid penetration peg. Appressorium-mediated infection requires septin-dependent reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton at the base of the infection cell, which organizes polarity determinants necessary for plant cell invasion. Here, we show that plant infection by M. oryzae requires two independent S-phase cell-cycle checkpoints. Initial formation of appressoria on the rice leaf surface requires an S-phase checkpoint that acts through the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, involving the Cds1 kinase. By contrast, appressorium repolarization involves a novel, DDR-independent S-phase checkpoint, triggered by appressorium turgor generation and melanization. This second checkpoint specifically regulates septin-dependent, NADPH oxidase-regulated F-actin dynamics to organize the appressorium pore and facilitate entry of the fungus into host tissue. PMID:28028232

  5. Host-Induced Gene Silencing of Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae Pathogenicity Genes Mediated by the Brome Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhu, Jian; Liu, Zhixue; Wang, Zhengyi; Zhou, Cheng; Wang, Hong

    2017-09-26

    Magnaportheoryzae is a devastating plant pathogen, which has a detrimental impact on rice production worldwide. Despite its agronomical importance, some newly-emerging pathotypes often overcome race-specific disease resistance rapidly. It is thus desirable to develop a novel strategy for the long-lasting resistance of rice plants to ever-changing fungal pathogens. Brome mosaic virus (BMV)-induced RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a useful tool to study host-resistance genes for rice blast protection. Planta-generated silencing of targeted genes inside biotrophic pathogens can be achieved by expression of M.oryzae-derived gene fragments in the BMV-mediated gene silencing system, a technique termed host-induced gene silencing (HIGS). In this study, the effectiveness of BMV-mediated HIGS in M.oryzae was examined by targeting three predicted pathogenicity genes, MoABC1,MoMAC1 and MoPMK1. Systemic generation of fungal gene-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules induced by inoculation of BMV viral vectors inhibited disease development and reduced the transcription of targeted fungal genes after subsequent M.oryzae inoculation. Combined introduction of fungal gene sequences in sense and antisense orientation mediated by the BMV silencing vectors significantly enhanced the efficiency of this host-generated trans-specific RNAi, implying that these fungal genes played crucial roles in pathogenicity. Collectively, our results indicated that BMV-HIGS system was a great strategy for protecting host plants against the invasion of pathogenic fungi.

  6. Development and Identification of Novel Rice Blast Resistant Sources and Their Characterization Using Molecular Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S J S RAMA DEVI; M. S. MADHAV; Kuldeep SINGH; B UMAKANTH; B VISHALAKSHI; P RENUKA; K. VIJAY SUDHAKAR; M. S. PRASAD3; B. C. VIRAKTAMATH; V. RAVINDRA BABU

    2015-01-01

    To develop and characterize introgression lines for leaf and neck blast resistance, 326 introgression lines were developed using various accessions of six different AA genome wild species in the genetic background of elite Indian varieties like PR114 and Pusa 44 and were screened for blast resistance. Stringent phenotyping coupled with genotyping using gene based markers led to the identification of four resistant introgression lines, which showed promising resistance and do not possess any of the tested genes. Furthermore, multi-location screening confirmed the field resistance of the four introgression lines to both leaf and neck blast. Molecular characterization of these introgression lines using genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers revealed the presence of small percentage of wildOryza genome introgrssion. So these lines can be used for mapping and identification of novel leaf and neck blast resistance genes. Thus, these four introgression lines can be considered as new genetic resources for blast resistance.

  7. Machine learning techniques in disease forecasting: a case study on rice blast prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor Amar S

    2006-11-01

    developed a SVM-based web server for rice blast prediction, a first of its kind worldwide, which can help the plant science community and farmers in their decision making process. The server is freely available at http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/rbpred/.

  8. Improving Blast Resistance of a Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice Line GD-8S by Molecular Marker-Assisted Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-ge LIU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The broad-spectrum blast resistance gene Pi-1, from donor line BL122, was introduced into a thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice line GD-8S, which possessed good grain quality but high susceptibility to rice blast, by using backcross breeding and molecular marker-assisted selection. Five elite improved male sterile lines, RGD8S-1, RGD8S-2, RGD8S-3, RGD8S-4 and RGD8S-5, were selected based on the results of molecular marker analysis, spikelet sterility, recovery rate of genetic background and agronomic traits. Thirty-three representative blast isolates collected from Guangdong Province, China were used to inoculate the improved lines and the original line GD-8S artificially. The resistance frequencies of the improved lines ranged from 76.47% to 100%, much higher than that of the original line GD-8S (9.09%. On the agronomic characters, there were no significant differences between the improved lines and GD-8S except for flag leaf length and panicle number per plant. The improved lines could be used for breeding hybrid rice with high blast resistance.

  9. Improving Blast Resistance of a Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice Line GD-8S by Molecular Marker-Assisted Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wu-ge; LIU Yi-bai; JIN Su-juan; ZHU Xiao-yuan; WANG Feng; LI Jin-hua; LIU Zhen-rong; LIAO Yi-long; ZHU Man-shan; HUANG Hui-jun

    2008-01-01

    The broad-spectrum blast resistance gene Pi-1, from donor line BL122, was introduced into a thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice line GD-8S, which possessed good grain quality but high susceptibility to rice blast, by using backcross breeding and molecular marker-assisted selection. Five elite improved male sterile lines, RGD8S-1, RGD8S-2, RGD8S-3, RGD8S-4 and RGD8S-5, were selected based on the results of molecular marker analysis, spikelet sterility, recovery rate of genetic background and agronomic traits. Thirty-three representative blast isolates collected from Guangdong Province,China were used to inoculate the improved lines and the original line GD-8S artificially. The resistance frequencies of the improved lines ranged from 76.47% to 100%, much higher than that of the original line GD-8S (9.09%). On the agronomic characters, there were no significant differences between the improved lines and GD-8S except for flag leaf length and panicle number per plant. The improved lines could be used for breeding hybrid rice with high blast resistance.

  10. Eukaryotic extracellular catalase–peroxidase from Magnaporthe grisea – Biophysical/chemical characterization of the first representative from a novel phytopathogenic KatG group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámocký, Marcel; Droghetti, Enrica; Bellei, Marzia; Gasselhuber, Bernhard; Pabst, Martin; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Smulevich, Giulietta; Obinger, Christian

    2012-01-01

    All phytopathogenic fungi have two catalase–peroxidase paralogues located either intracellularly (KatG1) or extracellularly (KatG2). Here, for the first time a secreted bifunctional, homodimeric catalase–peroxidase (KatG2 from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea) has been produced heterologously with almost 100% heme occupancy and comprehensively investigated by using a broad set of methods including UV–Vis, ECD and resonance Raman spectroscopy (RR), thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry, mass spectrometry, steady-state & presteady-state spectroscopy. RR spectroscopy reveals that MagKatG2 shows a unique mixed-spin state, non-planar heme b, and a proximal histidine with pronounced imidazolate character. At pH 7.0 and 25 °C, the standard reduction potential E°′ of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple for the high-spin native protein was found to fall in the range typical for the KatG family. Binding of cyanide was relatively slow at pH 7.0 and 25 °C and with a Kd value significantly higher than for the intracellular counterpart. Demonstrated by mass spectrometry MagKatG2 has the typical Trp118-Tyr251-Met277 adduct that is essential for its predominantly catalase activity at the unique acidic pH optimum. In addition, MagKatG2 acts as a versatile peroxidase using both one- and two-electron donors. Based on these data, structure–function relationships of extracellular eukaryotic KatGs are discussed with respect to intracellular KatGs and possible role(s) in host–pathogen interaction. PMID:21971530

  11. Eukaryotic extracellular catalase-peroxidase from Magnaporthe grisea - Biophysical/chemical characterization of the first representative from a novel phytopathogenic KatG group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámocký, Marcel; Droghetti, Enrica; Bellei, Marzia; Gasselhuber, Bernhard; Pabst, Martin; Furtmüller, Paul G; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Smulevich, Giulietta; Obinger, Christian

    2012-03-01

    All phytopathogenic fungi have two catalase-peroxidase paralogues located either intracellularly (KatG1) or extracellularly (KatG2). Here, for the first time a secreted bifunctional, homodimeric catalase-peroxidase (KatG2 from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea) has been produced heterologously with almost 100% heme occupancy and comprehensively investigated by using a broad set of methods including UV-Vis, ECD and resonance Raman spectroscopy (RR), thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry, mass spectrometry, steady-state & presteady-state spectroscopy. RR spectroscopy reveals that MagKatG2 shows a unique mixed-spin state, non-planar heme b, and a proximal histidine with pronounced imidazolate character. At pH 7.0 and 25 °C, the standard reduction potential E°' of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple for the high-spin native protein was found to fall in the range typical for the KatG family. Binding of cyanide was relatively slow at pH 7.0 and 25 °C and with a K(d) value significantly higher than for the intracellular counterpart. Demonstrated by mass spectrometry MagKatG2 has the typical Trp118-Tyr251-Met277 adduct that is essential for its predominantly catalase activity at the unique acidic pH optimum. In addition, MagKatG2 acts as a versatile peroxidase using both one- and two-electron donors. Based on these data, structure-function relationships of extracellular eukaryotic KatGs are discussed with respect to intracellular KatGs and possible role(s) in host-pathogen interaction.

  12. Research Progress of Induced Resistance against Rice Blast and Its Resistance Mechanisms%诱导水稻抗瘟性及诱抗机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡能; 涂国全; 黄林

    2015-01-01

    Rice blast is the most harmful rice disease among three major rice diseases. Induced resistance against rice blast will play an important role in the control of rice blast for its following characteristics:persistence, broad spectrum, safety, systemic,etc. Recent researches on induced resistance against rice blast, the biotic and abiotic induced resistance elicitors, and resistance mechanisms were introduced in this paper. Existing problems about the research and its development direction about induced resistance against rice blast in the future were also discussed.%稻瘟病是危害水稻三大病害之首,水稻稻瘟病诱导抗病性具有持久性、广谱性、安全性、系统性等而对未来水稻稻瘟病的防治发挥巨大的作用。综述近年来国内外水稻诱导抗瘟性的研究进展,对生物及非生物诱导因子和诱导机理的三个方面进行了介绍,并提出对现在一些研究不足以及未来的发展方向。

  13. Analysis on blast fungus-responsive characters of a flavonoid phytoalexin sakuranetin; accumulation in infected rice leaves, antifungal activity and detoxification by fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Morifumi; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Seo, Shigemi; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Iwai, Takayoshi; Ohashi, Yuko

    2014-08-04

    To understand the role of the rice flavonoid phytoalexin (PA) sakuranetin for blast resistance, the fungus-responsive characteristics were studied. Young rice leaves in a resistant line exhibited hypersensitive reaction (HR) within 3 days post inoculation (dpi) of a spore suspension, and an increase in sakuranetin was detected at 3 dpi, increasing to 4-fold at 4 dpi. In the susceptible line, increased sakuranetin was detected at 4 dpi, but not at 3 dpi, by which a large fungus mass has accumulated without HR. Induced expression of a PA biosynthesis gene OsNOMT for naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase was found before accumulation of sakuranetin in both cultivars. The antifungal activity of sakuranetin was considerably higher than that of the major rice diterpenoid PA momilactone A in vitro and in vivo under similar experimental conditions. The decrease and detoxification of sakuranetin were detected in both solid and liquid mycelium cultures, and they took place slower than those of momilactone A. Estimated local concentration of sakuranetin at HR lesions was thought to be effective for fungus restriction, while that at enlarged lesions in susceptible rice was insufficient. These results indicate possible involvement of sakuranetin in blast resistance and its specific relation to blast fungus.

  14. Enhanced Rice Blast Resistance by CRISPR/Cas9-Targeted Mutagenesis of the ERF Transcription Factor Gene OsERF922.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Wang

    Full Text Available Rice blast is one of the most destructive diseases affecting rice worldwide. The adoption of host resistance has proven to be the most economical and effective approach to control rice blast. In recent years, sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs have been demonstrated to be powerful tools for the improvement of crops via gene-specific genome editing, and CRISPR/Cas9 is thought to be the most effective SSN. Here, we report the improvement of rice blast resistance by engineering a CRISPR/Cas9 SSN (C-ERF922 targeting the OsERF922 gene in rice. Twenty-one C-ERF922-induced mutant plants (42.0% were identified from 50 T0 transgenic plants. Sanger sequencing revealed that these plants harbored various insertion or deletion (InDel mutations at the target site. We showed that all of the C-ERF922-induced allele mutations were transmitted to subsequent generations. Mutant plants harboring the desired gene modification but not containing the transferred DNA were obtained by segregation in the T1 and T2 generations. Six T2 homozygous mutant lines were further examined for a blast resistance phenotype and agronomic traits, such as plant height, flag leaf length and width, number of productive panicles, panicle length, number of grains per panicle, seed setting percentage and thousand seed weight. The results revealed that the number of blast lesions formed following pathogen infection was significantly decreased in all 6 mutant lines compared with wild-type plants at both the seedling and tillering stages. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between any of the 6 T2 mutant lines and the wild-type plants with regard to the agronomic traits tested. We also simultaneously targeted multiple sites within OsERF922 by using Cas9/Multi-target-sgRNAs (C-ERF922S1S2 and C-ERF922S1S2S3 to obtain plants harboring mutations at two or three sites. Our results indicate that gene modification via CRISPR/Cas9 is a useful approach for enhancing blast resistance in

  15. RICE BLAST CONTROL WITH RELEASE OF RESISTANT VARIETIES Борьба с пирикуляриозом риса путем создания устойчивых сортов

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenskiy G. L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Among fungus diseases of rice, blast is the most harm-ful. The disease is caused by Pyricularia oryzae Cav. Rice is sensitive to blast at all fazes of vegetation. In Russia, the purposeful breeding of rice varieties re-sistant to this disease began in 1982. Over the past period, the rice varieties which are genetically protect-ed from blast and not requiring crop protection have been created

  16. Calpains are involved in asexual and sexual development, cell wall integrity and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Ning, Guo-Ao; Huang, Lu-Yao; Zhao, Ya-Hui; Dong, Bo; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-08-09

    Calpains are ubiquitous and well-conserved proteins that belong to the calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine protease family. In this study, 8 putative calpains were identified using Pfam domain analysis and BlastP searches in M. oryzae. Three single gene deletion mutants (ΔMocapn7, ΔMocapn9 and ΔMocapn14) and two double gene deletion mutants (ΔMocapn4ΔMocapn7 and ΔMocapn9ΔMocapn7) were obtained using the high-throughput gene knockout system. The calpain disruption mutants showed defects in colony characteristics, conidiation, sexual reproduction and cell wall integrity. The mycelia of the ΔMocapn7, ΔMocapn4ΔMocapn7 and ΔMocapn9ΔMocapn7 mutants showed reduced pathogenicity on rice and barley.

  17. Tagging Blast Resistance Gene Pi 1 in Rice (Oryza sativa) Using Candidate Resistance Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ai-hong; WU Jian-li; XU Xin-ping; Menchu BERNADO; DAI Zheng-yuan; ZHUANG Jie-yun; CHEN Zong-xiang; ZHENG Kang-le; LI Bao-jian; Hei LEUNG; ZHANG Hong-xi; PAN Xue-biao

    2004-01-01

    An F3 population derived from C101LAC/CO39 containing 90 lines was analyzed for blast resistance with 48 candidate genes developed from resistance gene analogs (RGA) and suppression subtractive library. Genetic analysis confirmed that blast resistance of the population was controlled by a single gene Pi 1. One of the candidate genes, R10 was identified as associated with the blast resistance gene on the long arm of chromosome 11 and mapped using a DH population derived from Azucena/IR64.A pair of PCR based primers was designed based on the sequence of R10 for marker-aided selection of the blast resistance gene.The recombination frequency between Pi 1 and the marker was estimated as 1.28%. It suggested that strategy of employing candidate genes is useful for gene identification and mapping. A new RFLP marker and the corresponding PCR marker for tagging of Pi 1 were provided.

  18. Peroxisomal alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase AGT1 is indispensable for appressorium function of the rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai Bhadauria

    Full Text Available The role of β-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle in fungal pathogenesis is well documented. However, an ambiguity still remains over their interaction in peroxisomes to facilitate fungal pathogenicity and virulence. In this report, we characterize a gene encoding an alanine, glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1 in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative agent of rice blast disease, and demonstrate that AGT1 is required for pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGT1 resulted in the failure of penetration via appressoria; therefore, mutants lacking the gene were unable to induce blast symptoms on the hosts rice and barley. This penetration failure may be associated with a disruption in lipid mobilization during conidial germination as turgor generation in the appressorium requires mobilization of lipid reserves from the conidium. Analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein expression using the transcriptional and translational fusion with the AGT1 promoter and open reading frame, respectively, revealed that AGT1 expressed constitutively in all in vitro grown cell types and during in planta colonization, and localized in peroxisomes. Peroxisomal localization was further confirmed by colocalization with red fluorescent protein fused with the peroxisomal targeting signal 1. Surprisingly, conidia produced by the Δagt1 mutant were unable to form appressoria on artificial inductive surfaces, even after prolonged incubation. When supplemented with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(++pyruvate, appressorium formation was restored on an artificial inductive surface. Taken together, our data indicate that AGT1-dependent pyruvate formation by transferring an amino group of alanine to glyoxylate, an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle is required for lipid mobilization and utilization. This pyruvate can be converted to non-fermentable carbon sources, which may require reoxidation of NADH generated by the β-oxidation of fatty acids to NAD(+ in

  19. Two novel transcriptional regulators are essential for infection-related morphogenesis and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A signaling pathway plays a major role in regulating plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Here, we report the identification of two novel genes, MoSOM1 and MoCDTF1, which were discovered in an insertional mutagenesis screen for non-pathogenic mutants of M. oryzae. MoSOM1 or MoCDTF1 are both necessary for development of spores and appressoria by M. oryzae and play roles in cell wall differentiation, regulating melanin pigmentation and cell surface hydrophobicity during spore formation. MoSom1 strongly interacts with MoStu1 (Mstu1, an APSES transcription factor protein, and with MoCdtf1, while also interacting more weakly with the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (CpkA in yeast two hybrid assays. Furthermore, the expression levels of MoSOM1 and MoCDTF1 were significantly reduced in both Δmac1 and ΔcpkA mutants, consistent with regulation by the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. MoSom1-GFP and MoCdtf1-GFP fusion proteins localized to the nucleus of fungal cells. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that nuclear localization signal sequences in MoSom1 and MoCdtf1 are essential for their sub-cellular localization and biological functions. Transcriptional profiling revealed major changes in gene expression associated with loss of MoSOM1 during infection-related development. We conclude that MoSom1 and MoCdtf1 functions downstream of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and are novel transcriptional regulators associated with cellular differentiation during plant infection by the rice blast fungus.

  20. Evolución el añublo del arroz en dos condiciones de fertilidad nitrogenada Evolução do brusone do arroz em duas condições de adubação nitrogenada Development of rice blast under two nitrogen availability conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pinciroli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la evolución de la infección producida por Pyricularia oryzae (cooke Sacc, en la hoja y en la panícula, fueron seleccionados tres genotipos de arroz (Oryza sativa. Los genotipos: El Paso 144 (EP, Don Ignacio (DI y H 316-1-2-1-1 (H 316 fueron sembrados en condiciones de campo, en la Estación Experimental La Plata, y en dos condiciones de disponibilidad de nitrógeno (testigo o sin nitrógeno y 150 kg N ha-1 en forma de urea. El hongo fue inoculado en la tercera hoja, con una mezcla de razas, a una concentración de 1,2 x 10(5 fragmentos de hifa/ml, incubándose durante 48 horas en cámara húmeda. Fueron evaluados la severidad y tipo de mancha en la hoja y la severidad e incidencia en la panícula. Se realizó el ANOVA, y las diferencias estadísticas fueron analizadas a través del test Tukey (pCom o objetivo de avaliar a evolução da infecção produzida por Pyricularia oryzae (Cooke Sacc, em folha e em panícula, foram selecionados três genótipos de arroz (Oryza sativa. Os genótipos: El Paso 144 (EP, Don Ignacio (DI e H 316-1-2-1-1 (H 316 foram semeados em condições de campo, na Estação Experimental La Plata, e em duas condições de disponibilidade de nitrogênio (testemunha: sem nitrogênio e 150 kg N ha-1 na forma de uréia. O fungo foi inoculado na terceira folha, com uma mistura de raças, e uma concentração de 1,2 x 10(5 fragmentos de hifa/ml, incubando-se durante 48 hs em câmara úmida. Foram avaliadas a severidade e tipo de mancha na folha e severidade e incidência na panícula. Foi realizado ANOVA, e as diferenças estatística foram analizadas pelo teste Tukey (pThree rice genotypes (Oryza sativa were chosen, among some commercial cultivars and advanced lines, in order to evaluate the influence of nitrogen levels on leaf and panicle blast infection caused by Pyricularia grisea (Cooke Sacc. Three genotypes El Paso 144 (EP, Don Ignacio (DI and H 316-1-2-1-1 (H 316 under two nitrogen levels

  1. Bibliometric Analysis of Rice Blast in China%基于文献计量分析我国水稻稻瘟病研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟

    2009-01-01

    Based on the data of rice blast in China collected by China Journal Full-text Database (1989-2007), the bibliometric analysis has made on the year distribution of periodical categories, core authors, author's collaboration degree, research groups and regional distribution, journal distribution, etc.And from the analysis of the study hotspots and subjects, the study status and developing trend of rice blast in China in future was pointed out, which provided a reliable valuable reference for the research on the rice blast in China.%以的数据为检索对象,采用文献计量学的方法,从年度载文量、核心作者群、合作度、主要产出单位及区域、期刊分布等方面对水稻稻瘟病研究文献进行统计,进一步分析国内该领域的研究热点,从而揭示近20年来我国对水稻稻瘟病研究的现状和发展趋势.

  2. Esporulação de Pyricularia grisea em diferentes meios de cultura e regimes de luz Sporulation of Pyricularia grisea on different culture media and light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Antunes da Cruz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes fatores influenciam o crescimento e a esporulação dos fungos, tais como: composição do meio de cultivo, temperatura e luz. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o melhor meio de cultivo e regime de luz para a esporulação de Pyricularia grisea. Um isolado deste, obtido da cultivar de trigo 'BRS 194', foi repicado por disco micelial em oito meios de cultivo (farinha integral de arroz, aveia, centeio, cevada, trigo, triticale; BSA e extrato de tomate e submetido a três regimes de luz (escuro, fotoperíodo de 12h e luz contínua. As placas permaneceram por 10 dias, em câmara de crescimento sob temperatura de 23-25°C. Em seguida, o número de conídios foi determinado em câmara de Neubauer. O meio de cultivo à base de farinha integral de trigo propiciou a maior esporulação do fungo em todos os regimes de luz, e a maior esporulação ocorreu em regime de luz contínua para todos os meios de cultivos testados. Os meios de arroz e BSA propiciaram uma menor produção de conídios pelo fungo.A set of conditions is necessary for the growth and sporulation of fungi, particularly the composition of culture media, temperature and light. The objective of this research was to determine the ideal culture medium and light regime for the sporulation of P. grisea. Micelial discs of an isolate, obtained from cultivar 'BRS 194' of wheat, were transferred to eight culture media (rice wholemeal, oat, rye, barley, wheat, triticale, PSA and tomato sauce and kept in the dark, under continuous light and 12h of light. In a growing chamber, for 10 days at 23-25°C. Then, the number of conidia was determined in a Neubauer chamber. The higher sporulation, regardless of light regime, was observed on wheat wholemeal culture medium. The continuous light provided higher sporulation this fungus in all culture medium. The lowest production of conidia was observed on rice wholemeal and PSA culture media.

  3. Development of a SCAR marker linked to avirulence gene AVR-Pikm in rice blast fungus Magna porthe grisea%一个与稻瘟病菌无毒基因AVR-Pikm连锁的SCAR标记的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊峰; 张国珍; 马秋娟; 彭友良

    2003-01-01

    本研究将以前在稻瘟病菌菌株S1522获得的与决定对水稻品种梅雨明无毒性的基因(AVR-Pikmm)相连锁的1个RAPD标记OPO121000进行了克隆和鉴定.核苷酸序列测定与分析结果表明:OPO121000的大小为946个碱基,不含有与已报道的稻瘟病菌Mg-SINE、Fosburry、Magyy、Grasshopper、Pot2以及Pot3等同源的重复序列.根据OPO12100o的核苷酸序列,设计了1对24个核苷酸的特异引物,对无毒表型亲本S1522和毒性表型亲本S159、无毒表型群体基因池、毒性表型基因池以及有性杂交后代108个菌株进行了PCR扩增,所有无毒表型的菌株均能特异性地扩增出1条与OPO121000大小相同的DNA条带,而毒性表型的菌株除5个重组个体外,均不能扩增出这条特异带.此结果表明,与稻瘟病菌无毒基因AVR-Pikm连锁的RAPD标记OPO121000被成功地转化为SCAR标记,为进一步通过染色体步移克隆该无毒基因奠定了基础.

  4. Multiple translocation of the AVR-Pita effector gene among chromosomes of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and related species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Chuma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease, a devastating problem worldwide. This fungus has caused breakdown of resistance conferred by newly developed commercial cultivars. To address how the rice blast fungus adapts itself to new resistance genes so quickly, we examined chromosomal locations of AVR-Pita, a subtelomeric gene family corresponding to the Pita resistance gene, in various isolates of M. oryzae (including wheat and millet pathogens and its related species. We found that AVR-Pita (AVR-Pita1 and AVR-Pita2 is highly variable in its genome location, occurring in chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and supernumerary chromosomes, particularly in rice-infecting isolates. When expressed in M. oryzae, most of the AVR-Pita homologs could elicit Pita-mediated resistance, even those from non-rice isolates. AVR-Pita was flanked by a retrotransposon, which presumably contributed to its multiple translocation across the genome. On the other hand, family member AVR-Pita3, which lacks avirulence activity, was stably located on chromosome 7 in a vast majority of isolates. These results suggest that the diversification in genome location of AVR-Pita in the rice isolates is a consequence of recognition by Pita in rice. We propose a model that the multiple translocation of AVR-Pita may be associated with its frequent loss and recovery mediated by its transfer among individuals in asexual populations. This model implies that the high mobility of AVR-Pita is a key mechanism accounting for the rapid adaptation toward Pita. Dynamic adaptation of some fungal plant pathogens may be achieved by deletion and recovery of avirulence genes using a population as a unit of adaptation.

  5. Avoidance of Linkage Drag Between Blast Resistance Gene and the QTL Conditioning Spikelet Fertility Based on Genotype Selection Against Heading Date in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-qiang; FAN Ye-yang; CHEN Jie; SHI Yong-feng; WU Jian-li

    2009-01-01

    Previous study showed that a linkage drag between a blast resistance gene Pi25(t) and QTLs conditioning spikelet fertility (qSF-6) and number of filled grains per panicle (qNFGP-6) was detected on the short arm of chromosome 6. A larger population was used for further verification, and the results confirmed the linkage drag between the blast resistance gene and QTL conditioning spikelet fertility, other than QTL conditioning number of filled grains per panicle. Breakdown or avoidance of the linkage drag could be achieved by selection against the genotype background of a heading-date gene (qHD-7) that resided in the region between RM2 and RM214 on chromosome 7. For further validation, two lines with almost identical genotypes on all chromosomal regions except the Pi25(t) region on chromosome 6 were chosen to develop a new population. The results showed that qSF-6 could be further subdivided into qSF-6-1 and qSF-6-2. When the genotype of the region between RM2 and RM214 was from rice variety Zhong 156, the linkage drag between Pi25(t) and qSF-6-2 was detected and the allele of qSF-6-2 from rice variety Gumei 2 reduced the spikelet fertility. When the genotype of the region between RM2 and RM214 was from Gumei 2, no linkage drag was detected. This indicates that the linkage drag between the blast resistance gene and the QTL conditioning spikelet fertility could be broken down or avoided under a certain background genotype selection against heading-date and provides a marker aided solution for high level of blast resistance and yield breeding in rice and other crops as well.

  6. Constitutive expression of pathogen-inducible OsWRKY31 enhances disease resistance and affects root growth and auxin response in transgenic rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Zhang; Youliang Peng; Zejian Guo

    2008-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors have many regulatory roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we isolated a rice WRKY gene (OsWRKY31) that is induced by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea and auxin. This gene encodes a polypeptide of 211 amino-acid residues and belongs to a subgroup of the rice WRKY gene family that probably originated after the divergence of monocot and dicot plants. OsWRKY31 was found to be localized to the nucleus of onion epidermis cells to transiently express OsWRKY31-eGFP fusion protein. Analysis of 0sWRKY31 and its mutants fused with a Cal4 DNA-binding domain indicated that OsWRKY31 has transactivation activity in yeast. Overexpression of the OsWRKY31 gene was found to enhance resistance against infection with M. grisea, and the transgenic lines exhibited reduced lateral root formation and elongation compared with wild-type and RNAi plants. The lines with overexpression showed constitutive expression of many defense-related genes, such as PBZ1 and OsSci2, as well as early auxin-response genes, such as OsIAA4 and OsCrll genes. Furthermore, the plants with overexpression were less sensitive to exogenously supplied IBA, NAA and 2,4-D at high concentrations, suggesting that overexpression of the OsWRKY31 gene might alter the auxin response or transport. These results also suggest that OsWRKY31 might be a common component in the signal transduction pathways of the auxin response and the defense response in rice.

  7. Rice transformation with cell wall degrading enzyme genes from Trichoderma atroviride and its effect on plant growth and resistance to fungal pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Mei; Sun Zong-Xiu; Zhu Jie; Xu Tong; Gary E Harman; Matteo Lorito; Sheri Woo

    2004-01-01

    @@ Three genes encoding for fungal cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE), ech42, nag70 and gluc78from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride were inserted into the binary vector pCAMBIA1305. 2 singly and in all possible combinations. The coding sequences were placed downstream of the rice actin promoter and all vectors were used to transform rice plants. A total of more than 1,800 independently regenerated plantlets in seven different populations (for each of the three genes and each of the four gene combinations) were obtained. Expression in plant was obtained for all the fungal genes used singly or in combinations. The ech42 gene encoding for an endochitinase increased resistance to sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani, while the exochitinase-encoding gene, nag70, had a lesser effect. The expression level of endochitinase but not of the exochitinase was correlated with disease resistance. Nevertheless, exochitinase enhanced the positive effect of endochitinase on disease resistance when two genes were co-expressed in transgenic rice. Improved resistance to Magnaporthe grisea was found in all types of regenerated plants, including those with the gluc78 gene alone, while a few lines expressing either ech42 or nag70 appeared to be immune to this pathogen. Transgenic plants expressing the gluc78 gene alone were stunted and only few of them survived, even though they showed resistance to M. grisea. However, combination with either one of the two other genes ( ech42, nag70 ) as included in the same T-DNA region, reduced the negative effect of gluc78 on plant growth. This is the first report of single or multiple of expression of transgens encoding CWDEs that results in resistance to blast and sheath blight in rice.

  8. Natural variation of rice blast resistant gene Pi-ta in Oryza species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pi-ta gene in rice is a putative NBS type cytoplasmic receptor conferring resistance to races of Magnaporthe oryzae in a gene-for-gene manner. A Functional Nucleotide Polymorphism (FNP) change resulting in an amino acid substitution of Alanine to Serine at position 918 (nucleotide G to T at posi...

  9. Fertilização silicatada na severidade de brusone e na incidência de insetos-praga em arroz irrigado Silicon fertilization on rice blast severity, insect pest incidence, and grain yield of irrigated rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto B. dos Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de brusone e insetos-praga tem limitado a produtividade de arroz irrigado na região tropical, razão que este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do serpentinito calcinado e da volastonita na severidade de brusone, na incidência de insetos-praga e na produtividade de arroz no cultivo principal e na soca. Em casa-de-vegetação foram avaliados os efeitos das doses 0, 1, 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1 de serpentinito calcinado e volastonita na severidade de brusone nas folhas da cv. Metica 1. No campo, se conduziram dois experimentos em várzeas no município de Dueré, TO, e dois no Formoso do Araguaia, TO. Os tratamentos consistiram das doses 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 Mg ha-1 de serpentinito, com e sem aplicação de produtos fitossanitários e dos genótipos CNA 8502 e BRS Formoso. O serpentinito calcinado foi tão ou mais eficiente que a volastonita na redução da severidade de brusone e aumentou a fitomassa, a produtividade de arroz e a porcentagem de endosperma sem manchas causadas por picadas de percevejo-dos-grãos. A aplicação de Si contribui para o manejo sustentável de brusone e de insetos-praga pela redução das doses de defensivos agrícolas e por um número menor de aplicações foliares, além de melhorar a qualidade do arroz.Rice blast and insect pests have laid a ceiling on the grain yield of irrigated rice in tropical regions. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of calcinated serpentinite and wallastonite on rice blast severity and insect pest incidence as well as grain yield of rice, in the main and ratoon crops. The effect of calcinated serpentinite and wollastonite rates (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 Mg ha-1 on leaf blast severity were assessed on cultivar Metica 1, under greenhouse conditions. Two field experiments were conducted in the municipality of Dueré, and two in Formoso do Araguaia, in the State of Tocantins. The treatments consisted of five doses of calcinated serpentinite (0, 2, 4

  10. Characterization and mapping of a novel light-dependent lesion mimic mutant lmm6 in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Gui-qing; ZHANG Hai-wen; LU Xiang-yang; HUANG Rong-feng

    2015-01-01

    A novel rice lesion mimic mutant (LMM) was isolated from an ethane methyl sulfonate (EMS)-induced 02428 mutant bank. The mutant, tentatively designated as lmm6, develops necrotic lesions in the whole growth period along with changes in several important agronomic traits. We found that the initiation of the lesions was induced by light and cel death occurred in lmm6 accompanied with accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The lower chlorophyl content, soluble protein content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, the higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content were detected in lmm6 than in the wild type (WT). Moreover, the observation by transmission electronic microscope (TEM) demonstrated that some organel es were damaged and the stroma lamel a of chloroplast was irregular and loose in mesophyl cel of lmm6. In addition, lmm6 was more resistant than WT to rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea infection, which was consistent with increased expression of four genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that mutant trait of lmm6 is inherited as a monogenic recessive nuclear gene located on the long arm of chromosome 6. Using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, the target gene was ifnal y delimited to an interval of 80.8 kb between markers MM2359 and MM2370, containing 7 annotated genes. Taken together, our results provide the information to identify a new gene involved in rice lesion mimic, which wil be helpful in clarifying the mechanism of cel death and disease resistance in rice.

