WorldWideScience

Sample records for gripping true tales

  1. GRIPS Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-31

    The GRIPS (Geothermal Resources Impact Projection Study) Commission was established by a Joint Powers Agreement between the California Counties of Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma. The objectives of GRIPS are primarily to develop and use a cooperative environmental data collection and use system including natural, social, and economic considerations to facilitate their independent decisions and those of State and Federal agencies related to the environmental effects of geothermal development. This GRIPS Plan was prepared from a wide range of studies, workshops, and staff analyses. The plan is presented in four parts: summary and introduction; environmental data status report; planned programs; and budget. (MHR)

  2. GRIPS bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-31

    This GRIPS (Geothermal Resources Impact Project Study) contains over 1700 references on a wide variety of subjects dealing directly or indirectly with geothermal development at the Geysers/Calistoga KGRA. (MHR)

  3. True-breeding targeted gene knock-out in barley using designer TALE-nuclease in haploid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Gurushidze

    Full Text Available Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs are customizable fusion proteins able to cleave virtually any genomic DNA sequence of choice, and thereby to generate site-directed genetic modifications in a wide range of cells and organisms. In the present study, we expressed TALENs in pollen-derived, regenerable cells to establish the generation of instantly true-breeding mutant plants. A gfp-specific TALEN pair was expressed via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in embryogenic pollen of transgenic barley harboring a functional copy of gfp. Thanks to the haploid nature of the target cells, knock-out mutations were readily detected, and homozygous primary mutant plants obtained following genome duplication. In all, 22% of the TALEN transgenics proved knocked out with respect to gfp, and the loss of function could be ascribed to the deletions of between four and 36 nucleotides in length. The altered gfp alleles were transmitted normally through meiosis, and the knock-out phenotype was consistently shown by the offspring of two independent mutants. Thus, here we describe the efficient production of TALEN-mediated gene knock-outs in barley that are instantaneously homozygous and non-chimeric in regard to the site-directed mutations induced. This TALEN approach has broad applicability for both elucidating gene function and tailoring the phenotype of barley and other crop species.

  4. Domo-Grip: functional evaluation and rehabilitation using grip force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David J; Li, Ke; Frerejean, Alexis; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Duchene, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Grip force measurement is routinely used to identify pathologies, evaluate muscular function, and as part of rehabilitation. Grip force has also been shown to be a good indicator of the capacity of elderly to live independently owing to its strong relationship with clinical tests such as the Index of Activities of Daily Living. An autonomous, communicant grip-force measurement device is presented in this paper in order to perform grip-force evaluation at home. The Domo-Grip system consists of the Grip-Ball, the Grip-Box, and Grip-Soft. The Grip-Ball measures the pressure resulting from grip force, the Grip-Box serves as the communication hub, while Grip-Soft is an interactive software suite. The Domo-Grip system can be used as part of a home-based rehabilitation, and also for functional evaluation as part of an assessment of the capacity of elderly to live autonomously.

  5. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  6. Enter the Gripping Beast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2012-01-01

    of communities and their life world. Transcending technology, cultural dispositions and social relations, the study of innovations invites an actor-networks approach, which considers the heterogeneous nature of human-material relations. The archaeological record is potentially a rich source of evidence...... on innovations. Mostly, however, the time-resolution of archaeological data is too coarse-grained to allow us to grasp this potential to the full. In the period c. AD 790-850 a distinctly new artistic motif, the Gripping Beast, emerged in Scandinavia. A series of narrowly dated contexts provide anchor points...

  7. Fairy Tale Autobiographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Patricia

    Students will work in groups to read and analyze fairy tales, brainstorm for events in their lives that could be changed into fairy tales, develop setting, characters, and plot for their fairy tale, write, illustrate, and compile their fairy tales into group books. During ten 45-minute lessons, students will: choose three fairy tales and read them…

  8. Finding Relief from Allergy's Grip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Finding Relief from Allergy's Grip Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table ... action for patients who have had inadequate symptom relief with antihistamines and topical nasal steroids. Through injection ...

  9. True Detective

    OpenAIRE

    Gajhede, Andreas, Westmark; Bantoulidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the HBO’s television-series True Detective, a 2014 crime drama, attempting to point out the central elements of detective-fiction, to be found in its narrative. True Detective narrative is a heavy text with a number of references from various well-known, non-adjacent texts within the field of weird fiction, horror fiction and detective fiction. Therefore, the case study of this research will focus on narratological and literary analysis, in order to discover the predominan...

  10. True Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyer Charlotte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This poem is a creative response to contemporary true crime narratives about baby farming in Victorian times, namely Alison Rattle and Allison Vale’s The Woman Who Murdered Babies for Money: The Story of Amelia Dyer (London: André Deutsch, 2011; and the TV documentary, “Amelia Dyer: Martina Cole’s Lady Killers.”

  11. TALE: a tale of genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjie; Wang, Feng; Li, Shifei; Wang, Yan; Bai, Yun; Xu, Xueqing

    2014-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs), first identified in Xanthomonas bacteria, are naturally occurring or artificially designed proteins that modulate gene transcription. These proteins recognize and bind DNA sequences based on a variable numbers of tandem repeats. Each repeat is comprised of a set of ∼ 34 conserved amino acids; within this conserved domain, there are usually two amino acids that distinguish one TALE from another. Interestingly, TALEs have revealed a simple cipher for the one-to-one recognition of proteins for DNA bases. Synthetic TALEs have been used to successfully target genes in a variety of species, including humans. Depending on the type of functional domain that is fused to the TALE of interest, these proteins can have diverse biological effects. For example, after binding DNA, TALEs fused to transcriptional activation domains can function as robust transcription factors (TALE-TFs), while fused to restriction endonucleases (TALENs) can cut DNA. Targeted genome editing, in theory, is capable of modifying any endogenous gene sequence of interest; this can be performed in cells or organisms, and may be applied to clinical gene-based therapies in the future. With current technologies, highly accurate, specific, and reliable gene editing cannot be achieved. Thus, recognition and binding mechanisms governing TALE biology are currently hot research areas. In this review, we summarize the major advances in TALE technology over the past several years with a focus on the interaction between TALEs and DNA, TALE design and construction, potential applications for this technology, and unique characteristics that make TALEs superior to zinc finger endonucleases.

  12. Doc Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Larry; Alamia, Jennifer; Baker, Ria; Chilson, Sally; Choucroun, Pierre; Cook, Katrina; de Vries-Kell, Sabina; Marbach, Christina; Peters, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Acceptance into a doctoral program is personally affirming and gives rise to optimism. It is also true that any change in the life of a person, even an apparently positive one, causes stress. The first cohort of students in a new doctoral program in counseling writes about the impact of embarking on a doctorate on themselves and their significant…

  13. Fairy Tales from Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Patricia

    With the help of the teacher, students will read fairy tales and identify common elements. Choosing common situations and working in small groups, students will draw storyboards of their fairy tale and then write the fairy tale. Project will conclude with class presentations. During ten 50-minute lessons, grade 3-5 students will: listen and read…

  14. Richard Halliburton's Bearded Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Charles E., III

    2009-01-01

    Fusing the concept of "the beard" with the genre of the tall tale to theorize bearded tales deepens our understanding of closet eloquence, or rhetorical repertories of sexual passing in U.S. history. An examination of adventurer-writer-lecturer Richard Halliburton's sexual provenance and bestselling travel tale, "The Royal Road to Romance" (1925),…

  15. Gripping System For Mechanical Testing Of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Rebecca A.; Nathal, Michael V.

    1994-01-01

    Specimens held without slippage, even at high temperatures. Improved gripping system designed to securely hold ends of specimen of composite material during creep or tensile test. Each grip includes pair of wedges having sharply corrugated gripping surfaces. Wedges held between two plates containing cavities sloped to accommodate wedges. Two such grips (one for each end) holds specimen in furnace connected to tensile test machine for creep measurements.

  16. Evaluation of pliers' grip spans in the maximum gripping task and sub-maximum cutting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Min; Kong, Yong-Ku

    2016-12-01

    A total of 25 males participated to investigate the effects of the grip spans of pliers on the total grip force, individual finger forces and muscle activities in the maximum gripping task and wire-cutting tasks. In the maximum gripping task, results showed that the 50-mm grip span had significantly higher total grip strength than the other grip spans. In the cutting task, the 50-mm grip span also showed significantly higher grip strength than the 65-mm and 80-mm grip spans, whereas the muscle activities showed a higher value at 80-mm grip span. The ratios of cutting force to maximum grip strength were also investigated. Ratios of 30.3%, 31.3% and 41.3% were obtained by grip spans of 50-mm, 65-mm, and 80-mm, respectively. Thus, the 50-mm grip span for pliers might be recommended to provide maximum exertion in gripping tasks, as well as lower maximum-cutting force ratios in the cutting tasks.

  17. Hydraulically Driven Grips For Hot Tensile Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Keith; Johnson, George W.

    1994-01-01

    Pair of grips for tensile and compressive test specimens operate at temperatures up to 1,500 degrees F. Grips include wedges holding specimen inside furnace, where heated to uniform temperature. Hydraulic pistons drive wedges, causing them to exert clamping force. Hydraulic pistons and hydraulic fluid remain outside furnace, at room temperature. Cooling water flows through parts of grips to reduce heat transferred to external components. Advantages over older devices for gripping specimens in high-temperature tests; no need to drill holes in specimens, maintains constant gripping force on specimens, and heated to same temperature as that of specimen without risk of heating hydraulic fluid and acuator components.

  18. Effects of kinesio tape compared with non-elastic tape on hand grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Yeol

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Many assumptions have been made about taping and several studies have considered tape application methods; however, the true effect of taping on muscle strength remains unclear. Most previous studies compared application techniques using Kinesio tape (KT), but studies that compared muscle strength using non-elastic tape (NT) are limited. Moreover, no studies have applied KT and NT in the same way to assess grip strength in normal subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of application of two tapes with different elastic properties on maximal grip strength in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy adults were divided into two groups (KT and NT). Maximal grip strength was measured with a dynamometer. Forearm extensor muscles of the dominant hand were then taped and subjects were immediately asked to perform hand grip movement with maximum strength in the same standardized manner. [Results] In the KT group, maximal grip strength was significantly increased compared to the initial value; however, in the NT group, there was no significant difference in maximal grip strength. [Conclusion] This study suggests that only Kinesio tape can increase maximal grip strength immediately after application on the extensor region of the forearm.

  19. Effects of kinesio tape compared with non-elastic tape on hand grip strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Yeol

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Many assumptions have been made about taping and several studies have considered tape application methods; however, the true effect of taping on muscle strength remains unclear. Most previous studies compared application techniques using Kinesio tape (KT), but studies that compared muscle strength using non-elastic tape (NT) are limited. Moreover, no studies have applied KT and NT in the same way to assess grip strength in normal subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of application of two tapes with different elastic properties on maximal grip strength in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy adults were divided into two groups (KT and NT). Maximal grip strength was measured with a dynamometer. Forearm extensor muscles of the dominant hand were then taped and subjects were immediately asked to perform hand grip movement with maximum strength in the same standardized manner. [Results] In the KT group, maximal grip strength was significantly increased compared to the initial value; however, in the NT group, there was no significant difference in maximal grip strength. [Conclusion] This study suggests that only Kinesio tape can increase maximal grip strength immediately after application on the extensor region of the forearm. PMID:27313372

  20. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  1. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  2. Motor cortical function and the precision grip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geevasinga, Nimeshan; Menon, Parvathi; Kiernan, Matthew C; Vucic, Steve

    2014-12-01

    While task-dependent changes in motor cortical outputs have been previously reported, the issue of whether such changes are specific for complex hand tasks remains unresolved. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cortical inhibitory tone and cortical output were greater during precision grip and power grip. Motor cortex excitability was undertaken by using the transcranial magnetic stimulation threshold tracking technique in 15 healthy subjects. The motor-evoked potential (MEP) responses were recorded over the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), with the hand in the following positions: (1) rest, (2) precision grip and (3) power grip. The MEP amplitude (MEP amplitude REST 23.6 ± 3.3%; MEP amplitude PRECISION GRIP 35.2 ± 5.6%; MEP amplitude POWER GRIP 19.6 ± 3.4%, F = 2.4, P < 0.001) and stimulus-response gradient (SLOPEREST 0.06 ± 0.01; SLOPEPRCISION GRIP 0.15 ± 0.04; SLOPE POWER GRIP 0.07 ± 0.01, P < 0.05) were significantly increased during precision grip. Short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) was significantly reduced during the precision grip (SICI REST 15.0 ± 2.3%; SICI PRECISION GRIP 9.7 ± 1.5%, SICI POWER GRIP 15.9 ± 2.7%, F = 2.6, P < 0.05). The present study suggests that changes in motor cortex excitability are specific for precision grip, with functional coupling of descending corticospinal pathways controlling thumb and finger movements potentially forming the basis of these cortical changes.

  3. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole.

  4. Tall Tales on Tour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Linda; Silk, Lynn

    "Tall Tales on Tour" consists of a mobile unit of books, posters, puppets, plays, videos, teachers' guides and other resources designed to kindle enthusiasm and love for tall tales in students in grades 3-8 and to establish links with rural Washington County, Maine, schools. The program consists of three main components: (1) immersing…

  5. Tale til himlen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thau, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Bidrag til udstillingskatalog til udstillingen 'Tale til himlen : Torben Ebbesen' i Kunsthallen Brænderigaarden, Viborg 28. maj - 15. august 2004......Bidrag til udstillingskatalog til udstillingen 'Tale til himlen : Torben Ebbesen' i Kunsthallen Brænderigaarden, Viborg 28. maj - 15. august 2004...

  6. Lost Opportunities: Rediscovering Fairy Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipf, Joan Brogan; Da Ros-Voseles, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The power of fairy tales resonates with children around the world. Fairy tales connect children on an emotional level that can help guide them through the complexities of everyday life. The tales provide stories rich in cultural heritage and the human condition, stories that not only delight children but also instruct. Because fairy tales state…

  7. The Neutralization of Tropes in Armenian Fairy Tale Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvard Jivanyan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An important stylistic feature of the fairy tale is its tendency toneutralize tropes by animating them. Distinctive fairy tale devices, transformations, for instance, appear at the expense of the intentional enlivening of the worn semantics of some hackneyed tropes. Neutralized tropes should be interpreted literally. In case of alternative, i.e. metaphoric interpretation, the succeeding narrative stretch will be under threat of logical and semantic collapse. A very similar phenomenon was observed by Zvetan Todorov in the fantastic fiction. As a rule, the oral fairy tale does not show the rhetorical figure and its extension in the same textual cut. The hackneyed trope is mostly absent. It is true; it can be easily restored owing to the fact that it is a phrase the listeners/readers are well aware of. Doubtless, we are far from claiming that any transformation in a fairy tale appears as a consequence of a rhetorical operation.

  8. Tales of Accreditation Woe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmeyer, Nathan

    2002-01-01

    Offers cautionary tales depicting how an "Enron mentality" infiltrated three universities and jeopardized their accreditation status. The schools were guilty, respectively, of bad bookkeeping, lack of strategy and stable leadership, and loss of academic integrity by selling degrees. (EV)

  9. The TALE Infill Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    The TALE Infill Array in conjunction with the TALE Tower Detector will provide hybrid coverage of the cosmic ray energy spectrum down to 3x10^16 eV. It will consist of about 100, two square meter scintillators on the surface spaced at 400 m; and 24 buried twelve square meter scintillators. The combination of surface and underground detectors will allow for the determination of the muon content of showers and thus give a handle on cosmic ray composition.

  10. Twisters, Tall Tales, & Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Dawn Renee; Sterling, Donna R.

    2006-01-01

    Legends and tall tales have been part of the American culture for ages. Students are probably already familiar with the tales of how Pecos Bill fearlessly tamed a ferocious tornado, or Paul Bunyan effortlessly restrained a great river. Such tales have been passed down from generation to generation to explain humanity, the natural world, and…

  11. The TALE Tower Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, D. R.

    The TA Low Energy Extension will include a Tower FluorescenceDetector. Extensive air showers at the lowest usful energies for fluorescence detectors will in general be close to the detector. This requires viewing all elevation angles to be able to reconstruct showers. The TALE Tower Detector, operating in conjunction with other TALE detectors will view elevation angles up to above 70 degrees, with an azimuthal coverage of about 90 degrees. Results from a prototype mirror operated in conjunction with the HiRes detector will also be presented.

  12. Hand-grip isometric strength in judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G Bonitch-Góngora

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The grip is an important technical and tactical aspect through which the judokas dominate the adversary, hindering the application of appropriate techniques and favoring their own attack. The judokas must have high levels of isometric force and endurance to this type of force on the gripping muscles of the forearms, as one of the key aspects for success. This article reviews the grip muscular strength and endurance profiles of judokas of different groups (gender, age and competitive level. In general, the peak isometric strength of elite judokas has not changed in the last 40 years and is similar to that reached by non-elite judokas or even registered in large populations. This indicate that the evaluation of the isometric hand grip endurance may be a more relevant parameter than the peak isometric force in judokas, as during the bouts the grip must be maintained for relatively long periods of time and the maximum force cannot be maintained for long. However there are few studies on the ability to resist successive isometric handgrip stress in judokas.

  13. Technology and Fairy Tales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    The Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen was born 200 years ago and lived in a time of enormous progress in technology and science. He was excited about this, but also worried about what they would do to humans and culture. This dilemma is expressed in some of Andersen's fairy tales, here illust...

  14. Technology and Fairy Tales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    The Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen was born 200 years ago and lived in a time of enormous progress in technology and science. He was excited about this, but also worried about what they would do to humans and culture. This dilemma is expressed in some of Andersen's fairy tales, here...

  15. [Grip strength changes in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Maria Teresa; Santa-Clara, Helena; Monteiro, Estela; Carolino, Elizabete; Freire, António; Barroso, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Familial amiloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is an autossomical and dominant neurodegenerative disease related with systemic deposition of amyloid fibre mainly on peripheral nervous system. Clinically, is translated by an autonomous sensitive-motor polyneuropathy with beginning nearly always in foot, involving subsequently the hands. Until now, the unique available treatment for FAP disease is liver transplantation requiring medication that negatively affect muscle metabolism and force production mechanism. To our knowledge there are no quantitative characterizations of peak force in FAP patients or any comparison with healthy people. This knowledge will be extremely important to verify clinical and functional evolution of this disease and eventually prescribe an effective rehabilitation program. The purpose of this study was to analyse and compare levels of hand grip strength (peak force and endurance) in FAP patients with (FAPTx) or without (FAPNTx) a liver transplant with a group of healthy people (GC). The total sample of individuals where two hundred and six, assigned in 3 groups: 59 patients PAFNTx (23 males, 36 female; age 35 ± 8 years); 90 patients PAFTx (53 males, 37 females; age 34 ± 8 years) e 62 healthy persons (GC) (30 males, 32 females; age 33 ± 9 years). Grip strength was assessed by a portable grip dynamometer E-link (Biometrics Ltd, UK). All measurements were taken on standardized positions with standardized orders. The value noted to peak force was classified according to American College of Sports Medicine norms for grip strength. The 3 groups are differents (p < 0,05) for weigth, body mass index (BMI) and grip strength in both hands and endurance for left hand. Negative correlations between age and grip strength were found for PAFNTx and PAFTx but not for GC. According to our results FAP patients have lower values for grip strength in both hands than healthy subjects and consequently a worse classification in ACSM norms. Most patients present

  16. Temperature limit values for gripping cold surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchaire, J.; Geng, Q.; Den Hartog, E.; Havenith, G.; Holmer, I.; Piette, A.; Powell, S.L.; Rintamäki, H.; Rissanen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was conducted jointly in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the gripping and handling of cold items. Methods. Four

  17. Temperature limit values for gripping cold surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchaire, J.; Geng, Q.; Den Hartog, E.; Havenith, G.; Holmer, I.; Piette, A.; Powell, S.L.; Rintamäki, H.; Rissanen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was conducted jointly in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the gripping and handling of cold items. Methods. Four hund

  18. Grip-Pattern Recognition for Smart Guns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, J.A.; Bazen, A.M.; Gerez, S.H.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a user-verification system for a smart gun, which is based on grip-pattern recognition. An existing pressure sensor consisting of an array of 44 x 44 piezoresistive elements has been used. An interface has been developed to acquire pr

  19. The GRIP method for collaborative roadmapping workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    Technology roadmapping is a well-known tool for technology management, but practical advice for facilitating collaborative roadmapping workshops is relatively scarce. To cater for this need, we have designed a method for collaborative roadmapping, dubbed the GRIP method, for facilitating group work...

  20. ANALYSIS OF POWER GRIP AND PINCH GRIP AMONG HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariya M P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grip and pinch strength are commonly employed indices of strength used in hand evaluations. Pinch grip and power grip strengths are used as indices of strength in hand therapy assessments. For all professions grip strength is an important criterion to be successful in their profession. Such phenomena may be explained by differences in nature of work, working environment, and objects workers handle. Method: 200 healthy subjects, satisfying the selection criteria were included and assessed with standardized procedure for power grip and pinch grip (lateral pinch, pad-pad, and tip-tip strength. They were divided in four groups, 50 group each according to profession i.e. medical surgeons, dentist, physiotherapists and nurses. Results: The mean power grip strength shows highly significant difference between medical vs. dental (p>0.01 and medical vs. physiotherapy group (p> 0.05 .The mean lateral pinch strength shows there is highly significant difference (p< 0.001 between dental vs. nursing profession and dental vs. physiotherapy group. No significant difference among other groups. The mean pad-pad pinch strength shows there is significant difference between dental vs. nursing (p< 0.05 and dental vs physiotherapy group (p< 0.05. The mean Tip-Tip pinch strength shows there is significant difference between dental vs nursing profession(p< 0.05 and dental vs. physiotherapy(p< 0.05. No significant different among other groups. Conclusion: Surgeons have highest power grip strength followed by Nursing, Physiotherapy and Dental professionals. Dentists have the maximum pinch strength in all three positions, followed by Surgeons, Nurses and Physiotherapists. Surgeons have maximum pinch strength next to Dentists.

  1. Registration of hand-grip pattern in smart gun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, X.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Secure Grip1 focuses on the development of a hand-grip pattern recognition system, as part of a smart gun. It is intended for use by the police. We collected the hand-grip data from police officers in three sessions in a row with time intervals in between. If data for training and testing come from

  2. Effect of elbow flexion, forearm rotation and upper arm abduction on MVC grip and grip endurance time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Mohd; Khan, Abid Ali

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was designed to know the effect of upper limb postural deviations on grip strength and grip endurance time. A full factorial design of experiment, i.e., 3 (0°, 45°, 90° abduction angles of upper arm) × 3 (45°, 90°, 135° angles of elbow flexion) × 3 (0°, -60° prone, +60° supine angles of forearm rotation) was used to find the effect of 27 combinations of postures on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) grip strength and grip endurance time. The results showed that none of the main factors were significant on MVC grip, although there was a change in MVC grip. Grip endurance time significantly decreased with an increase in upper arm abduction. Also, grip endurance significantly increased with the elbow flexion angle and decreased with forearm rotation from neutral. These data will help designers and engineers to improve the workplace and tools to reduce the risk of injuries.

  3. 16 tales of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    16 Tales of Innovation are told by 16 leaders, who have completed the LAICS executive master program, a collaboration between Aarhus University and Copenhagen Business School. The book is based on their Master theses and illustrates how they have experimented with different innovation tools, mode...... and innovation theories within their own organization. Here they share their unique insights into the processes, methods and the impact of their academic work with innovation in practice....

  4. Variability of grip kinetics during adult signature writing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassma Ghali

    Full Text Available Grip kinetics and their variation are emerging as important considerations in the clinical assessment of handwriting pathologies, fine motor rehabilitation, biometrics, forensics and ergonomic pen design. This study evaluated the intra- and inter-participant variability of grip shape kinetics in adults during signature writing. Twenty (20 adult participants wrote on a digitizing tablet using an instrumented pen that measured the forces exerted on its barrel. Signature samples were collected over 10 days, 3 times a day, to capture temporal variations in grip shape kinetics. A kinetic topography (i.e., grip shape image was derived per signature by time-averaging the measured force at each of 32 locations around the pen barrel. The normalized cross correlations (NCC of grip shape images were calculated within- and between-participants. Several classification algorithms were implemented to gauge the error rate of participant discrimination based on grip shape kinetics. Four different grip shapes emerged and several participants made grip adjustments (change in grip shape or grip height or rotated the pen during writing. Nonetheless, intra-participant variation in grip kinetics was generally much smaller than inter-participant force variations. Using the entire grip shape images as a 32-dimensional input feature vector, a K-nearest neighbor classifier achieved an error rate of 1.2±0.4% in discriminating among participants. These results indicate that writers had unique grip shape kinetics that were repeatable over time but distinct from those of other participants. The topographic analysis of grip kinetics may inform the development of personalized interventions or customizable grips in clinical and industrial applications, respectively.

  5. Variability of grip kinetics during adult signature writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Bassma; Thalanki Anantha, Nayanashri; Chan, Jennifer; Chau, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Grip kinetics and their variation are emerging as important considerations in the clinical assessment of handwriting pathologies, fine motor rehabilitation, biometrics, forensics and ergonomic pen design. This study evaluated the intra- and inter-participant variability of grip shape kinetics in adults during signature writing. Twenty (20) adult participants wrote on a digitizing tablet using an instrumented pen that measured the forces exerted on its barrel. Signature samples were collected over 10 days, 3 times a day, to capture temporal variations in grip shape kinetics. A kinetic topography (i.e., grip shape image) was derived per signature by time-averaging the measured force at each of 32 locations around the pen barrel. The normalized cross correlations (NCC) of grip shape images were calculated within- and between-participants. Several classification algorithms were implemented to gauge the error rate of participant discrimination based on grip shape kinetics. Four different grip shapes emerged and several participants made grip adjustments (change in grip shape or grip height) or rotated the pen during writing. Nonetheless, intra-participant variation in grip kinetics was generally much smaller than inter-participant force variations. Using the entire grip shape images as a 32-dimensional input feature vector, a K-nearest neighbor classifier achieved an error rate of 1.2±0.4% in discriminating among participants. These results indicate that writers had unique grip shape kinetics that were repeatable over time but distinct from those of other participants. The topographic analysis of grip kinetics may inform the development of personalized interventions or customizable grips in clinical and industrial applications, respectively.

  6. The coefficient of variation as a measure of sincerity of effort of grip strength, Part I: the statistical principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, O

    2001-01-01

    The coefficient of variation (CV) is a widely used measure of sincerity of effort of grip strength despite contradictory research findings and lack of empirical support in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the CV is an appropriate measure of sincerity of effort. One hundred forty-six uninjured volunteers underwent a series of grip strength tests. The mean, standard deviation (SD), and CV of repeated strength trials were calculated, and paired comparisons were conducted between maximal and submaximal efforts. While the mean of maximal trials was significantly greater, there were no differences in SD between maximal and submaximal trials. Therefore, the increased CV associated with submaximal effort was an artifact of reduced torque rather than an indicator of a true increase in variability. Consequently, the CV is not an appropriate measure of sincerity of effort of grip strength.

  7. Optimal work-rest cycles for an isometric intermittent gripping task as a function of force, posture and grip span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksioglu, Mahmut

    2006-02-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maximum acceptable contraction frequencies (i.e. work-rest cycles) for an isometric-intermittent handgrip task as a function of grip span, applied force and shoulder posture using psychophysical and physiological approaches. Twelve healthy males served as subjects. The three grip spans investigated were the optimal, 2 cm narrower than the optimal, and 2 cm wider than the optimal. The grip force levels studied were 15% and 30% of maximum voluntary grip force and the two shoulder postures were 25 degrees flexion and 30 degrees abduction. The psychophysical results indicate that subjects work faster with the narrower grip span at 15% of maximum voluntary grip force level in comparison to working with the optimal and the wider spans. However, when the task required 30% of maximum grip force level, the subjects worked faster with the optimal grip span. These findings were supported by the results of electromyography, heart rate, blood pressure and perceived discomfort. The study suggests that grip span of a tool is an important factor to be considered in predicting optimal work-rest cycles for hand grip tasks, and the optimum setting of grip span of the hand-tool depends on the required task force level. That is, the optimality is relative rather than absolute. In addition, it appears that weaker subjects can work at a higher rate than stronger ones at the same relative force level.

  8. A cautionary holiday tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Sara

    2015-12-01

    In this column, Sara Wickham takes a sideways look at issues relevant to midwives, students, women and families, inviting us to sit down with a cup of tea and ponder what we think we know. This month's seasonal story tells the tale of Rudolph the red-nosed quantity surveyor, who gets more than he has bargained for when he visits the labour ward in order to weigh the birth balls for a trust health and safety exercise and decides to make tea for the tired midwives....

  9. A gripping tale of ribosomal frameshifting: extragenic suppressors of frameshift mutations spotlight P-site realignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, John F; Björk, Glenn R

    2009-03-01

    Mutants of translation components which compensate for both -1 and +1 frameshift mutations showed the first evidence for framing malleability. Those compensatory mutants isolated in bacteria and yeast with altered tRNA or protein factors are reviewed here and are considered to primarily cause altered P-site realignment and not altered translocation. Though the first sequenced tRNA mutant which suppressed a +1 frameshift mutation had an extra base in its anticodon loop and led to a textbook "yardstick" model in which the number of anticodon bases determines codon size, this model has long been discounted, although not by all. Accordingly, the reviewed data suggest that reading frame maintenance and translocation are two distinct features of the ribosome. None of the -1 tRNA suppressors have anticodon loops with fewer than the standard seven nucleotides. Many of the tRNA mutants potentially affect tRNA bending and/or stability and can be used for functional assays, and one has the conserved C74 of the 3' CCA substituted. The effect of tRNA modification deficiencies on framing has been particularly informative. The properties of some mutants suggest the use of alternative tRNA anticodon loop stack conformations by individual tRNAs in one translation cycle. The mutant proteins range from defective release factors with delayed decoding of A-site stop codons facilitating P-site frameshifting to altered EF-Tu/EF1alpha to mutant ribosomal large- and small-subunit proteins L9 and S9. Their study is revealing how mRNA slippage is restrained except where it is programmed to occur and be utilized.

  10. Deconstructing Gender in Revised Feminist Fairy Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcandrew, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Power relationships are a central premise in children's literature, especially traditional fairy tales and modern feminist fairy tales. This is seen in many fairy tales where the main female character is in some distress, her Prince Charming rescues her, and they live happily ever after. Modern feminist fairy tales are understood to be a forum…

  11. Yee-e-e-Haw!: Tall Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the characteristics of "tall tales." Fills in the historical background of tall tales, from the ancient myth of Gilgamesh to Baron Munchausen, the closest European progenitor of American tall tales. Opines that tall tales appear to have been created as a response to challenges posed by building a new nation. Lists 11…

  12. ASSESSMENT OF GRIP FORCE CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorij Kurillo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The majority of hand functionality tests are based on qualitative assessment which largely depends on the experience of the therapist. Computer-assisted methods can provide more objective and accurate measurements of the grip force and other parameters related to grasping.Methods. We analysed the grip force control in 12 patients with muscular dystrophy using the tracking system developed. The system consists of a grip-measuring device with endobjects assessing the force applied in different grips. The device was used as input to a tracking task where the patient applied the grip force according to the visual feedback from the computer screen. Each patient performed two tasks which consisted of tracking a ramp and sinus target.Results. We analysed the maximal grip force as assessed in the ramp task and the tracking accuracy of the sinus task. The results are compared among five different grips (cylindrical, lateral, palmar, pinch and spherical grip, applied with dominant and non-dominant hand. The results show no significant difference in tracking accuracy between the dominant and non-dominant hand.Conclusions. The results obtained in tracking the ramp target showed that the method could be used for the assessment of the muscle fatigue, providing quantitative information on muscle capacity. The results of the sinus-tracking task showed that the method can evaluate the grip force control in different types of grips, providing information on hand dexterity, muscle activation patterns or tremor.

  13. The TALE Fluorescence Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jui, Charles

    2009-05-01

    The TALE fluorescence detectors are designed to extend the threshold for fluorescence observation by TA down to 3x10^16 eV. It will comprise two main components. The first is a set of 24 telescopes working in stereo, with an existing TA FD station at ˜6 km separation. These will cover between 3-31 degrees in elevation and have azimuthal coverage maximizing the stereo aperture in the 10^18-10^19 eV energy range. The second component consists of 15 telescopes equipped with 4m diameter mirrors and covering the sky between 31 and 73 degrees in elevation. The larger mirror size pushes the physics threshold down to 3x10^16 eV, and provides view of the shower maximum for the lower energy events. The Tower detector will cover one quadrant in azimuth and operate in hybrid mode with the TALE infill array to provide redundant composition measurements from both shower maximum information and muon-to-electron ratio.

  14. Proximal arm kinematics affect grip force-load force coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Vermillion, Billy C.; Lum, Peter S; Lee, Sang Wook

    2015-01-01

    During object manipulation, grip force is coordinated with load force, which is primarily determined by object kinematics. Proximal arm kinematics may affect grip force control, as proximal segment motion could affect control of distal hand muscles via biomechanical and/or neural pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of proximal kinematics on grip force modulation during object manipulation. Fifteen subjects performed three vertical lifting tasks that involved distinct...

  15. Microspine Gripping Mechanism for Asteroid Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Ezekiel G.; Berg, Andrew B.; Willig, Andrew; Parness, Aaron; Frey, Tim; Howell, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the development and early testing of a compliant suspension for a microspine gripper device for asteroid capture or micro-gravity percussive drilling. The microspine gripper architecture is reviewed, and a proposed microspine suspension design is presented and discussed. Prototyping methods are discussed, as well as testing methods and results. A path forward is identified from the results of the testing completed thus far. Key findings include: the microspine concept has been established as a valid architecture and the compliant suspension exhibits the desired stiffness characteristics for good gripping behavior. These developments will aid in developing the capability to grasp irregularly shaped boulders in micro-gravity.

  16. Analysis list: Grip1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Grip1 Blood + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Grip1.1.tsv... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Grip1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Gri...p1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Grip1.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml ...

  17. Your True Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena Rausch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Your True Freedom is about my journey teaching inmates the fundamental truths of self worth, self acceptance and self love--through writing, mindfulness meditation and emotional healing. It is a journey that continues to enlighten me and to heal and free the inmates with whom I work.

  18. The True Scholar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellah, Robert N.

    2000-01-01

    This essay argues for ethical inquiry as the essence of true scholarship. Individual sections address: pure reason versus ethics, the current "age of money" in the university, rational choice theory, and the fatal flaw in rational choice theory that all human actions cannot be explained by it. (DB)

  19. Tales from the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Janne Reffstrup; Henriksen, Kristoffer; Stelter, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    in the overall athletic career. The present study is a qualitative inquiry using semi-structured interviews as data. We asked eight young and very talented athletes to imagine they were at the end of a successful career in their chosen sport and invited them to describe how they got there. The qualitative...... interview strategy was narrative in its attempt to elicit how the young athletes made meaning of their endeavors through narratives and biographical in its attempt to ask the athletes to describe their future career paths. We analyzed the interviews as single case studies, subjected them to meaning...... condensation and then constructed the final narratives. Common features of the tales pertain to the fact that these athletes are still young and have yet to grasp the reality of what they are embarking on, which is clear from the simplicity and lightness that is portrayed in their perspectives. The athletes...

  20. Tales of Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    2011-01-01

    Tales of Tourism - Global Changes and tourism discourse by Karina Smed presents us with what has been the dominant discourse of tourism, i.e. a discourse which has had its roots in the West's economic and cultural hegemony and the problem of the formation of identity from the dichotomy "self......" and the "others". The author discusses to which extent tourism discourse is global as the reception of it has been different depending on the context. Moreover, she reflects on the impact upon this global narrative that the new economic world order will have. The new and emergent economies lead to a flow...... of tourists in the opposite direction: from China, India and Russia to western countries and worldwide and this will probably change the concept of tourism and our idea of identities....

  1. Tales of Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    2011-01-01

    Tales of Tourism - Global Changes and tourism discourse by Karina Smed presents us with what has been the dominant discourse of tourism, i.e. a discourse which has had its roots in the West's economic and cultural hegemony and the problem of the formation of identity from the dichotomy "self......" and the "others". The author discusses to which extent tourism discourse is global as the reception of it has been different depending on the context. Moreover, she reflects on the impact upon this global narrative that the new economic world order will have. The new and emergent economies lead to a flow...... of tourists in the opposite direction: from China, India and Russia to western countries and worldwide and this will probably change the concept of tourism and our idea of identities....

  2. Foghs glemte tale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob von Holderstein

    2007-01-01

    De fraværende masseødelæggelsesvåben i Irak har fået statsministeren til at påstå at Danmark havde en ganske særlig begrundelse for at gå i krig: mens resten af koalitionen gjorde det fordi Saddam truede vores sikkerhed, gjorde vi det alene fordi han ikke samarbejde med FN. Jeg viser at denne pås...... påstand er usand. Vores (officielle) grunde var præcis de samme som USA og Storbritannien. Det fremgår af den tale han holdt henvendt til den danske befolkning bare 15 minutter efter krigsbeslutningen var taget....

  3. Occupational health in fairy tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Alice; Arienti, Federica; Smith, Derek R; Cesana, Giancarlo; Riva, Michele A

    2016-05-03

    Myths and folklore, as expressions of popular beliefs, provide valuable information on medical knowledge in earlier times. Fairy tales have often recounted occupational maladies throughout the ages and also provide some insight into the toxic effects of certain metals, such as mercury. Much historical information can be gleaned from unexpected sources, and as such, fairy tales should be more carefully scrutinized by contemporary researchers with an interest in the historical origins of workplace injury and disease.

  4. Adaptive Human Control Gains During Precision Grip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik D. Engeberg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight human test subjects attempted to track a desired position trajectory with an instrumented manipulandum (MN. The test subjects used the MN with three different levels of stiffness. A transfer function was developed to represent the human application of a precision grip from the data when the test subjects initially displaced the MN so as to learn the position mapping from the MN onto the display. Another transfer function was formed from the data of the remainder of the experiments, after significant displacement of the MN occurred. Both of these transfer functions accurately modelled the system dynamics for a portion of the experiments, but neither was accurate for the duration of the experiments because the human grip dynamics changed while learning the position mapping. Thus, an adaptive system model was developed to describe the learning process of the human test subjects as they displaced the MN in order to gain knowledge of the position mapping. The adaptive system model was subsequently validated following comparison with the human test subject data. An examination of the average absolute error between the position predicted by the adaptive model and the actual experimental data yielded an overall average error of 0.34mm for all three levels of stiffness.

  5. Fairy-tales in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, H

    1997-04-01

    Fairy-tales, like mythologies, can be found all over the world containing the same motif and chains of motifs. In this paper I have presented some theories on the occurrence of this archetypal phenomenon ranging from the old migration theory to Sheldrake's theory of morphogenetic fields. I have then tried to show how fairy-tale-motifs can appear in various ways in analytical therapy, often in hidden forms. We find them in patients' dreams as well as in their fantasies and associations. If the therapist is open to them they will also appear in his or her amplifications. He or she might then take note of the fairy-tale or point it out to the patient; in the latter case it might provide better access to the patient's problems and complexes as fairy-tales have an emotional completeness because of their pictorial character. Finally I have described the favourite fairy-tale of one of my patients and related it to his symptoms, his central complex and his personal ways of experiencing and behaving. This survey of how fairy-tales can be used in therapy with children and with adults far from exhaustive.

  6. Forearm posture and grip effects during push and pull tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domizio, Jennifer; Keir, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    Direction of loading and performance of multiple tasks have been shown to elevate muscle activity in the upper extremity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of gripping on muscle activity and applied force during pushing and pulling tasks with three forearm postures. Twelve volunteers performed five hand-based tasks in supinated, neutral and pronated forearm postures with the elbow at 90 degrees and upper arm vertical. All tasks were performed with the right (dominant) hand and included hand grip alone, push and pull with and without hand grip. Surface EMG from eight upper extremity muscles, hand grip force, tri-axial push and pull forces and wrist angles were recorded during the 10 s trials. The addition of a pull force to hand grip elevated activity in all forearm muscles (all p push with grip tasks, forearm extensor muscle activity tended to increase when compared with grip only while flexor activity tended to decrease. Forearm extensor muscle activity was higher with the forearm pronated compared with neutral and supinated postures during most isolated grip tasks and push or pull with grip tasks (all p push and pull forces could act to assist in creating grip force, forearm muscle activity generally decreased. These results provide strategies for reducing forearm muscle loading in the workplace. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Tools and tasks designed to take advantage of coupling grip with push or pull actions may be beneficial in reducing stress and injury in the muscles of the forearm. These factors should be considered in assessing the workplace in terms of acute and cumulative loading.

  7. True ternary fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K. R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; von Oertzen, W.

    2015-04-01

    The study of the ternary fission of nuclei has received new interest recently. It is of general interest for nuclear dynamics, although the process is very rare. In the present work, we discuss the possibilities of true ternary fission (fragment masses A >30 ) in 252Cf for different mass splits. These mass splits are strongly favored in a collinear geometry. Based on the three cluster model (TCM), it is shown that the true ternary fission into fragments with almost equal masses is one of the possible fission modes in 252Cf . For general decays it is shown that the formation of the lightest fragment at the center has the highest probability. Further the formation of tin isotopes and/or other closed shell fragments are favored. For the decay products the presence of closed shell nuclei among the three fragments enhances the decay probabilities.

  8. Inhotim. Tunga. True Rouge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Maya Monteiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the art installation True Rouge, by the artist Tunga, from its assembly which is in Inhotim. Here there are some of the recurrent procedures, and individualities, which the artist employs in this work, in order to locate it in the corpus of the artist’s work. For this reason, beyond the formal analysis of the work itself, we studied some relationships between the triad artist - work - museum.

  9. Algorithm design for grip-pattern verification in smart gun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, X.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Bazen, A.M.; Ganzevoort, W.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    The Secure Grip project1 focuses on the development of a hand-grip pattern recognition system, as part of the smart gun. Its target customer is the police. To explore the authentication performance of this system, we collected data from a group of police officers, and made authentication simulations

  10. Biometric verification based on grip-pattern recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond; Bazen, Asker; Kauffman, Joost; Hartel, Pieter

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a user-verification system for a smart gun, which is based on grip-pattern recognition. An existing pressure sensor consisting of an array of 44 £ 44 piezoresistive elements is used to measure the grip pattern. An interface has been d

  11. Biometric verification based on grip-pattern recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bazen, A.M.; Kauffman, J.A.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Delp, Edward J.; Wong, Ping W.

    This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a user-verification system for a smart gun, which is based on grip-pattern recognition. An existing pressure sensor consisting of an array of 44 x 44 piezoresistive elements is used to measure the grip pattern. An interface has been

  12. Algorithm Design for Grip-Pattern Verification in Smart Gun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, X.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bazen, A.M.; Ganzevoort, W.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    The Secure Grip project1 focuses on the development of a hand-grip pattern recognition system, as part of the smart gun. Its target customer is the police. To explore the authentication performance of this system, we collected data from a group of police officers, and made authentication simulations

  13. Grip-pattern recognition: Applied to a smart gun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, X.

    2008-01-01

    In our work the verification performance of a biometric recognition system based on grip patterns, as part of a smart gun for use by the police ocers, has been investigated. The biometric features are extracted from a two-dimensional pattern of the pressure, exerted on the grip of a gun by the hand

  14. Grip-pattern verification for a smart gun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, X.; Groenland, J.P.J.; Groenland, J.P.J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    In the biometric verification system of a smart gun, the rightful user of the gun is recognized based on grip-pattern recognition. It was found that the verification performance of grip-pattern recognition degrades strongly when the data for training and testing the classifier, respectively, have

  15. Normative data on functional grip strength of elderly in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Jais, Ita Suzana; Chan, Kai Li; Loke, Mun Kitt Austin; Abdul Rahim, Saleem; Tay, Shian Chao

    2017-02-21

    Cross-sectional study for clinical measurement. Most daily tasks require individuals to exert grip strength with torque, which can be challenging for elderly as their strength diminishes with age. We postulate that to assess the functional capacity of an individual, it is important to evaluate the functional grip strength instead of the maximal static grip strength. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to establish normative data for the functional grip strength of elderly aged 60 years and older in the Singapore population. In this study, 233 healthy subjects aged 60 years and older were recruited. Using a custom-made hand strength measurement device, the following measurements were recorded: grip strength at neutral position, grip strength with resistive pronation torque, and grip strength with resistive supination torque. Grip strengths measured for both genders decreased by 13% and 16% for males and females respectively, when pronation torque was exerted, and with supination torque, the strength decreased by 18% and 17% for males and females respectively. Normative data for the elderly population in Singapore had been established. The findings from this study can complement the existing ergonomic hand data in designing better assistive tools to improve the independent living of elderly. NA. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on the collision-mechanical properties of tomatoes gripped by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The data of collision-mechanical property of tomatoes gripped by robot fingers are important for the gripping control of .... Figure 2a shows the process of robot fingers gripping tomato. ..... Drop test simulation of a sample.

  17. Improved Friction Joint With Self-Locking Grips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei; Glejbøl, Kristian; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2016-01-01

    Flexible risers are used in the oil industry to transport liquids and gas from the seafloorto extraction and production equipment at the sea surface. Ongoing research aims at using composite materials instead of steel, in order to reduce weight and increase stiffness. Ensuring an optimal load...... transfer between the composite and metal components is very important. This paper presents an improved method for anchoring a flat fiber reinforced tendon using a double grip system with self-locking grips. The novelty is the combination of new experimental results and finite element (FE) analysis...... to develop asuperior dry friction grip. Experimental results are carried using a dedicated test setup, through which the test parameters can be accurately controlled. The efficiency of the grip system during pullout is superior to results obtained with flat grips. Numerical results offer an in...

  18. Fungi, Folkways and Fairy Tales: Mushrooms & Mildews in Stories, Remedies & Rituals, from Oberon to the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi (true fungi and fungus-like organisms such as slime molds) are documented in miscellaneous folkways (such as remedies, crafts and foodstuffs) and in oral and written folk literature (such as proverbs, folktales, fairy tales, drama and fiction). The impact of fungal phytopathogens and clinical...

  19. Fairy Tales around the World. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Fairy tales are stories either created or strongly influenced by oral traditions. Their plots feature stark conflicts between good and evil, with magic and luck determining the usually happy endings. While each culture and geographic region of the world has its own body of folk tales and fairy tales, certain themes and motifs tend to be repeated…

  20. Proximal arm kinematics affect grip force-load force coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, Billy C; Lum, Peter S; Lee, Sang Wook

    2015-10-01

    During object manipulation, grip force is coordinated with load force, which is primarily determined by object kinematics. Proximal arm kinematics may affect grip force control, as proximal segment motion could affect control of distal hand muscles via biomechanical and/or neural pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of proximal kinematics on grip force modulation during object manipulation. Fifteen subjects performed three vertical lifting tasks that involved distinct proximal kinematics (elbow/shoulder), but resulted in similar end-point (hand) trajectories. While temporal coordination of grip and load forces remained similar across the tasks, proximal kinematics significantly affected the grip force-to-load force ratio (P = 0.042), intrinsic finger muscle activation (P = 0.045), and flexor-extensor ratio (P muscles and the elbow joint cannot fully explain the observed changes, as task-related changes in intrinsic hand muscle activation were greater than in extrinsic hand muscles. Rather, between-task variation in grip force (highest during task 3) appears to contrast to that in shoulder joint velocity/acceleration (lowest during task 3). These results suggest that complex neural coupling between the distal and proximal upper extremity musculature may affect grip force control during movements, also indicated by task-related changes in intermuscular coherence of muscle pairs, including intrinsic finger muscles. Furthermore, examination of the fingertip force showed that the human motor system may attempt to reduce variability in task-relevant motor output (grip force-to-load force ratio), while allowing larger fluctuations in output less relevant to task goal (shear force-to-grip force ratio).

  1. Ladrillo and Tales of Juan Bobo: Puerto Rican Folk Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Reinaldo; Matos, Ana

    These two illustrated elementary readers contain the Spanish and English versions of the Puerto Rican folk tales, "Ladrillo" and "Cuentos de Juan Bobo." They are part of a series of reading materials for elementary-level migrant children. These materials are intended to help the child relate to his culture, develop interest in knowing about it and…

  2. Ladrillo and Tales of Juan Bobo: Puerto Rican Folk Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Reinaldo; Matos, Ana

    These two illustrated elementary readers contain the Spanish and English versions of the Puerto Rican folk tales, "Ladrillo" and "Cuentos de Juan Bobo." They are part of a series of reading materials for elementary-level migrant children. These materials are intended to help the child relate to his culture, develop interest in…

  3. Ladrillo and Tales of Juan Bobo: Puerto Rican Folk Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Reinaldo; Matos, Ana

    These two illustrated elementary readers contain the Spanish and English versions of the Puerto Rican folk tales, "Ladrillo" and "Cuentos de Juan Bobo." They are part of a series of reading materials for elementary-level migrant children. These materials are intended to help the child relate to his culture, develop interest in…

  4. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry [Department of Radiology, New York Methodist Hospital, Affiliated with New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Kenan, Samuel [Department of Orthopedics, New York University Medical Center, NY (United States); Steiner, German C. [Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases/Orthopedic Institute, New York, NY (United States); Abdul-Quader, Mohammed [Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  5. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  6. Medieval Food for Canterbury Tales

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Zaidan, Patrick; Danaher, Pauline; Farrell, Mark; Cawley, Diarmuid; Fox, James

    2015-01-01

    This report give a brief outline of the planing and the execution of medieval food for the DIT's production of the Canterbury Tales on 11-14 March 2015 in Smock Alley Theatre, Dublin - a collaboration between the DIT Conservatory of Music and Drama and the School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology.

  7. Tales of Mystery and Imagination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poe, Edgar Allan

    2005-01-01

    Some of the most exciting and haunting stories ever written are to be found in this collection of Poe's work, ranging from the poetic to the mysterious to the darkly comic, and all with the quality of the grotesque that defined Poe's writing. 'The Tell-Tale Heart' and 'The Fall of the House of

  8. "Arabian Tales": Standards of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    Virginia Standards of Learning for K-5 are listed in this paper with student activities related to observation of live theatre performances of "Arabian Tales" written and performed by the high school theater touring company, Organized Chaos. This play toured in Virginia in the academic year of 2000-2001. The play runs about 45 minutes.…

  9. Tales of Mystery and Imagination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poe, Edgar Allan

    2005-01-01

    Some of the most exciting and haunting stories ever written are to be found in this collection of Poe's work, ranging from the poetic to the mysterious to the darkly comic, and all with the quality of the grotesque that defined Poe's writing. 'The Tell-Tale Heart' and 'The Fall of the House of Usher

  10. A Tale of TWO WORLDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard Lyons

    2010-01-01

    @@ The global economy is currently a tale of two worlds.A buoyant East contrasts with a fragile West.The difference is highlighted not just in the economic data but also in the monetary policies being pursued around the globe.

