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Sample records for grindings cocoa bean

  1. Irradiated cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F/sub 0/ animals and growth and development of the F/sub 1/ offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment.

  2. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  3. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  4. Performance of Cooled Cone Grinding Machine in Cocoa Cake Processing

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    Hendy Firmanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of cocoa paste pressing has a function to separate the fatty component of cocoa from its cake. Cocoa paste is further processed into cocoa powder using grinding machine for cocoa cake. The cooled cone type of cocoa grinding machine is used to solve the problem of plug in the maschine caused by melting of fat in cocoa cake due to hot effect as a result of friction in the grinding machine. Grinding machine of cocoa has conical form of cylinder for grinding and stator wall wrapped by source of cold and closed with jacket wool. Research was conducted at Kaliwining Experimental Garden of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI using cocoa cake containing 26.75% originated from Forastero type of cocoa seed. The capacity and recovery of the machine was influenced by space between rotor cylinder and stator wall. Grinding machine operated at cooling temperature of 25.5oC and space between rotor – stator 0.9 cm and the capacity of 187.5 kg/hour with recovery of 200 mesh cocoa powder as much as 24%. The maximum  power of machine required  was 2.5 kW with efficiency of  energy transfer of 97%. Results of proximate analysis showed that there was no change of protein content, but protein and carbohydrate content increased after processing, i.e. from 5.70% and 59.82% into 5.80% and 61.89% respectively.Key words : cocoa cake, cooling, grinding, cocoa powder 

  5. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics.

  6. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

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    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  7. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to

  8. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to s

  9. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  10. Food Evolution: The Impact of Society and Science on the Fermentation of Cocoa Beans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ozturk, Gulustan; Young, Glenn M

    2017-01-01

    ... there. The modern methods of cocoa bean production for the purpose of the manufacture of modern chocolate are tied to the origin and development of cocoa bean fermentation and processing methods...

  11. Influence of Milling Process of Roasted Cocoa Beans on Size Distribution Change of Cocoa Cotyledon

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    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One of important steps in secondarycocoa process is deshelling cocoa beans roasted. The aim of deshelling is to enrich cotyledon cocoa surface area which affects to reduce energy and processing time with good quality of the chocolate product. The objective of this research is to study the influence of milling process on physical characteristic change of cocoa beans roasted such as size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension of cotyledoncocoa roasted. The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested deshelling of roasted cocoa beans which will be used in this research. Before deshelling process, C grade bulk cocoa beans has been roasted up to 2.5—3% water contents. The result showed that optimal milling process by rotary cutter type milling unit has good size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension on 500 rpm rotary speed and 2.8 m/s air flow. On optimal process condition, 74.5% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0—4.75 mm, 2.116 mm average of geometrical diameter, 0.864 mm average dimension, 3.052 fineness modulus, and 80% as crude size particel-20% as temperate size particel on uniformity index. Therefore, more than 80% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0—4.75 mm with 700—900 rpm rotary cutter speed. Average of geometric diameter was 1.65—2.19 mm, and the dimension average was 0.69—0.89 mm. Uniformity index was crude size particle up to 80—90%, and in temperate size particle10—20%. Fineness modulus value was 2.73—3.09. Key words: cocoa, milling, size distribution, roasted beans.

  12. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa beans: effect of shelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amézqueta, S; González-Peñas, E; Murillo, M; de Cerain, A López

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the shelling process on the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa samples. Twenty-two cocoa samples were analysed for the determination of OTA before (cocoa bean) and after undergoing manual shelling process (cocoa nib). In order to determine OTA contamination in cocoa samples, a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection was used for the quantitative analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA). In both types of samples, OTA was extracted with methanol-3% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and then purified using immunoaffinity columns prior to HPLC analysis. Due to the fact that different recovery values were obtained for OTA from both types of samples, a revalidation of the method in the case of cocoa nibs was needed. Revalidation was based on the following criteria: Selectivity, limits of detection and quantification (0.03 and 0.1 microg kg(-1), respectively), precision (within-day and between-day variability) and recovery 84.2% (RSD = 7.1%), and uncertainty (30%). Fourteen of the twenty-two cocoa bean samples (64%) suffered a loss of OTA of more than 95% due to shelling, six samples suffered a loss of OTA in the range 65-95%, and only one sample presented a reduction of less than 50%. The principal conclusion derived from this study is that OTA contamination in cocoa beans is concentrated in the shell; therefore, improvements of the industrial shelling process could prevent OTA occurrence in cocoa final products.

  13. Performance of Rotary Cutter Type Breaking Machine for Breakingand Deshelling Cocoa Roasted Beans

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type...

  14. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    JAMILI; NUR ARFA YANTI; PRIMA ENDANG SUSILOWATI

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Jamili, Yanti NA, Susilowati PE. 2016. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17: 90-95. Yeast is one of the microbial group which is role in the process of cocoa spontaneously fermentation. The objective of this study was to determinate and to know the diversity of yeast that role on cocoa bean fermentation. Yeast was isolated by pour plate method from cocoa bean that was naturally fermented by a coco...

  15. COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF COCOA BUTTER MADE FROM THE PROCESSING OF THE IVORIAN COCOA BEANS

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    DAVID KOFFI AKAKI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Color of cocoa butters was measured using a CM-2002 Minolta Spectrocolorimeter. The results showed that the ‘’L’’ values (lightness varied from 73.11 to 84.76, the ‘’a’’ values (greenness varied from – 2.15 to – 1.08 and a redness of 4.99, and the ‘’b’’ values (yellowness varied from 28.63 to 41.11. Acidities of all typescocoa butters varied from 0.47 to 10.26. The best cocoa butters were obtained from staly and fully purple beans and cocoa beans of grades 4, 5, and 6. These butters had acidities of 0.48 and 0.56 for fully purple and staly beans and 2.41, 1.30, and 0.47 for grades 4, 5, and 6, respectively.

  16. 1H NMR study of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Acquotti, Domenico; Cirlini, Martina; Palla, Gerardo

    2010-12-08

    This study reports for the first time the metabolic profile of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans using the (1)H NMR technique applied to polar extracts of fermented cocoa beans. The simultaneous detection and quantification of amino acids, polyalcohols, organic acids, sugars, methylxanthines, catechins, and phenols were obtained by assigning the major signals of the spectra for different varieties of cocoa beans (Forastero, Criollo, and Trinitario) from different countries (Ecuador, Ghana, Grenada, and Trinidad). The data set obtained, representative of all classes of soluble compounds of cocoa, was useful to characterize the fermented cocoa beans as a function of the variety and geographic origin.

  17. Distinction of Ecuadorian varieties of fermented cocoa beans using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Jentzsch, Paul; Ciobotă, Valerian; Salinas, Wilson; Kampe, Bernd; Aponte, Pedro M; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Ramos, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a crop of economic importance. In Ecuador, there are two predominant cocoa varieties: National and CCN-51. The National variety is the most demanded, since its cocoa beans are used to produce the finest chocolates. Raman measurements of fermented, dried and unpeeled cocoa beans were performed using a handheld spectrometer. Samples of the National and CCN-51 varieties were collected from different provinces and studied in this work. For each sample, 25 cocoa beans were considered and each bean was measured at 4 different spots. The most important Raman features of the spectra were assigned and discussed. The spectroscopic data were processed using chemometrics, resulting in a distinction of varieties with 91.8% of total accuracy. Differences in the average Raman spectra of cocoa beans from different sites but within the same variety can be attributed to environmental factors affecting the cocoa beans during the fermentation and drying processes.

  18. Yeast diversity of Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Heide-Marie; Vrancken, Gino; Takrama, Jemmy F; Camu, Nicholas; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

    2009-08-01

    The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa. An assessment of the microbial community of cocoa bean heap fermentations in Ghana resulted in 91 yeast isolates. These were grouped by PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. Representative isolates were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences and partial actin gene sequences leading to the detection of 15 species. Properties of importance for cocoa bean fermentation, namely sucrose, glucose, and citrate assimilation capacity, pH-, ethanol-, and heat-tolerance, were examined for selected isolates. Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae formed the major components of the yeast community. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was identified conclusively for the first time from cocoa fermentations. Among the less frequently encountered species, Candida carpophila, Candida orthopsilosis, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma (Pichia) caribbica, Pichia manshurica, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Yamadazyma (Pichia) mexicana were not yet documented from this substrate. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was preferably growing during the earlier phase of fermentation, reflecting its tolerance to low pH and its citrate-negative phenotype, while no specific temporal distribution was recognized for P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae.

  19. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMILI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Jamili, Yanti NA, Susilowati PE. 2016. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17: 90-95. Yeast is one of the microbial group which is role in the process of cocoa spontaneously fermentation. The objective of this study was to determinate and to know the diversity of yeast that role on cocoa bean fermentation. Yeast was isolated by pour plate method from cocoa bean that was naturally fermented by a cocoa farmer in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi using yeast mannitol agar (YMA media. Yeast was characterized and identified using phenotypic characters based on numeric-phenetic analysis. Yeast isolates applied to cocoa bean to determine its role in cocoa bean fermentation. The result was obtained seven isolates the dominant yeast during cocoa bean fermentation in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi. The result of numerical-phenetic analysis based on phenotypic characters to seven yeast isolates showed that 1 isolates (Klk1 identical with Candida krusei. Three isolates (Klk4, Klk5 and Klk7 identical with Candida tropicalis, one isolate (Klk2 identical with Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, one isolate (Klk3 identical with Kloeckera sp. and one isolate (Klk6 identical with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The result also showed that fermentation of cocoa with seeding of yeast inoculums served to increase the quality of cocoa beans than spontaneous fermentation. Therefore, the seven yeast isolates potentially be used as an inoculum to improve the cocoa quality.

  20. The Effect of Cocoa Beans Heavy and Trace Elements on Safety and Stability of Confectionery Products

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    Vītola Vineta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate cocoa beans quality produced in Cameroon, Ecuador, Nigeria and Ghana from safety position determining heavy and trace metals concentration and evaluating the oxidative stability of confectionery products prototypes (trials with analysing cocoa beans. For evaluation of oxidative stability of confectionery products, the main ingredients - butter and cocoa beans kernels were tested making trials as milk chocolate prototype.

  1. STORED COCOA BEANS QUALITY AFFECTED BY FERMENTATION AND EPHESTIA CAUTELLA WALKER (LEPIDOPTERA: PHYCITIDAE INFESTATION

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    OK.KY S. DHARMAPUTRA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermentation on Ephestia cautella population and cocoa bean s quality in terms of moisture content, fungal population, the percentage of insect-damaged and mouldy beans, lipid and free fatty acid contents during storage were investigated together with the effects of £. cautella infestation on the quality of stored cocoa beans and weight loss. Fermented and unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% were placed in ventilated plastic jars (Ikg/jar and stored for 6 months under room conditions. Seven larvae of £. cautella instar IV (2 males and 5 females were introduced in each jar at the beginning of storage. Untreated jars contained only cocoa beans. Population of £. cautella on fermented cocoa beans with either initial moisture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The population either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 7% was lower than that of 9%, and the population of all treatments increased during storage. Moisture content of all treatments either on cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% had the same pattern. The percentage of insect-damaged beans on fermented cocoa beans was lower than that on unfermented cocoa beans after 5 to 6 months of storage. The damaged beans on fermented cocoa after 6 months of storage was not different than on unfermented beans after 4 months of storage. The weig ht loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 9% was higher than that with initial moisture content of 7%. The weight loss on fermented cocoa beans either with mois ture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The weight loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans increased during storage. The percentage of mouldy beans on cocoa infested with £. cautella tended to increase during storage, while on beans not infested with the insect it

  2. Physicochemical Changes of Cocoa Beans during Roasting Process

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    Pedro García-Alamilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During cocoa beans roasting, there are physicochemical changes that develop the chocolate quality attributes. Roasting systems have a particular influence on the development of these characteristics, and the effects of operation variables for each system must be evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of roasting time and temperature in a rotatory system on cocoa beans physicochemical parameters of quality as moisture, water activity, pH, total acidity, color (L⁎,a⁎,b⁎, total phenolic content (TPC, and DPPH radical capacity. Cocoa beans were roasted as a function with a central rotatable design with 22 + 5 central points and 4 axial points (-1.414, -1, 0, +1, and +1,414 and a response surface methodology was applied. Temperature and time levels were 110–170°C and 5–65 minutes, respectively. The effect of the variables was nonlinear and modeled with a second-order response polynomial. Roasting time and temperature presented a significative effect (p<0.05 on the response variables except for both TPC and DPPH radical capacity in aqueous extract.

  3. Microbiota Dynamics and Diversity at Different Stages of Industrial Processing of Cocoa Beans into Cocoa Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lídia J. R.; van der Velpen, Vera; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith; Kamphuis, Henri J.; Nout, M. J. Rob

    2012-01-01

    We sampled a cocoa powder production line to investigate the impact of processing on the microbial community size and diversity at different stages. Classical microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, coupled with clone library construction, to analyze the samples. Aerobic thermoresistant spores (ThrS) (100°C; 10 min) were also isolated and characterized (identity, genetic diversity, and spore heat resistance), in view of their relevance to the quality of downstream heat-treated cocoa-flavored drinks. In the nibs (broken, shelled cocoa beans), average levels of total aerobic microorganisms (TAM) (4.4 to 5.6 log CFU/g) and aerobic total spores (TS) (80°C; 10 min; 4.3 to 5.5 log CFU/g) were significantly reduced (P chocolate drinks. PMID:22327588

  4. Ghanaian cocoa bean fermentation characterized by spectroscopic and chromatographic methods and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aculey, Patrick C; Snitkjaer, Pia; Owusu, Margaret; Bassompiere, Marc; Takrama, Jemmy; Nørgaard, Lars; Petersen, Mikael A; Nielsen, Dennis S

    2010-08-01

    Export of cocoa beans is of great economic importance in Ghana and several other tropical countries. Raw cocoa has an astringent, unpleasant taste, and flavor, and has to be fermented, dried, and roasted to obtain the characteristic cocoa flavor and taste. In an attempt to obtain a deeper understanding of the changes in the cocoa beans during fermentation and investigate the possibility of future development of objective methods for assessing the degree of fermentation, a novel combination of methods including cut test, colorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, NIR spectroscopy, and GC-MS evaluated by chemometric methods was used to examine cocoa beans sampled at different durations of fermentation and samples representing fully fermented and dried beans from all cocoa growing regions of Ghana. Using colorimetry it was found that samples moved towards higher a* and b* values as fermentation progressed. Furthermore, the degree of fermentation could, in general, be well described by the spectroscopic methods used. In addition, it was possible to link analysis of volatile compounds with predictions of fermentation time. Fermented and dried cocoa beans from the Volta and the Western regions clustered separately in the score plots based on colorimetric, fluorescence, NIR, and GC-MS indicating regional differences in the composition of Ghanaian cocoa beans. The study demonstrates the potential of colorimetry and spectroscopic methods as valuable tools for determining the fermentation degree of cocoa beans. Using GC-MS it was possible to demonstrate the formation of several important aroma compounds such 2-phenylethyl acetate, propionic acid, and acetoin and the breakdown of others like diacetyl during fermentation. Practical Application: The present study demonstrates the potential of using colorimetry and spectroscopic methods as objective methods for determining cocoa bean quality along the processing chain. Development of objective methods for determining cocoa bean

  5. GC-MS detection of chiral markers in cocoa beans of different quality and geographic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Cirlini, Martina; Palla, Gerardo; Ravaglia, Roberta; Arlorio, Marco

    2007-05-05

    Fermented cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L., Sterculiaceae) from different countries of origin (Ecuador, Ghana, Trinidad) and cocoa beans roasted under defined conditions (industrial roasting; 150-220 degrees C for 20 min, dry roasting in conventional oven) were analyzed for their contents of certain chiral hydroxy acids, catechins, and amino acids. Cocoa beans are fermented, dried, and industrially transformed by roasting for the production of chocolate, cocoa powders, and other cocoa-related products. Fermentation and roasting conditions influence the contents of chiral compounds such as hydroxy acids, amino acids, and polyphenols, depending on technological procedures as well as some technical parameters. The aim of this work was to check if the content and nature of the named chiral compounds present both in fermented and roasted cocoa beans could be related to the traditional parameters used to classify the variety of seeds and the degree of fermentation. The extent of racemization of amino acids in fermented cocoa beans was low while it slowly increased during roasting, depending on the temperature applied. L-lactic acid was always higher than the D-form while citric acid was generally the most abundant hydroxy acid detected in beans. A correlation was found between polyphenol content and degree of fermentation, while epimerization of (-)-epicatechin to (+)-catechin was observed during roasting. On the whole, results showed that several chiral compounds could be considered as good quality markers for cocoa seeds and cocoa-related products of different quality and geographic origin.

  6. Simultaneous determination of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in standard reference material baking chocolate 2384, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    A reverse-phase liquid chromatography analysis is used to access the quantity of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter using water or a portion of the mobile phase as the extract. The procedure requires minimal sample preparation. Theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin are detected by UV absorption at 273 nm after separation using a 0.3% acetic acid-methanol gradient (volume fractions) and quantified using external standards. The limit of detection for theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin averages 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, and 0.06 microg/mL, respectively. The method when applied to Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate; baking chocolate reference material yields results that compare to two different, separate procedures. Theobromine ranges from 26000 mg/kg in cocoa to 140 mg/kg in cocoa butter; (+)-catechin from 1800 mg/kg in cocoa to below detection limits of < 32 mg/kg in cocoa butter; caffeine from 2400 mg/kg in cocoa to 400 mg/kg in cocoa butter, and (-)-epicatechin from 3200 mg/kg in cocoa to BDL, < 27 mg/kg, in cocoa butter. The mean recoveries from cocoa are 102.4 +/- 0.6% for theobromine, 100.0 +/- 0.6 for (+)-catechin, 96.2 +/- 2.1 for caffeine, and 106.2 +/- 1.7 for (-)-epicatechin.

  7. Optimation of Temperature and Duration of Cocoa Beans Roasting in a CylindricalRoaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnwai Jati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A small scale cylindrical type cocoa roaster has been designed to improve Indonesian mallholder income and commence utilization of cocoa-base products. Capacity of the roaster was at 15 kg dried cocoa beans. Operating condition of the instrument in terms of temperature and duration of roasting for cocoa powder production has been optimized by using Response Surface Methodology in the range of 110–140 C for the former and 20–60 minute for the latter. Variable of the study were temperature profile, peroxide value of cocoa butter, color and sensory properties of the resultant cocoa powder and microbial con tamination. Result of the study showed that cocoa bean’s temperature at the first 2–8 minute roasting was 30–50 C, before increased as high 10 C per minute to the adjusted temperature. Temperature and duration of roasting influenced interactively on peroxide value of cocoa butter, color and sensory properties of the resultant cocoa powder. An optimum roasting for cocoa powder preparation was obtained at temperature of 140 C and roasting time of 20 minute. Roasting treatment significantly reduced number of microbe in total plate count, however most probable number (MPN of coliform in term of Escherichia coli was not detected. Key words : Cocoa bean, cocoa powder, cocoa butter, roasting, small scale cylindrical roaster, sensory properties, Escherichia coli.

  8. Phenotypic Variability and Diversity Analysis of Bean Traits of Some Cocoa Hybrids in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Oyedokun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to understand the economic potential and superiority among cocoa hybrids. Therefore, the present study aims at detecting variability among cocoa hybrids for bean index in Nigeria. Dried bean of fourteen genotypes of cocoa were evaluated for their bean values. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to understand the variability among the fourteen genotypes and Principal Component Analysis (PCA was employed to identify distinguishing traits and the grouping of the genotypes based on similarities. The fourteen cocoa genotypes were significantly (p≤0.05 different from each other with respect to weight of one bean, bean length, width, thickness, 100 bean weight, bean length to width, length to thickness and width to thickness ratio. All the studied morphometric characters exhibited high (>70% broad sense heritability. G8, the hybrid between T53/5 and N38 was the most superior genotype for bean weight and some other bean characteristics. The mass of seventy-four dried cocoa bean of G8 approximated 100 g. The first three Principal Component axes explained 91% of the total variation and the PCA grouped the fourteen genotypes into four distinct clusters. Genotypes could be selected for specific traits and improvement of traits seemed to be genetically reliable.

  9. Application of 1H NMR for the characterisation of cocoa beans of different geographical origins and fermentation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Palla, Luigi; Acquotti, Domenico; Marseglia, Angela; Palla, Gerardo

    2014-08-15

    This study reports for the first time the use of (1)H NMR technique combined with chemometrics to study the metabolic profile of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans of different varieties, origin and fermentation levels. Results of PCA applied to cocoa bean (1)H NMR dataset showed that the main factor influencing the cocoa bean metabolic profile is the fermentation level. In fact well fermented brown beans form a group clearly separated from unfermented, slaty, and underfermented, violet, beans, independently of the variety or geographical origin. Considering only well fermented beans, the metabolic profile obtained by (1)H NMR permitted to discriminate between some classes of samples. The National cocoa of Ecuador, known as Arriba, showed the most peculiar characteristics, while the samples coming from the African region showed some similar traits. The dataset obtained, representative of all the classes of soluble compounds of cocoa, was therefore useful to characterise fermented cocoa beans as a function of their origin and fermentation level.

  10. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for butter content and hardness in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa butter is an important raw material for the chocolate, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The butter content and quality in cocoa beans are genetically controlled characteristics, and affect its commercial values and industrial applicability. In the present work, an F2 population derived...

  11. Investigations on the Aroma of Cocoa Pulp (Theobroma cacao L.) and Its Influence on the Odor of Fermented Cocoa Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetschik, Irene; Kneubühl, Markus; Chatelain, Karin; Schlüter, Ansgar; Bernath, Konrad; Hühn, Tilo

    2017-03-29

    The odor-active constituents of cocoa pulp have been analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) for the first time. Pulps of three different cocoa varieties have been investigated. The variety CCN51 showed low flavor intensities, in terms of flavor dilution (FD) factors, in comparison to varieties FSV41 and UF564, for which floral and fruity notes were detected in higher intensities. To gain first insights on a molecular level of how the cocoa pulp odorants affected the odor quality of cocoa beans during fermentation, quantitative measurements of selected aroma compounds were conducted in pulp and bean at different time points of the fermentation. The results showed significantly higher concentrations of 2-phenylethanol and 3-methylbutyl acetate in pulp than in the bean during the different time steps of the fermentation, whereas the reverse could be observed for the odorants linalool and 2-methoxyphenol. The findings of this study constitute a basis for further investigations on the aroma formation of cocoa during fermentation.

  12. Impact of industrial treatments on ochratoxin A content in artificially contaminated cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Pierre; Dano, Djédjé Sébastien; Kouadio, James Halbin; Diakité, Aïssata; Sangaré-Tigori, Béatrice; Ezoulin, Miezan Jean Marc; Soumahoro, Awa; Dembele, Ardjouma; Fourny, Gérard

    2009-07-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin mainly produced by mould species of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which grow on a variety of agricultural products. OTA-contaminated foodstuffs pose a major health hazard to consumers, including human and animal. In Cote d'Ivoire, numerous studies are being carried out to find the best way of preventing OTA contamination of cocoa raw material. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the impact of industrial treatment on OTA content in cocoa-derived products. Samples of cocoa pods were prepared under specific conditions promoting fungal proliferation on cocoa beans before processing. The beans underwent the usual industrial treatments - roasting, shelling, crushing, pressing and additive addition - and samples were taken at each stage. OTA was extracted with a methanol/3% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and purified using an immunoaffinity column prior to HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection. OTA was detected in artificially contaminated cocoa beans at levels ranging from 3.4 to 44.7 microg kg(-1) with a mean value of 22.9 +/- 3.6 microg kg(-1). OTA was mainly concentrated in the shell (93%). Roasting, shelling and additive addition significantly decreased levels of OTA by 24-40, 76 and 52%, respectively, with an overall reduction of approximately 91%. These results indicate that industrial processing of cocoa has a real impact on the reduction of OTA in final cocoa products.

  13. Effect of post-harvest treatments on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in raw cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedjebo, Kra Brou Didier; Guehi, Tagro Simplice; Kouakou, Brou; Durand, Noël; Aguilar, Philippe; Fontana, Angélique; Montet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa beans are the principal raw material for chocolate manufacture. Moulds have an important place in the change in the quality of cocoa beans due to their role in the production of free fatty acids and mycotoxins, namely ochratoxin A (OTA). This study investigated the impact of the key post-harvest treatments, namely the fermentation and drying methods on OTA contamination of raw cocoa beans. Analytical methods for OTA detection were based on solid-liquid extraction, clean-up using an immunoaffinity column, and identification by reversed-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. Of a total of 104 randomly selected cocoa samples analysed, 32% had OTA contents above 2 µg kg(-1). Cocoa sourced from pods in a bad state of health had a maximum OTA content of 39.2 µg kg(-1), while that obtained from healthy pods recorded 11.2 µg kg(-1). The production of OTA in cocoa beans increased according to the pod-opening delay and reached 39.2 µg kg(-1) after an opening delay of 7 days after harvest, while 6.1 and 11.2 µg kg(-1) were observed when pods were opened after 0 and 4 days. OTA production also seemed to depend considerably to the cocoa fermentation materials. When using plastic boxes for bean fermentation, the OTA production was enhanced and reached an average OTA content of about 4.9 µg kg(-1), while the raw cocoa treated in banana leaves and wooden boxes recorded 1.6 and 2.2 µg kg(-1) on average respectively. In parallel, the OTA production was not really influenced by either the mixing or the duration of the fermentation or the drying materials.

  14. Performance of Rotary Cutter Type Breaking Machine for Breakingand Deshelling Cocoa Roasted Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Breaker unit has rotated by ½ HP power, single phase, 110/220 V and 1440 rpm. Transmission system that use for rotating breaker unit is pulley and single V belt. Centrifugal blower as separator unit between cotyledon and shell has specification 0.5 m 3 /min air flow, 780 Pa, 370 W, and 220 V. Field tests showed that the optimum capacity of the machine was 268 kg/h with 500 rpm speed of rotary cutter, 2,8 m/s separator air flow, and power require was 833 W. Percentage product in outlet 1 and 2 were 94.5% and 5.5%. Particle distribution from outlet 1 was 92% as cotyledon, 8% as shell in cotyledon and on outlet 2 was 97% as shell, 3% as cotyledon in shell. Key words:cocoa, breaking, rotary cutter, quality.

  15. The cleavage specificity of the aspartic protease of cocoa beans involved in the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janek, Katharina; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Voigt, Jürgen

    2016-11-15

    Particular peptides generated from the vicilin-class(7S) globulin of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis during cocoa fermentation are essential precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma notes. As revealed by in vitro studies, the formation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors depends on the particular cleavage specificity of the cocoa aspartic protease, which cannot be substituted by pepsin. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of aspartic protease inhibitors on both enzymes and comparatively studied their cleavage specificities using different protein substrates and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analyses of the generated oligopeptides. Three classes of cleavage sites have been identified and characterized: (I) sequences exclusively cleaved by the cocoa enzyme, (II) sequences cleaved by both pepsin and the cocoa enzyme, and (III) those cleaved exclusively by pepsin. In contrast to most aspartic proteases from other origins, basic amino acid residues, particularly lysine, were found to be abundant in the specific cleavage sites of the cocoa enzyme.

  16. Temperature influences epimerization and composition of flavanol monomers, dimers and trimers during cocoa bean roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, Lisa; Zimmermann, Benno F; Galensa, Rudolf

    2013-12-15

    Cocoa consumption is suggested to promote many health benefits, since cocoa is a rich source of flavanols; but amounts and profiles of flavanols depend strongly on the bean type, origin and manufacturing process. Roasting is known as a crucial step in technical treatment of cocoa, which leads to flavanol losses and modifications, especially the epimerization of (-)-epicatechin to (-)-catechin. This study monitors the influence of cocoa bean roasting on the composition of flavanol monomers to trimers, with special focus on epimerization, which was quantified for procyanidin dimers, and also observed for trimers for the first time. Five dimeric and two trimeric potential epimerization products were detected and the extent of epimerization during cocoa roasting was shown to be a function of temperature. The data also showed remarkable variations in the change of flavanol content. The quantified flavanols decreased about 50% in Java beans and increased about 30% in Ivory Coast beans, despite being roasted under equal conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid differentiation of Ghana cocoa beans by FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye, Ernest; Huang, Xingyi; Dai, Huang; Chen, Quansheng

    2013-10-01

    Quick, accurate and reliable technique for discrimination of cocoa beans according to geographical origin is essential for quality control and traceability management. This current study presents the application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy technique and multivariate classification for the differentiation of Ghana cocoa beans. A total of 194 cocoa bean samples from seven cocoa growing regions were used. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract relevant information from the spectral data and this gave visible cluster trends. The performance of four multivariate classification methods: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), Back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and Support vector machine (SVM) were compared. The performances of the models were optimized by cross validation. The results revealed that; SVM model was superior to all the mathematical methods with a discrimination rate of 100% in both the training and prediction set after preprocessing with Mean centering (MC). BPANN had a discrimination rate of 99.23% for the training set and 96.88% for prediction set. While LDA model had 96.15% and 90.63% for the training and prediction sets respectively. KNN model had 75.01% for the training set and 72.31% for prediction set. The non-linear classification methods used were superior to the linear ones. Generally, the results revealed that NIR Spectroscopy coupled with SVM model could be used successfully to discriminate cocoa beans according to their geographical origins for effective quality assurance.

  18. High performance liquid chromatography determination of theobromine and caffeine in cocoa beans gamma irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Anderson D.B. [Faculdade de Engenharia de Varginha, MG (Brazil); Mansur Neto, Elias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Irradiation is a processing technology that has been shown to be a wholesome process by many scientific studies conducted worldwide during the past 40 years, which has been approved by 37 countries. Irradiated foods have been studied so extensively, that the effects on foods are better understood than any other preservation process, including food freezing and dehydration. Cocoa beans has been commercially irradiated in countries such as Ivory Coast and Argentina. The alkaloids theobromine and caffeine are responsible for the mildly stimulating properties and bitter taste of cocoa and chocolate products. Previously fermented dried and nonfumigated cocoa beans were irradiated at doses of 0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy using Co-60 gamma rays. The samples were analysed for determining theobromine and caffeine contents in the cocoa beans by TIMBIE et al. (1978) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Boiling water extracts were cooled, centrifuged and injected into the chromatograph. Theobromine and caffeine were quantitated at 273 nm and showed the tendency of decreasing as the dose of radiation increases. Theobromine and caffeine ranged from 42.3 to 37.1 mg/g and from 7.60 to 6.13 mg/g. respectively from 0 to 20.0 kGy. These results were discussed in relation to the possible acceptance of radiosterization of cocoa beans commercially up to the dose of 20.0 kGy. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Gas chromatographic determination and mechanism of formation of D-amino acids occurring in fermented and roasted cocoa beans, cocoa powder, chocolate and cocoa shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pätzold, R; Brückner, H

    2006-07-01

    Fermented cocoa beans of various countries of origin (Ivory Coast, Ghana, Sulawesi), cocoa beans roasted under defined conditions (100-150 degrees C; 30-120 min), low and high fat cocoa powder, various brands of chocolate, and cocoa shells were analyzed for their contents of free L-and D-amino acids. Amino acids were isolated from defatted products using a cation exchanger and converted into volatile N(O)-pentafluoropropionyl amino acid 2-propyl esters which were analyzed by enantioselective gas chromatography mass spectrometry on a Chirasil-L-Val capillary column. Besides common protein L-amino acids low amounts of D-amino acids were detected in fermented cocoa beans. Quantities of D-amino acids increased on heating. On roasting cocoa beans of the Forastero type from the Ivory Coast at 150 degrees C for 2 h, relative quantities of D-amino acids approached 17.0% D-Ala, 11.7% D-Ile, 11.1% D-Asx (Asp + Asn), 7.9% D-Tyr, 5.8% D-Ser, 4.8% D-Leu, 4.3% D-Phe, 37.0% D-Pro, and 1.2% D-Val. In cocoa powder and chocolate relative quantities amounted to 14.5% D-Ala, 10.6% D-Tyr, 9.8% D-Phe, 8.1% L-Asx, and 7.2% D-Ile. Lower quantities of other D-amino acids were also detected. In order to corroborate our hypothesis that D-amino acids are generated from Amadori compounds (fructose amino acids) formed in the course of the Maillard reaction, fructose-L-phenylalanine and fructose-D-phenylalanine were synthesized and heated at 200 degrees C for 5-60 min. Already after 5 min release of 11.7% D-Phe and 11.8% L-Phe in the free form could be analyzed. Based on the data a racemization mechanism is presented founded on the intermediate and reversible formation of an amino acid carbanion in the Amadori compounds.

  20. THE OCCURRENCE OF INSECTS AND MOULDS IN STORED COCOA BEANS AT SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY S. DHARMAPUTRA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on postharvest handling and technology processing of cocoa beans at farmer, trader and exporter levels in South Sulawesi were conducted together with investigations on moisture content, pest infestation (insect and mould and quality characteris tics in terms of reducing sugar, free amino acid and free fatty acid content. Surveys were conducted during dry (July 1997 and wet seasons (February 1998 in three regencies (Pinrang, Polewali-Mamasa and Luwu and Ujung Pandang, South Sulawesi province. Interviews were carried out during surveys in the dry season. Number of respondents from farmers, trailers and exporters was 38, 15 and 5, respectively. In each season, number of samples taken from farmers, traders and exporters was 9, 21 and 15, respectively. In general, farmers, traders and exporters did not carry out postharvest handling and technology processing properly. Moisture content of cocoa beans collected from farmers, traders and exporters were higher than the tolerabl e limit recommended by SNI (7.5%. Moisture content of cocoa beans collected during the wet season was higher than in the dry season. Insects were found on cocoa beans collected from traders and exporters. Species composition and the presence of each insect species were varied among the two seasons, but the predominant species was Tribolium castaneum. At trader level the percentage of insect-damaged beans during the wet season was higher than that during the dry season, while at exporter le vel it was lower. During the two seasons the percentage of mouldy beans at farmer level was lower than the tolerable limit recommended by SNI (4%, while those from some samples at trader and exporter levels were higher than 4%, but based on the direct plating method, all of the samples at trader and exporter levels were mouldy. Species composition and the percentage of beans infected by each mould species at farmer, trader and exporter levels during the two seasons were va ried. The

  1. A label free aptasensor for Ochratoxin A detection in cocoa beans: An application to chocolate industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rupesh K; Hayat, Akhtar; Catanante, Gaëlle; Ocaña, Cristina; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2015-08-19

    Contamination of food by mycotoxin occurs in minute/trace quantities. Nearly 92.5% of the cocoa samples present Ochratoxin A (OTA) levels at trace quantity. Hence, there is a necessity for a highly sensitive and selective device that can detect and quantify these organic toxins in various matrices such as cocoa beans. This work reports for the first time, a facile and label-free electrochemical impedimetric aptasensor for rapid detection and quantitation of OTA in cocoa beans. The developed aptasensor was constructed based on the diazonium-coupling reaction mechanism for the immobilization of anti-OTA-aptamer on screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). The aptasensor exhibited a very good limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.15 ng/mL, with added advantages of good selectivity and reproducibility. The increase in electron transfer resistance was linearly proportional to the OTA concentration in the range 0.15-2.5 ng/mL, with an acceptable recovery percentage (91-95%, RSD = 4.8%) obtained in cocoa samples. This work can facilitate a general model for the detection of OTA in cocoa beans based on the impedimetric aptasensor. The analysis can be performed onsite with pre-constructed and aptamer modified electrodes employing a portable EIS set up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving the detection of cocoa bean fermentation-related changes using image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Criollo, Ronald; Liao, Wenzhi; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2017-05-01

    Complex chemical processes occur in during cocoa bean fermentation. To select well-fermented beans, experts take a sample of beans, cut them in half and visually check its color. Often farmers mix high and low quality beans therefore, chocolate properties are difficult to control. In this paper, we explore how close-range hyper- spectral (HS) data can be used to characterize the fermentation process of two types of cocoa beans (CCN51 and National). Our aim is to find spectral differences to allow bean classification. The main issue is to extract reliable spectral data as openings resulting from the loss of water during fermentation, can cover up to 40% of the bean surface. We exploit HS pan-sharpening techniques to increase the spatial resolution of HS images and filter out uneven surface regions. In particular, the guided filter PCA approach which has proved suitable to use high-resolution RGB data as guide image. Our preliminary results show that this pre-processing step improves the separability of classes corresponding to each fermentation stage compared to using the average spectrum of the bean surface.

  3. The content of polyphenolic compounds in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.), depending on variety, growing region, and processing operations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Joanna; Zyzelewicz, Dorota; Nebesny, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols form the largest group of compounds among natural antioxidants, which largely affect the overall antioxidant and anti-free radical activity of cocoa beans. The qualitative and quantitative composition of individual fractions of polyphenolic compounds, even within one species, is very diverse and depends on many factors, mainly on the area of cocoa trees cultivation, bean maturity, climatic conditions during growth, and the harvest season and storage time after harvest. Thermal processing of cocoa beans and cocoa derivative products at relatively high temperatures may in addition to favorable physicochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic changes result in a decrease of polyphenols concentration. Technological processing of cocoa beans negatively affects the content of polyphenolic compounds.

  4. Influence of Roasting on the Antioxidant Activity and HMF Formation of a Cocoa Bean Model Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, T.; Capuano, E.; Cämmerer, B.; Fogliano, V.

    2009-01-01

    During the roasting of cocoa beans chemical reactions lead to the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products and to the degradation of catechin-containing compounds, which are very abundant in these seeds. To study the modifications occurring during thermal treatment of fat and antioxidant rich fo

  5. Comparison of Cocoa Beans from China, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Gu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey on five kinds of cocoa beans from new cocoa planting countries was conducted to analyze each kind’s basic quality. The average bean weight and butter content of Hainan cocoa beans were the lowest, at less than 1.1 g, and 39.24% to 43.44%, respectively. Cocoa beans from Indonesia where shown to be about 8.0% and 9.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content, respectively, than that of Papua New Guinea and about 20.0% and 25.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content than Chinese dried beans, respectively. The average total polyphenolic content ranged from 81.22 mg/10 g to 301.01 mg/10 g. The Hainan 2011 sample had the highest total polyphenolic content, followed by the unfermented sample from Indonesia and the Papua New Guinea sample. The polyphenolic levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were 123.61 mg/10 g and lower than the other three samples, but the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total polyphenolic content of 81.22 mg/10 g. The average total amino acid content ranged from 11.58 g/100 g to 18.17 g/100 g. The total amino acid content was the highest in the Indonesian unfermented sample, followed by the Hainan 2011 sample and the Papua New Guinea sample. The levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were lower; the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total amino acid content.