  11. A preliminary study on the effect of agro-meteorological factors on molecular mechanism of rice blast occurrence%农业气象因素影响稻瘟病发生分子机制初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天华; 白姣姣; 吕东平

    2016-01-01

    Rice is an important food crop in China. Rice blast, a disease caused by ascomycetes (Magnaporthe oryzae), is one of most limiting factors of rice production in the country, which results in huge economic losses to the rice production each year. With the completion of whole genome sequencing of rice and M. oryzae, the interaction mechanism of rice and M. oryzae has become much clearer. Resistance to rice blast fungus can effectively prevent the invasion of pathogenic bacteria through the natural immune system of rice. Also pathogens can cause diseases in susceptible rice varieties by inhibiting innate immune system of rice. Outbreaks of rice blast and popular occur under three necessary conditions — susceptible rice variety, pathogenic bacteria and pathogenic meteorological factors. Thus the meteorological factors for the outbreak and epidemics of rice blast play an important role. Based on research achievements in recent years, this paper summarized the interaction mechanism of rice and M. oryzae from the pointing of pathogenic process of M. oryzae and rice resistance, discussed the effects of temperature, illumination, humidity and other meteorological factors on the pathogenesis of M. oryzae and disease resistance of rice. The paper further explored the molecular mechanism of invasion of rice blast epidemic caused by the factors, expecting to find the best ways for preventing and controlling rice blast. Finally, the paper provided theoretical evidences in support of proper prevention and treatment methods of rice blast.%水稻是我国重要的粮食作物,由子囊菌(Magnaporthe oryzae)所引起的稻瘟病是水稻生产活动中的重要限制因子之一,每年给水稻生产造成巨大的经济损失。随着水稻及稻瘟菌全基因组测序工作的完成,水稻和稻瘟菌间的互作机制已日渐明朗。水稻对稻瘟菌的抗性主要来自于自身体内天然免疫机制对病原菌入侵的有效阻止,同时病原菌能够通过

  12. Marker-assisted selection for the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ar in a backcross population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Garcês de Araújo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A doubled-haploid (DH population, obtained by anther culture of F1 plants from a cross between a highlysusceptible rice cultivar Lijiangxintuanheigu and the resistant somaclone (SC09, of the cultivar Araguaia, was used to identifyRAPD markers linked to the blast resistance gene Pi-ar. The 86 DH plants, inoculated with the race IB-9 of Magnaportheoryzae, segregated in 1:1 ratio of resistant and susceptible plants. Of the 67 primers used 31 produced DNA profiles thatdifferentiated resistant and susceptible bulks as well as the parental cultivars. The resistance gene was found linked to theprimer OPS162072 (‘AGGGGGTTCC’ at a distance of 3.6 cM. The selection efficiency of this primer was assessed in a BC3 F1population derived from another cross between a susceptible cultivar IAC 201 and SC09. The marker OPS16 showedefficiency of 86.9%, when six resistant and two susceptible plants were considered as negatives in RAPD analysis.

  13. 不同杀菌剂对水稻稻瘟病的防治效果%Effects of Different Fungicides on Rice Blast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付久才; 韩玉军

    2014-01-01

    In order to use drugs scientifically and reasonably ,the control effects and safety of four fungicides on rice blast were researched through field trails .The results showed that all four fungicides had best effects to control rice blast and had better safety on rice ,the effect exceeded 70% ,increased yield by 16 .71% ~21 .39% , Tricyclazole and Isoprothiolane had better effects among four fungicides .%为科学合理地选择和使用水稻稻瘟病杀菌药剂,采用田间试验方法,验证4种杀菌剂对水稻稻瘟病的防治效果及其对作物的安全性。结果表明:三环唑、稻瘟灵、肟菌·戊唑醇和春雷霉素均能有效防治水稻稻瘟病,防效均在70%以上。供试4种药剂均对水稻安全,并能促进水稻增产16.71%~21.39%,增加收益,其中三环唑和稻瘟灵的防治效果较好。

  14. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Octacosanol from the Leaves of Sabicea grisea var. grisea in Mice

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    Emiliano Barreto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sabicea species are used in the Amazon for treatment of fever and malaria, which suggests that its chemical constituents may have some effect on pain and inflammation. Phytochemical analysis of the hexane fraction obtained from the crude ethanol extract from Sabicea grisea var. grisea Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, an endemic plant in Brazil, resulted in the isolation of octacosanol. This study investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the octacosanol in different experimental models. The crude ethanolic extract and hexane fraction obtained from the leaves of S. grisea produced an inhibition of acetic acid-induced pain. Moreover, octacosanol isolated from the hexane fraction produced a significant inhibition of pain response elicited by acetic acid. Pre-treatment with yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, notably reversed the antinociceptive activity induced by octacosanol in the abdominal constriction test. Furthermore, mice treated with octacosanol did not exhibit any behavioral alteration during the hot plate and rota-rod tests, indicating non-participation of the supraspinal components in the modulation of pain by octacosanol with no motor abnormality. In the formalin test, octacosanol did not inhibit the licking time in first phase (neurogenic pain, but significantly inhibited the licking time in second phase (inflammatory pain of mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of octacosanol was evaluated using carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The octacosanol significantly reduced the total leukocyte count and neutrophils influx, as well as TNF-α levels in the carrageenan-induced pleurisy. This study revealed that the mechanism responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the octacosanol appears to be partly associated with an inhibition of alpha 2-adrenergic transmission and an inhibition of pathways dependent on pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, these results demonstrated that the

  15. ON RELATION OF SOIL MOISTURE TO DEVELOPMENT OF RICE BLAST DISEASE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RESULTS OF INOCULATION EXPERIMENTS ON LEAVES AND SPIKE PEDICELS OF PLANTS GROWN IN SOILS DIFFERING IN MOISTURE AND IN AMOUNTS OF SILICA AND FERTILIZER,

    Science.gov (United States)

    moisture content, and fertilizer and silica application. The susceptibility of the rice plant to rice blast disease varied inversely with the moisture...content of the soil irrespective of the amount of fertilizer or silica applied or of the stage of growth of the plant. Dryness of the soil tended to...fertilization were more easily infected than plants grown on irrigated soil with double the amount of fertilizer . This proves that even with double the

  16. ON RELATION OF SOIL MOISTURE TO DEVELOPMENT OF RICE BLAST DISEASE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO INOCULATION EXPERIMENTS ON PLANTS GROWN IN SOILS DIFFERING IN MOISTURE AND AMOUNTS OF NITROGENOUS MANURE. PART A-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    humidity and amount of nitrogenous fertilizer . The results of investigation of the natural infection of the adult leaf are also discussed. Using the ash...figure technique, anatomical differences in the adult leaf were studied. Irrespective of the amount of nitrogenous fertilizer applied, rice plants...on dry soil. Plants grown on soil with double the amount of nitrogenous fertilizer but well irrigated were found to be more resistant to rice blast

  17. In silico Analysis of the Potential Infection Mechanisms of Magnaporthe grisea from Horizontal Gene Transfer Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyang Li; Ying Wang; Hao Peng; Hejiao Bian; Mingwei Min; Longfei Chen; Qian Liu; Jinku Bao

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer(HGT)has long been considered as a principal force for an organism to gain novel genes in genome evolution. Homology search, phylogenetic analysis and nucleotide composition analysis are three major objective approaches to arguably determine the occurrence and directionality of HGT. Here, 21 genes that possess the potential to horizontal transfer were acquired from the whole genome of Magnaporthe grisea according to annotation, among which three can-didate genes(corresponding protein accession numbers are EAA55123, EAA47200 and EAA52136)were selected for further analysis. According to BLAST homology results, we subsequently conducted phylogenetic analysis of the three candidate HGT genes. Moreover, nucleotide composition analysis was conducted to further validate these HGTs. In addition, the functions of the three candidate genes were searched in COG database. Consequently, we conclude that the gene encoding protein EAA55123 is transferred from Clostridium perfringens. Another HGT event is between EAA52136 and a certain metazoan's corresponding gene, but the direction remains uncertain. Yet, EAA47200 is not a transferred gene.

  18. Perspectivas del uso de bacterias rizosféricas en el control de pyricularia grisea (cooke sacc.) en el cultivo del arroz (oryza sativa l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Acebo Guerrero, Yanelis; Hernández-Rodríguez, Annia; Rives Rodríguez, Narovis; Hernández-Lauzardo, Ana Niurka

    2011-01-01

    Prospect of the use of bacteria in the control Pyricularia grisea (Cooke Sacc.) on rice (Oriza sativa L.) Título corto: Bacterias rizosféricas para controlar la piriculariosis ResumenEl arroz es fuente de alimento para una gran parte de la población mundial, con alto promedio de consumo anual. En este cultivo las enfermedades de origen microbiano constituyen uno de los factores que inciden en la obtención de bajos rendimientos y calidad de los granos. La piriculariosis o añublo del arroz, cau...

  19. Perspectivas del uso de bacterias rizosféricas en el control de Pyricularia grisea (Cooke Sacc.) en el cultivo del arroz (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yanelis Acebo Guerrero; Annia Hernández-Rodríguez; Narovis Rives Rodríguez; Ana Niurka Hernández-Lauzardo

    2011-01-01

    Prospect of the use of bacteria in the control Pyricularia grisea (Cooke Sacc.) on rice (Oriza sativa L.) Título corto: Bacterias rizosféricas para controlar la piriculariosis ResumenEl arroz es fuente de alimento para una gran parte de la población mundial, con alto promedio de consumo anual. En este cultivo las enfermedades de origen microbiano constituyen uno de los factores que inciden en la obtención de bajos rendimientos y calidad de los granos. La piriculariosis o añublo del arroz, cau...

  20. Rice husk ash as a source of silica in alkali-activated fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the viability of using an agro-industrial by-product, rice husk ash (RHA from a Colombian rice company’s combustion facility, as a total replacement for the commercial sodium silicate ordinarily used in alkaliactivated binders. Fly ash (FA, granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and binary 50FA:50GBFS blended pastes were activated with a mix of sodium hydroxide and either sodium silicate or one of two types of RHA. The pastes were characterised for strength, mineralogy and microstructure. The findings showed that the agro-industrial by-product can be used to yield alkali-activated materials with 7-day mechanical strengths on the order of 42 MPa. The study confirmed that both amorphous silica and part of the crystalline silica present in RHA participate in the alkaline activation process, providing the alkalinity is suitably adjusted.Este estudio evalúa la viabilidad de utilizar un subproducto agroindustrial, la ceniza de cascarilla de arroz (RHA proveniente de un equipo combustor de una empresa Arrocera en Colombia, como reemplazo total de la sílice aportada por el silicato de sodio comercial en sistemas cementicios activados alcalinamente. Se prepararon pastas de ceniza volante (FA, de escoria de alto horno (GBFS y un sistema binario 50FA:50GBFS, que fueron activadas por una mezcla de silicato de sodio e hidróxido de sodio, y por dos tipos de RHA. Las mezclas se caracterizaron mecánica, mineralógica y microestructuralmente. Los resultados demuestran que es posible obtener materiales activados alcalinamente con resistencias mecánicas del orden de 42 MPa, a 7 días de curado, utilizando el subproducto agroindustrial. Este estudio corrobora que tanto la sílice amorfa como parte de la sílice cristalina presente en RHA tienen la posibilidad de participar en el proceso de activación alcalina, siempre y cuando las condiciones de alcalinidad estén adecuadamente ajustadas.

  1. OsWRKY22, a monocot WRKY gene, plays a role in the resistance response to blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbruscato, Pamela; Nepusz, Tamás; Mizzi, Luca; Del Corvo, Marcello; Morandini, Piero; Fumasoni, Irene; Michel, Corinne; Paccanaro, Alberto; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Schaffrath, Ulrich; Morel, Jean-Benoît; Piffanelli, Pietro; Faivre-Rampant, Odile

    2012-10-01

    With the aim of identifying novel regulators of host and nonhost resistance to fungi in rice, we carried out a systematic mutant screen of mutagenized lines. Two mutant wrky22 knockout lines revealed clear-cut enhanced susceptibility to both virulent and avirulent Magnaporthe oryzae strains and altered cellular responses to nonhost Magnaporthe grisea and Blumeria graminis fungi. In addition, the analysis of the pathogen responses of 24 overexpressor OsWRKY22 lines revealed enhanced resistance phenotypes on infection with virulent M. oryzae strain, confirming that OsWRKY22 is involved in rice resistance to blast. Bioinformatic analyses determined that the OsWRKY22 gene belongs to a well-defined cluster of monocot-specific WRKYs. The co-regulatory analysis revealed no significant co-regulation of OsWRKY22 with a representative panel of OsWRKYs, supporting its unique role in a series of transcriptional responses. In contrast, inquiring a subset of biotic stress-related Affymetrix data, a large number of resistance and defence-related genes were found to be putatively co-expressed with OsWRKY22. Taken together, all gathered experimental evidence places the monocot-specific OsWRKY22 gene at the convergence point of signal transduction circuits in response to both host and nonhost fungi encountering rice plants.

  2. Alpha-picolinic acid,a fungal toxin and mammal apoptosis-inducing agent,elicits hypersensitive-like response and enhances disease resistance in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Kuo ZHANG; Xin ZHANG; Bi Zeng MAO; Qun LI; Zu Hua HE

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-picolinic acid (PA),a metabolite of tryptophan and an inducer of apoptosis in the animal cell,has been reported to be a toxin produced by some of plant fungal pathogens and used in screening for disease resistant mutants. Here,we report that PA is an efficient apoptosis agent triggering cell death of hypersensitive-like response in planta. Confirmed by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter (FACS),rice suspension cells and leaves exhibited programmed cell death induced by PA. The PA-induced cell death was associated with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species that could be blocked by diphenylene iodonium chloride,indicating that the generation of reactive oxygen species was NADPHoxidase dependent. We also demonstrated the induction of rice defense-related genes and subsequent resistant enhancement by PA against the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Hence,it was concluded that the PA-stimulated defense response likely involves the onset of the hypersensitive response in rice,which also provides a simple eliciting tool for studying apoptosis in the plant cell.

  3. Homeobox transcription factors are required for conidiation and appressorium development in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seryun Kim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate development of conidia and appressoria is critical in the disease cycle of many fungal pathogens, including Magnaporthe oryzae. A total of eight genes (MoHOX1 to MoHOX8 encoding putative homeobox transcription factors (TFs were identified from the M. oryzae genome. Knockout mutants for each MoHOX gene were obtained via homology-dependent gene replacement. Two mutants, DeltaMohox3 and DeltaMohox5, exhibited no difference to wild-type in growth, conidiation, conidium size, conidial germination, appressorium formation, and pathogenicity. However, the DeltaMohox1 showed a dramatic reduction in hyphal growth and increase in melanin pigmentation, compared to those in wild-type. DeltaMohox4 and DeltaMohox6 showed significantly reduced conidium size and hyphal growth, respectively. DeltaMohox8 formed normal appressoria, but failed in pathogenicity, probably due to defects in the development of penetration peg and invasive growth. It is most notable that asexual reproduction was completely abolished in DeltaMohox2, in which no conidia formed. DeltaMohox2 was still pathogenic through hypha-driven appressoria in a manner similar to that of the wild-type. However, DeltaMohox7 was unable to form appressoria either on conidial germ tubes, or at hyphal tips, being non-pathogenic. These factors indicate that M. oryzae is able to cause foliar disease via hyphal appressorium-mediated penetration, and MoHOX7 is mutually required to drive appressorium formation from hyphae and germ tubes. Transcriptional analyses suggest that the functioning of M. oryzae homeobox TFs is mediated through the regulation of gene expression and is affected by cAMP and Ca(2+ signaling and/or MAPK pathways. The divergent roles of this gene set may help reveal how the genome and regulatory pathways evolved within the rice blast pathogen and close relatives.

  4. Danos em trigo causados pela infecção de Pyricularia grisea Damages in wheat caused by infection of Pyricularia grisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto César Pereira Goulart

    2007-12-01

    infection by Pyricularia grisea, (causal agent of wheat blast, in different wheat cultivars and breeding lines, during 2004 crop season, at Dourados county, Mato Grosso do Sul State in the absence of other diseases. The experiments were developed under natural conditions and without fungicide spraying, in experimental plots located at Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste and Indápolis. After heading stage, all spikes that showed the characteristic blast symptoms (black point infection in the rachis, had been identified and marked in an area of the 1m². The blast and healthy spikes were harvested, counted and threshed separately. The damages were calculated based on the difference between the actual yield and the estimated yield potential. The results showed that the damages and the blast incidence had been varied according to cultivars/breeding lines and region. The least incidence of blast were observed on cv. BR 18-Terena, with 27% and 42% of infected spikes, from the Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste and Indápolis experiments, respectively. The average damage due to blast, in 20 tested materials, was 387kg/ha or 10.5% of the yield, in the Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste experiment. In Indápolis, the damages were greater, reaching, in average 609kg/ha or 13% of yield. The head weight loss was greater (63.4% with early infection than with late infection (46.0%. It was observed that grains below the infection point in the rachis were larger than the normal ones, thus compensating to some extent the presence of the empty spikelets. Because the white heads were more visible, the yield losses can be overestimated.

  5. Antifungal Activity of Eucalyptus Oil against Rice Blast Fungi and the Possible Mechanism of Gene Expression Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus oil possesses a wide spectrum of biological activity, including anti-microbial, fungicidal, herbicidal, acaricidal and nematicidal properties. We studied anti-fungal activities of the leaf oil extracted from Eucalyptus. grandis × E. urophylla. Eleven plant pathogenic fungi were tested based on the mycelium growth rates with negative control. The results showed that Eucalyptus oil has broad-spectrum inhibitory effects toward these fungi. Remarkable morphological and structural alterations of hypha have been observed for Magnaporthe grisea after the treatment. The mRNA genome array of M. grisea was used to detect genes that were differentially expressed in the test strains treated by the Eucalyptus oil than the normal strains. The results showed 1919 genes were significantly affected, among which 1109 were down-regulated and 810 were up-regulated (p < 0.05, absolute fold change >2. According to gene ontology annotation analysis, these differentially expressed genes may cause abnormal structures and physiological function disorders, which may reduce the fungus growth. These results show the oil has potential for use in the biological control of plant disease as a green biopesticide.

  6. Deciphering Cis-Regulatory Element Mediated Combinatorial Regulation in Rice under Blast Infected Condition.

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    Arindam Deb

    Full Text Available Combinations of cis-regulatory elements (CREs present at the promoters facilitate the binding of several transcription factors (TFs, thereby altering the consequent gene expressions. Due to the eminent complexity of the regulatory mechanism, the combinatorics of CRE-mediated transcriptional regulation has been elusive. In this work, we have developed a new methodology that quantifies the co-occurrence tendencies of CREs present in a set of promoter sequences; these co-occurrence scores are filtered in three consecutive steps to test their statistical significance; and the significantly co-occurring CRE pairs are presented as networks. These networks of co-occurring CREs are further transformed to derive higher order of regulatory combinatorics. We have further applied this methodology on the differentially up-regulated gene-sets of rice tissues under fungal (Magnaporthe infected conditions to demonstrate how it helps to understand the CRE-mediated combinatorial gene regulation. Our analysis includes a wide spectrum of biologically important results. The CRE pairs having a strong tendency to co-occur often exhibit very similar joint distribution patterns at the promoters of rice. We couple the network approach with experimental results of plant gene regulation and defense mechanisms and find evidences of auto and cross regulation among TF families, cross-talk among multiple hormone signaling pathways, similarities and dissimilarities in regulatory combinatorics between different tissues, etc. Our analyses have pointed a highly distributed nature of the combinatorial gene regulation facilitating an efficient alteration in response to fungal attack. All together, our proposed methodology could be an important approach in understanding the combinatorial gene regulation. It can be further applied to unravel the tissue and/or condition specific combinatorial gene regulation in other eukaryotic systems with the availability of annotated genomic

  7. Deciphering Cis-Regulatory Element Mediated Combinatorial Regulation in Rice under Blast Infected Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Arindam; Kundu, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    Combinations of cis-regulatory elements (CREs) present at the promoters facilitate the binding of several transcription factors (TFs), thereby altering the consequent gene expressions. Due to the eminent complexity of the regulatory mechanism, the combinatorics of CRE-mediated transcriptional regulation has been elusive. In this work, we have developed a new methodology that quantifies the co-occurrence tendencies of CREs present in a set of promoter sequences; these co-occurrence scores are filtered in three consecutive steps to test their statistical significance; and the significantly co-occurring CRE pairs are presented as networks. These networks of co-occurring CREs are further transformed to derive higher order of regulatory combinatorics. We have further applied this methodology on the differentially up-regulated gene-sets of rice tissues under fungal (Magnaporthe) infected conditions to demonstrate how it helps to understand the CRE-mediated combinatorial gene regulation. Our analysis includes a wide spectrum of biologically important results. The CRE pairs having a strong tendency to co-occur often exhibit very similar joint distribution patterns at the promoters of rice. We couple the network approach with experimental results of plant gene regulation and defense mechanisms and find evidences of auto and cross regulation among TF families, cross-talk among multiple hormone signaling pathways, similarities and dissimilarities in regulatory combinatorics between different tissues, etc. Our analyses have pointed a highly distributed nature of the combinatorial gene regulation facilitating an efficient alteration in response to fungal attack. All together, our proposed methodology could be an important approach in understanding the combinatorial gene regulation. It can be further applied to unravel the tissue and/or condition specific combinatorial gene regulation in other eukaryotic systems with the availability of annotated genomic sequences and suitable

  8. Potential distribution of Magnaporthe grisea in China and the world,predicted by MaxEnt%基于MaxEnt的麦瘟病在全球及中国的潜在分布区预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹学仁; 陈林; 周益林; 段霞瑜

    2011-01-01

    [目的]麦瘟病是小麦上的一种新病害,明确该病害在全球及我国的潜在分布区域,对于有效控制此病害在全球的扩展蔓延具有重要的意义.[方法]利用MaxEnt生态位模型预测麦瘟病在全球及我国的潜在分布.[结果]南美中东部、非洲东南部和中西部、南亚东南部和东南亚以及澳大利亚东部沿海地区是该病害在全球的主要适生区;而该病害在我国的适生区仅包括云南、广东和海南等省的少数地区.[结论]该病害在我国的适生区较小,但随着全球气候变化,该病原菌的潜在分布范围可能将进一步扩大.%[Objective]Wheat blast is a new wheat disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea, and now it has become one of the major diseases of wheat in South America.It is urgent to determine the potential geographical distribution of M.grisea in China and the world.[Method]The potential distribution regions of M.grisea in the world and China were predicted by using MaxEnt model.[Result]Mid-east of South America, Southeast and Midwest of Africa, southeast of South Asia, Southeast Asia and east coast of Australia are the main suitable areas for M.grisea in the world.The suitable areas for M.grisea cover only some areas in Yunnan, Guangdong and Hainan in China.[Conclusion]The predicted results showed that the suitable areas for M.grisea in China are relatively small.Climate change may make the potential distribution regions of M.grisea larger.

  9. Isolamento e regeneração de protoplastos de Magnaporthe grisea Isolation and regeneration of Magnaporthe grisea protoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Marchi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Protoplastos são ferramentas biológicas importantes para pesquisas em fungos filamentosos, sendo empregados intensamente em transformação genética. O isolamento de protoplastos de Magnaporthe grisea foi facilitado com Novozym 234, contudo, este complexo enzimático encontra-se indisponível no mercado. Assim, objetivou-se comparar a eficiência de enzimas líticas disponíveis comercialmente na obtenção de protoplastos de M. grisea. Paralelamente, analisaram-se estabilizadores osmóticos, tempos de digestão e freqüência de regeneração. Maior produção de protoplastos foi obtida com o uso simultâneo de Lysing Enzymes e Cellulase Onozuka R-10. O uso de 10 ou 15 mg de cada complexo enzimático, em 3 mL de estabilizador osmótico, resultou em maior liberação de protoplastos. O melhor estabilizador osmótico foi MgSO4 1,2 M / NaH2PO4 0,01 M, pH 5,8, seguido por MgSO4 0,8 M / NaH2PO4 0,01 M, pH 5,8. O isolamento de protoplastos foi monitorado a cada 60 minutos, atingindo o máximo após incubação por 3 a 6 horas. No entanto, maior freqüência de regeneração (19,4% foi registrada para protoplastos obtidos após 3 horas de hidrólise enzimática.Protoplasts are important biological tools in filamentous fungi research. Fungal protoplasts have been extensively used in experiments with genetic transformation. Protoplastization of Magnaporthe grisea was accomplished with Novozym 234, however, this enzymatic complex is no commercially available for purchase. Thus, the efficiency of several other commercial enzymes in M. grisea protoplasts preparation was investigated. At the same time, osmotic buffer, digestion time and regeneration rate were also analyzed. The highest protoplasts production was obtained with Lysing Enzymes plus Cellulase Onozuka R-10. The use of 10 or 15 mg of each enzymatic complex in 3 mL of osmotic buffer was most effective for the protoplasts yields. The best osmotic buffer was MgSO4 1.2 M / NaH2PO4 0.01 M, pH 5

  10. Geographic Distribution of Mating Types in Magnaporthe grisea and the Relationship Between Fertile Isolates in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ying; Notteghem Jean Loup.; Milazzo Joёlle.; YUAN Xiao-ping; Adreit Henry; ZHAO Xin-hua; WANG Yan-li; Tharreau Didier.

    2002-01-01

    377 isolates of Magnaporthe grisea were collected from 17 provinces in China and their geographic distribution of mating types and their fertility was tested with four standard isolates, KA3 and TH12 (Mat1.1) and Guy11 and TH16 (Mat1.2) provided by CIRAD. 73 fertile isolates were tested with SCAR markers of 13 pairs of primers. Preliminary results showed that the geographic distribution of M. grisea existed among isolates collected from the same location as well as different locations and the genetic relationship between fertile isolates of the fungus in China. The existence of sexual reproduction of M. grisea was explored in the field as well.

  11. Screening and identification of mutants of Magnaporthe grisea by REMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Ruyi; LIU Juan; ZHOU Yijun; FAN Yongjian; ZHENG Xiaobo

    2007-01-01

    The plasmid pUCATPH was used to establish a transformation system in wild-type isolate M131 of Magnaporthe grisea.Six hundred and thirty-nine transformants were obtained by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) with hygromycin B (hyg B) resistance as a tag.Morphological analysis of two of the REMI mutants confirmed that they produced little melanin under black light and continued for three generations.Pathogenicity identification of six mutants screened proved that they made pathogenicity changes on three sets of differential varieties with different resistance genes.Rep-PCR analyses showed that two morphological mutants and two pathogenicity mutants differed from wild-type isolate M131 at the molecular level.RFLP analyses were performed to study the four mutants at the molecular level and the integration sites of the plasmid DNA.The results showed that the plasmid was inserted into all four mutants and that the insertion sites were random.

  12. 稻瘟病抗病基因Pi15的精细定位%Fine Mapping of the Blast Resistance Gene Pil5, Linked to Pii, on Rice Chromosome 9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘庆华; 胡珍娣; 谷坂隆俊; 王玲

    2003-01-01

    The gene Pi15for resistance of rice to Magnaporthe grisea was previously identified as beinglinked to the gene Pii However, there is a debate on the chromosomal position of the Pii gene, becauseit was originally mapped on chromosome 6, but recent work showed it might be located on chromosome 9.To determine the chromosomal location of the Pi15gene, a linkage analysis using molecular markers wasperformed in a F2 mapping population consisting of 15 resistant and 141 susceptible plants through bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) in combination with recessive-class analysis (RCA). Out of 20 microsatellitemarkers mapped on chromosomes 6 and 9 tested, only one marker, RM316 on chromosome 9, was foundto have a linkage with the Pi15gene with a recombination frequency of (19.1 ± 3.7)%. To confirm thisfinding, four sequence-tagged site (STS) markers mapped on chromosome 9 were tested. The resultssuggested that marker G103 was linked to the Pi15 gene with a recombination frequency of (5.7 ± 2.1)%. Tofind marker(s) more closely linked to the Pi15 gene, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysiswas performed. Out of 1 000 primers tested, three RAPD markers, BAPi15486, BAPi15782 and BAPi15844 werefound to tightly flank the Pi15gene with recombination frequencies of 0.35%, 0.35% and 1.1%, respectively.These three RAPD markers should be viewed as the starting points for marker-aided gene pyramiding andcloning. A new gene cluster of rice blast resistance on chromosome 9 was also discussed.%稻瘟病抗病基因Pi15曾被作者鉴定为与已知抗病基因Pii具有连锁关系,但是,Pii基因究竟位于染色体6还是9上存在争议.为了确定Pi15基因的染色体位置,利用分子标记在由15个抗病个体和141个感病个体组成的F2群体中,通过混合群体分离法(BSA)与隐性群体分析法(RCA)相结合的手段,对目标基因进行了连锁分析.首先,从染色体6和9分别选择10个微卫星标记进行了分析,结果表明,只有位于染色体9

  13. Marker-assisted improvement of the elite restorer line of rice, RPHR-1005 for resistance against bacterial blight and blast diseases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. ABHILASH KUMAR; C. H. BALACHIRANJEEVI; S. BHASKAR NAIK; R. RAMBABU; G. REKHA; G. HARIKA; S. K. HAJIRA; K. PRANATHI; S. VIJAY; M. ANILA; H. K. MAHADEVASWAMY; M. KOUSIK; A. YUGANDER; J. ARUNA; A. S. HARI PRASAD; M. S. MADHAV; G. S. LAHA; S. M. BALACHANDRAN; M. S. PRASAD; V. RAVINDRA BABU; R. M. SUNDARAM

    2016-12-01

    This study was carried out to improve the RPHR-1005, a stable restorer line of the popular medium slender grain type rice hybrid, DRRH-3 for bacterial blight (BB) and blast resistance through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB). Twomajor BB resistance genes, Xa21 and Xa33 and a major blast resistance gene, Pi2 were transferred to RPHR-1005 as two individual crosses. Foreground selection for Xa21, Xa33, Pi2, Rf3 and Rf4 was done by using gene-specific functional markers, while 59 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers polymorphic between the donors and recipient parents were used to select the best plant possessing target resistance genes at each backcross generation. Backcrossing was continued till BC₂F₂ and a promising homozygous backcross derived line possessing Xa21 + Pi2 and another possessing Xa33 were intercrossed to stack the target resistance genes into the genetic background of RPHR-1005. At ICF4, 10 promising lines possessing three resistance genes in homozygous condition along with fine-grain type, complete fertility restoration, better panicle exertion and taller plant type (compared to RPHR-1005) were identified.

  14. Structure-function analysis of a CVNH-LysM lectin expressed during plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koharudin, Leonardus M I; Viscomi, Arturo R; Montanini, Barbara; Kershaw, Michael J; Talbot, Nicholas J; Ottonello, Simone; Gronenborn, Angela M

    2011-05-11

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae's genome encodes a hypothetical protein (MGG_03307) containing a type III CVNH lectin, in which a LysM domain is inserted between individual repeats of a single CVNH domain. At present, no structural or ligand binding data are available for any type III CVNH and functional studies in natural source organisms are scarce. Here, we report NMR solution structure and functional data on MGG_03307. The structure of the CVNH/LysM module revealed that intact and functionally competent CVNH and LysM domains are present. Using NMR titrations, carbohydrate specificities for both domains were determined, and it was found that each domain behaves as an isolated unit without any interdomain communication. Furthermore, live-cell imaging revealed a predominant localization of MGG_03307 within the appressorium, the specialized fungal cell for gaining entry into rice tissue. Our results suggest that MGG_03307 plays a role in the early stages of plant infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing rice resistance to fungal pathogens by transformation with cell wall degrading enzyme genes from Trichoderma atroviride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mei (刘梅); SUN Zong-xiu (孙宗修); ZHU Jie (朱洁); XU Tong (徐同); HARMAN Gary E.; LORITO Matteo

    2004-01-01

    Three genes encoding for fungal cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs), ech42, nag70 and gluc78 from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride were inserted into the binary vector pCAMBIA1305.2 singly and in all possible combinations and transformed to rice plants. More than 1800 independently regenerated plantlets in seven different populations (for each of the three genes and each of the four gene combinations) were obtained. The ech42 gene encoding for an endochitinase increased resistance to sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani, while the exochitinase-encoding gene, nag70, had lesser effect. The expression level of endochitinase but exochitinase was correlated with disease resistance. Nevertheless, exochitinase enhanced the effect of endochitinase on disease resistance when the two genes co-expressed in transgenics. Resistance to Magnaporthe grisea was found in all kinds of regenerated plants including that with single gluc78. A few lines expressing either ech42 or nag70 gene were immune to the disease. Transgenic plants are being tested to further evaluate disease resistance at field level. This is the first report of multiple of expression of genes encoding CWDEs from Trichoderma atroviride that result in resistance to blast and sheath blight in rice.