  11. A Tale of Two Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    A Tale of Two Cities is one of Dickens's most exciting books, set against the backdrop of the French revolution, in which two generations struggle against the injustices of first a corrupt aristocracy and then the mindless rule of the mob.

  12. A Tale of Four Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgmayer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    "A Tale of Four Electrons" is a creative writing assignment used with 10th-grade Honors Chemistry students. The project helps students consolidate their learning about bonding--an important unifying theme in chemistry--and answers questions such as (1) How are ionic, metallic, and covalent bonds related? (2) How do variations in electron…

  13. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this experience,…

  14. Effect of syllable articulation on precision and power grip performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lari Vainio

    Full Text Available The present study was motivated by a theory, which proposes that speech includes articulatory gestures that are connected to particular hand actions. We hypothesized that certain articulatory gestures would be more associated with the precision grip than with the power grip, and vice versa. In the study, the participants pronounced a syllable and performed simultaneously a precision or power grip that was theorized to be either congruent or incongruent with the syllable. Relatively fast precision grip responses were associated with articulatory gestures in which the tip of the tongue contacted the alveolar ridge ([te] or the aperture of the vocal tract remained small ([hi], as well as gestures that required lip protrusion ([pu]. In contrast, relatively fast power grip responses were associated with gestures that were produced by moving the back of the tongue against the velum ([ke] or in which the aperture of the vocal tract remained large ([hα]. In addition to demonstrating that certain articulatory gestures are systematically connected to different grip types, the study may shed some light on discussion concerning sound symbolism and evolution of speech.

  15. EMG discharge patterns during human grip movement are task-dependent and not modulated by muscle contraction modes: a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, J G; Hasegawa, Y; Kasai, T; Latash, M L; Yahagi, S

    2002-05-03

    Our previous study revealed that, during tonic muscle contraction, remarkable functional differences among intrinsic and extrinsic muscles were observed during two different grip movements, i.e., precision and power grips. To verify whether this evidence is true even under the phasic muscle contraction, magnetic stimulation was delivered over the left scalp while a normal human subject performed phasic precision or power grip responses of the right-hand fingers in a simple reaction time (SRT) paradigm. Magnetic stimulation delivered during the latent period revealed different cortico-motoneuronal excitations between the two grip responses. In particular, the contributions of extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle were definitely different between the two grip responses, although motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of first dorsal interosseous (FDI) prior to, and after EMG onset of movement initiation, were not different. These results were similar to previous results obtained during tonic muscle contraction. Thus, we have concluded that the task-dependent EMG discharge pattern in finger manipulation could not be modulated by muscle contraction modes.

  16. Grip op werkstress. Mindfulness ontstresst maatschappelijk werkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen van Horen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking control over work related stress. Mindfulness destresses social workersStress is a major social problem. Due to the increasing workload and the content of the work, social workers are at risk to develop stress (symptoms. The physical and psychological consequences of prolonged stress are serious. By living healthy, optimize working conditions and applying mindfulness, stress can be reduced. Mindfulness is an effective and useful way to reduce stress. It increases the resistance of workers against stress, improves brainfunctions and therefore has a positive effect on the performance. These effects are great, but they are still weakly methodologically substantiated. A pilot project within the youthcare though, was enthusiastically received and proves to be effective against stress symptoms. The exercises that are part of this pilot fit well with the needs of employees. For organizations mindfulnesstrainings are a time-and cost-effective way of structural stress prevention.Grip op werkstress. Mindfulness ontstresst maatschappelijk werkersStress is een omvangrijk maatschappelijk probleem. Door de toenemende werkdruk en de inhoud van het werk zijn maatschappelijk werkers een risicogroep om stress en stressklachten te ontwikkelen. De fysieke en psychische gevolgen die langdurige stress met zich meebrengt zijn ernstig. Door gezond te leven, de arbeidsomstandigheden te optimaliseren en mindfulness toe te passen kan stress terug worden gedrongen. Mindfulness is een effectieve en bruikbare manier om stress te verminderen. Het vergroot de weerbaarheid van werknemers tegen stress, het verbetert de hersenwerking en heeft daardoor een positief effect op het functioneren. Grote effecten dus, maar wel nog methodologisch zwak onderbouwd. Een pilot binnen de jeugdzorg op het gebied van mindfulness is enthousiast ontvangen en blijkt effectief tegen stressklachten. De oefeningen die onderdeel uitmaken van deze pilot sluiten goed aan bij de behoeften van

  17. A true case story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Bjørg Walker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism is not generally recognized as a condition which can be bio-medically influenced. As of today, there are no biomarkers for autism that are recognized by traditional medicine. Treating autism medically is a difficult and hopeless task according to official guidelines (even though it is seldom written in official documents. Parents of many children who have or had an ASD diagnosis have witnessed significant improvements in their children after dietary interventions as well as after interventions with vitamins, minerals and biogene substances which can be bought over the counter. The parents of individual children are their best observers. With a high degree of certainty, they are able to see which substances improve or weaken their children. Their observations are usually accurate, but their rationale for why is often wrong. Observations from parents can often be of greater importance for the child than advice from so called experts. This is a true story about a girl whose parents lost contact with her when she was only 6 months old. In her first 14 days she lost her ability to roll over, to babble and make sounds. She did not look at her parents any more – just stared up at the roof. At 9 months she did not respond to words such as, ‘look at mommy’. Through the parents own experiences with her older siblings and 4 months of frantic searching for a diet that would agree with the child, she made a remarkable journey from 10 months of age to 18 months. There is one thing worth mentioning – she refused to eat solid food throughout this time. The story does not end there. Today she is 12 years old and has had to be regulated with diet and biogene substances every day since she was 4 years old. During the last 5 months she has shown more stability and can even go a day or two without biogene substances as long as she keeps to her dietary plan. If you had just met her and spent a day with her, you would never know.

  18. Association of grip strength with cardiovascular risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubelmann, Cédric; Vollenweider, Peter; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2017-03-01

    Background Mechanisms underlying the association between grip strength and cardiovascular mortality are poorly understood. We aimed to assess the association of grip strength with a panel of cardiovascular risk markers. Design The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 3468 adults aged 50-75 years (1891 women) from a population-based sample in Lausanne, Switzerland. Methods Grip strength was measured using a hydraulic hand dynamometer. Cardiovascular risk markers included anthropometry, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, adiposity, inflammatory and other metabolic markers. Results In both genders, grip strength was negatively associated with fat mass (Pearson correlation coefficient: women: -0.170, men: -0.198), systolic blood pressure (women: -0.096, men: -0.074), fasting glucose (women: -0.048, men: -0.071), log-transformed leptin (women: -0.074, men: -0.065), log-transformed high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (women: -0.101, men: -0.079) and log-transformed homocysteine (women: -0.109, men: -0.060). In men, grip strength was also positively associated with diastolic blood pressure (0.068), total (0.106) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (0.082), and negatively associated with interleukin-6 (-0.071); in women, grip strength was negatively associated with triglycerides (-0.064) and uric acid (-0.059). After multivariate adjustment, grip strength was negatively associated with waist circumference (change per 5 kg increase in grip strength: -0.82 cm in women and -0.77 cm in men), fat mass (-0.56% in women; -0.27% in men) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-6.8% in women; -3.2% in men) in both genders, and with body mass index (0.22 kg/m(2)) and leptin (-2.7%) in men. Conclusion Grip strength shows only moderate associations with cardiovascular risk markers. The effect of muscle strength as measured by grip strength on cardiovascular disease does not seem to be mediated by cardiovascular risk markers.

  19. Comic book tells the tale of Dark Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The sciences star in few comic books. On occasion, the comic narrative may feature a villain using science for his nefarious deeds. Or perhaps the hero will have a wild-haired scientific genius for his sidekick. But you wouldn’t expect to read a comic about science news, and you certainly wouldn’t expect that news to be about particle physics. That is, unless you’ve read True Tales.   Released in May 2011, the True Tales comic series tackles complicated physics through simple illustrations. The brainchild of Daniel Whiteson – a member of the ATLAS collaboration and an assistant professor at the University of California, Irvine - the comic book depicts the complex topics being studied at CERN, tackling dark matter in its first issue. “Deciding to explain particle physics in a comic book was the easy part,” he explains. “After all, what’s a Feynman diagram but a technical comic strip? The only issue was finding an artis...

  20. Dynamic Aspects of Fairy Tales: Social and Emotional Competence through Fairy Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohr, Hansjorg

    2000-01-01

    Explores how fairy tales address socio-emotional challenges children face during their socialization. Applies a structural theory of fairy tales to three literary versions of the Cinderella story. Suggests that the combination of simplicity of form and complexity of content makes the fairy tale a powerful tool for perception of and reflection on…

  1. The Public Right in Fairy Tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Massi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available I shall refer to the public right in fairy tales in light of the contribute of the folkloristic studies about authorship in fairy tales with a specific attention for those scholars who worked on an individual concept of authorship, such as Marke Azadovskij, Linda Dégh, Luz Rörich, R. Wehse and Key Stone. Taking into account legal implications raised by Helle Porsdam's anthology 'Copyright and other Fairy Tales', I will show how legal and scientific issues influenced that heterogeneous group of novels, short stories and children's books which today are known as fairy tales.

  2. Individual finger contribution in submaximal voluntary contraction of gripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong-Ku; Lee, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Dae-Min; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate individual finger force and contribution to a gripping force, the difference between actual and expected finger forces and subjective discomfort rating at 10 different submaximal voluntary contraction (%MVC) levels (10-100% in 10 increments). Seventy-two participants randomly exerted gripping force with a multi-finger force measurement system. The individual finger force, gripping force and discomfort increased as %MVC levels increased. The middle and ring fingers exerted more force and contributed to a gripping force more than the index and little fingers due to their larger mass fractions of the digit flexor muscles. It was apparent at MVC; however, the index finger increased its contribution and exerted even more force than expected at more than 50% MVC. Subjective discomfort supported the results of the objective measures. This could explain the conflicting findings between index and ring fingers in previous finger contribution studies. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Hand tool design is of special interest in ergonomics due to its association with musculoskeletal disorders in the hand. This study reveals a different contribution pattern of the fingers in submaximal voluntary contraction of gripping exertion.

  3. Gripping tool for the ITER upper port plug RH extraction/insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Elena V., E-mail: elena.rosa@ciemat.es; Ríos, Luis, E-mail: luis.rios@ciemat.es

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •The gripping tool is based on only one gripping point centred at the plug bottom. •The gripping tool should allow the relative displacement in the gripping point to absorb the misalignment between plug and tractor. •The gripping tool needs to withstand around 100/30 kN during the plug extraction/insertion. •The gripping tool should rely on visual control and it has to avoid force feed-back. •The comparison between the features of several gripping tool concepts is assessed. -- Abstract: The conceptual design of several gripping tools and their mechanical interfaces is being carried out for the ITER ECH UPP within the WP10-GOTRH programme. EFDA finances the GOT RH (Goal Oriented Training Programme for Remote Handling). The purpose of this paper is to introduce new concepts of gripping tools for the plug extraction/insertion in the upper port of ITER. All these gripping tools are designed according to IO input data and geometrical constraints. The gripping tools have to be able to extract/insert the plug in the scenario of maximum misalignment between the plug and the tractor. The paper also defines the functional requirements the gripping tools need to comply with. The requirements and input data are verified and validated through 3D simulation with Catia mock-ups of the gripping tools. The strengths and weaknesses of each gripping tool model are compared.

  4. CrackBerry The Tales of BlackBerry Use and Abuse

    CERN Document Server

    Michaluk, Kevin J; Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A delayed train, a dip in the conversation, an early morning hour with no sleep - during these moments, do you feel an overwhelming urge to grab your BlackBerry? Do you know someone else who does? If the answer is yes, then look no further than this one-of-a-kind book...CrackBerry: True Tales of Blackberry Use and Abuse covers the phenomenon of "BlackBerry Addiction," offering true-life accounts of BlackBerry dependence and mishaps. You'll find comfort and humor in the unbelievable tales of BlackBerry abuse and also learn some valuable tips along the way. * The definitive guide to respons

  5. G×E Interaction Influences Trajectories of Hand Grip Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Inge; Pedersen, Nancy L; Rantanen, Taina;

    2016-01-01

    and Environment across Multiple Studies consortium. Growth curve parameters were estimated for same-sex pairs, aged 34-99 (N = 10,681). Fisher's test for mixture distribution of within-monozygotic twin-pair differences (N = 1724) was performed on growth curve parameters. We observed significant gene......-environment interaction on grip strength trajectories. Finally, we compared the variability of within-pair differences of growth curve parameters by APOE haplotypes. Though not statistically significant, the results suggested that APOE ɛ2ɛ2/ɛ2ɛ3 haplotypes might buffer environmental influences on grip strength...

  6. Study of Silicon Photomultipliers for the GRIPS Calorimeter Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Ulyanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available GRIPS is a proposed gamma-ray (200 keV to 80 MeV astronomy mission, which incorporates a pair-creation and Compton scattering telescope, along with X-ray and infrared telescopes. It will carry out a sensitive all-sky scanning survey, investigating phenomena such as gamma-ray bursts, blazars and core collapse supernovae. The main telescope is composed of a Si strip detector surroundedby a calorimeter with a fast scintillator material. We present the initial results of a study which considers the potential use of silicon photomultipliers in conjunction with the scintillator in the GRIPS calorimeter module.

  7. Happily Ever After? Teens and Fairy Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccillo, Diane P.

    2001-01-01

    Argues, from the author's experience and with supporting quotes from many teenagers, that modern retellings of classic fairy tales can be very popular with teenage readers. Discusses numerous such stories, and offers an extensive list of retold fairy tales, organized into: Cinderella stories, Beauty and the Beast stories, Sleeping Beauty stories,…

  8. "Turtle Island Tales." Cue Sheet for Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Gail

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a shadow play performance of "Turtle Island Tales" by Hobey Ford and His Golden Rod Puppets. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains seven activity sheets for use in class, addressing: (1) The Tales (offering brief outlines of the three tales…

  9. A Tall Tale: Laura Amy Schlitz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mary Grace

    2008-01-01

    In this article, American author, children's librarian, and storyteller Laura Amy Schlitz is profiled. Schlitz is the winner of this year's Newbery Medal for her tall tale about the Mongols called "Gulnara the Tartar Warrior." Like her award-winning book, "Good Masters! Sweet Ladies!" (Candlewick, 2007), the tale takes place in the Middle Ages.…

  10. [Review] Mary Toft's Rabbit Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Emrys

    2013-01-01

    Originally broadcast in April 2011 and aired again by BBC Radio 4 this November, Mary Toft’s Rabbit Tale is a radio drama retelling the story of its titular fraudster’s brief notoriety. With a high-profile cast – including singer Will Young as Toft’s husband and Rupert Graves as man-midwife, John Howard – the play explores a number of issues related to the alleged rabbit births of 1726 and their impact on public discourse of the time.

  11. A Village of Folk Tales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WUJIAGOU, a small and remote village in Hubei Province, is gaining fame for its Chinese folk tales. With only 878 villagers in 216 households, experts call it "a living fossil of the culture of Hubei Province." Sitting deep in the majestic Wudangshan Mountain, the shrine of Taoism and surrounded by breathtaking scenery, Wujiagou Village has a long history. Closed-off geographically, its villagers live scattered among the valleys. The village oozes local flavors, rich with traditional customs. Villagers gather spontaneously to sing folk songs

  12. Grip and Pinch Strength Norms for Michigan Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Phillips M.S., OTRL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to create a norm reference of current grip and pinch strength norms for working-age Michigan adults. This normative study included a convenience sample of 179 volunteers who were employees at car plants in South East Michigan or hospital sites in West Michigan. Participants’ ages ranged from between 20 and 62 years of age with a mean age of 49.15 years. There were 78 females (44% and 101 males (56%. Subjects were classified by gender and in the age categories of ages 20 to 49 years and ages 50-62 years. Grip and pinch strength norms were collected following the American Society of Hand Therapy protocol. The norms from these working adults were calculated with descriptive statistics for males and females in two age classifications: ages 20 to 49 and ages 50 to 62 years. Standard Errors (SE are better than the 1985 norms for both males and females ages 20 to 49 years. SEs are higher than the ages 20 to 49 years’ norms for the ages 50 to 62 years age categories in both males and females. These norms offer a point of comparison for clinicians to use for clients in Michigan who are ages 20 to 62 years and who have a goal to improve their grip strength. Clients’ grip and pinch strength could be compared to their age level or gender norms using the comparison for one standard deviation above, below, or at the means.

  13. Gripped by movies: From story-world to artifact absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doicaru, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    That movies are a great source of entertainment seems to be common sense. But how exactly movies manage to get large audiences absorbed, or what is their gripping tool is still a mystery. Research makes use of different concepts pointing to narrative absorption, but it is not clear how they differ f

  14. Soft shape-adaptive gripping device made from artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, E.; Vunder, V.; Johanson, U.; Kaasik, F.; Aabloo, A.

    2016-04-01

    We report on a multifunctional four-finger gripper for soft robotics, suitable for performing delicate manipulation tasks. The gripping device is comprised of separately driven gripping and lifting mechanisms, both made from a separate single piece of smart material - ionic capacitive laminate (ICL) also known as artificial muscle. Compared to other similar devices the relatively high force output of the ICL material allows one to construct a device able to grab and lift objects exceeding multiple times its own weight. Due to flexible design of ICL grips, the device is able to adapt the complex shapes of different objects and allows grasping single or multiple objects simultaneously without damage. The performance of the gripper is evaluated in two different configurations: a) the ultimate grasping strength of the gripping hand; and b) the maximum lifting force of the lifting actuator. The ICL is composed of three main layers: a porous membrane consisting of non-ionic polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVdF-HFP), ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethane-sulfonate (EMITFS), and a reinforcing layer of woven fiberglass cloth. Both sides of the membrane are coated with a carbonaceous electrode. The electrodes are additionally covered with thin gold layers, serving as current collectors. Device made of this material operates silently, requires low driving voltage (<3 V), and is suitable for performing tasks in open air environment.

  15. Hand Grip Strength Vs. Sprint Effectiveness in Amputee Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek Marta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amputee soccer is one of the types of soccer designed for the disabled, especially those who have undergone amputations, as well as those with extremity dysfunction. The objective of the study was to find the relationship between hand grip strength and sprint time in amputee soccer players. Thirteen field amputee soccer players participated in the study. A SAEHAN hydraulic hand dynamometer manufactured by Jamar was used for hand grip strength measurements. The sprint running test was conducted over a distance of 30 m. The Fusion Smart Speed System was employed for running time measurements. No statistically significant relationships were found between hand grip strength of the left or right hand, and sprint times over 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 m. Analysis of the running velocity curve of the subjects showed an interesting profile characterized by a 15 meter-long acceleration phase and a significant velocity increase over a distance of 20 – 25 m. The study suggests that there is no relationship between hand grip strength and sprint effectiveness in amputee soccer players. The specificity of locomotion with the use of elbow crutches among elite Polish amputee soccer players probably accounts for the profile of the sprint velocity curve. Extension of the acceleration phase in the sprint run and a velocity increase in the subsequent part of the run were observed.

  16. Effect of wrist position on young adults pinch grip control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Luzia Barros de Andrade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinch grip is used in a large number of handling activities that require precision and control of an object. The position of the upper arm joints affects the fingers force production in order to handle the object. This study aimed to verify the influence of the wrist position in the production of maximum strength and in the control fingers grip pinch submaximum strength control. Participants were 21 right handed adults (10 male, 18-26 years old. They made two attempts of maximum force production and eight attempts of submaximal force production (four at 20% and four at 40% of maximum strength for pinch grip in three wrist positions: neutral, flexion and extension. The results showed that the production of maximum strength is higher in neutral position compared to wrist flexion and extension and higher for men compared to women. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the length of the hand and the production of maximum strength. The results also indicated that the wrist position did not interfere in the submaximum force control during this task. However, participants showed more difficulty controlling 20% than 40% of maximum strength. The present study showed evidence that the motor units used to produce grip pinch maximum strength cross the wrist joint but those used for the 20% and 40% of maximum strength are present only in the fingers and hand.

  17. Familiar Fairy Tale Picture Books Transformed into Teen Novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Rosemary

    2003-01-01

    Describes characteristics of fairy tales. Discusses use of fairy tales and novels for teens in the classroom. Presents annotations of 31 titles including both picture books and young adult novels grouped by nine popular tales. Concludes that through comparing picture books and teen novels, there is one last chance to introduce fairy tales to older…

  18. Quirky Sides of Scientists True Tales of Ingenuity and Error From Physics and Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Topper, David R

    2007-01-01

    These historical narratives of scientific behavior reveal the often irrational way scientists arrive at and assess their theories. There are stories of Einstein’s stubbornness leading him to reject a correct interpretation of an experiment and miss an important deduction from his own theory, and Newton missing the important deduction from one of his most celebrated discoveries. Copernicus and Galileo are found surpressing information. A theme running throughout the book is the notion that what is obvious today was not so in the past. Scientists seen in their historical context shatter myths and show them to be less modern than we often like to think of them.

  19. Focal Treatment for Genetic Disorders (A Fairy Tale or a True Story?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hossein Nikoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic is widely involved in pathophysiology of many diseases. However, certain gene abnormalities could cause cardiac disorders called monogenic disorders (1. Since the genetic information and hence abnormal gene is present in all cells, treatments are focused on symptoms. Nowadays, gene transfer is an uprising option (2. Although all cells carry a mutant gene, the major effect of the disease is localized to a group of cells in some patients. Brugada syndrome results from a sodium channel mutation that causes ST elevation in right precordial leads and may lead to sudden ventricular fibrillation, especially in young males (3. This main electrocardiographic disturbance originates from RV epicardium (4. Therefore, some interventionists try to treat the disease by ablation of this area (5. Although implanting a defibrillator is yet the standard recommendation, it does not cure the disease (6. Thus, ablation of a small area of epicardium which offers a definitive cure also seems appealing. Another example of applying this treatment for a genetic disorder is in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (7. This syndrome is caused by a mutation in ryanodine receptor and manifests as polymorphic ventricular tachycardia during exercise or emotion in young adults (8. One study showed that ablation of Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC completely treated a patient (7. Although myocardial contraction duration is prolonged in all segments (9 in the patients with long QT syndrome, there is a segment with most prolonged duration in any patient (10. Ablation of PVC on this segment may cure the Ventricular Fibrillation (VF in this syndrome and prevent sudden cardiac death (11. Another lethal and seemingly incurable syndrome of sudden cardiac death is idiopathic VF. As sounded from nomenclature, the pathophysiology is somewhat unclear and, consequently, the treatment is difficult and only limited to secondary prevention (12. However, ablation of PVC starting the VF looks effective and possible (11. Another recently noticed disease of sudden cardiac disease is early repolarization, especially if it is localized to the inferolateral area (13. Michel Haïssaguerre has described few cases of ablation for this syndrome (14. In conclusion, genetic problems play a significant role in cardiac diseases. They have a widespread nature and present in all body cells; hence, their handling is quite difficult. Palliation therapy and genetic engineering have led to some improvement in management. Yet, many shortages are still present. Of course, simple solutions might be uprising for these hereditary diseases. The clues of this local approach can be found in the case reports mentioned in this article. Of course, more studies and trials are required to be conducted on this approach.

  20. Secret seducers - True tales of pimps in the red light district of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.P.J.R.S. van San (Marion); F. Bovenkerk (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAt the end of the 1990s, a moral panic erupted in the Netherlands about the phenomenon of what came to be known as 'loverboys'. The suspicion was that a growing number of Dutch girls were being groomed by handsome young men who employed all sorts of devious methods to prepare their girlf

  1. [A tale of 2 cities. The dispute over the true origins of the Royal Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeley, Philip

    2008-01-01

    When the Royal Society was founded in November 1660 it took scientific societies already existing in other European countries as its model. However, at a time when the new mathematical and experimental sciences were still generally without a secure institutional foundation there was also great interest in the new society on the part of scientists and scholars abroad. Soon visitors such as Christiaan Huygens and Balthazar de Monconys were able to report positively on its practical orientation, while among others Johannes Hevelius and Philipp Jacob Sachs von Lewenhaimb in letters to the founder member John Wallis and to the secretary Henry Oldenburg requested more information on its origins and statutes. Meanwhile, in England the Royal Society found itself the object of vociferous criticism, especially from the universities, which saw their own role as centres of learning increasingly compromised by the existence of an institution dedicated to the promotion of modern science. The Royal Society responded to this interest from abroad and criticism at home by commissioning an official history written by Thomas Sprat, a man with a university as well as a literary background. However, despite the author's good credentials, the History of the Royal Society presents a one-sided account of the institution, mainly from the perspective of the circle around John Wilkins to which Sprat had belonged. According to their point of view the Royal Society arose from meetings which Wilkins had organized at Wadham College in Oxford in the early 1650s. For members of the old guard, such as Wallis and William Brouncker, the origins of the Royal Society were, however, not in Oxford but rather in London, where meetings involving a significant number of members of the future institution had taken place already in the mid-1640s. This was not simply a question of historical accuracy, but also of the way in which the Royal Society conceived itself: while the circle around Wilkins was in decisive respects experimentally orientated, Wallis, Brouncker and their friends stood for a more mathematical approach to physics as well as for the promotion of mathematics itself. By taking into account a number of sources not previously considered in context, the paper seeks to shed new light on a problem which has remained largely unresolved since the debate began in the late Seventeenth Century.

  2. True Tales: From Bee Behavior to the Life of Buddha, Not All Comics Are Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Although graphic novels are traditionally thought of as the domain of larger-than-life fantasies, for decades comics have also served as educational tools. One of the pioneers of American comic books, Will Eisner, worked for years creating instructional comics. Starting in 1941, the Classics Illustrated series introduced young readers to…

  3. Scientific Items in Cyprus Turkish Tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevilay Atmaca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Folk literature, which is a production of daily life experiences transferred from mouth to mouth, encompasses many types such as epic, legend, folk poetry, mania, laments, songs, riddles, tales, folk story, anecdote, proverbs, idioms, rhymes, and etc. These products, which represent the oral tradition of the people, transfer numerous information regarding the life experiences, beliefs, and values of their communities to the next generation. Tales are more attractive since they depict extraordinary events and because of these characteristics they are very didactic. These are some reasons why tales have a very significant place in Turkish folk literature. People have documented tales successfully transferring from a nomadic life to a settled one. This study attempts to determine the scientific elements in Cyprus Turkish Tales, as sample in the scope of the Turkish Tales, through content analysis. Researchers in this study will examine the themes in the selected tales such as “Earth and Cosmos”, “Physical Event”, “Matter and Change”, and “Living Organisms and Life”. They will also provide a code-list according to the themes found in the tales. Researchers will do a content analysis in relation to the themes and code-listing activities in “Cyprus Turkish Tales” collected by Mustafa Gökçeoğlu, a well-known Cyprus Turkish folk literature writer. It is seen from the research that living organism and life (f: 25 and matter and change (f: 24 themes have very abundant coded. It is followed with an orderly physical events theme (f: 13 and earth and cosmos theme (f: 6. As a result, it is seen that in samples which are taken from Turkish Cypriot Tales, scientific items are widely used. It is believed that the results of the study will give different perspectives to Turkish Language, literature, science-technology, and classroom teacher providing them with interdisciplinary and rich materials.

  4. True aneurysm of brachial artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorović, Narcis; Lovričević, Ivo; Franjić, Dario Bjorn; Brkić, Petar; Tomas, Davor

    2010-10-01

    True upper extremity peripheral artery aneurysms are a rarely encountered arterial disorder. Following computer-tomography angiographic (CT-a) imaging examination, true saccular aneurysm, originating from the left brachial artery was diagnosed in the 77-year-old female without history of trauma. The aneurysm was resected by surgical intervention, and primary repair of the brachial artery was performed by interposition of a part of great saphenous vein harvested from the left groin and creation of two end-to-end anastomoses between interposition graft and previously resected part of brachial artery. No complication was observed during the follow-up. Surgical intervention for upper extremity aneurysms should be initiated without delay. Factors combined with minimal morbidity associated with repair suggest that surgical repair should be performed routinely for true upper extremity arterial aneurysms.

  5. Tales of physicists and mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Gindikin, Semyon Grigorevich

    1988-01-01

    This revised and greatly expanded second edition of the classic Russian text Tales of Mathematicians and Physicists contains a wealth of new information about the lives and accomplishments of more than a dozen scientists throughout history. Included are individuals from the late nineteenth century: Klein, Poincaré, Ramanujan, and Penrose, as well as renowned figures from earlier eras, such as Leibniz, Euler, Lagrange, and Laplace. A unique mixture of mathematics, physics, and history, this volume provides biographical glimpses of scientists and their contributions in the context of the social and political background of their times. The author examines many original sources, from the scientists’ research papers to their personal documents and letters to friends and family; furthermore, detailed mathematical arguments and diagrams are supplied to help explain some of the most significant discoveries in calculus, celestial mechanics, number theory, and modern relativity. What emerges are intriguing, multifac...

  6. True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankargouda Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibrous overgrowths are often found in the oral cavity, almost always being reactive/irritational in nature. However, benign mesenchymal neoplasms of the fibroblasts are extremely uncommon. Here we report a case of “True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa” for its rarity.

  7. Anthropology: The Long Lives of Fairy Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Mark

    2016-04-04

    Anthropologists, borrowing techniques from evolutionary biology, have demonstrated that some common fairy tales can be traced back 5,000 years, or more, long before the development of written traditions.

  8. The Development of TALE Nucleases for Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Ousterout, David G.; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    The development of a facile genome engineering technology based on transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has led to significant advances in diverse areas of science and medicine. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the development of TALENs and the use of this technology in basic science, biotechnology, and biomedical applications. This includes the discovery of DNA recognition by TALEs, engineering new TALE proteins to diverse targets, general advances in nuclea...

  9. Tegn kan også Tale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Jutta; Niebe, Susanne; Bisgaard, Hanne

    "Tegn kan også Tale" er et begyndermateriale til undervisning af syns- og hørehæmmede døvblindblevne i taktil tegnstøttet kommunikation - en ny taktil kommunikationsform, som bygger på det danske sprog og bruger tegn og andre elementer fra døves tegnsprog. Tegn kan også Tale´ henvender sig primært...

  10. Effects of hyperthyroidism on hand grip strength and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkol İnal, Esra; Çarlı, Alparslan Bayram; Çanak, Sultan; Aksu, Oğuzhan; Köroğlu, Banu Kale; Savaş, Serpil

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a pathologic condition in which the body is exposed to excessive amounts of circulating thyroid hormones. Skeletal muscle is one of the major target organs of thyroid hormones. We evaluated hand grip strength and function in patients with overt hyperthyroidism. Fifty-one patients newly diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and 44 healthy controls participated in this study. Age, height, weight, and dominant hand of all participants were recorded. The diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was confirmed by clinical examination and laboratory tests. Hand grip strength was tested at the dominant hand with a Jamar hand dynamometer. The grooved pegboard test (PGT) was used to evaluate hand dexterity. The Duruöz Hand Index (DHI) was used to assess hand function. No significant differences were found in terms of clinical and demographic findings between the patients with hyperthyroidism and healthy controls (p > 0.05). Significant differences were found between the patients with hyperthyroidism and healthy controls regarding PGT and DHI scores (p Hyperthyroidism seemed to affect hand dexterity and function more than hand grip strength and seemed to be associated with reduced physical function more than muscle strength. This may also indicate that patients with hyperthyroidism should be evaluated by multidisplinary modalities.

  11. GRIPS - Gamma-Ray Imaging, Polarimetry and Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, J; Aharonian, F; Ajello, M; Balasz, L G; Barbiellini, G; Bellazzini, R; Bishop, S; Bisnovatij-Kogan, G S; Boggs, S; Bykov, A; DiCocco, G; Diehl, R; Elsässer, D; Foley, S; Fransson, C; Gehrels, N; Hanlon, L; Hartmann, D; Hermsen, W; Hillebrandt, W; Hudec, R; Iyudin, A; Jose, J; Kadler, M; Kanbach, G; Klamra, W; Kiener, J; Klose, S; Kreykenbohm, I; Kuiper, L M; Kylafis, N; Labanti, C; Langanke, K; Langer, N; Larsson, S; Leibundgut, B; Laux, U; Longo, F; Maeda, K; Marcinkowski, R; Marisaldi, M; McBreen, B; McBreen, S; Meszaros, A; Nomoto, K; Pearce, M; Peer, A; Pian, E; Prantzos, N; Raffelt, G; Reimer, O; Rhode, W; Ryde, F; Schmidt, C; Silk, J; Shustov, B M; Strong, A; Tanvir, N; Thielemann, F -K; Tibolla, O; Tierney, D; Trümper, J; Varshalovich, D A; Wilms, J; Wrochna, G; Zdziarski, A; Zoglauer, A

    2011-01-01

    We propose to perform a continuously scanning all-sky survey from 200 keV to 80 MeV achieving a sensitivity which is better by a factor of 40 or more compared to the previous missions in this energy range. The Gamma-Ray Imaging, Polarimetry and Spectroscopy (GRIPS) mission addresses fundamental questions in ESA's Cosmic Vision plan. Among the major themes of the strategic plan, GRIPS has its focus on the evolving, violent Universe, exploring a unique energy window. We propose to investigate $\\gamma$-ray bursts and blazars, the mechanisms behind supernova explosions, nucleosynthesis and spallation, the enigmatic origin of positrons in our Galaxy, and the nature of radiation processes and particle acceleration in extreme cosmic sources including pulsars and magnetars. The natural energy scale for these non-thermal processes is of the order of MeV. Although they can be partially and indirectly studied using other methods, only the proposed GRIPS measurements will provide direct access to their primary photons. G...

  12. True Hermaphrodite: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zafar Iqbal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available True hermaphrodite is one of the rarest variety of disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD and represents only 5% cases of all. A 3-year-old child presented with left sided undescended testis and penoscrotal hypospadias. Chordee correction was performed 18 months back, elsewhere. At laparotomy Mullerian structures were present on left side. On right side testis was normally descended into the scrotum.

  13. In search of true friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Karine de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present text proposes a discussion on the concept of true friendship. The argument is grounded mostly on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, Owen Flanagan's ethics as human ecology, and on contemporary authors' works about the Greek philosopher's concept of friendship. Given that human beings flourish through 1 exercising capacities, 2 being moral, and 3 having true friendships, difficulties to establish the level of trust required by true friendships turns the search itself (for them morally valid.O presente texto propõe uma discussão sobre o conceito de amizade verdadeira. A argumentação que fundamenta o trabalho baseia-se em grande parte na Ética a Nicômaco de Aristóteles, na ética como ecologia humana de Owen Flanagan, e em autores contemporâneos sobre o conceito de amizade do filósofo grego. Considerando-se que seres humanos encontram a felicidade mediante 1 o exercício de suas capacidades, 2 ser um ente moral, e 3 ter amizades verdadeiras, as dificuldades no estabelecimento do nível de amizade requerido nas amizades verdadeiras torna a busca (por elas, por si só, algo moralmente válido.

  14. True CMB Power Spectrum Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Paykari, P; Fadili, M J

    2012-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum is a powerful cosmological probe as it entails almost all the statistical information of the CMB perturbations. Having access to only one sky, the CMB power spectrum measured by our experiments is only a realization of the true underlying angular power spectrum. In this paper we aim to recover the true underlying CMB power spectrum from the one realization that we have without a need to know the cosmological parameters. The sparsity of the CMB power spectrum is first investigated in two dictionaries; Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Wavelet Transform (WT). The CMB power spectrum can be recovered with only a few percentage of the coefficients in both of these dictionaries and hence is very compressible in these dictionaries. We study the performance of these dictionaries in smoothing a set of simulated power spectra. Based on this, we develop a technique that estimates the true underlying CMB power spectrum from data, i.e. without a need to know the cosmo...

  15. A Fairy-Tale Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation Fun, fairy-tale nicknames have been assigned to features in this animated view of the workspace reachable by the robotic arm of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. For example, 'Sleepy Hollow' denotes a trench and 'Headless' designates a rock. A 'National Park,' marked by purple text and a purple arrow, has been set aside for protection until scientists and engineers have tested the operation of the robotic scoop. First touches with the scoop will be to the left of the 'National Park' line. Scientists use such informal names for easy identification of features of interest during the mission. In this view, rocks are circled in yellow, other areas of interest in green. The images were taken by the lander's 7-foot mast camera, called the Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Physics of the TALE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G. B.

    The Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE) Experiment consists of three detectors which will extend the sensitivity in energy of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment by two orders of magnitude, from 18.5

  17. The Category of Time in Fairy Tales: Searching for Folk Calendar Time in the Estonian Fairy Tale Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairi Kaasik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines how folk calendar holidays are represented in Estonian fairy tales. It introduces some views presented in folklore studies about the concept of time in fairy tales and finds parallels with them in the Estonian context. The analysis relies on the digital corpus of Estonian fairy tales (5400 variants, created from the texts found in the Estonian Folklore Archives by the Fairy Tale Project of the Department of Estonian and Comparative Folklore, University of Tartu. Folk calendar holidays occur in Estonian fairy tales relatively seldom; most often these are holidays that occupy a significant place in the Estonian folk calendar (Christmas, St. John’s Day, Easter, St. George’s Day. Calendar holidays are notably mentioned more often in tale types which remain on the borderline between the fairy tale and the legend or the fairy tale and the religious tale. In Estonian fairy tales, calendar holidays are used on three levels of meaning: (1 the holiday is organically associated with the tale type; it has an essential role in the plot of the tale; (2 to a certain extent, the holiday could be replaced by another holiday having an analogous meaning; (3 the holiday forms an unimportant or occasional addition to the tale.

  18. "A Peculiar Understanding": Re-creating the Literary Fairy Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ellin

    1983-01-01

    Recommends literary fairy tales, or art fairy tales, as a rich source of material for the accomplished storyteller or for the beginner who has an affinity for stories written by literary stylists. (AEA)

  19. Effect of object width on precision grip force and finger posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domalain, M; Vigouroux, L; Danion, F; Sevrez, V; Berton, E

    2008-09-01

    This study aimed to define the effect of object width on spontaneous grasp. Participants held objects of various masses (0.75 to 2.25 kg) and widths (3.5 to 9.5 cm) between thumb and index finger. Grip force, maximal grip force and corresponding finger postures were recorded using an embedded force sensor and an optoelectronic system, respectively. Results showed that index finger joints varied to accommodate the object width, whereas thumb posture remained constant across conditions. For a given object mass, grip force increased as a function of object width, although this result is not dictated by the laws of mechanics. Because maximal grip force also increased with object width, we hypothesise that participants maintain a constant ratio between grip force and their maximal grip force at each given width. Altogether we conclude that when the task consists in manipulating objects/tools, the optimal width is different than when maximal force exertions are required.

  20. Effects of Sensory Deficit on Phalanx Force Deviation During Power Grip Post Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Leah R; Seo, Na Jin

    2017-01-01

    The effect of sensory deficits on power grip force from individual phalanges was examined. The authors found that stroke survivors with sensory deficits (determined by the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test) gripped with phalanx force directed more tangential to the object surface, than those without, although both groups had similar motor deficits (Chedoke-McMaster and Fugl-Meyer), grip strength, and skin friction. Altered grip force direction elevates risk of finger slippage against the object thus grip loss/object dropping, hindering activities of daily living. Altered grip force direction was associated with altered muscle activation patterns. In summary, the motor impairment level alone may not describe hand motor control in detail. Information about sensory deficits helps elucidate patients' hand motor control with functional relevance.

  1. Discrimination of handlebar grip samples by fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy analysis and statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors presented a study on the discrimination of handlebar grip samples, to provide effective forensic science service for hit and run traffic cases. 50 bicycle handlebar grip samples, 49 electric bike handlebar grip samples, and 96 motorcycle handlebar grip samples have been randomly collected by the local police in Beijing (China. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR was utilized as analytical technology. Then, target absorption selection, data pretreatment, and discrimination of linked samples and unlinked samples were chosen as three steps to improve the discrimination of FTIR spectrums collected from different handlebar grip samples. Principal component analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve were utilized to evaluate different data selection methods and different data pretreatment methods, respectively. It is possible to explore the evidential value of handlebar grip residue evidence through instrumental analysis and statistical treatments. It will provide a universal discrimination method for other forensic science samples as well.

  2. Robust, synergistic regulation of human gene expression using TALE activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Morgan L; Linder, Samantha J; Reyon, Deepak; Angstman, James F; Fu, Yanfang; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith

    2013-03-01

    Artificial activators designed using transcription activator-like effector (TALE) technology have broad utility, but previous studies suggest that these monomeric proteins often exhibit low activities. Here we demonstrate that TALE activators can robustly function individually or in synergistic combinations to increase expression of endogenous human genes over wide dynamic ranges. These findings will encourage applications of TALE activators for research and therapy, and guide design of monomeric TALE-based fusion proteins.

  3. ANALYTICAL RESEARCH ON THE GRIP VARIATION OF TWO-AXLE CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen IVANOV

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical investigation on the decrease in grip coefficient of a car due to the car mass changes for three different running conditions- straightforward, motion in curve and braking. The grip of two types of cars - with forward and rear traction, equipped with three models of tires are studied. The results show a significant decrease of the grip coefficient in longitudinal and lateral directions.

  4. Control of Precision Grip Force in Lifting and Holding of Low-Mass Objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Hiramatsu

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the control of grip force when manipulating an object with an extremely small mass using a precision grip, although some related information has been provided by studies conducted in an unusual microgravity environment. Grip-load force coordination was examined while healthy adults (N = 17 held a moveable instrumented apparatus with its mass changed between 6 g and 200 g in 14 steps, with its grip surface set as either sandpaper or rayon. Additional measurements of grip-force-dependent finger-surface contact area and finger skin indentation, as well as a test of weight discrimination, were also performed. For each surface condition, the static grip force was modulated in parallel with load force while holding the object of a mass above 30 g. For objects with mass smaller than 30 g, on the other hand, the parallel relationship was changed, resulting in a progressive increase in grip-to-load force (GF/LF ratio. The rayon had a higher GF/LF force ratio across all mass levels. The proportion of safety margin in the static grip force and normalized moment-to-moment variability of the static grip force were also elevated towards the lower end of the object mass for both surfaces. These findings indicate that the strategy of grip force control for holding objects with an extremely small mass differs from that with a mass above 30 g. The data for the contact area, skin indentation, and weight discrimination suggest that a decreased level of cutaneous feedback signals from the finger pads could have played some role in a cost function in efficient grip force control with low-mass objects. The elevated grip force variability associated with signal-dependent and internal noises, and anticipated inertial force on the held object due to acceleration of the arm and hand, could also have contributed to the cost function.

  5. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

  6. Grip strength in healthy caucasian adults: reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Christian M; Bürger, Alexander; Rickert, Markus; Crispin, Alexander; Schulz, Christoph U

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to update reference data of handgrip strength for healthy adults of both genders spanning a wide age range and to analyze possible factors of influence. Intraindividual and interindividual variations of grip strength and their relation to several anthropometric factors were analyzed in a standardized manner for 769 healthy adults (women, n = 403; men, n = 366) aged between 20 years and 95 years. Measurements were done in neutral position of arm, forearm, and wrist on setting II of a Baseline digital hydraulic dynamometer (NexGen Ergonomics Inc. Quebec, Canada). Mean strength was about 41% less in women (right 29 kg; left 27 kg) than in men (right 49 kg; left 47 kg) resulting in a ratio of left to right hand slightly above .95 in both genders. During the course of life, hand strength develops comparably in both genders peaking at 35 years of age and decreasing continuously further on. Anthropometric variables such as forearm circumference and length, hand size, or body mass showed a positive correlation with grip strength. Body mass index, type of work, and hand dominance showed only a partial positive correlation or no correlation with grip strength. Gender and age, followed by parameters representing body length and obesity, were observed to have the highest predictive value for handgrip strength and were therefore entered into the generation of prediction equations. We recommend side adjustment of measured values for intraindividual comparison and inclusion of information regarding anthropometric characteristics, as well as using gender- and age-adjusted reference values, whereas hand dominance can be neglected. The regression equations we generated might prove to be useful for clinicians or for those who use normative values within software to provide more accurate predictions of strength scores for specific applications.

  7. Through Fairy-Tales to Math in the Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersone, Rudite

    2009-01-01

    Every person in his lifetime has many times experienced the miraculous impact of the fairy-tale on his imagination, mind and feelings. But we seldom reflect upon the content not only in the ethical aspect of fairy-tales but also as a source of different kinds of knowledge, among them the knowledge of mathematics. The use of fairy-tales in lessons…

  8. Using Fairy Tales To Generate High Interest in Short Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how fairy tales provide the vehicle by which students become genuinely engaged in reading and writing short fiction. Outlines a three-step process moving students from familiar stories, to variations on traditional tales, finally to new stories. Details how writing, revising, illustrating, and binding a fairy tale engages students. (PM)

  9. GRIPS - Gamma-Ray Burst Investigation via Polarimetry and Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, J

    2008-01-01

    The primary scientific goal of the GRIPS mission is to revolutionize our understanding of the early universe using gamma-ray bursts. We propose a new generation gamma-ray observatory capable of unprecedented spectroscopy over a wide range of gamma-ray energies (200 keV--50 MeV) and of polarimetry (200--1000 keV). Secondary goals achievable by this mission include direct measurements of supernova interiors through gamma-rays from radioactive decays, nuclear astrophysics with massive stars and novae, and studies of particle acceleration near compact stars, interstellar shocks, and clusters of galaxies.

  10. GRIP Database original data - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us GRIPDB GRIP Database original data Data detail Data name GRIP Database original data DOI 10....18908/lsdba.nbdc01665-006 Description of data contents GRIP Database original data It consists of data table...s and sequences. Data file File name: gripdb_original_data.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/gripdb/LATEST/gripdb_orig...e Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us GRIP Database original data - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive ... ...inal_data.zip File size: 779 KB Simple search URL - Data

  11. Pencil grips, legibility, and speed of fourth-graders' writing in cursive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziatek, Susan M; Powell, Nancy J

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study how the speed and legibility of fourth-graders handwriting was affected by type of pencil grip on the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting-Cursive. Ninety-five typically developing students and 6 students receiving special education services completed the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting-Cursive (ETCH-C). Photographs were taken of their pencil grips while they wrote the alphabet. One-way ANOVAs were calculated to compare legibility rates and writing speeds by type of pencil grip. Ninety-nine of the students used one of four pencil grips including the dynamic tripod (38 students), the dynamic quadrupod (18), the lateral tripod (22), and the lateral quadrupod (21). One student used the four-finger pencil grip and one used the interdigital pencil grip. Mean cursive writing speeds were similar for all pencil grips except for the interdigital grasp. Speeds obtained were slower than recently published fourth-grade speeds ranging from a mean of 29.45 to 34.75 letters per minute. CONCLUSION. This study found the lateral quadrupod and four-finger pencil grips to be as functional as the dynamic tripod, lateral tripod, and dynamic quadrupod pencil grips. This study provides average handwriting speeds for fourth-grade students on the ETCH-C.

  12. Delayed grip relaxation and altered modulation of intracortical inhibition with aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motawar, Binal; Stinear, James W.; Lauer, Abigail W.; Ramakrishnan, V. Viswanathan; Seo, Na Jin

    2015-01-01

    Grip relaxation is a voluntary action that requires an increase in short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) in healthy young adults, rather than a simple termination of excitatory drive. The way aging affects this voluntary inhibitory action and timing of grip relaxation is currently unknown. The objective of this study was to examine aging-related delays in grip relaxation and SICI modulation for the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle during grip relaxation. The main finding was that young adults increased SICI to relax their grips, whereas older adults did not increase SICI with a prolonged grip relaxation time (prelaxation time). A secondary experiment showed that both young and older adults did not change H reflex excitability during grip relaxation. Our data suggest that grip relaxation is mediated by increased cortical inhibitory output in young adults, and aging-related impairment in increasing cortical inhibitory output may hamper timely cessation of muscle activity. Our data also suggest a lesser role of the spinal circuits in grip muscle relaxation. This knowledge may contribute to understanding of aging-related movement deterioration and development of interventions for improving modulation of SICI to improve muscle relaxation and movement coordination. PMID:26686531

  13. TALE nucleases and next generation GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Magdy M; Li, Lixin

    2011-01-01

    Site-specific and adaptable DNA binding domains are essential modules to develop genome engineering technologies for crop improvement. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) proteins are used to provide a highly specific and adaptable DNA binding modules. TALE chimeric nucleases (TALENs) were used to generate site-specific double strand breaks (DSBs) in vitro and in yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, mammalian and plant cells. The genomic DSBs can be generated at predefined and user-selected loci and repaired by either the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology dependent repair (HDR). Thus, TALENs can be used to achieve site-specific gene addition, stacking, deletion or inactivation. TALE-based genome engineering tools should be powerful to develop new agricultural biotechnology approaches for crop improvement. Here, we discuss the recent research and the potential applications of TALENs to accelerate the generation of genomic variants through targeted mutagenesis and to produce a non-transgenic GM crops with the desired phenotype.

  14. TALE nucleases and next generation GM crops.

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2011-04-01

    Site-specific and adaptable DNA binding domains are essential modules to develop genome engineering technologies for crop improvement. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) proteins are used to provide a highly specific and adaptable DNA binding modules. TALE chimeric nucleases (TALENs) were used to generate site-specific double strand breaks (DSBs) in vitro and in yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, mammalian and plant cells. The genomic DSBs can be generated at predefined and user-selected loci and repaired by either the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology dependent repair (HDR). Thus, TALENs can be used to achieve site-specific gene addition, stacking, deletion or inactivation. TALE-based genome engineering tools should be powerful to develop new agricultural biotechnology approaches for crop improvement. Here, we discuss the recent research and the potential applications of TALENs to accelerate the generation of genomic variants through targeted mutagenesis and to produce a non-transgenic GM crops with the desired phenotype.