  6. A label free aptasensor for Ochratoxin A detection in cocoa beans: An application to chocolate industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Rupesh K. [IMAGES, Université De Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, Perpignan Cedex 66860 (France); Hayat, Akhtar [IMAGES, Université De Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, Perpignan Cedex 66860 (France); Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Catanante, Gaëlle; Ocaña, Cristina [IMAGES, Université De Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, Perpignan Cedex 66860 (France); Marty, Jean-Louis, E-mail: jlmarty@univ-perp.fr [IMAGES, Université De Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, Perpignan Cedex 66860 (France)

    2015-08-19

    Contamination of food by mycotoxin occurs in minute/trace quantities. Nearly 92.5% of the cocoa samples present Ochratoxin A (OTA) levels at trace quantity. Hence, there is a necessity for a highly sensitive and selective device that can detect and quantify these organic toxins in various matrices such as cocoa beans. This work reports for the first time, a facile and label-free electrochemical impedimetric aptasensor for rapid detection and quantitation of OTA in cocoa beans. The developed aptasensor was constructed based on the diazonium-coupling reaction mechanism for the immobilization of anti-OTA-aptamer on screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). The aptasensor exhibited a very good limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.15 ng/mL, with added advantages of good selectivity and reproducibility. The increase in electron transfer resistance was linearly proportional to the OTA concentration in the range 0.15–2.5 ng/mL, with an acceptable recovery percentage (91–95%, RSD = 4.8%) obtained in cocoa samples. This work can facilitate a general model for the detection of OTA in cocoa beans based on the impedimetric aptasensor. The analysis can be performed onsite with pre-constructed and aptamer modified electrodes employing a portable EIS set up. - Highlights: • Simple and facile method to detect OTA. • The aptasensor exhibited a very good limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.15 ng/mL. • The first report on OTA detection in cocoa beans using impedimetric aptasensor.

  7. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity Effect of Cocoa Beans Subjected to Different Processing Conditions in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bauer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a common malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the western world. Phenolic cocoa ingredients have a strong antioxidative activity and the potential to have a protective effect against cancer. In the present study, we have evaluated the influence of cocoa beans subjected to different processing conditions on cell viability and apoptosis of human lung cancer cells (A549. We measured the viability of lung cells treated with cocoa beans, unroasted slates (US, roasted slates (RS, unroasted well fermented (UWF cocoa, and roasted well fermented (RWF cocoa for 24 h. Using an MTT assay, we observed a decrease in the viability of A549 cells after treatment with cocoa bean extracts. Flow cytometer analysis revealed that cocoa beans increased the percentage of cells in sub-G1 phase and promoted up to twofold increase of apoptotic cells when compared to the control group. Taken together, the present study suggests that cocoa beans may have a protective effect against lung cancer.

  8. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity Effect of Cocoa Beans Subjected to Different Processing Conditions in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Deborah; de Abreu, Joel Pimentel; Oliveira, Hilana Salete Silva; Goes-Neto, Aristoteles; Koblitz, Maria Gabriela Bello

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a common malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the western world. Phenolic cocoa ingredients have a strong antioxidative activity and the potential to have a protective effect against cancer. In the present study, we have evaluated the influence of cocoa beans subjected to different processing conditions on cell viability and apoptosis of human lung cancer cells (A549). We measured the viability of lung cells treated with cocoa beans, unroasted slates (US), roasted slates (RS), unroasted well fermented (UWF) cocoa, and roasted well fermented (RWF) cocoa for 24 h. Using an MTT assay, we observed a decrease in the viability of A549 cells after treatment with cocoa bean extracts. Flow cytometer analysis revealed that cocoa beans increased the percentage of cells in sub-G1 phase and promoted up to twofold increase of apoptotic cells when compared to the control group. Taken together, the present study suggests that cocoa beans may have a protective effect against lung cancer. PMID:27034742

  9. The effect of bean origin and temperature on grinding roasted coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uman, Erol; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Perger, Matthew; Klatt, Christian; Leighton, Stephen; Miller, Brian; Butler, Keith T.; Melot, Brent C.; Speirs, Rory W.; Hendon, Christopher H.

    2016-04-01

    Coffee is prepared by the extraction of a complex array of organic molecules from the roasted bean, which has been ground into fine particulates. The extraction depends on temperature, water chemistry and also the accessible surface area of the coffee. Here we investigate whether variations in the production processes of single origin coffee beans affects the particle size distribution upon grinding. We find that the particle size distribution is independent of the bean origin and processing method. Furthermore, we elucidate the influence of bean temperature on particle size distribution, concluding that grinding cold results in a narrower particle size distribution, and reduced mean particle size. We anticipate these results will influence the production of coffee industrially, as well as contribute to how we store and use coffee daily.

  10. Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Takrama, Jemmy; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

    2013-12-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4 × 2 full factorial design with factors as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content) and mineral content using standard analytical methods. The physical qualities of the beans were analyzed for their proportions of cocoa nibs, shells and germ. Fermentation and increasing pod storage resulted in significant (P cocoa beans. Proportion of cocoa nibs also increased from with increasing pod storage and fermentation whiles reductions in shell content and no appreciable changes in germ proportions were noted.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Weckx, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing...

  12. Development of a quantitative PCR assay for rapid detection of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum in cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendimann, Livia; Kauf, Peter; Fieseler, Lars; Gantenbein-Demarchi, Corinne; Miescher Schwenninger, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    To monitor dominant species of lactic acid bacteria during cocoa bean fermentation, i.e. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, a fast and reliable culture-independent qPCR assay was developed. A modified DNA isolation procedure using a commercial kit followed by two species-specific qPCR assays resulted in 100% sensitivity for L. plantarum and L. fermentum. Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc analyses of data obtained from experiments with cocoa beans that were artificially spiked with decimal concentrations of L. plantarum and L. fermentum strains allowed the calculation of a regression line suitable for the estimation of both species with a detection limit of 3 to 4 Log cells/g cocoa beans. This process was successfully tested for efficacy through the analyses of samples from laboratory-scale cocoa bean fermentations with both the qPCR assay and a culture-dependent method which resulted in comparable results.

  13. Effects of water blanching on polyphenol reaction kinetics and quality of cocoa beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, A. S.; Hii, C. L.; Law, C. L.; Suzannah, S.; Djaeni, M.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have been reported on the potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols. However, drying has an inhibitory effect on the substantial recovery of cocoa polyphenols. This is majorly because of the high degradation of polyphenol compounds as well as the enhanced activity of polyphenol oxidases; a pre-cursor for browning of polyphenols during drying. Pre-treatment technique such as water blanching (80° and 90°C for 5 min, 10 min and 15 min exposure times respectively) can inactivate the polyphenol oxidases enzyme and promote high percent of the polyphenol recovery in dried cocoa bean. The degradation kinetics of cocoa polyphenols during hot water blanching are analyzed; The rate constant for the polyphenol degradation after blanching was found to be ranging from 0.0208 to 0.0340 /min. The results for dried fresh cocoa beans showed an optimal level of polyphenol recovery (118 mg GAE/g) when blanched at 90°C for 5 minutes duration. The antioxidant activity is also analyzed using DPPH scavenging assay.

  14. Nutritional composition, bioactive compounds and volatile profile of cocoa beans from different regions of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Fiorini, Dennis; Maggi, Filippo; Nicoletti, Marcello; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Toniolo, Chiara; Prosper, Biapa; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of the complex composition of cocoa beans provides fundamental information for evaluating the quality and nutritional aspects of cocoa-based food products, nutraceuticals and supplements. Cameroon, the world's fourth largest producer of cocoa, has been defined as "Africa in miniature" because of the variety it habitats. In order to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of cocoa beans from five different regions of Cameroon, we studied their polyphenolic content, volatile compounds and fatty acids composition. The High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that the Mbalmayo sample had the highest content of theobromine (11.6 mg/g) and caffeic acid (2.1 mg/g), while the Sanchou sample had the highest level of (-)-epicatechin (142.9 mg/g). Concerning fatty acids, the lowest level of stearic acid was found in the Mbalmayo sample while the Bertoua sample showed the highest content of oleic acid. Thus, we confirmed that geographical origin influences the quality and nutritional characteristics of cocoa from these regions of Cameroon.

  15. Effects of convective and microwave roasting on the physicochemical properties of cocoa beans and cocoa butter extracted from this material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysiak, W.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cocoa beans of the Ivory Coast variety were convectively and microwave roasted. The effects of roasting conditions on the principal physicochemical attributes (water and fat contents, total and volatile acidity of roasted cocoa beans and the properties of fat extracted from this material (acidity, saponification index, iodine index, peroxide value, light refraction coefficient, polar fraction content, and Fatty Acid profile, absorbancy of 1 and 10% solution in hexane were examined. The characteristics of roasted and raw cocoa beans and their lipid fractions were compared. Results of analyses showed that convective roasting for 35 min at 135°C, air flow rate 1.0mxs-1 and relative humidity RH of 0.45% caused the least advanced changes in fat quality while microwave roasting promoted oxidation of lipids although the quality of roasted cocoa beans was the best.

    Granos de cacao de la variedad Costa de Marfil se han sometido a tostado mediante convección y microondas. Se ha estudiado el efecto de las condiciones de tostado sobre los atributos físico-químicos principales (contenido de agua y grasa, acidez total y volátil del cacao en grano tostado y las propiedades de la grasa extraída de este material (Acidez, índice de saponificación, índice de peróxidos, índice de yodo, índice de refracción, contenido de fracción polar, perfil de ácidos grasos, absorbancia de una solución al 10% en hexano. Se han comparado las características de los granos de cacao tostados y crudos y sus fracciones lipídicas. Los resultados de los análisis mostraron que el tostado mediante convección durante 35 minutos a 135°C, con un caudal de aire de 1,0 m s-1 y HR de 0,45 causó los menores cambios en la calidad de grasa mientras que el tostado mediante microondas promovió en mayor medida la oxidación de los lípidos aunque la calidad de los granos de cacao tostado fue mejor.

  16. The remineralization potential of cocoa (Theobroma cacao bean extract to increase the enamel micro hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistianingsih Sulistianingsih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Remineralization is the process of returning mineral ions into a hydroxyapatite structure characterized by mineral deposition on the enamel surface. The presence of mineral deposition would affect the micro hardness of tooth enamel. The use of fluorine as remineralization agent with side effects such as fluorosis. Cocoa bean extract contains theobromin that can be used as an alternative remineralization ingredients. The objectives was to determine micro hardness email after remineralization using cocoa bean extract as natural material and to compare with fluorine use as synthetic material. Methods: Thirty-six maxillary first premolar tooth crown was cut and planted in the epoxy resin. Teeth were then immersed in demineralization solution at pH 4 for 6 hours. The sample were divided into 2 groups, 18 for the fluorine group and the remaining group of cocoa extract. Vickers microhardness test was used before treatment, after demineralized and after remineralization. Results: Enamel microhardness value before treatment in the fluorine group average value was 376.17 VHN and the cocoa extract group was 357.33 VHN. After demineralization in fluorine group was 268,13 VHN and cocoa extract group was 235,93 VHN. After remineralization in fluorine group was 321,08 VHN and cocoa extract group was 293,86 VHN. The results of the analysis showed that the level of micro hardness email after remineralization was not significantly different in two groups (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Cocoa extract is able to increase the microhardness of enamel so it can act as a substitution for fluorine remineralization.

  17. MODELLING OF THIN LAYER DRYING KINETICS OF COCOA BEANS DURING ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. HII

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Drying experiments were conducted using air-ventilated oven and sun dryer to simulate the artificial and natural drying processes of cocoa beans. The drying data were fitted with several published thin layer drying models. A new model was introduced which is a combination of the Page and two-term drying model. Selection of the best model was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2, reduced chi-square (2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the experimental and predicted values. The results showed that the new model was found best described the artificial and natural drying kinetics of cocoa under the conditions tested.

  18. Assessment of the yeast species composition of cocoa bean fermentations in different cocoa-producing regions using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-11-01

    The yeast species composition of 12 cocoa bean fermentations carried out in Brazil, Ecuador, Ivory Coast and Malaysia was investigated culture-independently. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 26S rRNA gene fragments, obtained through polymerase chain reaction with universal eukaryotic primers, was carried out with two different commercial apparatus (the DCode and CBS systems). In general, this molecular method allowed a rapid monitoring of the yeast species prevailing during fermentation. Under similar and optimal denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis conditions, the CBS system allowed a better separated band pattern than the DCode system and an unambiguous detection of the prevailing species present in the fermentation samples. The most frequent yeast species were Hanseniaspora sp., followed by Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, independent of the origin of the cocoa. This indicates a restricted yeast species composition of the cocoa bean fermentation process. Exceptionally, the Ivorian cocoa bean box fermentation samples showed a wider yeast species composition, with Hyphopichia burtonii and Meyerozyma caribbica among the main representatives. Yeasts were not detected in the samples when the temperature inside the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass reached values higher than 45 °C or under early acetic acid production conditions.

  19. Multi-element, multi-compound isotope profiling as a means to distinguish the geographical and varietal origin of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomande, Didier; Antheaume, Ingrid; Leroux, Maël; Lalande, Julie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Remaud, Gérald S; Tea, Illa

    2015-12-01

    Multi-element stable isotope ratios have been assessed as a means to distinguish between fermented cocoa beans from different geographical and varietal origins. Isotope ratios and percentage composition for C and N were measured in different tissues (cotyledons, shells) and extracts (pure theobromine, defatted cocoa solids, protein, lipids) obtained from fermented cocoa bean samples. Sixty-one samples from 24 different geographical origins covering all four continental areas producing cocoa were analyzed. Treatment of the data with unsupervised (Principal Component Analysis) and supervised (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) multiparametric statistical methods allowed the cocoa beans from different origins to be distinguished. The most discriminant variables identified as responsible for geographical and varietal differences were the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of cocoa beans and some extracts and tissues. It can be shown that the isotope ratios are correlated with the altitude and precipitation conditions found in the different cocoa-growing regions.

  20. Influence of roasting on the antioxidant activity and HMF formation of a cocoa bean model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Teresa; Capuano, Edoardo; Cämmerer, Bettina; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2009-01-14

    During the roasting of cocoa beans chemical reactions lead to the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products and to the degradation of catechin-containing compounds, which are very abundant in these seeds. To study the modifications occurring during thermal treatment of fat and antioxidant rich foods, such as cocoa, a dry model system was set up and roasted at 180 degrees C for different times. The role played in the formation of MR products and in the antioxidant activity of the system by proteins, catechin, and cocoa butter was investigated by varying the model system formulation. Results showed that the antioxidant activity decreased during roasting, paralleling catechin concentration, thus suggesting that this compound is mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity of roasted cocoa beans. Model system browning was significantly higher in the presence of catechin, which contributed to the formation of water-insoluble melanoidins, which are mainly responsible for browning. HMF concentration was higher in casein-containing systems, and its formation was strongly inhibited in the presence of catechin. No effects related to the degree of lipid oxidation could be observed. Data from model systems obtained by replacing fat with water showed a much lower rate of MR development and catechin degradation but the same inhibitory effect of catechin on HMF formation.

  1. Cocoa bean quality assessment by using hyperspectral images and fuzzy logic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Juan; Granda, Guillermo; Prieto, Flavio; Ipanaque, William; Machacuay, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, cocoa bean exportation from Piura-Peru is having a positive international market response due to their inherent high quality. Nevertheless, when using subjective techniques for quality assessment, such as the cut test, a wastefulness of grains is generated, additional to a restriction in the selection as well as improvement approaches in earlier stages for optimizing the quality. Thus, in an attempt to standardize the internal features analyzed by the cut test, for instance, crack formation and internal color changes during the fermentation, this research is submitted as an approach which aims to make use of hyperspectral images, with the purpose of having a quick and accurate analysis. Hyperspectral cube size was reduced by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The image generated by principal component PC1 provides enough information to clearly distinguish the internal cracks of the cocoa bean, since the zones where these cracks are, have a negative correlation with PC1. The features taken were processed through a fuzzy block, which is able to describe the cocoa bean quality. Three membership functions were defined in the output: unfermented, partly fermented and well fermented, by using trapezoidal-shaped and triangular-shaped functions. A total of twelve rules were propounded. Furthermore, the bisector method was chosen for the defuzzification. Begin the abstract two lines below author names and addresses.

  2. Microbiota dynamics and diversity at different stages of industrial processing of cocoa beans into cocoa powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Líma, L.J.R.; Velpen, van der V.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Kamphuis, H.J.; Zwietering, M.H.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    We sampled a cocoa powder production line to investigate the impact of processing on the microbial community size and diversity at different stages. Classical microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, coupled with clone library construction

  3. Prediction of fermentation index of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) based on color measurement and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Roque, Noemí; Abderrahim, Mohamed; Nuñez-Alejos, Luis; Arribas, Silvia M; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Several procedures are currently used to assess fermentation index (FI) of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) for quality control. However, all of them present several drawbacks. The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a simple image based quantitative procedure, using color measurement and artificial neural network (ANNs). ANN models based on color measurements were tested to predict fermentation index (FI) of fermented cocoa beans. The RGB values were measured from surface and center region of fermented beans in images obtained by camera and desktop scanner. The FI was defined as the ratio of total free amino acids in fermented versus non-fermented samples. The ANN model that included RGB color measurement of fermented cocoa surface and R/G ratio in cocoa bean of alkaline extracts was able to predict FI with no statistical difference compared with the experimental values. Performance of the ANN model was evaluated by the coefficient of determination, Bland-Altman plot and Passing-Bablok regression analyses. Moreover, in fermented beans, total sugar content and titratable acidity showed a similar pattern to the total free amino acid predicted through the color based ANN model. The results of the present work demonstrate that the proposed ANN model can be adopted as a low-cost and in situ procedure to predict FI in fermented cocoa beans through apps developed for mobile device.

  4. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

    2010-10-13

    Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.

  5. Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the gods": Quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Líma, L.J.R.; Almeida, M.H.; Nout, M.J.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most

  6. Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the gods": Quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Líma, L.J.R.; Almeida, M.H.; Nout, M.J.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most

  7. Influence of fermentation and drying materials on the contamination of cocoa beans by ochratoxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dano, Sébastien Djédjé; Manda, Pierre; Dembélé, Ardjourma; Kouassi Abla, Ange Marie-Joseph; Bibaud, Joel Henri; Gouet, Julien Zroh; Ze Maria Sika, Charles Bruno

    2013-11-28

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Contamination of food with OTA is a major consumer health hazard. In Cote D'Ivoire, preventing OTA contamination has been the subject of extensive study. The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermentation and drying materials on the OTA content in cocoa. For each test, 7000 intact cocoa pods were collected, split open to remove the beans, fermented using 1 of 3 different materials, sun-dried on 1 of 3 different platform types and stored for 30 days. A total of 22 samples were collected at each stage of post-harvesting operations. The OTA content in the extracted samples was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. OTA was detected in beans at all stages of post-harvesting operations at varying levels: pod-opening (0.025 ± 0.02 mg/kg), fermentation (0.275 ± 0.2 mg/kg), drying (0.569 ± 0.015 mg/kg), and storage (0.558 ± 0.04 mg/kg). No significant relationships between the detected OTA level and the materials used in the fermentation and drying of cocoa were observed.

  8. Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Takrama, Jemmy; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

    2011-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4 × 2 full factorial design with factors as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content) and mineral content using stan...

  9. Impact of fermentation on nitrogenous compounds of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) from various origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, C; Gunata, Z; Breysse, A; Davrieux, F; Boulanger, R; Sauvage, F X

    2016-02-01

    Tangential filtration technique was used to separate and quantify three different fractions of nitrogenous compounds depending on their molecular size, during cocoa fermentation. On every phenotype and origin analyzed, protein profile of non-fermented samples was similar. During fermentation course, proteins get degraded with a concomitant increase in amino acids content. Peptides between 3 and 10 kDa were observed at low levels. A strong correlation between amino acids and ammonia nitrogen, a fermentation marker was found. Attention was drawn on each fraction, and enabled to point out other phenomenon occurring during fermentation. The migration of some nitrogenous compounds towards the bean shell during fermentation was demonstrated. Acetone treatment of cocoa powder prior to SDS-PAGE led to losses of nitrogenous compounds. This result gives clues on the tanning phenomenon carried out by polyphenols on nitrogenous compounds, phenomenon which increases during fermentation.

  10. Species Diversity, Community Dynamics, and Metabolite Kinetics of the Microbiota Associated with Traditional Ecuadorian Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentations▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans. PMID

  11. Species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of the microbiota associated with traditional ecuadorian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-11-01

    Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans.

  12. Oxidation of Metabolites Highlights the Microbial Interactions and Role of Acetobacter pasteurianus during Cocoa Bean Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Frédéric; Lefeber, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Four cocoa-specific acetic acid bacterium (AAB) strains, namely, Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B, Acetobacter ghanensis LMG 23848T, Acetobacter fabarum LMG 24244T, and Acetobacter senegalensis 108B, were analyzed kinetically and metabolically during monoculture laboratory fermentations. A cocoa pulp simulation medium (CPSM) for AAB, containing ethanol, lactic acid, and mannitol, was used. All AAB strains differed in their ethanol and lactic acid oxidation kinetics, whereby only A. pasteurianus 386B performed a fast oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid into acetic acid and acetoin, respectively. Only A. pasteurianus 386B and A. ghanensis LMG 23848T oxidized mannitol into fructose. Coculture fermentations with A. pasteurianus 386B or A. ghanensis LMG 23848T and Lactobacillus fermentum 222 in CPSM for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) containing glucose, fructose, and citric acid revealed oxidation of lactic acid produced by the LAB strain into acetic acid and acetoin that was faster in the case of A. pasteurianus 386B. A triculture fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B, using CPSM for LAB, showed oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid produced by the yeast and LAB strain, respectively, into acetic acid and acetoin. Hence, acetic acid and acetoin are the major end metabolites of cocoa bean fermentation. All data highlight that A. pasteurianus 386B displayed beneficial functional roles to be used as a starter culture, namely, a fast oxidation of ethanol and lactic acid, and that these metabolites play a key role as substrates for A. pasteurianus in its indispensable cross-feeding interactions with yeast and LAB during cocoa bean fermentation. PMID:24413595

  13. Study on effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sari Farah Dina; Himsar Ambarita; Farel H. Napitupulu; Hideki Kawai

    2015-01-01

    The main objective is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans. Two type of desiccants were tested, molecular sieve 13× (Na86 [(AlO2)86·(SiO2)106]·264H2O) as an adsorbent type and CaCl2 as an absorbent type. The results revealed that during sunshine hours, the maximum temperature within the drying chamber varied from 40 °C to 54 °C. In average, it was 9–12 °C higher than ambient temperature. These temperatures are very ...

  14. Heat and mass transfer through a thick bed of cocoa beans during drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganhou, J.

    This article relates to the establishment of macroscopic equations of thick and fixed hygroscopical porous medium allowing an analysis of couply phenomena of heat and mass transfers in drying operation. The drying is done through forced convection by imposing a circulation of hot air across the layer. The authors then make their study particular to the case of thick layer of cocoa beans grown in the region of Yaounde in cameroon. A study realized on a prototype constructed and tested in the laboratory enables the validation of the proposed model.

  15. Heat and mass transfer through a thick bed of cocoa beans during drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nganhou, J. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, B P 8390, ENSP Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2004-07-01

    This article relates to the establishment of macroscopic equations of thick and fixed hygroscopical porous medium allowing an analysis of couply phenomena of heat and mass transfers in drying operation. The drying is done through forced convection by imposing a circulation of hot air across the layer. The authors then make their study particular to the case of thick layer of cocoa beans grown in the region of Yaounde in cameroon. A study realized on a prototype constructed and tested in the laboratory enables the validation of the proposed model. (orig.)

  16. Cocoa

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Develop applications for Mac OS X with this Developer Reference guide. Make a clean transition to programming in Apple environments using the elegant and dynamic programming API Cocoa and this practical guide. Written by aseasoned Mac expert, this book shows you how to write programs in Cocoa for the rapidly expanding world of Macintosh users. Part of the Developer Reference series, this book prepares you for a productive programming experience on today's fastest-growing platform.: Cocoa is a programming framework for developing in Apple environments, including Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard; This

  17. Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-12-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes.

  18. Study on effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Farah Dina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans. Two type of desiccants were tested, molecular sieve 13× (Na86 [(AlO286·(SiO2106]·264H2O as an adsorbent type and CaCl2 as an absorbent type. The results revealed that during sunshine hours, the maximum temperature within the drying chamber varied from 40 °C to 54 °C. In average, it was 9–12 °C higher than ambient temperature. These temperatures are very suitable for drying cocoa beans. During off-sunshine hours, humidity of air inside the drying chamber was lower than ambient because of the desiccant thermal storage. Drying times for intermittent directs sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorbent were 55 h, 41 h, and 30 h, respectively. Specific energy consumptions for direct sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorber were 60.4 MJ/kg moist, 18.94 MJ/kg moist, and 13.29 MJ/kg moist, respectively. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that a solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage makes drying using solar energy more effective in term of drying time and specific energy consumption.

  19. Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao beans with manual and semi-mechanized transfer, between fermentation boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro. P. Peláez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate variation in the physical and chemical properties of fermented cocoa beans with cocoa beans transfer between wooden fermentation boxes manually (M and semi-mechanized (SM way. Mass temperature, moisture, pH, and total acidity of the cotyledon and pulp; the total polyphenol, anthocyanin, reducing sugar, theobromine, and caffeine content in fresh, fermented, and dried beans; and percentage of fermented beans and time required to move beans during fermentation were determined. The cocoa used grew in the Pachiza district of the San Martin region of Peru. Cocoa sampling was each 0, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h of fermentation. The cocoa mass temperature was highest with both removal systems after 96 h of fermentation. M cotyledon and pulp samples had the highest moisture content and titratable acidity, while cotyledon and pulp pH with both systems were statistically equal. In contrast, fermented beans had a higher polyphenol, anthocyanin, reducing sugar, theobromine, and caffeine content with SM. SM produced the greatest amount of fermentation (91.67% and required the shortest amount of time to move beans (78.56 min. In conclusion, the system of fermentation of cocoa beans with SM was faster and produced fermented grains with high chemical quality.

  20. Incentives for smallholders to enhance the production of quality cocoa beans in Ghana: the role of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.

    2013-01-01

      Cocoa beans from Ghana have a reputation of being of consistent quality. As such they sell at a premium on the international market. As a result of this quality reputation, Ghana is able to sell over 70% of its annual produce in forward markets. This trading practice ensur

  1. Incentives for smallholders to enhance the production of quality cocoa beans in Ghana: the role of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.

    2013-01-01

      Cocoa beans from Ghana have a reputation of being of consistent quality. As such they sell at a premium on the international market. As a result of this quality reputation, Ghana is able to sell over 70% of its annual produce in forward markets. This trading practice ensur

  2. Incentives for smallholders to enhance the production of quality cocoa beans in Ghana: the role of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.

    2013-01-01

      Cocoa beans from Ghana have a reputation of being of consistent quality. As such they sell at a premium on the international market. As a result of this quality reputation, Ghana is able to sell over 70% of its annual produce in forward markets. This trading practice

  3. High-throughput identification of the microbial biodiversity of cocoa bean fermentation by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miescher Schwenninger, S; Freimüller Leischtfeld, S; Gantenbein-Demarchi, C

    2016-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a powerful biotyping tool increasingly used for high-throughput identification of clinical microbial isolates, however, in food fermentation research this approach is still not well established. This study examines the microbial biodiversity of cocoa bean fermentation based on the isolation of micro-organisms in cocoa-producing regions, followed by MALDI-TOF MS in Switzerland. A preceding 6-week storage test to mimic lengthy transport of microbial samples from cocoa-producing regions to Switzerland was performed with strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Weekly MALDI-TOF MS analysis was able to successfully identify microbiota to the species level after storing live cultures on slant agar at mild temperatures (7°C) and/or in 75% aqueous ethanol at differing temperatures (-20, 7 and 30°C). The efficacy of this method was confirmed by on-site recording of the microbial biodiversity in cocoa bean fermentation in Bolivia and Brazil, with a total of 1126 randomly selected isolates. MALDI-TOF MS analyses revealed known dominant cocoa bean fermentation species with Lact. plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum in the lactic acid bacteria taxon, Hanseniaspora opuntiae and S. cerevisiae in the yeast taxon, and Acet. pasteurianus, Acetobacter fabarum, Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis in the acetic acid bacteria taxon. Microbial identification with MALDI-TOF MS has increased the number of samples that can be analysed in a given time, a prerequisite for high-throughput methods. This method is already widely used for the identification of clinical microbial isolates, whereas in food fermentation research, including cocoa bean fermentation, microbiota is mostly identified by time-consuming, biochemical-based phenotyping and molecular approaches. This study presents the use of MALDI-TOF MS for characterizing the

  4. Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wanping; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Mischke, Sue; Bellato, Cláudia M; Motilal, Lambert; Zhang, Dapeng

    2014-01-15

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the source of cocoa, is an economically important tropical crop. One problem with the premium cacao market is contamination with off-types adulterating raw premium material. Accurate determination of the genetic identity of single cacao beans is essential for ensuring cocoa authentication. Using nanofluidic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping with 48 SNP markers, we generated SNP fingerprints for small quantities of DNA extracted from the seed coat of single cacao beans. On the basis of the SNP profiles, we identified an assumed adulterant variety, which was unambiguously distinguished from the authentic beans by multilocus matching. Assignment tests based on both Bayesian clustering analysis and allele frequency clearly separated all 30 authentic samples from the non-authentic samples. Distance-based principle coordinate analysis further supported these results. The nanofluidic SNP protocol, together with forensic statistical tools, is sufficiently robust to establish authentication and to verify gourmet cacao varieties. This method shows significant potential for practical application.

  5. Phylogenetic Analysis of a Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentation Metagenome Reveals New Insights into Its Bacterial and Fungal Community Diversity: e38040

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koen Illeghems; Luc De Vuyst; Zoi Papalexandratou; Stefan Weckx

    2012-01-01

      This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing...

  6. A highly sensitive impedimetric label free immunosensor for Ochratoxin measurement in cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvano, Francesca; Albanese, Donatella; Pilloton, Roberto; Di Matteo, Marisa

    2016-12-01

    In this work the development and optimization of an impedimetric label free immunosensor for the detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) is reported. Two antibody immobilization methods (oriented and not oriented) were compared highlighting a lower limit of detection (5pg/ml) for the not oriented immobilization but a closer linear range in contrast to oriented anti-OTA immunosensors which showed linearity in the range of 0.01-5ng/mL OTA. The analysis of the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images showed two different nanostructures indicating that the use of oriented immobilization created a more ordered and highly dense antibody surface. Finally the oriented immunosensor was used to quantify OTA in spiked cocoa bean samples and the results were compared with those registered with competitive ELISA kit. The immunosensor was sensitive to OTA lower than 2μg/kg that represents the lower acceptable limit of OTA established by European legislation for the common food products.

  7. Nutritional composition and fatty acids profile in cocoa beans and chocolates with different geographical origin and processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Moreno, M; Torrescasana, E; Salas-Salvadó, J; Blanch, C

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional composition and fatty acids (FA) profile were determined in cocoa and chocolates of different geographical origin and subject to different processing conditions. Cocoa butter was the major nutrient in cocoa beans and carbohydrates were the most important in chocolates. Cocoa composition and FA profile varied depending on geographical origin whilst in chocolates only carbohydrates and fat content varied significantly due to the effect of origin and no significant effect was observed for processing conditions. Both for cocoa and chocolates differences in FA profile were mainly explained as an effect of the geographical origin, and were not due to processing conditions in chocolate. For cocoa, differences in FA profile were found in C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1 and C18:0 whilst for chocolates only differences were found in C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2. For all samples, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2 were quantitatively the most important FA. Ecuadorian chocolate showed a healthier FA profile having higher amounts of unsaturated FA and lower amounts of saturated FA than Ghanaian chocolate.

  8. Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Timothy; Gobert, William; Vrancken, Gino; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-05-01

    To speed up research on the usefulness and selection of bacterial starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation, a benchmark cocoa bean fermentation process under natural fermentation conditions was developed successfully. Therefore, spontaneous fermentations of cocoa pulp-bean mass in vessels on a 20 kg scale were tried out in triplicate. The community dynamics and kinetics of these fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. Microbiological analysis revealed a limited bacterial species diversity and targeted community dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation, as was the case during cocoa bean fermentations processes carried out in the field. LAB isolates belonged to two main (GTG)(5)-PCR clusters, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, with Fructobacillus pseudofilculneus occurring occasionally; one main (GTG)(5)-PCR cluster, composed of Acetobacter pasteurianus, was found among the AAB isolates, besides minor clusters of Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis. 16S rRNA-PCR-DGGE revealed that L. plantarum and L. fermentum dominated the fermentations from day two until the end and Acetobacter was the only AAB species present at the end of the fermentations. Also, species of Tatumella and Pantoea were detected culture-independently at the beginning of the fermentations. Further, it was shown through metabolite target analyses that similar substrate consumption and metabolite production kinetics occurred in the vessels compared to spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation processes. Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth.

  9. Sensory descriptors of cocoa beans from cultivated trees of Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Vázquez-Ovando

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The odor and taste profile of cocoa bean samples obtained from trees cultivated in southern Mexico were evaluated by trained panelists. Seven representative samples (groups of a total of 45 were analyzed. Four attributes of taste (sweetness, bitterness, acidity and astringency, and nine of odor (chocolate, nutty, hazelnut, sweet, acidity, roasted, spicy, musty and off-odor were evaluated. A sample (G7 with higher scores in sweet taste and sweet and nutty odors was detected, as well as a high association between these descriptors and the sample, analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA. Similarly, samples that showed high scores for non-desired odors in cocoas such as off-odor and musty were identified and related by PCA to roasted odor and astringent taste (G2 and G4. Based on this scores, the samples were listed in descending order by their sensory quality as G7> G5> G6> G3> G1> G4> G2.

  10. Sensitive quantitation of Ochratoxin A in cocoa beans using differential pulse voltammetry based aptasensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rupesh K; Hayat, Akhtar; Catanante, Gaëlle; Istamboulie, Georges; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we propose for the first time a sensitive Ochratoxin A (OTA) detection in cocoa beans using competitive aptasensor by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). In the proposed method, biotin labeled and free OTA competed to bind with immobilized aptamer onto the surface of a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE), and percentage binding was calculated. The detection was performed after adding avidin-ALP to perform avidin-biotin reaction; the signal was generated through a suitable substrate 1-naphthyl phosphate (1-NP), for alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The cocoa samples were extracted and purified using molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) columns specifically designed for OTA. The developed aptasensor showed a good linearity in the range 0.15-5 ng/mL with the limit of detection (LOD) 0.07 ng/mL and 3.7% relative standard deviation (RSD). The aptasensor displayed good recovery values in the range 82.1-85% with 3.87% RSD, thus, demonstrated the efficiency of proposed aptasensor for such matrices.

  11. Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the Gods": quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lídia J R; Almeida, M Helena; Nout, M J Rob; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2011-09-01

    The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most relevant since it is the process whereby the precursors of the cocoa flavor arise. The formation of these precursors depends on the activity of different microbial groups on the beans pulp. A comparison of fermentations in different countries showed that a well-defined microbial succession does not always take place and that the role of Bacillus spp. in this process remains unclear. Considering the overriding importance of the fermentation to achieve high quality commercial cocoa beans, we discuss the need of addressing the impact of the farming system, the ripeness state of the pods, and the role of microbial interactions on the fermentation in future research. In addition, the problem of high acidification cocoa beans, aspects dealing with the volatile fraction of the flavor, and the cocoa butter properties, all were identified as critical aspects that need further investigation. The standardization of the microbiological methods and the application of metagenomic approaches would magnify the knowledge in this domain.

  12. Isolation of dimeric, trimeric, tetrameric and pentameric procyanidins from unroasted cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) using countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wray, Victor; Winterhalter, Peter

    2015-07-15

    The main procyanidins, including dimeric B2 and B5, trimeric C1, tetrameric and pentameric procyanidins, were isolated from unroasted cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) using various techniques of countercurrent chromatography, such as high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), low-speed rotary countercurrent chromatography (LSRCCC) and spiral-coil LSRCCC. Furthermore, dimeric procyanidins B1 and B7, which are not present naturally in the analysed cocoa beans, were obtained after semisynthesis of cocoa bean polymers with (+)-catechin as nucleophile and separated by countercurrent chromatography. In this way, the isolation of dimeric procyanidin B1 in considerable amounts (500mg, purity>97%) was possible in a single run. This is the first report concerning the isolation and semisynthesis of dimeric to pentameric procyanidins from T. cacao by countercurrent chromatography. Additionally, the chemical structures of tetrameric (cinnamtannin A2) and pentameric procyanidins (cinnamtannin A3) were elucidated on the basis of (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Interflavanoid linkage was determined by NOE-correlations, for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lactic acid bacteria involved in cocoa beans fermentation from Ivory Coast: Species diversity and citrate lyase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Hadja D; Ouattara, Honoré G; Droux, Michel; Reverchon, Sylvie; Nasser, William; Niamke, Sébastien L

    2017-09-01

    Microbial fermentation is an indispensable process for high quality chocolate from cocoa bean raw material. lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are among the major microorganisms responsible for cocoa fermentation but their exact role remains to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the diversity of LAB in six cocoa producing regions of Ivory Coast. Ribosomal 16S gene sequence analysis showed that Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides are the dominant LAB species in these six regions. In addition, other species were identified as the minor microbial population, namely Lactobacillus curieae, Enterococcus faecium, Fructobacillus pseudoficulneus, Lactobacillus casei, Weissella paramesenteroides and Weissella cibaria. However, in each region, the LAB microbial population was composed of a restricted number of species (maximum 5 species), which varied between the different regions. LAB implication in the breakdown of citric acid was investigated as a fundamental property for a successful cocoa fermentation process. High citrate lyase producer strains were characterized by rapid citric acid consumption, as revealed by a 4-fold decrease in citric acid concentration in the growth medium within 12h, concomitant with an increase in acetic acid and lactic acid concentration. The production of citrate lyase was strongly dependent on environmental conditions, with optimum production at acidic pH (pH<5), and moderate temperature (30-40°C), which corresponds to conditions prevailing in the early stage of natural cocoa fermentation. This study reveals that one of the major roles of LAB in the cocoa fermentation process involves the breakdown of citric acid during the early stage of cocoa fermentation through the activity of citrate lyase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of Selection Criteria on Bean Weight Character of Cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL. through Path Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Anita Sari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Path coefficient analysis is frequently used for development of selection criteria on various type of plants. Path analysis on this research was conducted to find the selection criteria of yield component which directly affect bean weight. In addition to the value of path analysis coefficient, genetic variation coefficient, heritability and the value of genetic progress were also studied. The study was conducted at the Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research used randomized complete block design consisting of 14 accession numbers and each consisting of three replications. Pod girth, pod length, pod weight, wet beans weight per pod, number of normal beans per pod, number of abnormal beans per pod, dry weight per normal bean, and shell content were observed. The results showed that the pod weight character had an important role in determining the dry weight of normal bean. The character had a positive genotype correlation coefficient values which was high and significantly different (r=0.46 for dry weight per normal bean, considerable direct influence (P=0.479, moderate of the genotype variation coefficient (9.6%, and high genetic progress (95.23. Character of wet bean weight per pod could also be used indirectly for the selection criteria for dry weight per normal bean based on genetic variation coefficient value (11.88%, genetic progress value (82.48, and direct effect on dry weight per normal bean had positive value (P=0.006. Key words: Selection criteria, dry weight per bean, path analysis,Theobroma cacaoL.