  16. Grading method of rice panicle blast severity based on hyperspectral image%基于高光谱成像的水稻穗瘟病害程度分级方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄双萍; 齐龙; 马旭; 薛昆南; 汪文娟

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of panicle blast level plays an important role in high-quality production of rice. It helps to quantitatively assess the level of blast resistance and severity in the field to make appropriate decisions in gauging cultivar resistance in rice breeding or precisely controlling blast epidemic. However, it is difficult to evaluate the blast disease degree automatically and accurately. In this study, a novel grading method for panicle blast severity based on hyperspectral imaging technology is proposed. The method defines a bag of spectrum words (BoSW) model for hyperspectral image data representation. The BoSW model based on hyperspectral image data representation is used as the input of a Chi-square kernel support vector machine (Chi-SVM) classifier for predicting the rice panicle blast level. More precisely, dense grids are firstly extracted over the spatial X-and Y-axes across the whole spectral Z-axis. The average spectrum curve of all the pixels within a grid cube is calculated. Then, K-Means clustering would be performed on the large collection of average spectrum curves from the training samples to form the dictionary of spectrum words. Next, each spectrum curve on the grid cube is quantized into one of spectrum words. Each hyperspectral image of rice panicle is transformed into a map of spectrum words. All the spectrum words are distributed evenly on the spatial XY-axis plane. BoSW model for each hyperspectral data cube is then formed by means of histogram statistics of spectrum word occurrences. Finally, a Chi-SVM classifier is trained using the BoSW representations of rice panicle hyperspectral images for predicting panicle blast infection levels. The proposed BoSW method uses both the image and full-spectrum information by means of regular grid cube extraction, which utilizes the full potential of the imaging sensing system. Meanwhile, the representation dimension for each hyperspectral image is significantly reduced, i.e. 100 here, and thus

  17. Meteorological Forecasting Model of Rice Blast Occurrence Potential in Jiangxi Province%江西省稻瘟病发生潜势的气象预报模型∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞鸽; 刘文英; 吴昊

    2015-01-01

    基于1981-2010年江西省市(县)级稻瘟病监测资料和同期气象资料,利用符号相关法,分苗瘟、叶瘟、穗瘟分析各时期病害发生程度与气象因子的关系,并分别建立病害发生潜势气象预报模型。结果表明:与病害高峰同期的气象因子之间,早稻苗瘟与4月份的平均气温、雨量、日照时数呈正相关,与相对湿度呈负相关;早稻叶瘟与5月中旬-6月上旬的平均气温、雨量、日照时数呈负相关,与相对湿度呈正相关;早稻穗瘟与6月上旬-7月上旬的平均气温、日照时数呈负相关,与雨量、相对湿度呈正相关。晚稻苗瘟偏重发生的概率随着苗期高湿天数和雨日的增加而增大;晚稻叶瘟与8月中旬-9月上旬的平均气温、日照时数呈负相关,与雨量、相对湿度呈正相关;晚稻穗瘟与9月平均气温、相对湿度呈正相关,与雨量、日照时数呈负相关。通过相关关系和符号相同、相反的概率差值确定各气象因子距平值的量化值和权重系数,计算稻瘟病发生潜势气象指数,建立稻瘟病发生潜势气象预报模型。历史回代检验表明,模型准确率为60%~75%,且对偏重级别的准确率高于偏轻级别。%Based on rice blast monitoring data and observed meteorological data in Jiangxi province from 1981 to 2010, the relationship between rice blast degree and meteorological factors was analyzed and the meteorological forecasting model of rice blast occurrence was established in different stages, by using sign correlation method. The results showed that there was positive correlation between seedling blast of early rice and mean temperature, precipitation, sunshine hours in April, while negative correlation between that and air relative humidity. However, there was negative correlation between leaf blast of early rice and mean temperature, precipitation and sunshine hours from second ten days of May to the

  18. 分子标记选择水稻抗稻瘟病基因Pi40和Pib聚合体%Selecting the Pyramids of Blast Resistance Genes Pi40 and Pib in Rice Assisted by Molecular Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金明; 林秀云; 刘晓梅; 孙强; 李鹏志; 张三元

    2012-01-01

    Pyramiding resistance genes have been suggested as one of the most effective methods for preventing breakdown of major gene conferring resistance to blast within a very short period. The PCR markers of the blast re-sistence gene Pi40 and Pib were used to identify the genes in F2 plants of combination among the rice lines containing Pi40 and Pib respectively. The results indicated that all the plants containing any one gene,two genes of Pi40 and Pib showed resistane to blast,while the plants lacking the resistance gene were susceptible to blast. The tightly-linked markers of the resistance genes were powerful tools for the identification of Pi40 and Pib in breeding program. 28 plants pyramiding two genes of Pi40 and Pib were selected from 50 plants of the F2 population. They can be used as parents to breed rice for blast resistance.%培育多个抗病基因聚合的水稻品种是提高其抗病广谱性和持久性的有效途径之一.利用水稻抗稻瘟病基因Pi40、Pib的特异PCR标记,对含有Pi40、Pib的水稻品系复合杂交F250个植株进行检测,从中选择到Pi40、Pib双基因聚合的抗病植株28个,为持久、广谱抗病水稻育种奠定了基础.

  19. An Insecticide Volume for Rice Blast Control by Motorized Spray%机动药械喷洒防治稻瘟病用药量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘自强

    2001-01-01

    To work out an economic,safe and high-effective method for rice blast control,Taishan-18BC type knapsack spray was used to spray 20% tricylazole dissolvable dust by horizontal sedment method.The power volumes are 0.9,1.2,1.5 kg/hm2,and the spray volumes are 5,10 L respectively.The spray nozzle valve was switched at 2 and 4 degree for walk application.The results show that the appliation of 1.5 kg/hm2 in 10 L spray has the best effects on leaf blast and ear blast at the 7th day and 14th day after application.Compared to other treatments of fewer dosage and low volume and hand spray with 100 g of dosage in 40 L,the differences between the treatments reach significant level.Compared to hand large volum spray,motorized spray reduces insecticide volume by 30%~40%,saving water by 75% and promote work efficiency by over 10 times.%为了探索机动药械喷洒农药防治水稻病虫害经济、安全、高效技术方案,采用泰山-18BC型背负机水平沉积法喷洒20%的三环唑可湿性粉剂防治双季早稻稻瘟病,分别用药0.9,1.2,1.5 kg/hm2,分5,10 L喷量,选择2和4开度规范行走施药.结果表明,以1.5 kg/hm2,喷量10 L对叶瘟和穗瘟药后第7天和第14天的防效最好,与低药量、低喷量处理和手动喷雾器100 g,喷量40 L处理的差异达显著水平.机动药械喷洒比手动大容量喷洒可减少农药用量30%~40%,节省用水量75%,工效提高10倍以上.

  20. Development of Chinese Near-isogenic Line of Rice and Their Differentiating Ability of Pathogenic Races of Blast Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Zhong-zhuan; T. Mew; WANG Jiu-lin; LEI Cai-ling; HUANG Ning

    2001-01-01

    The rice( Oryza L. ) variety, Lijiangxintuanheigu(LTH), is a universally susceptible variety. A set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) of rice which has single resistance gene for each line was developed by use of LTH as recurrent parent and Kusabue,Tsuyuake, K1, PiNo. 4, K60 and BL1, which are from Kiyosawa's differential varieties(KDV), as donor parents. Differentiating ability of these NILs to Philippine isolates was compared with that of their donor parents, KDV and IRRI' s NILs. The results of comparative studies were as follows: (1) Differentiating ability of Chinese NILs to Philippine isolates was much stronger than that of their donor parents and that of KDV. (2) Chinese NILs had similar ability to differentiate races to IRRI's NILs or higher differentiating ability than them. But IRRI's NILs almost had no differentiating ability to isolates from japonica rice-growing regions. They can not be used to differentiate races of isolates from japonica ricegrowing regions. Whereas, Chinese NILs can be used to differentiate races of isolates from both japonica ricegrowing regions and indica rice-growing regions. It was concluded that the set of Chinese NILs can be used as international differentials.

  1. Development of Chinese near isogenic lines of rice and their differentiating ability of pathogenic races of blast fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ To use common differential varieties in the world, a set of international differential varieties, including 6 indica and 2 japonica rice varieties, were set up in the middle of 1960s; in 1976, a set of differential varieties composed of 9 japonica varieties with known resistance gene were established;

  2. Isolamento e regeneração de protoplastos de Magnaporthe grisea

    OpenAIRE

    Marchi,Carlos Eduardo; Brommonschenkel,Sérgio Hermínio; Queiroz,Marisa Vieira de; Mizubuti,Eduardo Seiti Gomide

    2006-01-01

    Protoplastos são ferramentas biológicas importantes para pesquisas em fungos filamentosos, sendo empregados intensamente em transformação genética. O isolamento de protoplastos de Magnaporthe grisea foi facilitado com Novozym 234, contudo, este complexo enzimático encontra-se indisponível no mercado. Assim, objetivou-se comparar a eficiência de enzimas líticas disponíveis comercialmente na obtenção de protoplastos de M. grisea. Paralelamente, analisaram-se estabilizadores osmóticos, tempos de...

  3. Distribution of two blast resistance genes Pib and Pita in major rice cultivars in Heilongjiang Province in China%黑龙江省种植品种中稻瘟病抗性基因Pib和Pita的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华招; 刘延; 刘化龙; 徐正进; 陈温福

    2011-01-01

    利用源于Pib Pita基因本身的特异性分子标记,检测了2009年黑龙江省种植面积0.67万hm2以上的36份水稻品种的Pita和Pib抗性基因型.结果表明,垦稻13、垦稻14、龙粳22、松粳9等4份材料含有Pib基因,而不含有Pita;东428、龙稻5、龙粳18、龙粳28、绥粳4、绥粳9等6份材料含有Pita基因,而不含有Pib基因.同时用黑龙江省稻瘟病优势混合菌接种鉴定,结果表明Pib、Pita在黑龙江有较高利用价值.该结论有助于舍Pib、Pita基因的品种合理布局及利用,为抗病基因聚合育种打下了基础.%The two major blast resistance genes, Pib and Pita, showed good resistance spectrum to rice blast in many rice growing areas of China, and have been utilized in rice breeding and production. However, the distribution of these two genes in rice of Heilongjiang Province had not been well investigated, resulting in the blindness of their utilization in rice breeding. In this study, the existences of the two genes in 36 rice cultivars/lines were rapidly determined using the dominant DNA marker of Pita/pita and Pib/pib alleles. The Pib gene was found in four cultivars, i.e. Kendao13, Kendao14,Longjing22, Songjing9. The Pita gene was found in other six cultivars i.e. Dongnong428, Longdao5,Longjing18, Longjing28, Suijing4 and Suijing9. These results were useful for rational utilization and layout of the rice cultivars with the Pita and Pib genes in cold region, and for incorporating and stacking these genes into elite present leading cultivars/lines by marker assisted selection in rice breeding.

  4. Virulence Types of Magnaporthe oryzae to Hybrid Rice in Sichuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yu-lian; ZHANG Xue-mei; FENG Hui; JI Hong-li; HUANG Yun; PENG Yun-liang

    2012-01-01

    A total of 638 isolates of rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) were isolated in 2002-2009 from different rice varieties in different regions of Sichuan,China and inoculated onto seven rice varieties (Lijiangxintuanheigu,IR24,Minghui 63,Duohui 1,Chenghui 448,Neihui 99-14 and RHR-1) to differentiate the virulence types of the fungus and trace the changes.The virulence to the seven varieties was respectively scored at 1,2,4,8,16,32 and 64.The total scores of individual M.grisea isolates which were the sum of scores infecting differential varieties could,in turn,be used for the nomenclature of the virulence types due to their accordance to the special virulence patterns.The 638 tested isolates were then differentiated into 56 different virulence types.Type 15 virulent to Lijiangxintuanheigu,IR24 and Minghui 63,and Type 127 virulent to all of the seven varieties were the most dominant virulence types respectively with the occurrence frequencies of 15.99% and 15.83%.Type 19 and other seven virulence types were not monitored during 2002-2009.Type 15 was the predominant virulence type in 2002,2003,2004 and 2007,whereas Type 127 had been the most dominant virulence type after 2005 except for the year 2007 when the province underwent severe drought.Five hundred and seven out of the 638 tested isolates were virulent to Minghui 63,and 89.58% of the 384 isolates virulent to either Duohui 1,Chenghui 448 or Neihui 99-14 were virulent to Minghui 63,which indicated the impact of the extensive plantation of hybrid rice Minghui 63 as the restorer line on the virulence evolution of M.oryzae in Sichuan.The virulence pattern of the dominant virulence types suggested that the acquiring of virulence to all the major resistant restorer lines was the main routes of the evolution in virulence of M.oryzae to hybrid rice in Sichuan.The virulence frequencies of the 638 tested isolates to IR24,Minghui 63,Duohui 1,Chenghui 448,Neihui 99-14 and RHR-1 were respectively 74.6%,79.5%,73.8%,37

  5. Virulence Types of Magnaporthe oryzae to Hybrid Rice in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-lian BAI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 638 isolates of rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae were isolated in 2002–2009 from different rice varieties in different regions of Sichuan, China and inoculated onto seven rice varieties (Lijiangxintuanheigu, IR24, Minghui 63, Duohui 1, Chenghui 448, Neihui 99-14 and RHR-1 to differentiate the virulence types of the fungus and trace the changes. The virulence to the seven varieties was respectively scored at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64. The total scores of individual M. grisea isolates which were the sum of scores infecting differential varieties could, in turn, be used for the nomenclature of the virulence types due to their accordance to the special virulence patterns. The 638 tested isolates were then differentiated into 56 different virulence types. Type 15 virulent to Lijiangxintuanheigu, IR24 and Minghui 63, and Type 127 virulent to all of the seven varieties were the most dominant virulence types respectively with the occurrence frequencies of 15.99% and 15.83%. Type 19 and other seven virulence types were not monitored during 2002–2009. Type 15 was the predominant virulence type in 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2007, whereas Type 127 had been the most dominant virulence type after 2005 except for the year 2007 when the province underwent severe drought. Five hundred and seven out of the 638 tested isolates were virulent to Minghui 63, and 89.58% of the 384 isolates virulent to either Duohui 1, Chenghui 448 or Neihui 99-14 were virulent to Minghui 63, which indicated the impact of the extensive plantation of hybrid rice Minghui 63 as the restorer line on the virulence evolution of M. oryzae in Sichuan. The virulence pattern of the dominant virulence types suggested that the acquiring of virulence to all the major resistant restorer lines was the main routes of the evolution in virulence of M. oryzae to hybrid rice in Sichuan. The virulence frequencies of the 638 tested isolates to IR24, Minghui 63, Duohui 1, Chenghui 448, Neihui 99

  6. Characterization and mapping of a novel light-dependent lesion mimic mutant Imm6 in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Gui-qing[1,2; ZHANG Hal-wen[3; LU Xiang-yang[1,2; HUANG Rong-feng[3

    2015-01-01

    A novel rice lesion mimic mutant (LMM) was isolated from an ethane methyl sulfonate (EMS)-induced 02428 mutant bank. The mutant, tentatively designated as Imm6, develops necrotic lesions in the whole growth period along with changes in several important agronomic traits. We found that the initiation of the lesions was induced by light and cell death occurred in Imm6 accompanied with accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The lower chlorophyll content, soluble protein content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, the higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content were detected in Imm6 than in the wild type (WT). Moreover, the observation by transmission electronic microscope (TEM) demonstrated that some organelles were damaged and the stroma lamella of chloroplast was irregular and loose in mesophyll cell of Imm6. In addition, Imm6 was more resistant than WT to rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea infection, which was consistent with increased expression of four genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that mutant trait of Imm6 is inherited as a monogenic recessive nuclear gene located on the long arm of chromosome 6. Using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, the target gene was finally delimited to an interval of 80.8 kb between markers MM2359 and MM2370, containing 7 annotated genes. Taken together, our results provide the information to identify a new gene involved in rice lesion mimic, which will be helpful in clarifying the mechanism of cell death and disease resistance in rice.

  7. A Rare Presentation of Concurrent Scedosporium apiospermum and Madurella grisea Eumycetoma in an Immunocompetent Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Gulati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a disfiguring, chronic granulomatous infection which affects the skin and the underlying subcutaneous tissue. We present an atypical case of recurrent mycetoma without ulceration, in a 35-year-old immunocompetent male caused by Scedosporium apiospermum sensu stricto and Madurella grisea, occurring at two separate anatomical sites.

  8. Promising blast resistance entries from 20th-23rd IRBN in Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUPeiliang; YUANXiaoping; ZHAOXinhua; SHENYing

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation for blast resistances of rice entries of 20th to 23rd International Rice Blast Nursery (IRBN) was conducted at CNRRI during 1990-1993. The resistance to seedling blast (SB)was evaluated in a greenhouse at 3-4 leaf stage with artificial inoculation while resistance to leaf blast (LB) and neck blast (NB) were evaluated in the natural field as instructed by the International Network of Genetic Evaluation for Rice (INGER). Materials with high level of blast resistante and good agronomic traits were selected andre-evaluated in suoceeding years.

  9. Adaptation to pH and role of PacC in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Landraud

    Full Text Available Fungi are known to adapt to pH partly via specific activation of the Pal signaling pathway and subsequent gene regulation through the transcription factor PacC. The role of PacC in pathogenic fungi has been explored in few species, and each time its partaking in virulence has been found. We studied the impact of pH and the role of PacC in the biology of the rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Conidia formation and germination were affected by pH whereas fungal growth and appressorium formation were not. Growth in vitro and in planta was characterized by alkalinization and ammonia accumulation in the surrounding medium. Expression of the MoPACC gene increased when the fungus was placed under alkaline conditions. Except for MoPALF, expression of the MoPAL genes encoding the pH-signaling components was not influenced by pH. Deletion of PACC caused a progressive loss in growth rate from pH 5 to pH 8, a loss in conidia production at pH 8 in vitro, a loss in regulation of the MoPALF gene, a decreased production of secreted lytic enzymes and a partial loss in virulence towards barley and rice. PacC therefore plays a significant role in M. oryzae's biology, and pH is revealed as one component at work during interaction between the fungus and its host plants.

  10. Eficiência relativa de fontes de silício no controle de brusone nas folhas em arroz Relative efficiency of silicon sources on rice leaf blast control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fascin Berni

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A adubação silicatada constitui uma das alternativas para diminuir o uso de fungicidas no controle da brusone em arroz. Foi realizado um experimento, durante 1999/2000 e repetido durante 2000/2001, com o objetivo de estudar a eficiência relativa de fontes de silício (Si na redução da severidade da brusone nas folhas da cultivar Metica-1, em área de várzea. Os tratamentos foram três fontes de Si (silicato de alto forno; serpentinito, minério rico em Si e wollastonita, um metasilicato de cálcio natural, em cinco doses (0, 0,5, 1,0, 2,0 e 4,0 Mg ha-1 sem tratamento das sementes ou com tratamento das sementes com o fungicida pyroquilon 200 g de i.a. por 100 kg. A severidade da brusone diminuiu significativamente com o aumento de doses de silício. As relações entre a área sob curva de progresso da doença e as doses, tanto do silicato de alto forno quanto da wollastonita, foram lineares e negativas, com ou sem tratamento de sementes, em ambos os anos do experimento. Os resultados revelam o aumento da eficiência do tratamento das sementes com fungicida na redução da brusone nas folhas com a fertilização silicatada.Silicon fertilization of rice is one of the alternatives for reducing the use of fungicides in the control of rice blast. An experiment was conducted, during 1999/2000 and repeated in 2000/2001, in order to study the efficiency of sources of silicon (Si to reduce leaf blast on rice cultivar Metica-1, cultivated in the low land. The treatments included three sources of Si (high furnace silicate slag, serpentinite ore rich in silicon and wollastonite ore, a native calcium metasilicate at five doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 Mg ha-1, with and without fungicide treatment (pyroquilon 200 g a.i. per 100 kg of seed. The blast disease severity decreased with increase in Si doses. The relationship between area under disease progress curve and doses of silicate slag as well as wollastonite were linear and negative, with and without

  11. Eumicetoma de grãos pretos por Madurella grisea: registro de dois casos Eumycotic mycetoma of black grains caused by Madurella grisea: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antonio de Paula Machado

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores registram dois casos de eumicetoma de grãos pretos, com localização podal, procedentes da Bahia, provocados por Madurella grisea Mackinnon et al., 1949. São estudadas a estrutura dos grãos, bem como as características micromorfológicas do fungo em vida saprofítica. Acreditam os Autores que estas observações correspondem ao sétimo e oitavo casos registrados na literatura do país, provocadas por este fungo. Os Autores consideram nomen dubium ou nomina confusa as seguintes espécies de Madurella: M. ramiroi, M. oswaldoi, M. bovoi, M. tozeuri, M. mansonii, M. brumpti, M. reynieri, M. americana, M. lackawanna e M. ikedae, o mesmo ocorrendo com a chamada Rubromadurella mycetomi. As únicas espécies válidas são Madurella mycetomatis McGinnis, 1980 (=Madurella mycetomi Brumpt, 1905 e Madurella grisea Mackinnon et al., 1949. Nos dois casos registrados o tratamento com itraconazol, por um período de 3 meses não fez regredir as lesões, havendo ligeira melhora clínica.Two cases of black grains eumycotic mycetoma, occurring on a foot, are reported. Both proceeded from the State of Bahia (Brazil, and in both the etiologic agent was Madurella grisea Mackinnon et al., 1949. The grains structure as well as the micromorphologic characteristics of the fungus in saprophytic life were studied. It is the Author's belief that these observations correspond to the 7th and 8th cases reported in the Brazilian medical literature. The Authors do consider the following Madurella species as nomen dubium or nomina confusa: M. ramiroi, M. oswaldoi, M. bovoi, M. tozeuri, M. mansonii, M. brumpti, M. reynieri, M. americana, M. lackawanna e M. ikedae and the same for Rubromadurella mycetomi. The only valid species must be Madurella mycetomatis McGinnis, 1980 (=Madurella mycetomi Brumpt, 1905 and Madurella grisea Mackinnon et al., 1949. Treatment with itraconazole in both reported cases, for a 3 month duration, did not produce any regression of the

  12. Reasons for Rice Blast Outbreak and Its Control Strategies in Xiajiang County in 2015%2015年峡江县稻瘟病重发原因与防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志峰; 廖晓军; 张茂文

    2016-01-01

    2015年是峡江县稻瘟病重发生年,发生面积、发生程度、产量损失是近25年来最严重的一年。其重发生原因主要有:主栽品种抗性低;2015年夏季是2000年以来最凉盛夏,5月下旬至6月上、中旬,8月下旬至9月上、中旬出现持续低温、多雨、寡照天气;栽培管理不当和防治效果偏低。因此,在防治策略上,需选用抗病品种,并及时掌握稻瘟病菌生理小种变化,加快抗病品种选育和品种更替;加强监测预警,根据田间稻瘟病发生动态,指导作物合理布局,指导农民适时开展防控;科学合理用药,推进水稻病虫害统防统治,提高病虫防控效果。%2015 was a serious rice blast occurrence year in Xiajiang County. The occurrence area, occurrence degree, and yield loss were nearly the most serious in 25 years. The main causes were analyzed as follows:The main cultivated varieties were low resistance;the summer of 2015 was the coolest summer since 2000; From late May to early and mid­June, from late August to early and mid­September, it appeared continuous low temperature and abundant rains, and scant light; unsuitable cultivation and management; and low control effects. Therefore, as for the prevention and treatment strategies, resistant varieties should be selected, and the rice blast fungus races changes be timely grasped, the resistant varieties breeding and cultivar replacement be speeded up, and the monitoring and early warning be strengthened. Besides, according to the dynamic field status quo of rice blast outbreak, the crop rational layout should be guided to help farmers carry out prevention and control in a timely manner; scientific and rational drug use should be demonstrated to promote prevention and control against rice disease and insect pest damage so as to improve the control effects.

  13. Multiple plant surface signals are sensed by different mechanisms in the rice blast fungus for appressorium formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wende Liu

    Full Text Available Surface recognition and penetration are among the most critical plant infection processes in foliar pathogens. In Magnaporthe oryzae, the Pmk1 MAP kinase regulates appressorium formation and penetration. Its orthologs also are known to be required for various plant infection processes in other phytopathogenic fungi. Although a number of upstream components of this important pathway have been characterized, the upstream sensors for surface signals have not been well characterized. Pmk1 is orthologous to Kss1 in yeast that functions downstream from Msb2 and Sho1 for filamentous growth. Because of the conserved nature of the Pmk1 and Kss1 pathways and reduced expression of MoMSB2 in the pmk1 mutant, in this study we functionally characterized the MoMSB2 and MoSHO1 genes. Whereas the Momsb2 mutant was significantly reduced in appressorium formation and virulence, the Mosho1 mutant was only slightly reduced. The Mosho1 Momsb2 double mutant rarely formed appressoria on artificial hydrophobic surfaces, had a reduced Pmk1 phosphorylation level, and was nonresponsive to cutin monomers. However, it still formed appressoria and caused rare, restricted lesions on rice leaves. On artificial hydrophilic surfaces, leaf surface waxes and primary alcohols-but not paraffin waxes and alkanes- stimulated appressorium formation in the Mosho1 Momsb2 mutant, but more efficiently in the Momsb2 mutant. Furthermore, expression of a dominant active MST7 allele partially suppressed the defects of the Momsb2 mutant. These results indicate that, besides surface hydrophobicity and cutin monomers, primary alcohols, a major component of epicuticular leaf waxes in grasses, are recognized by M. oryzae as signals for appressorium formation. Our data also suggest that MoMsb2 and MoSho1 may have overlapping functions in recognizing various surface signals for Pmk1 activation and appressorium formation. While MoMsb2 is critical for sensing surface hydrophobicity and cutin monomers

  14. Common Genetic Pathways Regulate Organ-Specific Infection-Related Development in the Rice Blast Fungus[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sara L.; Besi, Maria I.; Galhano, Rita; Franceschetti, Marina; Goetz, Stephan; Lenhert, Steven; Osbourn, Anne; Sesma, Ane

    2010-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is the most important fungal pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa). Under laboratory conditions, it is able to colonize both aerial and underground plant organs using different mechanisms. Here, we characterize an infection-related development in M. oryzae produced on hydrophilic polystyrene (PHIL-PS) and on roots. We show that fungal spores develop preinvasive hyphae (pre-IH) from hyphopodia (root penetration structures) or germ tubes and that pre-IH also enter root cells. Changes in fungal cell wall structure accompanying pre-IH are seen on both artificial and root surfaces. Using characterized mutants, we show that the PMK1 (for pathogenicity mitogen-activated protein kinase 1) pathway is required for pre-IH development. Twenty mutants with altered pre-IH differentiation on PHIL-PS identified from an insertional library of 2885 M. oryzae T-DNA transformants were found to be defective in pathogenicity. The phenotypic analysis of these mutants revealed that appressorium, hyphopodium, and pre-IH formation are genetically linked fungal developmental processes. We further characterized one of these mutants, M1373, which lacked the M. oryzae ortholog of exportin-5/Msn5p (EXP5). Mutants lacking EXP5 were much less virulent on roots, suggesting an important involvement of proteins and/or RNAs transported by EXP5 during M. oryzae root infection. PMID:20348434

  15. Physiologic Race Identification of Rice Blast Fungus in Heilongjiang Province from 2007 to 2011%2007~2011年黑龙江省稻瘟病菌生理小种鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂玲; 宋成艳; 刘乃生; 周雪松

    2012-01-01

      In order to make clear composition and distribution of physiological races of the rice blast fungus in Heilongjiang ,299 mono-spore strains of the rice blast fungus (Pyricularia oryzae) were isolated from five rice growing regions(30 cities ,counties or farms)during 2007~2011 in Heilongjiang .7 groups with 31 physiological races were identified by comparing with seven China verified strains .The results showed that ZA ,ZD and ZB groups were the dominant groups in Heilongjiang province ,with the average frequencies of 34 .8% ,31 .1% and 16 .1% ,respectively .The race ZD5 was the dominant race with the average frequency of 17 .1% ,followed by ZA49 and ZD1 ,which average frequency was 13 .7% and 10 .7% ,respectively .The types and compositions of the races were different from place to place .%  为明确黑龙江省稻瘟病菌生理小种组成及分布,2007~2011年,用中国7个统一鉴别品种对黑龙江省5个稻区30个市县农场采集的299个稻瘟病菌单孢菌株进行了鉴定,共鉴定出7群31个生理小种.优势种群为ZA、ZD和ZB群,出现频率分别为34.8%、31.1%和16.1%;优势生理小种为ZD5,出现频率为17.1%,其次是ZA49(13.7%)和ZD1(10.7%)小种.不同稻区稻瘟病菌生理小种的类型及其组成不同.

  16. Rice Blast Resistance and Peroxidase Activity of Rice Transformed with PAL Gene%转PAL基因水稻抗稻瘟病性和过氧化物酶活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎军英; 郭泽建; 张炳欣

    2004-01-01

    用PAL(苯丙氨酸解氨酶)基因正义和反义转化水稻,获得了70株转基因植株.选择正义转化植株(1s)和反义转化植株(4a)进行稻瘟病菌(Magna porthe grisea)接种,针对病原物侵染,1s的PAL活性上升更快,幅度更大.观察水稻叶片超微结构发现,1s的细胞具有更强的抵抗病原菌入侵的能力,其过氧化物酶活性也比对照和4a要高.

  17. Magnesium Uptake by CorA Transporters Is Essential for Growth, Development and Infection in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Md Hashim; Shah, Hiral; Manjrekar, Johannes; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative organism of rice blast, infects cereal crops and grasses at various stages of plant development. A comprehensive understanding of its metabolism and the implications on pathogenesis is necessary for countering this devastating crop disease. We present the role of the CorA magnesium transporters, MoAlr2 and MoMnr2, in development and pathogenicity of M. oryzae. The MoALR2 and MoMNR2 genes individually complement the Mg2+ uptake defects of a S. cerevisiae CorA transporter double mutant. MoALR2 and MoMNR2 respond to extracellular Mg2+ and Ca2+ levels and their expression is elevated under Mg2+ scarce conditions. RNA silencing mediated knockdown of MoALR2 (WT+siALR2, Δmnr2+siALR2 and ALR2+MNR2 simultaneous silencing) drastically alters intracellular cation concentrations and sensitivity to metal ions. MoALR2 silencing is detrimental to vegetative growth and surface hydrophobicity of mycelia, and the transformants display loss of cell wall integrity. MoALR2 is required for conidiogenesis and appressorium development, and is essential for infection. Investigation of knockdown transformants reveal low cAMP levels and altered expression of genes encoding proteins involved in MoMps1 cell wall integrity and cAMP MoPmk1 driven MAP Kinase signaling pathways. In contrast to MoALR2 knockdowns, the MoMNR2 deletion (Δmnr2) shows increased sensitivity to CorA inhibitors as well as altered cation sensitivity, but has limited effect on surface hydrophobicity and severity of plant infection. Interestingly, MoALR2 expression is elevated in Δmnr2. Impairment of development and infectivity of knockdown transformants and altered intracellular cation composition suggest that CorA transporters are essential for Mg2+ homeostasis within the cell, and are crucial to maintaining normal gene expression associated with cell structure, signal transduction and surface hydrophobicity in M. oryzae. We suggest that CorA transporters, and especially MoALR2

  18. Breeding and Utilization of the CMS Line Quanfeng A with Fine Blast Resistance in Rice%高异交率、抗稻瘟病水稻三系不育系全丰A的选育与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张以华; 黄利兴; 雷上平; 吴志源; 胡荣华; 谢美珠; 游年顺

    2012-01-01

    Quanfeng A is a CMS Line in rice bred by the Rice Research Institute, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, by crossing the maintainer lines selected from the hybrid between Fuyi B and Gufeng B with Fuyi A through successive backcrossing for years. It was technically tested in Fujian Province in 2004 and acquired the protection of new varieties of plants in 2008. It was proved by many years of its application on production that the CMS Line had the characteristics of strong combining ability, wide adaptability and high stigma exsertion and outclassing rate, good resistance to rice blast. By far, derived from Quanfeng A, Ten hybrid rice combinations were officially approved twenty -two times. The process of breeding Quanfeng A, its characteristics and reproduction of seeds were referred in this paper.%全丰A是福建省农业科学院水稻研究所以福伊B为母本、谷丰A的低世代保持系材料为父本进行杂交配组选育的保持系,再与福伊A转育而成的野败籼型三系不育系.于2004年通过福建省科技成果鉴定,2008年获得植物新品种权.多年研究结果表明,全丰A表现配合力强、异交率高、抗稻瘟病、适应性广等特点.目前已利用全丰A配制出10个杂交水稻组合通过22次新品种审(认)定.笔者概述了全丰A的选育过程、特征特性及高产繁殖技术.

  19. MutMap-Gap: whole-genome resequencing of mutant F2 progeny bulk combined with de novo assembly of gap regions identifies the rice blast resistance gene Pii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroki; Uemura, Aiko; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Tamiru, Muluneh; Abe, Akira; Mitsuoka, Chikako; Utsushi, Hiroe; Natsume, Satoshi; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Hideo; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Yoshida, Kentaro; Cano, Liliana M; Kamoun, Sophien; Terauchi, Ryohei

    2013-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing allows the identification of mutations responsible for mutant phenotypes by whole-genome resequencing and alignment to a reference genome. However, when the resequenced cultivar/line displays significant structural variation from the reference genome, mutations in the genome regions missing from the reference (gaps) cannot be identified by simple alignment. Here we report on a method called 'MutMap-Gap', which involves delineating a candidate region harboring a mutation of interest using the recently reported MutMap method, followed by de novo assembly, alignment, and identification of the mutation within genome gaps. We applied MutMap-Gap to isolate the blast resistant gene Pii from the rice cv Hitomebore using mutant lines that have lost Pii function. MutMap-Gap should prove useful for cloning genes that exhibit significant structural variations such as disease resistance genes of the nucleotide-binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) class.