  15. True-to-Life? Realistic Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that modern realistic fiction for young readers is intensely moralistic and directive at the spoken and unspoken behest of the adults who write, select, and buy that literature. Discusses moral tales, early realistic fiction, modern realistic fiction, and choosing realistic fiction. (RS)

  16. True-to-Life? Realistic Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that modern realistic fiction for young readers is intensely moralistic and directive at the spoken and unspoken behest of the adults who write, select, and buy that literature. Discusses moral tales, early realistic fiction, modern realistic fiction, and choosing realistic fiction. (RS)

  17. Himalayan Folklore and the Fairy Tale Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Orton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on fieldwork by the author conducted in Tibetan cultural areas of the Indian Himalayas, this paper explores Himalayan understandings of what defines a fairy tale, in contrast to the Western understanding. In parts of the Himalayas, a distinction is made between “lakshung” (fairy tales and “kyakshung”, which are shorter stories, the kind one might tell over tea. In light of the proposals to record and disseminate many of these stories using new media, this paper seeks to examine these genre definitions and investigates the various contexts in which these stories are told.

  18. Comparative study of maximum isometric grip strength in different sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Gomes Borges Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare maximum isometric grip strength (Fmaxbetween different sports and between the dominant (FmaxD and non-dominant (FmaxND hand. Twenty-nine male aikido (AI, jiujitsu (JJ, judo (JU and rowing (RO athletes and 21non-athletes (NA participated in the study. The hand strength test consisted of maintainingmaximum isometric grip strength for 10 seconds using a hand dynamometer. The position of the subjects was that suggested by the American Society of Hand Therapy. Factorial 2X5 ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, followed by a paired t test and Tukey test, was used for statistical analysis. The highest Fmax values were observed for the JJ group when using the dominant hand,followed by the JU, RO, AI and NA groups. Variation in Fmax could be attributed to handdominance (30.9%, sports modality (39.9% and the interaction between hand dominance andsport (21.3%. The present results demonstrated significant differences in Fmax between the JJ and AI groups and between the JJ and NA groups for both the dominant and non-dominant hand. Significant differences in Fmax between the dominant and non-dominant hand were only observed in the AI and NA groups. The results indicate that Fmax can be used for comparisonbetween different sports modalities, and to identify differences between the dominant and nondominanthand. Studies involving a larger number of subjects will permit the identification of differences between other modalities.

  19. Grip pressure measurements during activities of daily life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Joe; Young, Carolyn; Popa, Dan; Bugnariu, Nicoleta; Patterson, Rita

    2014-06-01

    Research has expanded human-machine communication methods past direct programming and standard hand- held joystick control. Individual force sensors have been used as a simple means of providing environmental information to a robot and research has shown that more advanced sensitive skins can be viable input devices. These touch sensitive surfaces allow for additional modes of interaction between machines in open, undefined environments. These interactions include object detection for navigation and safety but can also be used for recognition of users command gestures by their machine partner. Key to successful implementation of these gestures is the understanding of varied strategies used for communication and interaction and the development of performance limits. Data of dominant hand grip forces was collected using a Tekscan Grip VersaTek Pressure Measurement System during opening of a door. Analysis of data from 10 male and female subjects is presented. The results of qualitative and quantitative analysis of these data show variability in hand configurations between users. Average data over the cohort is reported. These data will be used in future work to provide human metrology constraints and limits for use in simulation and design of new, physical human-robot interaction systems.

  20. Fairy tales as a trance experience: possible therapeutic uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Guille, M E; Boersma, F J

    1992-04-01

    The psychological literature contains little documentation of the therapeutic use of fairy tales. We suggest that fairy tales are uniquely suitable for hypnotherapy and for helping clients reframe existential issues. We propose that the structure of fairy tales allows the meaning of the story to be applied personally and that they also stimulate unconscious search. We examine the way in which hypnosis is achieved when fairy tales are read to children, as well as possible therapeutic uses of this learning set in therapy with both children and adults. We conclude by suggesting that fairy tales need to be given serious consideration as an alternative therapeutic trance procedure.

  1. Comparative study of millennials' (age 20-34 years) grip and lateral pinch with the norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Elizabeth; Weatherford, Cara

    Cross-sectional research design. Clinical practice continues to use normative data for grip and pinch measurements that were established in 1985. There is no updated norms despite different hand usage patterns in today's society. Measuring and comparing grip and pinch strengths with normative data is a valid method to determine hand function. This research was implemented to compare the grip and pinch measurements obtained from healthy millennials to the established norms and to describe hand usage patterns for millennials. Grip and lateral pinch measurements were obtained from a sample of 237 healthy millennials (ages 20-34 years). Strength scores were statistically lower that older normative data in all millennial grip strengths, with the exception of the women in the age group of 30-34 years. Specifically, this statistically significant trend was observed in all male grip strengths, as well as in women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). However, the lateral pinch data reflected was similar to the older norms with variances of 0.5-1 kg. Current data reflect statistically significant differences from the norms for all male grip measurements, as well as for women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). No statistical significance was observed in the independent-sample t tests for the lateral pinch in men of all age groups. Statistical significance was noted for lateral pinch for female age groups for the left hand (20-24 years) and for bilateral lateral pinches (30-34 years). IV. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. "Clockwork": Philip Pullman's Posthuman Fairy Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the connections between posthumanism and narrative form in Philip Pullman's "Clockwork." Beginning with an account of Pullman's materialism, it argues that the novel represents consciousness and agency as emergent properties of matter, a position that manifests itself first in the tale's figurative language and later in the…

  3. Fairy Tale Retellings between Art and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    In this article, it is shown how authors of fairy tale retellings have incorporated ideas of feminist literary criticism into a fictional form. As such, these retellings display the tension between the pedagogic and aesthetic aspects of all children's literature. Jane Yolen's "Sleeping Ugly" is chosen as a case study: although it can be argued…

  4. "Clockwork": Philip Pullman's Posthuman Fairy Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the connections between posthumanism and narrative form in Philip Pullman's "Clockwork." Beginning with an account of Pullman's materialism, it argues that the novel represents consciousness and agency as emergent properties of matter, a position that manifests itself first in the tale's figurative language and later in the…

  5. Semi-étale groupoids and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    We associate a C * -algebra to a locally compact Hausdorff groupoid with the property that the range map is locally injective. The construction generalizes J. Renault’s reduced groupoid C * -algebra of an étale groupoid and has the advantage that it works for the groupoid arising from a locally i...

  6. Tales of evaluation in school mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    This is the tale of the power effects of evaluation in the shaping of the desired child. It maps, by using historical and cultural strategies, the circulating truths about standardized assessments, about the need for learning mathematics, and about the axiomatization of space. The analysis takes...

  7. Law as a Tale of Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2010-01-01

    Understanding law as a tale of identity, indentity includes what we ought as much as what we are. Criticism of law and literature of seing literature as having precende over law which is a mere technicality. Different human rights consceptions in Denmark compared to Europe equal diffent identities....

  8. Annals of Academic Life: An Exemplary Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Kampf

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The narrator of the following vignette is not to be mistaken for the author. Though the tale appears to be autobiographical, it must be a fiction. Academic institutions, as we know, are the repositories of rationality. Professors have been bequeathed the patrimony of the Enlightenment. Such evidence indicates that the events described below could not possibly have happened.

  9. Semi-étale groupoids and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    We associate a C * -algebra to a locally compact Hausdorff groupoid with the property that the range map is locally injective. The construction generalizes J. Renault’s reduced groupoid C * -algebra of an étale groupoid and has the advantage that it works for the groupoid arising from a locally i...

  10. Chongqing:A Tale of Two Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James H.Zhao

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is known more for its hot and spicy boiling food than for its cotton textile industry which is almost nothing when it compares with those cotton spinning giants in China's coastal provinces. Coupled with both old culture and modern textile industry, Chcongqing has both roles to perform. "A Tale of Two Cities" continues its story in a scenario of China's southwestern land...

  11. Very true operators on MTL-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to investigate very true MTL-algebras and prove the completeness of the very true MTL-logic. In this paper, the concept of very true operators on MTL-algebras is introduced and some related properties are investigated. Also, conditions for an MTL-algebra to be an MV-algebra and a Gödel algebra are given via this operator. Moreover, very true filters on very true MTL-algebras are studied. In particular, subdirectly irreducible very true MTL-algebras are characterized and an analogous of representation theorem for very true MTL-algebras is proved. Then, the left and right stabilizers of very true MTL-algebras are introduced and some related properties are given. As applications of stabilizer of very true MTL-algebras, we produce a basis for a topology on very true MTL-algebras and show that the generated topology by this basis is Baire, connected, locally connected and separable. Finally, the corresponding logic very true MTL-logic is constructed and the soundness and completeness of this logic are proved based on very true MTL-algebras.

  12. The Effect of Handedness on Grip Strength in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Grip strength is an important predictor of several health outcomes in the general older population. Grip strength assessment is feasible and reliable in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which makes it a valuable measurement for application in this population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of handedness on…

  13. Children with flat feet have weaker toe grip strength than those having a normal arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Yuto; Fukumoto, Takahiko; Uritani, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Adachi, Daiki; Hotta, Takayuki; Morino, Saori; Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nozaki, Yuma; Hirata, Hinako; Yamaguchi, Moe; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the relationship between toe grip strength and foot posture in children. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 619 children participated in this study. The foot posture of the participants was measured using a foot printer and toe grip strength was measured using a toe grip dynamometer. Children were classified into 3 groups; flatfoot, normal, and high arch, according to Staheli’s arch index. The differences in demographic data and toe grip strength among each foot posture group were analyzed by analysis of variance. Additionally, toe grip strength differences were analyzed by analysis of covariance, adjusted to body mass index, age, and gender. [Results] The number of participants classified as flatfoot, normal, and high arch were 110 (17.8%), 468 (75.6%), and 41 (6.6%), respectively. The toe grip strength of flatfoot children was significantly lower than in normal children, as shown by both analysis of variance and analysis of covariance. [Conclusion] A significant difference was detected in toe grip strength between the low arch and normal foot groups. Therefore, it is suggested that training to increase toe grip strength during childhood may prevent the formation of flat feet or help in the development of arch. PMID:26696732

  14. Biomimetics approach for methods to release microobjects from the gripping tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gegeckaite, Asta; Moon, Jack; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    In the micro scale, gripping devices are working in the different way. New forces, working in the micro scale, like van der Waals, surface tension and electrostatics are influencing the gripping process. Handling of micro or even nano sized objects can be easily in the nature. Different types of ...

  15. Getting a Grip on Numbers: Numerical Magnitude Priming in Object Grasping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Oliver; Abolafia, Juan M.; Girardi, Giovanna; Bekkering, Harold

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the functional connection between numerical cognition and action planning, the authors required participants to perform different grasping responses depending on the parity status of Arabic digits. The results show that precision grip actions were initiated faster in response to small numbers, whereas power grips were initiated…

  16. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1512 - Typical Handbrake Actuator Showing Grip Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Typical Handbrake Actuator Showing Grip Dimension 5 Figure 5 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Actuator Showing Grip Dimension EC03OC91.072 ...

  17. Biomimetics approach for methods to release microobjects from the gripping tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gegeckaite, Asta; Moon, Jack; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    In the micro scale, gripping devices are working in the different way. New forces, working in the micro scale, like van der Waals, surface tension and electrostatics are influencing the gripping process. Handling of micro or even nano sized objects can be easily in the nature. Different types of ...

  18. A Heroic Tale's Travel from Siberia to the Balto-Finnic Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi Salve

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns a fairy tale from A. Andreiev’s fairy-tale index, namely AA 967, which has greatly interested Russian researchers because of its connection with bylina. However, this story is not of East Slavic origin but has enetered the Russians’ repertoire as a substrate. The case is even more interesting since the same story is also known in far East Siberia, among the Paleoasiatic Kets and Samoyed Selkups. The Ket stories are vividly Siberian narratives of inter-tribal feud. The same applies to the story’s western distribution’s periphery - it has been told as a true story in Finland and P.-L. Rausmaa has indexed it as a historical legend. Finnish and Ket versions are similar, while Karelian, Vepsian and probably also the version spread to Russians from them has obtained fairy tale motifs. Undisputable is the common origin of all these stories: coinciding facts are too complex to assume random similarity. The article also discusses whether the narrative is hostile towards women.

  19. Activation of silenced cytokine gene promoters by the synergistic effect of TBP-TALE and VP64-TALE activators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Anthony

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that the combinatorial use of multiple TALE activators can selectively activate certain cellular genes in inaccessible chromatin regions. In this study, we aimed to interrogate the activation potential of TALEs upon transcriptionally silenced immune genes in the context of non-immune cells. We designed a unique strategy, in which a single TALE fused to the TATA-box binding protein (TBP-TALE is coupled with multiple VP64-TALE activators. We found that our strategy is significantly more potent than multiple TALE activators alone in activating expression of IL-2 and GM-CSF in diverse cell origins in which both genes are otherwise completely silenced. Chromatin analysis revealed that the gene activation was due in part to displacement of a distinctly positioned nucleosome. These studies provide a novel epigenetic mechanism for artificial gene induction and have important implications for targeted cancer immunotherapy, DNA vaccine development, as well as rational design of TALE activators.

  20. Activation of silenced cytokine gene promoters by the synergistic effect of TBP-TALE and VP64-TALE activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Kim; More, Abhijit; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the combinatorial use of multiple TALE activators can selectively activate certain cellular genes in inaccessible chromatin regions. In this study, we aimed to interrogate the activation potential of TALEs upon transcriptionally silenced immune genes in the context of non-immune cells. We designed a unique strategy, in which a single TALE fused to the TATA-box binding protein (TBP-TALE) is coupled with multiple VP64-TALE activators. We found that our strategy is significantly more potent than multiple TALE activators alone in activating expression of IL-2 and GM-CSF in diverse cell origins in which both genes are otherwise completely silenced. Chromatin analysis revealed that the gene activation was due in part to displacement of a distinctly positioned nucleosome. These studies provide a novel epigenetic mechanism for artificial gene induction and have important implications for targeted cancer immunotherapy, DNA vaccine development, as well as rational design of TALE activators.

  1. Hand grip strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Moa Jeong,1 Hyung Koo Kang,1 Pamela Song,2 Hye Kyeong Park,1 Hoon Jung,1 Sung-Soon Lee,1 Hyeon-Kyoung Koo1 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Neurology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Republic of Korea Purpose: Hand grip strength (HGS is a simple way of predicting the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in the general population. However, the practical significance of grip strength in patients with COPD is uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare HGS between subjects with and without COPD and to evaluate its clinical relevance in patients with COPD by using a national survey.Methods: Data were collected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study included 421 adults with COPD and 2,542 controls who completed questionnaires, spirometry, and a HGS test. HGS was compared between subjects with and without COPD, and the association between grip strength, lung function, and quality of life (QoL was evaluated.Results: The mean HGS was 33.3±9.1 kg in the COPD group and 29.9±9.5 kg in the non-COPD group; adjusted HGS was 30.9±0.33 kg and 30.9±0.11 kg, respectively (P=0.99. HGS was not related to forced vital capacity (β=0.04, P=0.70 or forced expiratory volume in 1 second (β=0.11, P=0.24 in multivariable analysis. HGS was independently associated with the EQ-5D index, but the relationship was stronger in the COPD group (β=0.30, P<0.001 than in the non-COPD group (β=0.21, P<0.001. The results were similar for each component of the EQ-5D, including mobility (β=-0.25, P<0.001, daily activity (β=-0.19, P=0.01, pain/discomfort (β=-0.32, P<0.001, and anxiety/depression (β=-0.16, P=0.01.Conclusion: HGS was not different between subjects with and without COPD, but was associated with QoL – including mobility, daily activity, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression – in patients with COPD. The

  2. Force analysis of the rowing stroke employing two differing oar grips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompa, T O; Hebbelinck, M; Van Gheluwe, B

    1985-06-01

    The velocity of the rowing boat appears to depend on the force which the athlete applies at the handle of the oar. Although force is generated by legs, upper body, and arms, the latter are the only limbs which actually transmit and apply the force against the oar. The force output of the arms seem to be a function of the forearm position used by the athlete while gripping the oar. The traditional gripping technique is with the forearms in pronation. This technique was never challenged or scientifically researched to see whatever a modified one might lead to better efficiency. Consequently, the purpose of this investigation was to analyze whether athletes' force output differed if the gripping technique was changed from pronation to a semiprone grip (one arm prone, the other semiprone). Under the specific conditions of this investigation it was demonstrated that the semiprone position was generating greater force output, thus being superior to the classical prone grip.

  3. Effects of carpal tunnel syndrome on dexterous manipulation are grip type-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Johnston, Jamie A; Ross, Mark A; Sanniec, Kyle; Gleason, Elizabeth A; Dueck, Amylou C; Santello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) impairs sensation of a subset of digits. Although the effects of CTS on manipulation performed with CTS-affected digits have been studied using precision grip tasks, the extent to which CTS affects multi-digit force coordination has only recently been studied. Whole-hand manipulation studies have shown that CTS patients retain the ability to modulate multi-digit forces to object mass, mass distribution, and texture. However, CTS results in sensorimotor deficits relative to healthy controls, including significantly larger grip force and lower ability to balance the torques generated by the digits. Here we investigated the effects of CTS on multi-digit force modulation to object weight when manipulating an object with a variable number of fingers. We hypothesized that CTS patients would be able to modulate digit forces to object weight. However, as different grip types involve the exclusive use of CTS-affected digits ('uniform' grips) or a combination of CTS-affected and non-affected digits ('mixed' grips), we addressed the question of whether 'mixed' grips would reduce or worsen CTS-induced force coordination deficits. The former scenario would be due to adding digits with intact tactile feedback, whereas the latter scenario might occur due to a potentially greater challenge for the central nervous system of integrating 'noisy' and intact tactile feedback. CTS patients learned multi-digit force modulation to object weight regardless of grip type. Although controls exerted the same total grip force across all grip types, patients exerted significantly larger grip force than controls but only for manipulations with four and five digits. Importantly, this effect was due to CTS patients' inability to change the finger force distribution when adding the ring and little fingers. These findings suggest that CTS primarily challenges sensorimotor integration processes for dexterous manipulation underlying the coordination of CTS-affected and non

  4. Effects of carpal tunnel syndrome on dexterous manipulation are grip type-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS impairs sensation of a subset of digits. Although the effects of CTS on manipulation performed with CTS-affected digits have been studied using precision grip tasks, the extent to which CTS affects multi-digit force coordination has only recently been studied. Whole-hand manipulation studies have shown that CTS patients retain the ability to modulate multi-digit forces to object mass, mass distribution, and texture. However, CTS results in sensorimotor deficits relative to healthy controls, including significantly larger grip force and lower ability to balance the torques generated by the digits. Here we investigated the effects of CTS on multi-digit force modulation to object weight when manipulating an object with a variable number of fingers. We hypothesized that CTS patients would be able to modulate digit forces to object weight. However, as different grip types involve the exclusive use of CTS-affected digits ('uniform' grips or a combination of CTS-affected and non-affected digits ('mixed' grips, we addressed the question of whether 'mixed' grips would reduce or worsen CTS-induced force coordination deficits. The former scenario would be due to adding digits with intact tactile feedback, whereas the latter scenario might occur due to a potentially greater challenge for the central nervous system of integrating 'noisy' and intact tactile feedback. CTS patients learned multi-digit force modulation to object weight regardless of grip type. Although controls exerted the same total grip force across all grip types, patients exerted significantly larger grip force than controls but only for manipulations with four and five digits. Importantly, this effect was due to CTS patients' inability to change the finger force distribution when adding the ring and little fingers. These findings suggest that CTS primarily challenges sensorimotor integration processes for dexterous manipulation underlying the coordination of CTS

  5. Comparison of Infant Car Seat grip orientations and lift strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamann, Michael; Zhu, Biwen; Beaver, Leah; Taylor, Kinley; Kaber, David

    2012-07-01

    The rear-facing Infant Car Seat (ICS) is designed to meet federal requirements for transporting children less than 1 year old. Typical use includes transfer in and out of a vehicle, which is shown to be a difficult lift. Despite the frequency of this lift, manufacturers provide little guidance for users. Review of relevant literature suggested an ICS featuring an angled handle, promoting a neutral wrist posture, would increase grip stability and decrease lifting effort. Popular press suggested a foot-in-car stance for the ICS lift would do the same. An experiment was conducted in which wrist deviations from neutral posture were recorded along with lifting muscle activation levels (multiple flexor muscles and biceps brachii) and overall perceived exertion for straight versus a new bent handle design and conventional stance versus foot-in-car. Foot position was examined to test the recommendations in the popular press. Surprisingly, wrist deviation was not significantly affected by the new bent handle design (due to compensatory behavior with the straight handle) but was related to foot placement (p=0.04). Results revealed the bent handle to significantly reduce flexor activation compared with the straight handle (p=0.0003); however, the level of biceps activation increased. Biceps activation also significantly increased for foot-in-car stance (p=0.035) but not flexor activation. In general, the bent handle enabled the user to lift the ICS with a steadier grip and less effort. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. A New World to Discover-Grimm’s Fairy Tales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫槟菱

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the fairy tales have been on hot discussion. Some say that the very original Grimm's fairy tales is capricious that we may be more cautious whether it's suitable for children. With the rethinking of fairy tales, many other scholars argue that the fairy tales can be valuable with its hidden German customs in the original version and the current versions are acceptable to children.The hot discussion raises our thinking. This new discussing wave may indicate something at a degree that the Grimm’s Fairy Tales is worthy going deeper to study. We think that the Grimm's ferry tales is valuable for its pure essence and the German culture it hides that even adults should read it. Children can read the current version of Grimm's Fairy Tales with their innocence, getting the basic judging system of good and bad. The core question is that Adults also should pick it up. That’s because usually people will find that all the experiences and reasons can be dated back to the simple truths in fairy tales. Meantime, the Grimm's Fairy Tales reflects lots of unthinkable customs and culture. The only thing we need to do is try to find new aspects and directions to explore the classic. With the spiritual and academic help, shouldn't the Grimm's fairy tales be necessary for both children and adults to read?

  7. Directed evolution of the TALE N-terminal domain for recognition of all 5' bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Brian M; Mercer, Andrew C; Barbas, Carlos F

    2013-11-01

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins can be designed to bind virtually any DNA sequence. General guidelines for design of TALE DNA-binding domains suggest that the 5'-most base of the DNA sequence bound by the TALE (the N0 base) should be a thymine. We quantified the N0 requirement by analysis of the activities of TALE transcription factors (TALE-TF), TALE recombinases (TALE-R) and TALE nucleases (TALENs) with each DNA base at this position. In the absence of a 5' T, we observed decreases in TALE activity up to >1000-fold in TALE-TF activity, up to 100-fold in TALE-R activity and up to 10-fold reduction in TALEN activity compared with target sequences containing a 5' T. To develop TALE architectures that recognize all possible N0 bases, we used structure-guided library design coupled with TALE-R activity selections to evolve novel TALE N-terminal domains to accommodate any N0 base. A G-selective domain and broadly reactive domains were isolated and characterized. The engineered TALE domains selected in the TALE-R format demonstrated modularity and were active in TALE-TF and TALEN architectures. Evolved N-terminal domains provide effective and unconstrained TALE-based targeting of any DNA sequence as TALE binding proteins and designer enzymes.

  8. Using Hand Grip Force as a Correlate of Longitudinal Acceleration Comfort for Rapid Transit Trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Beiyuan; Gan, Weide; Fang, Weining

    2015-07-02

    Longitudinal acceleration comfort is one of the essential metrics used to evaluate the ride comfort of train. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using hand grip force as a correlate of longitudinal acceleration comfort of rapid transit trains. In the paper, a motion simulation system was set up and a two-stage experiment was designed to investigate the role of the grip force on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains. The results of the experiment show that the incremental grip force was linearly correlated with the longitudinal acceleration value, while the incremental grip force had no correlation with the direction of the longitudinal acceleration vector. The results also show that the effects of incremental grip force and acceleration duration on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains were significant. Based on multiple regression analysis, a step function model was established to predict the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains using the incremental grip force and the acceleration duration. The feasibility and practicably of the model was verified by a field test. Furthermore, a comparative analysis shows that the motion simulation system and the grip force based model were valid to support the laboratory studies on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains.

  9. TALE proteins search DNA using a rotationally decoupled mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuculis, Luke; Abil, Zhanar; Zhao, Huimin; Schroeder, Charles M

    2016-10-01

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins are a class of programmable DNA-binding proteins used extensively for gene editing. Despite recent progress, however, little is known about their sequence search mechanism. Here, we use single-molecule experiments to study TALE search along DNA. Our results show that TALEs utilize a rotationally decoupled mechanism for nonspecific search, despite remaining associated with DNA templates during the search process. Our results suggest that the protein helical structure enables TALEs to adopt a loosely wrapped conformation around DNA templates during nonspecific search, facilitating rapid one-dimensional (1D) diffusion under a range of solution conditions. Furthermore, this model is consistent with a previously reported two-state mechanism for TALE search that allows these proteins to overcome the search speed-stability paradox. Taken together, our results suggest that TALE search is unique among the broad class of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins and supports efficient 1D search along DNA.

  10. Rapid and accurate synthesis of TALE genes from synthetic oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenghua; Zhang, Hefei; Gao, Jingxia; Chen, Fengjiao; Chen, Sijie; Zhang, Cuizhen; Peng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Custom synthesis of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) genes has relied upon plasmid libraries of pre-fabricated TALE-repeat monomers or oligomers. Here we describe a novel synthesis method that directly incorporates annealed synthetic oligonucleotides into the TALE-repeat units. Our approach utilizes iterative sets of oligonucleotides and a translational frame check strategy to ensure the high efficiency and accuracy of TALE-gene synthesis. TALE arrays of more than 20 repeats can be constructed, and the majority of the synthesized constructs have perfect sequences. In addition, this novel oligonucleotide-based method can readily accommodate design changes to the TALE repeats. We demonstrated an increased gene targeting efficiency against a genomic site containing a potentially methylated cytosine by incorporating non-conventional repeat variable di-residue (RVD) sequences.

  11. The Development of TALE Nucleases for Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousterout, David G; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    The development of a facile genome engineering technology based on transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has led to significant advances in diverse areas of science and medicine. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the development of TALENs and the use of this technology in basic science, biotechnology, and biomedical applications. This includes the discovery of DNA recognition by TALEs, engineering new TALE proteins to diverse targets, general advances in nuclease-based editing strategies, and challenges that are specific to various applications of the TALEN technology. We review examples of applying TALENs for studying gene function and regulation, generating disease models, and developing gene therapies. The current status of genome editing and future directions for other uses of these technologies are also discussed.

  12. Telling business stories as fellowship-tales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Robert; Neergaard, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore the “Fellowship-Tale” as an alternative tale type for narrating entrepreneur stories. The authors illustrate this by telling the Pilgrim business story. It is common for the deeds of men who founded businesses to be narrated as heroic entrepreneur stories...... – The research indicates that “fellowship-tales” provide a viable and credible alternative to the fairy-tale rendition common in entrepreneur and business stories. Research limitations/implications – An obvious limitation is that one merely swaps one narrative framework for another, albeit it offers dissenting....../value – A key contribution is to challenge the hegemony of a dominant and embedded social construct allowing new understandings to emerge via a novel combination of research methodologies...

  13. Genome Editing in Rats Using TALE Nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesson, Laurent; Remy, Séverine; Ménoret, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Thinard, Reynald; Savignard, Chloé; De Cian, Anne; Giovannangeli, Carine; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Anegon, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important animal model to understand gene function and model human diseases. Since recent years, the development of gene-specific nucleases has become important for generating new rat models of human diseases, to analyze the role of genes and to generate human antibodies. Transcription activator-like (TALE) nucleases efficiently create gene-specific knockout rats and lead to the possibility of gene targeting by homology-directed recombination (HDR) and generating knock-in rats. We describe a detailed protocol for generating knockout and knock-in rats via microinjection of TALE nucleases into fertilized eggs. This technology is an efficient, cost- and time-effective method for creating new rat models.

  14. Kinetic measurements of hand motor impairments after mild to moderate stroke using grip control tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yu; Ma, Le; Yan, Tiebin; Liu, Huihua; Wei, Xijun; Song, Rong

    2014-05-11

    The aim of this study is to investigate quantitative outcome measurements of hand motor performance for subjects after mild to moderate stroke using grip control tasks and characterize abnormal flexion synergy of upper extremities after stroke. A customized dynamometer with force sensors was used to measure grip force and calculate rotation torque during the sub-maximal grip control tasks. The paretic and nonpartic sides of eleven subjects after stroke and the dominant sides of ten healthy persons were tested. Their maximal voluntary grip force was measured and used to set sub-maximal grip control tasks at three different target force levels. Force control ability was characterized by the maximal grip force, mean force percentage, coefficient of variation (CV), target deviation ratio (TDR), and rotation torque ratio (RTR). The motor impairments of subjects after stroke were also evaluated using the Fugl-Meyer assessment for upper extremity (FMA-UE) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Maximal grip force of the paretic side was significantly reduced as compared to the nonparetic side and the healthy group, while the difference of maximal grip force between the nonparetic side and the healthy group was not significant. TDR and RTR increased for all three groups with increasing target force level. There were significant differences of CV, TDR and RTR between the paretic side and the healthy group at all the force levels. CV, TDR and RTR showed significant negative correlations with FMA-UE and WMFT at 50% of maximum grip force. This study designed a customized dynamometer together with an innovative measurement, RTR, to investigate the hand motor performance of subjects after mild to moderate stroke during force control tasks. And stroke-induced abnormal flexion synergy of wrist and finger muscles could be characterized by RTR. This study also identified a set of kinetic parameters which can be applied to quantitatively assess the hand motor function of subjects after

  15. Hand-grip strength cut points to screen older persons at risk for mobility limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallinen, Janne; Stenholm, Sari; Rantanen, Taina; Heliövaara, Markku; Sainio, Päivi; Koskinen, Seppo

    2010-09-01

    To determine optimal hand-grip strength cut points for likelihood of mobility limitation in older people and to study whether these cut points differ according to body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional analysis of data. Data collected in the Finnish population-based Health 2000 Survey. One thousand eighty-four men and 1,562 women aged 55 and older with complete data on anthropometry, hand-grip strength and self-reported mobility. Mobility limitation was defined as difficulty walking 0.5 km or climbing stairs. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to estimate hand-grip strength cut points for likelihood of mobility limitation. The overall hand-grip strength cut points for likelihood of mobility limitation were 37 kg (sensitivity 62%; specificity 76%) for men and 21 kg (sensitivity 67%; specificity 73%) for women. The effect of the interaction between hand-grip strength and BMI on mobility limitation was significant in men (P=.02), but no such interaction was observed in women (P=.16). In men, the most-optimal cutoff points were 33 kg (sensitivity 73%; specificity 79%) for normal-weight men, 39 kg (sensitivity 67%; specificity 71%) for overweight men, and 40 kg (sensitivity 57%; specificity 68%) for obese men. In women, BMI-specific hand-grip strength cutoff values was not markedly more accurate than the overall cutoff value. The hand-grip strength test is a useful tool to identify persons at risk of mobility limitation. In men, hand-grip strength cut points for mobility increased with BMI, whereas in women, only one hand-grip strength threshold was identified. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Temporary threshold shift of vibratory sensation induced by a vibrating handle and its gripping force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, K; Taoda, K; Yamashita, H; Watanabe, S

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the force with which a vibrating handle is gripped on the temporary threshold shift of vibratory sensation (TTSv) induced by hand-arm vibration. Six healthy subjects gripped a handle vibrating with a 1.3 octave-band vibration, with a central frequency of 200 Hz and an intensity of 39.2 m/s2. Exposure was for 1 min and 10 min, respectively. Gripping forces for the 1-min exposure were 5 N, 10 N, 40 N and 80 N, respectively, with 0 N push-pull force. Gripping forces for the 10-min exposure were the same as for the 1-min exposure but omitting 80 N. The vibratory sensation threshold at 125 Hz was measured before and after exposure of an exposed fingertip to vibration. The differences measured determine TTSv.t at time t. TTSv.t determines TTSv.0, that is, the temporary threshold shift of vibratory sensation immediately after exposure to vibration according to the estimate made on the basis of the preceding study. The same experimental conditions were repeated 3 times on different days in a soundproof and thermoregulated room. Our findings show that TTSv increases significantly with increasing gripping force. We also determined the quantitative relationships between TTSv.0 and gripping force as described by the equation TTSv.0 = exp(kf x F + Cf). where kt and Cf are constants and F is gripping force. This study revealed the importance of ergonomic design in reducing the force with which a vibrating handle is gripped to prevent an adverse effect of local vibration. The equation devised may help in the quantitative assessment of the effect of reduced gripping force.

  17. Immediate and Delayed Effects of Forearm Kinesio Taping on Grip Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhzad Mohammadi, Hosein; Khademi Kalantari, Khosro; Naeimi, Sedighe Sadat; Pouretezad, Mohammad; Shokri, Esmaeil; Tafazoli, Mojdeh; Dastjerdi, Mahboobeh; Kardooni, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to the fundamental role of gripping in most upper limb activities, grip strength promotion is a chief goal in the treatment of patients with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. Kinesio taping is a novel and effective therapeutic technique believed to facilitate muscle contraction through stimulating mechanoreceptors and increasing the sensory feedback around the taped region. Objectives: The present study aimed to identify the best region (flexor, extensor and flexor/extensor regions) and time (immediate, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 hours) of forearm Kinesio taping to obtain the maximum improvement in grip strength. Materials and Methods: In this longitudinal study, 40 healthy men and women (the mean age of 22.3 ± 2.19 years) were selected among students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran by simple, nonrandom sampling method. A dynamometer was used to measure grip strength immediately and every 30 minutes during the two hours after I-shaped application of tape (with 50% stretch) to the flexor, extensor, and flexor/extensor forearm muscles. Results: Grip strength was significantly increased in various muscle groups for males (P = 0.002) and females (P = 0.000) of the forearm and at different intervals for males (P = 0.000) and females (P = 0.000). Moreover, in both men and women, tape application to the extensor region provided greater grip strength compared to taping of the flexor and flexor/extensor regions (P = 0.000 for both). Furthermore, the maximum increase in grip strength were 0.5 (10.8% increase, P = 0.001) and 1.5 h (23.9% increase, P = 0.000) after taping in males and females, respectively. Conclusions: Taping the extensor region of forearm is recommended to achieve higher grip strength. Although grip strength increased at a slower pace in females than males, the final values were higher in women. PMID:25389492

  18. The last half-repeat of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) is dispensable and thereby TALE-based technology can be simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chong-Ke; Wang, Chun-Lian; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Fu-Jun; Qin, Teng-Fei; Zhao, Kai-Jun

    2014-09-01

    To activate the expression of host genes that contribute to pathogen growth, pathogenic Xanthomonas bacteria inject their transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) into plant cells and the TALEs bind to target gene promoters by the central repeat region consisting of near-perfect 34-amino-acid repeats (34-aa repeats). Based on the recognition codes between the 34-aa repeats and the targeted nucleotides, TALE-based technologies, such as designer TALEs (dTALEs) and TALE nucleases (TALENs), have been developed. Amazingly, every natural TALE invariantly has a truncated last half-repeat (LHR) at the end of the 34-aa repeats. Consequently, all the reported dTALEs and TALENs also harbour their LHRs. Here, we show that the LHRs in dTALEs are dispensable for the function of gene activation by both transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana and gene-specific targeting in the rice genome, indicating that TALEs might originate from a single progenitor. In the light of this finding, we demonstrate that dTALEs can be constructed through two simple steps. Moreover, the activation strengths of dTALEs lacking the LHR are comparable with those of dTALEs harbouring the LHR. Our results provide new insights into the origin of natural TALEs, and will facilitate the simplification of the design and assembly of TALE-based tools, such as dTALEs and TALENs, in the near future.

  19. Freud's Psychoanalysis of The Tell-Tale Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜红云; 梁静

    2014-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe is a famous American poet, short fiction writer and critic. He is good at writing horror tale and detective story. Many of his short stories show the narrator's abnormal mind. The Tell-Tale Heart is one of his famous short stories. This paper will analyze Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart by using Freud's psychoanalysis theory:the three-level personality.

  20. Freud’s Psychoanalysis of The Tell-Tale Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜红云; 梁静

    2014-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe is a famous American poet,shor fiction writer and critic.He is good at writing horror tale and detective story.Many of his short stories show the narrator’s abnormal mind.The Tell-Tale Heart is one of his famous shor stories.This paper will analyze Poe’s The Tell-Tale Heart by using Freud’s psychoanalysis theory:the three-level personality.

  1. Meeting the dark: autobiography in Hawthorne's unfinished tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughman, C

    1992-12-01

    This essay discusses the autobiographical implications of Nathaniel Hawthorne's last, unfinished tales. Biographical documents, as well as the tales, demonstrate that Hawthorne's personal condition shaped the characters and ideas in his fiction, particularly the aged protagonist, the meditations on old age and death, and the quest for immortality. The conflict between the moral vision in the tales and his personal attitude toward old age and death caused creative difficulties that he could not overcome.

  2. Anticipatory grip force between 1 and 3g

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Olivier; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Hermsdorfer, Joachim; Lefevre, Philippe

    One remarkable capacity of utilizing common tools appropriately as soon as we grasp them relies on the ability to determine in advance the grip force (GF) required to handle them in relation to their mechanical properties and the surrounding environment. This anticipatory strategy avoids the uncompressible delays in the feedback system. The predictive control of GF is made possible because the nervous system can learn, store and then select the internal representations of the dynamics of innumerable objects, known as internal models. Beside this flexibility, the nervous system's ability to learn different task dynamics is often limited in classical robotic experiments The environment itself can be profoundly modified in altered gravity or centrifugation. The few studies that investigated motor adaptation in such contexts did not consider the interaction between gravitational phases and even less the transitions across environments. Here, we tested subject's abilities to adapt to levels of gravitational fields generated by a human centrifuge. In Experiment 1, seven subjects performed 4 lifting trials in each gravitational phase (1 to 2.5g and then 2.5 to 1g by steps of 0.5g) with a 0.12 kg instrumented object. In Experiment 2, six subjects performed vertical oscillations of the object during transitions between 1 and 3g (0.5g steps, ascending and descending phases, profile repeated twice). We continuously measured GF, load force (LF) and ambient gravity. We hypothesized that participants were able to predictively adjust GF to the new environment. In Experiment 1, participants adjusted their GF proportionally to gravity and decreased GF across trials within a given gravitational environment. Preload phases decreased over time from 300ms to 50ms irrespective of gravity. We quantified the abilities of participants to switch across environments by subtracting GF recorded in the last trial in the current gravity level from GF during the first trial in the new environment

  3. Morality's ugly implications in Oscar Wilde's fairy tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Justin T

    2011-01-01

    In Oscar Wilde's two volumes of fairy tales, "The Happy Prince" and Other Tales (1888) and A House of Pomegranates (1891), many central characters meet with premature death or physical disfigurement after learning a bourgeois moral lesson. In an attempt to explain this unconventional phenomenon in the fairy tale tradition, this essay examines Wilde's stories through the lens of his aesthetic ideology and demonstrates how the superficial morality of the Victorian bourgeoisie corrodes each tale's aesthetic integrity, causing the characters to either deny morality outright, assume the guise of Christian philanthropy, or die as the result of their moral reformation.

  4. Intertextuality in the Tales of Rabbi Nahman of Bratslav

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    Until 1806, Rabbi Nahman of Bratslav (1772-1810) disseminated his thoughts on redemption through homilies. In 1806, however, Nahman chose the genre of tales as an additional and innovative means of religious discourse. An academic close reading of all of the tales, known as Sippurey Ma'asiyot, has...... not yet been undertaken. As the first comprehensive scholarly work on the whole selection of tales and contrary to previous scholarship, this book does not reduce the tales to biographical expressions of Nahman's tormented soul and messianic aspirations. Instead, it treats them as religious literature...

  5. Literary fairy tale Twinkle Sleepyhead in different media

    OpenAIRE

    Zupanec, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The first part of diploma work is theoretically oriented. Basic features of Twinkle Sleepyhead and its great successes are discussed. The literary fairy tale Twinkle Sleepyhead is presented as a fairy tale and compared with the shortened version of the fairy tale. Further, it is compared with the radio play (1952), with the puppet show at Ljubljana Puppet Theatre (2009) and with the virtual puppet show at Mini Theatre (2012). The basis of the fairy tale is the same in all forms; however, diff...

  6. JPL Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knosp, Brian W.; Li, P. Peggy; Vu, Quoc A.; Turk, Francis J.; Shen, Tsae-Pyng J.; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.; Licata, Stephen J.; Poulsen, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations can play a very important role in airborne field campaigns, since they provide a comprehensive description of the environment that is essential for the experiment design, flight planning, and post-experiment scientific data analysis. In the past, it has been difficult to fully utilize data from multiple NASA satellites due to the large data volume, the complexity of accessing NASA s data in near-real-time (NRT), as well as the lack of software tools to interact with multi-sensor information. The JPL GRIP Portal is a Web portal that serves a comprehensive set of NRT observation data sets from NASA and NOAA satellites describing the atmospheric and oceanic environments related to the genesis and intensification of the tropical storms in the North Atlantic Ocean. Together with the model forecast data from four major global atmospheric models, this portal provides a useful tool for the scientists and forecasters in planning and monitoring the NASA GRIP field campaign during the 2010 Atlantic Ocean hurricane season. This portal uses the Google Earth plug-in to visualize various types of data sets, such as 2D maps, wind vectors, streamlines, 3D data sets presented at series of vertical cross-sections or pointwise vertical profiles, and hurricane best tracks and forecast tracks. Additionally, it allows users to overlap multiple data sets, change the opacity of each image layer, generate animations on the fly with selected data sets, and compare the observation data with the model forecast using two independent calendars. The portal also provides the capability to identify the geographic location of any point of interest. In addition to supporting the airborne mission planning, the NRT data and portal will serve as a very rich source of information during the post-field campaign analysis stage of the airborne experiment. By including a diverse set of satellite observations and model forecasts, it provides a good spatial and temporal context for the

  7. Gripping during climbing of arboreal snakes may be safe but not economical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Greg; Jayne, Bruce C.

    2014-01-01

    On the steep surfaces that are common in arboreal environments, many types of animals without claws or adhesive structures must use muscular force to generate sufficient normal force to prevent slipping and climb successfully. Unlike many limbed arboreal animals that have discrete gripping regions on the feet, the elongate bodies of snakes allow for considerable modulation of both the size and orientation of the gripping region. We quantified the gripping forces of snakes climbing a vertical cylinder to determine the extent to which their force production favoured economy or safety. Our sample included four boid species and one colubrid. Nearly all of the gripping forces that we observed for each snake exceeded our estimate of the minimum required, and snakes commonly produced more than three times the normal force required to support their body weight. This suggests that a large safety factor to avoid slipping and falling is more important than locomotor economy. PMID:25142200

  8. lateral asymmetry ш grip strength: utility of the ten per cent rule

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-11-01

    Nov 1, 2001 ... between strengths of dominant and non-dominant hands. Such discrepancy in ... methodological approaches in evaluation of grip strength, different .... Relations between stronger hand and hand preference. Stronger hand.

  9. Effect of Putting Grip on Eye and Head Movements During the Golf Putting Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K. Hung

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to determine the effect of three different putting grips (conventional, cross-hand, and one-handed on variations in eye and head movements during the putting stroke. Seven volunteer novice players, ranging in age from 21 to 22 years, participated in the study. During each experimental session, the subject stood on a specially designed platform covered with artificial turf and putted golf balls towards a standard golf hole. The three different types of grips were tested at two distances: 3 and 9 ft. For each condition, 20 putts were attempted. For each putt, data were recorded over a 3-s interval at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. Eye movements were recorded using a helmet-mounted eye movement monitor. Head rotation about an imaginary axis through the top of the head and its center-of-rotation was measured by means of a potentiometer mounted on a fixed frame and coupled to the helmet. Putter-head motion was measured using a linear array of infrared phototransistors embedded in the platform. The standard deviation (STD, relative to the initial level was calculated for eye and head movements over the duration of the putt (i.e., from the beginning of the backstroke, through the forward stroke, to impact. The averaged STD for the attempted putts was calculated for each subject. Then, the averaged STDs and other data for the seven subjects were statistically compared across the three grip conditions. The STD of eye movements were greater (p < 0.1 for conventional than cross-hand (9 ft and one-handed (3 and 9 ft grips. Also, the STD of head movements were greater (p < 0.1; 3 ft for conventional than cross-hand and one-handed grips. Vestibulo-ocular responses associated with head rotations could be observed in many 9 ft and some 3 ft putts. The duration of the putt was significantly longer (p < 0.05; 3 and 9 ft for the one-handed than conventional and cross-hand grips. Finally, performance, or percentage putts made, was

  10. Adaptive grip force is modulated by subthalamic beta activity in Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas L. Imbach

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The time-locked suppression of beta oscillatory activity in the STN is in line with previous reports of beta ERD prior to voluntary movements. Our results show that the STN is involved in anticipatory grip force control in PD patients. The difference in the phasic beta ERD between the two tasks and the reduction of cortico-subthalamic synchronization suggests that qualitatively different neuronal network states are involved in different grip force control tasks.

  11. Improvement of handle grip using reverse engineering, CAE and Rapid Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoklasek Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwhelming majority of manual operations is even nowadays performed by using manual hand tools. These tools can be divided into 2 groups – hand tools designed for general use or a single-purpose hand tools for special operations. Tool described in this paper is used in assembling operation in the completion of electric motor. During the design of the existing tools the requirements for a functional part of the tool (lifespan, inability to damage the engine installation were fully considered, demands for ergonomic grip area, however, were not taken into account. Long-term use of incorrectly designed tool causes carpal tunnel syndrome, hand-arm vibration syndrome, diminished sensitivity or tingling in the fingers of workers. These difficulties can be reduced or entirely eliminated due to proper design of the grip of hand tool. Most authors focus on adjusting the grip for optimum ergonomics at individual types of grips (cylindrical, palmar, lateral, etc.. However, as already mentioned, there are tools for specific operations when the working area is limited by space or a specific type of load on the grip is needed. In some cases, it is often necessary to change the type of grip or combine different types of grips. This paper describes the design of an optimal grip of hand tool used for specific operation when assembling motors. Design of prototype mold and production of functional prototypes for ergonomics assessment directly in the workplace were realized. New design of handle should reduce the risk primarily of developing carpal tunnel in long-term use.

  12. PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Ziff, Edward B

    2005-08-04

    PICK1 and ABP/GRIP bind to the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluR2 subunit C terminus. Transfer of the receptor from ABP/GRIP to PICK1, facilitated by GluR2 S880 phosphorylation, may initiate receptor trafficking. Here we report protein interactions that regulate these steps. The PICK1 BAR domain interacts intermolecularly with the ABP/GRIP linker II region and intramolecularly with the PICK1 PDZ domain. Binding of PKCalpha or GluR2 to the PICK1 PDZ domain disrupts the intramolecular interaction and facilitates the PICK1 BAR domain association with ABP/GRIP. Interference with the PICK1-ABP/GRIP interaction impairs S880 phosphorylation of GluR2 by PKC and decreases the constitutive surface expression of GluR2, the NMDA-induced endocytosis of GluR2, and recycling of internalized GluR2. We suggest that the PICK1 interaction with ABP/GRIP is a critical step in controlling GluR2 trafficking.

  13. Adductor pollicis muscle and hand grip strength: potential methods of nutritional assessment in outpatients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rocha Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of different methods used for nutritional assessment of outpatients who had hemiplegic stroke. Methods: A cross-section study with adult and elderly patients of both genders enrolled in a rehabilitation center. The analyzed variables were anthropometric measurements, bioelectrical impedance, hand grip strength and thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle. The Pearson χ2 test was used to check the association between variables with a significance level of α = 5%. Results: When evaluating the association between indicators of muscle mass, it was observed that the hand grip strength in both genders was positively correlated with arm muscle circumference (p = 0.0196 and lean mass (p = 0.0002. Fat mass measured by the bioelectrical impedance method already showed a significant inverse relationship with the grip (r = -0.3879. The thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle showed significant association with lean mass (p = 0.0052 and hand grip (p = 0.0024. Conclusion: In this study, the hand grip strength and thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle were well correlated with measurements determined by anthropometry and bioimpedance. The results show the applicability of grip strength and thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle in clinical practice as nutritional assessment methods for this population, especially elderly patients, since they detect functional changes not captured by other parameters in the short term and are important for early identification of risk nutrition.

  14. [Isometric grip strength and social gerontological research: results and analytic potentials of SHARE and SOEP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hank, K; Jürges, H; Schupp, J; Wagner, G G

    2009-04-01

    This paper shows that the measurement of hand grip strength provides a non-invasive and reliable objective health indicator for social science research and is easy to collect in general population surveys. Grip strength is not only a useful complement of self-reported indicators of health, but it also exhibits a considerable predictive power with regard to a number of further relevant variables for social gerontological research, such as mortality risks. New data from the 2004 Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the 2006 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) allow insightful methodological and very first substantive cross-sectional analyses of grip strength in Germany. The focus of the present study is on the analysis of individuals aged 50 or older. The experience of both surveys when measuring grip strength is consistently positive, particularly with regard to the respondents' feedback. Major determinants of isometric grip strength are - beyond the individual's gender - age, body size and weight. A multivariate analysis also provides evidence for a clear positive association between various health indicators and grip strength.

  15. Control of grip force and vertical posture while holding an object and being perturbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Lee, Yun-Ju; Aruin, Alexander S

    2016-11-01

    We investigated motor control perspectives of coordinating maintenance of posture and application of grip force when holding an object and being perturbed. Ten subjects stood on the force platform holding an instrumented object in their dominant hand and were exposed to an external perturbation applied to their shoulders. Task demands were manipulated by positioning a slippery cap on top of the instrumented object. Grip force applied to the object, the object acceleration and the center of pressure (COP) were recorded and analyzed during the time intervals typical for the anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) components of postural control. Onsets of grip force were seen before the onsets of the COP displacement and initiation of movements of the handheld object during the APA phase of postural control, while the onsets of maximum grip force preceded the maximum COP displacement during the CPA phase. When the task demands increased by holding a handheld object with the slippery cap, subjects tended to generate grip force earlier and of a smaller magnitude; also, the COP displacement in the APA phase was smaller as compared to holding a handheld object only. The outcome provides a foundation for future studies of maintenance of vertical posture in people with impairments of balance and grip force control when holding an object and being perturbed.

  16. Hold, grasp, clutch or grab: consumer grip choices during food container opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, J; Yoxall, A

    2011-07-01

    Society is ageing and sadly that ageing leads to a host of issues, not least a society in which the majority are likely to have some loss of strength and dexterity. This can lead to complications in undertaking everyday tasks such as using transport, bathing or even handling and opening food. Packaging has to provide a multitude of services; to protect and preserve the product, to provide information to the consumer and not least to allow access to the contents. This access to packaging--or 'openability'--has become a significant issue for designers and manufacturers with the change in demographics as described above. Understanding the choices consumers make in how they manipulate packaging can help designers produce packaging that is more able to meet the requirements of modern society. Studies previously undertaken by the authors showed that consumers did use different grips when opening packaging and that certain grips were theoretically more comfortable and stronger than others. This paper outlines a further study whereby consumers were asked to apply the most common grips to a specially designed torque measuring device. Details were taken about the consumers: age, gender, occupation, hand size, plus their preferred grip choice for packaging of this type. The study showed that typically women chose a grip that maximised their opportunity of opening the closure and that this grip choice was more limited than that available for men. This has implications for inclusive design of many everyday products.