  15. Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus predominate during well-performed Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations, underlining the importance of these microbial species for a successful cocoa bean fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Lefeber, Timothy; Bahrim, Bakhtiar; Lee, Ong Seng; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

    2013-09-01

    Two spontaneous Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations (one farm, two plantation plots) were investigated. Physical parameters, microbial community dynamics, yeast and bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the respective fermented dry cocoa beans. Similar microbial growth and metabolite profiles were obtained for the two fermentations. Low concentrations of citric acid were found in the fresh pulp, revealing low acidity of the raw material. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates glucose, fructose, and citric acid by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the prevalent species of the two fermentations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Acetobacter ghanensis were also found during the mid-phase of the fermentation processes. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Tatumella saanichensis and Enterobacter sp. were present in the beginning of the fermentations and they could be responsible for the degradation of citric acid and/or the production of gluconic acid and lactic acid, respectively. The presence of facultative heterofermentative LAB during the fermentations caused a high production of lactic acid. Finally, as these fermentations were carried out with high-quality raw material and were characterised by a restricted microbial species diversity, resulting in successfully fermented dry cocoa beans and good chocolates produced thereof, it is likely that the prevailing species H. opuntiae, S. cerevisiae, Lb. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus were responsible for it.

  16. Optimizing chocolate production through traceability: A review of the influence of farming practices on cocoa bean quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltini, Rolando; Akkerman, Renzo; Frosch, Stina

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent developments in traceability systems, it is now possible to exchange significant amounts of data through food supply chains. Farming practices applied by cocoa farmers at the beginning of the chocolate supply chain strongly influence several quality parameters of the finished...... chocolate. However, information regarding these practices does not normally reach the chocolate manufacturer. As a consequence, many specifications of the raw material cannot be taken into consideration in the operational decision making processes related to chocolate production. In recent years many...... studies have been investigating the influence of certain farming practices on cocoa beans and the subsequent chocolate quality parameters. However, no comprehensive analysis of the process variables in the chain and their effects on the quality can be found. In this paper we review and classify...

  17. Accelerated solvent extraction method for the quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cocoa beans by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Renata França Cassimiro; Figueiredo, Júlia Pereira; Nunes, Carolina Mariana; Pissinatti, Rafael; Souza, Scheilla Vitorino Carvalho de; Junqueira, Roberto Gonçalves

    2017-05-15

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure for use with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was optimized for the determination of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cocoa beans. Plackett-Burman and rotatable central composite design (RCCD) indicated that three variables affected the recoveries of PAHs during the extraction and purification steps: agitation time in the second liquid-liquid partition, weight of silica gel in the column, and volume of hexane for PAH elution from the column. After obtaining the optimal conditions, a single laboratory method validation was performed. Linearity was demonstrated for benzo[a]pyrene in the concentration range from 0.5 to 8.0mgkg(-1) of sample, corresponding to 1.25-20.0μgkg(-1) of cocoa on a fat basis. For the other analytes, linearity was observed from 0.75 to 8.0μgkg(-1) of sample (1.88-20.0μgkg(-1) of cocoa on a fat basis). Significant matrix effects were found for chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene. The precision of the method was verified with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 2.57 to 14.13% and from 4.36 to 19.77% under repeatability and intermediate precision conditions, respectively. The average recoveries of the eight PAHs ranged from 74.99 to 109.73%. These parameters, limits and measurement uncertainties met the performance criteria established by European Union regulations, except for the theoretical limit of detection for chrysene. The method was applied to the analysis of samples of Brazilian cocoa beans, and only one sample was found to have a PAH content above the maximum limit defined by the European Union legislation. This optimized and validated method is intended to be used as part of the official Brazilian monitoring programs investigating contaminants and residues in food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations in Brazil are characterized by a restricted species diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Vrancken, Gino; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-10-01

    Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations were carried out on two different farms in Brazil. Physical parameters, microbial growth, bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the fermented dry cocoa beans. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates (glucose, fructose, and citric acid) by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, mannitol, and/or acetic acid. Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the predominating bacterial species of the fermentations as revealed through (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting of isolates and PCR-DGGE of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons of DNA directly extracted from fermentation samples. Fructobacillus pseudoficulneus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Also, three novel LAB species were found. This study emphasized the possible participation of Enterobacteriaceae in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Tatumella ptyseos and Tatumella citrea were the prevailing enterobacterial species in the beginning of the fermentations as revealed by 16S rRNA gene-PCR-DGGE. Finally, it turned out that control over a restricted bacterial species diversity during fermentation through an ideal post-harvest handling of the cocoa beans will allow the production of high-quality cocoa and chocolates produced thereof, independent of the fermentation method or farm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of aflatoxins in by-products of industrial processing of cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pereira, José Luiz; Lemes, Daniel P; Nakano, Felipe; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2012-01-01

    This study has examined the occurrence of aflatoxins in 168 samples of different fractions obtained during the processing of cocoa in manufacturing plants (shell, nibs, mass, butter, cake and powder) using an optimised methodology for cocoa by-products. The method validation was based on selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and recovery. The method was shown to be adequate for use in quantifying the contamination of cocoa by aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Furthermore, the method was easier to use than other methods available in the literature. For aflatoxin extraction from cocoa samples, a methanol-water solution was used, and then immunoaffinity columns were employed for clean-up before the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. A survey demonstrated a widespread occurrence of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products, although in general the levels of aflatoxins present in the fractions from industrial processing of cocoa were low. A maximum aflatoxin contamination of 13.3 ng g(-1) was found in a nib sample. The lowest contamination levels were found in cocoa butter. Continued monitoring of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products is nevertheless necessary because these toxins have a high toxicity to humans and cocoa is widely consumed by children through cocoa-containing products, like candies.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Illeghems

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly γ-Proteobacteria and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni. Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques.

  1. Influence of turning and environmental contamination on the dynamics of populations of lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camu, Nicholas; González, Angel; De Winter, Tom; Van Schoor, Ann; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S; Addo, Solomon K; De Vuyst, Luc

    2008-01-01

    The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter senegalensis, and a potential new Acetobacter lovaniensis-like species. Two main clusters were identified among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated, namely, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No differences in biodiversity of LAB and AAB were seen for fermentations carried out at the farm and factory sites, indicating the cocoa pod surfaces and not the general environment as the main inoculum for spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation. Turning of the heaps enhanced aeration and increased the relative population size of AAB and the production of acetic acid. This in turn gave a more sour taste to chocolate made from these beans. Bitterness was reduced through losses of polyphenols and alkaloids upon fermentation and cocoa bean processing.

  2. Influence of Turning and Environmental Contamination on the Dynamics of Populations of Lactic Acid and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Heap Fermentation in Ghana▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camu, Nicholas; González, Ángel; De Winter, Tom; Van Schoor, Ann; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Addo, Solomon K.; De Vuyst, Luc

    2008-01-01

    The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter senegalensis, and a potential new Acetobacter lovaniensis-like species. Two main clusters were identified among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated, namely, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No differences in biodiversity of LAB and AAB were seen for fermentations carried out at the farm and factory sites, indicating the cocoa pod surfaces and not the general environment as the main inoculum for spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation. Turning of the heaps enhanced aeration and increased the relative population size of AAB and the production of acetic acid. This in turn gave a more sour taste to chocolate made from these beans. Bitterness was reduced through losses of polyphenols and alkaloids upon fermentation and cocoa bean processing. PMID:17993565

  3. Influence of Turning and Environmental Contamination on the Dynamics of Populations of Lactic Acid and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Heap Fermentation in Ghana▿

    OpenAIRE

    Camu, Nicholas; González, Ángel; De Winter, Tom; Van Schoor, Ann; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Addo, Solomon K.; De Vuyst, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus...

  4. Effect of the roasting temperature and time of cocoa beans on the sensory characteristics and acceptability of chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismara Santos ROCHA

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to study the impact of the roasting temperature (80, 120 and 160 °C and time (20, 40 and 60 min of cocoa beans on the sensory acceptability of chocolate using response surface methodology. The results revealed that there was higher impact of roasting temperature and no influence of roasting time (in the studied levels. Lower score of consumers’ sensory acceptability was found at higher roasting temperature of cocoa beans (160 °C. The chocolate samples presented undesirable burnt odor and flavor. Roasting temperatures range 90 to 110 °C were found optimum for higher consumer’s acceptability scores (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall quality attributes. Ten trained assessors consensually defined fifteen descriptors showing similarities and differences among the chocolate samples, using the methodology based on Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The Principal Component Analysis showed that A, B and C treatments (80 °C were characterized primarily by the brown color, sweet aroma and flavor attributes. The treatments D, E and F (120 °C were characterized by reddish brown color, bitterness, burnt aroma and flavor, astringency attributes.

  5. Applying meta-pathway analyses through metagenomics to identify the functional properties of the major bacterial communities of a single spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; Weckx, Stefan; De Vuyst, Luc

    2015-09-01

    A high-resolution functional metagenomic analysis of a representative single sample of a Brazilian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process was carried out to gain insight into its bacterial community functioning. By reconstruction of microbial meta-pathways based on metagenomic data, the current knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of bacterial members involved in the cocoa bean fermentation ecosystem was extended. Functional meta-pathway analysis revealed the distribution of the metabolic pathways between the bacterial members involved. The metabolic capabilities of the lactic acid bacteria present were most associated with the heterolactic fermentation and citrate assimilation pathways. The role of Enterobacteriaceae in the conversion of substrates was shown through the use of the mixed-acid fermentation and methylglyoxal detoxification pathways. Furthermore, several other potential functional roles for Enterobacteriaceae were indicated, such as pectinolysis and citrate assimilation. Concerning acetic acid bacteria, metabolic pathways were partially reconstructed, in particular those related to responses toward stress, explaining their metabolic activities during cocoa bean fermentation processes. Further, the in-depth metagenomic analysis unveiled functionalities involved in bacterial competitiveness, such as the occurrence of CRISPRs and potential bacteriocin production. Finally, comparative analysis of the metagenomic data with bacterial genomes of cocoa bean fermentation isolates revealed the applicability of the selected strains as functional starter cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A screening for benzo[a]pyrène in cocoa beans subjected to different drying methods during on farm processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eboua N. Wandan,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Benzo[a]pyrene as well as moisture and physical characteristics of cocoa bean subjected to different mode of drying were evaluated during the second period of cocoa harvesting in Côte d’Ivoire. The moisture content of smoked beans (8.22±0.06 was significantly lower compared to those sun-dried (8.97±0.18. Among the physical characteristics, purple beans were over 4%, and slaty beans 1.57±0.20%. The percentage of moldy beans was significantly higher for sun-dried beans (8.72±0.17% than for smoked beans (2.13±0.14%.Supplementing sun-drying with smoking during the rainy season helped reduce the level of moldy beans which are favored by their high moisture content. The level of free fatty acid found in beans was in average 1.74% with those subjected to sun drying having significantly (P=0.04 higher levels. These levels were higher than the expected levels (< 1.0% to meet the acceptable level of 1.75% in cocoa butter extracted from the dry cocoa beans. This high level of free fatty acid found might be favored by the high level of moulds found in beansmostly in sun-dried beans. Benzo[a]pyrene was found at the levels ranging from 7.698 to 3701/25 μg/kg in beans sun-dried/smoked or smoked only. When beans were dried by smoking only, the level of Benzo[a]pyrene found was significantly (p<0.05 elevated (3709.25±526.03. Based on an estimated daily chocolate consumption of 5,53 g/day, the daily intake of carcinogenic BaP was found to 1.05 μg/day. This level was two times the recommended background concentration of 0.5 μg/kg recommended by the WHO in food samples.

  7. Naturally occurring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione concentrations associated with roasting and grinding unflavored coffee beans in a commercial setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon H. Gaffney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, concerns have been raised about potential respiratory health effects associated with occupational exposure to the flavoring additives diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. Both of these diketones are also natural components of many foods and beverages, including roasted coffee. To date, there are no published studies characterizing workplace exposures to these diketones during commercial roasting and grinding of unflavored coffee beans. In this study, we measured naturally occurring diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust at a facility that roasts and grinds coffee beans with no added flavoring agents. Sampling was conducted over the course of three roasting batches and three grinding batches at varying distances from a commercial roaster and grinder. The three batches consisted of lightly roasted soft beans, lightly roasted hard beans, and dark roasted hard beans. Roasting occurred for 37 to 41 min, and the grinding process took between 8 and 11 min. Diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust concentrations measured during roasting ranged from less than the limit of detection (grinding, diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust concentrations ranged from 0.018 to 0.39 ppm, 0.0089 to 0.21 ppm, and bean/roast combination and sample location, diketone concentrations during grinding were higher than those measured during roasting. During grinding, concentrations decreased with increased distance from the source. Measured concentrations of both diketones were higher during grinding of soft beans than hard beans. The results indicate that airborne concentrations of naturally occurring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione associated with unflavored coffee processing: (1 are similar to the concentrations that have been measured in food flavoring facilities; (2 are likely to exceed some

  8. In vivo mutagenicity studies in rats mice and Chinese hamsters fed irradiated foodstuffs - chicken, fish, dates, pulses, mangoes and cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, H.W.

    1982-11-01

    Three in vivo genetic toxicity tests were performed in rats, mice and Chinese hamsters to detect possible mutagenic effects of irradiated chicken, dried dates, fish, cocoa beans, pulses and mangoes. The tests employed were the micronucleus test and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) test for irradiated and unirradiated samples of all foodstuffs listed, and the spermatogonia test, (including SCE technique) in mice for irradiated and unirradiated chicken, fish and dates only. In the case of cocoa beans, the mutagenicity tests were performed on an additional test group fed beans fumigated with ethylene oxide. The different mammalian species used for the various experiments are given below. None of the tests provided any evidence of mutagenicity induced by irradiation in any of the foodstuffs studied. Moreover, these tests are currently considered to be the most sensitive in vivo mutagenicity tests in mammals.

  9. Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charley W. Rankin; Jerome O. Nriagu; Jugdeep K. Aggarwal; Toyin A. Arowolo; Kola Adebayo; A. Russell Flegal

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products...

  10. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Krake, Susann H; Bergmeier, Stephen C; Payne, Mark J; Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A

    2011-09-14

    This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers.

  11. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Kenneth B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (--epicatechin and (+-catechin with (--epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (--epicatechin and (+-catechin, but also the formation of (--catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (--epicatechin and (+-catechin and an increase in (--catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (--epicatechin and (+-catechin with lesser losses of (--catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (--catechin exceeds the level of (--epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (--catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (--epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (--epicatechin > (+-catechin > (--catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers.

  12. Understanding sensory and analytical relationships in cocoa-based products

    OpenAIRE

    Sundara, Ramana; Festring, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The distinctive flavour of cocoa or chocolate made from fermented and roasted cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) is familiar to everybody in the cocoa consuming world. The industry differentiates between cocoa processing and chocolate manufacturing. Cocoa processing covers the activity of converting the beans into nib, liquor, butter, cake and powder. Chocolate manufacturing covers the blending and refining of cocoa liquor, cocoa butter and various optional ingredients, such as milk...

  13. Understanding sensory and analytical relationships in cocoa-based products

    OpenAIRE

    Sundara, Ramana; Festring, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The distinctive flavour of cocoa or chocolate made from fermented and roasted cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) is familiar to everybody in the cocoa consuming world. The industry differentiates between cocoa processing and chocolate manufacturing. Cocoa processing covers the activity of converting the beans into nib, liquor, butter, cake and powder. Chocolate manufacturing covers the blending and refining of cocoa liquor, cocoa butter and various optional ingredients, such as milk...

  14. Cocoa Bean (Theobroma cacao L.Drying Kinetics Cinética del Secado de Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndukwu MacManus Chinenye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. is widely produced in West Africa and South America and is a great economic tree crop, with so many industrial uses. In this work, the experimental drying kinetics of foreign species was investigated, and the experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions, using heated batch drier at 55, 70 and 81 ºC. The moisture ratio data obtained from change of moisture content with the drying time was fit to two thin layer drying model with good results. A faster drying process was observed at a higher drying temperature resulting in higher drying rates which is advantageous when evaluating costs. Fick’s second law of diffusion was used to predict effective diffusivity using experimental data assuming that the variation of diffusivity with temperature can be expressed by an Arrhenius type function, and the values of diffusivity obtained ranged from 6.137 x 10-10 to 2.1855 x 10-9 m2 s-1 for the temperature used. The Arrhenius constant (D is predicted at 8.64 x 10-4 m2 s-1 while the activation energy was predicted at 39.94 kJ mol-1.El cacao (Theobroma cacao L. es ampliamente producido en el Oeste de África y Sudamérica y es un cultivo de gran importancia económica, con muchos usos industriales. En este trabajo se investigó la cinética del secado experimental de especies foráneas, y se realizaron experimentos bajo condiciones isotérmicas, usando un secador discontinuo en caliente a 55, 70 y 81 °C. Los datos de relación de humedad obtenidos desde el cambio de contenido de humedad con el tiempo de secado se ajustaron a un modelo de secado de dos capas delgadas con buenos resultados. Se observó un proceso de secado más rápido a una temperatura de secado mayor resultando en mayores tasas de secado, lo que es ventajoso al evaluar costos. La segunda ley de difusión de Fick se usó para predecir difusividad efectiva usando datos experimentales, asumiendo que la variación de difusividad con la temperatura puede ser

  15. The Effect of Export Tax on Indonesia’s Cocoa Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The government of Indonesia implemented an export tax policy on cocoa beans since April 2010 in order to develop cocoa processing industry. The objective of this article is to analyze the effect of export tax on Indonesia’s cocoa export competitiveness. The results indicate that with the implementation of export tax, cocoa export product composition shift from cocoa beans to processed cocoa products. On the other hand, Indonesia’s cocoa export growth is lower than the growth of cocoa world de...

  16. Dynamics and biodiversity of populations of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous heap fermentation of cocoa beans in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

    2007-03-01

    The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as "Weissella ghanaensis," was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named "Acetobacter senegalensis" (A. tropicalis-like) and "Acetobacter

  17. OPTIMASI ISOLASI LIPASE INDIGENOUS BIJI KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L. The Optimizing of Isolation of Cocoa Bean Indogenous Lipase (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I D. G. Mayun Permana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to optimize the isolation method of cocoa bean lipase. The research is held by determining the position of lipase on cocoa bean, varying extraction medium and isolation process. The result shows that the lipase of cocoa bean is   cytosolic enzyme. The defatting process do not increase the lipase activity. Polyphenols inhibit the lipase activity, so that removal of the polyphenol will increase the activity. Blocking the polyphenol with polyvinilpolypirrolidone (PVPP will also increase the activity.The optimum consentration of PVPP is 8 %. The lipase activity will reach the highest when homogenized for 10 menit at 10,000 rpm. The best medium extraction for lipase isolation is 0.15 M phosphate buffer pH 7.5 containing sucrose 0.6 M and CaCl  1.0 mM.   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengoptimasi isolasi lipase indigenous biji kakao. Optimasi diawali dengan menentukan keberadaan lipase kemudian optimasi medium ekstraksi dan proses ekstraksi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lipase berada dalam sitosol. Penghilangan lemak tidak meningkatkan aktivitas lipase. Senyawa polifenol menghambat aktivitas lipase dan penghilangan polifenol dapat meningkatkan aktivitas lipase. Polyvinilpolypirrolidone (PVPP dapat menghambat polifenol sehingga dapat meningkatkan aktivitas lipase. Konsentrasi PVPP optimum adalah 8 % dari berat biji kakao. Proses homogenisasi optimum diperoleh dalam waktu 10 menit pada kecepatan 10.000 rpm. Medium ekstraksi untuk isolasi lipase biji kakao terbaik adalah bufer fosfat 0,15 M  dan pH 7,5 yang mengandung sukrosa 0,6 M dan 1,0 mM CaCl .

  18. Polyphenols in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Is There a Link between Antioxidant Properties and Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ismail

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa and cocoa products have received much attention due to their significant polyphenol contents. Cocoa and cocoa products, namely cocoa liquor, cocoa powder and chocolates (milk and dark chocolates may present varied polyphenol contents and possess different levels of antioxidant potentials. For the past ten years, at least 28 human studies have been conducted utilizing one of these cocoa products. However, questions arise on which of these products would deliver the best polyphenol contents and antioxidant effects. Moreover, the presence of methylxanthines, peptides, and minerals could synergistically enhance or reduce antioxidant properties of cocoa and cocoa products. To a greater extent, cocoa beans from different countries of origins and the methods of preparation (primary and secondary could also partially influence the antioxidant polyphenols of cocoa products. Hence, comprehensive studies on the aforementioned factors could provide the understanding of health-promoting activities of cocoa or cocoa products components.

  19. KARAKTERISASI ENZIM POLIFENOL OKSIDASE BIJI KAKAO (Theobroma cacao Linn. Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme of Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Ganda Putra

    2012-05-01

    max equals to 595,24 U/gram (db of cocoa beans and K equals to 0,20 M; result of SDS- PAGE of enzyme shows protein bands at M� of 11,75; 17,80; 27,80; 36,03 and 131,52 kDa; and finally, optimumcondition of enzyme activity is at the temperature of 53,43oC; pH 5,42 and incubation time of 80,91 minutes. ABSTRAK Telah dilakukan penelitian dengan tujuan untuk: (1 mengetahui karakteristik enzim polifenol oksidase dan (2 menen- tukan kondisi (suhu, pH dan waktu inkubasi optimum aktivitas enzim polifenol oksidase, yang diisolasi dari biji kakao kering. Hasil penelitian berupa kondisi (suhu, pH dan waktu inkubasi optimum aktivitas enzim polifenol oksidase akan diaplikasikan untuk perbaikan mutu biji kakao kering melalui teknik rehidrasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan melalui tahapan: (1 isolasi enzim polifenol oksidase dari 10 sampel biji kakao kering di Provinsi Bali, (2 karakterisasi enzim polifenol oksidase (aktivitas, kinetika enzim, BM dan (3 penentuan kondisi suhu, pH dan waktu inkubasi optimum. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa: (1 aktivitas enzim polifenol oksidase rata-rata 157,49 ± 58,03 U/gram (bk biji kakao dengan aktivitas maksimum 258,22 U/gram (bk biji kakao dan minimum 59,01 U/gram (bk biji kakao; maks sebesar 595,24 U/gram (bk biji kakao dan K sebesar 0,20 M; hasil SDS-PAGE enzim menunjukkan pita-pita protein yang terbentuk pada BM 11,75; 17,80; 27,80; 36,03 dan 131,52 kDa; dan (2 kondisi optimum aktivitas enzimadalah suhu 53,43oC; pH 5,42 dan waktu inkubasi 80,91 menit.

  20. Comparison of the bacterial species diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out at selected farms in Ivory Coast and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Camu, Nicholas; Falony, Gwen; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-08-01

    To compare the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process carried out in different cocoa-producing regions, heap and box (one Ivorian farm) and box (two Brazilian farms) fermentations were carried out. All fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. In general, the temperature inside the fermenting mass increased throughout all fermentations and reached end-values of 42-48 °C. The main end-products of pulp carbohydrate catabolism were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. In the case of the fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm, the species diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) was restricted. Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides were the predominant LAB species, due to their ethanol and acid tolerance and citrate consumption. The levels of mannitol, ascribed to growth of L. fermentum, were fermentation-dependent. Also, enterobacterial species, such as Erwinia soli and Pantoea sp., were among the predominating microbiota during the early stages of both heap and box fermentations in Ivory Coast, which could be responsible for gluconic acid production. Consumption of gluconic acid at the initial phases of the Ivorian fermentations could be due to yeast growth. A wider microbial species diversity throughout the fermentation process was seen in the case of the box fermentations on the selected Brazilian farms, which differed, amongst other factors, regarding pod/bean selection on these farms as compared to fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm. This microbiota included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus durianis, L. fermentum, Lactobacillus mali, Lactobacillus nagelii, L. pseudomesenteroides, and Pediococcus acidilactici, as well as Bacillus subtilis that was present at late fermentation, when the temperature inside the fermenting mass reached values higher than 50 °C. Moreover, AAB seemed to dominate the Brazilian box fermentations studied, explaining higher acetic

  1. Lead contamination in cocoa and cocoa products: isotopic evidence of global contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Charley W; Nriagu, Jerome O; Aggarwal, Jugdeep K; Arowolo, Toyin A; Adebayo, Kola; Flegal, A Russell

    2005-10-01

    In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was cocoa and chocolate products were as high as 230 and 70 ng/g, respectively, which are consistent with market-basket surveys that have repeatedly listed lead concentrations in chocolate products among the highest reported for all foods. One source of contamination of the finished products is tentatively attributed to atmospheric emissions of leaded gasoline, which is still being used in Nigeria. Because of the high capacity of cocoa bean shells to adsorb lead, contamination from leaded gasoline emissions may occur during the fermentation and sun-drying of unshelled beans at cocoa farms. This mechanism is supported by similarities in lead isotopic compositions of cocoa bean shells from the different farms (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1548-1.1581; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4344-2.4394) with those of finished cocoa products (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1475-1.1977; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4234-2.4673). However, the much higher lead concentrations and larger variability in lead isotopic composition of finished cocoa products, which falls within the global range of industrial lead aerosols, indicate that most contamination occurs during shipping and/or processing of the cocoa beans and the manufacture of cocoa and chocolate products.

  2. Biotechnology for cocoa pod borer resistance in cocoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaidamsari, T.

    2005-01-01

    The cocoa tree ( Theobroma cacao L.) produces the beans that are the source of cacao, the basis for chocolate production, and an important commodity crop in South America, West Africa, and Southeast Asia.Cocoa Pod

  3. Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, Charley W.; Nriagu, Jerome O.; Aggarwal, Jugdeep K.; Arowolo, Toyin A.; Adebayo, Kola; Flegal, A. Russell

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was ≤ 0.5 ng/g, which is one of the lowest reported values for a natural food. In contrast, lead concentrations of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products were as high as 230 and 70 ng/g, respectively, which are consistent with mark...

  4. Microbiological analysis of coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers in gamma irradiated cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.); Analise microbiologica de coliformes e aerobicos mesofilos em amendoas de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.) irradiadas com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barata, Anderson Demetrio; Mansur Netto, Elias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    1995-12-31

    The presence of coliforms in processed foods is an useful indicator of post-sanitization and post processing contamination, and members of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers have great importance in food spoilage. Spore - forming aerobic bacilli have been observed in fermenting cocoa in Jamaica and West Africa. The results of this work has shown a considerable reduction of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers in irradiated Brazilian Comun Cocoa beans as long as the irradiation dose was increased from 1.05 to 3.99 kGy. The presence of coliforms irradiated has not been found even in the coroa beans with the dose of 1.05 kGy. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Mechanical Cocoa Podbreaker Utilization in Cocoa Handling to Improve Labor Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyoto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available One of initial step of primary cocoa processing, which determine the final quality and processing costwas pulping and pod breaker. Pod breaker is used to take out the cocoa bean and separate it from fruitcrust and placenta. Presently, cocoa pod breaking and bean separating from crust fruit are still conductedmanually and need many workers, as well. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designedand tested the cocoa pod breaker with double cylinder pod breaking mechanism and vibration table graderwith bean separating mechanism. Testing result showed that cocoa pod breaker had maximum workcapacity of 9000 cocoa pod per hour at motor rotation of 2,000-2,200 rpm. Highest percentage of crust chipincluded in bean was 1.1%, which was obtained at treatment input feeding opening of 80% and percentageof broken bean of 2.1%. While the lowest percentage of crust bean was 0.16% that is obtained at 20%input feeding opening with 1.7% of broken bean. Optimum work capacity of 4,950 cocoa pod per hour wasobtained at 50% input feeding opening with 0.22% crust chip included in bean, and 1.9% of broken beanpercentage.

  6. Dataset of cocoa aspartic protease cleavage sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Janek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data provide information in support of the research article, “The cleavage specificity of the aspartic protease of cocoa beans involved in the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors” (Janek et al., 2016 [1]. Three different protein substrates were partially digested with the aspartic protease isolated from cocoa beans and commercial pepsin, respectively. The obtained peptide fragments were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS and identified using the MASCOT server. The N- and C-terminal ends of the peptide fragments were used to identify the corresponding in-vitro cleavage sites by comparison with the amino acid sequences of the substrate proteins. The same procedure was applied to identify the cleavage sites used by the cocoa aspartic protease during cocoa fermentation starting from the published amino acid sequences of oligopeptides isolated from fermented cocoa beans.

  7. The effect of cocoa fermentation and weak organic acids on growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Copetti, Marina V.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Mororó, Raimundo C.

    2012-01-01

    The acidic characteristics of cocoa beans have influence on flavor development in chocolate. Cocoa cotyledons are not naturally acidic, the acidity comes from organic acids produced by the fermentative microorganisms which grow during the processing of cocoa. Different concentrations of these met......The acidic characteristics of cocoa beans have influence on flavor development in chocolate. Cocoa cotyledons are not naturally acidic, the acidity comes from organic acids produced by the fermentative microorganisms which grow during the processing of cocoa. Different concentrations...

  8. Optimizing chocolate production through traceability: A review of the influence of farming practices on cocoa bean quality

    OpenAIRE

    Saltini, Rolando; Akkerman, Renzo; Frosch, Stina

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent developments in traceability systems, it is now possible to exchange significant amounts of data through food supply chains. Farming practices applied by cocoa farmers at the beginning of the chocolate supply chain strongly influence several quality parameters of the finished chocolate. However, information regarding these practices does not normally reach the chocolate manufacturer. As a consequence, many specifications of the raw material cannot be taken into consideration in ...

  9. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Sayma Akhter; Morag A. McDonald; Ray Marriott

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that...

  10. Composition of cocoa shell fat as related to cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saied, H M; Morsi, M K; Amer, M M

    1981-06-01

    The physical and chemical constants of cocoa shell fat (a by-product resulted during the production of cocoa butter at chocolate factories) were almost identical with those of cocoa butter obtained from the same cocoa beans except for their high acid value. Shell fat contained more amount of phospholipid content (as cephalin) than cocoa butter. The lipid classes were almost the same in cocoa butter and shell fat, however, the latter contained an unidentified constituent which was not found in cocoa butter. The fatty acids were determined quantitatively by GLC, and the results showed that the predominant acids in cocoa butter were palmitic, and oleic. Less amounts of capric, myristic, palmitoleic and linoleic were found in cocoa butter, whereas more amounts of these acids were found in shell fat. Cocoa butter gave higher values of stearic and myristic acids than those of shell fat. Seventeen compounds were detected by GLC in the unsaponifiable matter of both cocoa butter and shell fat from which eight were identified as C30 hydrocarbon, C32 hydrocarbon, squalene, alpha-tocopherol, cholesterol, campsterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol in the two samples. The sterols were determined quantitatively, and it was found that the predominant sterol in cocoa butter and shell fat was B-sitosterol. Cocoa butter contained higher values of stigmasterol than that of shell fat, which contained increasing values of campsterol, low values of cholesterol were found in both samples. Stability of cocoa butter and shell fat towards oxidative rancidity at 100 degrees C was the same (10.5 hrs).

  11. Changes in procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in cocoa procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting were studied by heating up cocoa liquor of fermented beans containing 58 g kg-1 of polyphenols and the same liquor which was enriched with crude polyphenols, extracted from freeze-dried unfermented cocoa beans to a final concentration of 170 g kg-1. The liquors were roasted at 120 OC for 15, 25, 35 and 45 min with three replications. Result of the study showed that cocoa bean polyphenol was resistant against high temperature during heating of cocoa liquor 120 OC for up to 45 min. The resistance was stronger with the unfermented cocoa bean polyphenol than with fermented cocoa. High temperature promoted a small quantity of monomers up to pentamers of the fermented cocoa bean polyphenol to polymerize into higher oligomers, but did not with unfermented cocoa bean polyphenol. These results imply that the problem of lack in cocoa flavor in terms high astringency and bitterness due to high polyphenol content cannot be overcome by the application of high temperature during chocolate processing, meanwhile cocoa bean polyphenol could still give beneficial as an antioxidant even after high temperature application.Key words: Cocoa bean, polyphenol, procyanidin, tannin, roasting, antioxidant, flavor, astringency.

  12. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa products and chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Bonvehí, Josep

    2004-10-06

    In this work, the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in 170 samples of cocoa products of different geographical origins was studied. An immunoaffinity column with HPLC separation was developed to quantify low levels of OTA in cocoa bean, cocoa cake, cocoa mass, cocoa nib, cocoa powder, cocoa shell, cocoa butter, chocolate, and chocolate cream with >80% recoveries. The method was validated by performing replicate analyses of uncontaminated cocoa material spiked at three different levels of OTA (1, 2, and 5 microg/kg). The data obtained were related on the acceptable safe daily exposure for OTA. The highest levels of OTA were detected in roasted cocoa shell and cocoa cake (0.1-23.1 microg/kg) and only at minor levels in the other cocoa products. Twenty-six cocoa and chocolate samples were free from detectable OTA (2 microg/kg (and 12 samples at >3 microg/kg). Ochratoxin A was detected in cocoa bean at levels from 0.1 to 3.5 microg/kg, the mean concentration being 0.45 microg/kg; only one sample exceeded 2 microg/kg (4.7%). In contrast, 51.2% of cocoa cake samples contained OTA at levels > or =2 microg/kg, among which 16 exceeded 5 microg/kg (range of 5-9 microg/kg). These results indicate that roasted cocoa powder is not a major source of OTA in the diet.

  13. Molecular identification and physiological characterization of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria isolated from heap and box cocoa bean fermentations in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintin, Simonetta; Alessandria, Valentina; Valente, Antonio; Dolci, Paola; Cocolin, Luca

    2016-01-04

    Yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations, isolated from cocoa bean heap and box fermentations in West Africa, have been investigated. The fermentation dynamicswere determined by viable counts, and 106 yeasts, 105 LAB and 82 AAB isolateswere identified by means of rep-PCR grouping and sequencing of the rRNA genes. During the box fermentations, the most abundant species were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ethanolica, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii, while S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia manshurica, C. ethanolica, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Lb. fermentum, Lb. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and Acetobacter lovaniensis were identified in the heap fermentations. Furthermore, the most abundant species were molecularly characterized by analyzing the rep-PCR profiles. Strains grouped according to the type of fermentations and their progression during the transformation process were also highlighted. The yeast, LAB and AAB isolates were physiologically characterized to determine their ability to grow at different temperatures, as well as at different pH, and ethanol concentrations, tolerance to osmotic stress, and lactic acid and acetic acid inhibition. Temperatures of 45 °C, a pH of 2.5 to 3.5, 12% (v/v) ethanol and high concentrations of lactic and acetic acid have a significant influence on the growth of yeasts, LAB and AAB. Finally, the yeastswere screened for enzymatic activity, and the S. cerevisiae, H. guilliermondii, H. uvarumand C. ethanolica species were shown to possess several enzymes that may impact the quality of the final product.

  14. Influence on physical and chemical properties of Mung bean starch by vibration superfine grinding time%振动式超微粉碎处理时间对绿豆淀粉理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝征红; 张炳文; 郭珊珊; 陈宇航; 臧庆佳

    2014-01-01

    为研究振动式超微粉碎处理时间对绿豆淀粉理化性质的影响,提高淀粉类制品中抗性淀粉的含量,该文以绿豆淀粉为研究对象,通过振动式超微粉碎处理,研究了处理时间对样品的粒度分布、结晶度、溶解度、膨润力、凝沉性、老化值及提高抗性淀粉形成等性质的影响。研究结果表明:随着振动式超微粉碎处理时间的延长,绿豆淀粉颗粒的平均粒径、中位径(D50)和粒径分布的离散度增大,比表面积总体呈下降趋势;淀粉晶体的有序化程度降低,无定形化程度逐渐增强;在同一温度下,样品的溶解度大幅增加,同一处理时间的绿豆淀粉其溶解度随着温度的升高不断增加,低温膨润力随处理的时间延长而增加,高温膨润力随处理的时间延长而降低,且随着处理时间的延长,温度对膨润力的影响逐渐减小;绿豆淀粉糊的凝沉程度变高、凝沉速度变快,超微处理20 min可明显提高绿豆淀粉的老化程度,对提高抗性淀粉的形成具有促进作用,该研究为绿豆抗性淀粉的生产、提高绿豆淀粉制品中抗性淀粉含量的工艺改进提供了理论依据及技术支撑。%Mung bean starch processed by different superfine grinding times was studied to demonstrate the effects of superfine grinding processing with high frequency vibration on its retrogradation properties. In this research, the structure and properties of Mung bean starch, such as particle size distribution and crystallinity, were analyzed. The properties of starch retrogradation, including the solubility, swelling power, retrogradation property, and retrogradation value, were studied, and the contents of resistant starch obtained by retrogradation processing were comparatively analyzed. This study provided theoretical basis and technical support for improving the content and processing technology of resistant starch in Mung bean starch

  15. Making chocolate from beans: what’s involved?

    OpenAIRE

    Sundara, Ramana; Manez, Angel; Coutel, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Industry differentiates between cocoa processing and chocolate manufacturing. Cocoa processing covers the activity of converting the beans into nib, liquor, butter, cake and powder. Chocolate manufacturing covers the blending and refining of cocoa liquor, cocoa butter and various optional ingredients, such as milk and sugar.