  20. Isolation and Identification of an Antagonistic Bacterial Strain Against Rice Blast Fungus%一株拮抗稻瘟病菌细菌的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管玲莉; 任佐华; 李俊俊; 刘二明

    2016-01-01

    It is quite important to develop novel and environment-safe strategies to control rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, and screening effective microorganism resources is primary basis for the bio-control of blast. Total 817 strains were isolated from healthy ones among diseased rice plants of the susceptible cultivar Xiangzaoxian 24,a single-season cropping rice,in the mountainous area of Taojiang, Hunan,in 2014. One strain JN005 with efficient antagonism to M. oryzae among 817 strains was screened by the plate confrontation method. The inhibition rate of metabolite from active bacterium to the rice blast reached 84% by measuring the growth rate of mycelium of the blast fungus. Further,antimicrobial spectrum of JN005 against 5 plant pathogenic fungi,4 plant pathogenic bacteria,and also Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureussub. sp. aureus,was tested. The result revealed that JN005 also presented high inhibitory effect to Fusarium graminearum and Ustilaginoidea virens,and the inhibition rates to two fungi were 70.1% and 73.6%,respectively. Based on analysis of the morphological, physiological,and biochemical characteristics and the 16S rDNA phylogeny,strain JN005 was identified as Bacillus subtilis.%生防微生物是一种具有开发创新和环境友好的防控稻瘟病策略,旨在发掘高效生防微生物资源。于2014年从湖南桃江山区一季稻感病品种湘早籼24号的感稻瘟病稻丛的健康稻株中分离出817株菌株,采用平板对峙法,筛选出1株对稻瘟病菌具有高效抑制作用的拮抗细菌JN005,通过菌丝生长速率法测定其活体菌代谢产物对稻瘟病菌的抑菌率高达84%;并对另外5种植物病原真菌、4种植物病原细菌和大肠杆菌及金黄色葡萄球菌等11种菌作了抑菌谱测定。结果表明,JN005菌株对禾谷镰刀菌、水稻稻曲病菌有较好的抑制作用,其抑制率分别为70.1%和73.6%。通过形态学观察、生理生化测定及16SrDNA序

  1. Comportamento de somaclones de arroz derivados de híbridos da geração F1 para resistência à brusone Performance of rice somaclones derived from F1 hybrids to blast resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Garcês de Araújo

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available A indução de variabilidade genética em relação à resistência à brusone, utilizando cultura de tecidos como material, constitui uma das alternativas para a obtenção de novas fontes de genes de resistência. O objetivo deste estudo foi aumentar a freqüência de variantes usando como explante panículas imaturas da geração F1 de cruzamentos envolvendo fontes altamente suscetíveis e moderadamente resistentes à brusone como parentais. Somaclones de arroz derivados de plantas F1 dos cruzamentos Bluebelle/Araguaia e Maratelli/Basmati-370 foram avaliados, nas gerações avançadas, quanto à resistência à brusone e a algumas características agronômicas. Nos testes de inoculações em casa de vegetação, todos os somaclones, de ambos os cruzamentos, na geração R4, apresentaram alto grau de resistência aos patótipos IB-1 e IB-9. Alguns dos somaclones mantiveram-se resistentes na geração R5, em avaliações realizadas com alta pressão de brusone. No campo, os somaclones R5 e R6 mostraram alta freqüência de variação quanto à resistência à doença, altura da planta, produtividade, peso e tipo de grãos. Dois somaclones derivados do cruzamento Bluebelle/Araguaia e 31 somaclones derivados do cruzamento Maratelli/Basmati-370 foram identificados como novas fontes de resistência à brusone, e podem ser utilizados no programa de melhoramento de arroz irrigado.The induction of genetic variability, in relation to blast resistance, using tissue culture as a tool, constitutes one of the alternatives for obtaining novel resistance gene sources. The objective of this study was to increase the frequency of variants using immature panicles as explant from the F1 plants of crosses involving susceptible and moderately blast resistant sources as parents. Somaclones of rice derived from F1 plants of the crosses Bluebelle/Araguaia and Maratelli/Basmati-370 were assessed in advanced generations for blast resistance and some agronomic

  2. EUMYCETOMA BY Madurella grisea: REPORT OF THE FIRST CASE OBSERVED IN THE SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN REGION Eumicetoma por Madurella grisea: Relato do primeiro caso observado na Região Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos SEVERO

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The first case of eumycetoma by Madurella grisea occurred in Southern Brazilian Region is herein related. In addition, Brazilian literature on this subject was reviewed and, the geographic distribution of this eumycetoma is presented.É relatado o primeiro caso de eumicetoma por Madurella grisea ocorrido na Região Sul (Brasil. Além disso, a literatura brasileira correspondente foi revisada e a distribuição geográfica deste tipo de eumicetoma é apresentada.

  3. Registration of 'RU9101001'/'Katy' recombinant inbred lines of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cross of RU9101001/'Katy' rice (Oryza sativa L.) was used to develop a mapping population consisting of 238 F9 generation recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) (GSOR100361 to GSOR100600). This population has been used to map major genes that provide resistance to the rice blast pat...

  4. Construction of Metagenomic Library from Soil and Screening of Clones with Antagonism to the Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)%土壤宏基因组文库的构建及拮抗稻瘟菌克隆子的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭玉; 周亚奎; 余贤美; 林春花; 郑服丛

    2009-01-01

    从橡胶林土壤中提取微生物总DNA,用Pst Ⅰ酶切后,酶切液与pBluescriptKS+载体连接转入大肠杆菌,构建了包含7 680个克隆子的宏基因组文库,76.2%的质粒含有外源DNA,插入片段的平均大小为4.3kb,DNA文库的容量为32.25MB.首先用序列筛选方法对土壤宏基因组文库进行筛选,共得到11个克隆子,通过对11个克隆子进行功能筛选(复筛),发现克隆子JKDL-1和JKDL-2对稻瘟菌有明显抑制作用,其余的9个克隆子对稻瘟菌没有明显活性.具有拮抗作用的克隆子通过NCBI的Blastx分析,发现JKDL-1和JKDL-2分别与柄杆菌属(Caulobacter sp. K31)和布克氏菌属(Burkholderia ambifaria MC40-6)有75%和77%的同源性,初步预测其功能为组氨酸激酶(GAF sensor hybrid histidine kinase)和乙酰辅酶A乙酰转移酶(acetyl-CoA acetyltransferases).

  5. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF CHITOSAN AND ONE OF ITS HYDROLYSATES ON Pyricularia grisea, Sacc. FUNGUS

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    La quitosana y sus derivados reducen marcadamente el crecimiento micelial de algunos hongos con un mayor efecto inhibitorio a elevadas concentraciones. El efecto fungistático y fungicida in vitro de la quitosana y el hidrolizado de quitosana fue investigado sobre el hongo Pyricularia grisea. El experimento se realizó en el laboratorio de Microbiología del Departamento de Fisiología y Bioquímica Vegetal del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA). Se encontró que ambos principios activ...

  6. Recent Advances in Cloning and Characterization of Disease Resistance Genes in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Ying Dai; Xiong-Lun Liu; Ying-Hui Xiao; Guo-Liang Wang

    2007-01-01

    Rice diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses are one of the major constraints for sustainable rice (Oryza sativa L.) production worldwide. The use of resistant cultivars is considered the most economical and effective method to control rice diseases. In the last decade, a dozen resistance genes against the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea and the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae have been cloned. Approximately half of them encode nuclear binding site (NBS) and leucine rich repeat (LRR)-containing proteins, the most common type of cloned plant resistance genes. Interestingly, four of them encode novel proteins which have not been identified in other plant species, suggesting that unique mechanisms might be involved in rice defense responses. This review summarizes the recent advances in cloning and characterization of disease resistance genes in rice and presents future perspectives for in-depth molecular analysis of the function and evolution of rice resistance genes and their interaction with avirulence genes in pathogens.

  7. BREEDING OF THE EARLY SEASON INDICA RICE VARIETY FU 501 WITH HIGH YIELD AND BLAST RESISTANCE%高产抗病早籼品种辐501的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆龙; 严文潮; 俞法明; 祁永斌; 吴关庭; 金卫; 金庆生

    2012-01-01

    Fu 501,an early season indica rice variety,was developed through the pedigree breeding method by irradiating F1 and M6F6 dry seeds of Z96-12 × Z95-03 using 80Gy and 300Gy 60Co γ-rays,respectively.The variety has high and stabilizing grain yield,adaptable growth duration,resistance to rice blast and wide adaptability,and it was registered and released in Zhejiang Province in Feb.,2011.%辐501是以早籼中间材料Z96-12为母本、Z95-03为父本杂交,F1代干种子经过80Gy60Coγ射线,M6F6代干种子经过300Gy60Coγ射线2次辐照处理,采用系谱法育成的一个早籼常规品种。该品种表现丰产性和稳产性较好,生育期适中,抗稻瘟病和适应性广等特性,并于2011年2月通过浙江省农作物品种审定委员会审定。

  8. Blast Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    Team Leader Risa Scherer Blast Mitigation Interior and Laboratory Team Leader Blast Technologies POC’s Government Point Of Contacts (POCs): To...to yield injury assessments at higher fidelities and with higher confidence UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Risa Scherer Blast Mitigation Interior and

  9. 肟菌酯·戊唑醇75%水分散粒剂防治稻瘟病试验初报%A Preliminary Report of Trifloxystrobin-Tebuconazole on Controlling Rice Blast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余山红; 王会福; 朱贤正

    2012-01-01

    田间药效试验结果表明,肟菌酯·戊唑醇75%水分散粒剂对水稻稻瘟病有较好的防治效果,其药效随用药量加大而显著上升,其中第2次药后15 d 17.5 g/667m2的防效达79.41%,与对照药剂拿敌稳15.0 g/667m2和43%戊唑醇SC 15.0 mL/667m2的防效相当,且安全性好,因此可以在生产上加以推广应用。%Field efficacy trials indicated that trifloxystrobin-tebuconazole 75%WG had good effects on controlling the rice blast. Disease preventing efficiency increased with the dose increase, with a efficiency up to 79.41% when 15 d after the second spraying, which had no significant differences with NATIVO and tebuconazole 43% SC. More importantly, trifloxystrobin-tebuconazole 75% WG was safe to humans. A regional application can be developed.

  10. 云南元阳哈尼梯田不同时期种植的地方品种稻瘟病抗性评价%Resistance Evaluation to Rice Blast of Rice Landraces Which Grown in Two Different Periods in Hani's Terraced Fields in Yuanyang County, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严红梅; 李进斌; 汤翠凤; 杨雅云; 徐福荣

    2011-01-01

    以云南稻作生产上出现频率比较高的两个稻瘟病生理小种007和017,对元阳哈尼梯田20世纪70年代(简称"过去品种")与近10年间(简称"当前品种")2个不同时期种植的148个水稻地方品种进行苗期接种鉴定.结果显示,针对来自粳稻区生理小种007,抗性品种的比例为过去品种(76.4%)>当前品种(65.8%);针对来自籼粳交错区生理小种017,过去品种(77.8%)>当前品种(52.6%);抗稻瘟病的品种比例均为过去种植的品种高于当前种植的品种.对元阳哈尼梯田当前种植的水稻地方品种的致病性,来自籼粳交错区的生理小种017强于来自粳稻区的007,表现抗病的品种比例分别为52.6%和65.8%.最终筛选出'老粳糯'、'紫糯'、'长毛香'、'冷水谷'和'丫多谷'5个品种,在2个不同时期的持久抗性呈一一对应关系,可提供深入研究与育种利用.%Seedling inoculation was carried out about 148 rice landraces, grown in two different periods in Hani' s terraced fields in Yuanyang County, Yunnan Province, including 72 ones that used to be grown during the 1970's (past-grown landraces) and 76 ones that had been grown during the past decade (current-grown landraces), using the two physiological races 007 and 017 that caused relatively high blast frequency in Yunnan rice production. For the race 007, the resistant proportion of the current-grown landraces (65.8%) was lower than that of the past-grown landraces (76.4%). And for the race 017, the resistant proportion of the current-grown landraces (52.6%) was also lower than that of the past-grown landraces (77.8%). In a word, the proportion of blast resistance of the current-grown landraces was lower than that of the past-grown landraces.The pathogenicity on the current-grown landraces of race 017 from the indica-japonica cross-regions was stronger than that of race 007 from the japonica regions, with the number of blast resistant varieties accounting for 52.6% and 65

  11. 纳米SiO2对水稻稻瘟病的抗病效应及对水稻生长发育的影响%Effects of Nano-silica on Rice's Resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae and on Rice Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊渤; 常海波; 马景勇; 唐珊珊; 齐静芝

    2012-01-01

    Using nano-silica as silicon source, disease-resistant varieties "NongDa 18" and susceptible varieties "Mongolian rice" as material, the experiment determined the role of the nano-silica on rice's resistance to magnaporthe grisea and its effect on rice growth. The results show that the disease indexes of the disease-resistant varieties and susceptible varieties with nano-silica treatment respectively decreased by 30.98% and 51.03% compared with those without silicon processing. The relative control effect of disease-resistance varieties achieved 54.93% , while the susceptible varieties reached 73.47% . Silicon application reduced the disease level and index, strengthened the resistance to rice blast, particularly among the susceptible Mongolian rice. Nano-silica application to rice can not only significantly improve the content of chlorophyll, the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration, which help to enhance the photosynthesis of rice leaf, but can also increase the number of new roots and its longest length and improve the active absorption area and the vigor of roots. At the same time, it can also increase the contact angle of rice leaves and reduce the leaf angle and the attachment of fungi. In short, it is good for normal rice growth.%以纳米SiO2为硅源,以抗稻瘟病的水稻品种“农大18号”和感稻瘟病的水稻品种“蒙古稻”为材料,测定了纳米SiO2对水稻抗瘟效应及水稻生长发育的影响.试验结果表明:纳米SiO2处理的抗病品种和感病品种的病情指数分别比不施硅处理下降了30.98%和51.03%,抗病品种的相对防治效果达到了54.93%,而感病品种的相对防治效果达到了73.47%.施硅减轻了病级和病情指数,增强了水稻对稻瘟病的抗性,在感病品种“蒙古稻”上表现尤为明显.水稻在施用纳米SiO2后,不仅可显著提高叶片叶绿素含量,增大叶片净光合速率、气孔导度和胞间CO2

  12. 风送式水稻侧深精准施肥装置的设计与试验%Design and experiment on air-blast rice side deep precision fertilization device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左兴健; 武广伟; 付卫强; 李立伟; 魏学礼; 赵春江

    2016-01-01

    low cost. In view of the low-level mechanization of rice fertilization in China, the large amount of fertilizer application and the low fertilizer utilization in the traditional manual fertilization, combined with the agronomic characteristics of side deep fertilization, we analyzed the fertilization method of wind delivering and developed theair-blast rice side deep precision fertilization device. This device adopted the modularization design and was combined with riding type rice transplanter for use. In the process of operation, the fertilizer granules fell into the deep trench with a certain amount under the effect of gravity and wind; the trench with 5 cm depth was dug by fertilizer exports at the position 3 cm away from seedling side, and the fertilizers would be covered in the mud by covering plate. The device used the rated voltage of 12 V and the power of 72 W; the blower was used to transport fertilizer based on the Venturi effect, and the inner diameter of fertilizer conveying pipe was 25 mm and the velocity was 21 m/s; the global position system (GPS) was used to measure transplanter speed. The speed of the vehicle was proportional to the speed of the motor by using the precision fertilization control method, which could match the vehicle speed and drive motor speed in real time. The speed measurement closed-loop control was used as the control system. Motor drive used the AQMD2410NS direct current motor drive, and motor hold a stable speed by using the internal drive integration of the proportion-integration-differentiation (PID). The vehicle control terminal was designed under the embedded Visual C++ integrated development environment in the XP Windows operating system, the interface could display the current operating data, and meanwhile, the user could set the working parameters according to the actual operating requirements. When presetting fertilization amount to 300 kg/hm2, the motor rotation speed was 10, 20, 30 and 40 r/min, respectively. The

  13. EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO QUÍMICO DE SEMENTES NO CONTROLE DE BRUSONE (Pyricularia oryzae E MANCHA PARDA (Helminthosporium oryzae DO ARROZ EFFECT OF CHEMICAL SEED TREATMENT IN THE CONTROL OF BLAST DISEASE AND BROWN SPOT OF RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de controlar brusone (Pyricularia oryzae e mancha parda (Helminthosporium oryzae do arroz (Oryza sativa, diferentes fungicidas foram testados, através do tratamento de sementes, a nível de campo em solo de várzea (glei pouco húmico. Os resultados mostraram, preliminarmente e de modo geral, que os fungicidas dichlofluanid e terbuconazole propiciaram aumento no “stand” superiores a 30% quando comparados com o fungicida padrão mancozeb e a testemunha. Com relação ao nível de infecção nas plantas, o terbuconazole foi o que melhores resultados apresentou. E quanto à produção não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Os tratamentos com o fungicida terbuconazole individualmente ou em mistura com dichlofluanid mostraram-se superiores às testemunhas.

    With the objective of controlling blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae and brown spot (Helminthosporium oryzae of rice (Oryza sativa, different fungicides were tested, through seeds treatment, at field culture in low land soil. The results showed, preliminarily and in general terms that fungicides dichlofluanid and terbuconazole propitiated in the stand increase superior to 30% when confronted with standard fungicide mancozeb and testimony with regard to infection level at plants the best results were presented by terbuconazole. Refering to production there was no significative difference between both treatments. Treatments with fungicide terbuconazole individually or in mixture with dichlofluanid showed superiority over testimonies.

  14. Transfer of Lysozyme Gene into indica Parents of Hybrid Rice by Backcrossing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Zi-li; WANG Zi-xuan; QIN Jing-ping; JIANG Jian-xiong; TAN Yan-ning; ZHOU Qing-ming

    2006-01-01

    Alysozyme gene resistant to rice blast was transferred from the donor transgenic japonica rice Zhonghua 9 (D2-1-2) into a sterile line Pei'ai 64S(PA 64S) and restorer line 9311 of the two-line hybrid rice Liangyoupeijiu, and the restorer line Minghui 63 (MH63) of three-line hybrid rice Shanyou 63 by successive backcrossing. The PCR analysis confirmed that foreign lysozyme gene was B2F2 9311, B2F2 MH63 and B1F2 PA64S, indicating that the foreign gene was stably inherited over successive generations as a dominant single copy gene. The resistance against rice blast in backcross or selfed generations and corresponding testcross combinations were investigated in 2003 and 2004. The results showed that the resistance of the transgenic rice to blast had a greater improvement than that of the corresponding recurrent parents or the corresponding check hybrid combinations. The resistance of the advanced backcross and selfed generations to rice blast is much stronger than that of the early generations. The study confirmed thattransferring the lysozyme gene into hybrid parents by backcrossing was a simple and effective approach to develop new hybrid rice resistant to rice blast.

  15. Pyramiding the Blast Resistant Gene Pi9 and the Brown Planthopper Gene Bph18(t) to Develop Restorer Lines in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)%聚合抗稻瘟病基因Pi9和抗褐飞虱基因Bp h18(t)选育水稻恢复系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文清; 裴庆利; 梁云涛; 刘丕庆; 赵开军; 王春连; 林纬; 杨培忠; 于洁

    2014-01-01

    水稻(Oryza sativa L.)作为粮食作物,在全世界粮食生产中具有极其重要的地位。稻瘟病、褐飞虱等病虫害的发生严重危害着水稻的安全生产,培育并利用水稻抗性品种能经济有效地预防水稻病虫害的发生,因此,培育抗性品种在水稻安全生产中尤为重要。本研究以具有抗稻瘟病基因Pi9的抗病品系75-1-127为抗病亲本,以携带有抗褐飞虱基因Bph18(t)的水稻材料C4064为抗虫亲本,以性状优良的恢复系测679作为轮回亲本,进行杂交、回交和自交,并辅以田间多代选择。在分离群体中,使用与Pi9紧密连锁的SCAR标记pB8跟踪目标基因Pi9,利用与Bph18(t)紧密连锁的标记KC16跟踪目标基因Bph18(t)。通过分子标记辅助选择、农艺性状评价和抗病抗虫鉴定,选育出聚合了Pi9和Bph18(t)基因、对稻瘟病和褐飞虱的抗性水平接近抗病亲本或抗虫亲本的恢复系。%Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a cereal crop, plays an ultimately important role in the global food production. The occurrence of the rice disease and pest such as the rice blast (RB) and the brown planthopper (BPH) can seve-rely damage the safe production of rice, and the development and application of the resistant varieties can prevent the occurrence of the rice disease and pest economically and effectively, so the development of the resistant variety is crucial in the safe production of rice. In this study, we used the disease resistant line 75-1-127 carrying rice blast resistant gene Pi9 as the disease-resistant parent, the BPH-resistant line C4064 harboring brown planthopper resistant gene Bph18(t) as the BPH-resistant parent, and the elite restoring line Ce679 as recurrent parents, to hy-bridize, backcross, selfcross and field select for multiple generations. The Pi9-linked SCAR marker pB8 was used to select Pi9, and the Bph18(t)-linked marker KC16 was used to select Bph18(t) in the segregating populations. By

  16. Enhanced disease resistance and drought tolerance in transgenic rice plants overexpressing protein elicitors from Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Han, Qiang; Zi, Qian; Lv, Shun; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Exogenous application of the protein elicitors MoHrip1 and MoHrip2, which were isolated from the pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae), was previously shown to induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco and to enhance resistance to rice blast. In this work, we successfully transformed rice with the mohrip1 and mohrip2 genes separately. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice plants displayed higher resistance to rice blast and stronger tolerance to drought stress than wild-type (WT) rice and the vector-control pCXUN rice. The expression of salicylic acid (SA)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-related genes was also increased, suggesting that these two elicitors may trigger SA signaling to protect the rice from damage during pathogen infection and regulate the ABA content to increase drought tolerance in transgenic rice. Trypan blue staining indicated that expressing MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 in rice plants inhibited hyphal growth of the rice blast fungus. Relative water content (RWC), water usage efficiency (WUE) and water loss rate (WLR) were measured to confirm the high capacity for water retention in transgenic rice. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice also exhibited enhanced agronomic traits such as increased plant height and tiller number.

  17. Resolving the polyphyletic nature of Pyricularia (Pyriculariaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaubauf, S.; Tharreau, D.; Fournier, E.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; Vries, de R.P.; Lebrun, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Species of Pyricularia (magnaporthe-like sexual morphs) are responsible for major diseases on grasses. Pyricularia oryzae (sexual morph Magnaporthe oryzae) is responsible for the major disease of rice called rice blast disease, and foliar diseases of wheat and millet, while Pyricularia grisea (sexua

  18. Soluble tissue sugar content and leaf blast severity in response to the application of calcinated serpentinite as a silicon source in irrigated rice A brusone nas folhas e conteúdo de açucares solúveis nos tecidos em resposta a aplicação de serpentinito calcinado como fonte de silício em arroz irrigado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sitarama Prabhu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment conducted with the irrigated rice cultivar BRS Formoso, to assess the efficiency of calcinated serpentinite as a silicon source on grain yield was utilized to study its effect on leaf blast severity and tissue sugar levels. The treatments consisted of five rates of calcinated serpentinite (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 Mg.ha-1 incorporated into the soil prior to planting. The leaf blast severity was reduced at the rate of 2.96% per ton of calcinated serpentinite. The total tissue sugar content decreased significantly as the rates of serpentinite applied increased (R² = 0.83. The relationship between the tissue sugar content and leaf blast severity was linear and positive (R² = 0.81. The decrease in leaf blast severity with increased rates of calcinated serpentinite was also linear (R²= 0.96 and can be ascribed to reduced sugar level.Um experimento de campo, para avaliar a eficiência de serpentinito calcinado como fonte de silício na produtividade da cultura de arroz irrigado, cultivar BRS Formoso, foi utilizado para estudar seu efeito sobre a brusone nas folhas e níveis de açúcares nos tecidos. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco doses de serpentinito calcinado (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 Mg.ha-1 incorporadas ao solo antes de plantio. A severidade da brusone foi reduzida numa taxa de 2,96% por tonelada de serpentinito calcinado aplicada (R² = 0,83. A relação entre o conteúdo de açucares no tecido e a severidade da brusone nas folhas foi linear e positiva (R² = 0,81. A redução da severidade da brusone com o aumento das doses de serpentinito calcinado também foi linear (R²= 0,96 e pode ser atribuída aos reduzidos níveis de açúcares nos tecidos foliares.

  19. 云南野生稻抗稻瘟病Pi-ta基因的检测及分析%Identification and Analysis on the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-ta in Wild Rice from Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国珍; 蒋春苗; 刘吉新; 陈于敏; 余腾琼; 程在全

    2014-01-01

    A total of 1 6 accessions of wild rice from different regions of Yunnan Province were used for PCR amplifica-tion with Pi-ta gene specific primers.The amplified PCR products were cloned into Topo cloning vector,and se-quenced.Among 1 6 accessions,the identical sequence fragment to the resitance Pi-ta gene was amplified separately from 7 accessions.The Pi-ta allele in one accession of Oryza rufipogon with purple stem from Jinghong contains an i-dentical DNA sequence in the coding region to the original Pi-ta resistance gene.It suggested that Yunnan might be one of the origins of the Pi-ta gene.%以16个不同来源的云南野生稻作为供试材料,用抗稻瘟病 Pi-ta 基因特异引物(KG2/KG4)进行 PCR 扩增,并对PCR 产物进行克隆、测序及分析。结果表明,16个野生稻中7个品种持有抗稻瘟病 Pi-ta 基因,其中,来自云南景洪的紫秆普通野生稻中 Pi-ta 基因的编码区与原始型的抗稻瘟病 Pi-ta 基因的 DNA 序列完全相同。可见,云南可能是抗稻瘟病基因Pi-ta 的起源地之一。

  20. Controle de brusone e manejo de nitrogênio em cultivo de arroz irrigado Blast control and nitrogen management in lowland rice cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nand Kumar Fageria

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre práticas culturais, tais como a aplicação de N e o controle de doenças causadas por fungos, em solo de várzea do Brasil são insuficientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do arroz irrigado a épocas de aplicação de N e ao tratamento das sementes com fungicida no controle de brusone. Aplicaram-se 90 kg ha-1 de N da seguinte forma: todo no plantio (T1; 1/3 no plantio, 1/3 45 dias após o plantio e 1/3 na iniciação do primórdio floral (T2; 1/2 no plantio e 1/2 45 dias após o plantio (T3; 1/2 no plantio e 1/2 na iniciação do primórdio floral (T4; 2/3 no plantio e 1/3 45 dias após o plantio (T5; 2/3 no plantio e 1/3 aplicado na iniciação do primórdio floral (T6 e 1/3 no plantio e 2/3 20 dias após o plantio (T7. O fungicida pyroquilon foi aplicado nas doses de 0, 200 e 400 g de ingrediente ativo por 100 kg de sementes. A produção de grãos foi influenciada significativamente pela época de aplicação de N e pelo tratamento de fungicida. A aplicação de N influenciou significativamente a matéria seca da parte aérea e a acumulação de N nos grãos. A produção máxima de grãos foi obtida pelos tratamentos T2 e T3. O tratamento com 200 g de fungicida por 100 kg de sementes aumentou significativamente a produção de grãos, em relação à testemunha.Nitrogen timing and control of fungal diseases are cultural practices in lowland rice production. The objective of this study was to determine appropriate timing of N application and adequate rate of seed treatment with pyroquilon fungicide in lowland rice. The 90 kg ha-1 N application timing were alloted as follows: total at sowing (T1; 1/3 at sowing, 1/3 at active tillering and 1/3 at panicle initiation (T2; 1/2 at sowing and 1/2 at active tillering (T3; 1/2 at sowing and 1/2 at panicle initiation (T4; 2/3 at sowing and 1/3 at active tillering (T5; 2/3 at sowing and 1/3 at panicle initiation (T6; and 1/3 at sowing and 2/3 at the start of

  1. Breeding and application of Jiafuzhan,a new elite early indica rice cultivar in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Houcong; SUN Chuanzhi; CHEN Shuanglong; CHI Xiaowen; LIAO Xinying; ZHANG Weiqing; ZHONG Xinbin; HUANG Huakang; QIU Simi; ZHANG Shi; FANG Yashun; CAI Jinlei; ZHENG Xuan; HUANG Yumin; CHEN Ruming

    2007-01-01

    After 20 years of dedicated research,Jiafuzhan has been successfully developed under the new technologies in breeding high-quality early indica rice cultivars.Its rice quality has almost reached the A-level Editable Rice of Agriculture Department of China,and its average production reaches 400-500 kg/(666.7 m2).This new cultivar also has other characteristics such as enhanced resistance of blast and fallen,steady productivity,and strong adaptability.Jiafuzhan has been put into production of over 11.4×104 hm2 in Fujian Province and has been introduced and extended in other Provinces like Jiangxi,Guangdong,and Guangxi,China.The successes of breeding Jiafuzhan is a solution to the existing perennial problems in the rice industry,such as poor grain quality of big-grain rice and early indica rice,low productivity,and poor blast resistance of elite rice.

  2. RICE CROSSES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spikelet sterility is the greatest barrier to rice hybridization. ... sterility, Hybridization, Duplicate recessive epis- tasis ' ... hybrid fertility of intra-subspecific crosses, i.e., indica by ..... 'Germ 59(1) 293$ ' ' male sterility and fertility restoration in rice.

  3. El Silverio: nueva variedad de arroz para el trópico mexicano El Silverio: a new rice cultivar for the tropical areas of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis García Angulo

    2011-08-01

    under irrigation. Its milling quality is 55% of polished whole grain over palay. The growing cycle of the new variety El Silverio, is 130 days of seed germination to grain maturity in Spring-Summer and 135 days in Autumn-Winter; the plant type is compact with a height of 95 cm and therefore is resistant to lodging disease, it is also moderately tolerant to drought, resistant to shattering and tolerant to diseases such as "rice blast fungus" (Magnaporthe grisea called before (Pyricularia oryzae, "brown leaf spot" (Helminthosporium oryzae and rice scald (Monographella albescens. Regarding to insect pests, it is tolerant to mechanical damage caused by the "sogata" planthopper Tagosodes orizicolus. El Silverio is the second variety selected of Milagro Filipino (IR8 in Mexico; it has been recorded in the National Catalogue of Plants Varieties (CNVV for its spanish acronym with the number: ARZ015-260210.

  4. Novel Taxa Associated with Human Fungal Black-Grain Mycetomas: Emarellia grisea gen. nov., sp. nov., and Emarellia paragrisea sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Campbell, Colin K.; Bridge, Paul D.; Dannaoui, Eric; Johnson, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a debilitating, chronic, fungal infection that is endemic in India, Indonesia, and parts of Africa and South and Central America. It remains a neglected tropical disease in need of international recognition. Infections follow traumatic implantation of saprophytic fungi and frequently require radical surgery or amputation in the absence of appropriate treatment. Several fungal species can cause black-grain mycetomas, including Madurella spp. (Sordariales), Falciformispora spp., Trematosphaeria grisea, Biatriospora mackinnonii, Pseudochaetosphaeronema larense, and Medicopsis romeroi (all Pleosporales). We performed phylogenetic analyses based on five loci on 31 isolates from two international culture collections to establish the taxonomic affiliations of fungi that had been isolated from cases of black-grain mycetoma and historically classified as Madurella grisea. Although most strains were well resolved to species level and corresponded to known agents of eumycetoma, six independent isolates, which failed to produce conidia under any conditions tested, were only distantly related to existing members of the Pleosporales. Five of the six isolates shared >99% identity with each other and are described as Emarellia grisea gen. nov. and sp. nov; the sixth isolate represents a sister species in this novel genus and is described as Emarellia paragrisea. Several E. grisea isolates were present in both United Kingdom and French culture collections and had been isolated independently over 6 decades from cases of imported eumycetoma. Four of the six isolates involved patients that had originated on the Indian subcontinent. All isolates were all susceptible in vitro to the azole antifungals, but had elevated MICs with caspofungin. PMID:27076666

  5. The rice growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us The... Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis The rice growth image file...s Data detail Data name The rice growth image files DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00945-004 Description of data contents The...ite Policy | Contact Us The rice growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive ... ...ies 14 entries - About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database S

  6. Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

  7. 枯草芽孢杆菌G87抗菌蛋白对稻瘟病菌和稻恶苗病菌的抑制作用%Inhibition of antifungal protein from Bacillus subtilis G87 to Magnaporthe grisea and Gibberella fujikuroi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪兆林; 李娟; 陈夕军; 童蕴慧; 徐敬友

    2012-01-01

    In order to clarify the biological activity of antifungal protein from Bacillus subtilis G87, its inhibition to Magnaporthe grisea and Gibberella fujikuroi was studied. The results showed that the antifungal protein exhibited inhibitory activity on mycelial growth, conidial germination and germ-tube elongation of rice pathogenic fungi mentioned above. At the concentration of 1.20 mg· mL-1 for the antifungal protein, the inhibiting rates were above 60% and 80% against the colony growth and the dry mycelial weight of M. grisea, respectively. In the presence of 2. 40 mg· mL-1 antifungal protein, the inhibiting rates toward the conidial germination and germ-tube elongation of G. fujikuroi were both over 60%. Moreover, the antifungal protein was demonstrated to have a destructive effect on hyphal shape of the two pathogenic fungi, with hyphal cell distortion, protoplasm concentration and leakage, tumescence, cell wall rupture, and collapse. Therefore, B. subtilis G87 antifungal protein has an important antifungal biological activity.%为明确枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)G87抗菌蛋白的生物活性,采用菌丝生长、分生孢子萌发和芽管伸长抑制的方法,研究其对稻瘟病菌(Magna porthe grisea)和稻恶苗病菌(Gibberella fujikuroi)的抑制作用.结果表明:抗菌蛋白能明显抑制2种病菌菌丝生长、分生孢子萌发和芽管伸长.1.20 mg·mL-1抗菌蛋白对稻瘟病菌菌落直径和菌丝干重的抑制率分别达60%和80%以上; 2.40 mg·mL-1抗菌蛋白对稻恶苗病菌分生孢子萌发和芽管伸长的抑制率均达60%以上.抗菌蛋白还能显著破坏2种病菌菌丝形态,使菌丝细胞畸形膨大、原生质浓缩和外渗、细胞壁破损以及菌体崩溃等.因此,枯草芽孢杆菌G87抗菌蛋白具有重要的抗菌生物活性.

  8. Establishment and application of an efficient, economic, and rapid rice DNA extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, economic, and efficient method for DNA extraction from rice leaf, root and seed was developed, and the extracted DNA was used as a template to successfully amplify the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta. Profiles of Pi-ta in 165 breeding lines detected by DNA markers were verified using diff...

  9. Improving the Quality of Freeze Dried Rice: Initial Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    CRP. Improvement themes are product texture following rehydration, alternatives to plain FD rice, and fortification with vitamins and minerals. Phase...cm, placed in a –20 °C blast freezer and held overnight, then transferred to the production scale freeze dryer (Pilot Freeze Drying Plant , Budge... vitamins ) upon washing3 and cooking in excess water which is then discarded4, with these losses increasing when the rice was cooked with a greater

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of UV-Induced Phenylamides from Rice Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Lin Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae. In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus. UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae, blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens.