  17. What's true and whose idea was it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, the author explores the idea that psychoanalysis at its core involves an effort on the part of patient and analyst to articulate what is true to an emotional experience in a form that is utilizable by the analytic pair for purposes of psychological change. Building upon the work of Bion, what is true to human emotional experience is seen as independent of the analyst's formulation of it. In this sense, we, as psychoanalysts, are not inventors of emotional truths, but participant observers and scribes. And yet, in the very act of thinking and giving verbally symbolic 'shape' to what we intuit to be true to an emotional experience, we alter that truth. This understanding of what is true underlies the analytic conception of the therapeutic action of interpretation: in interpreting, the analyst verbally symbolizes what he feels is true to the patient's unconscious experience and, in so doing, alters what is true and contributes to the creation of a potentially new experience with which the analytic pair may do psychological work. These ideas are illustrated in a detailed discussion of an analytic session. The analyst makes use of his reverie experience--for which both and neither of the members of the analytic pair may claim authorship--in his effort to arrive at tentative understandings of what is true to the patient's unconscious emotional experience at several junctures in the session.

  18. Children's Responses to Psychological Maltreatment in Fairy Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Norma Jean

    This paper presents and discusses the responses of a class of first-grade students and a class of fourth-grade students to the elements of psychological maltreatment in the fairy tales "Cinderella" and "The Twelve Months." Responses of the first-grade students indicate that both boys and girls felt that the fairy tale heroine let herself be…

  19. E-Classical Fairy Tales: Multimedia Builder as a Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteokleous, Nikleia; Ktoridou, Despo; Tsolakidis, Symeon

    2011-01-01

    The study examines pre-service teachers' experiences in delivering a traditional-classical fairy tale using the Multimedia Builder software, in other words an e-fairy tale. A case study approach was employed, collecting qualitative data through classroom observations and focus groups. The results focus on pre-service teachers' reactions, opinions,…

  20. The magic of fairy tales: psychodynamic and developmental perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetsky, M J

    1989-01-01

    The telling of fairy tales is one way to elicit a child's inner thoughts and feelings, expose conflicts and frustrations, reduce anxiety, and gain mastery over developmental tasks. This paper will review the meaning, usefulness, and importance of fairy tales by discussing three selections from the psychodynamic and developmental perspectives.

  1. The Indecisive Feminist: Study of Anne Sexton's Revisionist Fairy Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Nadia Fayidh

    2015-01-01

    Fairy tales to female writers are major resource for their abundant writings, but for the feminist poets since 1960s, they become essential subject matter to often deal with in their literary production. With the motivation to address the conventional tradition of patriarchal society, and re-address the stereotype females inhabiting these tales,…

  2. Fairy Tales and Foreign Languages: Ever the Twain Shall Meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidheiser, James C.

    2007-01-01

    Fairy tales are not new to foreign language instructors, but on occasion they have been considered wither exoteric or unworthy of class time. Yet today there is a resurgence of interest in fairy tales and a rebirth of their use in the arts, which may serve foreign language instructors. This article presents historical background to inform…

  3. Normativity in Fairy Tales: Scope, Range and Modes of Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohr, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    The article studies in three steps how the fairy tale articulates its normative content and what the educational consequence of this kind of communication is. First, the articulation of normativity in fictional literature in general is discussed. Second, the specific mode in which the fairy tale articulates its normativity is studied according to…

  4. The Comment on the Appeal of The Knight's Tales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小华

    2010-01-01

    @@ Geoffrey Chaucer was an English poet, his best known work is The Canterbury Tales. During which, Chaucer described the pilgrimage undertaken by people on horseback to the shrine of Archbishop Beckett at the Canterbury Cathedrale, with each tolling a story to pass the time. "The Knight'sTales" is one among those stories with exciting plot, and is full of turns and twists.

  5. In Support of Fairy Tales for Language Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisher, Johanna

    1984-01-01

    Describes a technique used to teach German to children whereby the children learn a fairy tale in German (in this case, "Hansel and Gretel") and then present the fairy tale as a play. In this way, the students learn basic vocabulary and expressions, German music, and simple folk dances. (SED)

  6. Using Fairy Tales to Change Perceptions of Self and Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornicki, Sylvia B.

    Fairy tales can be used in the classroom to promote normal growth and development as well as carry a message of hope and faith in the strength and goodness of humans. Because fairy tales are imaginative literature, readers can safely experience and work through scary situations which are analogous to situations in real life. Bibliotherapy refers…

  7. TALE factors poise promoters for activation by Hox proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Seong-Kyu; Ladam, Franck; Sagerström, Charles G

    2014-01-27

    Hox proteins form complexes with TALE cofactors from the Pbx and Prep/Meis families to control transcription, but it remains unclear how Hox:TALE complexes function. Examining a Hoxb1b:TALE complex that regulates zebrafish hoxb1a transcription, we find maternally deposited TALE proteins at the hoxb1a promoter already during blastula stages. These TALE factors recruit histone-modifying enzymes to promote an active chromatin profile at the hoxb1a promoter and also recruit RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and P-TEFb. However, in the presence of TALE factors, RNAPII remains phosphorylated on serine 5 and hoxb1a transcription is inefficient. By gastrula stages, Hoxb1b binds together with TALE factors to the hoxb1a promoter. This triggers P-TEFb-mediated transitioning of RNAPII to the serine 2-phosphorylated form and efficient hoxb1a transcription. We conclude that TALE factors access promoters during early embryogenesis to poise them for activation but that Hox proteins are required to trigger efficient transcription.

  8. Contextual inquiry: discovering physicians' true needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, J M; Maffitt, J S; Orland, M J; Kahn, M G

    1995-01-01

    Gathering user requirements that represent the true needs of the users is a challenge. There are many elicitation methods in use today, but they generally are not successful in identifying a comprehensive set of requirements that reflect the users' true needs. This paper describes the requirements gathering method, Contextual Inquiry, that we used to generate physician requirements for a comprehensive Clinical Information System. We feel that this method has advantages over traditional techniques such as surveys, questionnaires, traditional interviews, and focus groups, in obtaining a more comprehensive analysis of the true needs of the users.

  9. Evaluation of total grip strength and individual finger forces on opposing (A-type) handles among Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong-Ku; Seo, Min-Tae; Kang, Hyun-Sung

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of grip span on finger forces and defined the best grip span for maximising total grip strength based on the finger forces and subjective discomfort in a static exertion. Five grip spans (45, 50, 55, 60 and 65 mm) of the opposing (A-type) handle shape were tested in this study to measure total grip strength and individual finger force among Korean population. A total of 30 males who participated in this study were asked to exert a maximum grip force with two repetitions, and to report the subjective discomfort experienced between exertions using the Borg's CR-10 scale. The highest grip strength was obtained at 45 mm and 50 mm grip spans. Results also showed that forces of all fingers, except for the middle finger force, significantly differed over the grip spans. The lowest subjective discomfort was observed in the 50 mm grip span. The results might be used as development guidelines for ergonomic opposing (A-type) hand tools for Korean population.

  10. TALE proteins bind to both active and inactive chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James N F; Kupinski, Adam P; Kirkham, Christopher M; Tuma, Roman; Boyes, Joan

    2014-02-15

    TALE (transcription activator-like effector) proteins can be tailored to bind to any DNA sequence of choice and thus are of immense utility for genome editing and the specific delivery of transcription activators. However, to perform these functions, they need to occupy their sites in chromatin. In the present study, we have systematically assessed TALE binding to chromatin substrates and find that in vitro TALEs bind to their target site on nucleosomes at the more accessible entry/exit sites, but not at the nucleosome dyad. We show further that in vivo TALEs bind to transcriptionally repressed chromatin and that transcription increases binding by only 2-fold. These data therefore imply that TALEs are likely to bind to their target in vivo even at inactive loci.

  11. TALE-mediated modulation of transcriptional enhancers in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Justin; Stern, David L

    2013-08-01

    We tested whether transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) could mediate repression and activation of endogenous enhancers in the Drosophila genome. TALE repressors (TALERs) targeting each of the five even-skipped (eve) stripe enhancers generated repression specifically of the focal stripes. TALE activators (TALEAs) targeting the eve promoter or enhancers caused increased expression primarily in cells normally activated by the promoter or targeted enhancer, respectively. This effect supports the view that repression acts in a dominant fashion on transcriptional activators and that the activity state of an enhancer influences TALE binding or the ability of the VP16 domain to enhance transcription. In these assays, the Hairy repression domain did not exhibit previously described long-range transcriptional repression activity. The phenotypic effects of TALER and TALEA expression in larvae and adults are consistent with the observed modulations of eve expression. TALEs thus provide a novel tool for detection and functional modulation of transcriptional enhancers in their native genomic context.

  12. [Development of a Japanese version of the TALE scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Tsutomu; Oguchi, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Scale (Bluck & Alea, 2011) has three subscales that assess the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory. This study constructs a Japanese version of the TALE Scale and examines its reliability and validity. Fifteen items that assess the three functions of autobiographical memory were translated into Japanese. We conducted an online investigation with 600 men and women between 20-59 years of age. In Study 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis identified that the three-factor structure of the Japanese version of the TALE Scale was the same as the original TALE Scale. Sufficient internal consistency of the scale was found, and the construct validity of the scale was supported by correlation analysis. Study 2 confirmed that the test-retest reliabilities of the three subscales were sufficient. Thus, this Japanese version of the TALE Scale is useful to assess autobiographical memory functions in Japan.

  13. Posture, Flexibility and Grip Strength in Horse Riders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobbs Sarah Jane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the ability to train the horse to be ambidextrous is considered highly desirable, rider asymmetry is recognized as a negative trait. Acquired postural and functional asymmetry can originate from numerous anatomical regions, so it is difficult to suggest if any is developed due to riding. The aim of this study was therefore to assess symmetry of posture, strength and flexibility in a large population of riders and to determine whether typical traits exist due to riding. 127 right handed riders from the UK and USA were categorized according to years riding (in 20 year increments and their competition level (using affiliated test levels. Leg length, grip strength and spinal posture were measured and recorded by a physiotherapist. Standing and sitting posture and trunk flexibility were measured with 3-D motion capture technology. Right-left differences were explored in relation to years riding and rider competitive experience. Significant anatomical asymmetry was found for the difference in standing acromion process height for a competition level (-0.07±1.50 cm Intro/Prelim; 0.02±1.31 cm Novice; 0.43±1.27 cm Elementary+; p=0.048 and for sitting iliac crest height for years riding (-0.23±1.36 cm Intro/Prelim; 0.01±1.50 cm Novice; 0.86±0.41 cm Elementary+; p=0.021. For functional asymmetry, a significant interaction was found for lateral bending ROM for years riding x competition level (p=0.047. The demands on dressage riders competing at higher levels may predispose these riders to a higher risk of developing asymmetry and potentially chronic back pain rather than improving their symmetry

  14. Genetic influences on the development of grip strength in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isen, Joshua; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William

    2014-06-01

    Enhanced physical strength is a secondary sex characteristic in males. Sexual dimorphism in physical strength far exceeds sex differences in stature or total body mass, suggesting a legacy of intense sexual selection. Upper-body strength is a particularly promising marker of intrasexual competitiveness in young men. Consequently, it is assumed that sex-influenced gene expression contributes to the development of physical strength. It is unclear, however, whether the underlying sources of individual differences in strength development are comparable across sex. We obtained three measurements of hand-grip strength (HGS) over a six-year period spanning adolescence in male and female same-sex twins (N = 2,513). Biometrical latent growth models were used to partition the HGS variance at age 11 (intercept) and its growth over time (slope) into genetic and environmental components. Results demonstrated that variance around the intercept was highly heritable in both males and females (88% and 79%, respectively). In males, variance around the slope exceeded that of the intercept, while the reverse held for females. Additive genetic effects accounted for most (80%) of the variance around the slope in males, but were of less importance in females (heritability = 28%). Absolute genetic variance around the slope was nearly nine-fold higher in males. This striking disparity suggests that the developmental processes shaping HGS growth are different between the sexes. We propose that this might account for the sex-specific pattern of associations between HGS and external measures (e.g., digit ratio and physical aggression) typically reported in the literature. Our results underscore the role of endogenous androgenic influences in the development of physical strength.

  15. Posture, flexibility and grip strength in horse riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Sarah Jane; Baxter, Joanna; Broom, Louise; Rossell, Laura-Ann; Sinclair, Jonathan; Clayton, Hilary M

    2014-09-29

    Since the ability to train the horse to be ambidextrous is considered highly desirable, rider asymmetry is recognized as a negative trait. Acquired postural and functional asymmetry can originate from numerous anatomical regions, so it is difficult to suggest if any is developed due to riding. The aim of this study was therefore to assess symmetry of posture, strength and flexibility in a large population of riders and to determine whether typical traits exist due to riding. 127 right handed riders from the UK and USA were categorized according to years riding (in 20 year increments) and their competition level (using affiliated test levels). Leg length, grip strength and spinal posture were measured and recorded by a physiotherapist. Standing and sitting posture and trunk flexibility were measured with 3-D motion capture technology. Right-left differences were explored in relation to years riding and rider competitive experience. Significant anatomical asymmetry was found for the difference in standing acromion process height for a competition level (-0.07±1.50 cm Intro/Prelim; 0.02±1.31 cm Novice; 0.43±1.27 cm Elementary+; p=0.048) and for sitting iliac crest height for years riding (-0.23±1.36 cm Intro/Prelim; 0.01±1.50 cm Novice; 0.86±0.41 cm Elementary+; p=0.021). For functional asymmetry, a significant interaction was found for lateral bending ROM for years riding x competition level (p=0.047). The demands on dressage riders competing at higher levels may predispose these riders to a higher risk of developing asymmetry and potentially chronic back pain rather than improving their symmetry.

  16. Elliptic Tales Curves, Counting, and Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ash, Avner

    2012-01-01

    Elliptic Tales describes the latest developments in number theory by looking at one of the most exciting unsolved problems in contemporary mathematics--the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture. The Clay Mathematics Institute is offering a prize of 1 million to anyone who can discover a general solution to the problem. In this book, Avner Ash and Robert Gross guide readers through the mathematics they need to understand this captivating problem. The key to the conjecture lies in elliptic curves, which are cubic equations in two variables. These equations may appear simple, yet they arise from

  17. Disagreement, Uncertainty and the True Predictive Density

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian Krüger; Ingmar Nolte

    2011-01-01

    This paper generalizes the discussion about disagreement versus uncertainty in macroeconomic survey data by emphasizing the importance of the (unknown) true predictive density. Using a forecast combination approach, we ask whether cross sections of survey point forecasts help to approximate the true predictive density. We find that although these cross-sections perform poorly individually, their inclusion into combined predictive densities can significantly improve upon densities relying sole...

  18. Theory of Clarissa Pinkola Estes and analyses of fairy tales – case study of the Red shoes

    OpenAIRE

    Kužnik, Branka

    2016-01-01

    The thesis Theory of Clarissa Pinkola Estes and analyses of fairy tales – case study of the Red shoes deals with fairy tales, analyses of contents and messages that every fairy tale has. Three fairy tales for children of the Danish fairy tale writer Hans Christian Andersen from the collection Fairy Tales (Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, 2005, translated from Danish by Silvana Orel Kos, illustrated by Marija Lucija Stupica) will be discussed. These fairy tales are: The Little Mermaid, The Steadfa...

  19. Normative Measurements of Grip and Pinch Strengths of 21st Century Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hee Shim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMeasuring grip and pinch strength is an important part of hand injury evaluation. Currently, there are no standardized values of normal grip and pinch strength among the Korean population, and lack of such data prevents objective evaluation of post-surgical recovery in strength. This study was designed to establish the normal values of grip and pinch strength among the healthy Korean population and to identify any dependent variables affecting grip and pinch strength.MethodsA cross-sectional study was carried out. The inclusion criterion was being a healthy Korean person without a previous history of hand trauma. The grip strength was measured using a Jamar dynamometer. Pulp and key pinch strength were measured with a hydraulic pinch gauge. Intra-individual and inter-individual variations in these variables were analyzed in a standardized statistical manner.ResultsThere were a total of 336 healthy participants between 13 and 77 years of age. As would be expected in any given population, the mean grip and pinch strength was greater in the right hand than the left. Male participants (137 showed mean strengths greater than female participants (199 when adjusted for age. Among the male participants, anthropometric variables correlated positively with grip strength, but no such correlations were identifiable in female participants in a statistically significant way.ConclusionsObjective measurements of hand strength are an important component of hand injury evaluation, and population-specific normative data are essential for clinical and research purposes. This study reports updated normative hand strengths of the South Korean population in the 21st century.

  20. The Telescope Array's Low Energy Extension: TALE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, John

    2009-05-01

    A great deal of information about the sources of ultra high energy cosmic rays exists encoded in the energy spectrum. There are three spectral features in the ultra high energy regime (the second knee, the ankle, and the GZK cut-off). An important composition change also occurs in this energy range. The Telescope Array (TA) is a large area ultra high energy cosmic ray observatory built and operated by groups from the US, Japan, Korea, and Russia. The existing part of the Telescope Array already has good efficiency above the ankle (˜10^18.5 eV). These detectors are already in the field collecting data. The TA Low Energy Extension (TALE) refers to the detectors devoted to the ``low energy'' portion of the spectrum - 10^16.5 - 10^19 eV. The aim of TA/TALE is to understand the origin of cosmic rays and to study their composition over a broad energy range. We will introduce the detector components and discuss the opportunities.

  1. The Indecisive Feminist: Study of Anne Sexton's Revisionist Fairy Tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Fayidh Mohammed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fairy tales to female writers are major resource for their abundant writings, but for the feminist poets since 1960s, they become essential subject matter to often deal with in their literary production. With the motivation to address the conventional tradition of patriarchal society, and re-address the stereotype females inhabiting these tales, feminist writers set upon revealing the underlying sub-context of these tales, presenting them with more adult-suited themes. Anne Sexton's Transformation is a pioneering revision of Grimm's fairy tales in which the poet does not only satirize the patriarchal society she grew up in, but she also rejects the female stereotype that her upbringing intended her to be. In the following paper, the feminist messages which Sexton's fairy tales intended to deliver are examined to reveal the poet's position concerning feminism and her relationship with female role-models and the male figures she presents in her fairy tales. Keywords: Anne Sexton, feminism, fairy tales, revisionism, postmodernist poetry, Transformations

  2. Quantitative analysis of TALE-DNA interactions suggests polarity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckler, Joshua F; Bhakta, Mital S; Kim, Moon-Soo; Ovadia, Robert; Habrian, Chris H; Zykovich, Artem; Yu, Abigail; Lockwood, Sarah H; Morbitzer, Robert; Elsäesser, Janett; Lahaye, Thomas; Segal, David J; Baldwin, Enoch P

    2013-04-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) have revolutionized the field of genome engineering. We present here a systematic assessment of TALE DNA recognition, using quantitative electrophoretic mobility shift assays and reporter gene activation assays. Within TALE proteins, tandem 34-amino acid repeats recognize one base pair each and direct sequence-specific DNA binding through repeat variable di-residues (RVDs). We found that RVD choice can affect affinity by four orders of magnitude, with the relative RVD contribution in the order NG > HD ≈ NN > NI > NK. The NN repeat preferred the base G over A, whereas the NK repeat bound G with 10(3)-fold lower affinity. We compared AvrBs3, a naturally occurring TALE that recognizes its target using some atypical RVD-base combinations, with a designed TALE that precisely matches 'standard' RVDs with the target bases. This comparison revealed unexpected differences in sensitivity to substitutions of the invariant 5'-T. Another surprising observation was that base mismatches at the 5' end of the target site had more disruptive effects on affinity than those at the 3' end, particularly in designed TALEs. These results provide evidence that TALE-DNA recognition exhibits a hitherto un-described polarity effect, in which the N-terminal repeats contribute more to affinity than C-terminal ones.

  3. AtGRIP protein locates to the secretory vesicles of trans Golgi-network in Arabidopsis root cap cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying; ZHANG Wei; ZHAO Lei; LI Yan

    2008-01-01

    GRIP domain proteins, locating to the trans-Golgi network, are thought to play an essential role in Golgi apparatus trafficking in yeast and animal cells. In the present study, AtGRIP cDNA was amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR from RNA isolated from Arabidopsis seedling. The GST fusion protein of AtGRIP was affinity-purified and its rabbit polyclonal antibody was obtained. Immuno-blotting with the purified anti-AtGRIP polyclonal antibody demonstrated that the molecular mass of AtGRIP protein is about 92 kD, and its expression is not tissue-specific in Arabidopsis. Immunoflourescent labeling and confocal microscopy revealed that the AtGRIP protein was co-localized with Golgi stacks in Arabidop-sis root cells. Immuno-gold labeling and electron microscopy observation showed that AtGRIP protein was mainly located to the membrane of the secretory vesicles of trans-Golgi network in Arabidopsis root cap cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the localization of GRIP domain proteins be-tween plants and animal cells are conserved. These results also suggest that the AtGRIP may be in-volved in regulating the formation or sorting of Golgi-associated vesicles in plant cells.

  4. Grip type and task goal modify reach-to-grasp performance in post-stroke hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Sydney Y.; DeJong, Stacey L.; Cherry, Kendra M.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether grip type and/or task goal influenced reaching and grasping performance in post-stroke hemiparesis. Sixteen adults with post-stroke hemiparesis and twelve healthy adults reached to and grasped a cylindrical object using one of two grip types (3-finger or palmar) to achieve one of two task goals (hold or lift). Performance of the stroke group was characteristic of hemiparetic limb movement during reach-to-grasp, with more curved handpaths and slower velocities compared to the control group. These effects were present regardless of grip type or task goal. Other measures of reaching (reach time and reach velocity at object contact) and grasping (peak thumb-index finger aperture during the reach and peak grip force during the grasp) were differentially affected by grip type, task goal, or both, despite the presence of hemiparesis, providing new evidence that changes in motor patterns after stroke may occur to compensate for stroke-related motor impairment. PMID:22357103

  5. Grip pressure distributions and associated variability in golf: a two-club comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Sean M; Broker, Jeffrey P

    2014-06-01

    Teaching and playing professionals offer multiple theories concerning the manner in which forces should be applied to the handle of the club during the golf swing. This study extends recent research concerning grip pressures and forces in golf, with the purpose of exploring the similarities and differences between force profiles for a 7-iron and driver swung by proficient golfers. A secondary purpose was to further analyze the way that golfers use grip forces to manipulate the club. Grip forces were measured on eight low handicap golfers (USGA indexes 0 to 7) swinging their own 7-irons and drivers. In total, lead-hand and trail-hand grip forces were isolated as well as anatomically specific forces within the hands. Force profile variability across multiple swings for each golfer and between golfers characterized consistencies and important differences. Correlations between 7-iron and driver force profiles characterized force 'signatures.' The data highlight large fluctuations in grip forces during the swing. Marked differences between participants were observed, involving force magnitudes and phasing. Dominant forces arose primarily from the lead hand, specifically the last three fingers. Force profiles were highly repeatable across swings for a golfer (standard deviations high (r2 = 0.86). Notably, within swing force variability was greatest during club acceleration, but dramatically decreased at impact.

  6. Effects of Taping on Pain, Grip Strength and Wrist Extension Force in Patients with Tennis Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, Alireza; Hollisaz, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    Background Tennis elbow (TE) is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Different modes of treatment are used for management of tennis elbow. Objectives This study investigated the effect of the taping technique (TT) on pain, grip strength and wrist extension force in treatment of tennis elbow. Patients and Methods Thirty patients (16 men /14 women with a mean age of 32.2 years) with tennis elbow of their dominant arm participated in this study. Outcome measures were assessment of pain at the lateral aspect of the elbow, grip strength and wrist extension force before and five to ten minutes after application of elbow tape on the affected and unaffected arms. A Visual Analog Scale was used to assess pain. A dynamometer and a hand-held dynamometer were used for evaluation of grip strength and wrist extension force, respectively. Results Among the variables, significant differences were found in wrist extension forces between effected and unaffected arms (P = 0.02). Changes in grip strength showed statically significant improvements in the affected arm compared to the unaffected arm (P = 0.03). Also, in assessment of pain at the lateral epicondyle, the mean change between affected and unaffected arms was significant, with P = 0.001. Conclusions The taping technique, as applied in this study demonstrates an impressive effect on wrist extension force and grip strength of patients with TE. Elbow taping also reduces pain at the lateral aspect of the elbow in these patients. PMID:24350156

  7. Proposed technique for inguinal hernia repair with self-gripping mesh: avoiding fixation to undesired structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrero, J L; Cano-Valderrama, O; Castillo, M J; Alonso, M T

    2015-10-01

    Self-gripping meshes have been developed to avoid fixing sutures during inguinal hernia repair. Operative time is shorter when using a self-gripping mesh than with conventional Lichtenstein repair. However, these meshes can be difficult to handle because they fix to undesired structures. The aim of this report is to describe a new technique to avoid this problem. Inguinal hernia dissection is made as usual. Once dissection is finished, a Parietex ProGrip(®) (Covidien, Dublin, Ireland) flat sheet mesh is cut depending on the size needed. A small split is made between the lower and medium third of the mesh to mark where the split for the spermatic cord will be. Using this mark, the upper third of the mesh is folded over the medium third, hiding the microgrips that make this a self-gripping mesh. In this way, only the lower third of the mesh has the microgrips exposed and the mesh can be fixed to the pubic bone and inguinal ligament without fixation to undesired structures. Once the lower third of the mesh is fixed, the split for the spermatic cord is completed and the upper part of the mesh is passed below the spermatic cord. Then, the mesh is unfolded to expose the microgrips again and the medium and upper third of the mesh are descended to its final position. This proposed technique for inguinal hernia repair with self-gripping mesh makes the surgery easier, avoiding mesh fixation to undesired structures.

  8. Slip detection and grip adjustment using optical tracking in prosthetic hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Luke; Singhal, Girish; Kaliki, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a closed loop control system that adjusts the grasping force of a prosthetic hand based on the amount of object slip detected by an optical tracking sensor. The system was designed for the i-Limb (a multi-fingered prosthetic hand from Touch Bionics Inc.) and is comprised of an optical sensor embedded inside a silicone prosthetic glove and a control algorithm. In a proof of concept study to demonstrate the effectiveness of optical tracking in slip sensing, we record slip rate while increasing the weight held in the grasp of the hand and compare two cases: grip adjustment on and grip adjustment off. The average slip rate was found to be 0.314 slips/(s · oz) without grip adjustment and 0.0411 slips/(s · oz) with grip adjustment. This paper discusses the advantages of the optical approach in slip detection and presents the experiment and results utilizing the optical sensor and grip control algorithm.

  9. Diagnosis of true umbilical cord knot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzikowski, Wojciech; Kowalczyk, Dariusz; Więcek, Jacek

    2014-02-24

    Many abnormalities are observed in the morphology and pathology of the umbilical cord. The aim of the study was to assess the role of 3D sonography in pathology of true umbilical cord knots. In our materials we observed 10 cases of true umbilical cord knots in a population of 2,864 deliveries. The 2-dimensional transverse scan of the umbilical cord was shown in 3- and 4-dimensional volume scan in order to get a precise image. Four knots were diagnosed prenatally, 3 knots were not diagnosed before the delivery and in the 3 remaining cases ultrasound examinations were not undertaken because the patients were in the course of delivery. In the pregnant subjects with diagnosed true umbilical cord knot once a week the Doppler blood flow indices were examined in the umbilical cord sections before and after the knot. In the three shown cases there were no signs of constriction or tightening of the knot. Four newborns were delivered spontaneously and five by caesarean section. In none of the cases was a pathological FHR trace an indication for emergency delivery. Four-dimensional and Color Doppler examination is very important to diagnose a true umbilical cord. To make a precise diagnosis a longer observation of the abnormality is necessary and its repeated confirmation by color Doppler and power Doppler. This diagnosis requires strict monitoring of fetal wellbeing during pregnancy and the delivery. Perfection of true umbilical cord knot diagnoses may reduce sudden and unforeseen fetal distress.

  10. Tragicomedy and Pastoral in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, Sinem Kozanoglu

    2005-01-01

    This thesis, focusing on the diptych unity of Shakespeare s The Winter s Tale, examines the play from the perspective of pastoral tragicomedy. The Winter s Tale seems sharply divided into two halves; one for the most part tragic; the other principally comic; with Time standing in the middle as Chorus to announce their juncture and separation. Because of its very structure, The Winter s Tale was evaluated as two disjointed plays for centuries and condemned because of it, until its two parts an...

  11. True random numbers from amplified quantum vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Jofre, M; Steinlechner, F; Anzolin, G; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V; 10.1364/OE.19.020665

    2011-01-01

    Random numbers are essential for applications ranging from secure communications to numerical simulation and quantitative finance. Algorithms can rapidly produce pseudo-random outcomes, series of numbers that mimic most properties of true random numbers while quantum random number generators (QRNGs) exploit intrinsic quantum randomness to produce true random numbers. Single-photon QRNGs are conceptually simple but produce few random bits per detection. In contrast, vacuum fluctuations are a vast resource for QRNGs: they are broad-band and thus can encode many random bits per second. Direct recording of vacuum fluctuations is possible, but requires shot-noise-limited detectors, at the cost of bandwidth. We demonstrate efficient conversion of vacuum fluctuations to true random bits using optical amplification of vacuum and interferometry. Using commercially-available optical components we demonstrate a QRNG at a bit rate of 1.11 Gbps. The proposed scheme has the potential to be extended to 10 Gbps and even up t...

  12. [Depression as the sign of true self].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazette, M M

    1992-12-01

    Referring to examples from the poetry of Fernando Pessoa and Mário de Sá Carneiro, we draw attention to the narcissistic relationship between mother and baby, to the role of the mirror-image of the mother's face, and to the organization of a false self caused by a deficiency both of that function, and of the narcissistic investment of the child. The false self is a defence mechanism which protects the true self. This may appear as a depressive state with a feeling of loss and emptiness. The depression is, in such cases, a sign and a clue which may lead to the revelation of the true self.

  13. TRUE RESISTANCE AND PSEUDORESISTANCE TO ASPIRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Martynov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low dose aspirin reduces the secondary incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. Drug resistance to aspirin might result in treatment failure. Despite this concern, no clear definition of aspirin resistance has emerged, and estimates of its incidence have varied remarkably. Researchers from university of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, the USA, led by Dr. Tilo Grosser, aimed to determine the specific phenotype of true pharmacological resistance to aspirin — such as might be explained by genetic causes. However the study failed to identify a single case of true drug resistance. Pseudoresistance, reflecting delayed and reduced drug absorption, complicates enteric coated but not immediate release aspirin administration.

  14. Estimating thumb-index finger precision grip and manipulation potential in extant and fossil primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feix, Thomas; Kivell, Tracy L; Pouydebat, Emmanuelle; Dollar, Aaron M

    2015-05-06

    Primates, and particularly humans, are characterized by superior manual dexterity compared with other mammals. However, drawing the biomechanical link between hand morphology/behaviour and functional capabilities in non-human primates and fossil taxa has been challenging. We present a kinematic model of thumb-index precision grip and manipulative movement based on bony hand morphology in a broad sample of extant primates and fossil hominins. The model reveals that both joint mobility and digit proportions (scaled to hand size) are critical for determining precision grip and manipulation potential, but that having either a long thumb or great joint mobility alone does not necessarily yield high precision manipulation. The results suggest even the oldest available fossil hominins may have shared comparable precision grip manipulation with modern humans. In particular, the predicted human-like precision manipulation of Australopithecus afarensis, approximately one million years before the first stone tools, supports controversial archaeological evidence of tool-use in this taxon.

  15. Once upon Anion: A Tale of Photodetachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineberger, W. Carl

    2013-04-01

    This contribution is very much a personal history of a journey through the wonderful world of anion chemistry, and a tale of how advances in laser technologies, theoretical methods, and computational capabilities continuously enabled advances in our understanding. It is a story of the excitement and joy that come from the opportunity to add to the fabric of science, and to do so by working as a group of excited explorers with common goals. The participants in this journey include me, my students and postdoctoral associates, my collaborators, and our many generous colleagues. It all happened, in the words of the Beatles, “with a little help from my friends.” Actually, it was so much more than a little help!

  16. Extraction of time and frequency features from grip force rates during dexterous manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahedi, Keivan; Fu, Qiushi; Santello, Marco

    2015-05-01

    The time course of grip force from object contact to onset of manipulation has been extensively studied to gain insight into the underlying control mechanisms. Of particular interest to the motor neuroscience and clinical communities is the phenomenon of bell-shaped grip force rate (GFR) that has been interpreted as indicative of feedforward force control. However, this feature has not been assessed quantitatively. Furthermore, the time course of grip force may contain additional features that could provide insight into sensorimotor control processes. In this study, we addressed these questions by validating and applying two computational approaches to extract features from GFR in humans: 1) fitting a Gaussian function to GFR and quantifying the goodness of the fit [root-mean-square error, (RMSE)]; and 2) continuous wavelet transform (CWT), where we assessed the correlation of the GFR signal with a Mexican Hat function. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic pseudorandomized presentation of object mass (light or heavy), where grip forces developed to lift a mass heavier than expected are known to exhibit corrective responses. For Experiment 2, we applied our two techniques to analyze grip force exerted for manipulating an inverted T-shaped object whose center of mass was changed across blocks of consecutive trials. For both experiments, subjects were asked to grasp the object at either predetermined or self-selected grasp locations ("constrained" and "unconstrained" task, respectively). Experiment 1 successfully validated the use of RMSE and CWT as they correctly distinguished trials with versus without force corrective responses. RMSE and CWT also revealed that grip force is characterized by more feedback-driven corrections when grasping at self-selected contact points. Future work will examine the application of our analytical approaches to a broader range of tasks, e.g., assessment of recovery of sensorimotor function following clinical intervention, interlimb

  17. Maximal intermittent handgrip strategy: design and evaluation of an exercise protocol and a grip tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Danielle Christine; Thomas, Scott Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Handgrip (HG) exercise has been prescribed as a lifestyle intervention to successfully reduce resting blood pressure (BP) among heterogeneous groups of participants. Current HG protocols have limited accessibility due to complicated exercise prescriptions and sophisticated required equipment. Therefore, this research describes the design and evaluation of the maximal intermittent (MINT) HG exercise strategy, consisting of both a novel exercise protocol (32×5 seconds maximal grip squeezes separated by 5 seconds of rest between sets) and an original grip tool. This research was a multistep progressive design that included 51 postmenopausal women as participants in three separate research studies. Part 1 of this research focuses on the MINT exercise protocol. A literature-informed rationale for the design of the protocol is described. This includes exercise intensity, work-to-rest ratio, and total exercise duration with reference to the unique physiology (mechanoreflex and metaboreflex) of postmenopausal women. Subsequent experimental analyses of acute responses to the MINT protocol revealed that women produced 50% of their maximum grip force with moderate cardiovascular responses (increases of systolic BP: 41.6 mmHg, diastolic BP: 20.1 mmHg, heart rate: 35.1 bpm) that remained far below the thresholds of concern identified by the American College of Sports Medicine. Part 2 of this research describes the creation of a novel grip tool, beginning with a mixed-methods assessment of participant opinions regarding two distinct in-laboratory grip tools, leading to the creation of four prototype MINT tools. Structured focus groups revealed a strong preference for MINT prototype 1 for all tool design features, including color, shape, size, and foam grip. Collectively, the result of this multistep research is a novel HG exercise strategy with enhanced accessibility by being easy to understand and simple to execute. The long-term training effectiveness of MINT as an exercise

  18. REVIEW: TALES OF KHA BA DKAR PO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundan (Jasmine Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Jing Guo . 2012. Xue shan zhi shu [Tales of Kha ba dkar po] [ཁ་བ་དཀར་པོ]. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press. My favorite color is to add a little white on the whiteness, as if there was a snow-white eagle landing on a snow-covered mountain rock. My favorite color is to add a bit green on the greenness, as if there was an emerald parrot flying in the wild walnut woods. Deqin xianzi lyrics. These lyrics evoke a space beyond a sense of realism. In his book, Tales of Kha ba dkar po (ToK, Guo mentions these lines three times, suggesting a transcendental experience one may encounter in Tibetan areas while, at the same time, humbled by the mindset of human nature relations enacted by Tibetan people. ToK is, in many ways, a valuable academic work. Guo's favorite lines of xianzi allude to a 'space-in-between' the secular and sacred, which provides a unique experience for a broad readership, and induces the readers to deeper reflections on topics such as 'nature/ culture', 'belief', 'rite', and 'life/ death'. ToK is one of nineteen contemporary anthropological and ethnological works conducted in Yunnan Province, Southwest China and published in the 'Anthropology and Ethnology series in Contemporary China'. In the preface for the series, Yin (2012 suggests that there are two primary reasons for the somewhat slow development of Chinese scholarship in the field of anthropology and ethnology. One is the historically Han-centered intellectual atmosphere, and the other is the ideological ambivalence that ethnic culture has faced since the establishment of the People's Republic of China. In this context, Guo's longitudinal academic and intellectual engagement with the Tibetan communities in northwest Yunnan is included in this series as part of the increasing recognition of the significance of understanding southwest China's complex ethnic and cultural diversity.

  19. THE TEXT OF CAXTON'S SECOND EDITION OF THE CANTERBURY TALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordalejo Bárbara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes recent research on the textual relationship between the first and second editions of the Canterbury Tales printed in England by William Caxton and it also explores the textual affiliations of the manuscript source for the corrections in the second edition. Using both computerised and manual methods the variant readings between the first and second editions of the Tales are isolated. Examples of the textual affiliations of the manuscript source of Caxton's second edition are analysed. This article concludes that the manuscript source for the corrections introduced in Caxton's second edition of the Tales was of the same quality as tlie best extant manuscripts and that its readings can help our understanding of the textual tradition and can clarify the text for editors of the Tales.

  20. Circle of Life——Symbolism in The Winter's Tale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潇雨

    2007-01-01

    This essay tries to illustrate Winter's Tale's symbolic meaning about human life.It draws conclusion that Shakespeare's plan is to combine the natural rule of seasonal cycle with the life circle of human world.

  1. Resurrecting the buried self: fairy tales and the analytic encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Linda

    2011-12-01

    The author uses the lens of myth and fairy tales to examine the narratives generated by the analytic experience. Fairy tales are understood as representing fundamental developmental conflicts, accounting for their enduring power over time. The analytic encounter is seen as an analogue of the fairy tale in which the hidden self, damaged by loss and abandonment, reemerges only through the redemptive power of [an] other's love. Clinical material is presented in which hidden parts of the patient's self are projected into the analyst for safekeeping; these hidden parts resonate with the analyst's own lost, unrealized potential and form an intersubjective experience which the author believes is transformative. The patient's dormant powers emerge in a newly experienced atmosphere of recognition, and in this way, the analytic encounter resembles the fairy tale in providing an identificatory bond and a protective space for the patient's hidden vitality.

  2. [Transcription activator-like effectors(TALEs)based genome engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei-Wei; Duan, Cheng-Li; Liu, Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Systematic reverse-engineering of functional genome architecture requires precise modifications of gene sequences and transcription levels. The development and application of transcription activator-like effectors(TALEs) has created a wealth of genome engineering possibilities. TALEs are a class of naturally occurring DNA-binding proteins found in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas species. The DNA-binding domain of each TALE typically consists of tandem 34-amino acid repeat modules rearranged according to a simple cipher to target new DNA sequences. Customized TALEs can be used for a wide variety of genome engineering applications, including transcriptional modulation and genome editing. Such "genome engineering" has now been established in human cells and a number of model organisms, thus opening the door to better understanding gene function in model organisms, improving traits in crop plants and treating human genetic disorders.

  3. Expression analysis of TALE family transcription factors during avian development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Sarah E; Borycki, Anne-Gaëlle

    2010-04-01

    The TALE family of homeodomain containing transcription factors consists of the Meis, Prep and Tgif, and the Pbx subfamily of proteins. Several TALE orthologues have been identified in amniotes, but no comprehensive analysis of their expression pattern during embryogenesis has been performed. Here, we report on TALE gene expression in the avian embryo. During embryonic development, Pbx genes are predominantly expressed in the neural ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm, although Pbx3 is restricted to the intermediate and lateral mesoderm, and anterior central nervous system. Members of the Meis, Prep, and Tgif subfamilies are expressed at high levels in the paraxial mesoderm, and display differential expression along the anterior-posterior and dorsoventral axes of the developing neural tube. Overall the expression patterns reported in this study are consistent with the known function of the TALE gene family in controlling early patterning of limb, neural tube and paraxial mesoderm tissues during embryogenesis.

  4. A TALE nuclease architecture for efficient genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey C; Tan, Siyuan; Qiao, Guijuan; Barlow, Kyle A; Wang, Jianbin; Xia, Danny F; Meng, Xiangdong; Paschon, David E; Leung, Elo; Hinkley, Sarah J; Dulay, Gladys P; Hua, Kevin L; Ankoudinova, Irina; Cost, Gregory J; Urnov, Fyodor D; Zhang, H Steve; Holmes, Michael C; Zhang, Lei; Gregory, Philip D; Rebar, Edward J

    2011-02-01

    Nucleases that cleave unique genomic sequences in living cells can be used for targeted gene editing and mutagenesis. Here we develop a strategy for generating such reagents based on transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins from Xanthomonas. We identify TALE truncation variants that efficiently cleave DNA when linked to the catalytic domain of FokI and use these nucleases to generate discrete edits or small deletions within endogenous human NTF3 and CCR5 genes at efficiencies of up to 25%. We further show that designed TALEs can regulate endogenous mammalian genes. These studies demonstrate the effective application of designed TALE transcription factors and nucleases for the targeted regulation and modification of endogenous genes.

  5. Corticomuscular coherence during hand gripping with DBS and medication in PD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sridharan, Kousik Sarathy; Højlund, Andreas; Johnsen, Erik Lisbjerg

    (MEG) from six PD patients performing hand gripping during DBS ON and medicated (levodopa, MED ON) conditions and from ten age-matched healthy controls. Participants performed isotonic contractions (hand gripping) with their right hand, and electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the extensor...... digitorum communis muscle with a belly-tendon montage. We calculated the mean-squared coherence between MEG and the rectified EMG signals. For each group and condition, we selected the maximum CMC value in the beta range (13-30 Hz) within the average of an a priori selection of nine left sensorimotor...

  6. Wear and Grip Loss Evaluation of High Chromium Welding Deposits Applied on Sugar Cane Rolls1

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Millan, Sebastian; Rugbeño S.A.S; Aguilar Castro, Yesid; Escuela de Ingeniería de Materiales, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia; Casanova García, Gonzalo Fernando; Escuela de Ingeniería Mecánica,Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia

    2015-01-01

    Wear on sugar cane rolls is an expensive maintenance problem for the sugar cane industry. Wear produces loss of sucrose extraction and loss of grip of the roll on the bagasse. This paper presents the evaluation of wear and loss of grip of hypoeutectic and hypereutectic high chromium welding deposits applied on ASTM A-36 steel and gray cast iron. A modified ASTM G-65 standard test was used. Wear was produced by the abrasive action of wet bagasse with three levels of mineral extraneous matter. ...

  7. The determination of the operating range of a twin-grip control yoke through biomechanical means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, K. P.

    1978-01-01

    A twin-grip control yoke was designed as an ergonomic case study that allows dual axis control inputs, both axes being rotational. Inputs are effected by rotating the grips. How the handles were designed with respect to their shape and size and how the angular range of the control yoke in both rotational axes was evaluated. The control yoke which requires two-hand operation was tested to determine its operating range. The intention of this investigation was to find out the optimal form of the control yoke and the maximum permissible range in both rotating axes. In these experiments controls had no spring resistance.

  8. Is It True That Smoking Causes Wrinkles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Quit smoking Is it true that smoking causes wrinkles? Answers from Lowell Dale, M.D. Yes. So if you need another reason to motivate you ... elastin, which are fibers that give your skin its strength and elasticity. As a result, skin begins ...

  9. Edition for fairy tale therapy: to educators, teachers, psychologists, parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тарас Вікторович Полковенко

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is sanctified to one of new and interesting method of children’s education – fairy tale therapy, which can also provide the therapeutic effect, in particular, for the decline of level of anxiety, overcoming of some phobias, and also at treatment of separate psychosomatic disorders. Publishers should pay attention to the preparation and publication of fairy tales for a wider implementation of this method

  10. Grip strength and lower limb extension power in 19-72-year-old Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadahl, Mette; Beyer, Nina; Linneberg, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To assess muscular fitness by hand grip strength (HGS) and lower limb extension power (LEP) and to explore associations with age, leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and body composition.......To assess muscular fitness by hand grip strength (HGS) and lower limb extension power (LEP) and to explore associations with age, leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and body composition....

  11. Large-scale GWAS identifies multiple loci for hand grip strength providing biological insights into muscular fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Sara M; Wright, Daniel J.; Day, Felix R

    2017-01-01

    Hand grip strength is a widely used proxy of muscular fitness, a marker of frailty, and predictor of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. To investigate the genetic determinants of variation in grip strength, we perform a large-scale genetic discovery analysis in a combined sample of 1...

  12. Large-scale GWAS identifies multiple loci for hand grip strength providing biological insights into muscular fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Sara M.; Wright, D.J.; Day, Felix R.; Trajanoska, Katerina; Joshi, P.K.; Morris, John A.; Matteini, Amy M.; Garton, Fleur C.; Grarup, Niels; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Mangino, Massimo; Liu, Jun; Demirkan, Ayse; Lek, Monkol; Xu, Liwen; Wang, Guan; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Lotta, Luca A.; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Rivas, Manuel A.; White, Tom; Loh, Po Ru; Aadahl, Mette; Amin, Najaf; Attia, John R.; Austin, Krista; Benyamin, Beben; Brage, Søren; Cheng, Yu Ching; Ciȩszczyk, Paweł; Derave, Wim; Eriksson, Karl Fredrik; Eynon, Nir; Linneberg, Allan; Lucia, Alejandro; Massidda, Myosotis; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Miyachi, Motohiko; Murakami, Haruka; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pandey, Ashutosh; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Rajpal, Deepak K.; Sale, Craig; Schnurr, Theresia M.; Sessa, Francesco; Shrine, Nick; Tobin, Martin D.; Varley, Ian; Wain, Louise V.; Wray, Naomi R.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Pedersen, Oluf; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kiel, Douglas P.; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Fuku, Noriyuki; Franks, Paul W.; North, Kathryn N.; Duijn, Van C.M.; Mather, Karen A.; Hansen, Torben; Hansson, Ola; Spector, Tim D.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Richards, J.B.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Langenberg, Claudia; Perry, John R.B.; Wareham, Nick J.; Scott, Robert A.; Oei, Ling; Zheng, Hou Feng; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Leong, Aaron; Ahmad, Omar S.; Laurin, Charles; Mokry, Lauren E.; Ross, Stephanie; Elks, Cathy E.; Bowden, Jack; Warrington, Nicole M.; Murray, Anna; Ruth, Katherine S.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Medina-Gómez, Carolina; Estrada, Karol; Bis, Joshua C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Demissie, Serkalem; Enneman, Anke W.; Hsu, Yi Hsiang; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Kähönen, Mika; Kammerer, Candace; Lacroix, Andrea Z.; Li, Guo; Liu, Ching Ti; Liu, Yongmei; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Nielson, Carrie M.; Sham, Pack Chung; Siggeirsdotir, Kristin; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Stefansson, Kari; Trompet, Stella; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Velde, Van Der Nathalie; Viikari, Jorma; Xiao, Su Mei; Zhao, Jing Hua; Evans, Daniel S.; Cummings, Steven R.; Cauley, Jane; Duncan, Emma L.; Groot, De Lisette C.P.G.M.; Esko, Tonu; Gudnason, Vilmundar; Harris, Tamara B.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Jukema, J.W.; Ikram, Arfan M.A.; Karasik, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Kung, Annie Wai Chee; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyytikäinen, Leo Pekka; Lips, Paul; Luben, Robert; Metspalu, Andres; Meurs, van Joyce B.; Minster, Ryan L.; Orwoll, Erick; Oei, Edwin; Psaty, Bruce M.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Ralston, Stuart W.; Ridker, Paul M.; Robbins, John A.; Smith, Albert V.; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Tranah, Gregory J.; Thorstensdottir, Unnur; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Zmuda, Joseph; Zillikens, M.C.; Ntzani, Evangelia E.; Evangelou, Evangelos; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Evans, David M.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2017-01-01

    Hand grip strength is a widely used proxy of muscular fitness, a marker of frailty, and predictor of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. To investigate the genetic determinants of variation in grip strength, we perform a large-scale genetic discovery analysis in a combined sample of 195,

  13. Relationship between grip, pinch strengths and anthropometric variables, types of pitch throwing among Japanese high school baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Okura, Chisa; Kanazawa, Saeko; Nagai, Ayako; Takagishi, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    Grip and pinch strength are crucially important attributes and standard parameters related to the functional integrity of the hand. It seems significant to investigate normative data for grip and pinch strength of baseball players to evaluate their performance and condition. Nevertheless, few reports have explained the association between grip and pinch strength and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing for baseball pitchers. The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate clinical normative data for grip and tip, key, palmar pinch strength and to assess the relationship between these data and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing among Japanese high-school baseball pitchers. One hundred-thirty three healthy high school baseball pitchers were examined and had completed a self-administered questionnaire including items related to age, hand dominance, throwing ratio of type of pitch. A digital dynamometer was used to measure grip strength and a pinch gauge to measure tip, key and palmer pinch in both dominant and nondominant side. Body composition was measured by the multi frequency segmental body composition analyzer. Grip strength and tip and palmer pinch strength in dominant side were statistically greater than them in nondominant side (P types of pitches thrown and grip strength and tip, key, palmar pinch strength. Our result provides normative values and evidences for grip and pinch strengths in high school baseball pitchers.

  14. Age trajectories of grip strength: cross-sectional and longitudinal data among 8,342 Danes aged 46 to 102

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Mortensen, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    with increasing age. Estimates were obtained by using full-information methods from large population-representative studies. Equations of expected grip strength, as well as tables with sex-, age-, and height-stratified reference data, provide an opportunity to include grip-strength measurement in clinical care...