  16. Phenolic composition, antioxidant, anti-wrinkles and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of cocoa pod extract

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Karim, Azila; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Hashim, Puziah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Zainudin, Badrul Hisyam; Abdullah, Nur Azilah

    2014-01-01

    Background Cocoa pod is an outer part of cocoa fruits being discarded during cocoa bean processing. Authors found out that data on its usage in literature as cosmetic materials was not recorded in vast. In this study, cocoa pod extract was investigated for its potential as a cosmetic ingredient. Methods Cocoa pod extract (CPE) composition was accomplished using UHPLC. The antioxidant capacity were measured using scavenging assay of 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching as...

  17. Mycobiota of cocoa: From farm to chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Copetti, Marina V.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology......The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs......, liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated...

  18. Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authenticity and traceability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important tropical crop since it is the source of cocoa butter and powder for the confectionery industry. Production and marketing of premium high-value fine flavored cacao provide opportunities for cacao growers, the chocolate industry and consumers. The higher far...

  19. Microbial ecology of the cocoa chain : quality aspects and insight into heat-resistant bacterial spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Líma, L.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacaoL.) are the basis for chocolate and cocoa powder production. The first step in the production of these food products consists of a spontaneous fermentation of the beans in the tropical producing countries, in order to allow the formation of the essential precursor compoun

  20. Optimizing of a Horizontal Cylinder Type Cocoa Roaster for Dried Cocoa Cotyledon Roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The secondary process of cocoa is one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. One the other hand, the development for secondary cocoa process requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale business. Cocoa roaster is a basic equipment to produce good and competitive secondary cocoa products for chocolate industry. The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has, therefore, designed and tested a horizontal cylinder type roaster for drying cocoa cotyledon. The cylinder has 405 mm diameter, 520 mm long and is rotated by a 1 HP (0.75 kW, 220 V, single phase and 1400 rpm electric motor. Assisted with a gear reducer, the final cylinder rotation is adjusted at approximately 6 rpm. The heat for roasting process is generated from kerosene burner. At the end of roasting, the roasted beans are cooled down by ambient air inside a cooling platform by natural air flow. The raw material used in this optimizing test was dried fine cocoa cotyledon. Field tests showed that the optimum performance of the roaster was 7 kg dried fine cocoa cotyledon loaded with roasting temperature 120 oC and 25.57 kg/h optimum capacity. The organoleptic test showed that score of aromatic, flavour, acidity, bitterness, astringency and burnt were 4.8, 5.2, 5.4, 5.2, 4.8 and 0.8 with 10 scale, also 4.2 with 5 scale for likely. The roasting time was 15—25 minutes to get 2.5—3% final water content depend on roasting temperature and cocoa cotyledon loaded. Key words: cocoa, roasting, horizontal cylinder, quality.

  1. Polyphenol-Retaining Decaffeinated Cocoa Powder Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Its Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kinji Kobori; Yuto Maruta; Shigeru Mineo; Toru Shigematsu; Masao Hirayama

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa beans contain many functional ingredients such as theobromine and polyphenols, but also contain a relatively high amount of caffeine, which can negatively impact human health. It is therefore desirable to reduce caffeine levels in cocoa powder used to make chocolate or cocoa beverages while retaining functional ingredients. We have established conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction that remove 80.1% of the caffeine from cocoa powder while retaining theobromine (9...

  2. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Eva eMartínez-Pinilla; Ainhoa eOñatibia-Astibia; Rafael eFranco

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid sixteenth Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine, in the proportions found i...

  3. Effectivity of locally wood rot fungal isolates in decomposition of leaf and cocoa pod husk waste

    OpenAIRE

    Kuswinanti, Tutik; Rosmana, Ade; Dewi, Vien Sartika; Jamila; Baharuddin

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa pod husk is a major waste of cocoa plants that can be used either as an organic fertilizer or as animal feed. For 972.400 hectares of cocoa plantation, produce as much as 572.900 tons of cocoa beans, while the waste generated reached 1.8766 million tons/year. However, only 94.515 tons of cocoa waste has been utilized. Given the composition of twigs, leaves and cocoa pods that contain lots of lignin and cellulose, further research is needed to find microbes that effective ...

  4. Study on Incentive Price of Fermented Cocoa to Overcome Reluctance of Farmer to Apply Fermentation : Case Study in Jembrana Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Soemarno

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Improving cocoa quality through encouraging farmers to do fermentation is one of the ways to increase the added value of cocoa. However, majority ofIndonesian farmers are reluctance to do fermentation. This research aimed to study factors causing farmers reluctant to do fermentation, weight differencebetween fermented and unfermented cocoa, cocoa processing time difference between fermented and unfermented cocoa, quality difference between fermentedand unfermented coco refers to cocoa bean standard (SNI: 01-2323-2008/Amd-2010, and feasible added value incentive of fermented cocoa beans. The data collectionwere conducted through household farmers’ survey, focus group discussion and experimental research. The experimental research was conducted to understandthe weight and processing time differences; and to asess the quality, including moisture content, bean count, pH and fermentation index. Analysis of the datawere conducted by methods of Fishbone Ishikawa and logit multiplier linear analysis. The research results showed that the main factors causing farmers reluctant todo fermentation were insuitable of selling price of fermented cocoa, the existence of village collectors in buying unfermented cocoa, the lack of cooperation amongfarmers in farmer group (Subak Abian and the lack of farmers’ skills on cocoa bean fermentation. This study also found that the weight depreciation differencebetween fermented and unfermented cocoa was 0.5-3.75%, and the processing time difference between fermented and unfermented cocoa was 12-24 hours. Qualityof fermented cocoa beans was higher than that of unfermented cocoa beans and it can fulfill the standard of SNI: 01-2323-2008/Amd-2010. It was found that thefeasible added value incentive of fermented cocoa benas was 2,126-3,426 IDR/kg. Keywords: cocoa, fermentation, unfermented, quality, incentive

  5. Perfecting a method of micro-analysis of water and acetic acid in a cocoa bean in the course of drying: applying to determine transportation coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganhou, J.; Njomo, D.; Bénet, J. C.; Augier, F.; Berthomieu, G.

    2003-09-01

    This article is about the study of the diffusion of water and acetic acid in a grain of cocoa in course of drying. The authors present a method of microanalysis which enables the analysis of each little slice of the grain : a precise measurement of each slice is realised in view of the analysis from the centre to the surface of the grain with the aid of a cutting apparatus, designed and realised to this effect. At each instant of the drying process, the profiles of water and acetic acid contents are then determined. A one dimensional diffusion model enables a shell by shell evaluation of the diffusion of water and acid in the cocoa grain. The results obtained show an augmentation of transport coefficients in course of drying. We however observe a decrease of the diffusion coefficient of water to the low moisture content : what makes us think of the appearance of crusting phenomenon.

  6. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK POLIFENOL KASAR DARI KAKAO HASIL PENYANGRAIAN MENGGUNAKAN ENERJI GELOMBANG MIKRO [Antioxidant activity of crude polyphenol extract from microwave roasted cocoa bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyanto 1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Microwave heating is faster than the conventional way, therefore it is interesting to apply for cocoa roasting. This research was aimed at gaining information on the effect of microwave roasting of ground cocoa nib on the antioxidative properties of crude polyphenol extract from the product.The results indicated that microwave roasting of ground cocoa nib for 5 min, adjusted at 20% of the full power (900W gave no significant difference in inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and scavenging of DPPH radical activity of the crude polyphenol extract compared to that of the conventional roasting at 140 oC for 40 min. But having reduction of ferric ion activity more greater and chelating ferro ion activity more lower. The crude polyphenol extract inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and scavenged DPPH free radical. The inhibition was lower than that of either BHT or a-tocoferol at concentration lower than 400 ug/ml for linoleic acid oxidation and that lower than 40 ug/ml for DPPH free radical scavenging. The crude polyphenol extract reduced ferric ion, though lower than BHT did.

  7. Increasing cocoa butter-like lipid production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of selected cocoa genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Gossing, Michael; Bergenholm, David

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol(POS,C16:0C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18....... TAG synthesis is mainly catalyzed by three enzymes: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). In order to produce CBL in S. cerevisiae, we selected six cocoa genes encoding GPAT, LPAT and DGAT potentially responsible...... for CB biosynthesis from the cocoa genome using a phylogenetic analysis approach. By expressing the selected cocoa genes in S. cerevisiae, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some S. cerevisiae strains. The relative CBL content in three yeast...

  8. Optimization of cocoa nib roasting based on sensory properties and colour using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M.H. A.H. Farah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Roasting of cocoa beans is a critical stage for development of its desirable flavour, aroma and colour. Prior to roasting, cocoa bean may taste astringent, bitter, acidy, musty, unclean, nutty or even chocolate-like, depends on the bean sources and their preparations. After roasting, the bean possesses a typical intense cocoa flavour. The Maillard or non-enzymatic browning reactions is a very important process for the development of cocoa flavor, which occurs primarily during the roasting process and it has generally been agreed that the main flavor components, pyrazines formation is associated within this reaction involving amino acids and reducing sugars. The effect of cocoa nib roasting conditions on sensory properties and colour of cocoa beans were investigated in this study. Roasting conditions in terms of temperature ranged from 110 to 160OC and time ranged from 15 to 40 min were optimized by using Response Surface Methodology based on the cocoa sensory characteristics including chocolate aroma, acidity, astringency, burnt taste and overall acceptability. The analyses used 9- point hedonic scale with twelve trained panelist. The changes in colour due to the roasting condition were also monitored using chromameter. Result of this study showed that sensory quality of cocoa liquor increased with the increase in roasting time and temperature up to 160OC and up to 40 min, respectively. Based on the Response Surface Methodology, the optimised operating condition for the roaster was at temperature of 127OC and time of 25 min. The proposed roasting conditions were able to produce superior quality cocoa beans that will be very useful for cocoa manufactures.Key words : Cocoa, cocoa liquor, flavour, aroma, colour, sensory characteristic, response surface methodology.

  9. (-)-Catechin in cocoa and chocolate: occurrence and analysis of an atypical flavan-3-ol enantiomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofink, Michael; Papagiannopoulos, Menelaos; Galensa, Rudolf

    2007-07-04

    Cocoa contains high levels of different flavonoids. In the present study, the enantioseparation of catechin and epicatechin in cocoa and cocoa products by chiral capillary electrophoresis (CCE) was performed. A baseline separation of the catechin and epicatechin enantiomers was achieved by using 0.1 mol x L(-1) borate buffer (pH 8.5) with 12 mmol x L(-1) (2-hydroxypropyl)-gamma-cyclodextrin as chiral selector, a fused-silica capillary with 50 cm effective length (75 microm I.D.), +18 kV applied voltage, a temperature of 20 degrees C and direct UV detection at 280 nm. To avoid comigration or coelution of other similar substances, the flavan-3-ols were isolated and purified using polyamide-solid-phase-extraction and LC-MS analysis. As expected, we found (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin in unfermented, dried, unroasted cocoa beans. In contrast, roasted cocoa beans and cocoa products additionally contained the atypical flavan-3-ol (-)-catechin. This is generally formed during the manufacturing process by an epimerization which converts (-)-epicatechin to its epimer (-)-catechin. High temperatures during the cocoa bean roasting process and particularly the alkalization of the cocoa powder are the main factors inducing the epimerization reaction. In addition to the analysis of cocoa and cocoa products, peak ratios were calculated for a better differentiation of the cocoa products.

  10. Sensitive method for determination of DON in cocoa by means of HPLC-techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raters, M; Matissek, R

    2007-12-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of a group of mycotoxins known as type B trichothecenes and is particularly formed by the mould speciesFusarium graminearum andFusarium culmorum. The frequency of the occurrence of DON in certain raw materials and the concentrations found make it one of the world's most significant mycotoxin contaminants. Positive findings of the toxin especially have been established in cereal-based foods, as well as in oilseeds.The main objective of this study was to set up a current situation assessment of the possible occurrence of deoxynivalenol in cocoa and cocoa products. As there was no analytical method for determining DON in cocoa and cocoa products, a special method was developed. The applicability and consistency of the method was confirmed by performing recovery assays on various cocoa products. A special post-column derivatisation procedure was developed to increase selectivity and raise sensitivity by a factor of 80.The method was used to test 230 samples for possible DON content, ranging from cocoa beans to cocoa bean shells, nibs, cocoa liquor and cocoa powders through to finished cocoa-based products. The results suggest that DON may occasionally occur in cocoa beans in very low concentrations.

  11. (--Catechin in Cocoa and Chocolate: Occurence and Analysis of an Atypical Flavan-3-ol Enantiomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Galensa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa contains high levels of different flavonoids. In the present study, the enantioseparation of catechin and epicatechin in cocoa and cocoa products by chiral capillary electrophoresis (CCE was performed. A baseline separation of the catechin and epicatechin enantiomers was achieved by using 0.1 mol·L−1 borate buffer (pH 8.5 with 12 mmol·L-1 (2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin as chiral selector, a fused-silica capillary with 50 cm effective length (75 μm I.D., +18 kV applied voltage, a temperature of 20°C and direct UV detection at 280 nm. To avoid comigration or coelution of other similar substances, the flavan-3-ols were isolated and purified using polyamide-solid-phase-extraction and LC-MS analysis. As expected, we found (--epicatechin and (+-catechin inunfermented, dried, unroasted cocoa beans. In contrast, roasted cocoa beans and cocoa products additionally contained the atypical flavan-3-ol (--catechin. This is generally formed during the manufacturing process by an epimerization which converts (--epicatechin to its epimer (--catechin. High temperatures during the cocoa bean roasting process and particularly the alkalization of the cocoa powder are the main factors inducing the epimerization reaction. In addition to the analysis of cocoa and cocoa products, peak ratios were calculated for a better differentiation of the cocoa products.

  12. [On the iron contamination in cocoa and chocolate products (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsman, J A

    1978-08-18

    The investigation in question deals with the iron contamination in cocoa and chocolate products. Semi finished goods as well as finished products were examined. An average of 29 mg/kg total iron (i.e. ionic + metallic iron) was found in cocoabeans. The iron content of cocoa shells was approximately 10 fold higher. The process of grinding roasted nibs to cocoa-mass (liquor) resulted in a noticeable increase of the quantity of iron to an average amount of 150 mg/kg mass. This process thus produced an increase of the iron content of approximately 75 to as much as 200%. The cocoa powders contained more iron (238 mg/kg) than the cocoa mass, which linked to a reduction of the fat content by pressing and by grinding of the presscake. The quantities of iron observed in commercial samples of cocoa powder from different countries did not show appreciable differences.

  13. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder. PMID:23792967

  14. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hayes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  15. Tolerance for high flavanol cocoa powder in semisweet chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-06-21

    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  16. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa by-products and determination of its reduction during chocolate manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Nester, Melanie A; Efraim, Priscilla; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2013-01-01

    This work reports an investigation carried out to assess the natural occurrence of ochratoxin A in 168 samples from different fractions obtained during the technological processing of cocoa (shell, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and cocoa powder) and the reduction of ochratoxin A during chocolate manufacture. Ochratoxin A analyses were performed with immunoaffinity columns and detection by high performance liquid chromatography. Concerning the natural ochratoxin A contamination in cocoa by-products, the highest levels of ochratoxin A were found in the shell, cocoa powder and cocoa cake. The cocoa butter was the least contaminated, showing that ochratoxin A seems to remain in the defatted cocoa solids. Under the technological conditions applied during the manufacture of chocolate in this study and the level of contamination present in the cocoa beans, this experiment demonstrated that 93.6% of ochratoxin A present in the beans was reduced during the chocolate producing.

  17. Cocoa Fermentations Conducted with a Defined Microbial Cocktail Inoculum

    OpenAIRE

    Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    1998-01-01

    Cocoa fermentations were performed in wooden boxes under the following four experimental regimens: beans naturally fermented with wild microflora; aseptically prepared beans with no inoculum; and beans inoculated with a defined cocktail containing microorganisms at a suitable concentration either at zero time or by using phased additions at appropriate times. The cocktail used consisted of a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri, two lactic acid bacterial species, Lactobacillus lact...

  18. Impact of a Microbial Cocktail Used as a Starter Culture on Cocoa Fermentation and Chocolate Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Magalhães da Veiga Moreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate production suffered a vast impact with the emergence of the “witches’ broom” disease in cocoa plants. To recover cocoa production, many disease-resistant hybrid plants have been developed. However, some different cocoa hybrids produce cocoa beans that generate chocolate with variable quality. Fermentation of cocoa beans is a microbiological process that can be applied for the production of chocolate flavor precursors, leading to overcoming the problem of variable chocolate quality. The aim of this work was to use a cocktail of microorganisms as a starter culture on the fermentation of the ripe cocoa pods from PH15 cocoa hybrid, and evaluate its influence on the microbial communities present on the fermentative process on the compounds involved during the fermentation, and to perform the chocolate sensorial characterization. According to the results obtained, different volatile compounds were identified in fermented beans and in the chocolate produced. Bitterness was the dominant taste found in non-inoculated chocolate, while chocolate made with inoculated beans showed bitter, sweet, and cocoa tastes. 2,3-Butanediol and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were considered as volatile compounds making the difference on the flavor of both chocolates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CCMA 0200, Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0238, and Acetobacter pasteurianus CCMA 0241 are proposed as starter cultures for cocoa fermentation.

  19. Impact of a Microbial Cocktail Used as a Starter Culture on Cocoa Fermentation and Chocolate Flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães da Veiga Moreira, Igor; de Figueiredo Vilela, Leonardo; da Cruz Pedroso Miguel, Maria Gabriela; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson; Freitas Schwan, Rosane

    2017-05-09

    Chocolate production suffered a vast impact with the emergence of the "witches' broom" disease in cocoa plants. To recover cocoa production, many disease-resistant hybrid plants have been developed. However, some different cocoa hybrids produce cocoa beans that generate chocolate with variable quality. Fermentation of cocoa beans is a microbiological process that can be applied for the production of chocolate flavor precursors, leading to overcoming the problem of variable chocolate quality. The aim of this work was to use a cocktail of microorganisms as a starter culture on the fermentation of the ripe cocoa pods from PH15 cocoa hybrid, and evaluate its influence on the microbial communities present on the fermentative process on the compounds involved during the fermentation, and to perform the chocolate sensorial characterization. According to the results obtained, different volatile compounds were identified in fermented beans and in the chocolate produced. Bitterness was the dominant taste found in non-inoculated chocolate, while chocolate made with inoculated beans showed bitter, sweet, and cocoa tastes. 2,3-Butanediol and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were considered as volatile compounds making the difference on the flavor of both chocolates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CCMA 0200, Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0238, and Acetobacter pasteurianus CCMA 0241 are proposed as starter cultures for cocoa fermentation.

  20. The analysis of production and trade patterns in cocoa market worldwide and in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejuk, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa belongs to the group of one of the most valuable commodities in the world. Most production of cocoa beans takes place in the African countries in the Equatorial “Cocoa Belt”. However, most processing of raw products is made in Western European countries. Poland is a substantial producer of confectionery chocolate products, therefore the country imports cocoa butter and cocoa paste, which gives it 8th and 6th place in the world in terms of quantity imported. This paper presents an analys...

  1. Partial purification and characterisation of the peptide precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Jürgen; Janek, Katharina; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Essential precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma notes are formed during fermentation of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis. It has been shown that, in addition to free amino acids, hydrophilic peptides derived from the vicilin-class(7S) globular storage protein are required for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma notes during the roasting process. To identify those peptides responsible for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma components, we have developed a procedure for the fractionation of the aroma precursor extract from well-fermented cocoa beans by ligand-exchange and subsequent Sephadex-LH20 chromatography. The cocoa-specific aroma precursor fractions were characterised by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and the determination of their amino acid sequences by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).

  2. Trace elements in cocoa solids and chocolate: an ICPMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanus, Rinat Levi; Sela, Hagit; Borojovich, Eitan J C; Zakon, Yevgeni; Saphier, Magal; Nikolski, Andrey; Gutflais, Efi; Lorber, Avraham; Karpas, Zeev

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of eight trace elements: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi) and molybdenum (Mo), in chocolate, cocoa beans and products were studied by ICPMS. The study examined chocolate samples from different brands and countries with different concentrations of cocoa solids from each brand. The samples were digested and filtered to remove lipids and indium was used as an internal standard to correct matrix effects. A linear correlation was found between the level of several trace elements in chocolate and the cocoa solids content. Significant levels of Bi and As were found in the cocoa bean shells but not in the cocoa bean and chocolate. This may be attributed to environmental contamination. The presence of other elements was attributed to the manufacturing processes of cocoa and chocolate products. Children, who are big consumers of chocolates, may be at risk of exceeding the daily limit of lead; whereas one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit. Moreover chocolate may not be the only source of lead in their nutrition. For adults there is almost no risk of exceeding daily limits for trace metals ingestion because their digestive absorption of metals is very poor. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Mycobiota of cocoa: from farm to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pereira, José L; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2011-12-01

    The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated and identified using different keys of identification. The largest numbers and diversity of fungi were observed in the samples collected at the farm, especially during drying and storage. The species with the highest occurrence among samples were: Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus sp. nov., A. flavus, Penicillium paneum and yeasts. A total of 1132 potentially toxigenic fungi were isolated from the following species or species groups: A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nomius, Aspergillus niger group, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus group. The highest percentage of toxigenic fungi was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology. This understanding leads to a reduction in fungal spoilage and mycotoxin production in this product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A.; Marriott, Ray

    2016-08-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  5. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A; Marriott, Ray

    2016-08-24

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  6. Performance and suggested alternative strategies in developing Indonesian cocoa export business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dradjat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This research focussed on the export development of cocoa bean with respect to its export growth, values and competitiveness. Based on this deve-lopment, the aim of this research is to propose alternative development strategies of export business for cocoa bean in the future. The Analysis Hierarchie Process (AHP framework of export business of cocoa bean was arranged consecutively from formulation of focuss or goals, identification of affecting factors and actors, deter mination of actor objectives, and recognition of alternative strategies needed. Each component of goals, factors, actors, objectives, and alternative strategies were valued on the basis of their importance using Saaty scales. Results of interviews with experts were analyzed using AHP technique. The development of cocoa bean export from 2000 to 2006 showed the competitiveness position of Indonesia in the world market was fairly good. In order to increase the growth and values of cocoa bean export, the experts consider the role of government as regulators and facilitators is very important. The government became the main actor for the export development through de/regulation related to the cocoa bean commodity. The objectives of actors could be achieved by combining strategies (i provision of fund in national and regional budget, as well as other sources (ii implementation of recomended technologies of cocoa, (iii acceleration of replanting program, (iv improvement of research productivity in producing high yielding plant materials, (v development of transportation facilities from farms to harbours, (vi development of farmers’ organization and partnerships as well as strategic alliance, and (viii pests and diseases control. Key words: Cocoa bean, expor, role of government, objectives and strategies.

  7. Expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Schouten, N.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of temperature (40–110 °C), applied mechanical pressure (20–80 MPa), applied pressure profile (constant/linearly increasing) and moisture content (0–8 wt.%, wet basis) on the expression of cocoa nibs were investigated. The maximum cocoa butter yield is achieved at 100 °C. The optimum mois

  8. Cocoa and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Roberto; Flammer, Andreas J; Hollenberg, Norman K; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2009-03-17

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been proposed, including activation of nitric oxide and antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. This review summarizes the available data on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa, outlines potential mechanisms involved in the response to cocoa, and highlights the potential clinical implications associated with its consumption.

  9. Fungi and mycotoxins in cocoa: from farm to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2014-05-16

    Cocoa is an important crop, as it is the raw material from which chocolate is manufactured. It is grown mainly in West Africa although significant quantities also come from Asia and Central and South America. Primary processing is carried out on the farm, and the flavour of chocolate starts to develop at that time. Freshly harvested pods are opened, the beans, piled in heaps or wooden boxes, are fermented naturally by yeasts and bacteria, then dried in the sun on wooden platforms or sometimes on cement or on the ground, where a gradual reduction in moisture content inhibits microbial growth. Beans are then bagged and marketed. In processing plants, the dried fermented beans are roasted, shelled and ground, then two distinct processes are used, to produce powdered cocoa or chocolate. Filamentous fungi may contaminate many stages in cocoa processing, and poor practices may have a strong influence on the quality of the beans. Apart from causing spoilage, filamentous fungi may also produce aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. This review deals with the growth of fungal species and formation of mycotoxins during the various steps in cocoa processing, as well as reduction of these contaminants by good processing practices. Methodologies for fungal and mycotoxin detection and quantification are discussed while current data about dietary exposure and regulation are also presented.

  10. Investigating the fermentation of cocoa by correlating denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles and near infrared spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Snitkjær, Pia; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J

    2008-01-01

    of the beans and the chemical processes inside the beans have been carried out previously. Recently it has been shown that Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) offers an efficient tool for monitoring the microbiological changes taking place during the fermentation of cocoa. Near Infrared (NIR...

  11. Fermentation Process of Cocoa Based on Optimum Condition of Pulp PectinDepolymerization by Endogenous Pectolityc Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Ganda-Putra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulp degradation during cocoa fermentation can be carried out by depolymerization process of pulp pectin using endogenous pectolytic enzymes at optimum condition. The objectives of this research were to study the effect of fermentation process based on optimum condition in terms of temperature and pH of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes polygalakturonase (PG and pectin metyl esterase (PME and fermentation period in cocoa processing on quality characteristics of cocoa beans produced and to study the role of those fermentation process in reducing fermentation time to produce cocoa beans with standard quality. This research used split plot design, with treatments of process condition of cocoa fermentation as main plot and fermentation period as split plot. Treatment of process condition of cocoa fermentation consisted of optimum condition for pulp pectin depolymerization by PGs (temperature 47.5OC; initial pulp pH 4.6; optimum condition of depolymerization on sequence depolymerization by PGs (temperature 48.5OC; initial pulp pH 8.0 during 1 day; last temperature 47.5OC; initial pulp pH 4.6 during 6 days, and natural fermentation process a control. While treatment of fermentation period consisted of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Evaluation of fermentation period was carried out based on pursuant to criteria of unfermented beans content and fermentation index. The results showed that process condition and fermentation time of cocoa affected quality characteristic of cocoa beans produced. Period of cocoa fermentation process based on optimum condition for pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes was 2 days shorter compared to natural fermentation. Cocoa beans quality of grade I and II were obtained from fermentation time of 4 and 2 days, respectively, using fermentation process based on optimum condition of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes, whereas 6 and 4 days

  12. Flavor formation and character in cocoa and chocolate: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Paterson, Alistair; Fowler, Mark; Ryan, Angela

    2008-10-01

    Chocolate characters not only originate in flavor precursors present in cocoa beans, but are generated during post-harvest treatments and transformed into desirable odor notes in the manufacturing processes. Complex biochemical modifications of bean constituents are further altered by thermal reactions in roasting and conching and in alkalization. However, the extent to which the inherent bean constituents from the cocoa genotype, environmental factors, post-harvest treatment, and processing technologies influence chocolate flavor formation and relationships with final flavor quality, has not been clear. With increasing speciality niche products in chocolate confectionery, greater understanding of factors contributing to the variations in flavor character would have significant commercial implications.

  13. Cocoa agroforestry a bridge for sustainable organic cocoa production

    OpenAIRE

    Nunoo, Isaac; Owusu, Victor; Darko Obiri, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    In Ghana cocoa constitute about 85 percent of the foreign export earnings from agriculture and also the main source of the wealth to over 800,000 people of the forest regions. Cocoa naturally requires shade which offers farmers agronomic, economic, cultural and ecological benefits. The promotion and adoption of hybrid cocoa varieties is causing a drift from shaded cocoa to the no shade. The study evaluated the impact shade levels had on the yield of cocoa under the different cocoa agrofor...

  14. GRINDING OF DOUBLE DISC GRINDING MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Huiqing

    2005-01-01

    The grinding of two parallel sides of a component is accomplished with the accuracy and higher productivity by passing a blank through the truncated cone shape grinders, which are turned angles. The machine is designated by the name of double disc grinding machine (DDGM). Usually, it is used in the mass production. The relationship between these angles, the accuracy, productivity,allowance and parameters of the machine and technology is explained in detail by math, such as vector analysis, transformation of 3D space coordinates, etc. Therefore, in the aspects of qualitative and quantitative analyses, the grinding potential of DDGM is enormous increased and superior to conventional methods. Furthermore, the theoretical foundation of DDGM grinding design and technology is provided to improve, to expand and to create for future. The established machine design and practical experience of grinding technology will get great benefit by them.

  15. Increasing cocoa butter-like lipid production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of selected cocoa genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongjun; Gossing, Michael; Bergenholm, David; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0), but CB supply is limited. Therefore, CB-like lipids (CBL, which are composed of POP, POS and SOS) are in great demand. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which are also mainly composed of C16 and C18 fatty acids. However, POP, POS and SOS are not among the major TAG forms in yeast. TAG synthesis is mainly catalyzed by three enzymes: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). In order to produce CBL in S. cerevisiae, we selected six cocoa genes encoding GPAT, LPAT and DGAT potentially responsible for CB biosynthesis from the cocoa genome using a phylogenetic analysis approach. By expressing the selected cocoa genes in S. cerevisiae, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some S. cerevisiae strains. The relative CBL content in three yeast strains harboring cocoa genes increased 190, 230 and 196% over the control strain, respectively; especially, the potential SOS content of the three yeast strains increased 254, 476 and 354% over the control strain. Moreover, one of the three yeast strains had a 2.25-fold increased TAG content and 6.7-fold higher level of CBL compared with the control strain. In summary, CBL production by S. cerevisiae were increased through expressing selected cocoa genes potentially involved in CB biosynthesis.

  16. True bug (Heteroptera) impact on cocoa fruit mortality and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yede; Babin, R; Djieto-Lordon, C; Cilas, C; Dibog, L; Mahob, R; Bilong, C F Bilong

    2012-08-01

    The real impact of true bug damage on cocoa pods has never been assessed precisely. We conducted a 2-yr study on 1,080 cocoa trees on 36 farms in Cameroon to assess the contribution of true bugs to fruit mortality and production loss. The cocoa fruiting cycle, fruit mortality, and damage caused by true bugs as well as other pests and diseases were monitored on a weekly basis. True bug damage also was described on 2,500 ripe pods per year. Pod weight, bean number, and bean weight were measured and compared for different degrees and types of damage on the ripe pods. Our results showed that true bugs were the main external cause of young fruit abortion. They reduced the abundance of young fruit by up to 10%. In contrast, although one-third of the ripe pods sampled had true bug lesions, only 4% were moderately to heavily damaged. The mean weight of ripe pods was reduced by 12% when there was medium to heavy damage. While the mean weight of wet beans was reduced significantly (by 3-10%), the number of beans per pod was not changed by damage. Despite the reduction in mean weight, the overall weight of beans for the pods sampled was reduced by fruit mortality.

  17. Cocoa and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    Corti, R.; Flammer, A J; Hollenberg, N.K.; Lüscher, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been propo...

  18. Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of fermented cocoa(Theobroma cacaobeans with manual and semi-mechanized transfer, between fermentation boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro. P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate variation in the physical and chemical properties of fermented cocoa beans with cocoa beans transfer between wooden fermentation boxes manually (M and semi - mechanized (SM way. Mass temperature, moisture, pH, and total acidity of the cotyledon and pulp; the total polyphenol, anthocyanin, reducing sugar, theobromine, and caffeine content in fresh, fermented, and dried beans; and percentage of fermented beans and time required to move beans during fermentation were determined. The cocoa used grew in the Pachiza district of the San Martin region of Peru. Cocoa sampling w as each 0, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h of fermentation. The cocoa mass temperature was highest with both removal systems after 96 h of fermentation. M cotyledon and pulp samples had the highest moisture content and titratable acidity, while cotyledon a nd pulp pH with both systems were statistically equal. In contrast, fermented beans had a higher polyphenol, anthocyanin, reducing sugar, theobromine, and caffeine content with SM. SM produced the greatest amount of fermentation (91.67% and required the s hortest amount of time to move beans (78.56 min. In conclusion, the system of fermentation of cocoa beans with SM was faster and produced fermented grains with high chemical quality.

  19. Cocoa and cardiovascular health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corti, Roberto; Flammer, Andreas J; Hollenberg, Norman K; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2009-01-01

    .... Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been proposed, including activation of nitric oxide and antioxidant...

  20. Characterization of cocoa butter and cocoa butter equivalents by bulk and molecular carbon isotope analyses: implications for vegetable fat quantification in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, J E; Dionisi, F

    2001-09-01

    The fatty acids from cocoa butters of different origins, varieties, and suppliers and a number of cocoa butter equivalents (Illexao 30-61, Illexao 30-71, Illexao 30-96, Choclin, Coberine, Chocosine-Illipé, Chocosine-Shea, Shokao, Akomax, Akonord, and Ertina) were investigated by bulk stable carbon isotope analysis and compound specific isotope analysis. The interpretation is based on principal component analysis combining the fatty acid concentrations and the bulk and molecular isotopic data. The scatterplot of the two first principal components allowed detection of the addition of vegetable fats to cocoa butters. Enrichment in heavy carbon isotope ((13)C) of the bulk cocoa butter and of the individual fatty acids is related to mixing with other vegetable fats and possibly to thermally or oxidatively induced degradation during processing (e.g., drying and roasting of the cocoa beans or deodorization of the pressed fat) or storage. The feasibility of the analytical approach for authenticity assessment is discussed.

  1. Health benefits of cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rabia

    2013-11-01

    In modern society, cocoa is being eaten as a confectionery, contrary to its medicinal use in the past. However, since the last decade, there has been a revival of talks about cocoa's health beneficial effects. Development has been made at the molecular level recently. This review discusses the recent progresses on potential health benefits of cocoa and/or its derivatives, with a focus on the areas that have been paid little attention so far, such as the role of cocoa in immune regulation, inflammation, neuroprotection, oxidative stress, obesity, and diabetes control. Thanks to the advancement in analytical technologies, the cocoa's metabolic pathways have now been properly mapped providing essential information on its roles. Cocoa helps in weight loss by improving mitochondrial biogenesis. It increases muscle glucose uptake by inserting glucose transporter 4 in skeletal muscles membrane. Because of its antioxidant properties, cocoa offers neuron protection and enhances cognition and positive mood. It lowers immunoglobulin E release in allergic responses. It can affect the immune response and bacterial growth at intestinal levels. It reduces inflammation by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB. Keeping in view the pleiotropic health benefits of cocoa, it may have the potential to be used for the prevention/treatment of allergies, cancers, oxidative injuries, inflammatory conditions, anxiety, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance.

  2. Mineral Nutrition of Cocoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van J.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa is an important global commodity. It is mostly grown on small farms by millions of cocoa farmers who depend on the crop for their livelihood. Although potential yields exceed 6000. kg/ha, average farm yields are often around 400. kg/ha. Among the production constraints met by farmers is

  3. Cocoa and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  4. Avaliação química de substitutos de cacau e estudo sensorial de achocolatados formulados Chemical evaluation of cocoa substitutes and study of formulated chocolate drink powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Leite Medeiros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O cacau em pó é obtido a partir da pasta de cacau preparada com sementes que passaram pelos processos de fermentação, secagem, torrefação, moagem e prensa (para separação da manteiga de cacau, podendo ser utilizado em formulações de achocolatados que além de cacau em pó são produzidos com: açúcar, aroma e outros ingredientes constantes da formulação. Nos países líderes de produção, o preço do cacau é afetado pelo clima, pragas e fatores políticos. Substitutos de cacau são substâncias que podem entrar na formulação de produtos que utilizam cacau em pó para substituí-lo parcial ou totalmente, com a finalidade de diminuição do preço do produto final, garantia de qualidade dos produtos dependentes de cacau na entressafra ou mesmo na possível ausência do cacau em pó no mercado. Os substitutos escolhidos para avaliação foram: farinha tostada de alfarroba, cupuaçu em pó, composto da semente de cacau e aromas. Os objetivos foram: avaliar quimicamente (composição centesimal e teor de metilxantinas os substitutos de cacau e sensorialmente, sob a forma de achocolatados. Concluiu-se que os produtos analisados apresentam diferentes propriedades químicas daquelas do cacau, sendo que os aromas foram preferidos nos testes sensoriais.Cocoa powder is obtained from cocoa paste. It is prepared with fermented, dried, toasted, grinded and pressed beans (to separate cocoa butter. It can be used to produce chocolate powders, which contains cocoa powder, sugar, chocolate flavor and other ingredients. In the major producing countries, the price of cocoa by-product is affected by the climate, plagues and political factors. Cocoa substitutes are substances that can total or partially substitute cocoa powder in the formulation of different products with the purpose of reducing the final price, guaranteeing the quality in the off season or even during a possible short availability of cocoa powder in the market. The substitutes

  5. Utilization of cocoa by-products as an alternative source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agyeman, K.O.G.; Oldham, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The complete utilization of the by-products from the cocoa industry of Ghana has been investigated. Large-scale collection of cocoa sweating (i.e. the liquid which drains from the fresh bean when exposed to air) using the basket and sweat-box methods has been devised. It was found that collection and alcohol fermentation of the sweating can be done by farmers themselves. The fermented sweating had an alcohol level of 7-10% (w/w). The dried cocoa husks have also been used successfully for either production of potash or as a source of fuel. 10 references.

  6. Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression of Cocoa Nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to investigate the expression of cocoa nibs and a way to optimise the cocoa butter yield (defined as the mass of cocoa butter recovered as a percentage of the total cocoa butter content) obtainable from cocoa nibs without modifying the composition of the cocoa

  7. Gas assisted mechanical expression of cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, Magdalena Jacomina

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to investigate the expression of cocoa nibs and a way to optimise the cocoa butter yield (defined as the mass of cocoa butter recovered as a percentage of the total cocoa butter content) obtainable from cocoa nibs without modifying the composition of the cocoa butter

  8. Gas assisted mechanical expression of cocoa nibs

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Magdalena Jacomina

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to investigate the expression of cocoa nibs and a way to optimise the cocoa butter yield (defined as the mass of cocoa butter recovered as a percentage of the total cocoa butter content) obtainable from cocoa nibs without modifying the composition of the cocoa butter.