  11. SCS118 Marques – New rice cultivar obtained through induced mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Antonio Schiocchet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The new rice cultivar, SCS118 Marques, was obtained through gamma irradiation of SCSBRS Tio Taka cultivar. SCS118 Marques presents modern architecture, lodging resistance, late maturity cycle, moderate resistance to blast, high yield potential, long grains and very high cooking quality. Industrial tests performed with SCS118 Marques showed that grains are suitable for parboiling and white rice, and it is recommended to all rice-producing regions of Santa Catarina

  12. The cAMP Signaling and MAP Kinase Pathways in Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehrabi, R.; Zhao, X.; Kim, Y.; Xu, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The key components of the well conserved cyclic AMP signaling and MAP kinase pathways have been functionally characterized in the corn smut Ustilago maydis, rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, and a few other fungal pathogens. In general, the cAMP signaling and the MAP kinase cascade homologous to

  13. Deep blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    From southern New Mexico to the Great Slave Lake of Canada, scientists from the United States and Canada recently detonated 10 underground chemical explosions to generate a clearer picture of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. Called Project Deep Probe, the experiment is designed to see through the crust and into the upper mantle to a depth of 300 miles.In the United States, Earth scientists from Rice University, Purdue University, and the University of Oregon are participating in the project. “Researchers hope to get a picture of the upper mantle beneath the Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau, to understand the role the mantle played in formation and uplift,” says Alan Levander of Rice. To enhance that “picture,” 750 portable seismographs were placed along a roughly north-south line extending from Crownpoint, New Mexico to Edmonton, Alberta. The seismic recordings will be used to enhance weak seismic waves that penetrated the upper mantle.

  14. Calculation of driling and blasting parameters in blasting performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Dambov, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    In all mining technology drilling and blasting parameters and works are one of the main production processes at each mine. The parameters of drilling and blasting and explosives consumption per ton of blasting mass are define economic indicators of any blasting no matter for what purpose and where mining is performed. The calculation of rock blasting should always have in mind that the methodology of calculation of all drilling and blasting parameters in blasting performance are performed for...

  15. Perspectivas del uso de bacterias rizosféricas en el control de Pyricularia grisea (Cooke Sacc.) en el cultivo del arroz (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yanelis Acebo Guerrero; Annia Hernández-Rodríguez; Narovis Rives Rodríguez; Miguel Gerardo Velázquez del Valle; Ana Niurka Hernández-Lauzardo

    2011-01-01

    El arroz es fuente de alimento para una gran parte de la población mundial, con alto promedio de consumo anual. En este cultivo las enfermedades de origen microbiano constituyen uno de los factores que inciden en la obtención de bajos rendimientos y calidad de los granos. La piriculariosis o añublo del arroz, causada por Pyricularia grisea, es la enfermedad más importante en este cultivo en América Latina, ya que puede provocar hasta el 100% de reducción de los rendimientos. Como parte de la ...

  16. Pyriculins A and B, two monosubstituted hex-4-ene-2,3-diols and other phytotoxic metabolites produced by Pyricularia grisea isolated from buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Masi; Susan Meyer; Marcin Gorecki; Alessandro Mandoli; Lorenzo Di Bari; Gennaro Pescitelli; Alessio Cimmino; Massimo Cristofaro; Suzette Clement; Antonio Evidente

    2017-01-01

    Pyricularia grisea has been identified as a foliar pathogen on buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) in North America and was studied as a potential source of phytotoxins for buffelgrass control. Two monosubstituted hex‐4‐ene‐2,3‐diols, named pyriculins A and B, were isolated from its culture filtrate organic extract together with (10S,11S)‐(−)‐epipyriculol, trans‐3...

  17. Cloning and characterization of rice RH3 gene induced by brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaolan; WENG Qingmei; YOU Aiqing; ZHU Lili; HE Guangcun

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have showed that the histone H3 gene is correlated with development, cell speciality and stress response. The RH3 full-length cDNA was isolated from the cDNA library of rice infested by brown planthopper (BPH) with EST (Accession no. BU572343) screened from rice SSH library as probe. This gene encodes histone H3 protein including 136 amino acids, with one amino acid different from a kind of disease resistance-related protein in rice (AF467728). At the position 126, the aspartic acid is replaced by lysine. The time course results showed that the expression of the RH3 began to increase at 8 h after BPH-feeding, and got to its peak at 96 h. Regulations of the gene expression in treatments with stress/defense signal molecules were analyzed by Northern blot. Water deficit and Pyricularia grisea increased the expression of RH3 while ABA down-regulated the gene. The enhanced accumulation of RH3 transcripts in the vascular bundle and short cell of stem after BPH feeding was revealed by RNA in situ hybridization. It is the first time to report that RH3 is correlated with the response of rice to BPH.

  18. Phenotypic and genetic diversity of rice seed-associated bacteria and their role in pathogenicity and biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottyn, B; Debode, J; Regalado, E; Mew, T W; Swings, J

    2009-09-01

    To study the phenotypic and genetic diversity of culturable bacteria associated with rice seed and to asses the antagonistic and pathogenic potential of the isolated bacteria. Seed of rice cultivar PSBRc14 was collected from farmers' fields of irrigated lowland in southern Luzon, Philippines. Isolations of distinct colonies yielded 498 isolates. Classification of the isolates according to similarities in cellular characteristics, whole-cell fatty acid composition, and colony appearance differentiated 101 morphotype groups. Predominant bacteria were Coryneform spp., Pantoea spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Other bacteria regularly present were Actinomycetes spp., Bacillus pumilus, B. subtilis, Burkholderia glumae, Enterobacter cloacae, Paenibacillus polymyxa, Staphylococcus spp. and Xanthomonas spp. The genetic diversity among isolates was assessed by BOX-PCR fingerprinting of genomic DNA and represented 284 fingerprint types (FPTs). Most FPTs (78%) were not shared among samples, while eight FPTs occurred frequently in the samples. Seven of these FPTs also occurred frequently in a previous collection made from rainfed lowlands of Iloilo island, Philippines. Sixteen per cent of the isolates inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of the rice pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Pyricularia grisea, whereas 4% were pathogens identified as Burkholderia glumae, Burkholderia gladioli and Acidovorax avenae ssp. avenae. This study reveals a broad morphological and genetic diversity of bacteria present on seed of a single rice cultivar. This line of work contributes to a better understanding of the microbial diversity present on rice seed and stresses its importance as a carrier of antagonists and pathogens.

  19. Morphological and molecular characterization of Magnaporthe oryzae (fungus) from infected rice leaf samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muni, Nurulhidayah Mat; Nadarajah, Kalaivani

    2014-09-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a serious disease affecting rice called rice blast. Outbreaks of rice blast have been a threat to the global production of rice. This fungal disease is estimated to cause production losses of US55 million each year in South and Southeast Asia. It has been used as a primary model for elucidating various aspects of the host-pathogen interaction with its host. We have isolated five isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae from diseased leaf samples obtained from the field at Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah, Malaysia. We have identified the isolates using morphological and microscopic studies on the fungal spores and the lesions on the diseased leaves. Amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) was carried out with universal primers ITS1 and ITS4. The sequence of each isolates showed at least 99% nucleotide identity with the corresponding sequence in GenBank for Magnaporthe oryzae.

  20. Pyricularia graminis-tritici, a new Pyricularia species causing wheat blast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castroagudín, V.L.; Moreira, S.I.; Pereira, D.A.S.; Moreira, S.S.; Brunner, P.C.; Maciel, J.L.N.; Crous, P.W.; McDonald, B.A.; Alves, E.; Ceresini, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Pyricularia oryzae is a species complex that causes blast disease on more than 50 species of poaceous plants. Pyricularia oryzae has a worldwide distribution as a rice pathogen and in the last 30 years emerged as an important wheat pathogen in southern Brazil. We conducted phylogenetic analyses

  1. Dry ice blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

    1992-04-01

    As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

  2. Study on Disease Level Classification of Rice Panicle Blast Based on Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy%基于可见-近红外光谱技术的水稻穗颈瘟染病程度分级方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴迪; 曹芳; 张浩; 孙光明; 冯雷; 何勇

    2009-01-01

    Visible and near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy was used to fast and non-destructively classify the disease levels of rice panicle blast. Reflectance spectra between 325 and 1 075 nm were measured. Kennard-Stone algorithm was operated to sepa-rate samples into calibration and prediction sets. Different spectral pretreatment methods, including standard normal variate (SNV) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), were used for the spectral pretreatment before further spectral analysis. A hybrid wavelength variable selection method which is combined with uninformative variable elimination (UVE) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) was operated to select effective wavelength variables from original spectra, SNV pretreated spectra and MSC pretreated spectra, respectively. UVE was firstly operated to remove uninformative wavelength variables from the full-spectrum. Then SPA selected the effective wavelength variables with less colinearity after UVE. Least square-support vector machine (LS-SVM) was used as the calibration method for the spectral analysis in this study. The selected effective wavelengths were set as input variables of LS-SVM model The LS-SVM model established based on SNV-UVE-SPA obtained the best re-sults. Only six effective wavelengths (459, 546, 569, 590, 775 and 981 nm) were selected from the full-spectrum which has 600 wavelength variables by UVE-SPA, and their LS-SVM model's performance was further improved. For SNV-UVE-SPA-LS-SVM model, coefficient of determination for prediction set (R_p~2), root mean square error for prediction (RMSEP) and residualpredictive deviation (RPD) were 0. 979, 0. 507 and 6. 580, respectively. The overall results indicate that Vis-NIR spectroscopyis a feasible way to classify disease levels of rice panicle blast fast and non-destructively. UVE-SPA is an efficient variable selec-tion method for the spectral analysis, and their selected effective wavelengths can represent the useful information of the full

  3. Evaluación agronómica de líneas mutantes de arroz con tolerancia a Pyricularia grisea (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Madriz Muñoz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando el procedimiento de mutagénesis inducida con rayos Gamma Co60, seguida de selección individual, CRUZ et al. (1992 lograron obtener 53 plantas de arroz con resistencia parcial a Pyricularia grisea (Cooke Sacc. provenientes de una variedad comercial (CR-1113 originalmente susceptible a esta enfermedad. La primera etapa del presente trabajo consistió en la evaluación de 52 líneas obtenidas por los autores mencionados. De ellas se seleccionaron 14, siete por su buen comportamiento agronómico, buen rendimiento y resistencia parcial a la enfermedad, y siete por su precocidad y buenas características agronómicas. Posteriormente estas líneas fueron reproducidas y evaluadas en ensayos de campo. Los resultados obtenidos confirmaron que las líneas escogidas mantenían las características ventajosas por las que fueron seleccionadas.

  4. Breeding and Characterization of a New Rice Restorer Line Containing Bt Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Fang-yuan; LU Xian-jun; HE Shu-lin; CHEN Xiao-juan; LU Dai-hua; SUN Shu-xia; LI Zhi-hua; LIU Guang-chun; ZHANG Yi-zheng; REN Guang-jun

    2009-01-01

    Bt5198, a new rice restorer line containing Bt gene, was developed from the cross and backcross of the elite restorer line Chenghui 177 with Bt Minghui 63, a transgenic Bt restorer line. The inbred lines were evaluated using PCR amplification, test paper evaluation, insect resistance evaluation in both the laboratory and paddy fields, nursery evaluation of rice blast resistance and pedigree selection of agronomic traits. Larval mortalities on Bt5198 and Bt Minghui 63 were 100% when rice culms were inoculated with the eggs of the striped stem borer (SSB) in the laboratory. Bt5198 was highly resistant against SSB and the yellow stem borer (YSB) under field conditions. The F1 hybrids derived from Bt5198 and four cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines were also highly resistant to SSB and YSB and had a significant heterosis. Two-year evaluation of rice blast resistance confirmed that the resistance levels of Bt5198 to leaf blast and neck blast were similar to those of Chenghui 177 and significantly better than those of Bt Minghui 63. Seed germination ability and pollen yield of Bt5198 were similar with Chenghui 177, suggesting that the introduction of the Bt gene into the new restorer line had no significant effects on seed vitality or the yield of seed production. To identify the presence of the Bt gene, it was effective to combine test paper examination with the evaluation of insect-resistance, both in the laboratory and under field conditions.

  5. IACuba 39: New variety of rice, for the favored unirrigated land.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pérez Polanco

    2010-09-01

    experimental conditions presented an average agricultural yield of 3.04 t / ha, has a cycle of germination to harvest about 137 days, Togosodes resistant, moderately resistant to rice blast and it is characterized by its high quality of the grain, producing at the mill more than 60% of whole grains, also has strong plants resistant to flattened and with rapid initial growth.

  6. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Xianggu Rice: The rice originated from Jiangyong County, Hunan Province. Its characteristics were: even in grain shape, white in color, special fragrant in taste, and sticky in quality. Handongzao: It was from Wannian County, Jiangxi Province. The rice had big, fertile, and white grain, which was soft with fragrant smell, and it had high head rice rate. So, the local peasants liked to plant it. It was one of the "Tribute rice " in old time. Shizhu "Imperial Rice": The rice was also called "Fragrant Rice", was from Siyuan Village, Yuelai Town, Shizhu County, Sichuan Province. It was the treasure among the rices. The grain was bright in color. When it was cooked, the smell was fragrant. It was said that the rice was from "Han Dynasty", and has become the "Tribute Rice " since then. Blood Glutinous Rice: Originated from Changshu City, Jiangsu Province, the rice has been cultivated more than one hundred years. It had high nutrition value. Among the people, the Blood Glutinous Rice was often used as health food for lying-in women and patients. Qufu Fragrant Rice: Its characteristics were: clean, bright, and translucent in grain color, sticky in quality. It was suitable for cooking gruel and was also called "Fragrant Rice" in the local due to its strong fragrance. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Taihu Lake Fragrant Japonica: The rice was from the Region of Taihu Lake, Jiangsu Province. The characteristics were: even and big in grain shape, soft in quality, white in color, fragrant in taste. The local people liked to plant and eat it.□ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice",No.1,1994

  7. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of the constituents isolated from Koelreuteria paniculata leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Somayeh; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Ghahari, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Golden rain leaves was fractionated by column chromatography on silica gel and 18 fractions were obtained. Antimicrobial activities of fractions were investigated against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as quality control bacteria and fungus Pyricularia grisea which causes Blast disease in rice. Fractions showed more antibacterial activity at 0.04 g/mL concentration only on B. subtilis and S. aureus as gram positive bacteria. Also, three fractions indicated excellent antifungal effect on fungus P. grisea. Moreover, in the present study, fractions that showed very good effect on microorganisms were used for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to identify different phytochemicals.

  8. Bacterial populations associated with rice seed in the tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottyn, B; Regalado, E; Lanoot, B; De Cleene, M; Mew, T W; Swings, J

    2001-03-01

    ABSTRACT During the 1995 wet season, harvested rice seed was collected from farmers' fields at different locations in Iloilo, Philippines. Bacterial isolations from crushed seed yielded 428 isolates. The isolates were characterized by BOX-polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting of total genomic DNA and represented 151 fingerprint types (FPT). Most FPTs were found on a single occasion, although matching fingerprints for isolates from different samples also were found. Identifications were made by cellular fatty acid methyl ester analysis and additional use of Biolog GN/GP MicroPlates and API 20E/50CHE systems. The predominant bacteria were Enterobacteriaceae (25%), Bacillus spp. (22%), and Pseu-domonas spp. (14%). Other bacteria regularly present were identified as Xanthomonas spp., Cellulomonas flavigena, and Clavibacter michiganense. Of the total number of isolated bacteria, 4% exhibited in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani or Pyricularia grisea. Two percent of isolates were pathogens identified as Burkholderia glumae and Burkholderia gladioli. Five percent of isolates induced sheath necrosis on only 50 to 90% of inoculated plants and were related to Bacillus pumilus, Paenibacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Pantoea spp.

  9. Role of LOX3 Gene in Alleviating Adverse Effects of Drought and Pathogens in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Nan-nan; JIANG Ling; ZHANG Wen-wei; LIU Ling-long; ZHAI Hu-qu; WAN Jian-min

    2008-01-01

    Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3) is a major component of the LOX isozymes in mature rice seeds. To investigate the role of LOX3 gene under stresses, a plant expression vector containing antisense cDNA of LOX3 was constructed. Rice varieties Wuyunjing 7 and Kasalath were transformed by the Agrobacterium-mediated method and transgenic rice plants were generated. PCR and Southern blot results showed that the antisense LOX3 gene was integrated into the rice genome. Analyses of embryo LOX3 deletion and semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the antisense suppression of LOX3 gene in transgenic plants. The T2 antisense plants of LOX3 were sensitive to drought stress, rice blast and bacterial blight compared with non-transgenic plants. These results suggest that the LOX3 gene might function in response to stresses.

  10. Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2009-10-01

    Three industrial by-products (fly ash, phosphogypsum and blast furnace slag), were evaluated for their potential re-use as soil amendments to reduce methane (CH(4)) emission resulting from rice cultivation. In laboratory incubations, CH(4) production rates from anoxic soil slurries were significantly reduced at amendment levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (wt wt(-1)), while observed CO(2) production rates were enhanced. The level of suppression in methane production was the highest for phosphogypsum, followed by blast slag and then fly ash. In the greenhouse experiment, CH(4) emission rates from the rice planted potted soils significantly decreased with the increasing levels (2-20 Mg ha(-1)) of the selected amendments applied, while rice yield simultaneously increased compared to the control treatment. At 10 Mg ha(-1) application level of the amendments, total seasonal CH(4) emissions were reduced by 20%, 27% and 25%, while rice grain yields were increased by 17%, 15% and 23% over the control with fly ash, phosphogypsum, and blast slag amendments, respectively. The suppression of CH(4) production rates as well as total seasonal CH(4) flux could be due to the increased concentrations of active iron, free iron, manganese oxides, and sulfate in the amended soil, which acted as electron acceptors and controlled methanogens' activity by limiting substrates availability. Among the amendments, blast furnace slag and fly ash contributed mainly to improve the soil nutrients balance and increased the soil pH level towards neutral point, but soil acidity was developed with phosphogypsum application. Conclusively, blast slag among the selected amendments would be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH(4) emissions as well as sustaining rice productivity.

  11. The World of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ Pilafs, risottos, soups, snacks, paellas,stuffing, vinegars, wines and desserts-rice is used all over the world in myriad ways as food and drink.Although rice is one of the world's most ancient foods and it is impossible to know exactly where and when cultivation of this marvelous grain began, China is popularly acknowledged as the homeland of rice. Chinese people have many legends about rice. Some describe a benevolent goddess in silk robes whose gown accidentally picked up stray rice grains, which she dropped from the heavens to humans below. It's also said that Shennong, the Divine Farmer in Chinese myth, sowed the first rice on earth.

  12. Nucleotide variation and identification of novel blast resistance alleles of Pib by allele mining strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, G; Madhav, M S; Devi, S J S Rama; Prasad, M S; Babu, V Ravindra

    2015-04-01

    Pib is one of significant rice blast resistant genes, which provides resistance to wide range of isolates of rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae. Identification and isolation of novel and beneficial alleles help in crop enhancement. Allele mining is one of the best strategies for dissecting the allelic variations at candidate gene and identification of novel alleles. Hence, in the present study, Pib was analyzed by allele mining strategy, and coding and non-coding (upstream and intron) regions were examined to identify novel Pib alleles. Allelic sequences comparison revealed that nucleotide polymorphisms at coding regions affected the amino acid sequences, while the polymorphism at upstream (non-coding) region affected the motifs arrangements. Pib alleles from resistant landraces, Sercher and Krengosa showed better resistance than Pib donor variety, might be due to acquired mutations, especially at LRR region. The evolutionary distance, Ka/Ks and phylogenetic analyzes also supported these results. Transcription factor binding motif analysis revealed that Pib (Sr) had a unique motif (DPBFCOREDCDC3), while five different motifs differentiated the resistance and susceptible Pib alleles. As the Pib is an inducible gene, the identified differential motifs helps to understand the Pib expression mechanism. The identified novel Pib resistant alleles, which showed high resistance to the rice blast, can be used directly in blast resistance breeding program as alternative Pib resistant sources.

  13. Field experiment for blasting crater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Tu-qiang

    2008-01-01

    A series of single hole blasting crater experiments and a variable distance multi-hole simultaneous blasting experiment was carded in the Yunfu Troilite Mine, according to the Livingston blasting crater theory. We introduce in detail, our methodology of data collection and processing from our experiments. Based on the burying depth of the explosives, the blasting crater volume was fitted by the method of least squares and the characteristic curve of the blasting crater was obtained using the MATLAB software. From this third degree polynomial, we have derived the optimal burying depth, the critical burying depth and the optimal explosive specific charge of the blasting crater.

  14. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Mingshui Rice: It originated from Zhangqiu County, Shandong Province. The characteristics of Mingshui Rice were: absorbing more water, swelling up greatly after being soaked, and being sticky and smelling fragrant after cooked.

  15. Rice Price under Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Early in April, the FOB (Free on Board) value of rice exported from Bangkok, Thailand, the biggest rice exporter of the world, surged to a new high of US$730per ton, representing an increase of 70 percent in recent years, and setting a new record over the past 34 years of Thailand rice exports.

  16. ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.F. fitch

    1995-03-13

    The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

  17. Blast Overpressure Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    USAARL Contract Report No. CR-98-Ö3 Blast Overpressure Studies By Daniel L. Johnson EG&G Management Systems, Inc. Albuquerque, New Mexico May...Both studies were done at the Blast Overpressure-Kirtland Test Site (BOP-KTS) in New Mexico . Under a contract conducted for the USAMRMC, EG&G was... TDH -4 9 elements mounted in a David Clark 9AN/2 ear muff for added noise isolation. The calibration of the earphones was accomplished using a Bruel

  18. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp i

  19. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  20. The defense-responsive genes showing enhanced and repressed expression after pathogen infection in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌; 彭开蔓; 储昭晖; 王石平; 张启发

    2002-01-01

    Despite large numbers of studies about defense response, processes involved in the resistance of plants to incompatible pathogens are still largely uncharacterized. The objective of this study was to identify genes involved in defense response by cDNA array analysis and to gain knowledge about the functions of the genes involved in defense response. Approximately 20000 rice cDNA clones were arrayed on nylon filters. RNA samples isolated from different rice lines after infection with incompatible strains or isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae or Pyricularia grisea, respectively, were used to synthesize cDNA as probes for screening the cDNA arrays. A total of 100 differentially expressed unique sequences were identified from 5 pathogen-host combinations. Fifty-three sequences were detected as showing enhanced expression and 47 sequences were detected as showing repressed expression after pathogen infection. Sequence analysis revealed that most of the 100 sequences had various degrees of homology with genes in databases which encode or putatively encode transcription regulating proteins, translation regulating proteins, transport proteins, kinases, metabolic enzymes, and proteins involved in other functions. Most of the genes have not been previously reported as being involved in the disease resistance response in rice. The results from cDNA arrays, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and RNA gel blot analysis suggest that activation or repression of most of these genes might occur commonly in the defense response.

  1. Characterization of red rice in the province of Sancti Spiritus, Cuba. I. Biotypes of straw-colored glumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García de la Osa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trials were made in The Research Local Station of Grains areas, Sur del Jíbaro from 2005 through 2011. 27 morpho-agronomic characters were evaluated regarding the main red rice biotypes of straw-colored glumes in the province of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba, and in three commercial varieties of witness rice (IACuba-31, Perla de Cuba y Jucarito-104. It also was determined a broad diversity and variations in these features that permitted to differenciate the biotypes between them and with other rice cultivars. The purple pigmentation in some parts of the plants in the great majority of such biotype is an observable feature, seen easily, that make contrasts with the already researched, by which it helps a lot in identifying them. The great majority of the biotypes of straw-colored glumes featured an over-growned size in their sprouts, lengths and longer flag leaves, with also a prone feature to loose its grain, its nighty, broad seed and a particular resistance to Pyricularia grisea; but shorter and lighter but it also yields less per hectares. it has shown resistant to Tagosodes orizicolus, respecting the witness cultivars.

  2. Allele mining and selective patterns of Pi9 gene in a set of rice landraces from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Imam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Allelic variants of the broad-spectrum blast resistance gene, Pi9 (NBS-LRR region have been analyzed in Indian rice landraces. They were selected from the list of 338 rice landraces phenotyped in the rice blast nursery at central Rainfed Upland Rice Research Station, Hazaribag. Six of them were further selected on the basis of their resistance and susceptible pattern for virulence analysis and selective pattern study of Pi9 gene. The sequence analysis and phylogenetic study illustrated that such sequences are vastly homologous and clustered into two groups. All the blast resistance Pi9 alleles were grouped into one cluster, whereas Pi9 alleles of susceptible landraces formed another cluster even though these landraces have a low level of DNA polymorphisms. A total number of 136 polymorphic sites comprising of transitions, transversions and InDels were identified in the 2.9kb sequence of Pi9 alleles. Lower variation in the form of mutations (77 (Transition + Transversion, and InDels (59 were observed in the Pi9 alleles isolated from rice landraces studied. The results showed that the Pi9 alleles of the selected rice landraces were less variable, suggesting that the rice landraces would have been exposed to less number of pathotypes across the country. The positive Tajima’s D (0.33580, P > 0.10 (not significant was observed among the seven rice landraces, which suggests the balancing selection of Pi9 alleles. The value of synonymous substitution (-0.43337 was less than the non-synonymous substitution (0.78808. The greater non-synonymous substitution than the synonymous means that the coding region, mainly the LRR domain was under diversified selection. In this study, the Pi9 gene has been subjected to balancing selection with low nucleotide diversity which is different from the earlier reports, this may be because of the closeness of the rice landraces, cultivated in the same region and under low pathotype pressure.

  3. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wushan Rice: It grew in hilly land around Wu Mountain in Wang City, Hunan Province. Its grain is bright and transparent, and the cooked rice is soft, sticky, fragrant, and sweet in taste. It was a "Tribute Rice" in old time. Indian Indica: Growing in Wuchang City, Hubei Province, it was also called" Red Flower Rice" . It was characterized by its thin pericarp and soft, sticky, and oily quality. Its taste was delicious. Fragrant Rice 1: It was from Xinxiang and Hui counties, Henan Province. Its characteristics were: long-round in grain shape, white in color, soft and sticky in quality, and agreeable to the taste. It was usually used as a gift in the local. Baiyutang Rice: It originated from Gaozhuang Village, Beijing suburban district. It had good quality due to the irrigation of the spring water. The rice had even grain shape, white color, hard enough quality to be cooked, fragrant and sweet taste. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Tian′e Indica Rice: Xianning and Wuchang counties, Hubei Province were its growing area. It also called "Double Grain" because of its big grain. The hull was red, while the grain was white. When cooked, it needed more water than normal rice, and the rice was agreeable to the taste. Baiyan Rice: It originated from Jishou County, Hunan Province. The grain was even in shape, white in color, and sticky in quality. The rice was easy to be cooked and was fragrant and sweet in taste. It was also a " Tribute Rice" in old time. □ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice", No. 1, 1994

  4. Compatibility study of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and rice fungicides, and effects on three fungal plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Francisco Rodríguez Saldaña

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research took place at the Provincial Plant Sanitation Laboratory, in Camaguey, Cuba, between September 2013 and September 2015. The in vitro compatibility and antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (strain A-34 on rice pathogens (Bipolaris oryzae Breda de Haan, Sarocladium oryzae (Sawada w., Gams and D. Hawksworth and Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert Barr, was determined against pesticides used on rice. Assessment using traditional methods of microbiological isolation of mycelial growth, sporulation and conidial germination of the antagonist, to determine if the action mechanisms (antibiosis, competence, parasitism against fungal pathogens, was made between 24 and 216 hours of application. A bifactorial design in dual culture was used for statistical analysis, along with scales for determination of microbial antagonistic capacity. Active ingredients tebuconazol + procloraz, trifloxistrobin+ ciproconazole, and epoxiconazole + kresoxim-methyl, affected mycelial growth of the antagonist. Moreover, the antagonist against active ingredients carbendazim, copper oxychloride, azoxystrobin and tebuconazo + triadimenol showed mycelial growth, sporulation and pathogen interaction, affecting their growth by means of coiling, penetration, granulation, and cell lysis, between 96 and 216 hours.

  5. Efficient indica and japonica rice identification based on the InDel molecular method: Its implication in rice breeding and evolutionary research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Rong Lu; Xingxing Cai; Xin Jin

    2009-01-01

    An efficient molecular method for the accurate and efficient identification of indica and japonica rice was created based on the poly-morphisms of insertion/deletion (InDel) DNA fragments obtained from the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) to the entire genomic sequences of indica (93-11) and japonica rice (Nipponbare). The 45 InDel loci were validated experimentally by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in 44 typical indica and japonica rice varieties, including 93-11 and Nipponbare. A neutrality test of the data matrix generated from electrophoretic banding patterns of various InDel loci indicated that 34 InDel loci were strongly associated with the differentiation of indica and japonica rice. More extensive analyses involving cultivated rice varieties from 11 Asian countries, and 12 wild Oryza species with various origins confirmed that indica and japonica characteristics could accurately be determined via calculating the average frequency of indica- or japonica-specific alleles on different InDel loci across the rice genome. This method was named as the "InDel molecular index" that combines molecular and statistical methods in determining the indica and japonica characteristics of rice varieties. Compared with the traditional methods based essentially on morphology, the InDel molecular index provides a very accurate, rapid, simple, and efficient method for identifying indica and japonica rice. In addition, the InDel index can be used to determine indica or japonica characteristics of wild Oryza species, which largely extends the utility of this method. The InDel molecular index provides a new tool for the effective selection of appropriate indica or japonica rice germplasm in rice breeding. It also offers a novel model for the study of the origin, evolution, and genetic differentiation of indica and japonica rice adapted to various environmental changes.

  6. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Shanxi black rice It was originally from Yang County, Hanzhong Region.This rice was a world-famous rice variety developed in 140 BC. It had pitch-black surface with the protein and oil contents being 6.8% and 20% higher than that of common rice, respectively. It had 15 kinds of amino acids and many kinds of vitamins. It was praised as" Black pearl" and "The king of the world riee".DongnianThe other names for Dongnian were "Yellow rice" and "Oil rice". It was grown in E City and Huangmei County,Hubei Province. It was characterized by its long-slim shape, milky yellow in color, oily, solid, and sticky quality, fragrant smell, and easiness for digestion.Guizhou black pearl rice

  7. Initial function determination for the open reading frame (ORF) region of Pib gene via rice transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hui; YANG Shihu; WANG Qing; ZHOU Tong; WAN Jianmin

    2007-01-01

    Three plant binary expression vectors-pNAR501,pNAR502 and pNAR503-were constructed,carrying fragments of exon2-exon3,5'partial deletion exonl and 5'partial deletion exonl-exon2-exon3 ofPib gene driven by 35S.These three vectors were transformed into the japonica rice variety Nipponbare through agrobacterium-mediated transformation.More than 30 transgenic rice plants were obtained and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR),Southern hybridization and the hygromycin resistance test in seed germination of their progeny.A rice blast resistance test for in vitro leaves ofT0 transgenic plants in the tillering stage showed higher resistance to the races of E1,F1 and G1 office blast than that of the control Nipponbare.However,results of rice blast resistance test for seedlings of T1 transgenic plants in the 3- to 4-leaf stage were different.All T1 transgenic seedlings had a lower level of resistance to E1,F1and G1 races than that of the control Nipponbare.

  8. Highly acidic glycans from sea cucumbers. Isolation and fractionation of fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharides from the body wall of Ludwigothurea grisea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, P A; Bastos, I G

    1987-08-03

    The body wall of the sea cucumber contains high amounts of sulfated glycans, which differ in structure from glycosaminoglycans of animal tissues and also from the fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharides isolated from marine algae and from the jelly coat of sea urchin eggs. In Ludwigothurea grisea, glycans can be separated into three fractions which differ in molecular mass and chemical composition. The fraction containing a high-molecular-mass component has a high proportion of fucose and small amounts of amino sugars, whereas another fraction contains primarily a sulfated fucan. The third fraction, which represents the major portion of the sea cucumber polysaccharides, contains besides fucose, approximately equimolar proportions of glucuronic acid and amino sugars, and has a sulfate content higher than that in the other two fractions. Both D and L-isomers of fucose are found in these polysaccharides, and the sulfate is linked to the O-3 position of the fucose residues. The attachment position of the sulfate groups to the glucuronic acid units and amino sugars is still undetermined. It is possible that these compounds are involved in maintaining the integrity of the sea cucumber's body wall, in analogy with the role of other macromolecules in the vertebrate connective tissue.

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane-bound MoSec62 is involved in the suppression of rice immunity and is essential for the pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuangzhi; Pang, Zhiqian; Li, Guihua; Lin, Chunhua; Wang, Jing; Lv, Qiming; He, Chaozu; Zhu, Lihuang

    2016-10-01

    Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) constitutes the first line of plant inducible immunity. As an important step of plant colonization, phytopathogens have to suppress PTI, and secreted effectors are therefore co-evolved and deployed. In this study, we characterized the function of MoSec62 of Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of the destructive rice blast. MoSec62 encodes a homologue of Sec62p, a yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane transporter for precursors of secretory proteins. We showed that a T-DNA insertion into the promoter region of MoSec62, causing a disturbance to the up-regulation of MoSec62 expression during blast invasion, resulted in a complete loss of blast virulence of the mutant, M1575. Both 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining of the infected rice leaves and expression analysis revealed that the infectious attempt by the mutant led to strong defence responses of rice. Consistently, in transcriptomic analysis of rice leaves subject to blast inoculation, a battery of defence responses was found to be induced exclusively on M1575 challenge. For further exploration, we tested the pathogenicity on a highly susceptible rice variety and detected the accumulation of Slp1, a known PTI suppressor. Both results suggested that the mutant most likely failed to overcome rice PTI. In addition, we showed that MoSec62 was able to rescue the thermosensitivity of a yeast Δsec62, and the MoSec62-GFP fusion was co-localized to the ER membrane, both suggesting the conservation of Sec62 homologues. In conclusion, our data indicate that MoSec62, probably as an ER membrane transporter, plays an essential role in antagonizing rice defence at the early stages of blast invasion.