  15. An investigation of the association between grip strength and hip and knee joint moments in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Dinesh; Rowe, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Grip strength is a predictor of health outcomes but with differing rates of age-related decline in muscle strength, it is unclear whether handgrip is a reliable indicator of lower limb moments. This study investigated the relationship between grip strength and lower extremity moments in community-dwelling older adults. Eighty-two healthy volunteers aged 60-82 years (mean age 73.2 years) performed maximal voluntary contractions of knee and hip extensors and flexors at three positions and at neutral position for hip abductors and adductors using a custom-built dynamometer. Grip strength was measured using an electronic Jamar dynamometer. The relative reduction in muscle strength of 80s age category compared to 60-year-olds ranged from 14% for grip strength to 27% for hip abductors. Peak torque of flexors and extensors of the knee and hip joints were significantly correlated with grip strength and Pearson's correlation coefficients ranged from 0.56 to 0.78 with the highest correlations observed between knee moments and grip strength. "Good" correlation was found but only 31-60% of the variation in grip strength could be related to changes in joint torques. Hence the assumption that grip strength is an indicator of strength in the lower limb would seem unjustified in the healthy older adult.

  16. The cost-effectiveness of grip on challenging behaviour: an economic evaluation of a care programme for managing challenging behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Bosmans, J.E.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Pot, A.M.; Hertogh, C.M.; Smalbrugge, M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of implementing the Grip on Challenging Behaviour care programme (GRIP) on dementia special care units in comparison with usual care. METHODS: A stepped wedge design was used. Challenging behaviour and quality of life were

  17. Does grip strength on the unaffected side of patients with hemiparetic stroke reflect the strength of other ipsilateral muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jumpei; Nishiyama, Toru; Matsushima, Yoshimasa

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Grip strength is used as an indicator of overall body muscular strength. However, most studies on grip strength have been performed in healthy people, and no study has evaluated it in the unaffected side of patients with hemiparetic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine if grip strength on the unaffected side of patients with hemiparetic stroke correlates with the strength of other ipsilateral musculature. [Subjects and Methods] The maximal strengths of the muscles on the unaffected side of 31 patients with hemiparetic stroke were measured, and correlation coefficients were calculated. [Results] The results revealed significant positive correlations between grip strength on the unaffected side and the strength of the other ipsilateral muscle groups, with relatively high correlations being observed for the upper extremity muscle groups. [Conclusion] This suggests that grip strength on the unaffected side of patients with hemiparetic stroke can be used as a simple way to estimate overall strength on that side.

  18. Design, Assembly, and Characterization of TALE-Based Transcriptional Activators and Repressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Pratiksha I; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are modular DNA-binding proteins that can be fused to a variety of effector domains to regulate the epigenome. Nucleotide recognition by TALE monomers follows a simple cipher, making this a powerful and versatile method to activate or repress gene expression. Described here are methods to design, assemble, and test TALE transcription factors (TALE-TFs) for control of endogenous gene expression. In this protocol, TALE arrays are constructed by Golden Gate cloning and tested for activity by transfection and quantitative RT-PCR. These methods for engineering TALE-TFs are useful for studies in reverse genetics and genomics, synthetic biology, and gene therapy.

  19. Organism versus mechanism: Losing our grip on the distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Reitsema

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between organism and mechanism is often subtle or unclear and yet can prove to be fundamental to our understanding of the world. It has been tempting for many thinkers to seek to ‘understand’ all of reality through the lens of either the one or the other of these concepts rather than by giving both a place. This article sets out to argue that there is a substantial loss of understanding when either of these metaphors is absolutised to explain all causal processes and patterns in reality. Clarifying the distinction between the two may provide one more tool to grasp what is reductionist in many of the perspectives that have come to dominate public life and science today. This contention is tested on the quest for the design of self-replicating systems (i.e. synthetic organisms in the nanotech industry. It is common that the concepts of organic functioning and mechanism are used imprecisely and in an overlapping way. This is also true of much scientific debate, especially in the fields of biology, micro-biology and nano-science. This imprecise use signals a reductionist tendency both in the way that the organic is perceived and in terms of the distinctive nature of mechanisms.

  20. Differential roles for NSF and GRIP/ABP in AMPA receptor cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Steven P; Xia, Houhui; Malenka, Robert C

    2002-05-14

    alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) stability and movement at synapses are important factors controlling synaptic strength. Here, we study the roles of proteins [N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF), glutamate receptor AMPAR binding protein (ABP)-interacting protein (GRIP)/(ABP), and protein interacting with C-kinase-1 (PICK1) that interact with the GluR2 subunit in the control of the surface expression and cycling of AMPARs. Epitope-tagged GluR2 formed functional receptors that exhibited targeting to synaptic sites. Constructs in which binding to NSF, PDZ proteins (GRIP/ABP and PICK1), or GRIP/ABP alone was eliminated each exhibited normal surface targeting and constitutive cycling. The lack of NSF binding, however, resulted in receptors that were endocytosed to a greater extent than wild-type receptors in response to application of AMPA or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). Conversely, the behavior of the GluR2 mutants incapable of binding to GRIP/ABP suggests that these PDZ proteins play a role in the stabilization of an intracellular pool of AMPARs that have been internalized on stimulation, thus inhibiting their recycling to the synaptic membrane. These results provide further evidence for distinct functional roles of GluR2-interacting proteins in AMPAR trafficking.

  1. Weight-specific anticipatory coding of grip force in human dorsal premotor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Nuenen, Bart F L; Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Johann; Schulz, Christian

    2012-01-01

    ). An additional pre-cue (S1) correctly predicted the weight in 75% of the trials. Participants were asked to use this prior information to prepare for the lift. In the sham condition, grip force showed a consistent undershoot, if the S1 incorrectly prompted the preparation of a light lift. Likewise, an S1...

  2. Eyes, Grip and Gesture as Objective Indicators of Intentions and Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ditte Hvas

    This poster abstract presents the first part of a study concerning the use of information about gaze, grip and gesture to create non-command interaction. The experiment reported here seeks to establish the occurrence of patterns in nonverbal communication,  which may be used in an activity aware...

  3. Facilitation of corticospinal tract excitability by transcranial direct current stimulation combined with voluntary grip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Wook; Ko, Myoung-Hwan

    2013-08-26

    Previous studies have established that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a powerful technique for the deliberate manipulation of the activity of human cerebral cortex. Moreover, it has also been shown that the non-exhausted voluntary motor exercise increases the excitability of corticospinal tract. We conducted this study to define the facilitation effect following anodal tDCS combined with the voluntary grip exercise as compared with single use of tDCS or voluntary grip exercise. Our result showed that the combination of anodal tDCS with voluntary grip exercise produced a 2-fold increase in the amplitude of MEP as compared with single use of anodal tDCS or voluntary grip exercise. In conclusion, our result could indicate that the treatment outcomes of brain and neurorehabilitation using tDCS would be better when tDCS is combined with the appropriate method of voluntary exercise as compared with single use of tDCS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Grip Force Control Is Dependent on Task Constraints in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sui-Heung; Lo, Sing Kai; Chow, Susanna; Cheing, Gladys L.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive grip force (GF) is often found in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). However, their GF control may vary when task constraints are imposed upon their motor performance. This study aimed to investigate how their GF control changes in response to task demands, and to examine their tactile sensitivity. Twenty-one…

  5. EFFECT OF ECCENTRIC EXERCISE PROGRAMME ON PAIN AND GRIP STRENGTH FOR SUBJECTS WITH MEDIAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Prashant Akhilesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Therapeutic eccentric exercise may provide both a structural and functional benefit during tendinopathy rehabilitation. The objective is to find the effect of eccentric exercises on improvement of pain and grip strength for subjects with Medial Epicondylitis. Method: Pre to post test experimental study design randomized thirty subjects with medial epicondylitis, 15 each into Group A and Group B. Group B subjects were treated with conventional therapy and Eccentric exercises. Group A subjects were treated with conventional therapy. Results: When means of post intervention were compared using Independent ‘t’ between groups there was no statistically significant difference in improvements obtained in VAS scores and grip strength. There was a statistically significant change in means of VAS score and Grip strength when means were analyzed by using Paired‘t’ test and Wilcoxon signed rank test within the groups with positive percentage of change. Conclusion: It is concluded that four weeks of Eccentric Exercise Programme combined with conventional therapy shown significant effect on improving pain and Grip strength, however the improvement obtained has no difference when compared with control conventional treatment for Subjects with Medial Epicondylitis.

  6. The effect of precision and power grips on activations in human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Alexander Wikman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuroanatomical pathways interconnecting auditory and motor cortices play a key role in current models of human auditory cortex (AC. Evidently, auditory-motor interaction is important in speech and music production, but the significance of these cortical pathways in other auditory processing is not well known. We investigated the general effects of motor responding on AC activations to sounds during auditory and visual tasks. During all task blocks, subjects detected targets in the designated modality, reported the relative number of targets at the end of the block, and ignored the stimuli presented in the opposite modality. In each block, they were also instructed to respond to targets either using a precision grip, power grip, or to give no overt target responses. We found that motor responding strongly modulated AC activations. First, during both visual and auditory tasks, activations in widespread regions of AC decreased when subjects made precision and power grip responses to targets. Second, activations in AC were modulated by grip type during the auditory but not during the visual task. Further, the motor effects were distinct from the strong attention-related modulations in AC. These results are consistent with the idea that operations in AC are shaped by its connections with motor cortical regions.

  7. Precision grip in congenital and acquired hemiparesis: similarities in impairments and implications for neurorehabilitation - review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick eBleyenheuft

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with congenital and acquired hemiparesis incur long-term functional deficits, among which the loss of prehension that may impact their functional independence. Identifying, understanding and comparing the underlying mechanisms of prehension impairments represent an opportunity to better adapt neurorehabilitationObjective: The present review aims to provide a better understanding of precision grip deficits in congenital and acquired hemiparesis and to determine whether the severity and type of fine motor control impairments depend on whether or not the lesions are congenital or acquired in adulthood. Methods: Using combinations of the following key words: fingertip force, grip force, precision grip, cerebral palsy, stroke, pubmed and Scopus databases were used to search studies from 1984 to 2013. Results: Individuals with both congenital and acquired hemiparesis were able to some extent to use anticipatory motor control in precision grip tasks, even if this control was impaired in the paretic hand. In both congenital or acquired hemiparesis, the ability to plan efficient anticipatory motor control when the less-affected hand is used provides a possibility to remediate impairments in anticipatory motor control of the paretic hand. Conclusion: Surprisingly we observed very few differences between the results of studies in children with congenital hemiplegia and stroke patients. We suggest that the underlying specific strategies of neurorehabilitation developed for each one could benefit the other.

  8. Getting a grip on numbers : Numerical magnitude priming in object grasping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindemann, Oliver; Abolafia, Juan A.; Girardi, Giovanna; Bekkering, Harold

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the functional connection between numerical cognition and action planning, the authors required participants to perform different grasping responses depending on the parity status of Arabic digits. The results show that precision grip actions were initiated faster in response to small

  9. Frimand Needle Holder Reduces Suturing Time and Surgical Stress When Suturing in Palm Grip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimand Rönnow, Carl-Fredrik; Jeppsson, Bengt; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2016-06-01

    Purpose The Frimand needle holder (FNH) was developed to facilitate palm grip suturing. In the present study, we wanted to examine the impact of the FNH compared with a conventional Hegar-styled needle holder (HSNH) on suture time and surgical stress. Methods Thirty-two surgeons were enrolled and they performed sets of 3 continuous sutures on a polyurethane pad with premarked insert and exit points and the time for suturing was measured. Surgical stress was quantified by having the surgeons to perform 10 release maneuvers with the FNH and the HSNH on a needle attached to a scale. The scale sent 5 values per second to a computer. The first measurement of each series was regarded as the starting weight and all subsequent measurements were either regarded as neutral, pressure or traction. The sum of these measurements represented total surgical stress. Results We found that all surgeons reduced their median suturing time by 16% when using FNH for palm grip suturing with no difference between junior and senior surgeons. Moreover, it was observed that FNH decreased median surgical stress by 62% for all surgeons performing palm grip suturing compared with a conventional HSNH. Conclusion We conclude that the FNH reduces suture time and surgical stress compared with HSNH when performing palm grip suturing. These findings warrant studies in surgical patients in order to evaluate the potential clinical impact of FNH.

  10. First flight of the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Nicole; Shih, A Y; Hurford, G J; Bain, H M; Amman, M; Mochizuki, B A; Hoberman, J; Olson, J; Maruca, B A; Godbole, N M; Smith, D M; Sample, J; Kelley, N A; Zoglauer, A; Caspi, A; Kaufmann, P; Boggs, S; Lin, R P

    2016-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) is a balloon-borne telescope designed to study solar-flare particle acceleration and transport. We describe GRIPS's first Antarctic long-duration flight in Jan 2016 and report preliminary calibration and science results. Electron and ion dynamics, particle abundances and the ambient plasma conditions in solar flares can be understood by examining hard X-ray (HXR) and gamma-ray emission (20 keV to 10 MeV) with enhanced imaging, spectroscopy and polarimetry. GRIPS is specifically designed to answer questions including: What causes the spatial separation between energetic electrons producing HXRs and energetic ions producing gamma-ray lines? How anisotropic are the relativistic electrons, and why can they dominate in the corona? How do the compositions of accelerated and ambient material vary with space and time, and why? GRIPS's key technological improvements over the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) include 3D position-sensi...

  11. Grip Strength as a Marker of Hypertension and Diabetes in Healthy Weight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Anton, Stephen D; Jo, Ara

    2015-12-01

    Muscle strength may play a role in cardiometabolic disease. We examined the relationship between hand grip strength and diabetes and hypertension in a sample of healthy weight adults. In 2015, we analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012 for adults aged ≥20 years with healthy BMIs (between 18.5 and Hypertension was based on measured blood pressure and reported hypertension diagnosis. Individuals with undiagnosed diabetes compared with individuals without diabetes had lower grip strength (51.9 vs 69.8, p=0.0001), as did individuals with diagnosed diabetes compared with individuals without diabetes (61.7 vs 69.8, p=0.008). Mean grip strength was lower among individuals with undiagnosed hypertension compared with individuals without hypertension (63.5 vs 71.5, p=0.008) as well as among individuals with diagnosed hypertension compared with those without hypertension (60.8 vs 71.5, phypertension (β=-6.6, p=0.004) and diagnosed hypertension (β=-4.27, p=0.04) compared with individuals without hypertension. Among healthy weight adults, combined grip strength is lower in individuals with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and hypertension. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Representations built from a true geographic database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    the whole world in 3d and with a spatial reference given by geographic coordinates. Built on top of this is a customised viewer, based on the Xith(Java) scenegraph. The viewer reads the objects directly from the database and solves the question about Level-Of-Detail on buildings, orientation in relation...... a representation based on geographic and geospatial principles. The system GRIFINOR, developed at 3DGI, Aalborg University, DK, is capable of creating this object-orientation and furthermore does this on top of a true Geographic database. A true Geographic database can be characterized as a database that can cover...... to terrain and rendering of the model. All this is done in something very close to real-time. GRIFINOR is at the moment working within a limited edition of the world. Only a few classes have been selected for representation in GRIFINOR. These are buildings, cadastre, trees, grass, roads. This paper...

  13. True hyponatremia secondary to intravenous immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minhtri K; Rastogi, Anjay; Kurtz, Ira

    2006-06-01

    Hyponatremia is characterized as either "true hyponatremia," which represents a decrease in the Na(+) concentration in the water phase of plasma, or "pseudohyponatremia," which is due to an increased percentage of protein or lipid in plasma, with a normal plasma water Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]). Pseudohyponatremia is a known complication of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Because IVIG has been reported to result in post-infusional hyperproteinemia, IVIG-induced hyponatremia has been attributed to pseudohyponatremia. In this case report, we demonstrate that IVIG therapy can result in true hyponatremia, resulting from sucrose-induced translocation of water from the intracellular compartment (ICF) to the extracellular compartment (ECF), as well as the infusion of a large volume of dilute fluid, in patients with an underlying defect in urinary free water excretion.

  14. Cosmic chirality both true and false.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Laurence D

    2012-12-01

    The discrete symmetries of parity P, time reversal T, and charge conjugation C may be used to characterize the properties of chiral systems. It is well known that parity violation infiltrates into ordinary matter via an interaction between the nucleons and electrons, mediated by the Z(0) particle, that lifts the degeneracy of the mirror-image enantiomers of a chiral molecule. Being odd under P but even under T, this P-violating interaction exhibits true chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection under all circumstances. It has been suggested that CP violation may also infiltrate into ordinary matter via a P-odd, T-odd interaction mediated by the (as yet undetected) axion. This CP-violating interaction exhibits false chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection in processes far from equilibrium. Both true and false cosmic chirality should be considered together as possible sources of homochirality in the molecules of life.

  15. Frege on Truths, Truth and the True

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Künne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The founder of modern logic and grandfather of analytic philosophy was 70 years old when he published his paper 'Der Gedanke' (The Thought in 1918. This essay contains some of Gottlob Frege's deepest and most provocative reflections on the concept of truth, and it will play a prominent role in my lectures. The plan for my lectures is as follows. What is it that is (primarily true or false? 'Thoughts', is Frege's answer. In §1, I shall explain and defend this answer. In §2, I shall briefly consider his enthymematic argument for the conclusion that the word 'true' resists any attempt at defining it. In §3, I shall discuss his thesis that the thought that things are thus and so is identical with the thought that it is true that things are thus and so. The reasons we are offered for this thesis will be found wanting. In §4, I shall comment extensively on Frege's claim that, in a non-formal language like the one I am currently trying to speak, we can say whatever we want to say without ever using the word 'true' or any of its synonyms. I will reject the propositional-redundancy claim, endorse the assertive-redundancy claim and deny the connection Frege ascribes to them. In his classic 1892 paper 'Über Sinn und Bedeutung' (On Sense and Signification Frege argues that truth-values are objects. In §5, I shall scrutinize his argument. In §6, I will show that in Frege's ideography (Begriffsschrift truth, far from being redundant, is omnipresent. The final §7 is again on truth-bearers, this time as a topic in the theory of intentionality and in metaphysics. In the course of discussing Frege's views on the objecthood, the objectivity of thoughts and the timelessness of truth(s, I will plead for a somewhat mitigated Platonism.

  16. Hadronic Vacuum Polarization in True Muonium

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Henry

    2016-01-01

    The leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the hyperfine splitting of true muonium is reevaluated in two ways. The first considers a more complex pionic form factor and better estimates of the perturbative QCD contributions. The second, more accurate method directly integrates the Drell ratio $R(s)$ to obtain $C_{1,\\rm hvp}=-0.0489(3)$. This corresponds to an energy shift in the hyperfine splitting of $\\Delta E^\\mu_{hfs,\\rm hvp}=276196(51)$ MHz.

  17. Engineering customized TALE nucleases (TALENs) and TALE transcription factors by fast ligation-based automatable solid-phase high-throughput (FLASH) assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyon, Deepak; Maeder, Morgan L; Khayter, Cyd; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Foley, Jonathan E; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith

    2013-07-01

    Customized DNA-binding domains made using transcription activator-like effector (TALE) repeats are rapidly growing in importance as widely applicable research tools. TALE nucleases (TALENs), composed of an engineered array of TALE repeats fused to the FokI nuclease domain, have been used successfully for directed genome editing in various organisms and cell types. TALE transcription factors (TALE-TFs), consisting of engineered TALE repeat arrays linked to a transcriptional regulatory domain, have been used to up- or downregulate expression of endogenous genes in human cells and plants. This unit describes a detailed protocol for the recently described fast ligation-based automatable solid-phase high-throughput (FLASH) assembly method. FLASH enables automated high-throughput construction of engineered TALE repeats using an automated liquid handling robot or manually using a multichannel pipet. Using the automated approach, a single researcher can construct up to 96 DNA fragments encoding TALE repeat arrays of various lengths in a single day, and then clone these to construct sequence-verified TALEN or TALE-TF expression plasmids in a week or less. Plasmids required for FLASH are available by request from the Joung lab (http://eGenome.org). This unit also describes improvements to the Zinc Finger and TALE Targeter (ZiFiT Targeter) web server (http://ZiFiT.partners.org) that facilitate the design and construction of FLASH TALE repeat arrays in high throughput.

  18. Measurement error in grip and pinch force measurements in patients with hand injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuders, Ton A R; Roebroeck, Marij E; Goumans, Janine; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Johan F; Stijnen, Theo H; Stam, Henk J

    2003-09-01

    There is limited documentation of measurement error of grip and pinch force evaluation methods. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine indexes of measurement error for intraexaminer and interexaminer measurements of grip and pinch force in patients with hand injuries and (2) to investigate whether the measurement error differs between measurements of the injured and noninjured hands and between experienced and inexperienced examiners. The subjects were a consecutive sample of 33 patients with hand injuries who were seen in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam in the Netherlands. Repeated measurements were taken of grip and pinch force, with a short break of 2 to 3 minutes between sessions. For the grip force in 2 handle positions (distance between handles of 4.6 and 7.2 cm, respectively), tip pinch (with the index finger on top and the thumb below, with the other fingers flexed) and key pinch force (with the thumb on top and the radial side of the index finger below) data were obtained on both hands of the subjects by an experienced examiner and an inexperienced examiner. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard errors of measurement (SEMs), and associated smallest detectable differences (SDDs) were calculated and compared with data from previous studies. The reliability of the measurements was expressed by ICCs between .82 and .97. For grip force measurements (in the second handle position) by the experienced examiner, an SDD of 61 N was found. For tip pinch and key pinch, these values were 12 N and 11 N, respectively. For measurements by the inexperienced examiner, SDDs of 56 N for grip force and 13 N and 18 N for tip pinch and key pinch were found. Based on the SEMs and SDDs, in individual patients only relatively large differences in grip and pinch force measurements can be adequately detected between consecutive measurements. Measurement error did not differ between injured and

  19. True random numbers from amplified quantum vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre, M; Curty, M; Steinlechner, F; Anzolin, G; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V

    2011-10-10

    Random numbers are essential for applications ranging from secure communications to numerical simulation and quantitative finance. Algorithms can rapidly produce pseudo-random outcomes, series of numbers that mimic most properties of true random numbers while quantum random number generators (QRNGs) exploit intrinsic quantum randomness to produce true random numbers. Single-photon QRNGs are conceptually simple but produce few random bits per detection. In contrast, vacuum fluctuations are a vast resource for QRNGs: they are broad-band and thus can encode many random bits per second. Direct recording of vacuum fluctuations is possible, but requires shot-noise-limited detectors, at the cost of bandwidth. We demonstrate efficient conversion of vacuum fluctuations to true random bits using optical amplification of vacuum and interferometry. Using commercially-available optical components we demonstrate a QRNG at a bit rate of 1.11 Gbps. The proposed scheme has the potential to be extended to 10 Gbps and even up to 100 Gbps by taking advantage of high speed modulation sources and detectors for optical fiber telecommunication devices.

  20. Effects of Taping on Pain, Grip Strength and Wrist Extension Force in Patients with Tennis Elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shamsoddini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tennis elbow (TE is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Different modes of treatment are used for management of tennis elbow.Objectives: This study investigated the effect of the taping technique (TT on pain, grip strength and wrist extension force in treatment of tennis elbow.Patients and Methods: Thirty patients (16 men /14 women with a mean age of 32.2 years with tennis elbow of their dominant arm participated in this study. Outcome measures were assessment of pain at the lateral aspect of the elbow, grip strength and wrist extension force before and five to ten minutes after application of elbow tape on the affected and unaffected arms. A Visual Analog Scale was used to assess pain. A dynamometer and a hand-held dynamometer were used for evaluation of grip strength and wrist extension force, respectively.Results: Among the variables, significant differences were found in wrist extension forces between effected and unaffected arms (P = 0.02. Changes in grip strength showed statically significant improvements in the affected arm compared to the unaffected arm (P = 0.03. Also, in assessment of pain at the lateral epicondyle, the mean change between affected and unaffected arms was significant, with P = 0.001.Conclusions: The taping technique, as applied in this study demonstrates an impressive effect on wrist extension force and grip strength of patients with TE. Elbow taping also reduces pain at the lateral aspect of the elbow in these patients.

  1. Enhanced independence: experiences after regaining grip function in people with tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdell, Johanna; Carlsson, Gunnel; Fridén, Jan

    2013-01-01

    To explore how surgical reconstruction of grip affects everyday life for patients with tetraplegia, with special emphasis on patients perspective of their perceived changes. Qualitative method. Eleven people (aged 22-73) with tetraplegia who had undergone surgical reconstruction to restore grip function. Qualitative interviews were conducted 7-17 months after surgery and analysed using Grounded theory. The core concept describing the participants experienced gains after grip reconstructive surgery was "enhanced independence". It was associated with changes in both practical and psychological aspects of independence. Practical aspects identified were: "perform more activities", "smoother everyday life", "renewed ability to participate in social activities", "less dependence on assistance" and "less restricted by physical environment". Psychological aspects of independence included "regained privacy", "increased manageability", "regained identity", "recapture a part of the body" and "share positive experiences with relatives and friends". Encompassing all categories was the concept "self-efficacy in hand control". It was seen as a result included in the enhanced independency core but also as an important factor for the development of all the other categories. Participants in this study experienced enhanced independence after grip reconstructive surgery and rehabilitation. The enhanced independence included both practical and physical aspects and it influenced all domains using the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health model; body function and structure, activities, participation, personal factors and environmental factors. Implications for Rehabilitation Patients with tetraplegia experience grip reconstruction as a useful intervention, an enhanced independence, related to their improved hand control. The increased hand control impacted not only physical aspects but also practical and psychological aspects. It also influenced social and

  2. Vlade Divac: Unfinished transition fairy tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work I try to establish, by analyzing texts about basketball player Vlade Divac, in what way sport press is representing famous individual sport personalities, as well as strategies with which media is representing but also socially constructs specific identification practices, primarily those connected with the concept of national identity. In doing that, I am starting from the fact that professional sportsmen represent typical example of "transnational citizens and global businessmen who simultaneously inhabit both national and transnational space", but at the same time, consciously and seemingly paradoxically can serve as "national cultural icons in the function of forming and reaffirming national identities". Analyzed details from media presentations of Vlade Divca point out that the smallest common denominator that brought to the basketball player such status is the "proven patriotism". The picture being formed about him represents a series of preferred national characteristics, a quintessence of "Serbian people", thanks to which or even in spite of that, he succeeds to overcome, in the perception here, not too positively co notated America. Also, I am trying to point out how media story about well known basketball player has a structure of transitional fairy tale in which Divac is playing the role of "hero" of the still unfinished transition in Serbia.

  3. Policy Pathways: A Tale of Renewed Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Transport currently accounts for half of global oil consumption and nearly 20% of world energy use, of which approximately 40% is used in urban transport alone. The IEA expects urban transport energy consumption to double by 2050, despite ongoing vehicle technology and fuel-economy improvements. While increased mobility brings many benefits, the staggering rate of this increase creates new challenges. Urgent energy-efficiency policy attention will be needed to mitigate associated negative noise, air pollution, congestion, climate and economic impacts, all of which can cost countries billions of dollars per year. This report highlights lessons learned and examples of good practice from countries with experience implementing a wide range of measures to improve energy efficiency in urban transport systems. Part of the IEA Policy Pathway series, A Tale of Renewed Cities sets out key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation to achieve improved energy efficiency in urban transport systems. The Policy Pathway series aims to help policy makers implement the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations.

  4. Opioid Use in Fibromyalgia: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Don L; Clauw, Daniel J; Palmer, Roy E; Clair, Andrew G

    2016-05-01

    Multiple pharmacotherapies are available for the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM), including opioid analgesics. We postulate that the mechanism of action of traditional opioids predicts their lack of efficacy in FM. Literature searches of the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases were conducted using the search term opioid AND fibromyalgia to identify relevant articles, with no date limitations set. Citation lists in returned articles and personal archives of references were also examined for additional relevant items, and articles were selected based on the expert opinions of the authors. We found no evidence from clinical trials that opioids are effective for the treatment of FM. Observational studies have found that patients with FM receiving opioids have poorer outcomes than patients receiving nonopioids, and FM guidelines recommend against the use of opioid analgesics. Despite this, and despite the availability of alternative Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies and the efficacy of nonpharmacologic therapies, opioids are commonly used in the treatment of FM. Factors associated with opioid use include female sex; geographic variation; psychological factors; a history of opioid use, misuse, or abuse; and patient or physician preference. The long-term use of opioid analgesics is of particular concern in the United States given the ongoing public health emergency relating to excess prescription opioid consumption. The continued use of opioids to treat FM despite a proven lack of efficacy, lack of support from treatment guidelines, and the availability of approved pharmacotherapy options provides a cautionary tale for their use in other chronic pain conditions.

  5. Analysis of the statistical methods used to detect submaximal effort with the five-rung grip strength test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Orit; Gutierrez, Zeida; Kokendofer, Emily

    2005-01-01

    Controversy exists in the literature concerning the ability of the five-rung grip test to identify submaximal effort. The purpose of this study was to analyze four methods commonly used to evaluate the shape of the curve generated by maximal versus submaximal efforts. Thirty hand therapy patients performed the five-rung grip test maximally and submaximally with both their injured and uninjured hands. Grip strength scores were recorded at each of the five-rung positions. Next, four methods were used to analyze the data 1) visual analysis, 2) analysis of variance, 3) normalization, and 4) calculation of the standard deviation across the five strength scores. Analysis by all methods demonstrated that there were no differences between the injured hand exerting maximal effort and the uninjured hand exerting submaximal effort. In all four methods, the five-rung grip strength test was unable to distinguish between the injured hand exerting maximal effort and the uninjured hand exerting submaximal effort. The results suggest that the five-rung grip strength test should not be used to determine sincerity of effort in people with hand injuries, and that the shape of the curve generated by the five-rung grip strength test may not be related to level of effort but rather to the amount of force generated by the gripping hand.

  6. Conformational elasticity can facilitate TALE-DNA recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hongxing; Sun, Jiya; Baldwin, Enoch P; Segal, David J; Duan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Sequence-programmable transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins have emerged as a highly efficient tool for genome engineering. Recent crystal structures depict a transition between an open unbound solenoid and more compact DNA-bound solenoid formed by the 34 amino acid repeats. How TALEs switch conformation between these two forms without substantial energetic compensation, and how the repeat-variable di-residues (RVDs) discriminate between the cognate base and other bases still remain unclear. Computational analysis on these two aspects of TALE-DNA interaction mechanism has been conducted in order to achieve a better understanding of the energetics. High elasticity was observed in the molecular dynamics simulations of DNA-free TALE structure that started from the bound conformation where it sampled a wide range of conformations including the experimentally determined apo and bound conformations. This elastic feature was also observed in the simulations starting from the apo form which suggests low free energy barrier between the two conformations and small compensation required upon binding. To analyze binding specificity, we performed free energy calculations of various combinations of RVDs and bases using Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (PBSA) and other approaches. The PBSA calculations indicated that the native RVD-base structures had lower binding free energy than mismatched structures for most of the RVDs examined. Our theoretical analyses provided new insight on the dynamics and energetics of TALE-DNA binding mechanism.

  7. Chimeric TALE recombinases with programmable DNA sequence specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Andrew C; Gaj, Thomas; Fuller, Roberta P; Barbas, Carlos F

    2012-11-01

    Site-specific recombinases are powerful tools for genome engineering. Hyperactivated variants of the resolvase/invertase family of serine recombinases function without accessory factors, and thus can be re-targeted to sequences of interest by replacing native DNA-binding domains (DBDs) with engineered zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs). However, imperfect modularity with particular domains, lack of high-affinity binding to all DNA triplets, and difficulty in construction has hindered the widespread adoption of ZFPs in unspecialized laboratories. The discovery of a novel type of DBD in transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins from Xanthomonas provides an alternative to ZFPs. Here we describe chimeric TALE recombinases (TALERs): engineered fusions between a hyperactivated catalytic domain from the DNA invertase Gin and an optimized TALE architecture. We use a library of incrementally truncated TALE variants to identify TALER fusions that modify DNA with efficiency and specificity comparable to zinc-finger recombinases in bacterial cells. We also show that TALERs recombine DNA in mammalian cells. The TALER architecture described herein provides a platform for insertion of customized TALE domains, thus significantly expanding the targeting capacity of engineered recombinases and their potential applications in biotechnology and medicine.

  8. TRUE MASSES OF RADIAL-VELOCITY EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert A., E-mail: rbrown@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We study the task of estimating the true masses of known radial-velocity (RV) exoplanets by means of direct astrometry on coronagraphic images to measure the apparent separation between exoplanet and host star. Initially, we assume perfect knowledge of the RV orbital parameters and that all errors are due to photon statistics. We construct design reference missions for four missions currently under study at NASA: EXO-S and WFIRST-S, with external star shades for starlight suppression, EXO-C and WFIRST-C, with internal coronagraphs. These DRMs reveal extreme scheduling constraints due to the combination of solar and anti-solar pointing restrictions, photometric and obscurational completeness, image blurring due to orbital motion, and the “nodal effect,” which is the independence of apparent separation and inclination when the planet crosses the plane of the sky through the host star. Next, we address the issue of nonzero uncertainties in RV orbital parameters by investigating their impact on the observations of 21 single-planet systems. Except for two—GJ 676 A b and 16 Cyg B b, which are observable only by the star-shade missions—we find that current uncertainties in orbital parameters generally prevent accurate, unbiased estimation of true planetary mass. For the coronagraphs, WFIRST-C and EXO-C, the most likely number of good estimators of true mass is currently zero. For the star shades, EXO-S and WFIRST-S, the most likely numbers of good estimators are three and four, respectively, including GJ 676 A b and 16 Cyg B b. We expect that uncertain orbital elements currently undermine all potential programs of direct imaging and spectroscopy of RV exoplanets.

  9. [True color accuracy in digital forensic photography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kröll, Ann-Katrin; Kettner, Mattias; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Forensic photographs not only need to be unaltered and authentic and capture context-relevant images, along with certain minimum requirements for image sharpness and information density, but color accuracy also plays an important role, for instance, in the assessment of injuries or taphonomic stages, or in the identification and evaluation of traces from photos. The perception of color not only varies subjectively from person to person, but as a discrete property of an image, color in digital photos is also to a considerable extent influenced by technical factors such as lighting, acquisition settings, camera, and output medium (print, monitor). For these reasons, consistent color accuracy has so far been limited in digital photography. Because images usually contain a wealth of color information, especially for complex or composite colors or shades of color, and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity to factors such as light and shadow may vary between cameras, the usefulness of issuing general recommendations for camera capture settings is limited. Our results indicate that true image colors can best and most realistically be captured with the SpyderCheckr technical calibration tool for digital cameras tested in this study. Apart from aspects such as the simplicity and quickness of the calibration procedure, a further advantage of the tool is that the results are independent of the camera used and can also be used for the color management of output devices such as monitors and printers. The SpyderCheckr color-code patches allow true colors to be captured more realistically than with a manual white balance tool or an automatic flash. We therefore recommend that the use of a color management tool should be considered for the acquisition of all images that demand high true color accuracy (in particular in the setting of injury documentation).

  10. Responding to the Challenge of True Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Andersen, Torben Juul

    We construe a conceptual framework for responding effectively to true uncertainty in the business environment. We drill down to the essential micro-foundational capabilities - sensing and seizing of dynamic capabilities - and link them to classical strategic issue management theory with suggestions...... on aggregation of stakeholder sensing and predictions of emergent strategic issues can positively influence the two capabilities and help the firm adapt in the face of uncertainty and unpredictability. Robust measures predicating performance based on information from key stakeholders involved in the firm’s core...

  11. True thermal antenna with hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbillon, Grégory; Sakat, Emilie; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Biehs, Svend-Age; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    A thermal antenna is an electromagnetic source which emits in its surrounding, a spatially coherent field in the infrared frequency range. Usually, its emission pattern changes with the wavelength so that the heat flux it radiates is weakly directive. Here, we show that a class of hyperbolic materials, possesses a Brewster angle which is weakly dependent on the wavelength, so that they can radiate like a true thermal antenna with a highly directional heat flux. The realization of these sources could open a new avenue in the field of thermal management in far-field regime.

  12. True reason for Zipf's law in language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahui, Wang; Menghui, Li; Zengru, Di

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of word frequency have historically used data that included English, French, or other language, data typically described by Zipf's law. Using data on traditional and modern Chinese literatures, we show here that Chinese character frequency stroked Zipf's law based on literature before Qin dynasty; however, it departed from Zipf's law based on literature after Qin dynasty. Combined with data about English dictionaries and Chinese dictionaries, we show that the true reason for Zipf's Law in language is that growth and preferential selection mechanism of word or character in given language.

  13. Power grip, pinch grip, manual muscle testing or thenar atrophy – which should be assessed as a motor outcome after carpal tunnel decompression? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kale Swati

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective assessment of motor function is frequently used to evaluate outcome after surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. However a range of outcome measures are used and there appears to be no consensus on which measure of motor function effectively captures change. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the methods used to assess motor function in randomized controlled trials of surgical interventions for CTS. A secondary aim was to evaluate which instruments reflect clinical change and are psychometrically robust. Methods The bibliographic databases Medline, AMED and CINAHL were searched for randomized controlled trials of surgical interventions for CTS. Data on instruments used, methods of assessment and results of tests of motor function was extracted by two independent reviewers. Results Twenty-two studies were retrieved which included performance based assessments of motor function. Nineteen studies assessed power grip dynamometry, fourteen studies used both power and pinch grip dynamometry, eight used manual muscle testing and five assessed the presence or absence of thenar atrophy. Several studies used multiple tests of motor function. Two studies included both power and pinch strength and reported descriptive statistics enabling calculation of effect sizes to compare the relative responsiveness of grip and pinch strength within study samples. The study findings suggest that tip pinch is more responsive than lateral pinch or power grip up to 12 weeks following surgery for CTS. Conclusion Although used most frequently and known to be reliable, power and key pinch dynamometry are not the most valid or responsive tools for assessing motor outcome up to 12 weeks following surgery for CTS. Tip pinch dynamometry more specifically targets the thenar musculature and appears to be more responsive. Manual muscle testing, which in theory is most specific to the thenar musculature, may be more

  14. Writing and Retelling Multiple Ethnographic Tales of a Soup Kitchen for the Homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dana L.; Creswell, John W.; Olander, Lisa

    An ethnographic study narrated three tales about a soup kitchen for the homeless and the near-homeless. To provide a cultural, ethnographic analysis, and share fieldwork experiences the study began with realist and confessional tales. These two tales emerged from the initial writing and presenting of the soup kitchen ethnography to qualitative…

  15. First flight of the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Nicole; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Shih, A. Y.; Hurford, G. J.; Bain, H. M.; Amman, M.; Mochizuki, B. A.; Hoberman, J.; Olson, J.; Maruca, B. A.; Godbole, N. M.; Smith, D. M.; Sample, J.; Kelley, N. A.; Zoglauer, A.; Caspi, A.; Kaufmann, P.; Boggs, S.; Lin, R. P.

    2016-07-01

    The Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) instrument is a balloon-borne telescope designed to study solar- are particle acceleration and transport. We describe GRIPS's first Antarctic long-duration flight in January 2016 and report preliminary calibration and science results. Electron and ion dynamics, particle abundances and the ambient plasma conditions in solar flares can be understood by examining hard X-ray (HXR) and gamma-ray emission (20 keV to 10 MeV). Enhanced imaging, spectroscopy and polarimetry of are emissions in this energy range are needed to study particle acceleration and transport questions. The GRIPS instrument is specifically designed to answer questions including: What causes the spatial separation between energetic electrons producing hard X-rays and energetic ions producing gamma-ray lines? How anisotropic are the relativistic electrons, and why can they dominate in the corona? How do the compositions of accelerated and ambient material vary with space and time, and why? GRIPS's key technological improvements over the current solar state of the art at HXR/gamma-ray energies, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), include 3D position-sensitive germanium detectors (3D-GeDs) and a single-grid modulation collimator, the multi-pitch rotating modulator (MPRM). The 3D-GeDs have spectral FWHM resolution of a few hundred keV and spatial resolution 150 keV, the energy deposition sites can be tracked, providing polarization measurements as well as enhanced background reduction through Compton imaging. Each of GRIPS's detectors has 298 electrode strips read out with ASIC/FPGA electronics. In GRIPS's energy range, indirect imaging methods provide higher resolution than focusing optics or Compton imaging techniques. The MPRM gridimaging system has a single-grid design which provides twice the throughput of a bi-grid imaging system like RHESSI. The grid is composed of 2.5 cm deep tungsten-copper slats, and quasi

  16. Maximal intermittent handgrip strategy: design and evaluation of an exercise protocol and a grip tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentley DC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Danielle Christine Bentley, Scott Gordon Thomas Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Abstract: Handgrip (HG exercise has been prescribed as a lifestyle intervention to successfully reduce resting blood pressure (BP among heterogeneous groups of participants. Current HG protocols have limited accessibility due to complicated exercise prescriptions and sophisticated required equipment. Therefore, this research describes the design and evaluation of the maximal intermittent (MINT HG exercise strategy, consisting of both a novel exercise protocol (32×5 seconds maximal grip squeezes separated by 5 seconds of rest between sets and an original grip tool. This research was a multistep progressive design that included 51 postmenopausal women as participants in three separate research studies. Part 1 of this research focuses on the MINT exercise protocol. A literature-informed rationale for the design of the protocol is described. This includes exercise intensity, work-to-rest ratio, and total exercise duration with reference to the unique physiology (mechanoreflex and metaboreflex of postmenopausal women. Subsequent experimental analyses of acute responses to the MINT protocol revealed that women produced 50% of their maximum grip force with moderate cardiovascular responses (increases of systolic BP: 41.6 mmHg, diastolic BP: 20.1 mmHg, heart rate: 35.1 bpm that remained far below the thresholds of concern identified by the American College of Sports Medicine. Part 2 of this research describes the creation of a novel grip tool, beginning with a mixed-methods assessment of participant opinions regarding two distinct in-laboratory grip tools, leading to the creation of four prototype MINT tools. Structured focus groups revealed a strong preference for MINT prototype 1 for all tool design features, including color, shape, size, and foam grip. Collectively, the result of this multistep

  17. True or false: is that the question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaúnza Chagín, María Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Standard tests designed for medical students frequently include objective True/ False (T/F questions, in which there are only two possible answers that can be successfully reached at random. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate that asking for support of the answers diminishes the number of randomly correct ones, so improving the ability of questions to verify learnings. Methods: 8.188 T/F questions whose answers had to be supported; they were applied in 28 written tests of Pathology, at the undergraduate medical program (La Sabana University, Chía, Colombia. Answers were classified as correct or incorrect, and their support, as correct, partially correct and incorrect. In order to analyze the data, the kappa agreement coefficient between T/F questions and T/F questions with support was calculated, as well as per term and per test. Results: Out of 8.188 T/F questions, 6.112 (74.6% were correctly answered as true or false, 3.655 (44.6% had a correct support, and 2.336 (28.5% were not correctly supported, exhibiting a global agreement index of 0.378 and low agreement indexes per term. Conclusion: T/F questions could be accompanied by support of the answers in order to reduce the probability of randomly correct ones, to enhance the development of superior cognitive processes, and communicative essential competences.

  18. Benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma. There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminiscent of cementum. The cat recovered uneventfully from the anesthesia, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery. Relevance and novel information Cementoblastomas (true cementomas in domestic animals are rare, with just a few reports in ruminants, monogastric herbivores and rodents. Cementoblastoma is considered a benign tumor that arises from the tooth root. The slow, expansive and constant growth that characterizes these masses may be accompanied by signs of oral discomfort and dysphagia. This case report is intended to increase knowledge regarding this tumor in cats and also highlights the importance of complete excision of the neoplasm. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of cementoblastoma in the cat.

  19. TEACHING GENDER AWARENESS THROUGH FAIRY TALES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arisa Kochiyama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore how gender has been portrayed historically and in current times in fairy tales and then to introduce the effectiveness of using fairy tales in language instruction. While some instructors may still believe that teaching EFL encompasses focusing on linguistic elements only, recent trend in EFL teaching indicates the necessity of integrating literature in the curricula because of its rich potential to provide an authentic model of language use as well as its universal themes within human history. Traditional fairy tales and modern ones can allow students to think critically about how men and women are portrayed and to compare these portrayals with their own communities. It is hoped that discussion of the topic of gender issues can help students foster critical thinking and literacy and empower them with a further understanding of gender notions in their lives.

  20. Creating a TALE protein with unbiased 5'-T binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Shogo; Futaki, Shiroh; Imanishi, Miki

    2013-11-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are convenient tools for genome engineering at specific genomic sites. However, their use is constrained because most TALE binding sites are preceded by a highly conserved 5' terminal T nucleotide (5'-T). To remove the 5'-T constraint, we substituted tryptophan 232 in the repeat-1 loop region of the dHax3 N-terminal domain for other amino acids. Furthermore, we randomized four amino acid residues of the hairpin loop region of repeat-1. Although point mutation was insufficient to remove the 5'-T constraint, directed evolution from the randomized library yielded repeat-1 mutants with unbiased targeting sites for 5'-bases. Our result indicates that the repeat-1 loop region of dHax3 is important for 5'-base accommodation, and that molecular evolution of repeat-1 of TALEs is an efficient strategy to remove the 5'-T constraint and thus allow targeting of any DNA sequences.

  1. TRUE Block Scale Continuation Project. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Peter; Byegaard, Johan [Geosigma AB (Sweden); Billaux, Daniel [Itasca Consultants SA (France); Cvetkovic, Vladimir [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Dershowitz, William; Doe, Thomas [Golder Associates Inc. (United States); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB (Sweden); Poteri, Antti [VTT (Finland); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB (Sweden); Winberg, Anders [Conterra AB (SE)] (ed.)

    2007-03-15

    The TRUE Block Scale project was carried out during 1996-2002. This project focused on site characterisation and building of hydrostructural and microstructural models, sorbing tracer experiments in single structures and networks of structures over distances ranging between 1 and 100 m and also involved a unified application of various model approaches for modelling the in situ experiments. In 2002, ANDRA, Posiva, JNC and SKB decided to pursue some remaining issues in the so-called TRUE Block Scale Continuation project (TRUE BS2). The specific objectives of BS2 can be summarised as: 'Improve understanding of transport pathways at the block scale, including assessment of effects of geology and geometry, macrostructure and microstructure'. In order to cater to addressing the stated objective a series of hypotheses were formulated which explored the importance of geological information for predicting transport and retention and the possible differences between transport and retention between transport paths dominated by faults and those dominated by non-fault fractures (background fractures). In the process, prospects for carrying out experiments in fracture networks over longer distances (c 20-100 m) were explored. It was identified that experiments with sorbing tracers over these distances were prohibitive because of the time frames involved and the projected low mass recoveries. Instead the experimental locus was shifted to a geological structure previously not investigated by tracer tests in the TRUE Block Scale experiments. The lower immobile zone retention material properties assigned to background fractures compared to those assigned to the fault-type Structure 19 have been verified by means of back-calculations. The evaluated Type 1 flow path (Structure 19, Flow path I) retention material properties, as expressed by {kappa} parameter, are one order of magnitude higher than for the background fracture flow path. This finding is consistent with the

  2. MEASURE FOR MEASURE: A THRICE TOLD TALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIMAH MOHAMED ALI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Measure for Measure is a difficult play to perform because it has problematic themes, especially the theme of sexuality, that clash with the way of life and thinking of contemporary society. As such, any director who chooses to stage it must consider these difficulties and how to present them in a natural manner without making the audience feel that the whole production is contrived. The directors of the two major productions discussed in this paper tried their best to present a Measure for Measure that would be acceptable to the modern society. It is evident that there are many interpretations of the Duke and Isabella's characters and also of Isabella's reaction to the Duke's proposal at the end of the play. It can be concluded that no interpretation is wrong because each actor or director brings with him his own reading of the play, and every reading has been influenced by other performances and textual criticisms. Since Measure for Measure is a thematically rich play, it should not be confined to a single interpretation. The different performances of Measure for Measure have proven that theatre is experimental as well as ageless. Because it is a brilliant play with a myriad of interpretations, Measure for Measure will not cease to be a favourite for directors in times to come. It is not wrong to predict that fans of Shakespeare in general and of Measure for Measure in particular can look forward to many more productions.For experienced Shakespeare observers all performances are thrice-told tales. The perceiving eye absorbs the performance even as the mind's eye attends to the text. Both are augmented by the inner ear buzzing with those other voices, both critical and dramatic, carried by the observer into the theatre.(Crowl, Samuel 1992: 3

  3. A tale of two acute extradural hematomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Amos Olufemi; Jite, Ikechi E.; Smith, Omolara A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In much of the Western hemisphere, mortality from traumatic acute extradural hematomas (AEDH) has been drastically brought down toward 0%. This is still not the case however in most developing countries. Case Description: This report represents a tragi-comic tale of two cases of traumatic AEDH managed by an academic neurosurgeon in a neurosurgically ill-resourced private health facility during a nationwide industrial strike action preventing clinical-surgical care in the principal author's University Teaching Hospital. A young man presented with altered consciousness, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) 14/15, following a road accident. The cranial computed tomography (CT) scan was obtained only 9 h after its request, long after the man had actually deteriorated to GCS 7/15 with pupillary changes. The neurosurgeon, summoned from the nearby University Teaching Hospital for the operative care of this man, arrived on-site and was about moving the patient into the operative room when he took the final breaths and died, all within 2 h of the belated neuroimaging. This scenario repeated itself in the same health facility just 24 h later with another young man who presented GCS 7/15 and another identical CT evidence of traumatic AEDH. With more financially able relations, the diagnostic/surgical care of this second patient was much more prompt. He made a very brisk recovery from neurosurgical operative intervention. He is alive and well, 5-month postoperative. Conclusions: In most low-resourced health systems of the developing countries, a significant proportion of potentially salvageable cases of AEDH still perish from this disease condition. PMID:27213108

  4. Making and Using Astronomical Fairy-tales on DVD in Planetarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, V. G.