  9. European directive related to chocolate composition is unfair for the African cocoa planters

    OpenAIRE

    Lebailly, Philippe; Ahouissou, Brice; Namé, M.

    2015-01-01

    Coming from the cocoa bean, chocolate is one of the most important sectors of the European food industry with sustained growth for many years and creating very high values in the food. Whether the cocoa bean is largely produced in the African countries (Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Cameroon), its derivatives are mainly consumed in industrialized countries. After negotiation at EU level, since 23 June 2000, Directive 2000/36 has repealed Directive of 1973 and allows the use of other veg¬et...

  10. [Design of an HACCP program for a cocoa processing facility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López D'Sola, Patrizia; Sandia, María Gabriela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Hernández Serrano, Pilar

    2012-12-01

    The HACCP plan is a food safety management tool used to control physical, chemical and biological hazards associated to food processing through all the processing chain. The aim of this work is to design a HACCP Plan for a Venezuelan cocoa processing facility.The production of safe food products requires that the HACCP system be built upon a solid foundation of prerequisite programs such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP). The existence and effectiveness of these prerequisite programs were previously assessed.Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) audit to cocoa nibs suppliers were performed. To develop the HACCP plan, the five preliminary tasks and the seven HACCP principles were accomplished according to Codex Alimentarius procedures. Three Critical Control Points (CCP) were identified using a decision tree: winnowing (control of ochratoxin A), roasting (Salmonella control) and metallic particles detection. For each CCP, Critical limits were established, the Monitoring procedures, Corrective actions, Procedures for Verification and Documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application was established. To implement and maintain a HACCP plan for this processing plant is suggested. Recently OchratoxinA (OTA) has been related to cocoa beans. Although the shell separation from the nib has been reported as an effective measure to control this chemical hazard, ochratoxin prevalence study in cocoa beans produced in the country is recommended, and validate the winnowing step as well

  11. Farmers’ Assessment of Benefits and Constraints of Ghana’s Cocoa Sector Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Tetteh Anang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study looked at farmers’ assessment of the benefits and constraints of Ghana’s cocoa sector reform. The study was conducted with 80 randomly selected cocoa farmers from four communities in Bibiani- Anhwiaso-Bekwai District, Western Region, Ghana. Results show that farmers are happy with the introduction of privatization in cocoa marketing. Majority of the farmers (93% rated the performance of licensed buying companies highly. Results showed that after privatization, the benefits derivable to cocoa farmers included: prompt payments for produce sold; provision of inputs, loans, bonuses and incentives by buying companies; and nearness to produce sales point. In terms of the constraints, pests and diseases were the highest followed by long distances in transporting cocoa from the farm to drying sheds. Theft of cocoa beans during drying was the least constraint. Close to 59% of farmers were dissatisfied with the price they received for their produce. It was recommended that the Cocoa Diseases and Pests Control Exercise Committee (CODAPEC should be monitored to ensure that cocoa farms are properly sprayed to control pests and diseases in order to sustainably enhance output and product quality.

  12. Polyphenol-Retaining Decaffeinated Cocoa Powder Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinji Kobori

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa beans contain many functional ingredients such as theobromine and polyphenols, but also contain a relatively high amount of caffeine, which can negatively impact human health. It is therefore desirable to reduce caffeine levels in cocoa powder used to make chocolate or cocoa beverages while retaining functional ingredients. We have established conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 extraction that remove 80.1% of the caffeine from cocoa powder while retaining theobromine (94.1% and polyphenols (84.7%. The antioxidant activity of the decaffeinated cocoa powder (DCP made with this optimized SCCO2 extraction method was 85.3% that of non-processed cocoa powder. The total procyanidin and total polyphenol concentrations of the DCPs resulting from various SCCO2 extractions showed a significant positive correlation with oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. The correlation coefficient between total polyphenols and ORAC was higher than that between total procyanidins and ORAC; thus, the concentration of total polyphenols might be a greater factor in the antioxidant activity of DCP. These results indicate that we could remove large quantities of caffeine from conventional high-cocoa products while retaining the functional benefits of high polyphenol content. This SCCO2 extraction method is expected to be applicable high-cocoa products, such as dark chocolate.

  13. Polyphenol-Retaining Decaffeinated Cocoa Powder Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Its Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, Kinji; Maruta, Yuto; Mineo, Shigeru; Shigematsu, Toru; Hirayama, Masao

    2013-10-14

    Cocoa beans contain many functional ingredients such as theobromine and polyphenols, but also contain a relatively high amount of caffeine, which can negatively impact human health. It is therefore desirable to reduce caffeine levels in cocoa powder used to make chocolate or cocoa beverages while retaining functional ingredients. We have established conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) extraction that remove 80.1% of the caffeine from cocoa powder while retaining theobromine (94.1%) and polyphenols (84.7%). The antioxidant activity of the decaffeinated cocoa powder (DCP) made with this optimized SCCO₂ extraction method was 85.3% that of non-processed cocoa powder. The total procyanidin and total polyphenol concentrations of the DCPs resulting from various SCCO₂ extractions showed a significant positive correlation with oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The correlation coefficient between total polyphenols and ORAC was higher than that between total procyanidins and ORAC; thus, the concentration of total polyphenols might be a greater factor in the antioxidant activity of DCP. These results indicate that we could remove large quantities of caffeine from conventional high-cocoa products while retaining the functional benefits of high polyphenol content. This SCCO₂ extraction method is expected to be applicable high-cocoa products, such as dark chocolate.

  14. STABLE DIAMOND GRINDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Gutsalenko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper generalizes on the one hand theory of kinematic-geometrical simulation of grinding processes by means of tools with working part as binding matrix with abrasive grains located in it in random manner, for example diamond grains, and on the other hand practical performance of combined grinding process, based on introduction of additional energy as electric discharges and called by the organization-developer (Kharkov Polytechnic Institute «diamond-spark grinding» as applied to processing by means of diamond wheel. Implementation of diamond-spark grinding technologies on the basis of developed generalized theoretical approach allows to use the tool with prescribed tool-life, moreover to make the most efficient use of it up to full exhausting of tool-life, determined by diamond-bearing thickness. Development is directed forward computer-aided manufacturing.

  15. Grinding Properties of Abandoned Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Fang-yu; WANG Li-jiu; LI Qiang

    2007-01-01

    The grinding properties of abandoned concrete, which consists primarily of hardened cement, limestone aggregate and river sand, are studied. Theoretical models of grinding are used to explain the experimental observation. The results show that 1) The principle disintegration mechanism of hardened cement and river sand is volumetric grinding, although at later stages grinding of cement becomes difficult because of its flaked structure; 2) The limestone grinding process can be divided into two steps. First, volumetric grinding, with an obvious component of surface grinding, followed by primarily surface grinding as the micro-particle content increases; 3) Initially, the principle mechanism of grinding limestone and river sand is volumetric grinding, albeit less efficient grinding than if these components were ground separately, and; 4) After 10 to 20 min of grinding the grinding bottleneck phenomenon appears and after 20 min of grinding the content of micro-particles is large and surface grinding is the main mechanism while the particle size of the mixture is smaller than that of separately ground river sand and cement but bigger than that of separately ground limestone.

  16. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael

    the principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary products. To produce good quality cocoa suitable for chocolate production, it is essential that the beans...... quantification of volatile compounds present in roasted and un-roasted cocoa liquors, as well as in finished chocolates. Sensory analyses of un-conched chocolate and finished chocolate was performed using a panel of un-trained judges and ordinary consumers. Furthermore, the present study describes the impact...... found to be identical to the inoculation strain, four strains of P. kluyveri were identified, with the inoculation strain composing ~88% of the population. The volatile aroma profile of chocolates made from cocoa beans inoculated with P. kluyveri contained significantly higher concentrations...

  17. Pathological research on acute hepatic and renal tissue damage in Wistar rats induced by cocoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem; Paul Chidoka Chikezie; Ezeikel Chinemerem Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the functional integrity of renal and hepatic tissues of Wistar rats fed with processed cocoa bean-based beverages and raw cocoa bean products-containing diets by using biochemical and histological methods. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were designated on the basis of experimental diets which were given for 28 days. At the end of the feeding period, blood samples were drawn, and renal and hepatic tissues were excised from the experimental rat groups for functional tests and histological examinations, respectively. Results: Serum alanine aminotransferase activities of the experimental rat groups showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) and were within a relatively narrow range of (32.17 ± 4.98) IU/L to (41.00 ± 10.85) IU/L, whereas serum aspartate aminotransferase activities gave wide variation within the range of (15.67 ± 2.13) IU/L to (34.83 ± 8.31) IU/L with P Conclusions: The pattern of alanine aminotransferase activity being more active than aspartate aminotransferase one in serum appeared to correlate with the extent of disar-rangement of hepatic tissue architecture. The experimental rat groups exhibited no hyperbilirubinemia. Also, diets containing processed cocoa bean and raw cocoa bean products did not substantially interfere with the capacity of the hepatocytes to bio-synthesize plasma proteins and the functionality of renal tissues.

  18. Cadmium uptake by cocoa trees in agroforestry and monoculture systems under conventional and organic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, A; Tandy, S; Andres, C; Chincheros Paniagua, J; Armengot, L; Schneider, M; Schulin, R

    2017-02-15

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake by cocoa has recently attracted attention, after the European Union (EU) decided to establish values for tolerable Cd concentrations in cocoa products. Bean Cd concentrations from some cocoa provenances, especially from Latin America, were found to exceed these values. Cadmium uptake by cocoa is expected not only to depend on a variety of soil factors, but also on plant and management factors. In this study, we investigated the influence of different production systems on Cd uptake by cocoa in a long-term field trial in the Alto Beni Region of Bolivia, where cocoa trees are grown in monocultures and in agroforestry systems, both under organic and conventional management. Leaf, fruits and roots of two cultivars were sampled from each production system along with soil samples collected around these trees. Leaf, pod husk and bean samples were analysed for Cd, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), the roots for mycorrhizal abundance and the soil samples for 'total' and 'available' Cd, Fe and Zn as well as DGT-available Cd and Zn, pH, organic matter, texture, 'available' phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Only a small part of the variance in bean and pod husk Cd was explained by management, soil and plant factors. Furthermore, the production systems and cultivars alone had no significant influence on leaf Cd. However, we found lower Cd leaf contents in agroforestry systems than in monocultures when analysed in combination with DGT-available soil Cd, cocoa cultivar and soil organic matter. Overall, this model explained 60% of the variance of the leaf Cd concentrations. We explain lower leaf Cd concentrations in agroforestry systems by competition for Cd uptake with other plants. The cultivar effect may be explained by cultivar specific uptake capacities or by a growth effect translating into different uptake rates, as the cultivars were of different size.

  19. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Franco, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid sixteenth Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine, in the proportions found in cocoa, are responsible for the liking of the food/beverage. These compounds influence in a positive way our moods and our state of alertness. Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake. The main mechanisms of action are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors. Further mechanisms are being explored to better understand the health benefits associated to theobromine consumption. Unlike what happens in other mammals -pets- included, theobromine is safe for humans and has fewer unwanted effects than caffeine. Therefore, theobromine deserves attention as one of the most attractive molecules in cocoa.

  20. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eMartínez-Pinilla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid 16th Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine in the proportions found in cocoa are responsible for the liking of the food/beverage. These compounds influence in a positive way our moods and our state of alertness. Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake. The main mechanisms of action are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors. Further mechanisms are being explored to better understand the health benefits associated to theobromine consumption. Unlike what happens in other mammals –pets included-, theobromine is safe for humans and has fewer unwanted effects than caffeine. Therefore, theobromine deserves attention as one of the most attractive molecules in cocoa.

  1. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase in two cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. cultivars produced in the south of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrielle Souza Leão MACEDO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The reactions leading to the formation of precursors of chocolate flavor are performed by endogenous enzymes present in the cocoa seed. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO presence and activity during fermentation of cocoa beans is responsible for the development of flavor precursors and is also implicated in the reduction of bitterness and astringency. However, the reliability of cocoa enzyme activities is complicated due to variations in different genotypes, geographical origins and methods of fermentation. In addition, there is still a lack of systematic studies comparing different cocoa cultivars. So, the present study was designed to characterize the activity of PPO in the pulp and seeds of two cocoa cultivars, PH 16 and TSH 1188. The PPO activity was determined spectrophotometrically and characterized as the optimal substrate concentration, pH and temperature and the results were correlated with the conditions during the fermentation process. The results showed the specificity and differences between the two cocoa cultivars and between the pulp and seeds of each cultivar. It is suggested that specific criteria must be adopted for each cultivar, based on the optimal PPO parameters, to prolong the period of maximum PPO activity during fermentation, contributing to the improvement of the quality of cocoa beans.

  2. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  3. of cocoa: allometric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Yuliasmara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compounds which probably impair further development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition of phenolic compounds in cocoa flower and leaves, and their changes troughout the somatic embryogenesis process. Calli were induced in cacao floral and leaves explants on a half-strenght Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g/L Glucose and combination of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D with kinetin (kin. Total polyphenol content was observed on Sulawesi 1 cocoa clone. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were also compared. The percentage of callus production from flower tissue is 85%, percentage of embryogenic callus 40 %, although  the percentage of somatic embryo production from embryogenic callus callus is 70%. The conservation of callus into somatic embryos followed by decline in phenol content and an increase in peroxidase. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. So that, phenolic compound can influence the production of calli and an absence the phenolic compound can enhance production of somatic embryo.Kata kunci: Theobroma cacao L., polifenol, embrio somatik, kalus, flavonoid, katekin, in vitro recalcitance

  4. Inactivation of Salmonella during cocoa roasting and chocolate conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maristela da Silva do; Brum, Daniela Merlo; Pena, Pamela Oliveira; Berto, Maria Isabel; Efraim, Priscilla

    2012-10-15

    The high heat resistance of Salmonella in foods with low water activity raises particular issues for food safety, especially chocolate, where outbreak investigations indicate that few colony-forming units are necessary to cause salmonellosis. This study evaluated the efficiency of cocoa roasting and milk chocolate conching in the inactivation of Salmonella 5-strain suspension. Thermal resistance of Salmonella was greater in nibs compared to cocoa beans upon exposure at 110 to 130°C. The D-values in nibs were 1.8, 2.2 and 1.5-fold higher than those calculated for cocoa beans at 110, 120 and 130°C. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the matrices only at 140°C. Since in the conching of milk chocolate the inactivation curves showed rapid death in the first 180 min followed by a lower inactivation rate, and two D-values were calculated. For the first time interval (0-180 min) the D-values were 216.87, 102.27 and 50.99 min at 50, 60 and 70°C, respectively. The other D-values were determined from the second time interval (180-1440 min), 1076.76 min at 50°C, 481.94 min at 60°C and 702.23 min at 70°C. The results demonstrated that the type of matrix, the process temperature and the initial count influenced the Salmonella resistance.

  5. Influência da fermentação e secagem de amêndoas de cacau no teor de compostos fenólicos e na aceitação sensorial Influence of cocoa beans fermentation and drying on the polyphenol content and sensory acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Efraim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Devido à importância das etapas de fermentação e secagem das sementes de cacau para as características sensoriais dos produtos finais obtidos, bem como para os teores de compostos fenólicos presentes, objetivou-se avaliar a influência do tempo de fermentação e do tipo de secagem de sementes de cacaueiro nos teores de compostos fenólicos, bem como nas características físicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais dos produtos obtidos. Os tempos de fermentação avaliados foram 3 e 7 dias e a secagem foi realizada naturalmente (ao sol e artificialmente (estufa com circulação de ar a 35 °C. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais, flavan-3-óis e procianidinas foram quantificados durante a fermentação e ao término da secagem. Constatou-se que grande parte dos compostos fenólicos foi perdida durante a fermentação, sendo que as amêndoas fermentadas por 3 dias apresentaram teores maiores dos compostos fenólicos avaliados. Contudo, observou-se nessa condição uma significativa perda na qualidade sensorial. A secagem natural das amêndoas fermentadas permitiu maior retenção de polifenóis e também melhores resultados sensoriais em relação à secagem artificial. A avaliação sensorial realizada com uma bebida formulada com o liquor obtido dos diferentes tratamentos demonstrou que a amostra fermentada durante 7 dias apresentou as melhores notas sensoriais, sendo que o produto seco naturalmente foi o mais bem avaliado em relação aos demais.Due to the importance of the fermentation and drying stages in the sensory characteristics and in the phenolic content of cocoa products, the present study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the fermentation period and the type of drying of cocoa seeds, on the phenolic compounds content, as well as on the physical, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics of the products. The periods of fermentation were 3 and 7 days and the fermented beans were dried naturally (sun drying and

  6. RADIATION STERILIZATION OF COCOA POWDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    treatment on chocolate coatings, cocoa , and chocolate syrup. In all experimentation with gamma radiation, FLAVOR is the critical problem. At dosage...products of high fat content usually show marked changes in flavor. For example: cocoas , milk and bittersweet coatings, and cocoa utter. Inversely, no...off-flavors were detectable in chocolate syrups which have a low fat content. Some resistance to bloom can be achieved but at the loss of other

  7. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  8. Bioactive compounds in different cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L cultivars during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Fontes Moreau Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One component that contribute to the flavor and aroma of chocolate are the polyphenols, which have received much attention due to their beneficial implications to human health. Besides bioactive action, polyphenols and methylxantines are responsible for astringency and bitterness in cocoa beans. Another important point is its drastic reduction during cocoa processing for chocolate production and the difference between cultivars. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the modifications in monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxanthines during fermentation of three cocoa cultivars grown in southern Bahia. Cocoa beans from three cultivars were fermented and sun dried and monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxantines were determinated. The results showed that each cultivar have different amounts of phenolic compounds and the behaviour of them is different during fermentation. The amount of methylxantines varied but there was not a pattern for methylxantines behavior during process. In addition a huge reduction in phenolic compounds could be observed after drying. Differently of phenolic compounds, methylxantines did not have great modification after sun drying. So, the differences observed in this study between cultivars, take to the conclusion that the compounds studied in those cocoa cultivars have different behavior during fermentation and drying, which consequently, give to these cultivars differences in sensory characteristics.

  9. Characterization of cocoa butter extracted from hybrid cultivars of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, F C; Liendo, R; Quintana, A

    2000-06-01

    Cocoa butter is the most important fat used in the confectionery and chocolate industries. The main objective of the present study was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of cocoa butter extracted from hybrid cultivars belonging to the germplasm bank of the Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (National Foundation for Agricultural Research). AOAC methods were used for the assessment of the proximal composition of the beans, physical and chemical characteristics as well as for the fatty acid profile of the fat. It was found that there were statistical differences in the proximate composition of the cocoa beans among the cultivars studied as well as the iodine and saponification indices of the butter. Saturated fatty acids were present in higher proportions than unsaturated fatty acids, with palmitic and stearic acid as the main fractions. Oleic acid content was higher than linoleic acid. The fatty acid profile found is the main factor that influences the hard texture of the cocoa butter from Venezuelan cocoa hybrids cultivars.

  10. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in...

  11. Grind hardening process

    CERN Document Server

    Salonitis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the grind-hardening process and the main studies published since it was introduced in 1990s.  The modelling of the various aspects of the process, such as the process forces, temperature profile developed, hardness profiles, residual stresses etc. are described in detail. The book is of interest to the research community working with mathematical modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  12. Effect of Drying Methods on the Chemical Quality Traits of Cocoa Raw Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Irie B. Zahouli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the measurement of some chemical quality properties of raw cocoa dried by solar and heating methods. Sun drying method is considered as standard process. Drying trials were conducted in thin layer using natural sun light drying method, heating methods by exposition of the beans to hot air ventilated oven at 60ºC and in sun light consecutive artificial drying methods. Changes in volatile acidity on the drying method were not very clear. Only sun and mixed dried raw cocoa showed a high volatile acidity. Oven and mixed drying methods have caused higher free acidity and higher Ammonium Nitrogen content in raw cocoa than natural drying methods. Changes in Ammonium Nitrogen in fermented appeared significantly due to the ferm entation. Also all studied drying processes did not influence the production of free fatty acids in raw cocoa. The results obtained from this study are essential in understanding and solving the problems associated with the final quality of raw cocoa material dependent on the drying methods. Better quality of raw cocoa material could be resulted from natural drying process than heating methods.

  13. Assessing genetic diversity in java fine-flavor cocoa (theobroma cacao l.) Germplasm by simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indonesia is the 3rd largest cocoa producing countries in the world, with an annual cacao bean production of 572,000 tons. The currently cultivated cacao varieties in Indonesia were inter-hybrids of various clones introduced from the Americas since the 16th century. Among them, “Java cocoa” is a wel...

  14. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, R.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Yoneama, M. L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  15. Quantitation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4) in cocoa and chocolate samples by an HPLC-FD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raters, Marion; Matissek, Reinhard

    2014-11-05

    As a consequence of the PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, named benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) maximum levels permitted in cocoa beans and derived products as of 2013, an high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method (HPLC-FD) was developed and adapted to the complex cocoa butter matrix to enable a simultaneous determination of PAH4. The resulting analysis method was subsequently successfully validated. This method meets the requirements of Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011 regarding analysis methods criteria for determining PAH4 and is hence most suitable for monitoring the observance of the maximum levels applicable under Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011. Within the scope of this work, a total of 218 samples of raw cocoa, cocoa masses, and cocoa butter from several sample years (1999-2012), of various origins and treatments, as well as cocoa and chocolate products were analyzed for the occurrence of PAH4. In summary, it is noted that the current PAH contamination level of cocoa products can be deemed very slight overall.

  16. Brain Protection and Cognitive Function: Cocoa Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia are major public health social problems, suggesting the specific need to provide research into risk factors for cognitive decline as priority topic. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of cognitive decline. Further, cognitive dysfunction and dementia in Alzheimer's disease as well as in vascular dementia seem to be also the consequence of cerebral blood flow decrease and deregulation, also suggesting a putative pathophysiological convergence of mechanisms between atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. In keeping with this, a growing interest has been addressed to flavonoids as potential nutraceuticals with neuroprotective effects. Of interest, cocoa beans have been described as a fundamental source of anti-oxidant flavonoids with the flavan-3-ols and their derivatives being present in high concentrations. Therefore, recent studies specifically focused on the favorable effects of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate on cerebrovascular risk factors and cognitive function. Aim of this review is to summarize new findings concerning the cocoa effects on cognitive function, particularly focusing on some putative mechanisms of vascular and antioxidant action involved in preventing dementia.

  17. Compatibility of Ten Elite Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude N’Zi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One way of boosting cocoa productivity which has plummeted over the last decade in Côte d’Ivoire is to introduce high performing clones. Preliminary observations have indicated that these new clones have differing growth patterns and agronomic traits in the field. Assessing their compatibility is of paramount importance since these clones will be made available to the farmers in the near future. This study was conducted in Soubré, southwest of Côte d’Ivoire, to evaluate the compatibility of ten new cocoa clones (coded as C1, C8, C9, C14, C15, C16, C17, C18, C20, and C21. A half diallel design consisting of 10 self-pollinations and 45 inter-crosses, replicated three times, was used. Results showed significant differences among clones for pollination success. Out of the ten clones evaluated, six (C1, C8, C9, C15, C17 and C21 were self-compatible. With a 39% mean pollination success, C9 was quite interesting because it has been reported to be among the highest yielding clones. Introduction of improved germplasm will go a long way towards enhancing productivity in Côte d’Ivoire, radically impact farmers’ livelihoods, and contribute significantly to a more reliable supply of cocoa beans for chocolate manufacturers.

  18. Ghana's cocoa frontier in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Michael Helt; Agergaard, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    Since the first commercial planting of cocoa in Ghana more than a century ago, the production of cocoa has been a key factor in the redistribution of migrants and has played a pivotal role in the development of both sending and receiving communities. This process has been acknowledged...... in the literature for decades. However, how migration flows have changed in response to changing livelihoods dynamics of the frontier and how this has impacted on the development of the frontier has only attracted limited attention. Based on a study of immigration to Ghana's current cocoa frontier in the Western...... Region, this article aims to examine how immigration and frontier dynamics in the Western region are contributing to livelihood transitions and small town development, and how this process is gradually becoming delinked from the production of cocoa. The article focuses on how migration dynamics interlink...

  19. Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

    2009-01-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant a...

  20. Cocoa, chocolate and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I.; Fraga, Cesar G.

    2009-01-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health, and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in the last years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant a...

  1. Unsteady-State Grinding Technology (II) Experimental Studies of Grinding Forces and Force Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    As is known to all, grinding force is one of the most important parameters to evaluate the whole process of grinding. Generally, the grinding force is resolved to three component forces, namely, normal grinding force F n, tangential grinding force F t and a component force acting along the direction of longitudinal feed which is usually neglected because of insignificance. The normal grinding force F n has influence upon surface deformation and roughness of workpiece, while the tangential grinding force ...

  2. Performance of free convective solar driers for cocoa in St. Lucia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alikhani, Z.; Madramootoo, C. A. [McGill Univ., Ste. Anne de Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Macdonald Coll.; Bonaparte, A.; Satney, M.

    1998-01-01

    Four different solar driers were tested under field conditions in St. Lucia (West Indies) in order to demonstrate their ability to reduce the moisture content of cocoa beans to a level not requiring subsequent polishing. The four driers were: (1) an indirectly heated solar drier (ISD), (2) a direct solar drier (DSD), (3) open air sun drying on perforated steel (OAS), and (4) open air sun drying on non-perforated wooden surfaces (OAW). The ability of each drier to reduce moisture in cocoa beans for loading capacities of 13.7 and 40.0 kg/sq m was determined and compared. All four driers were more efficient at the lower loading level, particularly in the initial stages. Sun drying on a wooden surface proved to be more effective than other methods at 13.7 kg/sq m loading. ISD was found to be more effective at a higher loading capacity but was judged to be impractical for all but the largest operators because of the high cost and short cocoa harvest season. DSD was less effective than ISD, but its simple design, considerably lower cost and the fact that it does not require the beans to be covered during rainfall, made it more attractive to handle smaller harvests. Improved ventilation would further enhance the drying efficiency of the direct dryer, hence even more attractive to smaller scale operations. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Antidepressant-like effects of a cocoa polyphenolic extract in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoudi, Michaël; Bisson, Jean-François; Nejdi, Amine; Rozan, Pascale; Javelot, Hervé

    2008-12-01

    Depression is a major public health problem affecting about 12% of the world population. Drugs exist but they have many side effects. In the last few years, natural substances (e.g. flavonoids) have been tested to cure such disorders. Cocoa polyphenolic extract is a complex compound prepared from non-roasted cocoa beans containing high levels of flavonoids. The antidepressant-like effect of cocoa polyphenolic extract was evaluated using the forced swimming test in rats. Cocoa polyphenolic extract significantly reduced the duration of immobility at both doses of 24 mg/kg/14 days and 48 mg/kg/14 days, although no change of motor dysfunction was observed with the two doses tested in the open field. The results of the forced swimming test after a subchronic treatment and after an additional locomotor activity test confirm the assumption that the antidepressant-like effect of cocoa polyphenolic extract in the forced swimming test model is specific. Further, it can be speculated that this effect might be related to its content of active polyphenols.

  4. Effectiveness of Bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensisFormulation Against Cocoa Pod Borer in Field Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein E Senewe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Field trial of Bt insecticide formulation with a code of formulation-A +1WP against cocoa pod borer (CPB (Conopomorpha cramerella has been conducted at the heavily infested cocoa area in Holo village, Amahai sub district, Central Maluku regency. Formulation-B 2.5 WP as a commercial Bt insecticide which has been distributed widely in the market was used as a comparison Bt insecticide. The results of the trial revealed that compared with untreated treatment, Bt insecticide formulation-A +1WP significantly reduced infestation of CPB, CPB population, and yield losses of dry cocoa bean caused by CPB. At the same concentration (2.5 g/L, the effectiveness of formulation-A +1WP was not significantly different with formulation-B 2.5WP. In the case of production increase, at the same concentration (2.5 g/L formulation-A +1WP caused higher yield than formulation-B 2.5WP, i.e. 39.9% compared with 35.1%, respectively. Both Bt insecticide formulations tried did not caused phytotoxic against cocoa plant. It is recommended that controling of CPB should use concentration of 2.5 g/L Bt insecticide formulation/L of water, and should be applied at around early morning until 09.00 AM and / or at the afternoon after 15.00 PM. Spraying targets should be cocoa pods at the length of less than 8.0 cm which is not laid eggs of CPB yet. Key words: Cocoa, cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella, control, effectiveness, microbial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis

  5. 21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cocoa. 163.113 Section 163.113 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.113 Cocoa. (a) Description. Cocoa is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to...

  6. 21 CFR 163.114 - Lowfat cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lowfat cocoa. 163.114 Section 163.114 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.114 Lowfat cocoa. (a) Description. Lowfat cocoa is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is...

  7. Mineral nutrition of cocoa : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van J.A.; Slingerland, M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    This literature review on mineral nutrition of cocoa was commissioned by the Scientific Committee of the Cocoa Fertiliser Initiative to address the following questions: What knowledge is currently available about mineral nutrition of cocoa? What are the current knowledge gaps? What are the key areas

  8. Cocoa fermentations conducted with a defined microbial cocktail inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwan, R F

    1998-04-01

    Cocoa fermentations were performed in wooden boxes under the following four experimental regimens: beans naturally fermented with wild microflora; aseptically prepared beans with no inoculum; and beans inoculated with a defined cocktail containing microorganisms at a suitable concentration either at zero time or by using phased additions at appropriate times. The cocktail used consisted of a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. chevalieri, two lactic acid bacterial species, Lactobacillus lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum, and two acetic acid bacterial species, Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans subsp. suboxydans. The parameters measured were cell counts (for yeasts, filamentous fungi, lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, and spore formers, including reisolation and identification of all residual cell types), sugar, ethanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid contents (and contents of other organic acids), pH, and temperature. A cut test for bean quality and a sensorial analysis of chocolate made from the beans were also performed. The natural fermentation mimicked exactly the conditions in 800-kg boxes on farms. The aseptic box remained largely free of microflora throughout the study, and no significant biochemical changes occurred. With the zero-time inoculum the fermentation was almost identical to the natural fermentation. The fermentation with the phased-addition inoculum was similar, but many changes in parameters were slower and less pronounced, which led to a slightly poorer end product. The data show that the nearly 50 common species of microorganisms found in natural fermentations can be replaced by a judicious selection and concentration of members of each physiological group. This is the first report of successful use of a defined, mixed starter culture in such a complex fermentation, and it should lead to chocolate of more reliable and better quality.

  9. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael

    the principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary products. To produce good quality cocoa suitable for chocolate production, it is essential that the beans......-independent molecular techniques, the growth and survival of the two yeast inoculation cultures was verified at strain level, whilst the bacterial inoculum was identified at species level. Aroma profiling was conducted using dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and relative...... of fermentation technique therefore seemed to have a greater influence on the quantitative composition of volatile aroma compounds than the use of starter cultures. Sensory profiling described the conventional heap and tray fermented chocolates as sweet with cocoa and caramel flavours, whilst the inoculated...

  10. Cocoa agronomy, quality, nutritional, and health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrie, Neela; Bekele, Frances; Sikora, Elzbieta; Sikora, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The history of cocoa and chocolate including the birth and the expansion of the chocolate industry was described. Recent developments in the industry and cocoa economy were briefly depicted. An overview of the classification of cacao as well as studies on phenotypic and genetic diversity was presented. Cocoa agronomic practices including traditional and modern propagation techniques were reviewed. Nutrition-related health benefits derived from cocoa consumption were listed and widely reviewed. The specific action of cocoa antioxidants was compared to those of teas and wines. Effects of adding milk to chocolate and chocolate drinks versus bioavailability of cocoa polyphenols were discussed. Finally, flavor, sensory, microbiological, and toxicological aspects of cocoa consumption were presented.

  11. Pod Characteristics of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Related to Cocoa Pod Borer Resistance (Conopomorpha cramerella Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe characteristics of pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snell. had been identified in a series study. This research has objective to evaluate performance of the characteristics using more diverse of genetic background to select criteria for selection. Genetic materials for this study were 25 cocoa clones which be planted in Central Sulawesi for resistant evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed using the variable of the percentage of unextractable bean, number of entry and exit hole larvae by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichome, granule of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using Canonical Correlation. The analysis performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics (0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical for CPB resistance (0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiate the resistant clones (ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones (ICCRI 04, KW 516 and KW 564.Key words : cocoa pod borer, Theobroma cacao L., pod characteristics, resistance

  12. Effect of particle size and addition of cocoa pod husk on the properties of sawdust and coal pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Forero Nuñez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase of the world energy demand, the rise of fossil fuels costs, and the strong environmental policies around the globe are some of the reasons for the wood pellets industry increase. However, there are some other available biomass feedstocks capable of being densified for energy production. Among the various options, the use of mixed biomass pellets is becoming remarkable due to the wide variety of species, although more research is needed in order to enhance the mechanical properties of these pellets. This study aims to identify the effect of particle size on the mechanical properties of sawdust and coal pellets when cocoa pod husks are used as an additive. Cocoa pod husks have a similar composition to sawdust and less sulfur and nitrogen than coal. Thus, the use of this additive might decrease the environmental impact during coal pellets combustion. Results show an attractive potential of cocoa pod husks grinds for pellet production, an increase of the durability of coal pellets mixed with this raw material, and similar performance between cocoa pod husks and sawdust pellets. The compression ratio, the compressive and impact resistance varied linearly with the addition of cocoa pod husks.

  13. Cocoa, chocolate, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, Cesar G

    2009-12-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in past years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components, providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However, the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanols and related compounds.

  14. Cocoa Extract Indicated Has Activity on Selectively Killing Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariza Budi Tunjung Sari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the cocoa crude extract on mortality of breast cancer cell lines i.e. MCF-7, T47D and normal cell (Vero, was observed. Crude cocoa extract prepared from a freshly dried cocoa bean that was containing 14% catechin and 0.6% caffeine. Catechin and caffeine content were modulated to 2-folds (28% catechin or 1.2% caffeine and 3-folds (42% catechin or 1.8% caffeine by adding pure compounds. Extracts were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO at concentrations ranging from 200 to 1600 μg/ml. The positive control was doxorubicin (0.5-16 μg/ml in DMSO. Cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, and Vero were incubated in test sample for 24h at 37°, prior to 3-(4,4-dimetylthiazole-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The absorbance of each well was measured at 550 nm, and lethal concentration (LC50 was calculated. The cocoa extract induced mortality of breast cancer cell lines but not in Vero cells. The effect on MCF-7 was greater than on T47D, given the LC50 was 1236 μg/ml (MCF-7 and 1893 μg/ml (T47D. Cytotoxic potential of cocoa extract was much lower than doxorubicin whose LC50 was 0,777 μg/ml (MCF-7 and 0,082 μg/ml (T47D. Increasing catechin content to 2-folds did not significantly affect LC50 value, but 3-folds catechin content reduced LC50 to 1021 μg/ml. Meanwhile increasing caffeine content to 2-folds significantly reduced LC50 to 750 μg/ml, however, 3-fold content resulted in slightly higher LC50 at 780 μg/ml. This indicates that cocoa extract have anti-cancer potential, and purification may improve this property.

  15. Bruxism (Teeth Grinding or Clenching) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Bruxism (Teeth Grinding or Clenching) KidsHealth > For Parents > Bruxism ( ... called bruxism , which is common in kids. About Bruxism Bruxism is the medical term for the grinding ...

  16. Yielding and its adaptability of several promising bulk cocoa clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Suhendi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Yielding and its adaptability are considered to be an important criteria for clones recommendation. An experiment to evaluate yield and its adaptability of several promising bulk cocoa clones has been executed during 1996—2003 in three locations having different altitude and type of climate, consisted of Jatirono(450 m asl., B type of climate, Kalisepanjang (275 m asl., C type of climate and Kalitelepak (145 m asl., B type of climate. Randomized completely block design (RCBD was used in each location with 14 promising clones and four replications. Recommended clones of ICS 60 and GC 7 were used as standard. The promising clones were originated from mother trees selection with the main criteria of yield. Observations were conducted on yield and its components as well as bean characteristics. Determination of adaptability of each clone by using yield performance and its stability. Statistical analysis was done by using combined analysis. The results showed that KW 30 and KW 48 perform higher yield (2.3 ton/ha than that of standard clone (1.7 ton/ha as well as consistant yield stability between location and over years. There for, the two clones performed good adaptability. KW 30 and KW 48 also perform good yield components, and high percentage of fat content i.e 55%. So, those clones are potential to be recommended for commercial planting materials. Key words : bulk cocoa, yield, clone, stability, adaptability.

  17. "Grinding" cavities in polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, J. R.; Davey, R. E.; Dixon, W. F.; Robb, P. H.; Zebus, P. P.

    1980-01-01

    Grinding tool installed on conventional milling machine cuts precise cavities in foam blocks. Method is well suited for prototype or midsize production runs and can be adapted to computer control for mass production. Method saves time and materials compared to bonding or hot wire techniques.

  18. Influencing cocoa flavour using Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus in a defined mixed starter culture for cocoa fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crafack, Michael; Mikkelsen, Morten B; Saerens, Sofie; Knudsen, Morten; Blennow, Andreas; Lowor, Samuel; Takrama, Jemmy; Swiegers, Jan H; Petersen, Gert B; Heimdal, Hanne; Nielsen, Dennis S

    2013-10-01

    The potential impact of aromatic and pectinolytic yeasts on cocoa flavour was investigated using two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus for inoculating cocoa beans in small scale tray fermentations. Samples for microbial and metabolite analysis were collected at 12-24 hour intervals during 120 h of fermentation. Yeast isolates were grouped by (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting and identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene and the actin gene. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted on isolates belonging to the species P. kluyveri and K. marxianus to verify strain level identity with the inoculated strains. Furthermore, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed to follow yeast and bacterial dynamics over time including the presence of the bacterial inoculum consisting of Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Yeast cell counts peaked after 12 h of fermentation with the predominant species being identified as Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica. P. kluyveri and K. marxianus were found to compose 9.3% and 13.5% of the yeast population, respectively, after 12 h of fermentation whilst PFGE showed that ~88% of all P. kluyveri isolates and 100% of all K. marxianus isolates were identical to the inoculated strains. Despite never being the dominant yeast species at any stage of fermentation, the un-conched chocolates produced from the two inoculated fermentations were judged by sensory analysis to differ in flavour profile compared to the spontaneously fermented control. This could indicate that yeasts have a greater impact on the sensory qualities of cocoa than previously assumed.