  10. Evolution of Compatibility Range in the Rice-Magnaporthe oryzae System: An Uneven Distribution of R Genes Between Rice Subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Romain; Fontaine, Colin; Bonnot, François; Milazzo, Joëlle; Tertois, Christophe; Adreit, Henri; Ravigné, Virginie; Fournier, Elisabeth; Tharreau, Didier

    2016-04-01

    Efficient strategies for limiting the impact of pathogens on crops require a good understanding of the factors underlying the evolution of compatibility range for the pathogens and host plants, i.e., the set of host genotypes that a particular pathogen genotype can infect and the set of pathogen genotypes that can infect a particular host genotype. Until now, little is known about the evolutionary and ecological factors driving compatibility ranges in systems implicating crop plants. We studied the evolution of host and pathogen compatibility ranges for rice blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete Magnaporthe oryzae. We challenged 61 rice varieties from three rice subspecies with 31 strains of M. oryzae collected worldwide from all major known genetic groups. We determined the compatibility range of each plant variety and pathogen genotype and the severity of each plant-pathogen interaction. Compatibility ranges differed between rice subspecies, with the most resistant subspecies selecting for pathogens with broader compatibility ranges and the least resistant subspecies selecting for pathogens with narrower compatibility ranges. These results are consistent with a nested distribution of R genes between rice subspecies.

  11. Rice that Filipinos Grow and Eat

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from the traditional to modern to futuristic - rice becomes all of these while traversing time in the Philippines. There is rice for th...

  12. Data set from the phosphoproteomic analysis of Magnaporthe oryzae-responsive proteins in susceptible and resistant rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is the most destructive disease of rice and causes tremendous losses of rice yield worldwide. To explore the molecular mechanisms involved in the rice–M. oryzae interaction, we conducted a time-course phosphoproteomic analysis of leaf samples from resistant and susceptible rice cultivars infected with M. oryzae. This data article contains additional results and analysis of M. oryzae-regulated phosphoproteins in rice leaves [1]. We report the analysis of M. oryzae-regulated phosphoproteins at all time points, including Venn diagram analysis, close-up views, relative intensities, and functional category, and the MS spectra of representative phosphoprotein and representative phosphorylated peptides.

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CPOR-01-1819 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CPOR-01-1819 ref|XP_360004.2| hypothetical protein MGG_05379 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK06032.1| hypothetical protein MGG_05379 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360004.2 0.84 29% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-02-0182 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-02-0182 ref|XP_367191.2| hypothetical protein MGG_07116 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK03811.1| hypothetical protein MGG_07116 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_367191.2 1e-35 20% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-16-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-16-0000 ref|XP_360477.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10789 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94965.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10789 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360477.1 4e-06 43% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-2222 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2222 ref|XP_367042.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10672 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ93900.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10672 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_367042.1 0.14 34% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OSAT-06-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OSAT-06-0027 ref|XP_369017.2| hypothetical protein MGG_00227 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK03184.1| hypothetical protein MGG_00227 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_369017.2 0.003 28% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-26-0230 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-26-0230 ref|XP_361742.2| hypothetical protein MGG_04216 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ99530.1| hypothetical protein MGG_04216 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_361742.2 0.041 31% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-1771 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-1771 ref|XP_362881.1| hypothetical protein MGG_08556 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ97065.1| hypothetical protein MGG_08556 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_362881.1 6.9 27% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0711 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0711 ref|XP_001522448.1| hypothetical protein MGCH7_ch7g555 [Magnaporth...e grisea 70-15] gb|EAQ71148.1| hypothetical protein MGCH7_ch7g555 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001522448.1 2e-07 26% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-01-0119 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-01-0119 ref|XP_369590.1| hypothetical protein MGG_05874 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ96535.1| hypothetical protein MGG_05874 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_369590.1 0.029 27% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0168 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0168 ref|XP_001523004.1| hypothetical protein MGCH7_ch7g1090 [Magnaporth...e grisea 70-15] gb|EAQ71683.1| hypothetical protein MGCH7_ch7g1090 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001523004.1 0.59 29% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0029 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0029 ref|XP_360222.1| hypothetical protein MGG_05596 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK06294.1| hypothetical protein MGG_05596 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360222.1 5.6 41% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-37-0248 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-37-0248 ref|XP_001521946.1| hypothetical protein MGCH7_ch7g64 [Magnaporth...e grisea 70-15] gb|EAQ70657.1| hypothetical protein MGCH7_ch7g64 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001521946.1 2.1 45% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0225 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0225 ref|XP_370101.1| hypothetical protein MGG_06616 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK00426.1| hypothetical protein MGG_06616 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_370101.1 2.1 27% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-1309 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-1309 ref|XP_362210.1| hypothetical protein MGG_04655 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK05556.1| hypothetical protein MGG_04655 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_362210.1 0.91 30% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0711 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0711 ref|XP_366726.1| hypothetical protein MGG_02802 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK01748.1| hypothetical protein MGG_02802 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_366726.1 2e-07 26% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0661 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0661 ref|XP_361041.2| hypothetical protein MGG_03584 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94503.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03584 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_361041.2 3.4 28% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-1289 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-1289 ref|XP_363526.2| hypothetical protein MGG_01452 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK04841.1| hypothetical protein MGG_01452 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_363526.2 2.5 27% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0876 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0876 ref|XP_365562.2| conserved hypothetical protein [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ98814.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_365562.2 8e-15 35% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-1552 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-1552 ref|XP_360759.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03302 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK00184.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03302 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360759.1 0.14 21% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-12-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-12-0017 ref|XP_001522370.1| hypothetical protein MGCH7_ch7g477 [Magnaporth...e grisea 70-15] gb|EAQ71070.1| hypothetical protein MGCH7_ch7g477 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001522370.1 0.006 28% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-08-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-08-0031 ref|XP_001522971.1| hypothetical protein MGCH7_ch7g1057 [Magnaporth...e grisea 70-15] gb|EAQ71650.1| hypothetical protein MGCH7_ch7g1057 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001522971.1 1.0 27% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-01-0047 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-01-0047 ref|XP_369590.1| hypothetical protein MGG_05874 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ96535.1| hypothetical protein MGG_05874 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_369590.1 0.060 24% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0383 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0383 ref|XP_361721.2| hypothetical protein MGG_04195 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ99501.1| hypothetical protein MGG_04195 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_361721.2 1.4 24% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-15-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-15-0004 ref|XP_368867.2| hypothetical protein MGG_00377 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK03011.1| hypothetical protein MGG_00377 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_368867.2 1.6 30% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-06-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-06-0019 ref|XP_001408122.1| hypothetical protein MGG_13607 [Magnaporthe g...risea 70-15] gb|EDJ99882.1| hypothetical protein MGG_13607 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001408122.1 0.41 27% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-08-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-08-0031 ref|XP_366069.2| hypothetical protein MGG_10289 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94136.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10289 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_366069.2 1.0 27% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0039 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0039 ref|XP_001408122.1| hypothetical protein MGG_13607 [Magnaporthe g...risea 70-15] gb|EDJ99882.1| hypothetical protein MGG_13607 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001408122.1 0.65 25% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0935 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0935 ref|XP_364470.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09456 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94837.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09456 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_364470.1 9.1 31% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-01-0047 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-01-0047 ref|XP_369017.2| hypothetical protein MGG_00227 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK03184.1| hypothetical protein MGG_00227 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_369017.2 2e-06 26% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0876 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0876 ref|XP_001411588.1| hypothetical protein MGG_11671 [Magnaporthe g...risea 70-15] gb|EDK03349.1| hypothetical protein MGG_11671 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001411588.1 3e-14 41% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-04-0046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-04-0046 ref|XP_369408.1| hypothetical protein MGG_06056 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ96319.1| hypothetical protein MGG_06056 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_369408.1 2e-26 28% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-06-0041 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-06-0041 ref|XP_364130.2| hypothetical protein MGG_08975 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK05195.1| hypothetical protein MGG_08975 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_364130.2 0.61 31% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-05-0055 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-05-0055 ref|XP_361085.2| hypothetical protein MGG_03628 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94444.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03628 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_361085.2 4e-63 35% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0112 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0112 ref|XP_001408122.1| hypothetical protein MGG_13607 [Magnaporthe g...risea 70-15] gb|EDJ99882.1| hypothetical protein MGG_13607 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001408122.1 0.004 25% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-20-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-20-0000 ref|XP_364258.2| hypothetical protein MGG_09103 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK00931.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09103 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_364258.2 0.009 36% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-03-0073 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-03-0073 ref|XP_001522084.1| hypothetical protein MGCH7_ch7g201 [Magnaporth...e grisea 70-15] gb|EAQ70794.1| hypothetical protein MGCH7_ch7g201 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001522084.1 1.0 28% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-35-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-35-0010 ref|XP_366326.2| hypothetical protein MGG_10544 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94748.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10544 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_366326.2 0.49 29% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0401 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0401 ref|XP_001408122.1| hypothetical protein MGG_13607 [Magnaporthe g...risea 70-15] gb|EDJ99882.1| hypothetical protein MGG_13607 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001408122.1 3e-05 24% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1439 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1439 ref|XP_364531.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09395 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ98925.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09395 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_364531.1 4e-09 35% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-37-0170 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-37-0170 ref|XP_001405056.1| hypothetical protein MGG_14095 [Magnaporthe g...risea 70-15] gb|EDJ96816.1| hypothetical protein MGG_14095 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001405056.1 2e-10 29% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-04-0104 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-04-0104 ref|XP_001404421.1| hypothetical protein MGG_13192 [Magnaporthe g...risea 70-15] gb|EDJ96181.1| hypothetical protein MGG_13192 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001404421.1 0.083 31% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-37-0248 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-37-0248 ref|XP_364794.2| hypothetical protein MGG_09639 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK05898.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09639 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_364794.2 2.1 45% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-02-0029 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-02-0029 ref|XP_366265.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10484 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ96746.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10484 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_366265.1 5e-12 76% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0721 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0721 ref|XP_360709.2| hypothetical protein MGG_03252 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK00241.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03252 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360709.2 0.47 36% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-0662 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0662 ref|XP_364606.2| hypothetical protein MGG_09320 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94763.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09320 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_364606.2 0.019 34% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-1333 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1333 ref|XP_359811.1| hypothetical protein MGG_04966 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ95455.1| hypothetical protein MGG_04966 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_359811.1 1.2 33% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-1255 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-1255 ref|XP_001522178.1| hypothetical protein MGCH7_ch7g286 [Magnaporth...e grisea 70-15] gb|EAQ70879.1| hypothetical protein MGCH7_ch7g286 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001522178.1 1.8 33% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-2901 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2901 ref|XP_368487.1| hypothetical protein MGG_00757 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK02590.1| hypothetical protein MGG_00757 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_368487.1 3.4 22% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-0224 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-0224 ref|XP_001408122.1| hypothetical protein MGG_13607 [Magnaporthe g...risea 70-15] gb|EDJ99882.1| hypothetical protein MGG_13607 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001408122.1 0.073 28% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0188 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0188 ref|XP_360837.2| hypothetical protein MGG_03380 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK00095.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03380 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360837.2 0.084 25% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1198 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1198 ref|XP_360819.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03362 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK00116.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03362 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360819.1 6.8 27% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2937 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2937 ref|XP_360709.2| hypothetical protein MGG_03252 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK00241.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03252 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360709.2 0.46 36% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-34-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-34-0004 ref|XP_001414935.1| hypothetical protein MGG_14465 [Magnaporthe g...risea 70-15] gb|EDK06709.1| predicted protein [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_001414935.1 0.066 37% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-10-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-10-0019 ref|XP_367068.2| hypothetical protein MGG_10698 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94112.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10698 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_367068.2 2.8 30% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1572 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1572 ref|XP_364376.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09221 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ97982.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09221 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_364376.1 3.5 26% ...

  8. Utilization of Aromatic Rice in Improving Grain Quality of Hybrid Rice (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To improve grain quality of the high-yielding hybrid rice in China, we introduced the aromatic rice MR365, an improved Indian cultivar, from IRRI in 1984 and began to transfer its aroma and good quality characters into the existing maintainer lines. In the meantime, the research on the inheritance of aroma for increasing the breeding efficiency was also conducted.It was found that the inheritance of aroma in MR 365 and its derivatives was controlled by one pair of recessive major genes based on the KOH-soaking method. There existed disparity in aroma degree among different grains of F2 generation, and different aromatic CMS lines derived from the same aromatic donor had also a little difference in the degree of aroma, which implies that, besides the major genes, aroma may also be affected by the genetic backgrounds or minor genes.Xiangxiang 2A, developed from the cross of V20A//V20B/MR365, is the first aromatic CMS line bred in China. It is not only aromatic but also has good grain quality and combining ability. Using it as female parent, Xiangyou 63 (Xiangxiang 2A / Minghui 63), the first quasi-aromatic hybrid rice combination in China, was developed, and released to farmers in 1995. Xiangyou 63 is characteristic of quasi-aromatic or partially aromatic (because only a portion of or not all grains are aromatic), good grain quality, high-yielding ability, good blast resistance and wide adaptability.

  9. Vectors Building and Usage for Gene Knockout, Protein Expression and Fluorescent Fusion Protein in The Rice Blast Fungus%适用于稻瘟病菌基因敲除、过表达和荧光融合蛋白表达载体的构建和使用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海娇; 卢建平; 刘小红; 张莉林; 林福呈

    2012-01-01

    This study is to supply a series of vectors for gene knockout, overexpression, and expressing fluorescent fusion proteins in the rice blast fungus. These vectors should be easily worked, time-saving, reliable, and conveniently for the research in the gene function of Magnaporthe oryzae. PCR, enzyme digestion, ligation a^id transformation were used to construct the plasmids. We cloned two promoters (SOD1 promoter and H3 promoter) which strongly expressed in the mycelia and conidia, built 3 vectors for knockout (pBS-SUR, pBS-BAS,pBS-NEO), 4 vectors for overexpression (pKD5, pKD6, pKD61 and pKD8), and 7 vectors for fluorescent fusion protein expression (pKD5-GFP, pKD5-RED, pKD6-GFP, pKD6-RED, pKD7-RED, pKD8-GFP and pKD8-RED) in M. Oryzae and other filamentous fungi. These plasmids could be introduced into the fungi via protoplast transformation, or A grobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation. The knockout mutants could be identified by PCR, Southern blot and Western blot, the fluorescence of the transformants was observed under the fluorescent microscope, and the expression level of genes in the transformants was assayed by Real-time PCR. We have used knockout constructs built by these knockout vectors (pBS-SUR, pBS-BAS, pBS-NEO) and pBS-HPHl together to knockout 4 genes simultaneously in M. Oryzae. After transforming pKD5-RED, pKD6-GFP or pKD6-RED into M. Oryzae via A grobacterium tumefac iens -mediated transformation, green or red fluorescent fusion proteins under the control of SOD1 or H3 promoter were expressed strongly in the hyphae; Real-time PCR results showed eGFP mRNA or DsRED2 mRNA level promoted by SOD1 promoter was 2.5 or 5.4 folds of (I-tubulin, and DsRED2 mRNA level promoted by H3 promoter was 20.8 folds of fi-tubulin in the mycelia. MoATG8-DsRED2 fusion protein produced by pKD6-RED could locate M0ATG8 exactly in the nearby of vacuoles. Observation on DsRED2 fluorescent protein under micrpscope showed that DsRED2 under control of SOD1 promoter

  10. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  11. CONTROL OF FRAGMENTATION BY BLASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Božić

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fragmentation influences the economy of the excavation operations. Characteristics of blasted rock such as fragment size, volume and mass are fundamental variables effecting the economics of a mining operation and are in effect the basis for evaluating the quality of a blast. The properties of fragmentation, such as size and shape, are very important information for the optimization of production. Three factors control the fragment size distribution: the rock structure, the quantity of explosive and its distribution within the rock mass. Over the last decade there have been considerable advances in our ability to measure and analyze blasting performance. These can now be combined with the continuing growth in computing power to develop a more effective description of rock fragmentation for use by future blasting practitioners. The paper describes a view of the fragmentation problem by blasting and the need for a new generation of engineering tools to guide the design and implementation of blasting operations.

  12. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  13. Improvement of traditional local rice varieties through induced mutations using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Van Ro; Do Huu At [Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    'Improvement of local rice varieties for high yield, resistance to disease and insect pests (brown plant hopper and rice blast) and export quality through induced mutations for the Mekong Delta' started in 1993. After six years, it showed effecting on the field in the MD as well as at the south of Vietnam. TNDB-100 manifest very wide adaptation and yield stable variety. THDB is suitable for deepwater rice region, coastal area, where rice cultivation effected by acid sulphate and salinity conditions. Both varieties are good example for the method. Thank to good Co-operation from extension center from provinces, hundred classes of extension were organized to recommend to the farmers. And thank to the strongly supporting from IAEA so that nearly 400,000 ha of TNDB-100 occupied at the south of Vietnam as well as nearly 15,000 ha of THDB grown in the coastal as well as rainfed lowland rice areas at the South of Vietnam. To continue the rice improvement by this technique, seeds of six traditional local varieties were exposed under different dose of gamma rays to create new mutants. At present day hundred improved breeding lines were selected, a dozen of uniform lines were isolated and entranced the yield trail as well as regional testing program. From these improved varieties would be selected to contribute to the rice cultivation at the south of Vietnam in the next years. (author)

  14. Blast effects of external explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Sochet, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Security considerations for industrial production and storage require characterization of the mechanical effects caused by blast waves resulting from a detonation or deflagration. This paper evaluates current analytical methods to determine the characteristic parameters of a blast wave with respect to the pressure, impulse and duration of the positive phase of the blast. In the case of a detonation, the trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent-based method determines the mass ...

  15. Super Rice Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@I. Demand for super high yield rice in China   Rice is one of the main staple food in China. The performance of rice sector in production and yield had been very impressive in the last four decades. However, rice production and yield has stagnated since 1990.

  16. Rock blasting and explosives engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, P.-A.; Holmberg, R.; Lee, J. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Research Center for Energetic Materials)

    1994-01-01

    The book covers the practical engineering aspects of different kinds of rock blasting. It includes a thorough analysis of the cost of the entire process of tunneling by drilling and blasting compared with full-face boring. It covers the economics of the entire rock blasting operation and its dependence on the size of excavation. The book highlights the fundamentals of rock mechanics, shock waves and detonation, initiation and mechanics of rock motion. It describes the engineering design principles and computational techniques for many separate mining methods and rock blasting operations. 274 refs.

  17. Rice Husk Ash Sandcrete Block as Low Cost Building Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.Sangeetha,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a widely used construction material for various types of structures due to its structural stability and strength. The construction industry is today consuming more than 400 million tonnes of concrete every year .Most of the increase in cement demand will be met by the use of supplementary cementing materials, as each ton of Portland cement clinker production is associated with similar amount of CO2 emission, which is a major source of global warming. Partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement with mineral admixtures like fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, metakaolin, Rice husk Ash (RHA,etc with plasticizers eliminates these drawbacks. The use of rice husk modifies the physical qualities of fresh cement paste as well as microstructure of paste after hardening. By burning the rice husk under a uncontrolled temperature in the atmosphere, a highly reactive RHA was obtained and the ash was utilized as a supplementary cementing material. This paper presents the effects of using Rice Husk Ash (RHA as a partial cement replacement material in mortar mixes. This work is based on an experimental study of mortar made with replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC with 10%, 20% 30% & 40% RHA. The properties investigated were the compressive strength, setting time, consistency, workability and specific gravity. Finally, a cost analysis was also done to compare the efficiency of rice husk ash sandcrete blocks. From the test results it can be concluded that rice husk ash can be utilized in day today life of manufacturing building blocks which are more economical and more eco-friendly than the cement concrete blocks which are produced now-a-days.

  18. Rice Germplasm Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINGCunshan

    1994-01-01

    China is one of the origin countries in Asia of cultiv ated rice (O. sativaL.), and rice is one of the aged-long food crops in the country. The results of the 14C evaluation on the carbonified rice grains unearthed from Hemudu in Yuyao County and Luojiajiao in Tongxiang County of Zhejiang Province indicated that rice in these area has been planted more than 7,000 yrs and indica (hsien) and japonica (keng) rices coexisted with each other.

  19. Update History of This Database - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase Date Update contents 2014/10/20 The URLs of the database maintenance site and the portal site are changed. 2014/02/10 The... Rice Growth Monitoring for the Phenotypic Functional Analysis English archive site is opened. 2003/10/01 The...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us The... Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis Update History of This Dat... Rice Growth Monitoring System for the Phenotypic Functional

  20. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underwater blasting. 1926.912 Section 1926.912 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.912 Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired...

  2. 30 CFR 57.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting lines. 57.6803 Section 57.6803 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6803 Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be insulated and kept in good repair. General Requirements—Surface and Underground...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting. 56.6312 Section 56.6312... Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric Blasting...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting lines. 56.6803 Section 56.6803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be...

  5. Shock tubes and blast injury modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Lei Ning; Yuan-Guo Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Explosive blast injury has become the most prevalent injury in recent military conflicts and terrorist attacks.The magnitude of this kind of polytrauma is complex due to the basic physics of blast and the surrounding environments.Therefore,development of stable,reproducible and controllable animal model using an ideal blast simulation device is the key of blast injury research.The present review addresses the modeling of blast injury and applications of shock tubes.

  6. NCBI BLAST: a better web interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; Zaretskaya, Irena; Raytselis, Yan; Merezhuk, Yuri; McGinnis, Scott; Madden, Thomas L

    2008-07-01

    Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is a sequence similarity search program. The public interface of BLAST, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast, at the NCBI website has recently been reengineered to improve usability and performance. Key new features include simplified search forms, improved navigation, a list of recent BLAST results, saved search strategies and a documentation directory. Here, we describe the BLAST web application's new features, explain design decisions and outline plans for future improvement.

  7. Numerical simulation of muzzle blast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler-Street, M.

    2014-01-01

    Structural design methods for naval ships include environmental, operational and military load cases. One of the operational loads acting on a typical naval vessel is the muzzle blast from a gun. Simulating the muzzle blast load acting on a ship structure with CFD and ALE methods leads to large nume

  8. A user friendly method to isolate and single spore the fungi Magnaporthe oryzae and Magnaporthe grisea obtained from diseased field samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent for a wide range of plant diseases including diseases of rice, wheat, rye grass, turfgrass and pearl millet. A simple robust procedure for fungal isolation is not publicly available. In the present study, a user friendly method was developed to iso...

  9. Nonhost resistance of barley is successfully manifested against Magnaporthe grisea and a closely related Pennisetum-infecting lineage but is overcome by Magnaporthe oryzae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zellerhoff, N.; Jarosch, B.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; Schaffrath, U.

    2006-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a major pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa L.) but is also able to infect other grasses, including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Here, we report a study using Magnaporthe isolates collected from other host plant species to evaluate their capacity to infect barley. A nonhost type of

  10. BLAST: the Redshift Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Eales, Stephen; Devlin, Mark J; Dye, Simon; Halpern, Mark; Hughes, David H; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Raymond, Gwenifer; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Siana, Brian; Truch, Matthew D P; Viero, Marco P

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed ~=8.7 deg^2 centered on GOODS-South at 250, 350 and 500 microns. In Dye et al. (2009) we presented the catalogue of sources detected at $\\rm 5\\sigma$ in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 83 of these counterparts. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST band...

  11. Demystifying blast effects on buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, A.; Carson, D.; Stevens, T. [Halsall Associates Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented methods of designing the structures of building structures in such a way that the effects of blast loads can be mitigated. The methods were designed to provide strength and ductility so that kinetic energy delivered by the blast is resisted by strain energy. Fundamental aspects of blast effects were examined, and the design of flexural members subject to blast loading were discussed. An equivalent static load procedure based on the equivalency of kinetic and strain energies was also presented along with a threat independent approach which included principles to prevent progressive collapse, ductile columns, and the addition of upward resistance to floors. Measures to mitigate damage caused by shattered glass and other cladding elements during blasts were also discussed.

  12. Circulation in blast driven instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc; Johnsen, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Mixing in many natural phenomena (e.g. supernova collapse) and engineering applications (e.g. inertial confinement fusion) is often initiated through hydrodynamic instabilities. Explosions in these systems give rise to blast waves which can interact with perturbations at interfaces between different fluids. Blast waves are formed by a shock followed by a rarefaction. This wave profile leads to complex time histories of interface acceleration. In addition to the instabilities induced by the acceleration field, the rarefaction from the blast wave decompresses the material at the interface, further increasing the perturbation growth. After the passage of the wave, circulation circulation generated by the blast wave through baroclinic vorticity continues to act upon the interface. In this talk, we provide scaling laws for the circulation and amplitude growth induced by the blast wave. Numerical simulations of the multifluid Euler equations solved using a high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin method are used to validate the theoretical results.

  13. Use of local rice cultivars as additional differentials to identify pathotypes of Pyricularia oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Barata da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight additional rice cultivars as differentials were selected to identify pathotypes occurring in the Tocantins State. They were BRS Jaburu, BRS Taim, BRS Biguá, BR IRGA-417, Epagri 109, Javaé, Metica-1 and Supremo. These differentials were used in addition to the international set to determine the pathogenic diversity of 193 Pyricularia oryzae isolates collected during 1994-2002 from irrigated rice cultivars. They were conserved in Pyricularia culture collection of Embrapa Rice and Bean Research center. From 193 P. oryzae isolates 38 pathotypes were identified based on leaf blast reactions of international set and 29 pathotypes based on these additional differentials. The predominant pathotypes (TI-1, TG-2, TD-15 and TF-2 were represented by 53% of the tested isolates. The major international pathotypes (IB-45, IB-41, II-1 and ID-13 were represented by 43% of the isolates tested. The virulence pattern of 28 isolates belonging to the pathotype IB-45 was further differentiated into nine local pathotypes using additional set of differentials. The irrigated rice cultivars used as additional differentials serve as complementary set to identify pathotypes of interest for breeding blast resistant cultivars for Tocantins State.

  14. SP-LL-37, human antimicrobial peptide, enhances disease resistance in transgenic rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Gu; Nou, Ill Sup; Huq, Md. Amdadul; Nogoy, Franz Marielle; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo

    2017-01-01

    Human LL-37 is a multifunctional antimicrobial peptide of cathelicidin family. It has been shown in recent studies that it can serve as a host’s defense against influenza A virus. We now demonstrate in this study how signal peptide LL-37 (SP-LL-37) can be used in rice resistance against bacterial leaf blight and blast. We synthesized LL-37 peptide and subcloned in a recombinant pPZP vector with pGD1 as promoter. SP-LL-37 was introduced into rice plants by Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Stable expression of SP-LL-37 in transgenic rice plants was confirmed by RT-PCR and ELISA analyses. Subcellular localization of SP-LL-37-GFP fusion protein showed evidently in intercellular space. Our data on testing for resistance to bacterial leaf blight and blast revealed that the transgenic lines are highly resistant compared to its wildtype. Our results suggest that LL-37 can be further explored to improve wide-spectrum resistance to biotic stress in rice. PMID:28282452

  15. ECONOMICS OF RICE PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertilizer was the only variable that significantly influenced rice yields on ... cultural production in Ghana (MOFA, 2002), [n 2002, the agricultural sector em- ..... The rapid growth of the population has culminated in undue pressure on agricultural.

  16. Glutinous Rice in Pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams glutinous rice, one pineapple, 20 grams dried fruits (raisins, walnuts. Chinese wolfberry, Chinese dates, lotus seeds, lily petals, kidney beans and peanuts) Seasonings: 5 grams rock sugar, 5 grams salad oil. Method:

  17. Jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine is required for the production of a flavonoid phytoalexin but not diterpenoid phytoalexins in ultraviolet-irradiated rice leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Koji; Enda, Isami; Okada, Toshiki; Sato, Yumiko; Watanabe, Kohei; Sakazawa, Tomoko; Yumoto, Emi; Shibata, Kyomi; Asahina, Masashi; Iino, Moritoshi; Yokota, Takao; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2016-10-01

    Rice produces low-molecular-weight antimicrobial compounds known as phytoalexins, in response to not only pathogen attack but also abiotic stresses including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Rice phytoalexins are composed of diterpenoids and a flavonoid. Recent studies have indicated that endogenous jasmonyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is not necessarily required for the production of diterpenoid phytoalexins in blast-infected or CuCl2-treated rice leaves. However, JA-Ile is required for the accumulation of the flavonoid phytoalexin, sakuranetin. Here, we investigated the roles of JA-Ile in UV-induced phytoalexin production. We showed that UV-irradiation induces the biosynthesis of JA-Ile and its precursor jasmonic acid. We also showed that rice jasmonate biosynthesis mutants produced diterpenoid phytoalexins but not sakuranetin in response to UV, indicating that JA-Ile is required for the production of sakuranetin but not diterpenoid phytoalexins in UV-irradiated rice leaves.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Early Responsive Genes in Rice during Magnaporthe oryzae Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. in most rice-growing regions of the world. In order to investigate early response genes in rice, we utilized the transcriptome analysis approach using a 300 K tilling microarray to rice leaves infected with compatible and incompatible M. oryzae strains. Prior to the microarray experiment, total RNA was validated by measuring the differential expression of rice defense-related marker genes (chitinase 2, barwin, PBZ1, and PR-10 by RT-PCR, and phytoalexins (sakuranetin and momilactone A with HPLC. Microarray analysis revealed that 231 genes were up-regulated (>2 fold change, p < 0.05 in the incompatible interaction compared to the compatible one. Highly expressed genes were functionally characterized into metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction categories. The oxidative stress response was induced in both early and later infection stages. Biotic stress overview from MapMan analysis revealed that the phytohormone ethylene as well as signaling molecules jasmonic acid and salicylic acid is important for defense gene regulation. WRKY and Myb transcription factors were also involved in signal transduction processes. Additionally, receptor-like kinases were more likely associated with the defense response, and their expression patterns were validated by RT-PCR. Our results suggest that candidate genes, including receptor-like protein kinases, may play a key role in disease resistance against M. oryzae attack.

  19. Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

    2014-06-01

    Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter.

  20. 75 FR 56489 - Separation Distances of Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents (2002R-226P) AGENCY: Bureau of... CFR 555.220 set forth a table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents followed by six explanatory notes. Note three (3) states that the...

  1. 茉莉酸和真菌病原诱导的水稻WRKY30转录因子基因的分离及表达特征%Isolation and Expression Profiles of Rice WRKY30 Induced by Jasmonic Acid Application and Fungal Pathogen Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭喜旭; 胡耀军; 唐新科; 周平兰; 邓小波; 王海华

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study is to isolate rice WRKY30 and provide not only a foundation for elucidating the roles of WRKY transcription factors in the regulation of defense responses in rice, but also gene sources for reasonable utilization of pathogen-resistance and genetic modification in rice breeding. [Method] RT-PCR was used to amplify the full cDNA length of WRKY30 including its largest open reading frame (ORF). Bioinformatical tools were employed to analyze its sequence and coding protein. Copies of WRKY30 in the rice genome were determined by Southern hybridization, and the organ-specific expression characteristics and induced expression profiles under pathogen challenges, hormone treatments and abiotic stresses were investigated by Northern blot or RT-PCR. [ Result ] The WRKY30 contained an entire ORF in length of 2 022 bp and was predicted to encode a protein of 674 amino acid residues consisting of two WRKY domains each with a zinc finger motif of C2H2 and a nuclear localization signal, belonging to the WRKY subgroup I. WRKY30 shared high amino acid sequence identity with those from monocots such as wheat (Hordeum vulgare), Sorghum bicolor and Brachypodium sylvaticum. WRKY30 exists as a single copy in the rice genome. The transcript levels of WRKY30 were relatively high in stem, leaf and grain, next were root and panicle, and the least was flower. WRKY30 was rapidly induced in response to challenges with Magnaporthe grisea and Rhizoctonia solani, and also induced by exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), two important defense-related hormones. However, ethephon (ET)exerted no obvious effects on its expression. By contrast, abscisic acid inhibited the transcription of WRKY30. On the hand, wounding lead to upregulation of WRKY30 transcription, whereas there were no significant effects on its expression subjected to other abiotic stresses such as cold, high salt and dehydration. [Conclusion] WRKY30 may be involved in the

  2. Otimização das condições de cultivo de \\'Humicola grisea\\' var. \\'thermoidea\\', visando produção e isolamento de metabólitos secundários biológicamente ativos

    OpenAIRE

    Willian Jonis Andrioli

    2008-01-01

    O fungo Humicola grisea var. thermoidea foi submetido a diferentes condições de cultivo com o intuito de determinarem-se as melhores condições para produção de conídios, crescimento e produção de metabólitos secundários com atividade biológica. Para tal foram desenvolvidos experimentos avaliando dois parâmetros: meio fermentativo e tempo de incubação. Os meios fermentativos líquidos utilizados foram Czapek, Jackson e Vogel em condições de agitação (120 rpm), e os tempos avaliados foram 72, 96...

  3. Toward understanding of rice innate immunity against Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, P; Rafii, M Y; Abdullah, S N A; Nejat, N; Maziah, M; Hanafi, M M; Latif, M A; Sahebi, M

    2016-01-01

    The blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, causes serious disease on a wide variety of grasses including rice, wheat and barley. The recognition of pathogens is an amazing ability of plants including strategies for displacing virulence effectors through the adaption of both conserved and variable pathogen elicitors. The pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) were reported as two main innate immune responses in plants, where PTI gives basal resistance and ETI confers durable resistance. The PTI consists of extracellular surface receptors that are able to recognize PAMPs. PAMPs detect microbial features such as fungal chitin that complete a vital function during the organism's life. In contrast, ETI is mediated by intracellular receptor molecules containing nucleotide-binding (NB) and leucine rich repeat (LRR) domains that specifically recognize effector proteins produced by the pathogen. To enhance crop resistance, understanding the host resistance mechanisms against pathogen infection strategies and having a deeper knowledge of innate immunity system are essential. This review summarizes the recent advances on the molecular mechanism of innate immunity systems of rice against M. oryzae. The discussion will be centered on the latest success reported in plant-pathogen interactions and integrated defense responses in rice.