    2006-08-01

    Teaching and learning of astronomy meets many contradictions: the information should be true, the presentation should be at a professional level yet easy for the teacher, the topic should be related to the everyday life of the students, and have a cultural/historical background; also, it should be understandable for a wide range of ages. We try to meet all these principles making and using a DVD-video "The FairyTale of the Milky Way" which has been presented for several months in the Planetarium of SaintPetersburg, Russia. We present some parts of the tale on screen with comments on the realization of the principles. Astronomy has many places and moments where and when an astronomical idea and discovery shines perfectly for teaching. We selected Prague, the house of Kepler, Christmas evening of the year 1610, the Keplers last Christmas in Prague. He really may have celebrated Christmas with his family just before the smallpox epidemic, which will take the lives of three of them the next year. The Keplers' friend Rudolf II was still the Emperor (for his last year). Kepler really may have shown his children the pages of the just-published Bayer's Atlas of the Constellations. He must have been excited by the discoveries on the southern sky as well as the recent telescopic discoveries by Galileo. He really may have looked at the satellites of Jupiter, the phases of Venus (that was the right month!), the stars and nebula of the Milky Way, the sunspots and lunar craters through one of the telescopes widely distributed in 1610. He wrote 2 books: one about stars (the famous planetary laws!), the other about snowflakes. That was the key moment of his life. Many details making the atmosphere of the moment are in our tale. The real pictures of the epoch are used. In the fairytale, the beautiful telescopic nebula on modern photos appear real: "Helix," "Crab," "Ant," "Cat's Eye," "Butterfly," "Witch," and so on. A simple technique and software to make it is presented. The

  5. Student Teachers’ Perceptions of Success: A Tale of Two Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hirschkorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is primarily focused on a recent group (tale 2 experiencing a seriesof embedded and interactive field based experiences (field learning; thediscussion is benchmarked to a previous study (tale 1 of student teachershaving had a more traditional semester practicum as part of their field-basedexperience. It is within this context that the authors’ show support for rarelynoted findings (knowledge supporting the efficacy of university campus programs:novice teachers linking their success in field-based teaching to theiruniversity campus program (campus learning. We contend this is importantevidence supporting the link between theory and practice that has the potentialto better inform educational management decisions.

  6. Lyd på museum 2: Fairy Tales Forever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen belyser det, at værker med lyd installeres i kunstmuseer, her flere kunstneres værker fra HCA-udstillingen på kunstmuseet ARoS, "Fairy Tales Forever". Om flg. kunstnere: Pipilotti Rist, Tabaimo, William Kentridge, Tony Ousler. Udgivelsesdato: 14.12.05......Artiklen belyser det, at værker med lyd installeres i kunstmuseer, her flere kunstneres værker fra HCA-udstillingen på kunstmuseet ARoS, "Fairy Tales Forever". Om flg. kunstnere: Pipilotti Rist, Tabaimo, William Kentridge, Tony Ousler. Udgivelsesdato: 14.12.05...

  7. Freezing grip - new application of the Peltier technology; Gefriergreifer - neue Anwendung der Peltier-Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, L.; Stephan, J. [NAISS GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    The rising requirements in efficiency and quality lead to products of in addition integration and functionality with ever smaller components. In addition new materials with improved characteristics are used e.g. GRP components plastics. Due to the characteristics of miniature units and new materials an automated assembling process becomes ever more difficult. With CRYO grip gripping tools were developed, which transport material units and carefully. (orig.) [German] Die steigenden Anforderungen an Leistungsfaehigkeit und Qualitaet fuehren zu Produkten hoeherer Integration und Funktionalitaet mit immer kleineren Komponenten. Ausserdem kommt es zur Anwendung neuer Werkstoffe mit verbesserten Eigenschaften wie z. B. Faserverbundkunststoffen. Aufgrund der Eigenschaften von Miniaturbauteilen und neuer Materialien wird ein automatisierter Montageprozess immer schwieriger. Mit CRYO-Greifern sind Greifwerkzeuge entwickelt worden, die materialschonend und sicher solche Bauteile transportieren. (orig.)

  8. A Monte Carlo-tuned model of the flow in the NorthGRIP area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Aslak; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2002-01-01

    The North Greenland Icecore Project (NorthGRIP) drill site was chosen in order to obtain a good Eemian record. At the present depth, 3001m, the Eemian interstadial has yet to be seen. Clearly the flow in this area is poorly understood and needs further investigation. After a review of specific...... no Eemian is observed is a high basal melt rate (2.7mm/a). The melting is a consequence of a higher geothermal heat flux than the expected 51mW/m^2 of the Precambrian shield. From our analyses it is concluded that the geothermal heat flux at NorthGRIP is 98mW/m^2.The high basalmelt rate also gives rise...

  9. Dynamics of Crystal Formation in the Greenland NorthGRIP Ice Core

    CERN Document Server

    Mathiesen, J; Jensen, M H; Levinsen, M; Olesen, P; Dahl-Jensen, D; Svensson, A; Mathiesen, Joachim; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H.; Levinsen, Mogens; Olesen, Poul; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Svensson, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP) provides paleoclimatic information back to at least 115 kyr before present [Dahl-Jensen et al., 2002]. Each year, precipitation on the ice sheet covers it with a new layer of snow, which gradually transforms into ice crystals as the layer sinks into the ice sheet. The size distribution of ice crystals has been measured at selected depths in the upper 880 m of the NorthGRIP ice core [Svensson et al., 2003b], which cover a time span of 5300 years. The distributions change with time toward a universal curve, indicating a common underlying physical process in the formation of crystals. We identify this process as an interplay between fragmentation of the crystals and diffusion of their grain boundaries. The process is described by a two-parameter differential equation to which we obtain the exact solution. The solution is in excellent agreement with the experimentally observed distributions.

  10. Randomized clinical trial of self-gripping mesh versus sutured mesh for Lichtenstein hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L N; Sommer, T; Assaadzadeh, S;

    2012-01-01

    between the groups in postoperative complications (33·7 versus 40·4 per cent; P = 0·215), rate of recurrent hernia within 1 year (1·2 per cent in both groups) or quality of life. CONCLUSION: The avoidance of suture fixation using a self-gripping mesh was not accompanied by a reduction in chronic symptoms......BACKGROUND: Many patients develop discomfort after open repair of a groin hernia. It was hypothesized that suture fixation of the mesh is a cause of these symptoms. METHODS: This patient- and assessor-blinded randomized multicentre clinical trial compared a self-gripping mesh (Parietene Progrip......(®) ) and sutured mesh for open primary repair of uncomplicated inguinal hernia by the Lichtenstein technique. Patients were assessed before surgery, on the day of operation, and at 1 and 12 months after surgery. The primary endpoint was moderate or severe symptoms after 12 months, including a combination...

  11. Coefficient of variation in maximal and feigned static and dynamic grip efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Z

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the coefficient of variation as an identifier of feigned grip effort. Seventeen healthy female aged 20 to 25 yr participated in the study. Maximal and feigned efforts were measured isometrically and isokinetically (concentric and eccentric) using the Jamar and KinCom dynamometers, respectively. Findings indicated that, in all situations, the coefficient of variation derived from the maximal effort was significantly (P < 0.0001) lower than that derived from the feigned effort. However, the extent of overlapping between the two was sufficiently large to render the test sensitivities very low. Consequently, regardless of the measurement method, the coefficient of variation is not a valid tool for identifying feigned grip effort in healthy subjects.

  12. First flight of the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Shih, Albert Y.; Duncan, Nicole; Bain, Hazel; Maruca, Bennett A.; Kelley, Nicole; Godbole, Niharika; Kaufmann, Pierre; Caspi, Amir; Sample, John; Hoberman, Jane; Mochizuki, Brent; Olson, Jerry; Boggs, Steven E.; Zoglauer, Andreas; Hurford, Gordon J.; Smith, David M.; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Amman, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) high altitude balloon payload was successfully flown in January 2016 from Antarctica (Jan 19 to Jan 30).GRIPS provides a near-optimal combination of high-resolution imaging, spectroscopy, and polarimetry of solar-flare gamma ray/hard X-ray emissions from ~20 keV to >~10 MeV. GRIPS’s goal is to address questions raised by recent solar flare observations regarding particle acceleration and energy release, such as: What causes the spatial separation between energetic electrons producing hard X-rays and energetic ions producing gamma-ray lines? How anisotropic are the relativistic electrons, and why can they dominate in the corona? How do the compositions of accelerated and ambient material vary with space and time, and why? The spectrometer/polarimeter consists of six 3D position-sensitive germanium detectors (3D-GeDs), where each energy deposition is individually recorded with an energy resolution of a few keV FWHM and a spatial resolution gamma-ray energies (12.5 arcsec FWHM), sufficient to separate 2.2 MeV footpoint sources for almost all flares. Polarimetry is accomplished by analyzing the anisotropy of reconstructed Compton scattering in the 3D-GeDs, with an estimated minimum detectable polarization of a few percent at 150-650 keV in an X-class flare. GRIPS was also equipped with active BGO shields, and three piggy-back instruments: a solar terahertz radiometer (Solar-T), a hard X-ray spectrometer (SMASH), and a sonic anemometer (TILDAE).We will present an overview of GRIPS's first flight, the performance of its instruments and subsystems, including the solar pointing and aspect systems, and the current progress of our data analysis.

  13. Effect of paddle grip on segmental fluid distribution in elite slalom paddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílý, Milan; Baláš, Jiří; Martin, Andrew John; Cochrane, Darryl; Coufalová, Klára; Süss, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Issues of high levels of muscular asymmetry have been associated with injury risk, and therefore have potential implications for decremental performance at the elite sport level. The aim of this current study was to assess the relationship between the segmental fluid distribution and the paddle grip in elite male and female slalom kayakers and canoeists. Eighty-four world-cup competitors (61 males and 23 females) took part in the study. Impedance analysis was used to assess segmental fluid asymmetry. The effect of paddle grip (loose/fixed hand in kayakers, lower/upper hand in canoeists), morphological dominance (dominant/non-dominant) and discipline (canoe/kayak) were evaluated by repeated measures ANOVA. The findings indicated a significant effect of paddle grip in canoeists on morphological asymmetry in upper limbs (arm of lower paddle hand mean fluid distribution 3.28, s=0.43 litres; arm of upper paddle hand mean fluid distribution 3.19, s=0.41 litres; P=0.000, [Formula: see text]=0.33). The sternmen demonstrated higher asymmetry between the arms of upper and lower paddle hand (mean 0.11, s=0.04 litres, P=0.000, [Formula: see text]=0.80) than the bowmen (mean 0.04, s=0.06 litres, P=0.015, [Formula: see text]=0.44) in double-canoes. Significant morphological asymmetry was found also in kayakers but the effect of paddle grip was not substantial. The use of segmental impedance analysis may be a suitable diagnostic tool for assessing morphological changes, which can be related to paddling training. Likewise muscular asymmetry is associated with injury risk; the evaluation of morphological changes during the training process may be considered by sport trainers and physical therapists.

  14. Relation between hand grip strength, respiratory muscle strength and spirometric measures in male nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahat, Gulistan; Tufan, Asli; Ozkaya, Hilal; Tufan, Fatih; Akpinar, Timur Selçuk; Akin, Sibel; Bahat, Zumrut; Kaya, Zuleyha; Kiyan, Esen; Erten, Nilgün; Karan, Mehmet Akif

    2014-09-01

    Adverse-outcomes related to sarcopenia are mostly mentioned as physical disability. As the other skeletal muscles, respiratory muscles may also be affected by sarcopenia. Respiratory muscle strength is known to affect pulmonary functions. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relations between extremity muscle strength, respiratory muscle strengths and spirometric measures in a group of male nursing home residents. Among a total of 104 male residents, residents with obstructive measures were excluded and final study population was composed of 62 residents. Mean age was 70.5 ± 6.7 years, body mass index: 27.7 ± 5.3 kg/m2 and dominant hand grip strength: 29.7 ± 6.5 kg. Hand grip strength was positively correlated with maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) (r = 0.35, p strength; among spirometric measures only parameter significantly related to grip strength was peak cough flow (PCF). The association of PCF with grip strength disappeared when MIP alone or "MIP and MEP" were included in the regression analysis. In the latter case, PCF was significantly associated only with MIP. We found peripheric muscle strength be associated with MIP and PCF but not with MEP or any other spirometric parameters. The relation between peripheral muscle strength and PCF was mediated by MIP. Our findings suggest that sarcopenia may affect inspiratory muscle strength earlier or more than the expiratory muscle strength. Sarcopenia may cause decrease in PCF in the elderly, which may stand for some common adverse respiratory complications.

  15. Tension free open inguinal hernia repair using an innovative self gripping semi-resorbable mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chastan Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Inguinal hernia repair according to Lichtenstein technique has become the most common procedure performed by general surgeons. Heavy weight polypropylene meshes have been reported to stimulate inflammatory reaction responsible for mesh shrinkage when scar tissue evolved. Additionally, some concerns remain regarding the relationship between chronic pain and mesh fixation technique. In order to reduce those drawbacks, we have developed a new mesh for anterior tension free inguinal hernia repair which exhibits self-gripping absorbable properties. Materials and Methods: 52 patients (69 hernias were prospectivly operated with this mesh (SOFRADIM-France made of low-weight isoelastic large pores knitted fabric which incorporated resorbable micro hooks that provides self gripping properties to the mesh during the first months post-implantation. The fixation of the mesh onto the tissues is significantly facilitated. The mesh is secured around the cord with a self gripping flap. After complete tissular ingrowth and resorption of the PLA hooks, the low-weight (40 g/m2 polypropylene mesh insures the long term wall reinforcement. Results: Peroperativly, no complication was reported, the mesh was easy to handle and to fix. Discharge was obtained at Day 1. No perioperative complication occurred, return to daily activities was obtained at Day 5.5. At one month, no neurological pain or other complications were described. Conclusions: Based on the first results of this clinical study, this unique concept of low density self gripping mesh should allows an efficient treatment of inguinal hernia. It should reduce postoperative complications and the extent of required suture fixation, making the procedure more reproducible

  16. In Search of the True Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwit, Martin

    2014-01-01

    1. The nineteenth century's last five years; Part I. The Import of Theoretical Tools: 2. An overview; 3. Conclusions based on principles; 4. Conclusions based on a premise; 5. Conclusions based on calculations; 6. Asking the right questions, accepting limited answers; Part II. A National Plan Shaping the Universe We Perceive: 7. A new order and the new universe it produced; 8. Where did the chemical elements arise?; 9. Landscapes; 10. The evolution of astrophysical theory after 1960; 11. Turmoils of leadership; 12. Cascades and shocks that shape astrophysics; 13. Astrophysical discourse and persuasion; Part III. The Cost of Discerning the True Universe: 14. Organization and functioning of the astronomical community; 15. Language and astrophysical stability; 16. An economically viable astronomical program; Epilogue.

  17. Hadronic vacuum polarization in true muonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Henry

    2017-01-01

    In order to reduce the theoretical uncertainty in the prediction, the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the hyperfine splitting of true muonium is reevaluated in two ways. A more complex pionic form factor and better estimates of the perturbative QCD contributions are used to study the model dependence of the previous calculation. The second, more accurate method directly integrates the Drell ratio R (s ) to obtain C1 ,HVP=-0.04874 (9 ) . This corresponds to an energy shift in the hyperfine splitting (HFS) of Δ EHFS,HVP μ=-8202 (16 ) MHz and represents a factor-of-50 reduction in the theoretical uncertainty from hadronic sources. We also compute the contribution in positronium, which is too small at present to detect.

  18. True or False Customer Engagement Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haurum, Helle; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Customers’ engagement behaviours are considered an important source of value to the company. So far, the discussion has mainly been conceptual and focused on the company’s perspective. By adopting the customer’s perspective we investigated how customers perceive their service relationship...... encounters with a company, using in-depth interviews. We found the following key factors driving and explaining customers’ engagement behaviours: (1) transactions matter and inconsistent engagement behaviours are a reality, (2) mundane products and services are still highly relevant for customers, and (3......) different degrees of customer experience alignment with services and products exist. Moreover, the distinction between true and false engagement behaviours we suggest indeed is relevant and we could establish their mediating capabilities....

  19. True Friendship Has No National Boundaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    TRUE friendship has no national boundaries. This is the conclusion I have drawn from per- sonal experience over the past 80 years of my life.Back in 1944, during the Second World War, I was a student at the Southwest Associated University in Kunming, capital of southwest China’s Yunnan Province. It was there that I happened to meet a group of Americans serving with the US 14th Air Force. They were sent over as part of the Allied Forces fighting the Japanese invaders. These upright young men were shocked at seeing the streets of Kunming swarming with ragged beggars, while officials of the ruling Kuomintang government made fortunes out of U.S. war supplies.

  20. True Nature of Supply Network Communication Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokhman Hakim bin Osman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of world economy has altered the definition of organizational structure. Global supply chain can no longer be viewed as an arm-length structure. It has become more complex. The complexity demands deeper research and understanding. This research analyzed a structure of supply network in an attempt to elucidate the true structure of the supply network. Using the quantitative Social Network Analysis methodology, findings of this study indicated that, the structure of the supply network differs depending on the types of network relations. An important implication of these findings would be a more focus resource management upon network relationship development that is based on firms’ positions in the different network structure. This research also contributes to the various strategies of effective and efficient supply chain management.

  1. True Visions The Emergence of Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, Emile

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AI) refers to a developing technology that will increasingly make our everyday environment sensitive and responsive to our presence. The AI vision requires technology invisibly embedded in our everyday surroundings, present whenever we need it that will lead to the seamless integration of lighting, sounds, vision, domestic appliances, and personal healthcare products to enhance our living experience. Written for the non-specialist seeking an authoritative but accessible overview of this interdisciplinary field, True Visions explains how the devices making up the AI world will operate collectively using information and intelligence hidden in the wireless network connecting them. Expert contributions address key AI components such as smart materials and textiles, system architecture, mobile computing, broadband communication, and underlying issues of human-environment interactions. It seeks to unify the perspectives of scientists from diverse backgrounds ranging from the physics of materia...

  2. Interobserver reproducibility of the assessment of severity of complaints, grip strength, and pressure pain threshold in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, N.; Windt, A. van der; Assendelft, W.J.; Mourits, A.J.; Devillé, W.L.; Winter, F. de; Bouter, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the interobserver reproducibility of the assessment of severity of complaints, grip strength, and pressure pain threshold in patients with lateral epicondylitis in primary care. Design: Two physiotherapists assessed independently, and in randomized order, the severity of

  3. Interobserver reproducibility of the assessment of severity of complaints, grip strength, and pressure pain threshold in patients with lateral epicondylitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, N; van der Windt, DA; Assendelft, WJ; Mourits, AJ; Deville, WL; de Winter, AF; Bouter, LM

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the interobserver reproducibility of the assessment of severity of complaints, grip strength, and pressure pain threshold in patients with lateral epicondylitis in primary care. Design: Two physiotherapists assessed independently, and in randomized order, the severity of compl

  4. Interobserver reproducibility of the assessment of severity of complaints, grip strength, and pressure pain threshold in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, N.; Windt, A. van der; Assendelft, W.J.; Mourits, A.J.; Devillé, W.L.; Winter, F. de; Bouter, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the interobserver reproducibility of the assessment of severity of complaints, grip strength, and pressure pain threshold in patients with lateral epicondylitis in primary care. Design: Two physiotherapists assessed independently, and in randomized order, the severity of compl

  5. Role of movement velocity on the magnitude of grip force while lifting an object with touch from the contralateral finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Veena; Santos, Marcio J; Aruin, Alexander S

    2009-04-01

    We investigated whether slower velocity of arm movement affects grip-force generation in conditions with the finger touch provided to the wrist of the target arm. Nine subjects performed the task of lifting and transporting an object at slow, intermediate, and fast velocities with a light finger touch from the contralateral arm and without it. There was an effect of velocity of arm movement on grip-force generation in both conditions. However, when the no touch and touch trials performed with similar velocity were matched, the effect of touch on grip-force reduction was statistically significant (p touch conditions and underlines the importance of using a contralateral touch in the performance of activities of daily living. It also points to a possibility of the development of therapeutic advances for the enhancement of grip-force control in patients with neurological impairments.

  6. Nutritional status is the major factor affecting grip strength of African HIV patients before and during antiretroviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filteau, Suzanne; PrayGod, G; Woodd, Susannah L

    2017-01-01

    involved HIV-infected Zambian and Tanzanian participants recruited to the NUSTART trial when malnourished (body mass index requiring ART. The relationship of grip strength to nutritional, infectious and demographic factors was assessed by multivariable linear regression at referral...

  7. Structural Analysis of Shahe Siyahpushan Tale Based on Propp’s Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Neghabi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nezami's Haftpeykar is one of the beautiful tales of lyrical verse that has many similarities to fairy tales from structuralist viewpoint. The authors analyze structural similarities and differences based on dutifulnesses, their interaction and dichotomy, fixed or variable characters and the logical sequence of narrative structure. The results demonstrate that this tale conforms to Propp's model and also narrative structure of fairy tales because shahe siyahpushan consists of about twenty dutifulnesses out of thirty-one dutifulnesses of fairy tales and the order and sequence of the story is the same as Propp’s model. The order and sequence of the whole narrative is based on opposition.

  8. Flash Detection Efficiencies of Long Range Lightning Detection Networks During GRIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    We flew our Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) on the NASA Global Hawk as a part of the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program. The GRIP program was a NASA Earth science field experiment during the months of August and September, 2010. During the program, the LIP detected lighting from 48 of the 213 of the storms overflown by the Global Hawk. The time and location of tagged LIP flashes can be used as a "ground truth" dataset for checking the detection efficiency of the various long or extended range ground-based lightning detection systems available during the GRIP program. The systems analyzed included Vaisala Long Range (LR), Vaisala GLD360, the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), and the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN). The long term goal of our research is to help understand the advantages and limitations of these systems so that we can utilize them for both proxy data applications and cross sensor validation of the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) sensor when it is launched in the 2015 timeframe.

  9. A simple technique to study embodied language processes: the grip force sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Tatjana A; Hrycyk, Lianna; Moreau, Quentin; Frak, Victor; Cheylus, Anne; Ott, Laurent; Lindemann, Oliver; Fischer, Martin H; Paulignan, Yves; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne

    2017-02-01

    Research in cognitive neuroscience has shown that brain structures serving perceptual, emotional, and motor processes are also recruited during the understanding of language when it refers to emotion, perception, and action. However, the exact linguistic and extralinguistic conditions under which such language-induced activity in modality-specific cortex is triggered are not yet well understood. The purpose of this study is to introduce a simple experimental technique that allows for the online measure of language-induced activity in motor structures of the brain. This technique consists in the use of a grip force sensor that captures subtle grip force variations while participants listen to words and sentences. Since grip force reflects activity in motor brain structures, the continuous monitoring of force fluctuations provides a fine-grained estimation of motor activity across time. In other terms, this method allows for both localization of the source of language-induced activity to motor brain structures and high temporal resolution of the recorded data. To facilitate comparison of the data to be collected with this tool, we present two experiments that describe in detail the technical setup, the nature of the recorded data, and the analyses (including justification about the data filtering and artifact rejection) that we applied. We also discuss how the tool could be used in other domains of behavioral research.

  10. Cortical activation during power grip task with pneumatic pressure gauge: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, M.; Mardan, N. H.; Ismail, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in cognitive and motor function. But, the relationships with motor performance are less well understood. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess cortical activation in older adults. This study employed power grip task that utilised block paradigm consisted of alternate 30s rest and active. A visual cue was used to pace the hand grip movement that clenched a cylindrical rubber bulb connected with pressure pneumatic gauge that measure the pressure (Psi). The objective of this study is determined the brain areas activated during motor task and the correlation between percentage signal change of each motor area (BA 4 and 6) and hand grip pressure. Result showed there was a significant difference in mean percentage signal change in BA 4 and BA 6 in both hemispheres and negative correlation obtained in BA 4 and BA 6. These results indicate that a reduced ability in the motor networks contribute to age-related decline in motor performance.

  11. The use of clamping grips and friction pads by tree frogs for climbing curved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Aihong; Yuan, Shanshan; Hill, Iain; Wang, Huan; Barnes, W. Jon P.; Dai, Zhendong; Sitti, Metin

    2017-01-01

    Most studies on the adhesive mechanisms of climbing animals have addressed attachment against flat surfaces, yet many animals can climb highly curved surfaces, like twigs and small branches. Here we investigated whether tree frogs use a clamping grip by recording the ground reaction forces on a cylindrical object with either a smooth or anti-adhesive, rough surface. Furthermore, we measured the contact area of fore and hindlimbs against differently sized transparent cylinders and the forces of individual pads and subarticular tubercles in restrained animals. Our study revealed that frogs use friction and normal forces of roughly a similar magnitude for holding on to cylindrical objects. When challenged with climbing a non-adhesive surface, the compressive forces between opposite legs nearly doubled, indicating a stronger clamping grip. In contrast to climbing flat surfaces, frogs increased the contact area on all limbs by engaging not just adhesive pads but also subarticular tubercles on curved surfaces. Our force measurements showed that tubercles can withstand larger shear stresses than pads. SEM images of tubercles revealed a similar structure to that of toe pads including the presence of nanopillars, though channels surrounding epithelial cells were less pronounced. The tubercles' smaller size, proximal location on the toes and shallow cells make them probably less prone to buckling and thus ideal for gripping curved surfaces. PMID:28228509

  12. On the Effect of Different Grips of Handsets on Data Rate in the Measured Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rahimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on the achieved data rate of the cellular system considering different grips of handsets at different frequencies using measurement results of the measurement campaign—which was carried out in the city of Aalborg—is presented in this paper. The achieved data rate of the multiple-input single-output (MISO interference channel is investigated. A typical propagation environment using two BSs and four handsets, like smart phones, held by four to eight different users was designed and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO channels in different scenarios were measured. In this paper, two BSs and two handsets at each measurement time are considered. The impact of the different parameters like correlation, different grips of handsets, and different long term evolution (LTE frequency bands on the achieved data rate is investigated for different measurements. It could be concluded that the variations in the values of data rate are weakly associated with the different grips of handsets but more correlated with different frequencies.

  13. Design and implementation of GRIP: a computerized glucose control system at a surgical intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijlstra Felix

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tight glucose control by intensive insulin therapy has become a key part of critical care and is an important field of study in acute coronary care. A balance has to be found between frequency of measurements and the risk of hypoglycemia. Current nurse-driven protocols are paper-based and, therefore, rely on simple rules. For safety and efficiency a computer decision support system that employs complex logic may be superior to paper protocols. Methods We designed and implemented GRIP, a stand-alone Java computer program. Our implementation of GRIP will be released as free software. Blood glucose values measured by a point-of-care analyzer were automatically retrieved from the central laboratory database. Additional clinical information was asked from the nurse and the program subsequently advised a new insulin pump rate and glucose sampling interval. Results Implementation of the computer program was uneventful and successful. GRIP treated 179 patients for a total of 957 patient-days. Severe hypoglycemia ( Conclusion A computer driven protocol is a safe and effective means of glucose control at a surgical ICU. Future improvements in the recommendation algorithm may further improve safety and efficiency.

  14. Nutritional status is the major factor affecting grip strength of African HIV patients before and during antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filteau, S; PrayGod, G; Woodd, S L; Friis, H; Heimburger, D C; Koethe, J R; Kelly, P; Kasonka, L; Rehman, A M

    2017-10-01

    Low grip strength is a marker of frailty and a risk factor for mortality among HIV patients and other populations. We investigated factors associated with grip strength in malnourished HIV patients at referral to ART, and at 12 weeks and 2-3 years after starting ART. The study involved HIV-infected Zambian and Tanzanian participants recruited to the NUSTART trial when malnourished (body mass index <18.5 kg/m(2) ) and requiring ART. The relationship of grip strength to nutritional, infectious and demographic factors was assessed by multivariable linear regression at referral for ART (n = 1742) and after 12 weeks (n = 778) and 2-3 years of ART (n = 273). In analyses controlled only for sex, age and height, most nutrition and infection-related variables were associated with grip strength. However, in multivariable analyses, consistent associations were seen for fat-free mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, haemoglobin and systolic blood pressure, and a variable association with fat mass index in men. C-reactive protein and CD4 count had limited independent effects on grip strength, while receiving tuberculosis treatment was associated with weaker grip strength. In this population of originally malnourished HIV patients, poor grip strength was more strongly and independently associated with nutritional than with infection and inflammation variables. Programmes to improve health and survival of HIV patients should incorporate nutritional assessment and management and could use grip strength as a functional indicator of improving nutrition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Stress examination of flexor tendon pulley rupture in the crimp grip position: a 1.5-Tesla MRI cadaver study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Thomas; Janka, Rolf [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Fries, Simon [Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Orthopaedic Department, Wolhusen (Switzerland); Schweizer, Andreas [University of Zurich, Department of Orthopaedics, Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Schoeffl, Isabelle [Klinikum Bamberg, Department of Pediatrics, Bamberg (Germany); Bongartz, Georg [University Basel, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-01-15

    The objectives of this study were the evaluation of flexor tendon pulley rupture of the fingers in the crimp grip position using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the comparison of the results with MRI in the neutral position in a cadaver study. MRI in the crimp grip position and in the neutral position was performed in 21 cadaver fingers with artificially created flexor tendon pulley tears (combined pulley rupture, n = 14; single pulley rupture, n = 7). Measurement of the distance between the tendon and bone was performed. Images were evaluated by two readers, first independently and in cases of discrepancy in consensus. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley ruptures were calculated. Tendon bone distances were significantly higher in the crimp grip position than in the neutral position. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley rupture were 92.86 % and 100 % respectively in the crimp grip position and 78.57 % and 85.71 % respectively in the neutral position. Kappa values for interobserver reliability were 0.87 in the crimp grip position and 0.59 in the neutral position. MRI examination in the crimp grip position results in higher tendon bone distances by subjecting the pulleys to a higher strain, which facilitates image evaluation with higher interobserver reliability, higher sensitivity, and higher specificity for combined pulley rupture compared with examination in the neutral position. (orig.)

  16. Magic Fairy Tales as Source for Interface Metaphors

    CERN Document Server

    Averbukh, Vladimir L

    2008-01-01

    The work is devoted to a problem of search of metaphors for interactive systems and systems based on Virtual Reality (VR) environments. The analysis of magic fairy tales as a source of metaphors for interface and virtual reality is offered. Some results of design process based on magic metaphors are considered.

  17. Construct Validation of the Fairy Tale Test--Standardization Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulacoglou, Carina

    2002-01-01

    Studied the construct validity of the Fairy Tale Test (C. Coulacoglu, 1993), a personality projective test for children, in a sample of 800 Greek children aged 8, 10, and 12. Factor analysis led to identification of eight primary factors, and correlations with other measures provide construct validity evidence. (SLD)

  18. Modern Baltic fairy tales in drama / Anneli Saro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saro, Anneli, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Jaan Tätte näidendist "Ristumine peateega, ehk, Muinasjutt kuldsest kalakesest" ("The highway crossing, or, The tale of a golden fish", tuntud ka pealkirjaga "Bungee jumping" ) ja Inga Ābele näidendist "Tumedad hirved" (The dark deer")

  19. Shamans and Kushtakas: North Coast Tales of the Supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mary Giraudo

    The Tlingit and Haida are Native Americans who inhabit southeast Alaska and share many traditions and stories. Written by a non-native scholar, this book contains nine Tlingit and Haida tales concerned with shamans and kushtakas. Land otters were fearful hybrid beings of the spirit world. Able to live on land and in water, they had the special…

  20. Indian Tales of the Northern Rockies. Indian Culture Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Old Coyote, Sally; Toineeta, Joy Yellowtail

    Part of the Montana Council for Indian Education's Indian Culture Series, the book contains six folk stories recorded on reservations and by headstart teachers. The stories are: "The Owl", a Gros Ventre tale; "How the Robin Got a Red Breast", from the Flathead Tribe; "Old Man Coyote and the Wild Geese", a Crow Indian…

  1. Libraries of Synthetic TALE-Activated Promoters: Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, T; Tissier, A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of proteins with programmable DNA-binding specificities triggered a whole array of applications in synthetic biology, including genome editing, regulation of transcription, and epigenetic modifications. Among those, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) due to their natural function as transcription regulators, are especially well-suited for the development of orthogonal systems for the control of gene expression. We describe here the construction and testing of libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters which are under the control of a single TALE with a given DNA-binding specificity. These libraries consist of a fixed DNA-binding element for the TALE, a TATA box, and variable sequences of 19 bases upstream and 43 bases downstream of the DNA-binding element. These libraries were cloned using a Golden Gate cloning strategy making them usable as standard parts in a modular cloning system. The broad range of promoter activities detected and the versatility of these promoter libraries make them valuable tools for applications in the fine-tuning of expression in metabolic engineering projects or in the design and implementation of regulatory circuits.

  2. The Lobster Tale: An Exercise in Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanovich, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Professors in management and business are encouraged to incorporate critical thinking as an objective in their courses. "The Lobster Tale" provides an opportunity to engage students in various levels of critical thinking, ranging from a relatively superficial reading to an examination of the deeper, often hidden issues. Using the foundations of…

  3. Computational Drafting of Plot Structures for Russian Folk Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervás, Pablo

    The plots of stories are known to follow general patterns in terms of their overall structure. This was the basic tenet of structuralist approaches to narratology. Vladimir Propp proposed a procedure for the generation of new tales based on his semi-formal description of the structure of Russian folk tales. This is one of the first existing instances of a creative process described procedurally. The present paper revisits Propp's morphology to build a system that generates instances of Russian folk tales. Propp's view of the folk tale as a rigid sequence of character functions is employed as a plot driver, and some issues that Propp declared relevant but did not explore in detail-such as long-range dependencies between functions or the importance of endings-are given computational shape in the context of a broader architecture that captures all the aspects discussed by Propp. A set of simple evaluation metrics for the resulting outputs is defined inspired on Propp's formalism. The potential of the resulting system for providing a creative story generation system is discussed, and possible lines of future work are discussed.

  4. Modern Baltic fairy tales in drama / Anneli Saro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saro, Anneli, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Jaan Tätte näidendist "Ristumine peateega, ehk, Muinasjutt kuldsest kalakesest" ("The highway crossing, or, The tale of a golden fish", tuntud ka pealkirjaga "Bungee jumping" ) ja Inga Ābele näidendist "Tumedad hirved" (The dark deer")

  5. Control of plant architecture by distinctive TALE homeobox gene interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, D.

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotes, transcription factor (TF)-based network is a widely used mechanism to regulate fundamental developmental processes. Both animals and plants utilize three-amino-acid-loop-extension (TALE) homeodomain (HD) transcription factors to subdivide their body plan. In animals, MEIS/PBC TF heter

  6. A Folk Tale of a Man Who Saves Three Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Zla ba sgrol ma

    2009-01-01

    This folk tale relates how a young man saves three animals – a mouse, a bear, and a monkey – who later repay their debt of gratitude to him This collection presents forty-nine audio files including: several folk song genres; folktales and; local history from the Sman shad Valley of Sde dge County World Oral Literature Project

  7. Fairy-tale planet: creative science writing for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Tiziana; D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2017-04-01

    During public events organized by our Institute sometimes we have predisposed a corner to entertain primary school children with fairy-tales about the planet. In that occasion we realized that even if children could take part in other activities more in fashion such as laboratories, theatre performances, exhibits, they were very attracted by fairy tales, such an "ancient" tradition. This year within the projects "alternanza scuola-lavoro" we are planning to involve also the students of the secondary schools to learn themselves how to animate a fairy-tale corner for children. The "alternanza scuola lavoro" (interchange school/work) has been recently introduced in the Italian school as a methodology for implementing the second cycle teaching. The general purpose is to ensure that 15 to 18 years old students, beside the access to basic knowledge, can acquire skills in the employment and real work environments experiencing other teaching methods based both on knowledge and know-how. We will then start a new adventure by investigating what will be the best way to introduce children to creative science writing for the planet. The aim would be that of creating a format suitable for children either for writing all together a planet fairy-tale in class, or individually. The final goal is to raise awareness about the environmental problems by stimulating in scholars their own creativity.

  8. The Structural-Communicative Pattern of Hadiqa's Tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Mirzaei

    2011-04-01

    The analysis of the addresser, addressee and context elements and their functions in Hadiqa’s tales indicates that the referential function is the most significant and dominant function in this work and so communication orients towards context .Then the conative and emotive functions are dominant and reinforce the effect of narrator’s speech.

  9. The Cosmic Rays Energy Spectrum observed by the TALE detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzayyad, Tareq; Telescope Array Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We report on a cosmic ray energy spectrum measurement by the Telescope Array Low-Energy extension (TALE) fluorescence detector (FD). The TALE FD is an air fluorescence detector which is also sensitive to the Cerenkov light produced by shower particles. Low energy cosmic rays, in the PeV energy range, are detectable by TALE as ``Cerenkov Events''. Using these events, we measure the energy spectrum from a low energy of 4 PeV to an energy greater than 100 PeV. Starting at around 100 PeV, TALE also observes showers by their fluorescence light; and above this energy fluorescence becomes the dominant light production mechanism by which most showers are observed. The event processing and reconstruction procedures are identical for both low and high energy regions. This allows for treating the Cherenkov events and Fluorescence events as a single data set and thus calculating a single cosmic rays energy spectrum based on this data set, which extends from an energy of 4 PeV to above 1 EeV. In this talk, we will describe the detector, explain the technique, and present results from the measurement of the spectrum in this energy range by the Telescope Array experiment.

  10. Production of the Smallest QED Atom: True Muonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Lebed, Richard F.

    2009-04-15

    The 'true muonium' ({mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) and 'true tauonium' ({tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}) bound states are not only the heaviest, but also the most compact pure QED systems. The rapid weak decay of the {tau} makes the observation of true tauonium difficult. However, as we show, the production and study of true muonium is possible at modern electron-positron colliders.

  11. An Analysis of the forest complex in Grimm Fairy Tale%试析《格林童话》中的森林情结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阿平

    2014-01-01

    By using theory of archetypal criticism, the primitive culture of the forest complex in Grimm Fairy tale was analyzed to prove the forest in Grimm Fairy Tale is the symbolization of human’s Original home, the representation of human’s guardian deity, and the symbolization of the nation from which an insight could be had into the true of the tree god worship in the primitive society by the forest complex in Grimm Fairy tale.%运用神话原型批评理论,对《格林童话》中森林情结的原始文化内涵进行分析,进而说明《格林童话》中的森林是人类原始家园的征兆,是人类保护神的再现,是国家社稷的象征,透过《格林童话》中的森林情结可以洞察到人类远古时代树神崇拜的真正面目。

  12. Determining true nursing costs improves financial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payson, A A

    1987-05-01

    The traditional method of apportioning nursing care costs ona per diem basis does not consider nursing intensity or patients' special needs and often includes nonnursing duties. Many hospitals now favor a fee-for-service concept and are determining direct patient care costs to identify the true nursing cost. A patient classification system correlated with the diagnosis-related group (DRG) classification improves nursing cost analyses. For each patient, nurse managers need systems to determine quantified nursing tasks and patient acuity levels for each day. This information can be used to adjust staffing and to establish variable billing procedures. Then they can institute variable billing methods that are based on direct care costs as well as indirect costs of administration, education, and supplies. Variable billing identifies revenue cost centers, allows systematic monitoring of nursing services, and improves budget planning. The entire nursing staff must become involved in the financial system so the hospital can obtain an accurate data base for rate setting and third-party reimbursement.

  13. Placebo: the lie that comes true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Stewart

    2013-04-01

    Over the decades of experimentation on the placebo effect, it has become clear that it is driven largely by expectation, and that strong expectations of efficacy are more likely to give rise to the experience of benefit. No wonder the placebo effect has come to resemble a self-fulfilling prophecy. However, this resemblance is considerably exaggerated. The placebo effect does not work as strongly as it is advertised to do in some efforts to elicit it. Half-truths about the placebo effect are now in circulation, reinforced by a number of other equivocations that it seems to attract. As the deceptive use of placebos has fallen into discredit, the use of half-truths and exaggerations-neither of which is technically a deception-becomes an ever more inviting possibility. However, there are risks and costs associated with the half-truth that the doctor possesses the power to make his or her words come true by the alchemy of the placebo effect.

  14. Mechanisms for oscillatory true polar wander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creveling, J R; Mitrovica, J X; Chan, N-H; Latychev, K; Matsuyama, I

    2012-11-08

    Palaeomagnetic studies of Palaeoproterozoic to Cretaceous rocks propose a suite of large and relatively rapid (tens of degrees over 10 to 100 million years) excursions of the rotation pole relative to the surface geography, or true polar wander (TPW). These excursions may be linked in an oscillatory, approximately coaxial succession about the centre of the contemporaneous supercontinent. Within the framework of a standard rotational theory, in which a delayed viscous adjustment of the rotational bulge acts to stabilize the rotation axis, geodynamic models for oscillatory TPW generally appeal to consecutive, opposite loading phases of comparable magnitude. Here we extend a nonlinear rotational stability theory to incorporate the stabilizing effect of TPW-induced elastic stresses in the lithosphere. We demonstrate that convectively driven inertia perturbations acting on a nearly prolate, non-hydrostatic Earth with an effective elastic lithospheric thickness of about 10 kilometres yield oscillatory TPW paths consistent with palaeomagnetic inferences. This estimate of elastic thickness can be reduced, even to zero, if the rotation axis is stabilized by long-term excess ellipticity in the plane of the TPW. We speculate that these sources of stabilization, acting on TPW driven by a time-varying mantle flow field, provide a mechanism for linking the distinct, oscillatory TPW events of the past few billion years.

  15. Human evolution: a tale from ancient genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2017-02-05

    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct hominins, and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become a major player in the understanding of our evolutionary history.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity'.

  16. Customer satisfaction toward TrueMove customer service

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Abbas, Haider; Koobgrabe, Chokaew; Chutima, Punyanuch

    2008-01-01

    Title: Customer Satisfaction toward TrueMove Customer Service Problem Statement: How are TrueMove customers satisfied with the customer service provided at TrueMove shops in Bangkok? Purpose: To evaluate “whether” and “how” TrueMove customers are satisfied or dissatisfied with the customer service provided at TrueMove shops in the Bangkok region with the help of evaluation of service quality by customers of the shop. Theory and Methods: The research bases mainly on quantitative method; that i...

  17. A Short Review of True Polar Wander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtillot, V.

    2004-12-01

    Polar wander on Earth has been suggested since the 19th century. With the discovery that continental drift accounted for much of the apparent polar wander of continents, one could ask whether there was a remaining ("true") fraction in polar wander not accounted for by plate tectonics, which would be a characteristic of "Earth as a whole". TPW results from conservation of angular momentum in a rotating, deformable body. Seen from the surface of the Earth, TPW appears as the wave-like propagation of the Earth's bulge, whose rate of motion is controlled by mantle viscosity. The bulge adjusts in about 104 years, the characteristic time for glacio-isostatic rebound. Paleomagnetic poles (used to derive APWPs) and oceanic data (used to derive plate kinematic models) can be blended to produce a "synthetic " APWP for all plates. Motion of hotspots with respect to plates can then be integrated to derive an estimate of TPW: this displays in succession a standstill at 160-130 Ma, a quasi-circular track from 130 to 70 Ma (rate 30 km/m.y.), a standstill at 50-10 Ma and faster motion up to the present (rate 100 km/m.y.). Suggested episodes of superfast TPW seem to be artefacts. Field geometry is unlikely to severely alter TPW estimates. A legitimate concern is that the analysis is not truly global (it fails to encompass the Pacific plate). And there are ongoing debates on the fixity of hotspots with respect to each other. We find little evidence for significant inter-hotspot motion (larger than 5 km/m.y.) either within the Pacific or Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. Other authors do find some motion (e.g. between Hawaii and Louisville). We suggest that (primary) hotspots form two slowly deforming subsets in the two geodynamically distinct hemispheres. The two subsets would have been in slow motion for the last 45 m.y., but in faster motion prior to that. Other authors (Gordon) conclude that there is no significant motion in the past 125 m.y. It has been suggested that a quasi

  18. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Identifying true satellites of the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Laura V.; Navarro, Julio F.; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2017-02-01

    The hierarchical nature of ΛCDM suggests that the Magellanic Clouds must have been surrounded by a number of satellites before their infall into the Milky Way halo. Many of those satellites should still be in close proximity to the Clouds, but some could have dispersed ahead/behind the Clouds along their Galactic orbit. Either way, prior association with the Clouds constrains the present-day positions and velocities of candidate Magellanic satellites: they must lie close to the nearly polar orbital plane of the Magellanic Stream, and their distances and radial velocities must follow the latitude dependence expected for a tidal stream with the Clouds near pericentre. We use a cosmological numerical simulation of the disruption of a massive sub-halo in a Milky Way-sized ΛCDM halo to test whether any of the 20 dwarfs recently discovered in the Dark Energy Survey, the Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History, Pan-STARRS, and ATLAS surveys are truly associated with the Clouds. Of the six systems with kinematic data, only Hor 1 has distance and radial velocities consistent with a Magellanic origin. Of the remaining dwarfs, six (Hor 2, Eri 3, Ret 3, Tuc 4, Tuc 5, and Phx 2) have positions and distances consistent with a Magellanic origin, but kinematic data are needed to substantiate that possibility. Conclusive evidence for association would require proper motions to constrain the orbital angular momentum direction, which, for true Magellanic satellites, must be similar to that of the Clouds. We use this result to predict radial velocities and proper motions for all new dwarfs, assuming that they were Magellanic satellites. Our results are relatively insensitive to the assumption of first or second pericentre for the Clouds.

  20. Functional corticospinal projections from human supplementary motor area revealed by corticomuscular coherence during precise grip force control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Chen

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether corticospinal projections from human supplementary motor area (SMA are functional during precise force control with the precision grip (thumb-index opposition. Since beta band corticomuscular coherence (CMC is well-accepted to reflect efferent corticospinal transmission, we analyzed the beta band CMC obtained with simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG and electromyographic (EMG signals. Subjects performed a bimanual precise visuomotor force tracking task by applying isometric low grip forces with their right hand precision grip on a custom device with strain gauges. Concurrently, they held the device with their left hand precision grip, producing similar grip forces but without any precision constraints, to relieve the right hand. Some subjects also participated in a unimanual control condition in which they performed the task with only the right hand precision grip while the device was held by a mechanical grip. We analyzed whole scalp topographies of beta band CMC between 64 EEG channels and 4 EMG intrinsic hand muscles, 2 for each hand. To compare the different topographies, we performed non-parametric statistical tests based on spatio-spectral clustering. For the right hand, we obtained significant beta band CMC over the contralateral M1 region as well as over the SMA region during static force contraction periods. For the left hand, however, beta band CMC was only found over the contralateral M1. By comparing unimanual and bimanual conditions for right hand muscles, no significant difference was found on beta band CMC over M1 and SMA. We conclude that the beta band CMC found over SMA for right hand muscles results from the precision constraints and not from the bimanual aspect of the task. The result of the present study strongly suggests that the corticospinal projections from human SMA become functional when high precision force control is required.

  1. The recurrent true umbilical cord knots: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Naghi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: True umbilical cord knot is one of the abnormalities of the umbilical cord. Active fetal movements create cord knotting. True umbilical cord knots are rare but may be associated with fetal distress and stillbirth. True umbilical cord knots are capable of impeding blood flow to the fetus.Case presentation: A 26-year old primigravid woman was first treated for genital herpes simplex virus (HSV type 2 at 36 weeks of gestational age. She received oral acyclovir (400 mg three times daily for 10 days. At the gestational age of 38 weeks and 5 days, fetal activity decreased and NST was nonreactive. She was delivered by cesarean section and a true umbilical cord knot was found. Four years later, in her second pregnancy, another true knot was seen.Conclusion: Excessively long umbilical cords are more likely to be associated with true knots. Genetics has an important role in determining cord length and occurrence of true knots.

  2. Quantification of hand and forearm muscle forces during a maximal power grip task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goislard de Monsabert, Benjamin; Rossi, Jérémy; Berton, Eric; Vigouroux, Laurent

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate muscle and joint forces during a power grip task. Considering the actual lack of quantification of such internal variables, this information would be essential for sports sciences, medicine, and ergonomics. This study also contributed to the advancement of scientific knowledge concerning hand control during power grip. A specially designed apparatus combining both an instrumented handle and a pressure map was used to record the forces at the hand/handle interface during maximal exertions. Data were processed such that the forces exerted on 25 hand anatomical areas were determined. Joint angles of the five fingers and the wrist were also computed from synchronized kinematic measurements. These processed data were used as input of a hand/wrist biomechanical model, which includes 23 degrees of freedom and 42 muscles to estimate muscle and joint forces. Greater forces were applied on the distal phalanges of the long fingers compared with the middle and the proximal ones. Concomitantly, high solicitations were observed for FDP muscles. A large cocontraction level of extensor muscles was also estimated by the model and confirmed previously reported activities and injuries of extensor muscles related to the power grip. Quantifying hand internal loadings also resulted in new insights into the thumb and the wrist biomechanics. Output muscle tension ratios were all in smaller ranges than the ones reported in the literature. Including wrist and finger interactions in this hand model provided new quantification of muscle load sharing, cocontraction level, and biomechanics of the hand. Such information could complete future investigations concerning handle ergonomics or pathomechanisms of hand musculoskeletal disorders.

  3. REDUCED HAND GRIP STRENGTH IN OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE CHRONIC HEPATITIS C PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Juliana Paula; Álvares-DA-Silva, Mário Reis; Alves, Bruna Cherubini; Dall'alba, Valesca

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a liver disease that causes significant changes in metabolism, and also has an impact on nutritional status. To evaluate the nutritional status and cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic hepatitis C. This cross-sectional study investigated 58 patients with chronic hepatitis C, non-cirrhotic and were not under active pharmacological treatment. Patients with significant alcohol consumption (greater than 10 g ethanol/day) were excluded. Patients underwent nutritional assessment through anthropometric measurements and functional assessment using hand grip strength by dynamometry. The physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Patients also underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation. Cardiovascular risk was calculated by the Framingham score. The mean age of patients was 51.6±9.7 years, 55.2% were female, and 79.3% had genotype 1. The most prevalent degree of fibrosis was F1 (37.9%) followed by F2 (27.6%) and F3 (1.7%). The prevalence of overweight/obesity considering the body mass index was 70.7%. However, 57.7% of men and 68.8% of women were considered malnourished according to hand grip strength. These patients also had waist circumference (93.5±10.7 cm) and neck circumference (37.0±3.6 cm) high. Almost 60% of patients were considered sedentary or irregularly active. In relation to cardiovascular risk, 50% of patients had high risk of suffering a cardiovascular event within 10 years. Although most patients with hepatitis C presented overweight, associated with high cardiovascular risk, they also have reduced functional capacity, indicative of protein-caloric commitment. Therefore, body mass index can not be considered the only method of assessment for nutritional diagnosis of patients with liver disease. Adopting methods such as hand grip strength can be important for a better understanding of nutritional status of these patients.