  19. Changing the functionality of cocoa butter

    OpenAIRE

    De Clercq, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa butter is an essential ingredient in chocolate as it forms the continuous phase of chocolate. It’s therefore responsible for the gloss, texture and typical melting behaviour of ‘irresistible’ chocolate. The aim of this research was to change the functionality of cocoa butter by two different methods. In the first part, cocoa butter was modified by physical refining by using packed column steam refining with or without silica pretreatment. The physicochemical properties of the refined co...

  20. Cocoa farming in Indonesia: Present Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Junaid,Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses major constraints facing most recently cocoa farming in Indonesia. Critique of National cocoa revitalization program and dealing with these issues are discussed as well. Several recommendations are expressed. The global consumption of chocolate has risen twofold over the past two decades and chocolate demand is predicted to rise a quarter in the next decade. As the third largest cocoa producer in the world, Indonesia is keen to contribute more and more in the world ch...

  1. Unsteady-State Grinding Technology (I) Theoretical Generalization and Research on Grinding Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In conventional grinding theory, it is obvious that there must be a very high hardness difference between grains of the grinding wheel and workpieces. The best grinding wheels are those giving the lowest "natural limiting surface roughness" while cutting at appreciable plunge velocities. With the development of new materials and new machining processes, conventional theories of grinding techniques are no longer suitable to explain many phenomena in the course of grinding procedures. In dealing with precisio...

  2. Propriedades físicas de substitutos do cacau Physical properties of cocoa substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Leite Medeiros

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O cacau em pó é obtido a partir da pasta de cacau, preparada com sementes que passaram pelos processos de fermentação, secagem, torrefação, moagem e prensa (para separação da manteiga de cacau. Nos últimos anos, houve aumento na oferta de gorduras substitutas à manteiga de cacau, diminuindo a dependência da indústria alimentícia em relação a esta, mas aumentando a demanda por cacau em pó. Nos países líderes de produção, o preço do cacau é afetado pelo clima, pragas e fatores políticos. Substitutos de cacau são substâncias que podem entrar na formulação de produtos que utilizam cacau em pó para substituí-lo parcial ou totalmente, com a finalidade de reduzir o preço do produto final, garantir a qualidade dos produtos dependentes de cacau na entressafra ou mesmo na possível ausência do cacau em pó no mercado. Os substitutos avaliados foram: farinha tostada de alfarroba, cupuaçu em pó, composto da semente de cacau e aromas. O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar fisicamente o cacau e seus substitutos por meio das análises de compactação, densidade, ângulo de repouso, isoterma de adsorção de umidade, tamanho de partícula, molhabilidade e umidade crítica relativa. Concluiu-se que os produtos analisados apresentaram diferentes propriedades físicas daquelas do cacau, sendo estas refletidas nas formulações em que serão aplicados e no melhor tipo de embalagem a ser utilizada.Cocoa powder is obtained from the paste of cocoa prepared with fermented, dried, toasted, grinded, and pressed seeds (to separate cocoa butter. In the last years, there has been more offers of cocoa butter substitutes decreasing the food industry dependence but increasing the demand for cocoa powder. Moreover, in the producing leader countries, the price of cocoa sub-products is affected by the climate, pests, and political issues. Cocoa substitutes are substances that can substitute, total or partially, the cocoa powder in the formulation

  3. Ultrasonic precision optical grinding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael J.; Bechtold, Michael J.; Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank L.; Bechtold, Rob

    2015-10-01

    As optical geometries become more precise and complex and a wider range of materials are used, the processes used for manufacturing become more critical. As the preparatory stage for polishing, this is especially true for grinding. Slow processing speeds, accelerated tool wear, and poor surface quality are often detriments in manufacturing glass and hard ceramics. The quality of the ground surface greatly influences the polishing process and the resulting finished product. Through extensive research and development, OptiPro Systems has introduced an ultrasonic assisted grinding technology, OptiSonic, which has numerous advantages over traditional grinding processes. OptiSonic utilizes a custom tool holder designed to produce oscillations in line with the rotating spindle. A newly developed software package called IntelliSonic is integral to this platform. IntelliSonic automatically characterizes the tool and continuously optimizes the output frequency for optimal cutting while in contact with the part. This helps maintain a highly consistent process under changing load conditions for a more accurate surface. Utilizing a wide variety of instruments, test have proven to show a reduction in tool wear and increase in surface quality while allowing processing speeds to be increased. OptiSonic has proven to be an enabling technology to overcome the difficulties seen in grinding of glass and hard optical ceramics. OptiSonic has demonstrated numerous advantages over the standard CNC grinding process. Advantages are evident in reduced tool wear, better surface quality, and reduced cycle times due to increased feed rates. These benefits can be seen over numerous applications within the precision optics industry.

  4. THERMAL STUDY ON THE GRINDING OF GRANITE WITH SUPERABRASIVE TOOLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In the present paer, a thermal study was conducted for the grinding of granite with diamond tools. Three types of grinding-straight surface grinding, deep grinding(circular sawing), and vertical spindle grinding-were studied. Some surface grinding tests were also conducted using a CBN(cubic boron nitride) wheel. Temperature distributions on the workpiece surface were measured using a foil thermocouple and the energy partition to the workpiece was estimated using a temperature matching method. The temperature for CBN surface grinding was found to be much higher than for diamond grinding. Energy partitions to the granite were 30%~36% for CBN surface grinding, 25%~32% for diamond surface grinding, about 53% for vertical spindle grinding, and 5.5%~9% for diamond deep grinding. The low energy partition value in deep grinding also suggested that more of the heat generated by grinding in this case can be conducted to the grinding tool and promote tool wear.

  5. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  6. Surface grinding of intermetallic titanium aluminides

    CERN Document Server

    Gröning, Holger Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A deductive kinematic model of creep-feed and speed-stroke grinding processes is developed to identify possibilities to reduce the energy introduced into the workpiece. By computer tomography analysis and tactile measurements of the grinding wheel the pore volume and the static cutting edge number are determined and included in the model. Based on the kinematic model and the grinding wheel characteristics an analytical evaluation of the specific grinding energy for speed-stroke and creep-feed grinding is carried out. The deducted process design is evaluated in experimental investigations. The

  7. Force Characteristics in Continuous Path Controlled Crankpin Grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Manchao; YAO Zhenqiang

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on the grinding force involved in cylindrical plunge grinding has focused mainly on steady-state conditions. Unlike in conventional external cylindrical plunge grinding, the conditions between the grinding wheel and the crankpin change periodically in path controlled grinding because of the eccentricity of the crankpin and the constant rotational speed of the crankshaft. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of various grinding conditions on the characteristics of the grinding force during continuous path controlled grinding. Path controlled plunge grinding is conducted at a constant rotational speed using a cubic boron nitride (CBN) wheel. The grinding force is determined by measuring the torque. The experimental results show that the force and torque vary sinusoidally during dry grinding and load grinding. The variations in the results reveal that the resultant grinding force and torque decrease with higher grinding speeds and increase with higher peripheral speeds of the pin and higher grinding depths. In path controlled grinding, unlike in conventional external cylindrical plunge grinding, the axial grinding force cannot be disregarded. The speeds and speed ratios of the workpiece and wheel are also analyzed, and the analysis results show that up-grinding and down-grinding occur during the grinding process. This paper proposes a method for describing the force behavior under varied process conditions during continuous path controlled grinding, which provides a beneficial reference for describing the material removal mechanism and for optimizing continuous controlled crankpin grinding.

  8. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents of selected commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A; Smith, Nancy L; Lee, Chang Y; McHale, Nancy L; Flanagan, Judith A; Ou, Boxin; Hurst, W Jeffrey

    2006-05-31

    In the United States, commercially available foods, including cocoa and chocolate, are being marketed with statements referring to the level of antioxidant activity and polyphenols. For cocoa-containing foods, there has been no comprehensive survey of the content of these and other chemistries. A survey of cocoa and chocolate-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to determine antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents. Commercially available samples consisted of the top market share products in each of the following six categories: natural cocoa, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized using four different methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), vitamin C equivalence antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), total polyphenols, and procyanidins. All composite lots were further characterized for percent nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) and percent fat. Natural cocoas had the highest levels of antioxidant activities, total polyphenols, and procyanidins followed by baking chocolates, dark chocolates and baking chips, and finally milk chocolate and syrups. The results showed a strong linear correlation between NFCS and ORAC (R (2) = 0.9849), total polyphenols (R (2) = 0.9793), and procyanidins (R (2) = 0.946), respectively. On the basis of principal component analysis, 81.4% of the sample set was associated with NFCS, antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, and procyanidins. The results indicated that, regardless of the product category, NFCS were the primary factor contributing to the level of cocoa antioxidants in the products tested. Results further suggested that differences in cocoa bean blends and processing, with the possible exception of Dutching, are minor factors in determining the level of antioxidants in commercially available cocoa-containing products in the United States.

  9. Cocoa antioxidants and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Carl L; Holt, Roberta R; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, César G; Schmitz, Harold H

    2005-01-01

    An increasing body of epidemiologic evidence supports the concept that diets rich in fruits and vegetables can promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases. Epidemiologic data support the idea that these health benefits are causally linked to the consumption of certain flavonoids present in fruit and vegetables. In the context of cardiovascular health, a particular group of flavonoids, namely, the flavan-3-ols (flavanols), has received attention. Flavanol-rich, plant-derived foods and beverages include wine, tea, and various fruits and berries, as well as cocoa and cocoa products. Numerous dietary intervention studies in humans and animals indicate that flavanol-rich foods and beverages might exert cardioprotective effects with respect to vascular function and platelet reactivity. This review discusses the bioactivity of flavanols in the context of cardiovascular health, with respect to their bioavailability, their antioxidant properties, and their vascular effects.

  10. Effect of edible coating on the aromatic attributes of roasted coffee beans

    OpenAIRE

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A. K.; Ramalakshmi, K.; Nagaraju, V. D.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is known throughout the world for its distinct aroma and flavour which results from a number of volatile compounds present in it. It is very difficult to arrest the aromatic compounds once the roasting process is complete and it becomes even more challenging to store the beans for a longer time with the retained volatiles as these compounds are easily lost during industrialized processing such as the grinding of roasted coffee beans and storage of ground coffee. Thus, an attempt was ma...

  11. Method for grinding precision components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanath, Srinivasan; Kuo, Shih Yee; Williston, William H.; Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav

    2000-01-01

    A method for precision cylindrical grinding of hard brittle materials, such as ceramics or glass and composites comprising ceramics or glass, provides material removal rates as high as 19-380 cm.sup.3 /min/cm. The abrasive tools used in the method comprise a strong, light weight wheel core bonded to a continuous rim of abrasive segments containing superabrasive grain in a dense metal bond matrix.

  12. Flavanol-rich cocoa: a cardioprotective nutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrinfar, Ramona; Frishman, William H

    2008-01-01

    A growing number of epidemiologic studies have shown a link between the ingestion of flavonoid-rich cocoa and cardiovascular health benefits. A particular kind of flavonoid found in cocoa, namely flavan-3-ol (flavanol), has recently received more attention in this context. This review discusses the cardioprotective properties of flavanols, and the mechanisms underlying these beneficial actions.

  13. 21 CFR 163.112 - Breakfast cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chocolate, milk, or butter; or (4) Salt. (c) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “breakfast cocoa”, or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breakfast cocoa. 163.112 Section 163.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.112 Breakfast cocoa....

  14. Analysis of Grinding Force and Elastic Deformation in Thread Grinding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the grinding geometry of the thread grinding dynamic contact arc length, a dynamic numerical thread grinding model has been set up on the basis of study of a single grit grinding model. The properties of grinding force and dynamic contact arc-length have been studied by means of the developed numerical model. The results have shown that the angle of helix has little effect on the dynamic contact arc-length than the wheel speed on the dynamic contact arc-length. And the wheel speed also produced a large effect on grinding force.

  15. Stomatal Conductance and Chlorophyll Characteristics and Their Relationship with Yield of Some Cocoa Clones Under Tectona grandis, Leucaena sp., and Cassia surattensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrusy Zakariyya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An optimum physiological condition will support high yield and quality of cocoa production. The research was aimed to study the effects of stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content related to cocoa production under three shade regimes.This research was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Station, elevation of 45 m above sea level with D climate type based on Schmidt & Fergusson. Cocoa trees which were planted in 1994 at a spacing of 3 X 3 m were used in the study planted by using split plot design. The shade tree species were teak (Tectona grandis, krete (Cassiasurattensis, and lamtoro (Leucaena sp. as the main plots, and cocoa clones of Sulawesi 01,Sulawesi 02, KKM 22 and KW 165 as sub plots. This study showed that there was interaction between cocoa clone and shade species for stomatal conductance where stomatal diffusive resistance of KKM 22 was the best under Leucaena sp.and Cassiasurattensis with the values of 1.38 and 1.34 s.cm -1, respectively. The highest chlorophyll content, stomatal index and transpiration values was under Leucaena sp. shade. There was positive correlation between chlorophyll content and transpiration with pod yield of cocoa. The highest yield and the lowest bean count wereobtainedon Sulawesi 01 clone under Leucaenasp. shade.Keywords: stomatal conductance, transpiration, diffusive resistance, shades trees, clones,pod yield

  16. Overview of the cocoa pod borer, conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conopomorpha cramerella is one of the most devastating pests of cocoa in Southeast Asia. This pest is currently responsible of a 40-60% loss of the cocoa production, which is worth about $500 million annually for the Indonesian cocoa industry alone. Because the cocoa industry in Indonesia is mainly ...

  17. Study on corrosive grinding of gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Careful grinding or honing is usually required in machining of gears in order to improvethe machining quality of gear surface. Thus several grinding additives were used to formulate syn-thetic grinding lubricants similar to superior running-in lubricants. Experimental results show thatthe tooth surface of the produced oblique gear and steel worm becomes extremely smooth aftergrinding at a certain load for about a half to one hour. Especially, the gear surface finished withspecially formulated grinding lubricant reaches mirror-like smoothness. The quality of the geartooth can be improved by corrosive grinding, while the corrosive grinding time can be controlled byadjusting the quantity of the corrosive additives and the speed and load of the gears.

  18. Experimental Setup for Diamond Grinding Using Electrochemical InProcess Controlled Dressing (ECD) of Grinding Wheel

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Shavva; E. M. Zaharevich

    2014-01-01

    The most effective method for finish machining of hard-metals and alloys is to use the diamond grinding wheels for grinding. An application of diamond wheels significantly increases the employee output, reduces costs, and raises manufacturing efficiency with achieving the high performance properties of treated surfaces.During grinding a working surface of diamond wheel wears out. It adversely affects the cutting capability of the diamond grains, and depending on the grinding conditions can oc...

  19. Specific grinding energy and surface roughness of nanoparticle jet minimum quantity lubrication in grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongkun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles with the anti-wear and friction reducing features were applied as cooling lubricant in the grinding fluid. Dry grinding, flood grinding, minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL, and nanoparticle jet MQL were used in the grinding experiments. The specific grinding energy of dry grinding, flood grinding and MQL were 84, 29.8, 45.5 J/mm3, respectively. The specific grinding energy significantly decreased to 32.7 J/mm3 in nanoparticle MQL. Compared with dry grinding, the surface roughness values of flood grinding, MQL, and nanoparticle jet MQL were significantly reduced with the surface topography profile values reduced by 11%, 2.5%, and 10%, respectively, and the ten point height of microcosmic unflatness values reduced by 1.5%, 0.5%, and 1.3%, respectively. These results verified the satisfactory lubrication effects of nanoparticle MQL. MoS2, carbon nanotube (CNT, and ZrO2 nanoparticles were also added in the grinding fluid of nanoparticle jet MQL to analyze their grinding surface lubrication effects. The specific grinding energy of MoS2 nanoparticle was only 32.7 J/mm3, which was 8.22% and 10.39% lower than those of the other two nanoparticles. Moreover, the surface roughness of workpiece was also smaller with MoS2 nanoparticle, which indicated its remarkable lubrication effects. Furthermore, the role of MoS2 particles in the grinding surface lubrication at different nanoparticle volume concentrations was analyzed. MoS2 volume concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 3% were used. Experimental results revealed that the specific grinding energy and the workpiece surface roughness initially increased and then decreased as MoS2 nanoparticle volume concentration increased. Satisfactory grinding surface lubrication effects were obtained with 2% MoS2 nanoparticle volume concentration.

  20. Changeing of fly ash leachability after grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, J.; Szabo, R.; Racz, A.; Banhidi, O.; Mucsi, G.

    2016-04-01

    Effect of grinding on the reactivity of fly ash used for geopolymer production was tested. Extraction technique using different alkaline and acidic solutions were used for detect the change of the solubility of elements due to the physical and mechano-chemical transformation of minerals in function of grinding time. Both the extraction with alkaline and acidic solution have detected improvement in solubility in function of grinding time. The enhancement in alkaline solution was approx. 100% in case of Si and Al. The acidic medium able to dissolve the fly ash higher manner than the alkaline, therefore the effect of grinding was found less pronounced.

  1. Study on the Friction Coefficient in Grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The friction between the abrasive grains and workpi ec e is a crutial factor determining the main grinding output. Few studies have bee n carried out investigating the values of the friction coefficient in grinding, due to the difficulty of direct measurement. In this paper, a mathematical model of the friction coefficient in grinding has been established with the aid of a new grinding parameter C ge, which has close relations to wheel wear rate Z s, metal removal rate Z w, specific energy u and gr...

  2. [Biologically active substances in grated cocoa and cocoa butter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosman, V M; Stankevich, N M; Makarov, V G; Tikhonov, V P

    2007-01-01

    In the article results of comparative analysis of grated cocoa and cocoa butter samples are presented. The investigation was done by modern instrumental methods such as HPLC, GC, UV- VIS-spectroscopy, and also with application of titrimetric and grarimetric methods. In the analyzed samples contents of total phenolics changes in an interval 1,0-3,2%, including monomeric proantocyanidins 0,6-1,35%; pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) 0,34-0,76 microg/g; phenyl ethylamine from 2,79 to 14,97 microg/g, tyramine from 9,56 to 71,68 microg/g, dopamine from 5,3 to 25,85 microg/g; theobromine from 3,3 to 8%, caffeine from 0,49 to 0,70%; among the amino acids at the greatest quantities were presented glutaminic and asparaginic acids, arginin and leucin; three main fatty acids were determined - palmitinic (31+/-2% rel.), oleinic (35+/-2% rel.) and stearinic (35+/-2% rel.); the main phytosterins were sytosterin (up to 192 mg%) and obtusifoliol (up to 198,5 mg%).

  3. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  4. Anti-Oxidative Polyphenolic Compounds of Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed F; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Rezaei, Parizad; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different serious chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, etc. Recent research has been focused on the beneficial role of dietary antioxidants against oxidative stress both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Theobroma cacao L. (cacao tree) is an evergreen tree which is native to South America. It is a plant of great economic importance and its seeds are commonly used to produce cocoa powder and chocolate. In addition to its uses in food industry, cocoa is a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. There is a plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies that report cocoa antioxidant capacity. The protective activity of cocoa seems to be due to its phytochemical constituents, especially catechins. However, bioavailability of cocoa polyphenolic constituents following oral administration is very low (nanomolar concentrations). In the present paper, we critically reviewed the available literature on the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of cocoa and its polyphenolic constituents. In addition to these, we provide brief information about cultivation, phytochemistry, bioavailability and clinical impacts of cocoa.

  5. IMPACT GRINDING OF DAMP MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladaev Nikolay Mikhaylovich

    2012-10-01

    Centrifugal grinders were used to analyze the grinding process. The experimental data have proven that the probability of destruction of damp samples is a lot higher than the one of dry samples, given the same initial dimensions of particles and the loading intensity. The rise in the probability of destruction is stipulated by the fact that that the grinder speed at which crushing is triggered is lower in case of damp samples than in case of dry ones. Expressions for speed that describes destruction initiation and the probability of destruction depending on the type of materials, the moisture content and the loading intensity have been derived.

  6. Enhancing Human Cognition with Cocoa Flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Socci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing cognitive abilities has become a fascinating scientific challenge, recently driven by the interest in preventing age-related cognitive decline and sustaining normal cognitive performance in response to cognitively demanding environments. In recent years, cocoa and cocoa-derived products, as a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanols sub-class, have been clearly shown to exert cardiovascular benefits. More recently, neuromodulation and neuroprotective actions have been also suggested. Here, we discuss human studies specifically aimed at investigating the effects of acute and chronic administration of cocoa flavanols on different cognitive domains, such as executive functions, attention and memory. Through a variety of direct and indirect biological actions, in part still speculative, cocoa and cocoa-derived food have been suggested to possess the potential to counteract cognitive decline and sustain cognitive abilities, particularly among patients at risk. Although still at a preliminary stage, research investigating the relations between cocoa and cognition shows dose-dependent improvements in general cognition, attention, processing speed, and working memory. Moreover, cocoa flavanols administration could also enhance normal cognitive functioning and exert a protective role on cognitive performance and cardiovascular function specifically impaired by sleep loss, in healthy subjects. Together, these findings converge at pointing to cocoa as a new interesting nutraceutical tool to protect human cognition and counteract different types of cognitive decline, thus encouraging further investigations. Future research should include complex experimental designs combining neuroimaging techniques with physiological and behavioral measures to better elucidate cocoa neuromodulatory properties and directly compare immediate versus long-lasting cognitive effects.

  7. Cocoa and health: a decade of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Karen A; Donovan, Jennifer L; Waterhouse, Andrew L; Williamson, Gary

    2008-01-01

    It has been over 10 years since the first mention in a medical journal about cocoa and chocolate as potential sources of antioxidants for health. During this time, cocoa has been found to improve antioxidant status, reduce inflammation and correlate with reduced heart disease risk; with these results, and its popularity, it has received wide coverage in the press. However, after 10 years of research, what is known about the potential health benefits of cocoa and what are the important next steps in understanding this decadent source of antioxidants?

  8. Biomass of cocoa and sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto; Sumanto; Hartati, R. S.; Prastowo, B.

    2017-05-01

    The role of the agricultural sector is very important as the upstream addressing downstream sectors and national energy needs. The agricultural sector itself is also highly dependent on the availability of energy. Evolving from it then it must be policies and strategies for agricultural development Indonesia to forward particularly agriculture as producers as well as users of biomass energy or bioenergy for national development including agriculture balance with agriculture and food production. Exports of biomass unbridled currently include preceded by ignorance, indifference and the lack of scientific data and potential tree industry in the country. This requires adequate scientific supporting data. This study is necessary because currently there are insufficient data on the potential of biomass, including tree biomasanya detailing the benefits of bioenergy, feed and food is very necessary as a basis for future policy. Measurement of the main estate plants biomass such as cocoa and sugarcane be done in 2015. Measurements were also conducted on its lignocellulose content. Tree biomass sugarcane potential measured consist of leaves, stems and roots, with the weight mostly located on the stem. Nevertheless, not all the potential of the stem is a good raw material for bioethanol. For cocoa turned out leaves more prospective because of its adequate hemicellulose content. For sugarcane, leaf buds contain a good indicator of digestion of feed making it more suitable for feed.

  9. Manufacturing processes 2 grinding, honing, lapping

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    Presents a view of the most common machining and non-machining manufacturing processes. This volume describes the characteristics of abrasive tools, their design and manufacturing, followed by the fundamentals of grinding fluids. It also discusses grinding of different materials (steel, cast iron, hard and brittle materials, nickel and titanium).

  10. Peppery Hot Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Peppery Hot Bean Curd is a famous dish that originated in Chengdu,Sichuan Province.Dating back to the year under the reign of Emperor Tongzhi during the Qing Dynasty(1862-1875),a woman chef named Chen created this dish.In Chinese it is called Mapo Bean Curd. Ingredients:Three pieces of bean curd,100 grams lean pork,25 grams green soy beans or garlic

  11. Precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.; Paul, H.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the effect of machine parameters and material properties on precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass. The critical grinding depth to initiate the plastic flow-to-brittle fracture regime will be directly measured using plunge-grind tests. This information will be correlated with machine parameters such as wheel bonding and diamond grain size. Multiaxis grinding tests will then be made to provide data more closely coupled with production technology. One important aspect of the material property studies involves measuring fracture toughness at the very short crack sizes commensurate with grinding damage. Short crack toughness value`s can be much less than the long-crack toughness values measured in conventional fracture tests.

  12. Effect of Cocoa Shell Ash as an Alkalizing Agent on Cocoa Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osundahunsi, O. F.; Bolade, M. K.; Akinbinu, A. A.

    Alkalized cocoa nibs were produced using cocoa shell ash as an alkalizing agent. Conventionally, imported alkalizing agents are used to produce alkalized/dutched nibs in cocoa processing industries. Cocoa powder and cocoa butter were produced from nibs treated with cocoa shell=s ash as an alkalizing agent and compared with products from two industries which used imported alkali as the dutching agent. Cocoa products made from cocoa nibs alkalized with ash for the shell were evaluated for physicochemical properties in comparison with product from Oluji and Stanmark Industries located in Southwestern Nigeria. Flame photometry method was used to determine components of the ash. The pH value of cocoa powder were 6.72 and 6.56 for Oluji and Stanmark samples respectively while 6.59 was reported for the Experimental cocoa powder sample. Percent fat content was 11.56 for Stanmark, 12.20 for Oluji and 10.56 for the Experimental sample. Colour reflectance was highest in Stanmark sample with 8.69 while the least was recorded for Experimental sample (7.18). Percent ash was 6.58, 8.16 and 7.13 for Stanmark, Oluji and Experimental samples respectively. Fat parameters for cocoa butter from the three samples were found to be within International standard for cocoa butter. Percent fatty acid ranged from 1.46 to 1.59. Saponification value was 193 mg KOH gG1 sample for Experimental sample, while Stanmark and Oluji cocoa butter had 196 and 198 mg KOH gG1, respectively. Percent unsaponifiable matter content was 0.30 each for Stanmark and Oluji with 0.39 for Experimental sample. Iodine value was between 35.11 and 38.07 Wij=s. Peroxide value ranged from 26-29 ME kgG1. Major components of cocoa shell ash were found to be potassium, 3.1 g/100 g and sodium, 7.2 g/100 g while sodium carbonate was 33.1 g/100 g. The pH of the ash was 10.8. There were no significant differences (p< 0.05) in all the sensory parameter for cocoa powder. Although, chocolate aroma was found to be less pronounced in

  13. Extraction of cocoa proanthocyanidins and their fractionation by sequential centrifugal partition chromatography and gel permeation chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedan, Vasilisa; Fischer, Norbert; Rohn, Sascha

    2016-08-01

    Cocoa beans contain secondary metabolites ranging from simple alkaloids to complex polyphenols with most of them believed to possess significant health benefits. The increasing interest in these health effects has prompted the need to develop techniques for their extraction, fractionation, separation, and analysis. This work provides an update on analytical procedures with a focus on establishing a gentle extraction technique. Cocoa beans were finely ground to an average particle size of centrifugal partition chromatography (SCPC) and gel permeation column chromatography using Sephadex LH-20. For SCPC, a two-phase solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water (4:1:5, v/v/v) was successfully applied for the separation of theobromine, caffeine, and representatives of the two main phenolic compound classes flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 using a stepwise elution sequence with aqueous acetone has been shown for effectively separating individual flavan-3-ols. Separation was obtained for (-)-epicatechin, proanthocyanidin dimer B2, trimer C1, and tetramer cinnamtannin A2. The purity of alkaloids and phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC analysis and their chemical identity was confirmed by mass spectrometry.

  14. The effect of cocoa fermentation and weak organic acids on growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Mororó, Raimundo C; Pereira, José L; Frisvad, Jens C; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2012-04-16

    The acidic characteristics of cocoa beans have influence on flavor development in chocolate. Cocoa cotyledons are not naturally acidic, the acidity comes from organic acids produced by the fermentative microorganisms which grow during the processing of cocoa. Different concentrations of these metabolites can be produced according to the fermentation practices adopted in the farms, which could affect the growth and ochratoxin A production by fungi. This work presents two independent experiments carried out to investigate the effect of some fermentation practices on ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus carbonarius in cocoa, and the effect of weak organic acids such as acetic, lactic and citric at different pH values on growth and ochratoxin A production by A. carbonarius and Aspergillus niger in culture media. A statistical difference (ρproduction, with differences according to the media pH and the organic acid present. Acetic acid was the most inhibitory acid against A. carbonarius and A. niger. From the point of view of food safety, considering the amount of ochratoxin A produced, fermentation practices should be conducted towards the enhancement of acetic acid, although lactic and citric acids also have an important role in lowering the pH to improve the toxicity of acetic acid.

  15. Determination of the provenance of cocoa by soil protolith ages and assessment of anthropogenic lead contamination by pb/nd and lead isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, William I

    2010-01-27

    The Pb contents of chocolate and the products it flavors are among the highest of all commonly consumed substances. Others have shown that this Pb is acquired by cocoa beans after harvesting and is concentrated in their shells, portions of which are ground up with the cotyledons during processing. It is shown here that the shells also contain the lanthanides Nd and Sm, which they appear to take up more slowly than Pb when dried on bare soil. Consideration of Pb/Nd ratios, model Sm-Nd ages and the isotope ratios of Pb and Sr indicates that, in the absence of contamination, the relationship between Pb and Nd in shells is y = 13.1x(-0.383), where x is the Nd concentration in microg/kg and y is the Pb/Nd ratio. For cocoa powders, the relationship is y = 114x(-0.988). Samples that plot above these curves are probably contaminated. Model ages indicate where the cocoa of cocoa powders is grown, and these same considerations point to African samples being uncontaminated but samples from Asia containing 50% anthropogenic Pb of Australian origin. No measurable Pb contamination occurs during the transport of beans and the manufacture of chocolate.

  16. Natural cocoa as diet-mediated antimalarial prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, F K

    2010-05-01

    The Maya of Central America are credited with the first consumption of cocoa and maintaining its ancient Olmec name kakawa translated in English as "God Food", in recognition of its multiple health benefits. The legend of cocoa is receiving renewed attention in recent years, on account of epidemiological and scientific studies that support its cardiovascular health benefits. Increasing numbers of scientific reports corroborating cocoa's antiquated reputation as health food persuaded this author to promote regular consumption of cocoa in Ghana since 2004. Cocoa is readily available in Ghana; the country is the second largest producer accounting for 14% of the world's output. Numerous anecdotal reports of reduced episodic malaria in people who daily drink natural unsweetened cocoa beverage prompted a search for scientific mechanisms that possibly account for cocoa's antimalarial effects. This paper presents the outcome as a hypothesis. Internet search for literature on effects of cocoa's ingredients on malaria parasites and illness using a variety of search tools. Evidential literature suggests five mechanisms that possibly underpin cocoa's anecdotal antimalarial effects. (i) Increased availability of antioxidants in plasma, (ii) membrane effects in general and erythrocyte membrane in particular, (iii) increased plasma levels of nitric oxide, (iv) antimalarial activity of cocoa flavanoids and their derivatives, and (v) boosted immune system mediated by components of cocoa including cocoa butter, polyphenols, magnesium, and zinc. A hypothesis is formulated that cocoa offers a diet-mediated antimalarial prophylaxis; and an additional novel tool in the fight against the legendary scourge.

  17. Crystalline silica dust and respirable particulate matter during indoor concrete grinding - wet grinding and ventilated grinding compared with uncontrolled conventional grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar-Khanzadeh, Farhang; Milz, Sheryl; Ames, April; Susi, Pamela P; Bisesi, Michael; Khuder, Sadik A; Akbar-Khanzadeh, Mahboubeh

    2007-10-01

    The effectiveness of wet grinding (wet dust reduction method) and ventilated grinding (local exhaust ventilation method, LEV) in reducing the levels of respirable crystalline silica dust (quartz) and respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP) were compared with that of uncontrolled (no dust reduction method) conventional grinding. A field laboratory was set up to simulate concrete surface grinding using hand-held angle grinders in an enclosed workplace. A total of 34 personal samples (16 pairs side-by-side and 2 singles) and 5 background air samples were collected during 18 concrete grinding sessions ranging from 15-93 min. General ventilation had no statistically significant effect on operator's exposure to dust. Overall, the arithmetic mean concentrations of respirable crystalline silica dust and RSP in personal air samples during: (i) five sessions of uncontrolled conventional grinding were respectively 61.7 and 611 mg/m(3) (ii) seven sessions of wet grinding were 0.896 and 11.9 mg/m(3) and (iii) six sessions of LEV grinding were 0.155 and 1.99 mg/m(3). Uncontrolled conventional grinding generated relatively high levels of respirable silica dust and proportionally high levels of RSP. Wet grinding was effective in reducing the geometric mean concentrations of respirable silica dust 98.2% and RSP 97.6%. LEV grinding was even more effective and reduced the geometric mean concentrations of respirable silica dust 99.7% and RSP 99.6%. Nevertheless, the average level of respirable silica dust (i) during wet grinding was 0.959 mg/m(3) (38 times the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists [ACGIH] threshold limit value [TLV] of 0.025 mg/m(3)) and (ii) during LEV grinding was 0.155 mg/m(3) (6 times the ACGIH TLV). Further studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of a greater variety of models, types, and sizes of grinders on different types of cement in different positions and also to test the simulated field lab experimentation in the field.

  18. Granules Composed of Cocoa Pod Husk Enriched with Minerals and Their Effects on Growth of Coffee and Cocoa Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe characteristics of pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snell. had been identified in a series study. This research has objective to evaluate performance of the characteristics using more diverse of genetic background to select criteria for selection. Genetic materials for this study were 25 cocoa clones which be planted in Central Sulawesi for resistant evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed using the variable of the percentage of unextractable bean, number of entry and exit hole larvae by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichome, granule of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using Canonical Correlation. The analysis performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics (0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical for CPB resistance (0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiate the resistant clones (ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones (ICCRI 04, KW 516 and KW 564.Key words : cocoa pod borer, Theobroma cacao L., pod characteristics, resistance

  19. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    OpenAIRE

    Djurdjica Ackar; Kristina Valek Lendić; Marina Valek; Drago Šubarić; Borislav Miličević; Jurislav Babić; Ilija Nedić

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyph...

  20. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    OpenAIRE

    Djurdjica Ackar; Kristina Valek Lendić; Marina Valek; Drago Šubarić; Borislav Miličević; Jurislav Babić; Ilija Nedić

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyph...

  1. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djurdjica Ackar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyphenols and influence of cocoa and chocolate on human health. Although research on health benefits of dark chocolate and cocoa is quite extensive nowadays and shows potentially beneficial effects of dark chocolate and cocoa, there are still lots of unknowns and some controversies. This is obviously an area that needs more research in order to determine factual influence of chocolate on health.

  2. HPLC method for the quantification of procyanidins in cocoa and chocolate samples and correlation to total antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, G E; Lazarus, S A; Mitchell, A E; Prior, R L; Cao, G; Jacobs, P H; Kremers, B G; Hammerstone, J F; Rucker, R B; Ritter, K A; Schmitz, H H

    1999-10-01

    Monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins present in cocoa liquors and chocolates were separated and quantified in four different laboratories using a normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection. Procyanidin standards through decamers were obtained by extraction from cocoa beans, enrichment by Sephadex LH-20 gel permeation chromatography, and final purification by preparative normal-phase HPLC. The purity of each oligomeric fraction was assessed using HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. A composite standard was then prepared, and calibration curves were generated for each oligomeric class using a quadratic fit of area sum versus concentration. Results obtained by each of the laboratories were in close agreement, which suggests this method is reliable and reproducible for quantification of procyanidins. Furthermore, the procyanidin content of the samples was correlated to the antioxidant capacity measured using the ORAC assay as an indicator for potential biological activity.

  3. Effects of cocoa extract and dark chocolate on angiotensin-converting enzyme and nitric oxide in human endothelial cells and healthy volunteers--a nutrigenomics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ingrid A L; Persson, Karin; Hägg, Staffan; Andersson, Rolf G G

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that cocoa from the bean of Theobroma cacao L. has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if cocoa extract and dark chocolate influence angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and nitric oxide (NO) in human endothelial cells (in vitro) and in healthy volunteers (in vivo). ACE activity was analyzed with a commercial radioenzymatic assay and measured in human endothelial cells from umbilical veins (HUVEC) after 10 minutes of incubation with cocoa extract. NO was measured after 24 hours of incubation. ACE activity and NO were measured at baseline and after 30, 60, and 180 minutes in 16 healthy volunteers after a single intake of 75 g of dark chocolate containing 72% cocoa. Significant inhibition of ACE activity (P < 0.01) and significant increase of NO (P < 0.001) were seen in HUVEC. In the study subjects, a significant inhibition of ACE activity (mean 18%) 3 hours after intake of dark chocolate was seen, but no significant change in NO was seen. According to ACE genotype, significant inhibition of ACE activity was seen after 3 hours in individuals with genotype insertion/insertion and deletion/deletion (mean 21% and 28%, respectively). Data suggest that intake of dark chocolate containing high amount of cocoa inhibits ACE activity in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Heavy metal accumulation in leaves and beans of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in major cacao growing regions in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Arévalo-Hernández, Cesar O; Baligar, Virupax C; He, Zhenli L

    2017-12-15

    Peru is one of the leading exporters of organic cacao beans in the world. However, the accumulation of heavy metals in cacao beans represents a problem for cocoa bean export and chocolate quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in cacao leaves and cocoa beans in three major cacao growing regions of Peru. The study was conducted in cacao plantations of 10 to 15years old in three regions of Peru: North (Regions of Tumbes, Piura, Cajamarca, and Amazonas); Center (Regions of Huánuco and San Martin) and South (Junin and Cuzco). Samples of leaf and cacao beans were collected from 70 cacao plantations, and the nature of cacao clone or genotype sampled was recorded. The concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in leaves and beans were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Overall, concentrations of heavy metals were below the critical limits; however, the presence of high levels of Cd in cacao grown in Amazonas, Piura, and Tumbes regions is of primary concern. Plantations of cacao with different cacao clones show differences in Cd accumulation both in leaves and cocoa beans. Therefore, it is promising to screen low Cd accumulator cacao genotypes for safe production of cacao on lightly to moderately Cd contaminated soils. Also, synergism between Zn and Cd present both in plant and soil suggests that Zn has a direct effect on Cd accumulation in cacao. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. stakeholders' perceptions of cocoa extension constraints in ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    of key stakeholders in the cocoa sector on the problems of cocoa extension and how to address it. The study ... 2010 Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). Journal of ... Ghana, ten extensionists from the district of-.