  4. A Rice Gene Homologous to Arabidopsis AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE1 Participates in Disease Resistance Response against Infection with Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ga Young; Park, Ju Yeon; Choi, Hyo Ju; Yoo, Sung-Je; Park, Jung-Kwon; Jung, Ho Won

    2016-08-01

    ALD1 (ABERRANT GROWTH AND DEATH2 [AGD2]-LIKE DEFENSE1) is one of the key defense regulators in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. In these model plants, ALD1 is responsible for triggering basal defense response and systemic resistance against bacterial infection. As well ALD1 is involved in the production of pipecolic acid and an unidentified compound(s) for systemic resistance and priming syndrome, respectively. These previous studies proposed that ALD1 is a potential candidate for developing genetically modified (GM) plants that may be resistant to pathogen infection. Here we introduce a role of ALD1-LIKE gene of Oryza sativa, named as OsALD1, during plant immunity. OsALD1 mRNA was strongly transcribed in the infected leaves of rice plants by Magnaporthe oryzae, the rice blast fungus. OsALD1 proteins predominantly localized at the chloroplast in the plant cells. GM rice plants over-expressing OsALD1 were resistant to the fungal infection. The stable expression of OsALD1 also triggered strong mRNA expression of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEIN1 genes in the leaves of rice plants during infection. Taken together, we conclude that OsALD1 plays a role in disease resistance response of rice against the infection with rice blast fungus.

  5. A Rice Gene Homologous to Arabidopsis AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE1 Participates in Disease Resistance Response against Infection with Magnaporthe oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Young Jung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ALD1 (ABERRANT GROWTH AND DEATH2 [AGD2]-LIKE DEFENSE1 is one of the key defense regulators in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. In these model plants, ALD1 is responsible for triggering basal defense response and systemic resistance against bacterial infection. As well ALD1 is involved in the production of pipecolic acid and an unidentified compound(s for systemic resistance and priming syndrome, respectively. These previous studies proposed that ALD1 is a potential candidate for developing genetically modified (GM plants that may be resistant to pathogen infection. Here we introduce a role of ALD1-LIKE gene of Oryza sativa, named as OsALD1, during plant immunity. OsALD1 mRNA was strongly transcribed in the infected leaves of rice plants by Magnaporthe oryzae, the rice blast fungus. OsALD1 proteins predominantly localized at the chloroplast in the plant cells. GM rice plants over-expressing OsALD1 were resistant to the fungal infection. The stable expression of OsALD1 also triggered strong mRNA expression of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEIN1 genes in the leaves of rice plants during infection. Taken together, we conclude that OsALD1 plays a role in disease resistance response of rice against the infection with rice blast fungus.

  6. Reliability of Hydrox explosive blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikunov, V.I.; Chulkov, O.G.; Domanov, V.P.

    1980-03-01

    The safest method of blasting in coal mines with methane and coal dust hazards is with the flameless Hydrox charges. The results of operational tests on Hydrox BV-A2U charges with a I-43 initiator in underground coal mines are discussed. Efficiency and reliability of blasting using Hydrox BV-A2U compared to BV-48 Hydrox charges is evaluated. Results of blasting and the percentage of charge failures are given in tables. It is suggested that BV-A2U Hydrox charges are superior to BV-48, as no charge failures occur, operational time of BV-A2U is up to 5 seconds and the maximum operational time spread is 1.8 sec (weight of initiator 0.05 kg). Blasting properties of BV-A2U are stable and do not change as a result of long storage. (In Russian)

  7. Source model for blasting vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Hua(丁桦); ZHENG; Zhemin(郑哲敏)

    2002-01-01

    By analyzing and comparing the experimental data, the point source moment theory and the cavity theory, it is concluded that the vibrating signals away from the blasting explosive come mainly from the natural vibrations of the geological structures near the broken blasting area. The source impulses are not spread mainly by the inelastic properties (such as through media damping, as believed to be the case by many researchers) of the medium in the propagation pass, but by this structure. Then an equivalent source model for the blasting vibrations of a fragmenting blasting is proposed, which shows the important role of the impulse of the source's time function under certain conditions. For the purpose of numerical simulation, the model is realized in FEM, The finite element results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krisztian eKovacs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  9. Centrifugal shot blast system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

  10. Annotation and BAC/PAC localization of nonredundant ESTs from drought-stressed seedlings of an indica rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. Ravindra Babu; A. Chandra Sekhar; Nagabhushana Ithal; G. Markandeya; Arjula R. Reddy

    2002-04-01

    To decipher the genes associated with drought stress response and to identify novel genes in rice, we utilized 1540 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for functional annotation and mapping to rice genomic sequences. These ESTs were generated earlier by 3′-end single-pass sequencing of 2000 cDNA clones from normalized cDNA libraries constructed from drought-stressed seedlings of an indica rice. A rice UniGene set of 1025 transcripts was constructed from this collection through the BLASTN algorithm. Putative functions of 559 nonredundant ESTs were identified by BLAST similarity search against public databases. Putative functions were assigned at a stringency E value of 10-6 in BLASTN and BLASTX algorithms. To understand the gene structure and function further, we have utilized the publicly available finished and unfinished rice BAC/PAC (BAC, bacterial artificial chromosome; PAC, P1 artificial chromosome) sequences for similarity search using the BLASTN algorithm. Further, 603 nonredundant ESTs have been mapped to BAC/PAC clones. BAC clones were assigned by a homology of above 95% identity along 90% of EST sequence length in the aligned region. In all, 700 ESTs showed rice EST hits in GenBank. Of the 325 novel ESTs, 128 were localized to BAC clones. In addition, 127 ESTs with identified putative functions but with no homology in IRGSP (International Rice Genome Sequencing Program) BAC/PAC sequences were mapped to the Chinese WGS (whole genome shotgun contigs) draft sequence of the rice genome. Functional annotation uncovered about a hundred candidate ESTs associated with abiotic stress in rice and Arabidopsis that were previously reported based on microarray analysis and other studies. This study is a major effort in identifying genes associated with drought stress response and will serve as a resource to rice geneticists and molecular biologists.

  11. Design of Blast Resistant Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Gautam

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A shock blast resistant structure designed, developed and experimentally evaluated by the authors is described. We structure, capable of with standing dynamic loading (12 psi and a static pressure of 1.5 m earth cover due to blast or any other explosion, also gives protection against radiation, chemical and thermal hazards. Some results and details of analysis and experimentation are presented.

  12. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  13. Blasting Vibration Generated by Breaking-Blasting Large Barriers with EBBLB

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Zhen-xiong; Gu Wen-bin; Liang Ting; Liu Jian-qing; Xu Jing-lin; Liu Xin

    2016-01-01

    Equipment for breaking and blasting large barriers (EBBLB) is new break-blast equipment, which inevitably induces ground vibration and may cause substantial damage to rock mass and nearby structures as well as human beings. The ground vibration induced by break-blast is one of the inevitable outcomes. By monitoring vibration at measuring points at different distances from blasting center, time history curve of vibrating velocity can be obtained; it can be drawn that blasting seismic waves are...

  14. Rice Quality Improvement in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1. Demand for high quality rice in China Rice is the leading cereal crop that contributes about 40% of the national grain production in China. The total output and areas rank the first and the second position in the world, respectively. In recent years, rice production grows steadily, but the quality improvement has been lagged and the quality becomes a limiting factor. As the grain supply exceeding the demand and the grain price plummeted, the State Council put forward expanding China′ s ongoing reform of the grain distribution system in 1998. Along with the foodstuff circulating system reform and market driving, the structure of rice production is adjusted,the planting acreage of early indica rice with poor quality decreased, and that of japonica rice in north China with good quality increased. With the challenge of China joining the WTO, Chinese government starts to pay premium on good quality rice.

  15. Research priorities for rice pest management in tropical Asia: a simulation analysis of yield losses and management efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willocquet, Laetitia; Elazegui, Francisco A; Castilla, Nancy; Fernandez, Luzviminda; Fischer, Kenneth S; Peng, Shaobing; Teng, Paul S; Srivastava, R K; Singh, H M; Zhu, Defeng; Savary, Serge

    2004-07-01

    ABSTRACT A simulation study was conducted to assess the current and prospective efficiency of rice pest management and develop research priorities for lowland production situations in tropical Asia. Simulation modeling with the RICEPEST model provided the flexibility required to address varying production situations and diverse pest profiles (bacterial leaf blight, sheath blight, brown spot, leaf blast, neck blast, sheath rot, white heads, dead hearts, brown plant-hoppers, insect defoliators, and weeds). Operational definitions for management efficacy (injury reduction) and management efficiency (yield gain) were developed. This approach enabled the modeling of scenarios pertaining to different pest management strategies within the agroecological contexts of rice production and their associated pest injuries. Rice pests could be classified into two broad research priority-setting categories with respect to simulated yield losses and management efficiencies. One group, including weeds, sheath blight, and brown spot, consists of pests for which effective pest management tools need to be developed. The second group consists of leaf blast, neck blast, bacterial leaf blight, and brown plant-hoppers, for which the efficiency of current management methods is to be maintained. Simulated yield losses in future production situations indicated that a new type of rice plant with high-harvest index and high-biomass production ("New Plant Type") was more vulnerable to pests than hybrid rice. Simulations also indicated that the impact of deployment of host resistance (e.g., through genetic engineering) was much larger when targeted against sheath blight than when targeted against stem borers. Simulated yield losses for combinations of production situations and injury profiles that dominate current lowland rice production in tropical Asia ranged from 140 to 230 g m(-2). For these combinations, the simulated efficiency of current pest management methods, expressed in terms of

  16. Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The blasting operation plays a pivotal role in the overall economics of opencast mines. The blasting sub-system affects all the other associated sub-systems, i.e. loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Fragmentation control through effective blast design and its effect on productivity are the challenging tasks for practicing blasting engineer due to inadequate knowledge of actual explosive energy released in the borehole, varying initiation practice in blast design and its effect on explosive energy release characteristic. This paper describes the result of a systematic study on the impact of blast design parameters on rock fragmentation at three mines in India. The mines use draglines and shovel–dumper combination for removal of overburden. Despite its pivotal role in controlling the overall economics of a mining operation, the expected blasting performance is often judged almost exclusively on the basis of poorly defined parameters such as powder factor and is often qualitative which results in very subjective assessment of blasting performance. Such an approach is very poor substitutes for accurate assessment of explosive and blasting performance. Ninety one blasts were conducted with varying blast designs and charging patterns, and their impacts on the rock fragmentation were documented. A high-speed camera was deployed to record the detonation sequences of the blasts. The efficiency of the loading machines was also correlated with the mean fragment size obtained from the fragmentation analyses.

  17. BLEVE blast by expansion-controlled evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, A.C. van den; Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a new method to calculate the blast effects originating from an exploding vessel of liquefied gas. Adequate blast calculation requires full knowledge of the blast source characteristics, that is, the release and subsequent evaporation rate of the flashing liquid. Because the

  18. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive blasting. 72.610 Section 72.610... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 72.610 Abrasive blasting. (a) Surface and underground mines. When an abrasive blasting operation is performed, all exposed miners shall properly...

  19. BLEVE blast by expansion-controlled evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, A.C. van den; Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a new method to calculate the blast effects originating from an exploding vessel of liquefied gas. Adequate blast calculation requires full knowledge of the blast source characteristics, that is, the release and subsequent evaporation rate of the flashing liquid. Because the con

  20. 30 CFR 57.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting. 57.6312 Section 57.6312... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6312 Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric Blasting—Surface and Underground...

  1. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive blasting. 58.610 Section 58.610... SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous § 58.610 Abrasive blasting. (a) Surface and underground mines. When an abrasive blasting operation is performed, all...

  2. Development of a platform for breeding by design of CMS restorer lines based on an SSSL library in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziju; Lu, Qing; Luan, Xin; Ouyang, Lian; Guo, Jie; Liang, Jiayan; Zhu, Haitao; Wang, Wenjuan; Wang, Shaokui; Zeng, Ruizhen; Liu, Ziqiang; Zhang, Zemin; Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-12-01

    Exploitation of the heterosis of hybrid rice has shown great success in the improvement of rice yields. However, few genotypes exhibit strong restoration ability as effective restorers of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in the development of hybrid rice. In this study, we developed a platform for the breeding by design of CMS restorer lines based on a library of chromosomal single segment substitution lines (SSSLs) in the Huajingxian74 (HJX74) genetic background. The target genes for breeding by design, Rf3(4) and Rf4(4), which are associated with a strong restoration ability, and gs3, gw8, Wx(g1) and Alk, which are associated with good grain quality, were selected from the HJX74 SSSL library. Through pyramiding of the target genes, a restorer line, H121R, was developed. The H121R line was then improved regarding blast resistance by pyramiding of the qBLAST11 gene. Hence, a new restorer line with blast resistance, H131R, was developed. The platform involving the Rf3(4) and Rf4(4) restorer genes would be used for the continuous improvement of restorer lines through breeding by design in rice.

  3. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  4. Glutinous Rice Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CELEBRATING Spring Festival includes making glutinous rice cakes, or niangao in Chinese. Traditional and new methods of making niangao vary in taste according to different areas. No matter poor or rich. niangao is a must for every family during Spring Festival as it symbolizes auspiciousness. In Beijing, both northern and southernstyle niangao are available. After the Beginning of Autumn (13th solar term), the

  5. Exploring Japan through Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the role of rice in Japanese culture by presenting historical background and teaching activities in a variety of categories, such as language, sociology, history, and contemporary politics. Suggests teachers create cross-cultural comparisons; for example, the role of corn in the United States. Provides a list of teacher resources. (CMK)

  6. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or any other related blasting device or material shall be stored, transported, carried, handled,...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1326 - Examination after blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examination after blasting. 75.1326 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1326 Examination after blasting. (a) After blasting, the blasting area shall not be entered until it is clear of...

  8. Numerical simulation of stress for the blasting of foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Hong-lu; ZHAO Xin-pu

    2008-01-01

    Through the simulation of explicit dynamic analysis software LS-DYNA, made an analysis to the particle velocity and the stress distribution of surrounding rock when the explosives blasting. Explicated the mechanical character of surrounding rock in the foun-dation pit blasting, provided a basis to set of blasting parameters and optimized the blast-ing construction.

  9. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Blasting. 780.13 Section 780.13... Operation plan: Blasting. (a) Blasting plan. Each application shall contain a blasting plan for the proposed... methods to be applied in controlling the adverse effects of blasting operations. (b) Monitoring...

  10. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  11. Toxicology of blast overpressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, N M

    1997-07-25

    Blast overpressure (BOP) or high energy impulse noise, is the sharp instantaneous rise in ambient atmospheric pressure resulting from explosive detonation or firing of weapons. Blasts that were once confined to military and to a lesser extent, occupational settings, are becoming more universal as the civilian population is now increasingly at risk of exposure to BOP from terrorist bombings that are occurring worldwide with greater frequency. Exposure to incident BOP waves can cause auditory and non-auditory damage. The primary targets for BOP damage are the hollow organs, ear, lung and gastrointestinal tract. In addition, solid organs such as heart, spleen and brain can also be injured upon exposure. However, the lung is more sensitive to damage and its injury can lead to death. The pathophysiological responses, and mortality have been extensively studied, but little attention, was given to the biochemical manifestations, and molecular mechanism(s) of injury. The injury from BOP has been, generally, attributed to its external physical impact on the body causing internal mechanical damage. However, a new hypothesis has been proposed based on experiments conducted in the Department of Respiratory Research, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and later in the Department of Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh. This hypothesis suggests that subtle biochemical changes namely, free radical-mediated oxidative stress occur and contribute to BOP-induced injury. Understanding the etiology of these changes may shed new light on the molecular mechanism(s) of injury, and can potentially offer new strategies for treatment. In this symposium. BOP research involving auditory, non-auditory, physiological, pathological, behavioral, and biochemical manifestations as well as predictive modeling and current treatment modalities of BOP-induced injury are discussed.

  12. Study on red rice%赤米考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞为洁

    2005-01-01

    'The red rice grain' recorded in the Chinese ancient books is neither a kind of good rice variety nor old rice grain or rotten rice grain, they are some rice varieties which have red-color grains and poor taste.

  13. Utilization of Aromatic Rice in Improving Grain Quality of Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周坤炉; 廖伏明

    2004-01-01

    To improve grain quality of the high-yielding hybrid rice in China, we introduced the aromatic rice MR365. an improve Indian cultivar with aroma and other desirable grain quality characters such as long grain and low chalkiness, from IRRI in 1984 and began to transfer its aroma and good quality characters into the existing maintainer lines with good combining ability but poor grain quality.In the meantime,we also conducted the research on the inheritance of aroma for incerasing the breeding efficiency. Through years of research and breeding practices, two cytoplasmic male sterile(CMS)lines Xiangxiang2 A and Xingxiang A and a series of quasi-aromatic hybrids mated from these aromatic CMS lines have been developed and released for commercial production in China. It was found that the inheritance of aroma in MR365 and its dervatives including Xiangxiang2 A,XinxiangA and Xiang2B S was controlled by one pair of recessive major genes based on the identification of aroma by the KOH-soaking method. We also found that there existed disparity in aroma degree among different grains of F2 generation,and different aromatic CMS lines derived from the same aromatic donor such as Xiangxing2 A and Xinxiang A had also a little difference in the degree of aroma,which implies that,besides the major genes,aroma may also be affected by the genetic backgrounds or minor genes.Xiangxiang 2 A,developed from the cross of V20A//V20B/MR365,is the first aromatic CMS line bred in China. It is not only aromatic but has good grain quality and combining ability. Using it as female parent,Xiangyou 63(Xiangxiang 2A/Minghui 63),the first quasi-aromatic hybrid rice combination in China,was developed and approved to release to farmers in 1995.Xiangyou63 is characteristic of quasi-aromatic or partially aromatic(because only a portion of or NOT ALL grains are aromatic),good grain quality,high-yielding ability, good blast resistance and wide adaptability.However,Xiangiang2 A has an evident drawback

  14. Exploring the possibility of using digital image processing technique to detect diseases of rice leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Peyman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rice is a very important staple food crop provides more than half of the world caloric supply. Rice diseases lead to significant annual crop losses, have negative impacts on quality of the final product and destroy plant variety. Rice Blast is one of the most widespread and most destructive fungal diseases in tropical and subtropical humid areas, which causes significant decrease in the amount of paddy yield and quality of milled rice. Brown spot disease is another important fungal disease in rice which infects the plant during the rice growing season from the nursery period up to farm growth stage and productivity phase. The later the disease is diagnosed the higher the amount of chemicals is needed for treatment. Due to high costs and harmful environmental impacts of chemical toxins, the accurate early detection and treatment of plant disease is seemed to be necessary. In general, observation with the naked eye is used for disease detection. However, the results are indeed depend on the intelligence of the person performing the operation. So usually the accurate determination of the severity and progression of the disease can’t be achieved. On the other side, the use of experts for continuous monitoring of large farms might be prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Thus, investigating the new approaches for rapid, automated, inexpensive and accurate plant disease diagnosis is very important. Machine vision and image processing is a new technique which can capture images from a scene of interest, analyze the images and accurately extract the desired information. Studies show that image processing techniques have been successfully used for plant disease detection. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of image processing techniques for diagnosing the rice blast and rice brown spot. Materials and Methods: The samples of rice leaf infected by brown spot and rice blast diseases were collected from rice fields and

  15. Successfully introduce maize DNA fragments into rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGKaizhi

    1994-01-01

    The maize DNA fragments was successfully incorporated into rice by Associate Prof WAN Wenju's research team at Hunan Agricultural College, Changsha, China. The new gene transferring rice is named Genetic Engineered Rice (GER) line.

  16. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of Defense... Blasting agent Minimum thickness of artificial barricades (in.) 100 3 11 12 100 300 4 14 12 300 600 5 18...

  17. Cultivar response to fungicide application in relation to rice blast control, productivity and sustainability Resposta de cultivares de arroz à aplicação de fungicidas em relação ao controle da brusone nas panículas, produtividade e sustentabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sitarama Prabhu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four field trials were conducted, from 1995 to 1997, with the objective of studying the response of four upland cultivars to foliar fungicide application in relation to panicle blast control, grain yield and sustainability. Differential disease control and yield response of cultivars to fungicide treatment were obtained. Losses in grain yield of cultivars IAC 202, Caiapó, Rio Paranaíba and Araguaia due to panicle blast were 44.8%, 27.4%, 24.4% and 18.2%, respectively. Two applications of tricyclazole or benomyl controlled panicle blast, as indicated by lower values of disease progress curve and relative panicle blast severity, and increased grain yield of the cultivar IAC 202. The losses in 100 panicle grain weight and grain yield were significantly reduced by 22.3% and 25.1% in IAC 202 and 23.6% and 20.5% in Caiapó, respectively, with two sprays of tricyclazole. Sustainable value index for yield was maximum with two applications of tricyclazole (0.59, followed by one application at booting (0.46 and at heading (0.40 in cultivar IAC 202. Results showed no yield response of the cultivars Rio Paranaíba and Araguaia to fungicide applications for panicle blast control.Foram realizados quatro experimentos no campo, de 1995 a 1997, com o objetivo de estudar a resposta das cultivares de arroz de terras altas à aplicação de fungicidas foliares, em relação ao controle da brusone nas panículas, produtividade e sustentabilidade. Foram obtidas respostas diferenciais das cultivares às aplicações de fungicidas quanto ao controle da brusone e produtividade. As perdas em produtividade, causadas pela brusone, nas panículas, foram de 44,8%, 27,4%, 24,4% e 18,2% nas cultivares IAC 202, Caiapó, Rio Paranaíba e Araguaia, respectivamente. Os valores da área sob curva de progresso da doença e da severidade relativa da brusone nas panículas foram menores, resultando em aumento de produtividade com duas aplicações de tricyclazole ou benomyl na

  18. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Cullis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  19. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian G. CULLIS; Nikos NIKIFORAKIS; Peter FRANKL; Philip BLAKELY; Paul BENNETT; Paul GREENWOOD

    2016-01-01

    The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length-and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  20. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  1. Enhancement of innate immune system in monocot rice by transferring the dicotyledonous elongation factor Tu receptor EFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fen Lu; Huiqin Wang; Shanzhi Wang; Wendi Jiang; Changlin Shan; Bin Li; Jun Yang; Shiyong Zhang; Wenxian Sun

    2015-01-01

    The elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) receptor (EFR) in cruciferous plants specifical y recognizes the N-terminal acetylated elf18 region of bacterial EF-Tu and thereby activates plant immunity. It has been demonstrated that Arabidopsis EFR confers broad-spectrum bacterial resistance in the EFR transgenic solanaceous plants. Here, the transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Zhonghua 17) and cel cultures with constitutive expression of AtEFR were developed to investigate whether AtEFR senses EF-Tu and thus enhances bacterial resistance in the monocot plants. We demonstrated that the Xanthomonas oryzae-derived elf18 peptide induced oxidative burst and mitogen-activated protein kinase activa-tion in the AtEFR transgenic rice cel s and plants, respectively. Pathogenesis-related genes, such as OsPBZ1, were upregulated dramatical y in transgenic rice plant and cel lines in response to elf18 stimulation. Importantly, pretreatment with elf18 trig-gered strong resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae in the transgenic plants, which was largely dependent on the AtEFR expression level. These plants also exhibited enhanced resistance to rice bacterial brown stripe, but not to rice fungal blast. Col ectively, the results indicate that the rice plants with heterologous expression of AtEFR recognize bacterial EF-Tu and exhibit enhanced broad-spectrum bacterial disease resistance and that pattern recognition receptor-mediated immunity may be manipulated across the two plant classes, dicots and monocots.

  2. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting underground in hazardous areas. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20031 Blasting underground in hazardous areas. In underground areas where... removed to safe places before blasting....

  3. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  4. Small RNA in rice genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 朱小蓬; 钟兰; 陈润生

    2002-01-01

    Rice has many characteristics of a model plant. The recent completion of the draft of the rice genome represents an important advance in our knowledge of plant biology and also has an important contribution to the understanding of general genomic evolution. Besides the rice genome finishing map, the next urgent step for rice researchers is to annotate the genes and noncoding functional sequences. The recent work shows that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play significant roles in biological systems. We have explored all the known small RNAs (a kind of ncRNA) within rice genome and other six species sequences, including Arabidopsis, maize, yeast, worm, mouse and pig. As a result we find 160 out of 552 small RNAs (sRNAs) in database have homologs in 108 rice scaffolds, and almost all of them (99.41%) locate in intron regions of rice by gene predication. 19 sRNAs only appear in rice. More importantly, we find two special U14 sRNAs: one is located in a set of sRNA ZMU14SNR9(s) which only appears in three plants, 86% sequences of them can be compared as the same sequence in rice, Arabidopsis and maize; the other conserved sRNA XLHS7CU14 has a segment which appears in almost all these species from plants to animals. All these results indicate that sRNA do not have evident borderline between plants and animals.

  5. Improved BLAST for wireless communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongzhao; Liao Guisheng; Wang Feng

    2006-01-01

    Bell layered space-time architecture (BLAST) is a multi-antenna communication structure with high spectrum efficiency, and it has found wide applications in LANs and WLANs. However, its performance is much poorer than those of other space-time coding approaches. In order to improve its performance, an improved BLAST based on RAKE receiving is investigated. The new system introduces orthogonal spreading sequences (OSS) into the transmitter while retains the basic structure of BLAST. The proposed receiver suppresses interferences from other antennas by the orthogonality contained in the received signals, and extracts information from each receiving antenna by using RAKE receiving principle to construct efficient statistic decision. Simulation results show that the improved system performs well over both frequency-flat and frequency-selective fading channels.

  6. Blast-Induced Damage on Millisecond Blasting Model Test with Multicircle Vertical Blastholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-yong Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the blast-induced damage effect on surrounding rock in vertical shaft excavation, 4 kinds of millisecond blasting model tests with three-circle blastholes were designed and carried out with excavation blasting in vertical shaft as the background. The longitudinal wave velocity on the side of concrete model was also measured before and after blasting. Then blast damage factor was then calculated by measuring longitudinal wave velocity before and after blasting. The test results show that the blast-induced damage factor attenuated gradually with the centre of three-circle blastholes as centre. With the threshold value of 0.19 for blast-induced damage factor, blast-induced damage zones for 4 kinds of model tests are described and there is an inverted cone blast-induced damage zone in concrete model. And analyses of cutting effect and blast-induced damage zone indicate that in order to minimize the blast-induced damage effect and ensure the cutting effect the reasonable blasting scheme for three-circle blastholes is the inner two-circle blastholes initiated simultaneously and the outer third circle blastholes initiated in a 25 ms delay.

  7. The list of growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us The... Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis The list of growth image f...iles Data detail Data name The list of growth image files DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00945-002 Description of data contents The...ies 7 entries - About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Si...te Policy | Contact Us The list of growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive ...

  8. Inhibition of fungal spore adhesion by zosteric Acid as the basis for a novel, nontoxic crop protection technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Michele S; Callow, Maureen E; Perry, Ruth; Alberte, Randall S; Smith, Robert; Callow, James A

    2002-04-01

    ABSTRACT To explore the potential for nontoxic crop protection technologies based on the inhibition of fungal spore adhesion, we have tested the effect of synthetic zosteric acid (p-(sulfo-oxy) cinnamic acid), a naturally occurring phenolic acid in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) plants, on spore adhesion and infection in two pathosystems: rice blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea and bean anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. We have shown that zosteric acid inhibits spore adhesion to model and host leaf surfaces and that any attached spores fail to develop appressoria, and consequently do not infect leaf cells. Low concentrations of zosteric acid that are effective in inhibiting adhesion are not toxic to either fungus or to the host. The inhibition of spore adhesion in the rice blast pathogen is fully reversible. On plants, zosteric acid reduced (rice) or delayed (bean) lesion development. These results suggest that there is potential for novel and environmentally benign crop protection technologies based on manipulating adhesion.

  9. Blast Wave Characteristics and Equivalency

    OpenAIRE

    Sochet, Isabelle; Schneider, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    ISBN 978-5-94588-079-5; The characteristics of blast waves generated by detonation of gas clouds are studies theoretically and validated by both small-scale and large-scale experiments with ethylene-air mixtures of different equivalence ratio. The mixtures were confined in hemispherical or spherical balloons made from thin polyethylene foils of 0.75 m³ and 15 m³ in volume. The detonation of gas mixtures was initiated by a solid explosive. The characteristics of the blast wave in terms of over...

  10. Rice TOGO Browser: A platform to retrieve integrated information on rice functional and applied genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Antonio, Baltazar A; Sato, Yutaka; Miyao, Akio; Namiki, Nobukazu; Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Minami, Hiroshi; Kamatsuki, Kaori; Shimura, Kan; Shimizu, Yuji; Hirochika, Hirohiko

    2011-02-01

    The Rice TOGO Browser is an online public resource designed to facilitate integration and visualization of mapping data of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)/P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) clones, genes, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)/simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and phenotype data represented as quantitative trait loci (QTLs) onto the genome sequence, and to provide a platform for more efficient utilization of genome information from the point of view of applied genomics as well as functional genomics. Three search options, namely keyword search, region search and trait search, generate various types of data in a user-friendly interface with three distinct viewers, a chromosome viewer, an integrated map viewer and a sequence viewer, thereby providing the opportunity to view the position of genes and/or QTLs at the chromosomal level and to retrieve any sequence information in a user-defined genome region. Furthermore, the gene list, marker list and genome sequence in a specified region delineated by RFLP/SSR markers and any sequences designed as primers can be viewed and downloaded to support forward genetics approaches. An additional feature of this database is the graphical viewer for BLAST search to reveal information not only for regions with significant sequence similarity but also for regions adjacent to those with similarity but with no hits between sequences. An easy to use and intuitive user interface can help a wide range of users in retrieving integrated mapping information including agronomically important traits on the rice genome sequence. The database can be accessed at http://agri-trait.dna.affrc.go.jp/.

  11. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  12. MEASUREMENT IN BLAST HOLE STEM AND INFLUENCE OF STEMING MATERIAL ON BLASTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Dobrilović

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents results of blast hole stem materials, that were conducted to assert best stem materials for surface blasting in quarry of technical / construction stone. Blasting has been performed with equal explosives and test-minefield parameters (length of the stem, volume of the explosive charge, mine-drill depth, and angle on various sites / quarry. Results are guidelines in materials to be chosen in surface blasting of quarry works, adding to quality of mining works and reduction of costs.

  13. Impact of volunteer rice infestation on yield and grain quality of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Burgos, Nilda R; Singh, Shilpa; Gealy, David R; Gbur, Edward E; Caicedo, Ana L

    2017-03-01

    Volunteer rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains may differ in physicochemical traits from cultivated rice, which may reduce the quality of harvested rice grain. To evaluate the effect of volunteer rice on cultivated rice, fields were surveyed in Arkansas in 2012. Cropping history that included hybrid cultivars in the previous two years (2010 and 2011) had higher volunteer rice infestation (20%) compared with fields planted previously with inbred rice (5.5%). The total grain yield of rice was reduced by 0.4% for every 1% increase in volunteer rice density. The grain quality did not change in fields planted with the same cultivar for three years. Volunteer rice density of at least 7.6% negatively impacted the head rice and when infestation reached 17.7%, it also reduced the rice grain yield. The protein and amylose contents of rice were not affected until volunteer rice infestation exceeded 30%. Crop rotation systems that include hybrid rice are expected to have higher volunteer rice infestation than systems without hybrid rice. It is predicted that, at 8% infestation, volunteer rice will start to impact head rice yield and will reduce total yield at 18% infestation. It could alter the chemical quality of rice grain at >30% infestation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Water-wise Rice Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, B.A.M.; Hengsdijk, H.; Hardy, B.; Bindraban, P.S.; Tuong, T.P.; Ladha, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Rice is a profligate user of water. It takes 3,000–5,000 liters to produce 1 kilogram of rice, which is about 2 to 3 times more than to produce 1 kilogram of other cereals such as wheat or maize. Until recently, this amount of water has been taken for granted. Now, however, the water crisis

  15. Hybrid Rice for Dry Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Luo Lijun, director of the Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, recently announced that Hanyou No. 3 - a genetically modified rice capable of producing high yields in dry areas - has been developed at the center.The hybrid yields 7,571 kilograms per hectare, about the same as ordinary rice.

  16. Blast-Induced Acceleration in a Shock Tube: Distinguishing Primary and Tertiary Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    crushing action (i.e. static pressure) which envelops the head as well as some aerodynamic drag (i.e. dynamic pressure creating blast wind). The use of...with an advanced blast simulator (ABS) yield a higher fidelity, ecologically valid simulation of blast and thereby provide critical insights into

  17. Mask materials for powder blasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, Henk; Jansen, Henri V.; Berenschot, J.W.; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2001-01-01

    Powder blasting, or abrasive jet machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials such as glass, silicon and ceramics. The particle jet (which expand

  18. Extreme Thermophilic Polypeptide (ETPMG) Exhibited Strong Antagonism to Magnaporthe grisea and its N-terminal Amino Acid Residues Sequencing%ETPMG极端嗜热多肽N-末端氨基酸测序及其对苗瘟的防效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华强; 谭芙蓉; 周颖; 郑爱萍; 李平

    2007-01-01

    Two extreme thermophilic polypeptides were isolated from fermentation liquor of LM-3 bacterium of Paenibacillus polymyxa.The inhibition capacity of 5μL purified polypeptides against Magnaporthe grisea reached to 89.6%.These two polypeptides had a molecular weight of 6 000~7 000 D by SDS-PAGE assay and were recovered from electro-lanes for detection of inhibition activity to M.grisea respectively.One polypeptide with strong inhibition activity was named ETPMG(extreme Thermophilic Polypeptide against M. grisea).and the other without such activity was named ETPL3(extreme Thermophilic Polypeptide from LM-3).N-terminal amino acid residues of ETPMG were then sequenced and the determined sequence was H2N-ANDPR.To evaluate its performance against M. grisea in paddy field at seedling stage,5 oil-in-water(O/W) microbial emulsions were confected.ETPMG was used as the active agent of the five emulsions.According to field evaluation,AB4 performed well with a control effect of 80.73% and the weight fraction of its components was 50∶6.5∶1.75∶41.75(ETPMG∶tween80∶emulsifier OP∶methanol).ETPMG was the first reported polypeptide which combined the extreme thermophilic characteristic and strong antagonistic activity against M.grisea.%本试验用加热法从多粘类芽孢杆菌(Paenibacillus polymyxa)LM-3菌株的发酵液中纯化得到2个极端嗜热多肽.平板拮抗实验表明,5μL纯化多肽对稻瘟病菌(Magnaporthe grisea)抑菌率达89.6%.SDS-PAGE电泳显示纯化多肽分子量介于6 000~7 000 D之间.多肽复性后,其中之一对稻瘟病菌表现出强的拮抗活性,命名为ETPMG(extreme thermophilic polypeptide against M. grisea);另一个则无此活性,命名为ETPL3(extreme thermophilic polypeptide from LM-3).ETPMG经氨基酸测序,获得了其N-末端5个氨基酸序列(H2N-ANDPR).以ETPMG为主效成分配得5种微生物源生防乳剂,对水稻苗瘟进行了田间防效试验.试验结果表明,这5种乳剂的防效都优于LM-3

  19. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  20. Development of hybrid rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Longping; Wu Xiaojin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The success achieved in development of hybrid rice isa great breakthrough in rice breeding which provides aneffective way to markedly enhance rice yield on a largescale. China is the first country in the world to exploit riceheterosis commercially. Research on hybrid rice was initiatedin 1964.