  4. Effects of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Visually Guided Learning of Grip Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Minarik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS has been shown to be an effective non-invasive brain stimulation method for improving cognitive and motor functioning in patients with neurological deficits. tDCS over motor cortex (M1, for instance, facilitates motor learning in stroke patients. However, the literature on anodal tDCS effects on motor learning in healthy participants is inconclusive, and the effects of tDCS on visuo-motor integration are not well understood. In the present study we examined whether tDCS over the contralateral motor cortex enhances learning of grip-force output in a visually guided feedback task in young and neurologically healthy volunteers. Twenty minutes of 1 mA anodal tDCS were applied over the primary motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the dominant (right hand, during the first half of a 40 min power-grip task. This task required the control of a visual signal by modulating the strength of the power-grip for six seconds per trial. Each participant completed a two-session sham-controlled crossover protocol. The stimulation conditions were counterbalanced across participants and the sessions were one week apart. Performance measures comprised time-on-target and target-deviation, and were calculated for the periods of stimulation (or sham and during the afterphase respectively. Statistical analyses revealed significant performance improvements over the stimulation and the afterphase, but this learning effect was not modulated by tDCS condition. This suggests that the form of visuomotor learning taking place in the present task was not sensitive to neurostimulation. These null effects, together with similar reports for other types of motor tasks, lead to the proposition that tDCS facilitation of motor learning might be restricted to cases or situations where the motor system is challenged, such as motor deficits, advanced age, or very high task demand.

  5. The impact of unilateral brain damage on anticipatory grip force scaling when lifting everyday objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidenmüller, S; Randerath, J; Goldenberg, G; Li, Y; Hermsdörfer, J

    2014-08-01

    The scaling of our finger forces according to the properties of manipulated objects is an elementary prerequisite of skilled motor behavior. Lesions of the motor-dominant left brain may impair several aspects of motor planning. For example, limb-apraxia, a tool-use disorder after left brain damage is thought to be caused by deficient recall or integration of tool-use knowledge into an action plan. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether left brain damage affects anticipatory force scaling when lifting everyday objects. We examined 26 stroke patients with unilateral brain damage (16 with left brain damage, ten with right brain damage) and 21 healthy control subjects. Limb apraxia was assessed by testing pantomime of familiar tool-use and imitation of meaningless hand postures. Participants grasped and lifted twelve randomly presented everyday objects. Grip force was measured with help of sensors fixed on thumb, index and middle-finger. The maximum rate of grip force was determined to quantify the precision of anticipation of object properties. Regression analysis yielded clear deficits of anticipation in the group of patients with left brain damage, while the comparison of patient with right brain damage with their respective control group did not reveal comparable deficits. Lesion-analyses indicate that brain structures typically associated with a tool-use network in the left hemisphere play an essential role for anticipatory grip force scaling, especially the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the premotor cortex (PMC). Furthermore, significant correlations of impaired anticipation with limb apraxia scores suggest shared representations. However, the presence of dissociations, implicates also independent processes. Overall, our findings suggest that the left hemisphere is engaged in anticipatory grip force scaling for lifting everyday objects. The underlying neural substrate is not restricted to a single region or stream; instead it may rely on

  6. IMPACT OF COMBINING MIRROR THERAPY AND HABIT ON HAND GRIP STRENGTH IN CHILDREN WITH HEMIPARESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Asmaa A. Abo Nour; Saleh, Muhammad G.; Emam H. Elnagmy

    2016-01-01

    Background: hemiparetic children usually tend to avoid the use of their impaired arm and are remarkably tend to perform inherently bimanual tasks of daily living with the less impaired arm only rather than with both arms. In fact, these children actually may have never learned to use their impaired arm for certain motor tasks or may only use it in the simplest manner, so the purpose of the study was to determine the impact of combining HABIT and mirror therapy on hand grip in hemiparetic chil...

  7. Effect of three different grip angles on physical parameters during laboratory test in handcycling in able-bodied participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eAbel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Handcycling is a relatively new wheelchair sport that has gained increased popularity for people with lower limb disabilities. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three different grip positions on physical parameters during handcycling in a laboratory setting.Methods: Twenty one able-bodied participants performed three maximum incremental handcycling tests until exhaustion, each with a different grip angle. The angle between the grip and the crank was randomly set at 90° (horizontal, 0° (vertical or 10° (diagonal. The initial load was 20 W and increased by 20 W each five minutes. In addition, participants performed a 20 s maximum effort.Results: The relative peak functional performance (W/kg, peak heart rate (bpm, associated lactate concentrations (mmol/l and peak oxygen uptake per kilogram body weight (ml.min-1.kg-1 for the different grip positions during the stage test were: (a Horizontal: 1.43 ± 0.21 W/kg, 170.14 ± 12.81 bpm, 9.54 ± 1.93 mmol/l, 30.86 ± 4.57 ml/kg; (b Vertical: 1.38 ± 0.20 W/kg, 171.81 ± 13.87 bpm, 9.91 ± 2.29 mmol/l, 29.75 ± 5.13 ml/kg; (c Diagonal: 1.40 ± 0.22 W/kg, 169.19 ± 13.31 bpm, 9.34 ± 2.36 mmol/l, 29.39 ± 4.70 ml/kg. Statistically significant (p <0.05 differences could only be found for lactate concentration between the vertical grip position and the other grips during submaximal handcycling. Conclusion: The orientation of three different grip angles made no difference to the peak load achieved during an incremental handcycling test and a 20 second maximum effort. At submaximal load, higher lactate concentrations were found when the vertical grip position was used, suggesting that this position may be less efficient than the alternative diagonal or horizontal grip positions.

  8. Intra-session and inter-day reliability of forearm surface EMG during varying hand grip forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Oskouei, Alireza; Paulin, Michael G; Carman, Allan B

    2013-02-01

    Surface electromyography (EMG) is widely used to evaluate forearm muscle function and predict hand grip forces; however, there is a lack of literature on its intra-session and inter-day reliability. The aim of this study was to determine reliability of surface EMG of finger and wrist flexor muscles across varying grip forces. Surface EMG was measured from six forearm flexor muscles of 23 healthy adults. Eleven of these subjects undertook inter-day test-retest. Six repetitions of five randomized isometric grip forces between 0% and 80% of maximum force (MVC) were recorded and normalized to MVC. Intra- and inter-day reliability were calculated through the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Normalized EMG produced excellent intra-session ICC of 0.90 when repeated measurements were averaged. Intra-session SEM was low at low grip forces, however, corresponding normalized SEM was high (23-45%) due to the small magnitude of EMG signals. This may limit the ability to evaluate finer forearm muscle function and hand grip forces in daily tasks. Combining EMG of functionally related muscles improved intra-session SEM, improving within-subject reliability without taking multiple measurements. Removing and replacing electrodes inter-day produced poor ICC (ICC < 0.50) but did not substantially affect SEM.

  9. A novel mechanism of hippocampal LTD involving muscarinic receptor-triggered interactions between AMPARs, GRIP and liprin-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Bryony A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term depression (LTD in the hippocampus can be induced by activation of different types of G-protein coupled receptors, in particular metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs and muscarinic acethycholine receptors (mAChRs. Since mGluRs and mAChRs activate the same G-proteins and isoforms of phospholipase C (PLC, it would be expected that these two forms of LTD utilise the same molecular mechanisms. However, we find a distinct mechanism of LTD involving GRIP and liprin-α. Results Whilst both forms of LTD require activation of tyrosine phosphatases and involve internalisation of AMPARs, they use different molecular interactions. Specifically, mAChR-LTD, but not mGluR-LTD, is blocked by peptides that inhibit the binding of GRIP to the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 and the binding of GRIP to liprin-α. Thus, different receptors that utilise the same G-proteins can regulate AMPAR trafficking and synaptic efficacy via distinct molecular mechanisms. Conclusion Our results suggest that mAChR-LTD selectively involves interactions between GRIP and liprin-α. These data indicate a novel mechanism of synaptic plasticity in which activation of M1 receptors results in AMPAR endocytosis, via a mechanism involving interactions between GluA2, GRIP and liprin-α.

  10. Violence and the Daniel tales in a children’s Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Nel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Children enjoy the tales of Daniel and his three friends, whether told in Sunday school, day school, by parents or grandparents. These tales are cast essentially in violent terms. In this article a specific version of the tales in a children’s Bible is analysed to show in what way violence serves as the thread that holds the tales together and to suggest that this might imply that violence is condoned, be it violence committed by God for the sake of his children or by his children for their own sakes. Through ideology, criticism and deconstruction it is shown how a socially engaged reading of the text necessitates narrators of the Daniel tales to criticise violence embedded within the Biblical text, especially when these tales are narrated to children.

  11. Rapid and highly efficient construction of TALE-based transcriptional regulators and nucleases for genome modification

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lixin

    2012-01-22

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) can be used as DNA-targeting modules by engineering their repeat domains to dictate user-selected sequence specificity. TALEs have been shown to function as site-specific transcriptional activators in a variety of cell types and organisms. TALE nucleases (TALENs), generated by fusing the FokI cleavage domain to TALE, have been used to create genomic double-strand breaks. The identity of the TALE repeat variable di-residues, their number, and their order dictate the DNA sequence specificity. Because TALE repeats are nearly identical, their assembly by cloning or even by synthesis is challenging and time consuming. Here, we report the development and use of a rapid and straightforward approach for the construction of designer TALE (dTALE) activators and nucleases with user-selected DNA target specificity. Using our plasmid set of 100 repeat modules, researchers can assemble repeat domains for any 14-nucleotide target sequence in one sequential restriction-ligation cloning step and in only 24 h. We generated several custom dTALEs and dTALENs with new target sequence specificities and validated their function by transient expression in tobacco leaves and in vitro DNA cleavage assays, respectively. Moreover, we developed a web tool, called idTALE, to facilitate the design of dTALENs and the identification of their genomic targets and potential off-targets in the genomes of several model species. Our dTALE repeat assembly approach along with the web tool idTALE will expedite genome-engineering applications in a variety of cell types and organisms including plants. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. To discover or to create: metaphors and the true self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Rebecca J; Vess, Matthew; Arndt, Jamie

    2012-08-01

    Three studies examined how endorsement of self-discovery and self-creation metaphors influences belief in the true self and its use as meaning source. It was hypothesized that discovery metaphors contribute to belief in the true self and bolster the relationship between true self-knowledge and meaning. Study 1 supported the hypothesis that discovery is positively associated with belief in the true self among a sample of college students (N = 311). Studies 2 and 3 extended the analysis by showing that the discovery metaphor also facilitates perceptions of meaning and the use of the true self specifically as a source of meaning in a second sample of college students (N = 75) as well as an adult sample of university employees (N = 173). Implications for understanding what enables the true self to infuse life with meaning, as well as an individual differences approach to metaphoric cognition, are discussed.

  13. Face value in A Tale of Two Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Kamilla

    2009-01-01

    This essay considers how proper names and faces construct, destruct, and reconstruct social identity in A tale of two cities. Manette’s identification at the start of the novel, for example, occurs chiefly through a recalled proper name and face. As the French Revolution worked to destroy privileged, individuated identities, so too have contemporary theories of identity, which dismiss individual identity and remain preoccupied with identity at the level of common nouns and generic bodies. How...

  14. Naming taxa from cladograms: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Alain

    2007-02-01

    The recent publication of a new hypothesis of cladistic relationships among American frogs referred to the genus Rana, accompanied by a new taxonomy and a new nomenclature of this group [Hillis D.M., Wilcox, T.P., 2005. Phylogeny of the New World true frogs (Rana). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34, 299-314], draws attention to the problems posed by the use of a "double nomenclature", following both the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (designated here as "onomatophore-based nomenclature") and the rules of the draft Phylocode (designated here as "definition-based nomenclature"). These two nomenclatural systems, which rely upon widely different theoretical bases, are incompatible, and the latter cannot be viewed as a "modification" of the former. Accordingly, scientific names (nomina) following both systems should be clearly distinguished in scientific publications. Onomatophore-based nomina should continue to be written as they have been for about 250 years, whereas definition-based nomina should be written in a specific way, e.g., Lithobates. The combined use of both nomenclatural systems for the same taxonomy in the same paper requires good knowledge and careful respect of the rules of the Code regarding availability, allocation and validity of nomina. As shown by this example, not doing so may result in various problems, in particular in publishing nomina nuda or in using nomenclatural ranks invalid under the current Code. Attention is drawn to the fact that new nomina published without diagnostic characters are not available under the Code, and that the latter currently forbids the use of more than two ranks (subgenus and "aggregate of species") between the ranks genus and species.

  15. GRiP: a computational tool to simulate transcription factor binding in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabet, Nicolae Radu; Adryan, Boris

    2012-05-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins that regulate gene activity by binding to specific sites on the DNA. Understanding the way these molecules locate their target site is of great importance in understanding gene regulation. We developed a comprehensive computational model of this process and estimated the model parameters in (N.R.Zabet and B.Adryan, submitted for publication). GRiP (gene regulation in prokaryotes) is a highly versatile implementation of this model and simulates the search process in a computationally efficient way. This program aims to provide researchers in the field with a flexible and highly customizable simulation framework. Its features include representation of DNA sequence, TFs and the interaction between TFs and the DNA (facilitated diffusion mechanism), or between various TFs (cooperative behaviour). The software will record both information on the dynamics associated with the search process (locations of molecules) and also steady-state results (affinity landscape, occupancy-bias and collision hotspots). http://logic.sysbiol.cam.ac.uk/grip, program and source code

  16. Electric Field Measurements During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program, a system of 6 electric field mills was flown on one of NASA's Global Hawk aircraft. We placed several mills on the aircraft to enable us to measure the vector electric field. We created a distributed, ethernet-connected system so that each sensor has its own embedded Linux system, complete with web server. This makes our current generation system fully "sensor web enabled." The Global Hawk has several unique qualities, but relevant to quality storm electric field measurements are high altitude (20 km) and long duration (20-30 hours) flights. There are several aircraft participating in the GRIP program, and coordinated measurements are happening. Lightning and electric field measurements will be used to study the relationships between lightning and other storm characteristics. It has been long understood that lightning can be used as a marker for strong convective activity. Past research and field programs suggest that lightning flash rate may serve as an indicator and precursor for rapid intensification change in tropical cyclones and hurricanes. We have the opportunity to sample hurricanes for many hours at a time and observe intensification (or de-intensification) periods. The electrical properties of hurricanes during such periods are not well known. American

  17. MusicGlove: motivating and quantifying hand movement rehabilitation by using functional grips to play music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Nizan; Chan, Vicky; Zondervan, Danny; Bachman, Mark; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2011-01-01

    People with stroke typically must perform much of their hand exercise at home without professional assistance as soon as two weeks after the stroke. Without feedback and encouragement, individuals often lose motivation to practice using the affected hand, and this disuse contributes to further declines in hand function. We developed the MusicGlove as a way to facilitate and motivate at home practice of hand movement. This low-cost device uses music as an interactive and motivating medium to guide hand exercise and to quantitatively assess hand movement recovery. It requires the user to practice functional movements, including pincer grip, key-pinch grip, and finger-thumb opposition, by using those movements to play different musical notes, played along to songs displayed by an interactive computer game. We report here the design of the glove and the results of a single-session experiment with 10 participants with chronic stroke. We found that the glove is well suited for use by people with an impairment level quantified by a Box and Blocks score of at least around 7; that the glove can be used to obtain a measure of hand dexterity (% of notes hit) that correlates strongly with the Box and Blocks score; and that the incorporation of music into training significantly improved both objective measures of hand motor performance and self-ratings of motivation for training in the single session.

  18. Effect of skin hydration on the dynamics of fingertip gripping contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, T.; Lévesque, V.; Hayward, V.; Lefèvre, P.; Thonnard, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of fingertip contact manifest themselves in the complex skin movements observed during the transition from a stuck state to a fully developed slip. While investigating this transition, we found that it depended on skin hydration. To quantify this dependency, we asked subjects to slide their index fingertip on a glass surface while keeping the normal component of the interaction force constant with the help of visual feedback. Skin deformation inside the contact region was imaged with an optical apparatus that allowed us to quantify the relative sizes of the slipping and sticking regions. The ratio of the stuck skin area to the total contact area decreased linearly from 1 to 0 when the tangential force component increased from 0 to a maximum. The slope of this relationship was inversely correlated to the normal force component. The skin hydration level dramatically affected the dynamics of the contact encapsulated in the course of evolution from sticking to slipping. The specific effect was to reduce the tendency of a contact to slip, regardless of the variations of the coefficient of friction. Since grips were more unstable under dry skin conditions, our results suggest that the nervous system responds to dry skin by exaggerated grip forces that cannot be simply explained by a change in the coefficient of friction. PMID:21490002

  19. Muscular forearm activation in hand-grip tasks with superimposition of mechanical vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, L; Tirabasso, A; Lunghi, A; Di Giovanni, R; Sacco, F; Marchetti, E

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the muscular activation of the forearm, with or without vibration stimuli at different frequencies while performing a grip tasks of 45s at various level of exerted force. In 16 individuals, 9 females and 7 males, the surface electromyogram (EMG) of extensor carpi radialis longus and the flexor carpi ulnari muscles were assessed. At a short latency from onset EMG, RMS and the level of MU synchronization were assessed to evaluate the muscular adaptations. Whilst a trend of decay of EMG Median frequency (MDFd) was employed as an index of muscular fatigue. Muscular tasks consists of the grip of an instrumented handle at a force level of 20%, 30%, 40%, 60% of the maximum voluntary force. Vibration was supplied by a shaker to the hand in mono-frequential waves at 20, 30, 33 and 40Hz. In relation to EMG, RMS and MU synchronization, the muscular activation does not seem to change with the superimposition of the mechanical vibrations, on the contrary a lower MDFd was observed at 33Hz than in absence of vibration. This suggests an early muscular fatigue induced by vibration due to the fact that 33Hz is a resonance frequency for the hand-arm system.

  20. The administration and interpretation of the rapid exchange grip test: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Orit; Goodall, Sara K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if the administration and interpretation of the rapid exchange grip (REG) test vary among hand therapists nationally. The REG is used to determine sincerity of effort of grip strength. There are inconsistencies in the literature regarding the administration and interpretation of the REG, as various studies use different testing protocols and diverse interpretation criteria for what constitutes a sincere effort. As a result, we expected to find a lack of standardization in the administration and interpretation of the REG in clinical practice. We conducted a random nationwide survey of 200 hand therapists. The questionnaire items regarding the administration of the REG included patient position, test instructions, handle settings, handling of the dynamometer, hand switch rate, number of repetitions, and techniques used to record the score. The items for the interpretation of the REG involved questions regarding comparative tests. We found that the REG test lacks standardized administration protocols and interpretation criteria among therapists nationwide. The lack of standardization is likely to affect the reliability and validity of the REG and to hinder the therapist's ability to accurately report its outcomes. The implications of lack of standardization in assessment techniques to the profession are discussed.

  1. Is the coefficient of variation a valid measure for detecting sincerity of effort of grip strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Orit

    1999-01-01

    The wide use of the coefficient of variation in detecting sincerity of effort is puzzling since existing research findings regarding its effectiveness are contradictory. The lack of empirical support in the literature raises the question of whether or not the coefficient of variation is a valid measure for detecting sincerity of effort. Many clinicians, especially those who use a computer software to calculate the coefficient of variation, may not understand how the coefficient of variation is derived and what it is based on. The coefficient of variation is a measure of relative variability and would be used correctly only if the average and the standard deviation of grip strength trials increased proportionally. This case study, however, demonstrated that the average and standard deviation of grip strength are independent. Thus, the coefficient of variation is not a valid measure of sincerity of effort. In addition, this study indicated that the coefficient of variation may be inflated in individuals after carpal tunnel release surgery. The author, therefore, cautions clinicians against the use of the coefficient of variation as a measure of sincerity of effort especially in injured individuals with compromised hand strength.

  2. Grip selection for sequential movements in children and adults with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmut, Kate; Byrne, Maia

    2014-08-01

    When generating a movement adults favor grasps which start the body in an uncomfortable position if they end in a comfortable position (the end-state-comfort effect). In contrast, children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) select grasps which require little initial hand rotation even though they result in an uncomfortable end position. The current study considered grip selection of individuals with DCD when asked to make simple one step movements and when making more complex multi-staged movements. Adults with DCD (N=17, mean age 24:09, SD age=52months) and children with DCD (N=20, mean age 9:00, SD age=20months) and age and gender matched controls rotated a disc so an arrow pointed toward a specific target(s). Task complexity was increased by increasing the number of targets from 1 to 3. Planning for end-state-comfort was seen in all groups albeit to a lesser extent in children versus adults. The children with DCD showed fewer grips for end-state-comfort compared to their peers and this was explained by a propensity to select minimal initial rotation grasps. This result was mirrored in adults with DCD but only for the longest movement sequence. These results suggest some changes in ability from childhood to adulthood in individuals with DCD.

  3. The brain adjusts grip forces differently according to gravity and inertia: a parabolic flight experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life, one of the most frequent activities involves accelerating and decelerating an object held in precision grip. In many contexts, humans scale and synchronize their grip force (GF), normal to the finger/object contact, in anticipation of the expected tangential load force (LF), resulting from the combination of the gravitational and the inertial forces. In many contexts, GF and LF are linearly coupled. A few studies have examined how we adjust the parameters-gain and offset-of this linear relationship. However, the question remains open as to how the brain adjusts GF regardless of whether LF is generated by different combinations of weight and inertia. Here, we designed conditions to generate equivalent magnitudes of LF by independently varying mass and movement frequency. In a control experiment, we directly manipulated gravity in parabolic flights, while other factors remained constant. We show with a simple computational approach that, to adjust GF, the brain is sensitive to how LFs are produced at the fingertips. This provides clear evidence that the analysis of the origin of LF is performed centrally, and not only at the periphery.

  4. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer Wind Speed and Rain Rate Retrievals during the 2010 GRIP Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahawneh, Saleem; Farrar, Spencer; Johnson, James; Jones, W. Linwood; Roberts, Jason; Biswas, Sayak; Cecil, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing observations of hurricanes, from NOAA and USAF hurricane surveillance aircraft, provide vital data for hurricane research and operations, for forecasting the intensity and track of tropical storms. The current operational standard for hurricane wind speed and rain rate measurements is the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which is a nadir viewing passive microwave airborne remote sensor. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer, HIRAD, will extend the nadir viewing SFMR capability to provide wide swath images of wind speed and rain rate, while flying on a high altitude aircraft. HIRAD was first flown in the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes, GRIP, NASA hurricane field experiment in 2010. This paper reports on geophysical retrieval results and provides hurricane images from GRIP flights. An overview of the HIRAD instrument and the radiative transfer theory based, wind speed/rain rate retrieval algorithm is included. Results are presented for hurricane wind speed and rain rate for Earl and Karl, with comparison to collocated SFMR retrievals and WP3D Fuselage Radar images for validation purposes.

  5. The effect of vibration exposure during haul truck operation on grip strength, touch sensation, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Jonisha; Porter, William; Mayton, Alan; Xu, Xueyan; Weston, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Falls from mobile equipment are reported at surface mine quarry operations each year in considerable numbers. Research shows that a preponderance of falls occur while getting on/off mobile equipment. Contributing factors to the risk of falls include the usage of ladders, exiting onto a slippery surface, and foot or hand slippage. Balance issues may also contribute to fall risks for mobile equipment operators who are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV). For this reason, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Office of Mine Safety and Health Research conducted a study at four participating mine sites with seven haul truck operators. The purpose was to ascertain whether WBV and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposures for quarry haul truck operators were linked to short-term decreases in performance in relation to postural stability, touch sensation threshold, and grip strength that are of crucial importance when getting on/off the trucks. WBV measures of frequency-weighted RMS accelerations (wRMS) and vibration dose value (VDV), when compared to the ISO/ANSI standards, were mostly below levels identified for the Health Guidance Caution Zone (HGCZ), although there were instances where the levels were within and above the specified Exposure Action Value. Comparably, all mean HAV levels, when compared to the ISO/ANSI standards, were below the HGCZ. For the existing conditions and equipment, no significant correlation could be identified between the WBV, HAV, postural stability, touch sensation threshold, and grip strength measures taken during this study.

  6. Positive force feedback in development of substrate grip in the stick insect tarsus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Sasha N; Chaudhry, Sumaiya; Exter, Annelie; Büschges, Ansgar; Schmitz, Josef

    2014-09-01

    The mechanics of substrate adhesion has recently been intensively studied in insects but less is known about the sensorimotor control of substrate engagement. We characterized the responses and motor effects of tarsal campaniform sensilla in stick insects to understand how sensory signals of force could contribute to substrate grip. The tarsi consist of a chain of segments linked by highly flexible articulations. Morphological studies showed that one to four campaniform sensilla are located on the distal end of each segment. Activities of the receptors were recorded neurographically and sensilla were identified by stimulation and ablation of their cuticular caps. Responses were characterized to bending forces and axial loads, muscle contractions and to forces applied to the retractor apodeme (tendon). The tarsal sensilla effectively encoded both the rate and amplitude of loads and muscle forces, but only when movement was resisted. Mechanical stimulation of the receptors produced activation of motor neurons in the retractor unguis and tibial flexor muscles. These findings indicate that campaniform sensilla can provide information about the effectiveness of the leg muscles in generating substrate adherence. They can also produce positive force feedback that could contribute to the development of substrate grip and stabilization of the tarsal chain.

  7. A Study of Chinese Translations and Interpretations of H.C. Andersen's Tales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wenjie

    H. C. Andersen’s tales are considered as classical fairy tales in China. How they have achieved this canonical status is one of the concerns of this study. Taking a historical point of view, this thesis intends to examine how the Chinese translations and interpretations of his tales, since......-political factors like economics and ideology, as well as human factors such as patrons, translators, and readers, have influenced the Chinese translations and interpretations of Andersen’s tales. However, this thesis is not merely a history about facts like names and dates. It also involves observations...

  8. Modern Monetary Policy and Central Bank Governance: A Story of Two Tales

    OpenAIRE

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Masciandaro, D.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this note is to present the evolution of both the economics and the political economy of monetary policy in the last three decades – first the Great Moderation and then the Financial Crisis – as a story of two intertwined tales: on the one side the tale of how to govern money and interest rates in the short run; on the other side the tale of how to design in a longer horizon the monetary architectures. In the tradition the two tales are told separately, where the academic sch...

  9. TALE activators regulate gene expression in a position- and strand-dependent manner in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Cheung, Edna; Lu, Biao

    2014-01-24

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of transcription factors that are readily programmable to regulate gene expression. Despite their growing popularity, little is known about binding site parameters that influence TALE-mediated gene activation in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that TALE activators modulate gene expression in mammalian cells in a position- and strand-dependent manner. To study the effects of binding site location, we engineered TALEs customized to recognize specific DNA sequences located in either the promoter or the transcribed region of reporter genes. We found that TALE activators robustly activated reporter genes when their binding sites were located within the promoter region. In contrast, TALE activators inhibited the expression of reporter genes when their binding sites were located on the sense strand of the transcribed region. Notably, this repression was independent of the effector domain utilized, suggesting a simple blockage mechanism. We conclude that TALE activators in mammalian cells regulate genes in a position- and strand-dependent manner that is substantially different from gene activation by native TALEs in plants. These findings have implications for optimizing the design of custom TALEs for genetic manipulation in mammalian cells.

  10. Assembly of custom TALE-type DNA binding domains by modular cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbitzer, Robert; Elsaesser, Janett; Hausner, Jens; Lahaye, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) DNA binding proteins show tremendous potential as molecular tools for targeted binding to any desired DNA sequence. Their DNA binding domain consists of tandem arranged repeats, and due to this repetitive structure it is challenging to generate designer TALEs (dTALEs) with user-defined specificity. We present a cloning approach that facilitates the assembly of multiple repeat-encoding DNA fragments that translate into dTALEs with pre-defined DNA binding specificity. This method makes use of type IIS restriction enzymes in two sequential cut-ligase reactions to build dTALE repeat arrays. We employed this modular approach for generation of a dTALE that differentiates between two highly similar DNA sequences that are both targeted by the Xanthomonas TALE, AvrBs3. These data show that this modular assembly system allows rapid generation of highly specific TALE-type DNA binding domains that target binding sites of predefined length and sequence. This approach enables the rapid and flexible production of dTALEs for gene regulation and genome editing in routine and high-throughput applications.

  11. Chaos in social learning with multiple true states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Aili; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Jiuhua; Wang, Xiaofan

    2013-11-01

    Most existing social learning models assume that there is only one underlying true state. In this work, we consider a social learning model with multiple true states, in which agents in different groups receive different signal sequences generated by their corresponding underlying true states. Each agent updates his belief by combining his rational self-adjustment based on the external signals he received and the influence of his neighbors according to their communication. We observe chaotic oscillation in the belief evolution, which implies that neither true state could be learnt correctly by calculating the largest Lyapunov exponents and Hurst exponents.

  12. GRIP: A web-based system for constructing Gold Standard datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Fiona; Wang, Haiying; Zheng, Huiru; Azuaje, Francisco

    2009-01-26

    Information about protein interaction networks is fundamental to understanding protein function and cellular processes. Interaction patterns among proteins can suggest new drug targets and aid in the design of new therapeutic interventions. Efforts have been made to map interactions on a proteomic-wide scale using both experimental and computational techniques. Reference datasets that contain known interacting proteins (positive cases) and non-interacting proteins (negative cases) are essential to support computational prediction and validation of protein-protein interactions. Information on known interacting and non interacting proteins are usually stored within databases. Extraction of these data can be both complex and time consuming. Although, the automatic construction of reference datasets for classification is a useful resource for researchers no public resource currently exists to perform this task. GRIP (Gold Reference dataset constructor from Information on Protein complexes) is a web-based system that provides researchers with the functionality to create reference datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both positive and negative cases for a reference dataset can be extracted, organised and downloaded by the user. GRIP also provides an upload facility whereby users can submit proteins to determine protein complex membership. A search facility is provided where a user can search for protein complex information in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. GRIP is developed to retrieve information on protein complex, cellular localisation, and physical and genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Manual construction of reference datasets can be a time consuming process requiring programming knowledge. GRIP simplifies and speeds up this process by allowing users to automatically construct reference datasets. GRIP is free to access at http://rosalind.infj.ulst.ac.uk/GRIP/.

  13. GRIP: A web-based system for constructing Gold Standard datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Huiru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about protein interaction networks is fundamental to understanding protein function and cellular processes. Interaction patterns among proteins can suggest new drug targets and aid in the design of new therapeutic interventions. Efforts have been made to map interactions on a proteomic-wide scale using both experimental and computational techniques. Reference datasets that contain known interacting proteins (positive cases and non-interacting proteins (negative cases are essential to support computational prediction and validation of protein-protein interactions. Information on known interacting and non interacting proteins are usually stored within databases. Extraction of these data can be both complex and time consuming. Although, the automatic construction of reference datasets for classification is a useful resource for researchers no public resource currently exists to perform this task. Results GRIP (Gold Reference dataset constructor from Information on Protein complexes is a web-based system that provides researchers with the functionality to create reference datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both positive and negative cases for a reference dataset can be extracted, organised and downloaded by the user. GRIP also provides an upload facility whereby users can submit proteins to determine protein complex membership. A search facility is provided where a user can search for protein complex information in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion GRIP is developed to retrieve information on protein complex, cellular localisation, and physical and genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Manual construction of reference datasets can be a time consuming process requiring programming knowledge. GRIP simplifies and speeds up this process by allowing users to automatically construct reference datasets. GRIP is free to access at http://rosalind.infj.ulst.ac.uk/GRIP/.

  14. Modeling the Maturation of Grip Selection Planning and Action Representation: Insights from Typical and Atypical Motor Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eFuelscher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the purported association between developmental changes in grip selection planning and improvements in an individual’s capacity to represent action at an internal level (i.e., motor imagery. Participants were groups of healthy children aged 6-7 years and 8-12 years respectively, while a group of adolescents (13-17 years and adults (18-34 years allowed for consideration of childhood development in the broader context of motor maturation. A group of children aged 8-12 years with probable DCD (pDCD was included as a reference group for atypical motor development. Participants’ proficiency to generate and/or engage internal action representations was inferred from performance on the hand rotation task, a well-validated measure of motor imagery. A grip selection task designed to elicit the end-state comfort (ESC effect provided a window into the integrity of grip selection planning. Consistent with earlier accounts, the efficiency of grip selection planning followed a non-linear developmental progression in neurotypical individuals. As expected, analysis confirmed that these developmental improvements were predicted by an increased capacity to generate and/or engage internal action representations. The profile of this association remained stable throughout the (typical developmental spectrum. These findings are consistent with computational accounts of action planning that argue that internal action representations are associated with the expression and development of grip selection planning across typical development. However, no such association was found for our sample of children with pDCD, suggesting that individuals with atypical motor skill may adopt an alternative, sub-optimal strategy to plan their grip selection compared to their same-age control peers.

  15. [Evaluation of grip strength in normal and obese Wistar rats submitted to swimming with overload after median nerve compression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradinia, Josinéia Gresele; Kakihata, Camila Mayumi Martin; Kunz, Regina Inês; Errero, Tatiane Kamada; Bonfleur, Maria Lúcia; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2015-01-01

    To verify the functionality through muscle grip strength in animals with obesity induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) and in control animals, which suffered compression of the right median nerve, and treated with swimming with overload. During the first five days of life, neonatal Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of MSG. The control group received a hypertonic saline solution. Forty-eight rats were divided into six groups: G1 (control); G2 (control + injury); G3 (control + injury + swimming); G4 (obese); G5 (obese + injury); G6 (obese + injury + swimming). The animals in groups G2, G3, G5 and G6 were submitted to compression of the median nerve and G3 and G6 groups were treated, after injury, with swimming exercise with load for three weeks. The swimming exercise had a progressive duration, according to the week, of 20, 30 and 40minutes. Muscle strength was assessed using a grip strength meter preoperatively and on the 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st days after surgery. The results were expressed and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. When the grip strength was compared among assessments regardless of group, in the second assessment the animals exhibited lower grip strength. G1 and G4 groups had greater grip strength, compared to G2, G3, G4 and G6. The swimming exercise with overload has not been effective in promoting improvement in muscle grip strength after compression injury of the right median nerve in control and in obese-MSG rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling the Maturation of Grip Selection Planning and Action Representation: Insights from Typical and Atypical Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelscher, Ian; Williams, Jacqueline; Wilmut, Kate; Enticott, Peter G.; Hyde, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the purported association between developmental changes in grip selection planning and improvements in an individual’s capacity to represent action at an internal level [i.e., motor imagery (MI)]. Participants were groups of healthy children aged 6–7 years and 8–12 years respectively, while a group of adolescents (13–17 years) and adults (18–34 years) allowed for consideration of childhood development in the broader context of motor maturation. A group of children aged 8–12 years with probable DCD (pDCD) was included as a reference group for atypical motor development. Participants’ proficiency to generate and/or engage internal action representations was inferred from performance on the hand rotation task, a well-validated measure of MI. A grip selection task designed to elicit the end-state comfort (ESC) effect provided a window into the integrity of grip selection planning. Consistent with earlier accounts, the efficiency of grip selection planning followed a non-linear developmental progression in neurotypical individuals. As expected, analysis confirmed that these developmental improvements were predicted by an increased capacity to generate and/or engage internal action representations. The profile of this association remained stable throughout the (typical) developmental spectrum. These findings are consistent with computational accounts of action planning that argue that internal action representations are associated with the expression and development of grip selection planning across typical development. However, no such association was found for our sample of children with pDCD, suggesting that individuals with atypical motor skill may adopt an alternative, sub-optimal strategy to plan their grip selection compared to their same-age control peers. PMID:26903915

  17. JERUSALEM: A TALE OF A CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alaa Mandour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available World class cities are few and far between, sometimes referred to as ‘global cities’ or simply ‘world cities’. There are no more than a dozen metropolitan areas in the world that can claim  this kind of global status. London,  New  York,  Paris,  and  Tokyo  sit  at  the  top  of  this  world  city  hierarchy. They  have  enormous concentrations of economic, political, and cultural clout – measured by such things as the number of corporate headquarters, the size of their stock exchanges, the presence of national and international political bodies, and their role in music, fashion, and other cultural activities. What would it take to make a city claimed by two nations and central to three religions “merely” a city, a place of difference and diversity in which contending ideas and citizenries can co-exist in benign yet creative ways? The intractable conflicts in the Middle East and the cycle of violence among Israelis and Palestinians are deeply embedded in historical struggles over national sovereignty and the right to territory. For this reason, questions about whose state will prevail in what physical location have defined the terms of conflict and negotiation. This also has meant that most proposed solutions to  “the  Middle  East  problem”  have  revolved  around  competing  claims  of  nation-states,  their  rights  to existence, and their physical and juridically-sanctioned relationships to each other. While true generally, this framing of the problem has been especially dominant in the case of Jerusalem, a city that is geographically and historically an overlay of spaces and artifacts that carry deep meaning for competing peoples and nations. The current struggles of Palestinians and Israelis to each claim this hallowed ground as their capital city has added yet another layer of complexity, conflict, and political division, all of which is reflected in the competing/dual nomenclature Al

  18. Reliability of the grip strength coefficient of variation for detecting sincerity in normal and blocked median nerve in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, N J; Mentzel, M; Hütz, R; Gülke, J

    2017-04-01

    In the assessment of hand and upper limb function, detecting sincerity of effort (SOE) for grip strength is of major importance to identifying feigned loss of strength. Measuring maximal grip strength with a dynamometer is very common, often combined with calculating the coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of the variation over the three grip strength trials. Little data is available about the relevance of these measurements in patients with median nerve impairment due to the heterogeneity of patient groups. This study examined the reliability of grip strength tests as well as the CV to detect SOE in healthy subjects. The power distribution of the individual fingers and the thenar was taken into account. To assess reliability, the measurements were performed in subjects with a median nerve block to simulate a nerve injury. The ability of 21 healthy volunteers to exert maximal grip force and to deliberately exert half-maximal force to simulate reduced SOE in a power grip was examined using the Jamar(®) dynamometer. The experiment was performed in a combined setting with and without median nerve block of the same subject. The force at the fingertips of digits 2-5 and at the thenar eminence was measured with a sensor glove with integrated pressure receptors. For each measurement, three trials were recorded subsequently and the mean and CV were calculated. When exerting submaximal force, the subjects reached 50-62% of maximal force, regardless of the median nerve block. The sensor glove revealed a significant reduction of force when exerting submaximal force (P1 sensor) with (P<0.032) and without median nerve block (P<0.017). An increase in CV at submaximal force was found, although it was not significant. SOE can be detected with the CV at the little finger at using a 10% cut-off (sensitivity 0.84 and 0.92 without and with median nerve block, respectively). These findings suggest low reliability of the power grip measurement with the Jamar(®) dynamometer, as

  19. Effect of isometric hand grip on heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive individuals during head up tilt (300 and 600)

    OpenAIRE

    Badwe, A. N.; Latti, Ramchandra Girimalappa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of isometric hand grip exercise at 20% on normotensive, treated hypertensive, and non treated hypertensive in supine position, and at 300 and 600 head up tilt.Material and Methods: After recording heart rate in supine position, isometric hand grip exercise at 20% was conducted for 2 minutes with dominant hand and heart rate was recorded for 1 minute in all subjects after end of the exercise. The same maneuver was repeated before head up tilt in supine position a...

  20. Research of Free open-source encryption software True Crypt%开源加密软件TrueCrypt研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超峰; 姜梅; 宋嘎子

    2010-01-01

    文章首先介绍了开源加密True Crypt软件,然后分析了其功能和原理,最后针对True Crypt中存在的安全问题提出具体改进方案.通过在True Crypt中添加U盘准入控制模块,将分离出来的重要数据保存在可准入的U盘中,从而很好的解决了True Crypt的一个安全隐患.

  1. Material Properties Test to Determine Ultimate Strain and True Stress-True Strain Curves for High Yield Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.R. Arpin; T.F. Trimble

    2003-04-01

    This testing was undertaken to develop material true stress-true strain curves for elastic-plastic material behavior for use in performing transient analysis. Based on the conclusions of this test, the true stress-true strain curves derived herein are valid for use in elastic-plastic finite element analysis for structures fabricated from these materials. In addition, for the materials tested herein, the ultimate strain values are greater than those values cited as the limits for the elastic-plastic strain acceptance criteria for transient analysis.

  2. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  3. Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

  4. Drained True Triaxial Tests on Aalborg University Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.

    The paper presents the first series of true triaxial tests carried out on air-pluviated unfrozen and frozen specimens of Aalborg University Sand No O. The specimens have been tested in the newly improved version of the Danish rigid boundary true triaxial apparatus to optimise the preparation and ...

  5. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  6. Recent Developments: The Gamma Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar Flares (GRIPS) Imaging and Detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Nicole; Shih, A. Y.; Hurford, G. J.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Bain, H.; Zoglauer, A.; Lin, R. P.; Boggs, S. E.

    2013-07-01

    In two of the best-observed flares of the last cycle, the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) satellite found the centroids of ion and relativistic electron emission to have a significant displacement. This result is surprising; co-spatially accelerated ions and electrons are thought to be transported along the same field lines, implying they would enter the chromosphere together and have similar emission locations. The Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar Flares (GRIPS) balloon instrument will investigate particle transport in solar flares by providing enhanced imaging, spectroscopy and polarimetry of gamma/HXR flare emission (20keV - 10MeV). GRIPS’ key technological improvements over the solar state of the art in HXR/gamma ray energies (RHESSI) include three-dimensional position-sensitive germanium detectors (3D-GeDs) and a single-grid modulating collimator, the multi-pitch rotating modulator (MPRM). The 3D-GeDs allow GRIPS to Compton track energy deposition within the crystal. This capability (1) enables the MPRM design by acting as a second modulation grid, (2) provides significant background rejection and (3) makes solar polarization measurements possible. The MPRM imager provides quasi-continuous resolution from 12.5 - 162 arcsecs with 2x the throughput of a dual grid collimator system like RHESSI. This spatial resolution can resolve the separate footpoints of many flare sizes. In comparison, RHESSI images with a minimum of 35 arcsecs for gamma-rays, making these footpoints resolvable in only the largest flares. Here, we present the intial calibration of GRIPS’ 3D-GED detectors using laboratory radioactive sources. We evaluate charge sharing between adjacent strips, the detection of coincidences and preliminary depth measurements. The detectors have been shown to have a linear response and resolve line emission. The MPRM modulation grid is constructed and we present initial results from calibration. GRIPS is scheduled for a

  7. The Celebration of Death: Two Folk Tales about DEath. Mini-Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    This module contains two African folk tales about death, two descriptions of African funerals, a lesson plan with 11 questions exploring the finality of and customs surrounding death, and a bibliography of five books which deal with African religious beliefs. The folk tales present concepts of death and immortality of the soul. The descriptions of…

  8. Engaging with Mathematics in the Kindergarten. Orchestrating a Fairy Tale through Questioning and Use of Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse how a kindergarten teacher orchestrated a mathematical activity involving a fairy tale. Taking a sociocultural perspective on learning and development, naturally occurring talk-in-interaction has been analysed in order to scrutinise the subtleties of the orchestration. The fairy tale "Goldilocks and the…

  9. The Therapeutic Use of Fairy Tales with Adults in Group Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nina W.

    2007-01-01

    Fairy tales are not just for children. They can hold important messages for people of all ages, as well as for those with special needs. For example, people who present for therapy reporting such issues as fear of abandonment, sibling rivalry, self-esteem, and lack of meaning in life, among others, can benefit from using fairy tales as a…

  10. Survey on Effects of Fairy Tales on Turkish Language Training from Secondary School Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Fairy tale is one of the most important genres in literature which reflects childish sensitivity, feeds child's soul, enriches his/her imagination and prepares him/her for the future. Emerging as product of oral literature, fairy tales were used as an instrument of training in the past and they still have the same function today. Educators think…

  11. If the Shoe Fits: Virtue and Absolute Beauty in Fairy Tale Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Melissa C.

    2000-01-01

    Examines five versions of the Cinderella story. Argues that children's fairy tale drama presents female beauty as a moral absolute, not merely as a physical characteristic. Cites feminist theories of the female body to demonstrate ways in which fairy tale drama establishes female beauty as an unchanging, "universal" concept. Considers…

  12. The Fairy Tale and Its Uses in Contemporary New Media and Popular Culture Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schwabe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the beginning of the 21st century, the fairy tale has not only become a staple of the small and silver screen around the globe, it has also migrated into new media, overwhelming audiences with imaginative and spectacular retellings along the way. Indeed, modern fairy-tale adaptations pervading contemporary popular culture drastically subvert, shatter, and alter the public’s understanding of the classic fairy tale. Because of the phenomenally increasing proliferation of fairy-tale transformations in today’s “old” and “new” media, we must reflect upon the significance of the fairy tale for society and its social uses in a nuanced fashion. How, why, and for whom have fairy-tale narratives, characters, and motifs metamorphosed in recent decades? What significant intermedial and intertextual relationships exist nowadays in connection with the fairy tale? This special issue features 11 illuminating articles of 13 scholars in the fields of folklore and fairy-tale studies tackling these and other relevant questions.

  13. The Piacevoli Notti of Giambattista Casali : diplomats and fairy tales in early modern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Megan K.

    2013-01-01

    Published at Venice between 1551 and 1553, Giovanfrancesco Straparola's collection of fairy tales, novelle, riddles and madrigals, Le piacevoli notti, proved a European best-seller. In the collection's loose framing narrative, set during carnival in 1530s Venice, the first tale of the final night is

  14. Modern Monetary Policy and Central Bank Governance : A Story of Two Tales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Masciandaro, D.

    The objective of this note is to present the evolution of both the economics and the political economy of monetary policy in the last three decades – first the Great Moderation and then the Financial Crisis – as a story of two intertwined tales: on the one side the tale of how to govern money and

  15. Authorial or Scribal? : spelling variation in the Hengwrt and Ellesmere manuscripts of The Canterbury Tales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caon, Luigina Marina Domenica

    2009-01-01

    Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales has come down to us in about 80 fifteenth-century manuscripts, none of which is in his own hand. What is conventionally referred to as ‘Chaucer’s language’ is the language found in two early texts of The Canterbury Tales, the Hengwrt and the Ellesmere manuscripts. Despite

  16. Toward a new twist in Hox and TALE DNA-binding specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabet, Samir; Lohmann, Ingrid

    2015-02-09

    Hox proteins gain specificity by interacting with TALE-class cofactors. In a recent issue of Cell and in this issue of Developmental Cell, Crocker et al. (2015) and Amin et al. (2015), respectively, demonstrate that non-canonical Hox/TALE binding sequences play a major role in the regionalized regulation of target gene expression in vivo.

  17. The Analysis of the Gothic Element--High Emotion in The Tell-tale Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莎

    2014-01-01

    The Tell-tale Heart is one of the most typical gothic novel of Allen Poe’s. This article intends to analyse one of the gothic elements, that is, high emotion which is employed in The Tell-tale Heart to contribute to the horror effect.

  18. The Analysis of the Gothic Element——High Emotion in The Tell-tale Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莎

    2014-01-01

    The Tell-tale Heart is one of the most typical gothic novel of Allen Poe’s. This article intends to analyse one of the gothic elements, that is, high emotion which is employed in The Tell-tale Heart to contribute to the horror effect.

  19. Oral Interpretation of C.S. Lewis'"Narnia Tales": A Refracting of "Pictures."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Carolyn

    "The Chronicles of Narnia" are a series of seven fairy tales written by C.S. Lewis that have become popular with both children and adults. Lewis points to five aspects of the fairy tale form that made the form suitable for expressing the images he saw. The aspects are: (1) no love interest; (2) no close psychology; (3) severe restraints…

  20. Understanding "A Tale of Two Cities": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlin, George

    Charles Dickens' novel, "A Tale of Two Cities," does not waste a word in telling a touching, suspenseful tale set against the background of one of the bloodiest events in history, the French Revolution. This casebook's collection of historical documents, collateral readings, and commentary will promote interdisciplinary study of the…

  1. Oral Interpretation of C.S. Lewis'"Narnia Tales": A Refracting of "Pictures."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Carolyn

    "The Chronicles of Narnia" are a series of seven fairy tales written by C.S. Lewis that have become popular with both children and adults. Lewis points to five aspects of the fairy tale form that made the form suitable for expressing the images he saw. The aspects are: (1) no love interest; (2) no close psychology; (3) severe restraints…

  2. Modern Monetary Policy and Central Bank Governance : A Story of Two Tales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Masciandaro, D.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this note is to present the evolution of both the economics and the political economy of monetary policy in the last three decades – first the Great Moderation and then the Financial Crisis – as a story of two intertwined tales: on the one side the tale of how to govern money and in

  3. DNA-binding proteins from marine bacteria expand the known sequence diversity of TALE-like repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Orlando; Wolf, Christina; Thiel, Philipp; Krüger, Jens; Kleusch, Christian; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Lahaye, Thomas

    2015-11-16

    Transcription Activator-Like Effectors (TALEs) of Xanthomonas bacteria are programmable DNA binding proteins with unprecedented target specificity. Comparative studies into TALE repeat structure and function are hindered by the limited sequence variation among TALE repeats. More sequence-diverse TALE-like proteins are known from Ralstonia solanacearum (RipTALs) and Burkholderia rhizoxinica (Bats), but RipTAL and Bat repeats are conserved with those of TALEs around the DNA-binding residue. We study two novel marine-organism TALE-like proteins (MOrTL1 and MOrTL2), the first to date of non-terrestrial origin. We have assessed their DNA-binding properties and modelled repeat structures. We found that repeats from these proteins mediate sequence specific DNA binding conforming to the TALE code, despite low sequence similarity to TALE repeats, and with novel residues around the BSR. However, MOrTL1 repeats show greater sequence discriminating power than MOrTL2 repeats. Sequence alignments show that there are only three residues conserved between repeats of all TALE-like proteins including the two new additions. This conserved motif could prove useful as an identifier for future TALE-likes. Additionally, comparing MOrTL repeats with those of other TALE-likes suggests a common evolutionary origin for the TALEs, RipTALs and Bats.

  4. Strengthening the reporting of genetic risk prediction studies: the GRIPS statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, A Cecile J W; Ioannidis, John P A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Little, Julian; Khoury, Muin J

    2011-09-01

    • The rapid and continuing progress in gene discovery for complex diseases is fuelling interest in the potential application of genetic risk models for clinical and public health practice. • The number of studies assessing the predictive ability is steadily increasing, but the quality and completeness of reporting vary. • A multidisciplinary workshop sponsored by the Human Genome Epidemiology Network developed a checklist of 25 items recommended for strengthening the reporting of Genetic RIsk Prediction Studies (GRIPS), building on the principles established by prior reporting guidelines. • These recommendations aim to enhance the transparency of study reporting and thereby to improve the synthesis and application of information from multiple studies that might differ in design, conduct or analysis. • A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published as an accompanying article [1].