  6. Cocoa phytochemicals: recent advances in molecular mechanisms on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Jaekyoon; Shim, Jaesung; Lee, Chang Yong; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports on cocoa are appealing in that a food commonly consumed for pure pleasure might also bring tangible benefits for human health. Cocoa consumption is correlated with reduced health risks of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer, and the health-promoting effects of cocoa are mediated by cocoa-driven phytochemicals. Cocoa is rich in procyanidins, theobromine, (-)-epicatechin, catechins, and caffeine. Among the phytochemicals present in consumed cocoa, theobromine is most available in human plasma, followed by caffeine, (-)-epicatechin, catechin, and procyanidins. It has been reported that cocoa phytochemicals specifically modulate or interact with specific molecular targets linked to the pathogenesis of chronic human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, diabetes, and skin aging. This review summarizes comprehensive recent findings on the beneficial actions of cocoa-driven phytochemicals in molecular mechanisms of human health.

  7. The Contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambali B; Andel I van; Schenk E; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Stevenson H; Vleeming W; TOX; SIR; LVM; PZO

    2003-01-01

    In this report the effect of these compounds on the addiction to cigarette smoking was assessed, using currently available information in the literature on psychoactive compounds of cocoa. The investigated psychoactive cocoa compounds were theobromine, caffeine, serotonin, histamine, tryptophan, try

  8. Analysis of farmers' adaptation strategies to climate change in cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of farmers' adaptation strategies to climate change in cocoa ... Changing climate and weather patterns are predicted to have severe negative impacts on ... out of eight Local Government Areas (LGAs) producing cocoa in Kwara State.

  9. Progress in abrasive and grinding technology

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xipeng

    2009-01-01

    The grinding and abrasive processing of materials are machining techniques which use bonded or loose abrasives to remove material from workpieces. Due to the well-known advantages of grinding and abrasive processes, advances in abrasive and grinding technology are always of great import in enhancing both productivity and component quality. In order to highlight the recent progress made in this field, the editor invited 21 world-wide contributions with the aim of gathering together all of the achievements of leading researchers into a single publication. The authors of the 21 invited papers, of

  10. Polyphenols from Cocoa and Vascular Health—A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols. In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-atherogenic activity. Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme) have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols. However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in...

  11. Polyphenols from Cocoa and Vascular Health?A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Anika E; Jennifer Moehring; Gerald Rimbach; Mona Melchin

    2009-01-01

    Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols. In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-atherogenic activity. Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme) have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols. However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in...

  12. The Inlet Engine Valves Grinding Using Different Types of Cutting Fluids and Grinding Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo Jannone da Silva

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental research is presented in which different types of cutting fluids (a cutting oil and three different types of soluble oils and grinding wheels (alumina and vitrified CBN were tested in the inlet engine valves grinding. As evaluation parameters the workpiece residual stress and the grinding wheel wear were analyzed. The cutting fluid and the grinding wheel types adopted resulted in changes in all the parameters, due to the different lubricant abilities among the fluids and due to the differences in the mechanical and thermal properties among the abrasives tested. For grinding this steel, the CBN wheel is the best choice, mainly due to compressive residual stress results obtained for all cutting fluids tested. The cutting oil is the most adequate cutting fluid to be used, due to its higher lubricity and ability in keeping the wheel sharp for longer periods of time, reducing the overall grinding energy and the thermal damage.

  13. 76 FR 35966 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL AGENCY: Federal... Cocoa, FL, as the Merritt Island Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard... Merritt Island Airport, Cocoa, FL (75 FR 21266) Docket No. FAA-2011-0070. Interested parties were...

  14. DESCRIPTIVE AND DISCRIMINATORY SIGNIFICANCE OF POD PHENOTYPIC TRAITS FOR DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF COCOA GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Adewale

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Intra-specific genetic diversity analysis precedes crop breeding proposal for species improvement. Sixteen and twenty-four parental and hybrid cocoa genotypes were respectively laid out in a randomized complete block design of six replications at Ibadan, Nigeria. A sampling unit of fifteen uniformly ripe pods was collected for assessment from each plot. Six quantitative data from the pods were subjected to statistical analysis. Highly significant (P < 0.0001 variability existed among the 40 genotypes. Range of performance of the genotypes were: pod weight (0.43 – 0.86kg, pod length (15.9 – 27.96cm, pod girth (21.51 – 34.07cm, pod thickness (1.26 – 5.71cm, number of beans per pod (20 - 51 and bean weight per pod (0.017 - 0.41kg. Positive and significant (P < 0.001 correlation existed between pod weight and length, pod girth and bean number/pod. The mean Gower genetic distance among the 40 genotypes was 0.228; the least (0.023 existed between G25 and G30 while the highest (0.529 was between G17 and G35. The first three principal component axes explained 73% of the total variation. Three distinct groups emerged from the Ward clustering technique. Significant (P<0.05 intra and inter cluster variability existed in the study. High genetic diversity lies within the studied population. Pod traits were important descriptors for cocoa genotypes classification.

  15. Method validation for detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents in cocoa butter and plain chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Ulberth, Franz; Anklam, Elke

    2004-01-01

    A European interlaboratory study was conducted to validate an analytical procedure for the detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents in cocoa butter and plain chocolate. In principle, the fat obtained from plain chocolate according to the Soxhlet principle is separated by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography into triacylglycerol fractions according to their acyl-C-numbers, and within a given number, also according to unsaturation. The presence of cocoa butter equivalents is detected by linear regression analysis applied to the relative proportions of the 3 main triacylglycerol fractions of the fat analyzed. The amount of the cocoa butter equivalent admixture is estimated by partial least-squares regression analysis applied to the relative proportions of the 5 main triacylglycerols. Cocoa butter equivalent admixtures were detected down to a level of 2% related to the fat phase, corresponding to 0.6% in chocolate (assumed fat content of chocolate, 30%), without false-positive or -negative results. By using a quantification model based on partial least-squares regression analysis, the predicted cocoa butter equivalent amounts were in close agreement with the actual values. The applied model performed well at the level of the statutory limit of 5% cocoa butter equivalent addition to chocolate with a prediction error of 0.6%, assuming a chocolate fat content of 30%.

  16. High Efficiency ELID Grinding of Garnet Ferrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Hard and brittle materials such as ferrite, optical glass and ceramics have been widely used in many fields because of their good characteristics and still gain more attentions. However, it is difficult to machine and get good surface quality. Some parts made of these materials have large machining allowances and need to be produced with large batch, but the machining efficiency is very low with usual grinding method. So it is of great importance to research the high efficiency grinding technology of hard ...

  17. Multiparameter Optimization and Controlling for Cylindrical Grinding Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper bursts the bondage of conventional no-burn thought, presents an optimum strategy permitting burn appear in grinding roughing stage, but the burning layer can be summed on the following finishing stage. On the base of the basic grinding models, the objective function and constrained functions for the multiparameter optimum grinding models had been built in this paper. By the computer simulation, the nonlinear optimum grinding control parameters had been obtained, and the truth grinding process had...

  18. Mirror Surface Grinding of Steel Bonded Carbides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The steel bonded carbide, a composite material, is very difficult to be machined to a fine finish mirror surface. In this paper, an electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) grinding with metallic bond super-hard abrasive wheel was developed for grinding steel bonded carbide GT35. Factors affecting ELID grinding performance were analyzed by an atomic force microscope (AFM). Based on the analysis of AFM topography of the fine ground mirror surface of the steel bonded carbide, a schematic diagram of the mechanism of micro-removal of the ground surface was described. The AFM topography also shows that the hard brittle carbide particles, on the surface of steel bonded carbide, were machined out by ductile cutting. Since the grinding cracks in the ground surface are due to temperature gradient, temperature distribution in the grinding area was analyzed by finite element method (FEM). Experimental results indicate that a good mirror surface with Ra<0.02pm can be obtained by the developed ELID grinding system.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Rotating Cylinder Type Coffee Bean Roaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarsi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One strategy attempts to reduce dependence on primary commodity markets are overseas market expansion and development of secondary products. In the secondary product processing coffee beans is required of supporting equipment to facilitate these efforts. Research Center for Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa has developed coffee bean roaster. However, there are still many people who do not know about the technical aspects of roaster machine type of rotating cylinder so that more people use traditional ways to roast coffee beans. In order for the benefits of this machine is better known society it is necessary to study on the technical aspects. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the technical performance of the coffee beans roaster machine type of rotating cylinder. These include the technical aspects of work capacity of the machine, roasting technical efficiency, fuel requirements, and power requirements of using roaster machine. Research methods are including data collection, calculation and analysis. The results showed that the roaster machine type of a rotating cylinder has capacity of 12.3 kg/hour. Roasting efficiency is 80%. Fuel consumption is 0.6 kg. The calculated amount of the used power of current measurement is the average of 0.616 kW.

  20. Comparison of Grinding Characteristics of Converter Steel Slag with and without Pretreatment and Grinding Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihui Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The converter steel slag cannot be widely used in building materials for its poor grindability. In this paper, the grinding characteristics of untreated and pretreated (i.e., magnetic separation steel slag were compared. Additionally, the grinding property of pretreated steel slag was also studied after adding grinding aids. The results show that the residues (i.e., oversize substance that passed a 0.9 mm square-hole screen can be considered as the hardly grinding phases (HGP and its proportion is about 1.5%. After the initial 20 min grinding, the RO phase (RO phase is a continuous solid solution which is composed of some divalent metal oxides, such as FeO, MgO, MnO, CaO, etc., calcium ferrite, and metallic iron phase made up most of the proportion of the HGP, while the metallic iron made up the most component after 70 min grinding. The D50 of untreated steel slag could only reach 32.89 μm after 50 min grinding, but that of pretreated steel slag could reach 18.16 μm after the same grinding time. The grinding efficiency of steel slag was obviously increased and the particle characteristics were improved after using grinding aids (GA, especially the particle proportions of 3–32 μm were obviously increased by 7.24%, 7.22%, and 10.63% after 40 min, 50 min, and 60 min grinding, respectively. This is mainly because of the reduction of agglomeration and this effect of GA was evidenced by SEM (scanning electron microscope images.

  1. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the European population to cadmium from food is high compared with the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg/kg bodyweight set by EFSA in 2009. Only few studies on the bioavailability of cadmium from different food sources has been performed but this information in very important...... for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... with whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and CdCl2 for 3 weeks was performed. Linseed or cocoa made up 10% of the feed (by weight) and was added as a replacement for carbohydrate source. The rats were dosed for 3 weeks and the cadmium content in the rats' kidneys was measured by ICPMS as a biomarker...

  2. COCOA: Simulating Observations of Star Cluster Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Abbas; Giersz, Mirek; Pych, Wojciech; Dalessandro, Emanuele

    2017-03-01

    COCOA (Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions) creates idealized mock photometric observations using results from numerical simulations of star cluster evolution. COCOA is able to present the output of realistic numerical simulations of star clusters carried out using Monte Carlo or N-body codes in a way that is useful for direct comparison with photometric observations. The code can simulate optical observations from simulation snapshots in which positions and magnitudes of objects are known. The parameters for simulating the observations can be adjusted to mimic telescopes of various sizes. COCOA also has a photometry pipeline that can use standalone versions of DAOPHOT (ascl:1104.011) and ALLSTAR to produce photometric catalogs for all observed stars.

  3. Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

  4. 21 CFR 163.150 - Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. 163.150... § 163.150 Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet cocoa and vegetable fat coating... preparation of the product, cocoa or a mixture of cocoa and chocolate liquor is used in such quantity that...

  5. The microbiology of cocoa fermentation and its role in chocolate quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwan, Rosane F; Wheals, Alan E

    2004-01-01

    The first stage of chocolate production consists of a natural, seven-day microbial fermentation of the pectinaceous pulp surrounding beans of the tree Theobroma cacao. There is a microbial succession of a wide range of yeasts, lactic-acid, and acetic-acid bacteria during which high temperatures of up to 50 degrees C and microbial products, such as ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid, kill the beans and cause production of flavor precursors. Over-fermentation leads to a rise in bacilli and filamentous fungi that can cause off-flavors. The physiological roles of the predominant micro-organisms are now reasonably well understood and the crucial importance of a well-ordered microbial succession in cocoa aroma has been established. It has been possible to use a synthetic microbial cocktail inoculum of just 5 species, including members of the 3 principal groups, to mimic the natural fermentation process and yield good quality chocolate. Reduction of the amount of pectin by physical or mechanical means can also lead to an improved fermentation in reduced time and the juice can be used as a high-value byproduct. To improve the quality of the processed beans, more research is needed on pectinase production by yeasts, better depulping, fermenter design, and the use of starter cultures.

  6. Research on the processing speed of cam grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Baoying; Han, Qiushi

    2011-05-01

    Cam Grinding is a special kind of non-circular machining. The processing speed of cam grinding has a major influence on cam machining precision. In this paper, decomposed the X-axis feed speed and C-axis velocity by the tangential speed and normal speed in accordance with the curvature circle at the point of cam profile grinding. Proposed the cam grinding processing speed model and linear velocity calculation formula, the processing experiment on the CNC camshaft grinding machine results show that the cam grinding speed model is correct. Constant angular speed grinding and constant linear speed grinding are analyzed respectively, which provides a theoretical basis for cam grinding processing speed optimization.

  7. A Review of Literature on analysis of JIG Grinding Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudheesh, P. K.; Puthumana, Govindan

    2016-01-01

    in jig grinding, because of their uniformity and purity. In this paper, abrief review of the analysis of jig grinding process considering various research trends is presented. The areas highlighted are: optimization, selection of abrasives, selection of processing conditions and practical considerations......Jig grinding is a process practically used by tool and die makers in the creation of jigs or mating holes and pegs on dies.The abrasives normally used in jig grinding are divided into Natural Abrasives and Artificial Abrasives. Artificial Abrasiveare preferred in manufacturing of grinding wheels....... The optimization of parameters in jig grinding process is important to maximize productivity and to improve quality. The abrasives of hard jig grinding wheels get blunt quickly so these are recommended to grind workpiece of low hardness and soft grinding wheels are recommended for hard material workpieces. The jig...

  8. ONLINE GRINDING WHEEL WEAR COMPENSATION BY IMAGE BASED MEASURING TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Daping; HU Dejin; WU Qi; ZHANG Yonghong

    2006-01-01

    Automatic compensation of grinding wheel wear in dry grinding is accomplished by an image based online measurement method. A kind of PC-based charge-coupled device image recognition system is schemed out, which detects the topography changes of the grinding wheel surface. Profile data, which corresponds to the wear and the topography, is measured by using a digital image processing method. The grinding wheel wear is evaluated by analyzing the position deviation of the grinding wheel edge. The online wear compensation is achieved according to the measure results. The precise detection and automatic compensation system is integrated into an open structure CNC curve grinding machine. A practical application is carried out to fulfil the precision curve grinding. The experimental results confirm the benefits of the proposed techniques, and the online detection accuracy is less than 5 μm. The grinding machine provides higher precision according to the in-process grinding wheel error compensation.

  9. Detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents in cocoa butter and plain chocolate by gas liquid chromatography of triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Senaldi, Chiara; Ulberth, Franz; Anklam, Elke

    2004-01-01

    The development and in-house testing of a method for the detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents in cocoa butter and plain chocolate is described. A database consisting of the triacylglycerol profile of 74 genuine cocoa butter and 75 cocoa butter equivalent samples obtained by high-resolution capillary gas liquid chromatography was created, using a certified cocoa butter reference material (IRMM-801) for calibration purposes. Based on these data, a large number of cocoa butter/cocoa butter equivalent mixtures were arithmetically simulated. By subjecting the data set to various statistical tools, reliable models for both detection (univariate regression model) and quantification (multivariate model) were elaborated. Validation data sets consisting of a large number of samples (n = 4050 for detection, n = 1050 for quantification) were used to test the models. Excluding pure illipé fat samples from the data set, the detection limit was determined between 1 and 3% foreign fat in cocoa butter. Recalculated for a chocolate with a fat content of 30%, these figures are equal to 0.3-0.9% cocoa butter equivalent. For quantification, the average error for prediction was estimated to be 1.1% cocoa butter equivalent in cocoa butter, without prior knowledge of the materials used in the blend corresponding to 0.3% in chocolate (fat content 30%). The advantage of the approach is that by using IRMM-801 for calibration, the established mathematical decision rules can be transferred to every testing laboratory.

  10. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... or crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  11. Analysis on the grinding quality of palm oil fibers by using combined grinding equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, H. L.; Gan, L. M.; Law, H. C.

    2015-12-01

    As known, Malaysia is the second largest palm oil producer worldwide after Indonesia, therefore indicating the abundance of its wastes within the country. The plantation would be seen to increase to at least 5.2 million ha by 2020, and the waste generation would be 50-70 times the plantation. However, the efficiency of bulk density is reduced. This is one of the main reasons of the initiation of this size reduction/ grinding research. With appropriate parameters, grinding will be seen to be helping in enhancing the inter-particle bindings, subsequently increasing the quality of final products. This paper focuses on the grinding quality involving palm oil wastes by using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The samples would first be ground to powder at varying grinding speed and finally got the randomly chosen particles measured to obtain the size range. The grinding speed was manipulated from 15 Hz to 40 Hz. From the data obtained, it was found the particles fineness increased with increasing grinding speed. In general, the size ranged from 45 μm to about 600 μm, where the finest was recorded at the speed of 40 Hz. It was also found that the binding was not so encouraging at very low speeds. Therefore, the optimum grinding speed for oil palm residues lied in the range of 25 Hz to 30 Hz. However, there were still limitations to be overcome if the accuracy of the image clarity is to be enhanced.

  12. Characterization of cocoa liquors by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS: focus on alkylpyrazines and flavanols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, Emanuele; Bono, Luca; Di Carro, Marina

    2012-09-01

    Flavor is one of the most important characteristics of chocolate products and is due to a complex volatile fraction, depending both on the cocoa bean genotype and the several processes occurring during chocolate production (fermentation, drying, roasting and conching). Alkylpyrazines are among the most studied volatiles, being one of the main classes of odorant compounds in cocoa products. In this work, a mass spectrometric approach was used for the comparison of cocoa liquors from different countries. A headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the qualitative study of the volatile fraction; the standard addition method was then used for the quantitative determination of five pyrazines (2-methylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine and tetramethylpyrazine). Satisfactory figures of merit were obtained: Limits of quantitation were in the range 0.1-2.7 ng/g; repeatability and reproducibility varied between 3% and 7% and between 8% and 14%, respectively. The total content of the pyrazines was remarkably different in the considered samples, ranging from 99 to 708 ng/g. Tetramethylpyrazine showed the highest concentration in all samples, with a maximum value of 585 ng/g. A preliminary study was also performed on the nonvolatile fraction using LC-MS/MS, identifying some flavanols such as catechin, epicatechin and procyanidins.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Aromatic Components in Cocoa Powder, Cocoa Shell and Their Application Effects in Cigarette%可可粉、可可壳的致香成分分析及卷烟应用效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学娟; 周叶燕; 孙胜南; 黄艳

    2016-01-01

    In order to compare the differences between aromatic components in cocoa powder and cocoa shell, and the differences between their application effects in cigarette, the roasted cocoa beans was prepared into tinctures, and their volatile aromatic components were identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC - MS), and two kinds of tinctures were applied to cigarettes to compare their effects. Results showed that:①Thirty - eight and thirty - six kinds of aromatic components in the tinctures of cocoa and cocoa shell were identified respectively, including 29 kinds of same components, and the main components were obromine and caffeine. Nine kinds of unique components in cocoa tincture were identified, their aroma were milky, acid, roast and sweet; seven kinds of unique components in cocoa shell tincture were identified, their aroma were burnt, woody, nutty and roast;②The evaluation results showed that the best mass dosage of two tinctures in“coco palm” blank leaf were 0.3%. Cocoa powder tincture mainly provided cocoa characteristic aroma in cigarettes, while cocoa shell tincture mainly brought roast and nutty aroma. Therefore, two kinds of tinctures should be selected according to the requirements duringflavouring.%为比较可可粉、可可壳的致香成分及应用效果差异,对已烘焙的可可豆按部位进行酊剂的制备,得到可可粉酊与可可壳酊,利用气相色谱-质谱联用方法(GC - MS)分析两种酊剂的挥发性致香成分,并应用于卷烟对比应用效果。结果显示:①对可可粉酊和可可壳酊分别鉴定出38种和36种挥发性致香成分,其中共有成分29种,含量较高的主要为可可碱和咖啡因;可可粉酊独有的化学成分9种,香气表现为奶香、酸香、烘烤香、蜜甜香;可可壳酊独有的化学成分7种,香气表现为焦香、木香、坚果香、烘烤香;②将可可粉酊和可可壳酊应用于“椰树”空白

  14. Effect of edible coating on the aromatic attributes of roasted coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Ramalakshmi, K; Nagaraju, V D

    2015-09-01

    Coffee is known throughout the world for its distinct aroma and flavour which results from a number of volatile compounds present in it. It is very difficult to arrest the aromatic compounds once the roasting process is complete and it becomes even more challenging to store the beans for a longer time with the retained volatiles as these compounds are easily lost during industrialized processing such as the grinding of roasted coffee beans and storage of ground coffee. Thus, an attempt was made to minimise the loss of volatile from roasted coffee beans by coating with Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and Whey protein concentrate. Coffee volatiles were analysed by Gas chromatography and 14 major compounds were identified and compared in this study. Results showed an increase in the relative area of major volatile compounds in coated roasted coffee beans when compared with unroasted coffee beans for consecutive two months. Moreover, effect of coating on textural properties and non-volatiles were also analysed. The results have indicated that edible coatings preserve the sensory properties of roasted coffee beans for a longer shelf life and cellulose derivatives, as an edible coating, exhibited the best protecting effect on roasted coffee beans.

  15. Research on Visualization in Scientific Computation of Grinding Temperature Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper introduces the concepts, classification and method of visualization in scientific computation. Visual C++ developing tool is used to compute surface grinding forces and grinding temperature field models. The three-dimensional entity model of workpiece is made with OpenGL tool, and the different colors on the workpiece entity show different value of temperature, so the visualization of grinding temperature field is realized. The temperature value of every points in grinding temperature field, the c...

  16. The Cardiovascular Effects of Cocoa Polyphenols—An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Clara Aprotosoaie; Anca Miron; Adriana Trifan; Vlad Simon Luca; Irina-Iuliana Costache

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa is a rich source of high-quality antioxidant polyphenols. They comprise mainly catechins (29%–38% of total polyphenols), anthocyanins (4% of total polyphenols) and proanthocyanidins (58%–65% of total polyphenols). A growing body of experimental and epidemiological evidence highlights that the intake of cocoa polyphenols may reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Beyond antioxidant properties, cocoa polyphenols exert blood pressure lowering activity, antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, m...

  17. How can the productivity of Indonesian cocoa farms be increased?

    OpenAIRE

    Tothmihaly, Andras; Ingram, Verina

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the Indonesian cocoa production to reveal the possibilities for poverty alleviation while considering the threats to environmental sustainability. We estimate, based on a large household panel data set and stochastic frontier analysis, the technical efficiency of cocoa production and decompose productivity growth. According to our results, the productivity of Indonesian cocoa farming increased by 75 percent between 2001 and 2013. Technical efficiency growth and the inc...

  18. Photosensitivity in feedlot calves apparently related to cocoa shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Avidar, Y; Perl, S

    2003-10-01

    Primary photosensitization was observed in 11/78 cross-breed calves. The skin lesions were diffuse dermatitis with thickening and wrinkling with areas of alopecia. The severe photosensitivity dermatitis was associated with cocoa shell ingestion. The lesions resolved after removal of the cocoa shells from the feed ration and prevention of exposure to sunlight. Cocoa shells may contain photodynamic agents that cause photosensitization in calves.

  19. Effection of grinding system rigidity ultra-precision grinding of aspheric mould and error compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S. H.; Gong, S.

    2016-10-01

    In ultra-precision oblique axis grinding process for machining micro aspherical mould, form error of aspherical surface is caused by the inconsistence elastic deformation of grinding system, which derived from differences velocity from inside to out. In this case, whole PV value can meet requirements, however, pits are produced in central after error compensation, which is unworkable. In this paper, mechanism of machining error caused by grinding system rigidity is analyzed, and experiments are carried out. Form error compensation grinding are carried out in the central local area, based on traditional error compensation method, which can effectively eliminate the pits of surface center. In this method, cemented carbide YG8 which diameter is about 6mm is ground. The results showed that the form accuracy under PV 200 nm and under PV 50 nm within the scope of 1 mm, and the surface roughness under Ra2nm.

  20. Grinding of WC–Co hardmetals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, J.B.J.W.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; With, G. de

    2001-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the morphology of the ground surface of cobalt tungsten carbide (WC) composite materials that belong to the category of so-called hardmetals. A deformed and detached surface layer was found on top of the specimens after surface grinding with a diamond wheel. In order to

  1. Physical interactions between cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and nowadays is cultivated only in Amazonian region. The seeds that come to about 16% of the dry weight can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product and the content of fat in the seeds is about 60% dry weight. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they show difference in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyse some physical and crystallization properties of the cupuassu fat, cocoa butter and some mixtures between the two fats. The analyses performed were: dropping point, solid fat content, hardness index and Jensen cooling curve. The results suggested some advantages of the use of cupuassu fat, as lower crystallization time and smoothness than cocoa butter. The mixtures showed compatibility, cocoa butter showed bigger solid fat content at room temperature than cupuassu fat and the mixtures. Cupuassu fat had a lower dropping point than cocoa butter. The possible use of cupuassu fat and the mixtures could be in fillings and cold weather chocolate productsCupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae es una fruta nativa amazónica que hoy día sólo se cultiva en esta región. Las semillas con un 16%, aproximadamente, del peso seco, tienen, aproximadamente, el 60% de grasa y pueden usarse como sustituto de manteca de cacao. En general, estas grasas son similares a las del cacao, aunque muestran diferencias en algunas de sus propiedades físicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades físicas y de cristalización de la grasa de cupuassu, de la manteca de cacao y de mezclas de las dos grasas. Los análisis realizados fueron: punto de goteo, contenido en grasa sólida, índice de dureza y la curva de enfriamiento de Jensen. El tiempo de cristalización inferior y la mayor suavidad que muestra la grasa de cupuassu frente a la manteca de cacao, sugieren algunas ventajas del uso de la misma

  2. The Cardiovascular Effects of Cocoa Polyphenols—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Aprotosoaie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is a rich source of high-quality antioxidant polyphenols. They comprise mainly catechins (29%–38% of total polyphenols, anthocyanins (4% of total polyphenols and proanthocyanidins (58%–65% of total polyphenols. A growing body of experimental and epidemiological evidence highlights that the intake of cocoa polyphenols may reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Beyond antioxidant properties, cocoa polyphenols exert blood pressure lowering activity, antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, metabolic and anti-atherosclerotic effects, and also improve endothelial function. This paper reviews the role of cocoa polyphenols in cardiovascular protection, with a special focus on mechanisms of action, clinical relevance and correlation between antioxidant activity and cardiovascular health.

  3. Cocoa and heart health: a historical review of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L

    2013-09-26

    The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés's first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America--ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa's bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health.

  4. Cocoa and Objective-C Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Build solid applications for Mac OS X, iPhone, and iPod Touch, regardless of whether you have basic programming skills or years of programming experience. With this book, you'll learn how to use Apple's Cocoa framework and the Objective-C language through step-by-step tutorials, hands-on exercises, clear examples, and sound advice from a Cocoa expert. Cocoa and Objective-C: Up and Running offers just enough theory to ground you, then shows you how to use Apple's rapid development tools -- Xcode and Interface Builder -- to develop Cocoa applications, manage user interaction, create great UIs,

  5. Applying life cycle management of colombian cocoa production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ortiz-R, Oscar Orlando; Villamizar Gallardo, Raquel Amanda; Rangel, Joshua Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    ...' deviation from production targets. Results show that appropriate improvements in farming practices and supply consumption can enhance decision-making in the agricultural cocoa sector towards sustainability...

  6. EVALUATION OF BEANS DEHULLER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M echanical/Production Engineering Department. Federal ... of food production, there has been more demand for beans as part of our .... hopper, dehulling unit, power unit and the ma- chine frame. - ... Operation of the machine. The machine ...

  7. Baked Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: Two pieces of tender bean curd, shredded shrimp, minced fat and lean pork, minced ham, minced fresh mushrooms, fried dried shrimps, mashed scallion, ginger and garlic, cooking wine, salad oil, salt, MSG and pepper powder. Directions:

  8. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - pulses; Healthy eating - beans and legumes; Weight loss - beans and legumes; Healthy diet - beans and legumes; ... My Plate.gov. Beans and Peas Are Unique Foods. Updated January 12, 2016. www.choosemyplate.gov/vegetables- ...

  9. Theobromine and the pharmacology of cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Hendrik Jan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of theobromine in man are underresearched, possibly owing to the assumption that it is behaviourally inert. Toxicology research in animals may appear to provide alarming results, but these cannot be extrapolated to humans for a number of reasons. Domestic animals and animals used for racing competitions need to be guarded from chocolate and cocoa-containing foods, including foods containing cocoa husks. Research ought to include caffeine as a comparative agent, and underlying mechanisms need to be further explored. Of all constituents proposed to play a role in our liking for chocolate, caffeine is the most convincing, though a role for theobromine cannot be ruled out. Most other substances are unlikely to exude a psychopharmacological effect owing to extremely low concentrations or the inability to reach the blood-brain barrier, whilst chocolate craving and addiction need to be explained by means of a culturally determined ambivalence towards chocolate.

  10. Method of accurate grinding for single enveloping TI worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Yuehai; ZHENG; Huijiang; BI; Qingzhen; WANG; Shuren

    2005-01-01

    TI worm drive consists of involute helical gear and its enveloping Hourglass worm. Accurate grinding for TI worm is the key manufacture technology for TI worm gearing being popularized and applied. According to the theory of gear mesh, the equations of tooth surface of worm drive are gained, and the equation of the axial section profile of grinding wheel that can accurately grind TI worm is extracted. Simultaneously,the relation of position and motion between TI worm and grinding wheel are expounded.The method for precisely grinding single enveloping TI worm is obtained.

  11. Design of a Cocoa Pod Splitting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunde, I.A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study outlines the design of a very efficient, highly productive, cost- effective, ergonomic and environmentally friendly cocoa splitting machine that will be used by cocoa Farmers world - wide to increase and boost productivity and enhance the quality of coca products to the highest possible level devoid of any hazards, dangers or perils. This machine can be manufactured from locally available scraps and assembled and maintained at a relatively low cost. The knives which do the splitting are actuated by simple hydraulic mechanisms devoid any major stresses, forces or moments acting on them. These mechanisms are powered by simple low - powered lobe positive displacement or hydrostatic hydraulic pumps of power rating of 87.5 kW (65.625 Hp. The machine can be assembled and/or disassembled easily and quickly, and, therefore can be owned patronized by a group of cocoa farmers who can easily bear the low cost of maintenance of the already relative cheap machine.

  12. Research on CNC Turning System of Aspheric Machining Grinding Wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Qin; GUO Yin-biao

    2005-01-01

    The technology of machining aspheric surface with high precision is the premise for the application of aspheric surface. The grinding machining with error compensation is a commonly used method to machine aspheric surface, which will directly influence the quality of aspheric workpiece surface. Multifunctional CNC grinding wheel truing system is a four-axis CNC truing system which can be applied to grinding wheel truing. In this system,DSP-based multi-axes motion control card is adopted as the controller, and visual C++ is used as development tool.When the design of hardware and software is completed, the system can implement truing of various grinding wheel with high precision aspheric machining such as plane grinding wheel, arc grinding one, and sphere grinding one.

  13. STUDY ON A NEW TYPE OF THROWAWAY SOFT GRINDING WHEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In accordance with the difficult problems of belt cross vibrations and effects of belt tension on machine spindle precision in abrasive belt grinding, a new soft grinding wheel is put forward, which is provided with the advantages of belt grinding and can be installed directly on the grinding machine spindle substituting for common grinding wheels. The new soft grinding wheel does not need any ancillary facilities and dressing devices in grinding. With analyzing error of wheel and grinding experiment, the highefficiency grinding characteristics grinding hardbrittle materials has been obtained.

  14. Pod Characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. related to rocoa pod borer resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Susilo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB had been identified in a series of study. The objective of this research is to evaluate the characteristics of cocoa pod using more diverse of genetic background to obtain selection criteria. Genetic materials for this studywere 25 cocoa clones planted in Central Sulawesi for resistance evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed by using variable of the percentage of unextractable beans, number of larvae entry and exit holes by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichomes, granules of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using canonical correlation. The result performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics 0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical correlation for CPB resistance 0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance in 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiated the resistant clones of ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones of ICCRI 04, KW 516, and KW 564.

  15. Stable Radical Content and Anti-Radical Activity of Roasted Arabica Coffee: From In-Tact Bean to Coffee Brew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Gordon J.; Navarini, Luciano; Liverani, Furio Suggi; Drew, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO) capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD) melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds. PMID:25856192

  16. Cocoa agroforestry is less resilient to sub-optimal and extreme climate than cocoa in full sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulai, Issaka; Vaast, Philippe; Hoffmann, Munir P; Asare, Richard; Jassogne, Laurence; Asten, Piet Van; Rötter, Reimund P; Graefe, Sophie

    2017-09-02

    Cocoa agroforestry is perceived as potential adaptation strategy to sub-optimal or adverse environmental conditions such as drought. We tested this strategy over wet, dry and extremely dry periods comparing cocoa in full sun with agroforestry systems: shaded by (i) a leguminous tree species, Albizia ferruginea and (ii) Antiaris toxicaria, the most common shade tree species in the region. We monitored micro-climate, sap flux density, throughfall and soil water content from November 2014 to March 2016 at the forest-savannah transition zone of Ghana with climate and drought events during the study period serving as proxy for projected future climatic conditions in marginal cocoa cultivation areas of West Africa. Combined transpiration of cocoa and shade trees was significantly higher than cocoa in full sun during wet and dry periods. During wet period, transpiration rate of cocoa plants shaded by A. ferruginea was significantly lower than cocoa under A. toxicaria and full sun. During the extreme drought of 2015/16, all cocoa plants under A. ferruginea died. Cocoa plants under A. toxicaria suffered 77% mortality and massive stress with significantly reduced sap flux density of 115 gcm(-2) d(-1) whereas cocoa in full sun maintained higher sap flux density of 170 gcm(-2) d(-1) . Moreover, cocoa sap flux recovery after the extreme drought was significantly higher in full sun (163 gcm(-2) d(-1) ) than under A. toxicaria (37 g cm(-2) d(-1) ). Soil water content in full sun was higher than in shaded systems suggesting that cocoa mortality in the shaded systems was linked to strong competition for soil water. The present results have major implications for cocoa cultivation under climate change. Promoting shade cocoa agroforestry as drought resilient system especially under climate change needs to be carefully reconsidered as shade tree species such as the recommended leguminous A. ferruginea constitute major risk to cocoa functioning under extended severe drought. This

  17. Cocoa and Chocolate in Human Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upregulation of nitric oxide production. Other cardiovascular effects are mediated through anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols, and modulated through the activity of NF-κB. Antioxidant effects of cocoa may directly influence insulin resistance and, in turn, reduce risk for diabetes. Further, cocoa consumption may stimulate changes in redox-sensitive signaling pathways involved in gene expression and the immune response. Cocoa can protect nerves from injury and inflammation, protect the skin from oxidative damage from UV radiation in topical preparations, and have beneficial effects on satiety, cognitive function, and mood. As cocoa is predominantly consumed as energy-dense chocolate, potential detrimental effects of overconsumption exist, including increased risk of weight gain. Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2779–2811. PMID:21470061

  18. 7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements...

  19. Cocoa confers life span extension in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadorani, Sepehr; Hilliker, Arthur J

    2008-06-01

    Cocoa is thought to be an excellent source of antioxidants. Here, we investigated the effects of cocoa supplementation on Drosophila melanogaster life span under different oxidative stress conditions. Our results illustrate that a moderate supplementation of cocoa under normoxia increases the average life span, whereas, at higher concentrations, average life span is normal. Under hyperoxia or in a Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase-deficient background, cocoa exhibited a strong antioxidant activity, significantly increasing the average life span. Nevertheless, cocoa supplementation in a Mn-superoxide dismutase-deficient background enhanced an earlier mortality accompanied by a loss of climbing ability, indicating that cocoa may act as a pro-oxidant in mitochondria under conditions of extreme oxidative stress. Finally, we illustrate that cocoa also acts as a metal chelator in the presence of excess heavy metals, enhancing larval survival to the adult stage on copper or iron-supplemented medium. Taken together, our results document the antioxidative, pro-oxidative, and metal-chelating effects of cocoa on Drosophila melanogaster life span.

  20. Effect of fermentation and drying on cocoa polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Barbara; Schoubben, Aurélie; Guarnaccia, Davide; Pinelli, Filippo; Della Vecchia, Mirco; Ricci, Maurizio; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Blasi, Paolo

    2015-11-18

    Cocoa seed polyphenols have demonstrated interesting beneficial effects in humans. Most polyphenols contained in fresh seeds are chemically modified during fermentation, drying, and cocoa powder or chocolate production. The improvement of these procedures to obtain a high-polyphenol-content cocoa is highly desirable. To this aim, a field investigation on the effect of fermentation and natural drying on fine flavor National cocoa (cacao Nacional) was performed. Cocoa seeds were fermented for 6 days and, every day, samples were sun-dried and analyzed for polyphenol content and antioxidant power. During the first 2 days of fermentation, Folin-Ciocalteu and FRAP tests evidenced a significant reduction of polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, respectively. Changes during the following days of fermentation were less significant. Epicatechin, the most studied member of the catechin family, followed a similar pathway of degradation. Data confirmed the high impact of fermentation and drying on cocoa seed polyphenols. Fermentation and drying are, on the one hand, necessary to obtain cocoa flavor and palatability but, on the other hand, are responsible for greatly compromising polyphenol content. To obtain high-polyphenol-content cocoa, the existing fermentation, drying, and manufacturing protocols should be scientifically reviewed to understand and modify the critical steps.