  1. Arsenic uptake in organic rice production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic in rice is known to be a problem in some rice-producing countries that have high levels of inorganic arsenic naturally occurring in water resources. However, it was never considered an issue for USA produced rice until international market surveys were published, indicating some USA rice sam...

  2. The Chinese Market and Thai Fragrant Jasmine Rice: Why does China, the world's largest rice producer, import rice from Thailand? (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the world experienced a sharp increase in rice prices due to destabilization of international rice demand and supply. Under these circumstances, rice exports from Thailand—the world's top rice exporter—and Thai rice export prices increased dramatically, but the amount of high-quality fragrant Jasmine rice exported to China decreased by some 30% over the previous year. This paper examines why, amidst increasing world rice prices and expansion of the Thai rice export market overall, th...

  3. The Puzzle of Rice Domestication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sang; Song Ge

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cultivated rice has puzzled plant biologists for decades. This is due, at least in part, to the complex evolutionary dynamics in rice cultivars and wild progenitors, particularly rapid adaptive differentiation and continuous gene flow within and between cultivated and wild rice. The long-standing controversy over single versus multiple and annual versus perennial origins of cultivated rice has been brought into shaper focus with the rapid accumulation of genetic and phylogenetic data. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed ancient genomic differentiation between rice cultivars, suggesting that they were domesticated from divergent wild populations. However, the recently cloned domestication gene sh4, responsible for the reduction of grain shattering from wild to cultivated rice, seems to have originated only once. Herein, we propose two models to reconcile apparently conflicting evidence regarding rice domestication. The snow-balling model considers a single origin of cultivated rice. In this model, a core of critical domestication alleles was fixed in the founding cultivar and then acted to increase the genetic diversity of cultivars through hybridization with wild populations. The combination model considers multiple origins of cultivated rice. In this model, initial cultivars were domesticated from divergent wild populations and fixed different sets of domestication alleles. Subsequent crosses among these semi-domesticated cultivars resulted in the fixation of a similar set of critical domestication alleles in the contemporary cultivars. In both models, introgression has played an important role in rice domestication. Recent and future introgression of beneficial genes from the wild gene pool through conventional and molecular breeding programs can be viewed as the continuation of domestication.

  4. Uruguayan rice (Oritza sativa L.) oils characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Rodríguez; Grabiela Subúru; Marina Torres; Laura Olazabal; Alejandra Torre

    2011-01-01

    The rice crop is one of the most developed agricultural activities in Uruguay, having become the third item of export. Although the main product of the rice chain is the elaborated rice, in the recent years several industries have begun to produce co-products of rice: crude rice oil and refined oil, rice flour and cookies. The production of crude oil begins with ground, peeled and polished rice grain. This product can be used in animal nourishment or in oil extraction. Refinement from the cru...

  5. Rice industrial economy and its development strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Xianguo

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of the present situation of food grain and rice production in China,countering the beginning tendency to neglect rice production because of rice grain structural surplus and low market price after China's agriculture entering the new development stage,this paper putsforward the concept of rice industrial economy,explains its attribute,connotation,key factors,etc,forms the basic idea of developing the rice industrial economy,and suggests some strategic measures such as regionalized layout of rice production,etc.to develop the rice industrial economy.

  6. Mutation for Pathogenicity of Magnaporthe grisea by Restriction Enzyme Mediated Integration(REMI)%稻瘟病菌限制酶介导整合(REMI)转化的致病性诱变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文荟; 周益军; 范永坚; 程兆榜; 吴淑华

    2002-01-01

    应用提高真菌转化率的技术——限制酶介导整合(restriction enzyme mediated integration,REMI)技术转化稻瘟病菌株Magnaporthe grisea131原生质体,在限制酶HindIII, KpnI或SacI介导下转化效率分别提高6.5、10、3.7倍.通过300μg/mL潮霉素筛选获得1000个以上转化子.用突变体接种水稻鉴别品种,发现其中M25和M36与M131比较其致病性发生了改变.另外还发现产孢缺陷型突变体和培养性状发生改变的突变菌株.rep-PCR试验表明REMI突变菌株由于质粒插入而与M131指纹有差异.

  7. UTILIZACIÓN DE UNA NUEVA METODOLOGÍA PARA LA EVALUACIÓN DE ARROZ (Oryza sativa L. ANTE LA INFECCIÓN PRODUCIDA POR EL HONGO Pyricularia grisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regla M. Cárdenas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la resistencia de varias líneas y varieda- des de arroz frente a la infección producida por el hongo Pyricularia grisea, agente causal de la enfermedad conocida como Piriculariosis de gran importancia a escala mundial. Se empleó una nueva metodología de campo utilizada por el Cen- tro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT, la cual pro- pone realizar las evaluaciones en un sitio donde exista una alta diversidad genética del patógeno y una elevada presión del inóculo. El trabajo se desarrolló en la granja Caribe pertene- ciente al Complejo Agroindustrial Arrocero” Los Palacios” en Pinar del Río, donde la enfermedad es uno de los factores que limitan la producción. Los resultados mostraron un total de ocho líneas y variedades resistentes en la primera evaluación para el estado de plántula y siete en la segunda para ese mismo estado. Todos los materiales evaluados como resistentes en hoja para el estado de plántula resultaron ser susceptibles a la enfermedad en la panícula. No existió correlación entre las eva- luaciones realizadas en hojas y en la panícula.

  8. Plastic Media Blasting Data Gathering Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    matt, reducing the filtering surface. 25 3) Cartridge Collectors: Cartridge dust collectors consist of a number of nonwoven tubular filters placed...Engineering Command 03 SPLASTIC MEDIA BLASTING DATA GATHERING STUDY: FINAL REPORT ABSTRAC>lastic Media Blasting (PMB) is proving to be a cost effective method...facilities; needed blasting and media recovery equipment; different types of media ; and media disposal. The Economics section gives two examples of economic

  9. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  10. Rice-Map: a new-generation rice genome browser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jingchu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concurrent release of rice genome sequences for two subspecies (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica facilitates rice studies at the whole genome level. Since the advent of high-throughput analysis, huge amounts of functional genomics data have been delivered rapidly, making an integrated online genome browser indispensable for scientists to visualize and analyze these data. Based on next-generation web technologies and high-throughput experimental data, we have developed Rice-Map, a novel genome browser for researchers to navigate, analyze and annotate rice genome interactively. Description More than one hundred annotation tracks (81 for japonica and 82 for indica have been compiled and loaded into Rice-Map. These pre-computed annotations cover gene models, transcript evidences, expression profiling, epigenetic modifications, inter-species and intra-species homologies, genetic markers and other genomic features. In addition to these pre-computed tracks, registered users can interactively add comments and research notes to Rice-Map as User-Defined Annotation entries. By smoothly scrolling, dragging and zooming, users can browse various genomic features simultaneously at multiple scales. On-the-fly analysis for selected entries could be performed through dedicated bioinformatic analysis platforms such as WebLab and Galaxy. Furthermore, a BioMart-powered data warehouse "Rice Mart" is offered for advanced users to fetch bulk datasets based on complex criteria. Conclusions Rice-Map delivers abundant up-to-date japonica and indica annotations, providing a valuable resource for both computational and bench biologists. Rice-Map is publicly accessible at http://www.ricemap.org/, with all data available for free downloading.

  11. Amylose content of rice marketed in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Amylose content is considered to be the most important parameter of cooking quality in rice. Presently, rice cultivars are categorized according to amylose content into three groups: low, medium and high amylose content cultivars. The specific objective of this work is to evaluate the grain amylose content of 77 cultivars, which cover Índica and Japónica subspecies, and different types of commercial rice like, aromatic (basmati and thay), wild rice, medium rice (carlose and risotto), glutinou...

  12. Sensory evaluation of rice fortified with iron

    OpenAIRE

    Beinner,Mark Anthony; Soares,Anne Danieli Nascimento; Barros,Ana Laura Antunes; Monteiro,Marlene Azevedo Magalhães

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine sensory differences between conventional rice and iron-fortified Ultra Rice rice (UR) and determine consumer acceptance. Differences between both types of rice were analyzed using the Duo-Trio Test on 37 non-trained judges. The Acceptance Test evaluated general rice appearance, color, aroma and taste by 43 non-trained judges, using a 7-point hedonic scale with extremes ranging from "really disliked" and "really liked." There were no significant diffe...

  13. The 3,000 rice genomes project: new opportunities and challenges for future rice research

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jia-Yang; Wang, Jun; Zeigler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the world’s most important staple grown by millions of small-holder farmers. Sustaining rice production relies on the intelligent use of rice diversity. The 3,000 Rice Genomes Project is a giga-dataset of publically available genome sequences (averaging 14× depth of coverage) derived from 3,000 accessions of rice with global representation of genetic and functional diversity. The seed of these accessions is available from the International Rice Genebank Collection. Together, they are ...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1316 - Preparation before blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1316 Preparation... using a blasting multimeter or other instrument specifically designed for such use. (3) The blasting... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparation before blasting. 75.1316 Section...

  15. Numerical simulation of stress for the blasting of foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Hong-lu; ZHAO Xin-pu

    2008-01-01

    Through the simulation of explicit dynamic analysis software LS-DYNA,made an analysis to the particle velocity and the stress distribution of surrounding rock when the explosives blasting.Explicated the mechanical character of surrounding rock in the foundation pit blasting,provided a basis to set of blasting parameters and optimized the blasting construction.

  16. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isolation of blasting circuits. 56.6605 Section... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting agents; special provisions. 77.1304... COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1304 Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior to mixing, shall be mixed and stored...

  18. Condition for Contur Blasting use on Openpit Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Krsmanovic, I; Dambov, Risto

    2010-01-01

    For purpose of obtaining a stable final slope in open pit mines practice, the most common approach is the contour blasting method and investigation of possible applications of various primary blasting methods for purpose of gaining the optimal techno-economical effects. This paper presents one of the contour blasting methods, drilling and blasting parameters, construction of explosive charges and method of initiation.

  19. 30 CFR 75.1320 - Multiple-shot blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple-shot blasting. 75.1320 Section 75.1320... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1320 Multiple-shot blasting... periods of 1,000 milliseconds or less shall be used. (d) When blasting in anthracite mines, each...

  20. 30 CFR 56.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading, blasting, and security. 56.6306... § 56.6306 Loading, blasting, and security. (a) When explosive materials or initiating systems are... permitted within the blast site shall be those activities directly related to the blasting operation and...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.910 - Inspection after blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection after blasting. 1926.910 Section 1926.910 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.910 Inspection after blasting. (a) Immediately after the blast has been fired, the firing line shall...

  2. Friend or foe: differential responses of rice to invasion by mutualistic or pathogenic fungi revealed by RNAseq and metabolite profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xi-Hui; Wang, Chen; Li, Shu-Xian; Su, Zhen-Zhu; Zhou, Hui-Na; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Ping-Ping; Chen, Xia; Hugh Snyder, John; Kubicek, Christian P; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2015-09-08

    The rice endophyte Harpophora oryzae shares a common pathogenic ancestor with the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Direct comparison of the interactions between a single plant species and two closely-related (1) pathogenic and (2) mutualistic fungi species can improve our understanding of the evolution of the interactions between plants and fungi that lead to either mutualistic or pathogenic interactions. Differences in the metabolome and transcriptome of rice in response to challenge by H. or M. oryzae were investigated with GC-MS, RNA-seq, and qRT-PCR. Levels of metabolites of the shikimate and lignin biosynthesis pathways increased continuously in the M. oryzae-challenged rice roots (Mo-roots); these pathways were initially induced, but then suppressed, in the H. oryzae-challenged rice roots (Ho-roots). Compared to control samples, concentrations of sucrose and maltose were reduced in the Ho-roots and Mo-roots. The expression of most genes encoding enzymes involved in glycolysis and the TCA cycle were suppressed in the Ho-roots, but enhanced in the Mo-roots. The suppressed glycolysis in Ho-roots would result in the accumulation of glucose and fructose which was not detected in the Mo-roots. A novel co-evolution pattern of fungi-host interaction is proposed which highlights the importance of plant host in the evolution of fungal symbioses.

  3. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs.

  4. Absorption and Cooked Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinJialianetal

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Using glucono-8-1actone, sodiumcyclodextrin and proteinase as mainrice under different conditions and theadditivepolyphosphate, emulsifier, 13-the water-absorbing quality ofmethods to improve the edible quality ofcooked rice are systematically investigated. The experimental result indicatesthat the water-absorbing ability of rice at room temperature can be increasedsignificantly by soaking it in a 1:2 mixture of sodium polyphosphate andglucono-8-1actone. The cooked rice quality can be apparently improved bysoaking in a mixture of sodium polyphosphate, glucono-8-1actone, emulsifier, 13-cyclodextrin and protease.

  5. Agromorphological characterization of some rice species in the main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... of the samples of the prospection-collection from October 2005 to Mars 2006 revealed the existence of three types of rice in the zone: wild rice, adventitious rice and cultivated rice.

  6. Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining and non mining ... The sample size was 120 rice farmers (60 mining area rice farmers and 60 non ... contacts significantly affected rice output at given levels of probability.

  7. Comparative Analysis of the 100kb Region Containing the Pi-kh Locus Between indica and japonica Rice Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.P. Kumar; V. Dalal; N.K. Singh; T.R. Sharma

    2007-01-01

    We have recently cloned a pathogen inducible blast resistance gene Pi-kh from the indica rice line Tetep using a positional cloning approach. In this study, we carried out structural organization analysis of the Pi-kh locus in both indica and japonica rice lines. A 100 kb region containing 50 kb upstream and 50 kb downstream sequences flanking to the Pi-kh locus was selected for the investigation. A total of 16 genes in indica and 15 genes in japonica were predicted and annotated in this region. The average GC content of indica and japonica genes in this region was 53.15% and 49.3%, respectively. Both indica and japonica sequences were polymorphic for simple sequence repeats having mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentanucleotides. Sequence analysis of the specific blast resistant Pi-kh allele of Tetep and the susceptible Pi-kh allele of the japonica rice line Nipponbare showed differences in the number and distribution of motifs involved in phosphorylation, resulting in the resistance phenotype in Tetep.

  8. Soil Incorporation of Silica-Rich Rice Husk Decreases Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Morris, Andrew H; Gill, Rattandeep; Kearns, Kelli A; Mann, Jessica N; Paukett, Michelle; Leskanic, Corey

    2016-05-18

    Arsenic decreases rice yield, and inorganic grain As threatens human health; thus, strategies to decrease rice As are critically needed. Increased plant-available silica (Si) can decrease rice As, yet the source of Si matters. Rice husk, an underutilized and Si-rich byproduct of rice production that contains less labile C and an order of magnitude less As than rice straw, may be an economically viable Si resource to decrease rice As, yet the impact of rice husk incorporation on As in the rice-soil nexus has not been reported. This proof-of-concept study shows that rice husk incorporation to soil (1% w/w) decreases inorganic grain As by 25-50% without negatively affecting grain Cd, yield, or dissolved CH4 levels. Rice husk is a critical yet perhaps overlooked resource to improve soil quality through enhanced nutrient availability and attenuate human health risks through consumption of As-laden grain.

  9. Refractory Pellet for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    1 Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,classification,specification,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of refractory pellet for hot blast stove.This standard is applicable to refractory pellet for hot blast stove.

  10. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  11. The use of blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    V. Václavík; V. Dirner; T. Dvorský; J. Daxner

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  12. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  13. Fabrication of microstructures by powder blasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with the use of powder blasting as a micromachining technique to create micro systems. Powder blasting is a technology in which small particles, accelerated by an air jet, are directed towards a brittle target for mechanical material removal. It is especially useful for glass

  14. Fabrication of microstructures by powder blasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, Hendrik

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with the use of powder blasting as a micromachining technique to create micro systems. Powder blasting is a technology in which small particles, accelerated by an air jet, are directed towards a brittle target for mechanical material removal. It is especially useful for glass machi

  15. Laboratory blast wave driven instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranz, Carolyn

    2008-11-01

    This presentation discusses experiments involving the evolution of hydrodynamic instabilities in the laboratory under high-energy-density (HED) conditions. These instabilities are driven by blast waves, which occur following a sudden, finite release of energy, and consist of a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. When a blast wave crosses an interface with a decrease in density, hydrodynamic instabilities will develop. Instabilities evolving under HED conditions are relevant to astrophysics. These experiments include target materials scaled in density to the He/H layer in SN1987A. About 5 kJ of laser energy from the Omega Laser facility irradiates a 150 μm plastic layer that is followed by a low-density foam layer. A blast wave structure similar to those in supernovae is created in the plastic layer. The blast wave crosses an interface having a 2D or 3D sinusoidal structure that serves as a seed perturbation for hydrodynamic instabilities. This produces unstable growth dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the nonlinear regime. We have detected the interface structure under these conditions using x-ray backlighting. Recent advances in our diagnostic techniques have greatly improved the resolution of our x-ray radiographic images. Under certain conditions, the improved images show some mass extending beyond the RT spike and penetrating further than previously observed or predicted by current simulations. The observed effect is potentially of great importance as a source of mass transport to places not anticipated by current theory and simulation. I will discuss the amount of mass in these spike extensions, the associated uncertainties, and hypotheses regarding their origin We also plan to show comparisons of experiments using single mode and multimode as well as 2D and 3D initial conditions. This work is sponsored by DOE/NNSA Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058 (Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliances) and DE-FG52-04NA00064 (National Laser User

  16. Safety of collieries blasting operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonel, P. (Cerchar, 75 - Paris (France))

    1984-01-01

    The slight increase in periodicity of blasting incidents and their nature have led to remind one of the basic safety principles: to reduce the probability of dust and methane ignition by the explosive used or by the shotfiring line; to carefully select the explosive in accordance to the work to be carried out. It is reminded that using an anti-gassy explosive does not necessarily mean that no ignition will occur.

  17. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  18. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  19. Detonation safety of blasting caps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢兴华; 彭小圣

    2002-01-01

    By means of researching into sympathetic detonation of blasting detonators in air, the regular patterns are concluded from blasting detonators interaction with the shock loading. The aerial distribution of initiating ability of detonators looks like a butterfly. The initiating ability mainly consists of shock wave, explosive gases and fliers. But fundamental questions remain. When does shock wave take the leading role? When and how does the explosive gases or the fliers take function? For those questions, there is less quantitative research. Through the theoretic deduction of the overpressure, the energy calculation of fliers and the experiment of sympathetic detonation of detonators, we can learn the sympathetic detonation distances of several kinds of detonators and make an inquiry into the lateral initiating regulations of detonators. So, we can provide the base data for the research into no sympathetic detonation of herd blasting detonators and then control the detonation between them. Then we can make full use of detonators and reduce the frequency of accidents caused by detonators.

  20. The Next Generation BLAST Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Galitzki, Nicholas; Angilè, Francesco E; Ashton, Peter; Beall, James A; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J; Dober, Bradley J; Fissel, Laura M; Fukui, Yasuo; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeffrey; Van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Santos, Fabio P; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Tucker, Carole; Ullom, Joel N; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2014-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5 m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and ~3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid he...

  1. Gibberellin Signal Transduction in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-Min Fan; Xiaoyan Feng; Yu Wang; Xing Wang Deng

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, significant knowledge has accumulated regarding gibberellin (GA) signal transduction in rice as a result of studies using multiple approaches, particularly molecular genetics. The present review highlights the recent developments in the identification of GA signaling pathway components, the discovery of GA-induced destruction of GA signaling represser (DELLA protein), and the possible mechanism underlying the regulation of GA-responsive gene expression in rice.

  2. Aspects of blast resistant masonry design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkman, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Blast resistant design should be examined for building code incorporation, due to the potential of explosions occurring in an industrial society. Specifically, public and commercial structures of concrete masonry construction need additional building code criteria, since these buildings have high density populations to protect. Presently, blast resistant design is accomplished by using government published manuals, but these do not address industry standard construction. A design air blast load of 4.54 kg (10 lbs) of TNT, located 0.91 m (3 ft) above ground surface and 30.48 m (100 ft) from a structure should be considered standard criteria. This loading would be sufficient to protect against blast, resist progressive failure, and yet not be an economic impediment. Design details and adequate inspection must be observed to ensure blast resistant integrity. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. IED blast postconcussive syncope and autonomic dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Richard; LaBrie, D Walter; Norris, Jacob; Schauer, Judy; Frantz, Earl

    2012-01-01

    Concussions are the most frequent battle injury sustained in Afghanistan. The Concussion Restoration Care Center provides multidisciplinary care to concussed service members in theater. The Concussion Restoration Care Center has managed over 500 concussions, the majority being from improvised explosive device (IED) blasts. Syncope following a concussion without a loss of consciousness is rarely reported in the literature. The pathophysiology of concussion from a blast injury may be distinct from a concussion secondary to blunt trauma. Two cases of syncope following concussions with an alteration of consciousness are presented, and a mechanism of action is proposed. Post-IED blast concussive symptom frequency at initial presentation on a cohort of patients is reported, with 1.3% of patients experiencing postconcussive syncope. Syncope following an IED blast may be related to centrally mediated autonomic dysregulation at the brain stem level. Syncope should be added to the list of possible symptoms that occur following concussions, in particular concussions following a blast injury.

  4. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  5. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ..., Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice standards were last revised in 1993 (58 FR 68015) and appear... Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice AGENCY... Administration (GIPSA) is reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for Rough Rice, Brown...

  6. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. Rice straw and rice hulls may be imported into Guam without further permit,...

  7. Soil tillage, rice straw and flooded irrigated rice yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Nelson Beutler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of management systems and straw in flooded irrigated rice yield. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three experiments and, 10 replications in experiment 1 and 2 and, 6 replications in experiment 3. The experiments were: E1 – no-till system (E1PD and conventional system with two harrowings at 0.0–0.07 m layer and leveling with remaplam (E1PC, after three years of sowing rice, after fallow of rice tillage, with sowing of rye grass in winter and grazing; E2 – no-till system (E2PD and conventional system after native field (E2PC; E3 – no-till without straw on soil surface (E30P, current straw on soil surface of 3,726 kg ha-1 (E31P, two times current straw of 7,452 kg ha-1 (E32P and three times current straw of 11,178 kg ha-1 (E33P. In soil, were evaluated the average geometric diameter of aggregates, soil bulk density, soil porosity, macro and microporosity, in 0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m layer. In harvest were evaluated the panicles number in 0,25 m2 area, number of filled, empty an total grains in 10 panicles, mass of one thousand seeds and rice grains yield in 2 m2. The conventional system presented greater macroporosity and total porosity, compared with no-till system, however, does not result in differences in production components and rice grains yield. Soil tillage in no-till, with rice straw on soil surface up to 11,178 kg ha-1, before sowing, not reduces flooded irrigated rice grains yield.

  8. Studies on Transformation of SFL Gene into Rice%苦参凝集素蛋白基因转化水稻的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜平平; 黄兴奇; 李定琴; 余腾琼; 程在全

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase rice resistance to blast with more exogenous genes,Sophora flavescens lectin (SFL) encoding lectin which can prohibit the growth of the blast fungus in vitro was introduced into rice cultivar ' Yunzijing41' by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. A lot of transgenic plants were selected by chlorophenol-red (CPR) assay and confirmed by PCR. Compared with non-transgenic rice,the transgenic plants showed high resistance to Piricularia oryzae Cav. SFL has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity,so the transgenic rice may has good resistance to variety of pathogenic bacteria. This experiment was laid the foundation for researching on breeding of blast resistance in rice varieties and broaden the disease-resistant genetic and increase rice blast resistance gene in future.%以水稻杂交品种‘云资粳41号’为受体材料,通过农杆菌介导法将苦参凝集素蛋白基因(SFL)导入水稻细胞,采用氯酚红法和PCR检测外源基因是否整合到水稻基因组中.结果显示:外源基因成功转入水稻基因组,并获得一批转基因水稻植株;转基因植株叶片离体接种稻瘟病菌的检测结果显示,转基因植株与对照(非转基因植株)相比有明显的抗性,证明SFL基因在水稻中得到表达.研究表明,基于SFL基因所具备的广谱抗菌作用,可以预期所得转基因水稻植株很可能对水稻的多种病原菌具有良好的抗性,为选育新的抗稻瘟病水稻新品种以及拓宽栽培稻抗病遗传基础增加抗稻瘟病基因奠定了基础.

  9. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the early response to Magnaporthe oryzae in durable resistant vs susceptible rice (Oryza sativa L. genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bagnaresi

    Full Text Available Durable resistance to blast, the most significant fungal disease of rice, represents an agronomically relevant character. Gigante Vercelli (GV and Vialone Nano (VN are two old temperate japonica Italian rice cultivars with contrasting response to blast infection: GV displays durable and broad resistance while VN is highly susceptible. RNA-seq was used to dissect the early molecular processes deployed during the resistance response of GV at 24 h after blast inoculation. Differential gene expression analysis identified 1,070 and 1,484 modulated genes, of which 726 and 699 were up regulated in response to infection in GV and VN, respectively. Gene ontology (GO enrichment analyses revealed a set of GO terms enriched in both varieties but, despite this commonality, the gene sets contributing to common GO enriched terms were dissimilar. The expression patterns of genes grouped in GV-specific enriched GO terms were examined in detail including at the transcript isoform level. GV exhibited a dramatic up-regulation of genes encoding diterpene phytoalexin biosynthetic enzymes, flavin-containing monooxygenase, class I chitinase and glycosyl hydrolase 17. The sensitivity and high dynamic range of RNA-seq allowed the identification of genes critically involved in conferring GV resistance during the early steps of defence perception-signalling. These included chitin oligosaccharides sensing factors, wall associated kinases, MAPK cascades and WRKY transcription factors. Candidate genes with expression patterns consistent with a potential role as GV-specific functional resistance (R gene(s were also identified. This first application of RNA-seq to dissect durable blast resistance supports a crucial role of the prompt induction of a battery of responses including defence-related genes as well as members of gene families involved in signalling and pathogen-related gene expression regulation.

  10. Genetic diversity of rice sheath blight isolates (Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA) from different rice cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 1 IA, the non specific, soil borne, and plant casual agent of rice sheath blight, occurring world widely in rice fields, has become a major disease to rice. In this study,relationships among R. solani AG 1 IA isolates, collected from different rice cultivars were reported.

  11. Induced caving by blasting: innovative experiments in blasting gallery panels of underground coal mines of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.P.; Sawmliana, C.; Bhagat, N.K.; Madhu, M. [CMRI, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Dept.

    2003-04-01

    Induced caving by blasting during depillaring of panels in underground coal mines has received limited attention. This technique has become an integral part of a mining operation known as the blasting gallery (BG) method in India. Systematical deep hole (16-30 m) blasting has been successfully carried out from underground split galleries in BG panels. A study of drilling and blasting parameters, gas hazards, strata behaviour and ground vibration was undertaken as part of a research project for the Indian Ministry of Coal and Mines. Strata behaviour during blasting and ground movements were critically investigated. All experiments were conducted using newly developed explosive and detonating cord systems. A new blast damage index is proposed for damage assessment of the underground roof and pillars of BG panels. Useful mathematical formulas are described as an aid to future design.

  12. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-28

    Because rice feeds half of the world's population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one "rice-fish system" (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers' net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability.

  13. Analysis of SSH library of rice variety Aganni reveals candidate gall midge resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, Dhanasekar; Singh, Y Tunginba; Nair, Suresh; Bentur, J S

    2016-03-01

    The Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae, is a serious insect pest causing extensive yield loss. Interaction between the gall midge and rice genotypes is known to be on a gene-for-gene basis. Here, we report molecular basis of HR- (hypersensitive reaction-negative) type of resistance in Aganni (an indica rice variety possessing gall midge resistance gene Gm8) through the construction and analysis of a suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. In all, 2,800 positive clones were sequenced and analyzed. The high-quality ESTs were assembled into 448 non-redundant gene sequences. Homology search with the NCBI databases, using BlastX and BlastN, revealed that 73% of the clones showed homology to genes with known function and majority of ESTs belonged to the gene ontology category 'biological process'. Validation of 27 putative candidate gall midge resistance genes through real-time PCR, following gall midge infestation, in contrasting parents and their derived pre-NILs (near isogenic lines) revealed induction of specific genes related to defense and metabolism. Interestingly, four genes, belonging to families of leucine-rich repeat (LRR), heat shock protein (HSP), pathogenesis related protein (PR), and NAC domain-containing protein, implicated in conferring HR+ type of resistance, were found to be up-regulated in Aganni. Two of the reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI)-scavenging-enzyme-coding genes Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase1, 2 (OsAPx1 and OsAPx2) were found up-regulated in Aganni in incompatible interaction possibly suppressing HR. We suggest that Aganni has a deviant form of inducible, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated resistance but without HR.

  14. Expressional and Biochemical Characterization of Rice Disease Resistance Gene Xa3/Xa26 Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songjie Xu; Yinglong Cao; Xianghua Li; Shiping Wang

    2007-01-01

    The rice (Oryza sativa L.) Xa3/Xa26 gene, conferring race-specific resistance to bacterial blight disease and encoding a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinase-like protein, belongs to a multigene family consisting of tandem clustered homologous genes, colocalizing with several uncharacterized genes for resistance to bacterial blight or fungal blast. To provide more information on the expressional and biochemical characteristics of the Xa3/Xa26 family, we analyzed the family members. Four Xa3/Xa26 family members in the indica rice variety Teqing, which carries a bacterial blight resistance gene with a chromosomal location tightly linked to Xa3/Xa26, and five Xa3/Xa26 family members in the japonica rice variety Nipponbare, which carries at least one uncharacterized blast resistance gene, were constitutively expressed in leaf tissue. The result suggests that some of the family members may be candidates of these uncharacterized resistance genes. At least five putative N-glycosylation sites in the LRR domain of XA3/XA26 protein are not glycosylated. The XA3/XA26 and its family members MRKa and MRKc all possess the consensus sequences of paired cysteines, which putatively function in dimerization of the receptor proteins for signal transduction, immediately before the first LRR and immediately after the last LRR. However, no homo-dimer between the XA3/XA26 molecules or hetero-dimer between XA3/XA26 and MRKa or MRKc were formed, indicating that XA3/XA26 protein might function either as a monomer or a hetero-dimer formed with other protein outside of the XA3/XA26 family. These results provide valuable information for further extensive investigation into this multiple protein family.

  15. Blast Valve Design and Related Studies : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective structures required for performing critical operations are vulnerable to the blast and shock loads of advanced weapons. A blast valve is an important component of such structures for ventilation during normal conditions and for protection from blast/ shock during explosion. In this paper, various aspects of blast valve design and related studies are briefly reviewed. The concept and effects of blast wave, blast impact, numerical modelling and deformation of circular plate (one of the critical components of blast valve have been discussed. The merits and demerits of sensing mechanisms viz. remote and direct sensing are discussed. The leakage of blast pressure during finite closing period of the valve (one of the critical problems and the shock tube as a major experimental facility for testing of blast valves are briefly discussed.

  16. Organic Upland Rice Seed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raumjit Nokkoul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The upland rice is popular for growing in southern Thailand because this area is the lowland and less area than other sectors. Upland rice is grown as alternative crops of farmers for household consumption which using organic farming method because organic rice seed can be produced by self-production in farmhouse. However, the upland rice is grown under organic farming system. The seeds must originate from plants being grown in compliance with the organic farming rules for at least one generation. There are many factors involving the production of seeds under organic farming system, making the yield low. Thus, the objective of this study on appropriate methods of upland rice seed production under organic farming system in southern Thailand. The results showed that in producing organic seeds, suitable varieties should be selected to suit each area with regular high yield quality. It can be grown in low fertile soil, resist pests and diseases and compete with weeds. The suitable season should be selected for the seed production and the growing areas ought to be in an ecological zone with at least 14-20 mm of 5-day rainfall during the growing cycle. Soil fertility: crop rotation, green manure plants, compost of rice straw and organic manures. For control of disease and insect pests use of resistant or tolerant varieties, plant extracts, natural enemies. The organic seed production of upland rice in southern Thailand, Samduen variety had suitability for recommendation to seed producer in this area because it can provide high growth, yield and seed quality.

  17. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2016-07-20

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg(-1), dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied greatly, and this was likely due to contamination of rice samples with soil. Risk of As, Cd or Pb toxicity due to rice consumption in Malawi appears to be minimal.

  18. Download - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis Download First of all, please read the... license of this database. Data names and data descriptions are about the downloadable data in this page. The...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us The...y might not correspond to the contents of the original database. Click the links on Data Name for descriptions of the... data. # Data name File Simple search and download 1 README README_e.html - 2 The

  19. Graph of growth data - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us The... Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis Graph of growth data Data ...detail Data name Graph of growth data DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00945-003 Description of data contents The grap...h of chronological changes in root, coleoptile, the first leaf, and the second leaf. Data file File name: gr...e Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Graph of growth data - The

  20. License - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available license described below. The license specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database and the... requirements you must follow in using this database. The license for this d...atabase, please be sure attribute this database as follows: The Rice Growth Monitoring for the Phenotypic Fu...Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . The summary of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan is...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us The