  5. Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part I: Principles and Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Robot grippers are employed to position and retain parts in automated assembly operations. This paper presents an overview of electromagnet part handling framework in an iron foundry and an equivalent electromagnet circuit model. The manner in which this whole concept of automated gripping system operates will be discussed in this paper. The material handling system uses machine vision system coupled with conveyor motion and Ethernet communication strategy to assist the material handling system for transporting the foundry parts. The paper provides an overview of the electromagnet principles at play. The electromagnet interaction with the part is the key issue in the robust handling of this automated foundry system. This paper helps in the realization of the concept of automation in an iron foundry, in which the number of published studies is very limited.

  6. Electrical conductivity measurements from the GISP2 and GRIP Greenland ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Clausen, Henrik Brink; Taylor, K. C.

    1993-01-01

    . Here we present electrical conductivity records for the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) and Greenland Ice-core Project (GRIP) ice cores, drilled 28 km apart to enable direct comparison of the results. The upper parts of both records are consistent with previous evidence from other Greenland cores......THE direct-current electrical conductivity of glacial ice depends on its acidity1-3, and can also indicate changes in climate, as ice formed in cold, dusty periods has a high concentration of alkaline dust1,4,5, which significantly reduces the conductivity6,7 compared to warmer, less dusty periods......4,8& #150;12 for a stable Greenland climate during the Holocene, and a series of warm events punctuating the last glacial period. However, there is a significant discrepancy between the two records in the bottom 10% of the cores, calling into question recent reports of climate variability...

  7. Using the coefficient of variation to detect sincerity of effort of grip strength: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, O

    2000-01-01

    Many clinicians use the coefficient of variation (CV) to assess sincerity of effort, without understanding the premise on which it is based or its physiological and mathematical bases. Clinicians who use computerized evaluation systems that calculate the CV may not even be aware of the formula used to derive it. The wide use of the CV in detecting sincerity of effort of grip strength is puzzling, since it lacks empirical support in the literature. This paper examines the physiological rationale for using measures of variability to detect sincerity of effort, the mathematical basis on which the CV is founded, and the reliability and validity of the CV. The conclusions based on this literature review are that the CV is not an appropriate method for determining whether an effort is sincere and that CV values may be inflated in injured patients with compromised hand strength.

  8. Relevance of the EMG/grip relationship in isometric anisotonic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudon, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a relationship to evaluate grip force using the electromyogram (EMG) in isometric anisotonic conditions. The EMGs of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and the extensor digitorum (ED) were recorded in 3 flexion-extension positions of the wrist (30 degrees flexion, 30 degrees extension, and 60 degrees extension) associated with 3 positions of the forearm (70 degrees pronation, prono-supination, and 70 degrees supination). For each position, the participants had to follow linear ramp targets (2 rates of increase and decrease) displayed on an oscilloscope. The results show the best fit is a quadratic type force-EMG relationship. Some aspects such as the rate of force variation and the forearm and wrist positions are then discussed along with the limitations of the relationship.

  9. Computer vision-based classification of hand grip variations in neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zariffa, José; Steeves, John D

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of hand function is such that most existing upper limb rehabilitation robotic devices use only simplified hand interfaces. This is in contrast to the importance of the hand in regaining function after neurological injury. Computer vision technology has been used to identify hand posture in the field of Human Computer Interaction, but this approach has not been translated to the rehabilitation context. We describe a computer vision-based classifier that can be used to discriminate rehabilitation-relevant hand postures, and could be integrated into a virtual reality-based upper limb rehabilitation system. The proposed system was tested on a set of video recordings from able-bodied individuals performing cylindrical grasps, lateral key grips, and tip-to-tip pinches. The overall classification success rate was 91.2%, and was above 98% for 6 out of the 10 subjects. © 2011 IEEE

  10. Hurricanes Karl and Tropical Storm Matthew Structure Observed by HIWRAP During GRIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Guimond, S. R.; Tian, L.

    2012-12-01

    The dual-wavelength (Ku and Ka band) High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP) flew for the first time on the Global Hawk during the 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). HIWRAP is conical scanning and Doppler, and winds and reflectivity can be mapped within the swath below the Global Hawk. Two interesting cases from the HIWRAP flights were the rapid intensification of Hurricane Karl and the intensification of Tropical Storm Matthew. This presentation will highlight the precipitation and wind structure of these storms during their intensification as derived from the HIWRAP observations. If time permits and if available, highlights from HIWRAP observations from the Hurricane Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) field campaign in September 2012 will be presented.

  11. Physical function, grip strength and frailty in people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Charlotte; Dabis, François; de Rekeneire, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    To present the current knowledge on physical function, grip strength and frailty in HIV-infected patients living in sub-Saharan Africa, where the phenomenon is largely underestimated. A systematic search was conducted on MEDLINE, Scopus and African Index Medicus. We reviewed articles on sub-Saharan African people living with HIV (PLHIV) >18 years old, published until November 2016. Of 537 articles, 12 were conducted in six African countries and included in this review. Five articles reported information on functional limitation and one on disability. Two of these five articles reported functional limitation (low gait speed) in PLHIV. Disability was observed in 27% and 3% of PLHIV living in rural and urban places, respectively. Two of three studies reporting grip strength reported lower grip strength (nearly 4 kg) in PLHIV in comparison with uninfected patients. One study reported that PLHIV were more likely to be frail than HIV-uninfected individuals (19.4% vs. 13.3%), whereas another reported no statistical difference. Decline in physical function, grip strength and frailty are now part of the burden of PLHIV living in SSA countries, but current data are insufficient to characterise the real public health dimension of these impairments. Further studies are needed to depict this major public health challenge. As this is likely to contribute to a significant burden on the African healthcare systems and human resources in the near future, a holistic care approach should be developed to inform guidelines. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The application of an external wrist extension force reduces electromyographic activity of wrist extensor muscles during gripping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elk, N. van; Faes, M.C.; Degens, H.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Lint, J.A. de; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2004-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Experimental repeated-measures study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of different extension forces applied to the palm of the hand on electromyographic (EMG) activity of the wrist extensor muscles during hand gripping. BACKGROUND: Lateral epicondylitis is usually caused by repeti

  13. Using goal- and grip-related information for understanding the correctness of other's actions: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel; Bousardt, Roel; Bekkering, Harold; van Schie, Hein T

    2012-01-01

    Detecting errors in other's actions is of pivotal importance for joint action, competitive behavior and observational learning. Although many studies have focused on the neural mechanisms involved in detecting low-level errors, relatively little is known about error-detection in everyday situations. The present study aimed to identify the functional and neural mechanisms whereby we understand the correctness of other's actions involving well-known objects (e.g. pouring coffee in a cup). Participants observed action sequences in which the correctness of the object grasped and the grip applied to a pair of objects were independently manipulated. Observation of object violations (e.g. grasping the empty cup instead of the coffee pot) resulted in a stronger P3-effect than observation of grip errors (e.g. grasping the coffee pot at the upper part instead of the handle), likely reflecting a reorienting response, directing attention to the relevant location. Following the P3-effect, a parietal slow wave positivity was observed that persisted for grip-errors, likely reflecting the detection of an incorrect hand-object interaction. These findings provide new insight in the functional significance of the neurophysiological markers associated with the observation of incorrect actions and suggest that the P3-effect and the subsequent parietal slow wave positivity may reflect the detection of errors at different levels in the action hierarchy. Thereby this study elucidates the cognitive processes that support the detection of action violations in the selection of objects and grips.

  14. Stretch calculated from grip distance accurately approximates mid-specimen stretch in large elastic arteries in uniaxial tensile tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lian; Henningsen, Joseph; Salick, Max R; Crone, Wendy C; Gunderson, McLean; Dailey, Seth H; Chesler, Naomi C

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical properties of vascular tissues affect hemodynamics and can alter disease progression. The uniaxial tensile test is a simple and effective method for determining the stress-strain relationship in arterial tissue ex vivo. To enable calculation of strain, stretch can be measured directly with image tracking of markers on the tissue or indirectly from the distance between the grips used to hold the specimen. While the imaging technique is generally considered more accurate, it also requires more analysis, and the grip distance method is more widely used. The purpose of this study is to compare the stretch of the testing specimen calculated from the grip distance method to that obtained from the imaging method for canine descending aortas and large proximal pulmonary arteries. Our results showed a significant difference in stretch between the two methods; however, this difference was consistently less than 2%. Therefore, the grip distance method is an accurate approximation of the stretch in large elastic arteries in the uniaxial tensile test. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Grip on the Handball – A Qualitative Analysis of the Influence of Materiality on Creativity in Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene; Laursen, Dan Nørgaard; Szulevicz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    how balls made of synthetic polyurethane contribute to a better grip on the ball, which has led to new possibilities for attacking players in handball. The conclusion is that the leather handball is a mediating object, which co-creates the possibilities that the players have in expressing themselves...

  16. Constraints on grip selection in hemiparetic cerebral palsy: Effects of lesional side, end-point accuracy and context.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, B.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Rosenbaum, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study was concerned with the selection criteria used for grip planning in adolescents with left or right hemiparetic cerebral palsy. In the first experiment participants picked up a pencil and placed the tip in a pre-defined target region. We varied the size of the target to test the hypothesis

  17. [Reliability and validity of the analysis of hand grip and pinch force in isometric and isokinetic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaglia, P G; Franchignoni, F; Ferriero, G; Zebellin, G; Sartorio, F

    1999-01-01

    Strength measurement of the hand grip is at the core of most protocols of functional assessment of the upper limb and in rehabilitation plays a major role in the analysis of treatment efficacy and patients' occupational ability. The aims of this study were to: a) verify the repeatability of strength measurements made during performance of the hand grip and three types of pinch, carried out under isometric and isokinetic conditions; b) compare maximal isometric strength with the corresponding isokinetic value for each of the manoeuvres studied; c) investigate the correlations between the strength expressed in the different manoeuvres, under both isometric and isokinetic conditions. We studied 14 voluntary subjects over three sessions conducted at 48-hr intervals, employing a computerized isokinetic dynamometer Lido WorkSet equipped with device N(o) 21 for the study of pinch (lateral pinch, pulp pinch, chuck pinch) and device N(o) 52 for the grip study. Isometric contractions resulted stronger than isokinetic ones, and the hand grip was found to be the manoeuvre able to produce most strength. The repeatability of each strength measurement test over the three days was high (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.89-0.93). Correlations between the isometric and isokinetic performance for each of the manoeuvres examined were always high (Pearson's r coefficients: 0.89-0.95) as were those between the different manoeuvres, whether performed in isometric or isokinetic modality (r: 0.60-0.94).

  18. Predictive force programming in the grip-lift task: the role of memory links between arbitrary cues and object weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Mitra; Dafotakis, Manuel; Fink, Gereon R; Nowak, Dennis A

    2008-01-01

    We tested the ability of healthy participants to learn an association between arbitrary sensory cues and the weight of an object to be lifted using a precision grip between the index finger and thumb. Right-handed participants performed a series of grip-lift tasks with each hand. In a first experiment, participants lifted two objects of equal visual appearance which unexpectedly and randomly changed their weight. In two subsequent experiments, the change in object weight was indicated by cues, which were presented (i) visually or (ii) auditorily. When no cue about the weight of the object to be lifted was presented, participants programmed grip force according to the most recent lift, regardless of the hand used. In contrast, participants were able to rapidly establish an association between a particular sensory cue with a given weight and scaled grip force precisely to the actual weight thereafter, regardless of the hand used or the sensory modality of the cue. We discuss our data within the theoretical concept of internal models.

  19. An Overview on Gripping Force Measurement at the Micro and Nano-Scales Using Two-Fingered Microrobotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrane Boudaoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-fingered micromanipulation systems with an integrated force sensor are widely used in robotics to sense and control gripping forces at the micro and nano-scales. They became of primary importance for an efficient manipulation and characterization of highly deformable biomaterials and nanostructures. This paper presents a chronological overview of gripping force measurement using two-fingered micromanipulation systems. The work summarizes the major achievements in this field from the early 90s to the present, focusing in particular on the evolution of measurement technologies regarding the requirements of microrobotic applications. Measuring forces below the microNewton for the manipulation of highly deformable materials, embedding force sensors within microgrippers to increase their dexterity, and reducing the influence of noise to improve the measurement resolution are among the addressed challenges. The paper shows different examples of how these challenges have been addressed. Resolution, operating range and signal/noise ratio of gripping force sensors are reported and compared. A discussion about force measurement technologies and gripping force control is performed and future trends are highlighted.

  20. Grip-Pattern Recognition in Smart Gun Based on Likelihood-Ratio Classifier and Support Vector Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, Xiaoxin; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    In the biometric verification system of a smart gun, the rightful user of a gun is recognized based on grip-pattern recognition. It was found that the verification performance of this system degrades strongly when the data for training and testing have been recorded in different sessions with a time

  1. The Effect of Repetitive Rhythmic Precision Grip Task-Oriented Rehabilitation in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispa, Delphine; Lejeune, Thierry; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Most chronic stroke patients present with difficulty in the manipulation of objects. The aim of this study was to test whether an intensive program of precision grip training could improve hand functioning of patients at more than 6 months after a stroke. This was a cross-over study; hence, at inclusion, the patients were randomly divided into two…

  2. An Overview on Gripping Force Measurement at the Micro and Nano-scales Using Two-fingered Microrobotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrane Boudaoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-fingered micromanipulation systems with an integrated force sensor are widely used in robotics to sense and control gripping forces at the micro and nano-scales. They became of primary importance for an efficient manipulation and characterization of highly deformable biomaterials and nanostructures. This paper presents a chronological overview of gripping force measurement using two-fingered micromanipulation systems. The work summarizes the major achievements in this field from the early 90s to the present, focusing in particular on the evolution of measurement technologies regarding the requirements of microrobotic applications. Measuring forces below the microNewton for the manipulation of highly deformable materials, embedding force sensors within microgrippers to increase their dexterity, and reducing the influence of noise to improve the measurement resolution are among the addressed challenges. The paper shows different examples of how these challenges have been addressed. Resolution, operating range and signal/noise ratio of gripping force sensors are reported and compared. A discussion about force measurement technologies and gripping force control is performed and future trends are highlighted.

  3. The coefficient of variation as a measure of sincerity of effort of grip strength, Part II: sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, O

    2001-01-01

    The coefficient of variation (CV) is commonly used to detect sincerity of effort. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the CV possessed adequate sensitivity and specificity to effectively detect sincerity of effort of grip strength. One hundred forty-six uninjured volunteers underwent a series of grip strength tests. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated for various CV cut-off values (between 2.5% and 22%) of the static grip test. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves based on these values demonstrated the trade-offs between specificity and sensitivity. For example, the "traditional" 15% cut-off value yielded poor sensitivity (0.55), whereas the 11% cut-off value yielded poor specificity (0.74). Selecting any cut-off value along the continuum did not provide adequate sensitivity or specificity for labeling an effort sincere or insincere. Although the CV differentiated between maximal and submaximal effort, it was not sensitive or specific enough to do so effectively. Thus, the CV should not be used to assess sincerity of effort of grip strength.

  4. Synaptic and functional linkages between spinal premotor interneurons and hand-muscle activity during precision grip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko eTakei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grasping is a highly complex movement that requires the coordination of a number of hand joints and muscles. Previous studies showed that spinal premotor interneurons (PreM-INs in the primate cervical spinal cord have divergent synaptic effects on hand motoneurons and that they might contribute to hand-muscle synergies. However, the extent to which these PreM-IN synaptic connections functionally contribute to modulating hand-muscle activity is not clear. In this paper, we explored the contribution of spinal PreM-INs to hand-muscle activation by quantifying the synaptic linkage (SL and functional linkage (FL of the PreM-INs with hand-muscle activities. The activity of 23 PreM-INs was recorded from the cervical spinal cord (C6–T1, with EMG signals measured simultaneously from hand and arm muscles in two macaque monkeys performing a precision grip task. Spike-triggered averages (STAs of rectified EMGs were compiled for 456 neuron–muscle pairs; 63 pairs showed significant post-spike effects (i.e., SL. Conversely, 231 of 456 pairs showed significant cross-correlations between the IN firing rate and rectified EMG (i.e., FL. Importantly, a greater proportion of the neuron–muscle pairs with SL showed FL (43/63 pairs, 68% compared with the pairs without SL (203/393, 52%, and the presence of SL was significantly associated with that of FL. However, a significant number of pairs had SL without FL (SL∩!FL, n = 20 or FL without SL (!SL∩FL, n = 203, and the proportions of these incongruities exceeded the number expected by chance. These results suggested that spinal PreM-INs function to significantly modulate hand-muscle activity during precision grip, but the contribution of other neural structures is also needed to recruit an adequate combination of hand-muscle motoneurons.

  5. Fabric along the NEEM ice core, Greenland, and its comparison with GRIP and NGRIP ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnat, M.; Azuma, N.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Eichler, J.; Fujita, S.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Samyn, D.; Svensson, A.; Weikusat, I.

    2014-07-01

    Fabric (distribution of crystallographic orientations) along the full NEEM ice core, Greenland was measured in the field by an automatic ice texture analyzer every 10 m, from 33 m down to 2461 m depth. The fabric evolves from a slightly anisotropic fabric at the top, toward a strong single maximum at about 2300 m, which is typical of a deformation pattern mostly driven by uniaxial compression and simple shearing. A sharp increase in the fabric strengthening rate is observed at the Holocene to Wisconsin (HW) climatic transition. From a simple model we estimate that this depth is located at a transition from a state dominated by vertical compression to a state dominated by vertical shear. Comparisons are made to two others ice cores drilled along the same ridge; the GRIP ice core, drilled at the summit of the ice sheet, and the NGRIP ice core, drilled 325 km to the NNW of the summit along the ridge, and 365 km upstream from NEEM. This comparison tends to demonstrate that the ice viscosity change with the HW climatic transition must be associated with the shear-dominated state to induce the abrupt fabric strengthening observed at NEEM. This comparison therefore reflects the increasing role of shear deformation on the coring site when moving NW along the ridge from GRIP to NGRIP and NEEM. The difference in fabric profiles between NEEM and NGRIP also evidences a stronger lateral extension associated with a sharper ridge at NGRIP. Further along the core, centimeter scale abrupt texture (fabric and microstructure) variations are observed in the bottom part of the core. Their positions are in good agreement with the observed folding layers in Dahl-Jensen et al. (2013).

  6. Size-weight illusion and anticipatory grip force scaling following unilateral cortical brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Randerath, Jennifer; Goldenberg, Georg; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    The prediction of object weight from its size is an important prerequisite of skillful object manipulation. Grip and load forces anticipate object size during early phases of lifting an object. A mismatch between predicted and actual weight when two different sized objects have the same weight results in the size-weight illusion (SWI), the small object feeling heavier. This study explores whether lateralized brain lesions in patients with or without apraxia alter the size-weight illusion and impair anticipatory finger force scaling. Twenty patients with left brain damage (LBD, 10 with apraxia, 10 without apraxia), ten patients with right brain damage (RBD), and matched control subjects lifted two different-sized boxes in alternation. All subjects experienced a similar size-weight illusion. The anticipatory force scaling of all groups was in correspondence with the size cue: higher forces and force rates were applied to the big box and lower forces and force rates to the small box during the first lifts. Within few lifts, forces were scaled to actual object weight. Despite the lack of significant differences at group level, 5 out of 20 LBD patients showed abnormal predictive scaling of grip forces. They differed from the LBD patients with normal predictive scaling by a greater incidence of posterior occipito-parietal lesions but not by a greater incidence of apraxia. The findings do not support a more general role for the motor-dominant left hemisphere, or an influence of apraxia per se, in the scaling of finger force according to object properties. However, damage in the vicinity of the parietal-occipital junction may be critical for deriving predictions of weight from size.

  7. Hand Grip Strength and Myocardial Oxygen Consumption Index among Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Baait Biniti Mohd Sokran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand grip strength (HGS is a reliable indicator of peripheral muscle strength. Although, numerous studies have investigated the strength of hand grip; little attention has been given to coronary artery disease (CAD patients, exploring the relationship between HGS and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2 index. The current study aimed to evaluate the interaction between HGS and MVO2 index findings before and after cardiac surgery. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with CAD had HGS were assessed using handheld dynamometer. HGS for each hand were documented. MVO2 index was assessed using rate pressure product (RPP, which is the product of the heart rate (HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP. Repeated measures MANOVA were carried out to estimate the interaction between both hands HGS and MVO2 index before and after surgery. Results: There was significant interactions (P<0.001 for both HGS dominant and non-dominant with large effect sizes (HGS dominant×MVO2 index: hp2=0.44; HGS dominant×RPP: hp2=0.49. This signifies that peripheral muscle strength of the upper limb (HGS dominant and non-dominant had different effects on MVO2 index before and after surgery. The interaction graph shows that the increase in MVO2 index after surgery was significantly greater for peripheral muscle strength of the dominant hand when compared to non-dominant. Conclusion: Patients with CAD had interactions between HGS and oxygen consumption before and after surgery. Hence, HGS might be used as a predictor to assess oxygen consumption among cardiac patients.

  8. Multicentric observational study of pain after the use of a self-gripping lightweight mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ureña, M Á; Hidalgo, M; Feliu, X; Velasco, M Á; Revuelta, S; Gutiérrez, R; Utrera, A; Porrero, J L; Marín, M; Zaragoza, C

    2011-10-01

    Investigation in the field of inguinal hernia surgery is now focused on postoperative pain. The extended use of lightweight meshes and alternative methods of fixation may play a relevant role in the reduction of pain. In this study, a new self-gripping lightweight polypropylene mesh is tested. A multicentric, observational study was scheduled to prospectively evaluate this new mesh. Ten centers agreed to participate. Only primary, type 1 or 2 uncomplicated hernias in adults were included. The mesh was placed as a Lichtenstein procedure without any fixation. A complete pain questionnaire was followed at 1 week, and at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. The principal goal of the study was to evaluate maximum pain score at 6 months. Pain was assessed by a visual analog scale. A total of 256 patients were operated. Mean operative time was 35.6 min; 76.2% of patients were operated in an ambulatory setting. There were a few postoperative complications: 2 wound infections, 17 seromas, 21 hematomas, 6 orchitis. The incidence of acute pain was 27.3% at week 1 and 7.5% at month 1. The incidence of chronic pain was 3.6% at month 3 and 2.8% at month 6. No recurrences or long-term complications were observed. This self-gripping mesh can be used safely in type 1 and 2 primary, uncomplicated inguinal hernia with minimal morbidity and most patients under ambulatory setting. The registered incidence of chronic pain is lower than 3%.

  9. Improved specificity of TALE-based genome editing using an expanded RVD repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey C; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Danny F; Campo, John J; Ankoudinova, Irina V; Guschin, Dmitry Y; Babiarz, Joshua E; Meng, Xiangdong; Hinkley, Sarah J; Lam, Stephen C; Paschon, David E; Vincent, Anna I; Dulay, Gladys P; Barlow, Kyle A; Shivak, David A; Leung, Elo; Kim, Jinwon D; Amora, Rainier; Urnov, Fyodor D; Gregory, Philip D; Rebar, Edward J

    2015-05-01

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins have gained broad appeal as a platform for targeted DNA recognition, largely owing to their simple rules for design. These rules relate the base specified by a single TALE repeat to the identity of two key residues (the repeat variable diresidue, or RVD) and enable design for new sequence targets via modular shuffling of these units. A key limitation of these rules is that their simplicity precludes options for improving designs that are insufficiently active or specific. Here we address this limitation by developing an expanded set of RVDs and applying them to improve the performance of previously described TALEs. As an extreme example, total conversion of a TALE nuclease to new RVDs substantially reduced off-target cleavage in cellular studies. By providing new RVDs and design strategies, these studies establish options for developing improved TALEs for broader application across medicine and biotechnology.

  10. A transcription activator-like effector (TALE) induction system mediated by proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Matthew F; Politz, Mark C; Johnson, Charles B; Markley, Andrew L; Pfleger, Brian F

    2016-04-01

    Simple and predictable trans-acting regulatory tools are needed in the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering to build complex genetic circuits and optimize the levels of native and heterologous gene products. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are bacterial virulence factors that have recently gained traction in biotechnology applications owing to their customizable DNA-binding specificity. In this work we expanded the versatility of these transcription factors to create an inducible TALE system by inserting tobacco-etch virus (TEV) protease recognition sites into the TALE backbone. The resulting engineered TALEs maintain transcriptional repression of their target genes in Escherichia coli, but are degraded after induction of the TEV protease, thereby promoting expression of the previously repressed target gene of interest. This TALE-TEV technology enables both repression and induction of plasmid or chromosomal target genes in a manner analogous to traditional repressor proteins but with the added flexibility of being operator-agnostic.

  11. A Case of True Hermaphroditism Presenting as a Testicular Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ceci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available True hermaphroditism represents only 5% cases of all of disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD and usually present in early childhood with ambiguous genitalia. Occasionally, cases might present later on in adolescence with problems of sexual maturation. Our case report presents a true hermaphrodite with normal male phenotype that presented as a left testicular mass, two years after being diagnosed with Sertoli cell only syndrome in the contralateral testis. Histological examination of the left testis showed ovarian, fallopian tube, myometrial, endometrial, and epididymal tissue. This combination of findings is found in approximately one-third of true hermaphrodites, but it is very rare to present clinically as an inguinoscrotal mass.

  12. A Case of True Hermaphroditism Presenting as a Testicular Tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Edward; Said, Edith; Gatt, Noel

    2015-01-01

    True hermaphroditism represents only 5% cases of all of disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD) and usually present in early childhood with ambiguous genitalia. Occasionally, cases might present later on in adolescence with problems of sexual maturation. Our case report presents a true hermaphrodite with normal male phenotype that presented as a left testicular mass, two years after being diagnosed with Sertoli cell only syndrome in the contralateral testis. Histological examination of the left testis showed ovarian, fallopian tube, myometrial, endometrial, and epididymal tissue. This combination of findings is found in approximately one-third of true hermaphrodites, but it is very rare to present clinically as an inguinoscrotal mass. PMID:25774314

  13. Tall Tales: The Simpsons deconstructing the american myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Betina Götz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the episode Tall Tales from the series The Simpsons that revisits legends of the American folklore. The TV series pays homage to both the time of the pioneers in their travels to the Far West in the nineteenth century, as well as to one of the most iconic and folk characters of the American culture from that period: the Hobo was a beggar, a figure of the American folklore during the Great Depression. It is also interesting to focus on the American imaginary in order to understand how the authors of The Simpsons perform these recreations in contemporary times

  14. A fairy tale approach to cooperative vehicle positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Scott; Meng, Xiaolin; Moore, Terry; Baxendale, Anthony; Edwards, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines an innovative approach to the cooper-ative positioning of road vehicles by sharing GNSS informa-tion. Much like the children’s fairy tale Hanzel and Gretel by the Brothers Grimm, GNSS receivers on road vehicles generate detailed VRS-like “breadcrumbs” as they accurately position themselves (in this case using a Network RTK GNSS technique). These breadcrumbs can then be shared with other vehicles in the locality to help position themselves, much like traditional RTK GNSS po...

  15. The Vitruvius' Tale of Archimedes and the Golden Crown

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the tale that we can find in "The Architecture" by Vitruvius, on a method used by Archimedes to determine the percentage of gold and silver in a crown. The method is based on the immersion of bodies, allowing the evaluation of their volume in the case of irregular shapes. The measurement, as reported in "The Architecture", seems to be difficult to realize. But, using a vessel for a water-clock, the approach that Vitruvius described is possible. Here the discussion and experiments.

  16. There and back again: a T-brane’s tale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bena, Iosif; Blåbäck, Johan; Minasian, Ruben; Savelli, Raffaele [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-29

    T-branes are supersymmetric configurations described by multiple Dp-branes with worldvolume flux and non-commuting vacuum expectation values for two of the worldvolume scalars. When these values are much larger than the string scale this description breaks down. We show that in this regime the correct description of T-branes is in terms of a single Dp-brane, whose worldvolume curvature encodes the T-brane data. We present the tale of the journey to reach this picture, which takes us through T-dualities and rugby-ball-shaped brane configurations that no eye has gazed upon before.

  17. Review: Tales from Both Sides of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    Our brain has two hemispheres that specialize in different jobs—the right side processes spatial and temporal information, and the left side controls speech and language. How these two sides come together to create one mind is explained by pioneering neuroscientist Michael Gazzaniga in his new book, Tales from Both Sides of the Brain : A Life in Neuroscience (Ecco/Harper Collins, 2015). Gazzaniga is director of the SAGE Center for the Study of the Mind at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and a Dana Alliance member. PMID:27408671

  18. There and back again: A T-brane's tale

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Minasian, Ruben; Savelli, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    T-branes are supersymmetric configurations described by multiple Dp-branes with worldvolume flux and non-commuting vacuum expectation values for two of the worldvolume scalars. When these values are much larger than the string scale this description breaks down. We show that in this regime the correct description of T-branes is in terms of a single Dp-brane, whose worldvolume curvature encodes the T-brane data. We present the tale of the journey to reach this picture, which takes us through T-dualities and rugby-ball-shaped brane configurations that no eye has gazed upon before.

  19. A simple and efficient method for assembling TALE protein based on plasmid library.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Zhang

    Full Text Available DNA binding domain of the transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs from Xanthomonas sp. consists of tandem repeats that can be rearranged according to a simple cipher to target new DNA sequences with high DNA-binding specificity. This technology has been successfully applied in varieties of species for genome engineering. However, assembling long TALE tandem repeats remains a big challenge precluding wide use of this technology. Although several new methodologies for efficiently assembling TALE repeats have been recently reported, all of them require either sophisticated facilities or skilled technicians to carry them out. Here, we described a simple and efficient method for generating customized TALE nucleases (TALENs and TALE transcription factors (TALE-TFs based on TALE repeat tetramer library. A tetramer library consisting of 256 tetramers covers all possible combinations of 4 base pairs. A set of unique primers was designed for amplification of these tetramers. PCR products were assembled by one step of digestion/ligation reaction. 12 TALE constructs including 4 TALEN pairs targeted to mouse Gt(ROSA26Sor gene and mouse Mstn gene sequences as well as 4 TALE-TF constructs targeted to mouse Oct4, c-Myc, Klf4 and Sox2 gene promoter sequences were generated by using our method. The construction routines took 3 days and parallel constructions were available. The rate of positive clones during colony PCR verification was 64% on average. Sequencing results suggested that all TALE constructs were performed with high successful rate. This is a rapid and cost-efficient method using the most common enzymes and facilities with a high success rate.

  20. The Dream Comes True in the Golden Hall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianZhong; ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Nanjing Traditional Music Ensemble has long dreamed of performing in Vienna's Golden Hall.Now the dream has come true.the whole troupe felt so exciting that they did not even sleep well during the flight.

  1. Estimating the Proportion of True Null Hypotheses for Multiple Comparisons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hongmei Jiang; RW Doerge

    2008-01-01

    ...) controlling procedures are too conservative. Although false discovery rate (FDR) procedures have been suggested as having greater power, the control itself is not exact and depends on the proportion of true null hypotheses...

  2. TrueCrypt加密容器快速检测技术%TrueCrypt Container Fast Detection Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈长达; 尤俊生; 钱镜洁

    2014-01-01

    TrueCrypt作为目前较为流行的免费开源加密软件之一,在不同平台上得到了广泛的应用。取证过程中经常要对磁盘中的加密文件检测以便进行进一步的解密分析,但由于TrueCrypt加密容器在解密之前不具备任何的签名、结构等特征,因此TrueCrypt加密容器的检测成为了取证过程中的一个难点。目前,还没有精确的TrueCrypt加密容器的检测方法,现有的检测技术主要是通过签名排除结合文件大小信息进行检测。文章在现有检测技术的基础上结合了卡方检验以及信息熵的理论方法,提出了一种TrueCrypt加密容器快速检测技术。该技术不仅能够快速的检测加密容器,而且和现有的检测方法相比检测精确度更高。%TrueCrypt as one of the popular free open source encryption software has been widely applied on different platforms. Forensics process often to detected encrypted ifle for further decrypt and analysis, but TrueCrypt container has no signature and structure, so it is a dififcult to detect TrueCrypt container. In view of the TrueCrypt container ifle, there is no accurate detection method, the available technology is signature rule out combined ifle size limit to detect TrueCrypt container. In this paper, on the basis of the existing detection technology, combined with chi-square test and information entropy theory, we came up with a fast TrueCrypt container detection technology. This method not only can quickly detect TrueCrypt container, but higher precision compared with the existing detection methods.

  3. True bug (Heteroptera) impact on cocoa fruit mortality and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yede; Babin, R; Djieto-Lordon, C; Cilas, C; Dibog, L; Mahob, R; Bilong, C F Bilong

    2012-08-01

    The real impact of true bug damage on cocoa pods has never been assessed precisely. We conducted a 2-yr study on 1,080 cocoa trees on 36 farms in Cameroon to assess the contribution of true bugs to fruit mortality and production loss. The cocoa fruiting cycle, fruit mortality, and damage caused by true bugs as well as other pests and diseases were monitored on a weekly basis. True bug damage also was described on 2,500 ripe pods per year. Pod weight, bean number, and bean weight were measured and compared for different degrees and types of damage on the ripe pods. Our results showed that true bugs were the main external cause of young fruit abortion. They reduced the abundance of young fruit by up to 10%. In contrast, although one-third of the ripe pods sampled had true bug lesions, only 4% were moderately to heavily damaged. The mean weight of ripe pods was reduced by 12% when there was medium to heavy damage. While the mean weight of wet beans was reduced significantly (by 3-10%), the number of beans per pod was not changed by damage. Despite the reduction in mean weight, the overall weight of beans for the pods sampled was reduced by fruit mortality.

  4. The effect of force feedback delay on stiffness perception and grip force modulation during tool-mediated interaction with elastic force fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, Raz; Karniel, Amir; Nisky, Ilana

    2015-05-01

    During interaction with objects, we form an internal representation of their mechanical properties. This representation is used for perception and for guiding actions, such as in precision grip, where grip force is modulated with the predicted load forces. In this study, we explored the relationship between grip force adjustment and perception of stiffness during interaction with linear elastic force fields. In a forced-choice paradigm, participants probed pairs of virtual force fields while grasping a force sensor that was attached to a haptic device. For each pair, they were asked which field had higher level of stiffness. In half of the pairs, the force feedback of one of the fields was delayed. Participants underestimated the stiffness of the delayed field relatively to the nondelayed, but their grip force characteristics were similar in both conditions. We analyzed the magnitude of the grip force and the lag between the grip force and the load force in the exploratory probing movements within each trial. Right before answering which force field had higher level of stiffness, both magnitude and lag were similar between delayed and nondelayed force fields. These results suggest that an accurate internal representation of environment stiffness and time delay was used for adjusting the grip force. However, this representation did not help in eliminating the bias in stiffness perception. We argue that during performance of a perceptual task that is based on proprioceptive feedback, separate neural mechanisms are responsible for perception and action-related computations in the brain.

  5. TALE and Shape: How to Make a Leaf Different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Di Giacomo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Three Amino acid Loop Extension (TALE proteins constitute an ancestral superclass of homeodomain transcription factors conserved in animals, plants and fungi. In plants they comprise two classes, KNOTTED1-LIKE homeobox (KNOX and BEL1-like homeobox (BLH or BELL, hereafter referred to as BLH, which are involved in shoot apical meristem (SAM function, as well as in the determination and morphological development of leaves, stems and inflorescences. Selective protein-protein interactions between KNOXs and BLHs affect heterodimer subcellular localization and target affinity. KNOXs exert their roles by maintaining a proper balance between undifferentiated and differentiated cell state through the modulation of multiple hormonal pathways. A pivotal function of KNOX in evolutionary diversification of leaf morphology has been assessed. In the SAM of both simple- and compound-leafed seed species, downregulation of most class 1 KNOX (KNOX1 genes marks the sites of leaf primordia initiation. However, KNOX1 expression is re-established during leaf primordia development of compound-leafed species to maintain transient indeterminacy and morphogenetic activity at the leaf margins. Despite the increasing knowledge available about KNOX1 protein function in plant development, a comprehensive view on their downstream effectors remains elusive. This review highlights the role of TALE proteins in leaf initiation and morphological plasticity with a focus on recent advances in the identification of downstream target genes and pathways.

  6. The Doctor's Tale: Enacted Workspace and the General Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Rapport

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The environments and landscapes in which we live and work say much about who we are and how we act, yet there is little in the literature that considers Primary Care professionals' reflections on workspace and its impact on practice. The paper addresses this lacuna by presenting the findings of Phase II of a novel, two-year, mixed-methods study of UK General Practitioner (GP workspace. Phase II employed photo-biographic-elicitation interviews supported by photo-biographic data from Phase I, to examine 8 GPs' understandings of their workspace in relation to professional practice and self-identity. Through distillation and summation of datasets, the paper establishes the pivotal role of workspace in Primary Care. Unlike many qualitative studies, the paper emphasizes ambiguity and difference rather than certainty and similarity as characteristics that prove to be of major significance in understanding the particularity of GP workspace. Like CHAUCER's Canterbury Tales, GPs' individual stories are set as a sequence of tales within what might be called a frame narrative—the overarching narrative of British general practice providing the frame for the particular stories of the practitioners. Although working environments may be similarly structured, how GPs perceive, perform within, and move through their own setting is unique to each. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs080227

  7. TALE and Shape: How to Make a Leaf Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Elisabetta; Iannelli, Maria Adelaide; Frugis, Giovanna

    2013-05-06

    The Three Amino acid Loop Extension (TALE) proteins constitute an ancestral superclass of homeodomain transcription factors conserved in animals, plants and fungi. In plants they comprise two classes, KNOTTED1-LIKE homeobox (KNOX) and BEL1-like homeobox (BLH or BELL, hereafter referred to as BLH), which are involved in shoot apical meristem (SAM) function, as well as in the determination and morphological development of leaves, stems and inflorescences. Selective protein-protein interactions between KNOXs and BLHs affect heterodimer subcellular localization and target affinity. KNOXs exert their roles by maintaining a proper balance between undifferentiated and differentiated cell state through the modulation of multiple hormonal pathways. A pivotal function of KNOX in evolutionary diversification of leaf morphology has been assessed. In the SAM of both simple- and compound-leafed seed species, downregulation of most class 1 KNOX (KNOX1) genes marks the sites of leaf primordia initiation. However, KNOX1 expression is re-established during leaf primordia development of compound-leafed species to maintain transient indeterminacy and morphogenetic activity at the leaf margins. Despite the increasing knowledge available about KNOX1 protein function in plant development, a comprehensive view on their downstream effectors remains elusive. This review highlights the role of TALE proteins in leaf initiation and morphological plasticity with a focus on recent advances in the identification of downstream target genes and pathways.

  8. Context influences on TALE-DNA binding revealed by quantitative profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Julia M; Barrera, Luis A; Reyon, Deepak; Sander, Jeffry D; Kellis, Manolis; Joung, J Keith; Bulyk, Martha L

    2015-06-11

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins recognize DNA using a seemingly simple DNA-binding code, which makes them attractive for use in genome engineering technologies that require precise targeting. Although this code is used successfully to design TALEs to target specific sequences, off-target binding has been observed and is difficult to predict. Here we explore TALE-DNA interactions comprehensively by quantitatively assaying the DNA-binding specificities of 21 representative TALEs to ∼5,000-20,000 unique DNA sequences per protein using custom-designed protein-binding microarrays (PBMs). We find that protein context features exert significant influences on binding. Thus, the canonical recognition code does not fully capture the complexity of TALE-DNA binding. We used the PBM data to develop a computational model, Specificity Inference For TAL-Effector Design (SIFTED), to predict the DNA-binding specificity of any TALE. We provide SIFTED as a publicly available web tool that predicts potential genomic off-target sites for improved TALE design.

  9. THE TALE OF THE PRIEST AND OF HIS WORKMAN BALDA BY A. PUSHKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Mikhaylovich Neyolov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tale of the Priest and his Worker Balda seems the most simple of all the Pushkin’s fairy tales. However, this is a very specifi c simplicity, which can be called ‘the simplicity of complexity’. The story contains diff erent levels, which are not apparent immediately. Traditionally, The Tale of Balda has been interpreted as an acute socio-political satire; another approach refers to the peculiarities of folk tales poetics and its literary transformation, determined by the difficulties of combining the folk fairy-tale function of the character with the nature of a literary tale hero. Both of these approaches raise a number of questioins, the main of which is why the Priest was punished, aft er all. The third interpretation, which is presented in the second part of the article and considers Pushkin’s fairy tale in the Christian context, allows us to reveal the deeper connotations of Pushkin's intention, giving the opportunity to comment diff erently some parts of the text, usually overlooked by researchers that are focused only on a "superfi cial layer" of the meaning of the text.

  10. The development of a methodology to determine the relationship in grip size and pressure to racket head speed in a tennis forehand stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas; Rasmussen, John; Halkon, Ben;

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a methodology to examine the effects of grip size and grip firmness on the kinematic contribution of angular velocity (KCAV) to the generation of racket head speed during a topspin tennis forehand. The KCAV is subdivided into kinematic contribution of joint angular velocity...... and kinematic contribution of the body segments in the upper trunk translational and angular velocities. Two Babolat Pure Storm GT rackets, with grip sizes 2 and 4 respectively, were used with Tekscan 9811E pressure sensors applied to the handles to examine pressure distribution during the stroke. Upper body...

  11. The Forgotten Text of Nikolai Golovin: New Light on the Igor Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mann argues that a rare text of the Skazanie o Mamaevom poboishche comes from an early, fifteenth-century redaction that scholars could never locate—a redaction that is the prototype for all the redactions that have been studied heretofore. He maintains that unique parallels between this redaction and the Slovo o polka Igoreve support the hypothesis that the Igor Tale was an oral epic song in a tradition that actually continued into the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, when oral tales about the Kulikovo Battle (1380 were composed. He places the new parallels in the context of other evidence for oral composition in the Igor Tale.

  12. Lay denial of knowledge for justified true beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jennifer; Juan, Valerie San; Mar, Raymond A

    2013-12-01

    Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as "Gettier cases." Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers' intuitions about these cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched True Belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A method to study precision grip control in viscoelastic force fields using a robotic gripper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambercy, Olivier; Metzger, Jean-Claude; Santello, Marco; Gassert, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Instrumented objects and multipurpose haptic displays have commonly been used to investigate sensorimotor control of grasping and manipulation. A major limitation of these devices, however, is the extent to which the experimenter can vary the interaction dynamics to fully probe sensorimotor control mechanisms. We propose a novel method to study precision grip control using a grounded robotic gripper with two moving, mechanically coupled finger pads instrumented with force sensors. The device is capable of stably rendering virtual mechanical properties with a wide dynamic range of achievable impedances. Eight viscoelastic force fields with different combinations of stiffness and damping parameters were implemented, and tested on eight healthy subjects performing 30 consecutive repetitions of a grasp, hold, and release task with time and position constraints. Rates of thumb and finger force were found to be highly correlated (r>0.9) during grasping, revealing that, despite the mechanical coupling of the two finger pads, subjects performed grasping movements in a physiological fashion. Subjects quickly adapted to the virtual dynamics (within seven trials), but, depending on the presented force field condition, used different control strategies to correctly perform the task. The proof of principle presented in this paper underscores the potential of such a one-degree-of-freedom robotic gripper to study neural control of grasping, and to provide novel insights on sensorimotor control mechanisms.

  14. A low cost grip transducer based instrument to quantify fingertip touch force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhenous, Samir; Attari, Mokhtar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a transducer based instrument for fingertip touch force is developed. As a diagnostic tool, the system was coupled with an EMG analog signal processor, which is considered as the main basis of evaluation for motor function impairment. A software program is developed to analyze EMG signal during fingertips effort to obtain valid characteristic parameters with spectral analysis. These parameters are associated with a low cost grip transducer based on Hall Effect component developed for the improvement of fingertip movement during holding objects or training exercises. Thus, the changes on each sensor signal can be detected and monitored with the software interface. The output signal and the EMG analog processor are feeding a high resolution data acquisition system of National Instrument. Preliminary experimental tests have been carried out for the fingertip force grasping according to the Adductor Pollicis muscle (AdP) for controlling the adductive motion of the thumb. The experimental results show that the changes of dynamic fingertip force affect the muscle.

  15. Reconstructed animation from four-phase grip MRI of the wrist with ulnar-sided pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, T; Wada, T; Iba, K; Aoki, M; Tamakawa, M; Yamashita, T

    2013-09-01

    In order to visualize dynamic variations related to ulnar-sided wrist pain, animation was reconstructed from T2* coronal-sectioned magnetic resonance imaging in each of the four phases of grip motion for nine wrists in patients with ulnar pain. Eight of the nine wrists showed a positive ulnar variance of less than 2 mm. Ulnocarpal impaction and triangular fibrocartilage complex injury were assessed on the basis of animation and arthroscopy, respectively. Animation revealed ulnocarpal impaction in four wrists. In one of the four wrists, the torn portion of the articular disc was impinged between the ulnar head and ulnar proximal side of the lunate. In another wrist, the ulnar head impacted the lunate directly through the defect in the articular disc that had previously been excised. An ulnar shortening osteotomy successfully relieved ulnar wrist pain in all four cases with both ulnocarpal impaction and Palmer's Class II triangular fibrocartilage complex tears. This method demonstrated impairment of the articular disc and longitudinal instability of the distal radioulnar joint simultaneously and should be of value in investigating dynamic pathophysiology causing ulnar wrist pain.

  16. Analysis of fatigue and tremor during sustained maximal grip contractions using Hilbert-Huang Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Duchêne, Jacques; Hewson, David J

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate muscle fatigue and tremor during a Sustained Maximal Grip Contraction (SMGC) using the Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT). Thirty-nine healthy subjects volunteered for the study and performed a 25-s SMGC. Fatigue parameters such as the relative force output (RFO) were calculated from the residual of SMGC after applying Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). Using the energy spectrum of the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) obtained using HHT, isometric force tremor was identified from the 4 to 12 Hz region in IMF3 and IMF4. Data were analysed for five consecutive 5-s epochs to identify changes in fatigue and tremor over time. The HHT method was able to identify a greater resistance to fatigue in women compared to men (p≤0.05) and in non-dominant hands compared to dominant hands (p≤0.05). Consistent with the results for fatigue, women had less tremor than men (p≤0.05), while non-dominant hands trembled less than did dominant hands (p≤0.05). Higher levels of tremor were observed for non-fatigue-resistant subjects for both 10-15 s and 15-20 s epochs (p≤0.05). The HHT is an appropriate method to identify both fatigue and tremor during SMGC. It would be of interest to apply this method to the study the elderly or patients with neuromuscular disorders.

  17. Public perceptions of a rip current hazard education program: "Break the Grip of the Rip!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Chris; Trimble, Sarah; Brander, Robert; Brewster, B. Chris; Dusek, Greg; Jones, Deborah; Kuhn, John

    2017-07-01

    Rip currents pose a major global beach hazard; estimates of annual rip-current-related deaths in the United States alone range from 35 to 100 per year. Despite increased social research into beach-goer experience, little is known about levels of rip current knowledge within the general population. This study describes the results of an online survey to determine the extent of rip current knowledge across the United States, with the aim of improving and enhancing existing beach safety education material. Results suggest that the US-based Break the Grip of the Rip!® campaign has been successful in educating the public about rip current safety directly or indirectly, with the majority of respondents able to provide an accurate description of how to escape a rip current. However, the success of the campaign is limited by discrepancies between personal observations at the beach and rip forecasts that are broadcasted for a large area and time. It was the infrequent beach user that identified the largest discrepancies between the forecast and their observations. Since infrequent beach users also do not seek out lifeguards or take the same precautions as frequent beach users, it is argued that they are also at greatest risk of being caught in a dangerous situation. Results of this study suggest a need for the national campaign to provide greater focus on locally specific and verified rip forecasts and signage in coordination with lifeguards, but not at the expense of the successful national awareness program.

  18. Detecting submaximal efforts in grip strength testing with the coefficient of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M E; Geisser, M E; Hanson, C S; O'Connor, P D

    1993-03-01

    The use of the coefficient of variation (CV) to determine level of effort in grip strength testing was examined empirically. Twenty-nine asymptomatic subjects participated in two conditions of testing: 100% effort and 50% effort. Order of conditions was counterbalanced and each subject was run in both conditions twice in the same order in order to assess the stability of the method. The number of trials (grasps) per condition was three for a total of 12 grasps for the study. The submaximal (50%) effort condition showed significantly more variability than the maximal effort condition in both sets of conditions (p<.01). Intra-class correlation coefficients were very low for both maximal effort and submaximal efforts (.036 and .025) indicating very low stability for the coefficient of variation. Classification rates were also found to have unacceptably large errors with 69% of the submaximal efforts being classified as maximal with the traditional 15% CV cutoff and 55% misclassification of submaximal efforts with an optimized 11% CV cutoff. It was concluded that the currently practiced method of using a low number of repetitions to calculate the CV may result in very unstable measures. Furthermore the "false negative" rate in using this method is unacceptably high for practical application. The implications of using the method and suggestions for improvement are discussed.

  19. A Postmodernist Reading of Sam Shepard’s True West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Hossein Joodaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to render some vivid postmodernist features in Shepard’s True West (1980, which is inspired by myths of American life and popular culture. Shepard’s True West suggests so many interesting postmodern elements. With a departure from conventional norms of character, dialogue and narrative; the elements of pastiche, subjective irony, and savage humor have become hallmarks of most of his works. These features and some of the basic traces of postmodern literature, including Lyotard’s theory of the end of meta-narratives and language game, Derrida’s deconstruction and Baudrillard’s simulation, as well as language fragmentation, uncertainty and duality,  altogether, have given Shepard’s True West a postmodern atmosphere. Keywords: Postmodernist Literature; Grand Narratives; Duality; Self Reflexivity; Language Game; Binary oppositions; Simulacrum

  20. True muonium: the atom that has it all

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental physics could be described as having a muon problem. Discrepancies between theory and experiment in a number of muonic measurements ($r_P$, $a_\\mu$, $H\\rightarrow\\mu\\tau$, $\\mathcal{R}_K$, $\\mathcal{R}_{D^*}$) have been observed in the last decade that demand explanation. True muonium, the bound state of a muon and its antiparticle, has the potential to put strong constraints on any beyond standard model physics that affects the muon sector. To study these effects, theoretical predictions and experiment need a, not unreasonable, precision of 100 MHz. Surprisingly, at this level, QCD and electroweak corrections become relevant in true muonium as well. Presented here is a discussion of the novel properties of true muonium from the standard model, potential discovery methods at near future facilities like DIRAC and HPS, and its ability to discriminate between a variety of solutions to the muon problem.