  1. Polyphenols from cocoa and vascular health-a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbach, Gerald; Melchin, Mona; Moehring, Jennifer; Wagner, Anika E

    2009-11-20

    Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols. In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-atherogenic activity. Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme) have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols. However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in many cell culture studies, are not physiologically achievable. Bioavailability studies indicate that plasma concentrations of cocoa polyphenols following dietary intake are low and in the nanomolar range. Human studies regarding the effect of cocoa polyphenols on vascular health are often underpowered and lack a rigorous study design. If dietary cocoa polyphenol intake is due to chocolate its high energy content needs to be taken into account. In order to determine potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols large scale, long term, randomized, placebo controlled studies, (ideally with a cross-over design) as well as prospective studies are warranted.

  2. Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David L; Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

    2011-11-15

    Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upregulation of nitric oxide production. Other cardiovascular effects are mediated through anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols, and modulated through the activity of NF-κB. Antioxidant effects of cocoa may directly influence insulin resistance and, in turn, reduce risk for diabetes. Further, cocoa consumption may stimulate changes in redox-sensitive signaling pathways involved in gene expression and the immune response. Cocoa can protect nerves from injury and inflammation, protect the skin from oxidative damage from UV radiation in topical preparations, and have beneficial effects on satiety, cognitive function, and mood. As cocoa is predominantly consumed as energy-dense chocolate, potential detrimental effects of overconsumption exist, including increased risk of weight gain. Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks.

  3. Polyphenols from Cocoa and Vascular Health—A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbach, Gerald; Melchin, Mona; Moehring, Jennifer; Wagner, Anika E.

    2009-01-01

    Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols. In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-atherogenic activity. Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme) have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols. However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in many cell culture studies, are not physiologically achievable. Bioavailability studies indicate that plasma concentrations of cocoa polyphenols following dietary intake are low and in the nanomolar range. Human studies regarding the effect of cocoa polyphenols on vascular health are often underpowered and lack a rigorous study design. If dietary cocoa polyphenol intake is due to chocolate its high energy content needs to be taken into account. In order to determine potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols large scale, long term, randomized, placebo controlled studies, (ideally with a cross-over design) as well as prospective studies are warranted. PMID:20057946

  4. Metabolomics as a research tool for coffee and cocoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and cocoa quality is of evergrowing importance and bemg able to determine the key quality aspects of different batches of coffee or cocoa and their products Is central to match1ng industrial processes with mcreas1ng consumer demand for specific quality attnbutes. But what do we actually mean

  5. Penentuan Bilangan Iodin pada Cocoa Butter Substitute (CBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, Dhesy Phatiarma

    2015-01-01

    Determination has been made of Iodine Value with titration methods in some Cocoa Butter Substitute (CBS) in PT. Palmcoco Laboratories, Medan. Results obtained from the average level of iodine value Cocoa Butter Substitute derives from Medan is 0,21 gr I2/100gr and from Kuala Tanjung is 0,29 gr I2/100gr. 112401022

  6. Polyphenols from Cocoa and Vascular Health—A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika E. Wagner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols. In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-atherogenic activity. Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols. However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in many cell culture studies, are not physiologically achievable. Bioavailability studies indicate that plasma concentrations of cocoa polyphenols following dietary intake are low and in the nanomolar range. Human studies regarding the effect of cocoa polyphenols on vascular health are often underpowered and lack a rigorous study design. If dietary cocoa polyphenol intake is due to chocolate its high energy content needs to be taken into account. In order to determine potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols large scale, long term, randomized, placebo controlled studies, (ideally with a cross-over design as well as prospective studies are warranted.

  7. Isolation and characterization of an AGAMOUS homologue from cocoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaidamsari, T.; Sugiarit, H.; Santoso, D.; Angenent, G.C.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2006-01-01

    We report the cloning of a cDNA from TcAG, an AG (Arabidopsis thaliana MADS-box C-type transcription factor gene AGAMOUS) homologue from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). TcAG was in the cocoa flower expressed primarily in stamens and ovaries, comparable to AG in Arabidopsis. Additionally, we found that T

  8. The influence of process parameters on Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that increased cocoa butter yields can be achieved with Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs when compared to conventional expression of cocoa nibs [Venter, M.J., Willems, P., Kuipers, N.J.M. & de Haan, A.B. (2006). Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression of cocoa butter

  9. The influence of process parameters on Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that increased cocoa butter yields can be achieved with Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) of cocoa nibs when compared to conventional expression of cocoa nibs [Venter, M.J., Willems, P., Kuipers, N.J.M. & de Haan, A.B. (2006). Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression of cocoa butter fr

  10. Blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what about cocoa and chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Claudio

    2010-09-01

    Cocoa flavonoids are able to reduce cardiovascular risk by improving endothelial function and decreasing blood pressure (BP). Interest in the biological activities of cocoa is daily increasing. A recent meta-analysis shows flavanol-rich cocoa administration decreases mean systolic (-4.5mm Hg; p<0.001) and diastolic (-2.5mm Hg; p<0.001) BP. A 3-mm Hg systolic BP reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on cardiovascular health focusing on putative mechanisms of action and nutritional and "pharmacological" viewpoints. Cocoa consumption could play a pivotal role in human health.

  11. System Analysis of Flat Grinding Process with Wheel Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a conducted system analysis of the flat grinding wheel face, considers the state parameters, input and output variables of subsystems, namely: machine tool, workpiece, grinding wheel, cutting fluids, and the contact area. It reveals the factors influencing the temperature and power conditions for the grinding process.Aim: conducting the system analysis of the flat grinding process with wheel face expects to enable a development of the system of grinding process parameters as a technical system, which will make it possible to evaluate each parameter individually and implement optimization of the entire system.One of the most important criteria in defining the optimal process conditions is the grinding temperature, which, to avoid defects appearance of on the surface of component, should not exceed the critical temperature values to be experimentally determined. The temperature criterion can be useful for choosing the conditions for the maximum defect-free performance of the mechanical face grinding. To define the maximum performance of defect-free grinding can also use other criteria such as a critical power density, indirectly reflecting the allowable thermal stress grinding process; the structure of the ground surface, which reflects the presence or absence of a defect layer, which is determined after the large number of experiments; flow range of the diamond layer.Optimal conditions should not exceed those of defect-free grinding. It is found that a maximum performance depends on the characteristics of circles and grade of processed material, as well as on the contact area and grinding conditions. Optimal performance depends on the diamond value (cost and specific consumption of diamonds in a circle.Above criteria require formalization as a function of the variable parameters of the grinding process. There is an option for the compromise of inter-criteria optimality, thereby providing a set of acceptable solutions, from

  12. The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

    1994-01-01

    Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

  13. Ecology of the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conopomorpha cramerella, the cocoa pod borer (CPB), has been known to damage cocoa pods for more than 100 years, but information on the ecology of this species is scant in the scientific literature. That which does exist is scattered in obscure local journals, not readily accessible, and often unve...

  14. Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety David N. Kuhn, USDA ARS SHRS, Miami FL Sometimes it's hard to see the value and application of genomics to real world problems. How will sequencing the cacao genome affect West African farmers? Thi...

  15. ECONOMIC COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF CERTIFIED SUSTAINABLE COCOA PRODUCTION IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Victor, Afari-Sefa; Gockowski, James; Agyeman, Nana Fredua; Dziwornu, Ambrose K.

    2010-01-01

    Ghana is well endowed with premium bulk cocoa and is strategically positioned to capture significant market shares for the growing demand in specialty cocoa products on the world market. Consumers’ taste and preference for differentiated or ‘specialty’ cocoa based on environmental- and ethically certified cocoa products have been rising over the years. This study uses an ex-ante analytical approach to explore the potential for smallholder cocoa farmers in Ghana to develop niche markets for an...

  16. Induction of Cocoa Natural Resistancy to Cocoa Pod Borer by Silica Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Anom Wijaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compounds which probably impair further development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition of phenolic compounds in cocoa flower and leaves, and their changes troughout the somatic embryogenesis process. Calli were induced in cacao floral and leaves explants on a half-strenght Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g/L Glucose and combination of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D with kinetin (kin. Total polyphenol content was observed on Sulawesi 1 cocoa clone. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were also compared. The percentage of callus production from flower tissue is 85%, percentage of embryogenic callus 40 %, although  the percentage of somatic embryo production from embryogenic callus callus is 70%. The conservation of callus into somatic embryos followed by decline in phenol content and an increase in peroxidase. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. So that, phenolic compound can influence the production of calli and an absence the phenolic compound can enhance production of somatic embryo.Kata kunci: Theobroma cacao L., polifenol, embrio somatik, kalus, flavonoid, katekin, in vitro recalcitance

  17. Efecto del Tostado Sobre los Metabolitos Secundarios y la Actividad Antioxidante de Clones de Cacao Colombiano / Effect of Roasting on the Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity of Colombian Cocoa Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zapata Bustamante

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El tostado es una de las operaciones tecnológicas másimportantes en el procesamiento de los granos de cacao; esteproceso conduce a la formación de los productos de la reacciónde Maillard (RM los cuales son cruciales para el desarrollo dela calidad organoléptica de los granos de cacao y sus productosasociados. En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto del tostadosobre el contenido de metabolitos secundarios y la actividadantioxidante en cinco clones de cacao cultivados en Colombia.En los extractos metanólicos de los diferentes clones de cacao sedeterminó el contenido de fenoles totales, taninos condensados,antocianinas totales, catequina y epicatequina, teobromina ycafeína. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante pormedio de la actividad atrapadora del radical ABTS•+, el métodoORAC y la capacidad atrapadora de radicales superóxido. Enconclusión, el efecto del tostado en los clones de cacao no tuvo uncomportamiento uniforme sobre los cambios en los contenidos delos diversos metabolitos secundarios y la actividad antioxidante. /  Abstract. Roasting is one of the most important technologicaloperations in the processing of cocoa beans; this process leads tothe formation of products of the Maillard reaction (RM, which arecrucial for the development of organoleptic quality of cocoa beansand its associated products. The aim of this study was to evaluatethe effect of roasting on the content of secondary metabolites andantioxidant activity in five Colombian cocoa clones, by differentmethodologies. The methanolic extracts of the cocoa beans wereanalyzed for total phenols content, condensed tannins, totalantiocianins, catechin and epicatechin, theobromine and caffeine.The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS assay, ORACmethod and superoxide radical scavenging method. The effect ofroasting on cocoa clones did not have an unspecified behavior. Inconclusion, the effect of roasting of cacao clones was not uniformon the

  18. Experimental Setup for Diamond Grinding Using Electrochemical InProcess Controlled Dressing (ECD of Grinding Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shavva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective method for finish machining of hard-metals and alloys is to use the diamond grinding wheels for grinding. An application of diamond wheels significantly increases the employee output, reduces costs, and raises manufacturing efficiency with achieving the high performance properties of treated surfaces.During grinding a working surface of diamond wheel wears out. It adversely affects the cutting capability of the diamond grains, and depending on the grinding conditions can occur through different mechanisms. Wear of diamond wheel causes distortion of its shape and reduces cutting properties. However, dressing of diamond wheels is a complicated and time-consuming operation in terms of manufacturing technique.Methods to make dressing of diamond grinding wheel have different types of classification. Classification of dressing methods by the type of energy used is as follows: mechanical, chemical, electrophysical, electromechanical, and electrochemical. All these methods have their advantages and disadvantages.Electrochemical method of dressing is the most productive and efficient. Electrochemical method comprises anode-mechanical dressing and electrochemical (electrolytic one. The paper presents the electrochemical in-process dressing (ECD and the electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID.The source of energy, grinding a wheel with metal bond, and an electrode are necessary for providing ELID. The ELID consists of several stages. The first stage is preliminary electrolytic dressing of diamond wheel. The electrolyte is placed into the gap between the wheel and electrode. The bond of the wheel is oxidized. An insulating layer is formed. It reduces an electrical conductivity of the wheel and controls consumption of diamond grains, as well as polishes the surface of the work piece. Further, the insulating layer is destroyed. The cycle of dressing begins anew.The ECD proceeds in the same way as ELID. However during the ECD-process there

  19. Pesticide pollution status in cocoa plantation soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Atuanya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Management of cocoa plantation field relied on the use of pesticides over the years; hence, the fate of such chemicals is one of the most debated issues among the stakeholders. Young and old cocoa plantation fields from 4 major cocoa producing States in Nigeria were selected as the study area. Eight composites soil samples collected from 3 portions of 6 transect measured area (100 x 50m of the field were transported to the laboratory in sterile glass jar for analysis. A total of 19 organochlorine pesticides residues; (aldrin, α-hexachlorohexane, β-hexachlorohexane, γ-hexachlorohexane, δ-hexachlorohexane, α-chlordane, γ-chlordane, p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, p,p’-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dieldrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan-II, endosulfan sulfate, endrin, endrin aldehydes, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and metoxychlor were analyzed with gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector. The results revealed the variation in the number of residues detected among the study fields. Endosulfan-I had the highest value g organochlorine pesticides residue detected. Most of the residue concentrations were within the European Union regulatory standard of Czech Republic. Other-cyclodine group had the highest concentration value among the evaluated organochlorine pesticides groups. The significant (P < 0.05 higher concentration of total organochlorine pesticides were observed in old fields. Composition quotients values indicate that most of the observed organochlorine pesticides residues were products of historical usage. There were strong correlations among the total organic carbon contents of soils and the total organochlorine pesticides compounds. Government regulatory agencies are encouraged to vigorously embark in further monitoring and ensuring the safety compliance of farmers towards the use of pesticides in Nigeria farms.

  20. Rheological properties of cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa butter is an important ingredient in chocolate formulation as it dictates the main properties (texture, sensation in the mouth, and gloss. In the food industry, the texture of fat-containing products strongly depends on the macroscopic properties of the fat network formed within the finished product. Cupuassu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and the seeds can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they are different in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyze several properties of the cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (crystal formation at 25 ° C, rheological properties, and fatty acid composition and mixtures between the two fats (rheological properties, in order to understand the behavior of these fats for their use in chocolate products. Fat flow was described using common rheological models ( Newton , Power Law, Casson and Bingham plastic.La manteca de cacao es un ingrediente muy importante en la formulación de chocolates y es responsable de la mayor parte de sus propiedades (textura, palatibilidad y brillo. En la industria de alimentos, la textura de productos que contienen grasa depende enormemente de las propiedades macroscópicas de la red cristalina de la grasa en el producto final. El cupuaçu es una fruta nativa de la región amazónica y sus semillas pueden ser usadas para obtener una grasa semejante a la manteca de cacao. En general, esta grasa es similar a la manteca de cacao, pero difiere en algunas de sus propiedades fisicas . El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades de la grasa de cupuaçu y de la manteca de cacao (formación de cristales a 25 °C, propiedades reológicas y composición en ácidos grasos y de algunas mezclas entre las dos grasas (propiedades reológicas, a fin de conocer el comportamiento de estas grasas para ser usadas en productos de la industria

  1. Kinetic study of ferronickel slag grinding at variation of ball filling and ratio of feed to grinding balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwani, Edy; Ikhwanto, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of ball filling and ratio of feed to grinding balls on the kinetic of grinding of ferronickel slag in a laboratory scale ball mill. The experiments were started by crushing the ferronickel slag samples using a roll crusher to produce -3 mesh (-6.7 mm) product. This product, after sampling and sample dividing processes, was then used as feed for grinding process. The grinding was performed with variations of ball filling and ratio of feed to grinding balls for 150 minutes. At every certain time interval, particle size analysis was carried out on the grinding product. The results of the experiments were also used to develop linear regression model of the effect of grinding variables on the P80 of the product. Based on this study, it was shown that P80 values of the grinding products declined sharply until 70 minutes of grinding time due to the dominant mechanism of impact breakage and then decreased slowly after 70 minutes until 150 minutes of grinding time due to dominant mechanism of attrition breakage. Kinetics study of the grinding process on variations of grinding ball filling showed that the optimum rate of formation of fine particles for 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% mill volume was achieved at a particle size of 400 µm in which the best initial rate of formation occurred at 50% volume of mill. At the variations of ratio of feed to grinding balls it was shown that the optimum rate of grinding for the ratio of 1:10, 1: 8 and 1: 6 was achieved at a particle size of 400 µm and for the ratio of 1: 4 was at 841 µm in which the best initial rate of formation occurred at a 1:10 ratio. In this study, it was also produced two regression models that can predict the P80 value of the grinding product as a function of the variables of grinding time, ball filling and the ratio of the feed to grinding balls.

  2. Separate critical condition for ultrasonic vibration assisted grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Hong-li; ZHANG; Jian-hua

    2009-01-01

    Separate characteristic of the tangential ultrasonic vibration assisted grinding(TUAG)machining is analyzed based on TUAG process, and a critical speed formula is given to correctly set the machining parameters to insure the separate characteristics of TUAG process. The critical speed is not only related to the ultrasonic vibration amplitude and frequency, but also to the grinding wheel velocity and the cutting point space, and the grinding force can be decreased during the TUAG process with separability. Grinding force experiments are conducted, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical results.

  3. Study on the New Grinding Fluids of Oils on Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏源迁; 钱怡; 中村隆; 松原十三生

    2003-01-01

    To fulfill a zero-emission in the process of grinding and thoroughly eliminate the influences of the conventional grinding fluids on the eco-environment as well as save up electric energy and reduce in production costs, the new grinding fluids of botanic oils on water were developed, in which a lot of tiny water droplets attached with micro oil films were blown to the machining area by a compressing air-jet so good as to produce lubricating and cooling roles.In this study, grinding performances of the new fluids were investigated by comparison to the conventional ones such as emulsion on the plane NC grinder.

  4. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit.

  5. Thermo-mechanical properties of bowl-shaped grinding wheel and machining error compensation for grinding indexable inserts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祥雷; 姚斌; 陈彬强; 孙维方; 王萌萌; 罗琪

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the technical requirements of grinding the circumferential cutting edge of indexable inserts, thermo-mechanical properties of bowl-shaped grinding wheel in high speed grinding process and the influence of dimension variations of the grinding wheel on machining accuracy were investigated. Firstly, the variation trends of the dimension due to centrifugal force generated in different wheel speeds were studied and the effect of stress stiffening and spin softening was presented. Triangular heat flux distribution model was adopted to determine temperature distribution in grinding process. Temperature field cloud pictures were obtained by the finite element software. Then, dimension variation trends of wheel structure were acquired by considering the thermo-mechanical characteristic under combined action of centrifugal force and grinding heat at different speeds. A method of online dynamic monitoring and automatic compensation for dimension error of indexable insert was proposed. By experimental verification, the precision of the inserts satisfies the requirement of processing.

  6. Natural cocoa consumption: Potential to reduce atherogenic factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Venable, Adam S; Henning, Andrea L; Prado, Eric A; Best Sampson, Jill N; Vingren, Jakob L; Hill, David W

    2015-06-01

    Short-term consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been demonstrated to improve various facets of vascular health. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption on selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers in young (19-35 years) women of differing body mass indices (BMI; normal, overweight or obese). Subjects (n = 24) consumed a natural cocoa-containing product (12.7 g natural cocoa, 148 kcal/serving) or an isocaloric cocoa-free placebo daily for 4 weeks in a random, double-blind manner with a 2-week washout period between treatment arms. Fasted (>8-h) blood samples were collected before and after each 4-week period. Serum was analyzed to determine lipid profile (chemistry analyzer) and CVD biomarkers (26 biomarkers). EDTA-treated blood was used to assess monocytes (CD14, CD16, v11b and CD62L), while citrate-treated blood was used to measure changes in endothelial microparticles (EMPs; CD42a-/45-/144+) by flow cytometry. Natural cocoa consumption resulted in a significant decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034), EMP concentration (P = .017) and monocyte CD62L (P = .047) in obese compared to overweight and normal-weight subjects. Natural cocoa consumption regardless of BMI group was associated with an 18% increase in high-density lipoprotein (P = .020) and a 60% decrease in EMPs (P = .047). Also, obese subjects experienced a 21% decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034) and a 24% decrease in monocyte CD62L expression in (P = .047) following 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption. Collectively, these findings indicate that acute natural cocoa consumption was associated with decreased obesity-related disease risk. More research is needed to assess the stability of the observed short-term changes.

  7. Quenching simulation of steel grinding balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Hernandez, O.; Reyes, L. A.; Camurri, C.; Carrasco, C.; Garza-Monte-de-Oca, F.; Colas, R.

    2015-07-01

    The phase transformations of high carbon steel during quenching and equalizing were modelled using commercial computer packages based on the finite element method and the kinetic transformation of steel. The model was used to predict the temperature and microstructural changes taking place within balls of two different sizes that are used for grinding mineral ores. A good correlation between the temperatures measured by inserted thermocouples and those predicted by the model was obtained after modifying the thermal conductivity of the steel within the temperature domain at which mixed phases are present. The phase transformations predicted were confirmed by metallographic analyses. (Author)

  8. Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna L. Pucciarelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés’s first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America—ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa’s bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health.

  9. Analysis of cocoa products for ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Anne-Marie; Scott, Peter M; Tague, Brett

    2013-08-01

    Eighty-five samples of cocoa products sampled in Canada were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins in 2011-2012. Inclusion of the aflatoxins in this survey required additional method development. Chocolate was extracted with methanol-water plus NaCl, while for cocoa two successive extractions with methanol and methanol-water were made. Extracts were cleaned on an AflaOchra immunoaffinity column (IAC). Determination was by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of the aflatoxins was with a post-column photochemical reactor and of OTA by fluorescence detection. Mean limits of quantification (LOQ) of chocolate and cocoa powders were 0.16 ng/g (OTA) and 0.07 ng/g (aflatoxin B1), respectively. Survey results showed that the incidences of OTA above the LOQ in natural cocoa were 15/15 (mean 1.17 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 1.06 ng/g), 9/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.49 ng/g), 20/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.39 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 5/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. These results confirm our previous work with OTA. In the same samples, incidences of aflatoxin B1 above the LOQ were 14/15 for natural cocoa (mean 0.86 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 0.37 ng/g), 7/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.22 ng/g), 16/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.09 ng/g), 4/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. Both aflatoxins and OTA were confirmed by HPLC-MS/MS when OTA or aflatoxin levels found were above 2 ng/g in cocoa.

  10. Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Resistant Accessions of Cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L.) to Phytophthora Pod Rot Selected on-Farm in Côte-d’Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa is (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in Côted’Ivoire which ranks 1st in the world cocoa export. Phytophthora pod rot (Ppr)also call Black pod is the most widespread disease of cocoa. Lost due to this disease depends on the species of the pathogen and vary globally fr...

  12. In vitro hypoglycemic and cholesterol lowering effects of dietary fiber prepared from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsor-Atindana, John; Zhong, Fang; Mothibe, Kebitsamang Joseph

    2012-10-01

    Three dietary fiber (DF) powders; soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were prepared from cocoa bean shells (CBS) by enzymatic treatment. These DFs were evaluated for their effects on glucose adsorption, glucose diffusion, starch hydrolysis, cholesterol binding, sodium cholate binding and oil binding capacities using in vitro model systems by simulating gastric intestinal conditions. The results showed that SDF generally exhibited significantly (p 0.05) glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and oil binding capacity, when compared with IDF and TDF which both showed similar effects. Moreover, it was discovered that the three CBS dietary fiber powders contained intrinsic antioxidants (phenolic compounds). The study suggested that CBS could be an alternative cheap source of DF with additional benefits. Thus, CBS fibers could be incorporated as low calorie bulk ingredients in high-fiber diet to reduce calorie and cholesterol levels and control blood glucose level.

  13. Isolation, structure determination, synthesis, and sensory activity of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids from cocoa (Theobroma cacao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas

    2005-06-29

    Application of chromatographic separation and taste dilution analyses recently revealed besides procyanidins a series of N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids as the key contributors to the astringent taste of nonfermented cocoa beans as well as roasted cocoa nibs. Because these amides have as yet not been reported as key taste compounds, this paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these amino acid amides. Besides the previously reported (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-3-hydroxy-L-tyrosine (clovamide), (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine (deoxyclovamide), and (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine, seven additional amides, namely, (+)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, (+)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid, (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid, (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-3-hydroxy-L-tyrosine, (+)-N-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, and (+)-N-[(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, were identified for the first time in cocoa products by means of LC-MS/MS, 1D/2D-NMR, UV-vis, CD spectroscopy, and polarimetry, as well as independent enantiopure synthesis. Using the recently developed half-tongue test, human recognition thresholds for the astringent and mouth-drying oral sensation were determined to be between 26 and 220 micromol/L (water) depending on the amino acid moiety. In addition, exposure to light rapidly converted these [E]-configured N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids into the corresponding [Z]-isomers, thus indicating that analysis of these compounds in food and plant materials needs to be performed very carefully in the absence of light to prevent artifact formation.

  14. TcCYS4, a cystatin from cocoa, reduces necrosis triggered by MpNEP2 in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, L S; Costa, M G C; Pirovani, N M; Almeida, A F; Alvim, F C; Pirovani, C P

    2014-09-26

    In Brazil, most cocoa bean production occurs in Southern Bahia. Witches' broom disease arrived in this area in 1989 and has since caused heavy losses in production. The disease is caused by the basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, a hemibiotrophic fungus that produces the necrosis and ethylene-inducting protein (MpNEP2) during infection; this protein can activate cysteine proteases and induce programmed cell death. Cysteine proteases can be modulated by cystatin. In this study, we overexpressed TcCYS4, a cocoa cystatin, in tobacco plants and evaluated the effect on MpNEP2 in model plants. Tccys4 cDNA was cloned into the pCAMBIA 1390 vector and inserted into the tobacco plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. Transcript and protein levels in Tcccys4:tobacco lines were 8.9- and 1.5-fold higher than in wild-type plants (wt). Tcccys4:tobacco lines showed no change in growth compared to wt plants. CO2 net assimilation (A) increased in Tcccys4:tobacco lines compared to wt plants. Only one line showed statistically significant stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) changes. MpNEP2 was infiltered into the foliar mesophyll of Tcccys4:tobacco lines and wt plants, and necrotic lesions were attenuated in lines highly expressing Tccys4. Our results suggest that cocoa cystatin TcCYS4 affects MpNEP2 activity related to the progression of programmed cell death in tobacco plants. This may occur through the action of cystatin to inhibit cysteine proteases activated by MpNEP2 in plant tissues. Further studies are necessary to examine cystatin in the Theobroma cacao-M. perniciosa pathosystem.

  15. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100% were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory properties were evaluated, the viscosity and coating ability on biscuit sticks were remarkedly decreased with increasing CBFMPO content. Hedonic mean scores of mouthfeel and coating ability of the chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO were greater than those of chocolate containing 60 and 80% CBFMPO (p<0.05. During storage of biscuit sticks dipped in the chocolate coating (chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO at room temperature (27-29oC and low temperature (20-22oC for 30 days, blooming (as shown by whiteness index occurred to a greater extent at higher temperature. At both storage temperatures, the intensity scores of glossiness and hedonic mean scores of overall liking of samples decreased but intensity scores of off-odor increased during the first 6 of days storage (p<0.05.

  16. Occlusal Grinding Pattern during Sleep Bruxism and Temporomandibular Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Wijaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep Bruxism is a significant etiology of temporomandibular disorder (TMD and causes many dental or oral problems such as tooth wear or facet. There is no study analyzing the relationship between sleep bruxism and TMD. Objective: To investigate any relationship between occlusal grinding pattern during sleep bruxism and temporomandibular disorder. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 30 sleep bruxism patients attended the Faculty Dentistry Universitas Indonesia Teaching Hospital (RSGMP FKG UI. Completion of 2 forms of ID-TMD index and questionnaire from American Academy of Sleep Medicine were done. BruxChecker was fabricated and used for two nights to record the occlusal grinding pattern. The occlusal grinding pattern was categorized into laterotrusive grinding (LG and mediotrusive side. Further divisons of LG were: incisor-canine (IC, incisor-caninepremolar (ICP and incisor-canine-premolar-molar (ICPM. Mediotrusive side was classified as mediotrusive contact (MC and mediotrusive grinding (MG. Results: It was found that occlusal grinding pattern in non-TMD subjects were IC+MC, in subjects with mild TMD were ICP+MG and in subjects with moderate TMD were ICP+MG and ICPM+MG. TMJ was more significantly affected by ICP and ICPM grinding pattern than that of IC. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between occlusal grinding pattern during sleep bruxism and TMD.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.149

  17. 7 CFR 58.726 - Cutting and grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutting and grinding. 58.726 Section 58.726 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.726 Cutting and grinding. The trimmed and cleaned cheese should be cut into sections...

  18. Stochastic dynamic programming applied to planning of robot grinding tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.L. (Digital Equipment Corp., Shrewsbury, MA (United States)); Whitney, D.E. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1994-10-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent manufacturing system that can make decisions about the process in light of the uncertain outcome of these decisions and attempts to minimize the expected economic penalty resulting from those decisions. It uses robot weld bead grinding as an example of a process with significant process variations. The need for multiple grinding passes, the poor predictability of those passes, the task requirements, and the process constraints conspire to make planning and controlling weld bead grinding a formidable probe. A three tier hierarchical control system is proposed to plan an optimal sequence of grinding passes, dynamically simulate each pass, execute the planned sequence of controlled grinding passes, and modify the pass sequence as grinding continues. The top tier, described in this paper, plans the grinding sequence for each weld bead, and is implemented using Stochastic Dynamic Programming, selecting the volumetric removal and feedspeed for each pass in order to optimize the satisfaction of the task requirements by the entire grinding sequence within the equipment, task, and process constraints. The resulting optimal policies have quite complex structures, showing foresight, anxiety, indifference, and aggressiveness, depending upon the situation.

  19. Integrated Modeling and Intelligent Control Methods of Grinding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-sheng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The grinding process is a typical complex nonlinear multivariable process with strongly coupling and large time delays. Based on the data-driven modeling theory, the integrated modeling and intelligent control method of grinding process is carried out in the paper, which includes the soft-sensor model of economic and technique indexes, the optimized set-point model utilizing case-based reasoning, and the self-tuning PID decoupling controller. For forecasting the key technology indicators (grinding granularity and mill discharge rate of grinding process, an adaptive soft-sensor modeling method based on wavelet neural network optimized by the improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA is proposed. Then, a set point optimization control strategy of grinding process based on case-based reasoning (CBR method is adopted to obtain the optimized velocity set-point of ore feed and pump water feed in the grinding process controlled loops. Finally, a self-tuning PID decoupling controller optimized is used to control the grinding process. Simulation results and industrial application experiments clearly show the feasibility and effectiveness of control methods and satisfy the real-time control requirements of the grinding process.

  20. Cocoa Farmers Attitude towards Utilisation of Integrated Pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eghosa

    The study examined cocoa farmers' attitude towards the utilization of ..... The favourable disposition of the respondents implies that there were some benefits ... these farmers do not consider environmental and health impacts important.

  1. Cocoa polyphenols and their potential benefits for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar, I; Recio, M C; Giner, R M; Ríos, J L

    2012-01-01

    This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and the lipid profile, decreasing platelet function and inflammation along with diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, which, taken together, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Cocoa polyphenols can also modulate intestinal inflammation through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of different transcription factors, which leads to decreases in the production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The phenolics from cocoa may thus protect against diseases in which oxidative stress is implicated as a causal or contributing factor, such as cancer. They also have antiproliferative, antimutagenic, and chemoprotective effects, in addition to their anticariogenic effects.

  2. PHYSICALCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COCOA HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biano Alves de Melo Neto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical characteristics and thermophysical properties of cocoa hoeny. The cocoa honey had the following physicalchemical characteristics: pH (2.76, titratable acidity (0.73 %, moisture (87,22 %, soluble solids (14,03 °Brix, reducing sugar (10,2 % in glucose, non-reducing sugar (4,06 % in saccharose and ash (0,23 %. With respect to the thermophysical properties were determined the specific heat, density, thermal diffusivity and the dynamic viscosity as a function of temperature. The empirical models for each property were obtained. It was found that the temperature directly affects the cocoa liquor properties. The data are important for the development, adaptation and optimization of equipment for more efficient processing of cocoa honey, since the information on this subject is unknown.

  3. Tree diversity and canopy cover in cocoa systems in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asare, Richard; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growing systems in Ghana and West Africa consist of diverse tree species and densities.This study was conducted to determine factors that influence tree species configurations and how tree characteristics affect canopy cover in cocoa farms. Eighty-six farmers and corres......Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growing systems in Ghana and West Africa consist of diverse tree species and densities.This study was conducted to determine factors that influence tree species configurations and how tree characteristics affect canopy cover in cocoa farms. Eighty-six farmers...... and corresponding farms were selected in a systematic approach in four districts across two agro-ecological zones in Ghana. Results show that men tend to have larger farm sizes, higher tree density and diversity than women. Tree density and canopy cover of shade trees were low on large farms, but diversity...

  4. (Viscum album) from cocoa and cashew trees in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... V. album from cocoa tree had significantly higher ferric reducing and free radical scavenging ability ... properties which allow them to act as reducing agents, .... mechanism by which iron can cause this deleterious effect is that ...

  5. Cocoa farmers'perception of Community Based Nursery Scheme: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa farmers'perception of Community Based Nursery Scheme: A case study ... Sustainable Tree Crop Programme (STCP)| -Nigeria established Community ... for self improvement of participating farmers (8.3%) and group efforts/ formation ...

  6. 551 training needs assessment of cocoa farmers association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-08-26

    Aug 26, 2013 ... assessed cocoa farmers' training needs on soil management techniques in Cross River State of ... the area of use of simple soil analysis tool to determine soil fertility (74.2%), .... help to enhance farmers' productivity for better.

  7. Insect assemblage and the pollination system in cocoa ecosystems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... The natural forest belongs to the Triplochiton-Celtis ..... complex ecosystems and interact with other taxonomic ... effective refugia for some tropical forest organisms. (Parrish et .... structure of the cocoa plant which requires few.

  8. Influences of shading and fertilization on on-farm yields of cocoa in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Asare; Asare, Rebecca Ashley; Asante, Winston Adams

    2017-01-01

    Most cocoa farms in Ghana are cultivated in complex agroforest systems, with plant growth and cocoa productivity being affected. The objective of this study was to investigate how shade trees affect cocoa yield, temperature and soil nutrients in low-input cocoa systems. Establishing plots on 24...... farms in four locations (districts) in Ghana, we assessed the influence of varying canopy cover and fertilization on cocoa yields. Results showed no relationship between canopy cover and cocoa yields in the light crop season (February to August). For the main crop season (September to January...

  9. Cocoa pod husk, a new source of hydrolase enzymes for preparation of cross-linked enzyme aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Faridah; Khanahmadi, Soofia; Amid, Azura; Mahmod, Safa Senan

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa pod husk (CPH) is a by-product of cocoa production obtained after removing the beans from the fruit. The analysis of CPH has shown that it contains high amounts of protein. This study is aimed to utilize this protein source in hydrolase enzyme production. In this study, seven hydrolase enzymes (amylase, fructosyltransferase, mannanase, glucosidase, glucanase, lipase and protease) were screened from CPH for the first time for feasible industrial production. Among these hydrolases, lipase was chosen for the next steps of experiments as it has a lot of applications in different industries. The extraction of high active lipase from CPH has been done under optimum conditions. The condition that was optimum for the three major factors was achieved using Face centered central composite design (FCCCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the highest enzyme activity of crude lipase from CPH. The optimum condition of extraction is used for preparation of cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA). For the production of immobilized biocatalyst, the technique of CLEA is considered as an effective technique for its industrially attractive advantages. Referring to the results of OFAT, CLEA-lipase was prepared in the best condition at the presence of 30 mM ammonium sulphate, 70 mM glutaraldehyde with 0.23 mM Bovine serum albumin as an additive. Immobilization effectively improved the stability of lipase against various organic solvents.

  10. Computer Simulation of Batch Grinding Process Based on Simulink 5.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; YANG Ying-jie; DENG Hui-yong; HUANG Guang-yao

    2005-01-01

    How to use Simulink software in grinding system was studied. The method of designing batch grinding subsystem and the steps of building batch grinding blockset were introduced. Based on batch grinding population balance model, batch grinding was simulated with Simulink. The results show that the simulation system designed with Simulink explain reasonably the impersonal rule of batch grinding. On the basis of batch grinding simulation, the computer simulation of mineral processing system with Simulink of grinding and classification, comminution, etc, can be properly explored.

  11. Three-dimensional measurement and characterization of grinding tool topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Changcai; Blunt, Liam; Jiang, Xiangqian; Xu, Xipeng; Huang, Hui; Ye, Ruifang

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive 3-dimensional measurement and characterization method for grinding tool topography was developed. A stylus instrument (SOMICRONIC, France) was used to measure the surface of a metal-bonded diamond grinding tool. The sampled data was input the software SurfStand developed by Centre for Precision Technology (CPT) for reconstruction and further characterization of the surface. Roughness parameters pertaining to the general surface and specific feature parameters relating to the grinding grits, such as height and angle peak curvature have been calculated. The methodology of measurement has been compared with that using an optical microscope. The comparison shows that the three-dimensional characterization has distinct advantages for grinding tool topography assessment. It is precise, convenient and comprehensive so it is suitable for precision measurement and analysis where an understanding of the grinding tool and its cutting ability are required.

  12. Monitoring Grinding Wheel Redress-life Using Support Vector Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun Chen; Thitikorn Limchimchol

    2006-01-01

    Condition monitoring is a very important aspect in automated manufacturing processes. Any malfunction of a machining process will deteriorate production quality and efficiency. This paper presents an application of support vector machines in grinding process monitoring. The paper starts with an overview of grinding behaviour. Grinding force is analysed through a Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) to identify features for condition monitoring. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) methodology is introduced as a powerful tool for the classification of different wheel wear situations.After training with available signal data, the SVM is able to identify the state of a grinding process. The requirement and strategy for using SVM for grinding process monitoring is discussed, while the result of the example illustrates how effective SVMs can be in determining wheel redress-life.

  13. Specific Properties of Air Flow Field Within the Grinding Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Junyi; JIANG Zhengfeng; ZHAO Liang

    2006-01-01

    Air barrier of grinding means a boundary layer of air existing at the circumference of the rotating wheel, which hinders coolant from entry. This paper makes a research on air flow field of the grinding zone through experiments and numerical simulations, focusing on acquainting with the specific properties of the air flow field. Finite volume method is applied to analyze air flow field within grinding wheel in the course of numerical calculations. The test devices such as Hot-wire anemometer and Betz manometer are used during the experiments of testing the pressure and velocity within grinding zone. Results of experiments agree by and large with numerical results of calculations. The conclusions obtained in this paper, the distribution of wall pressure and the distribution of air flow velocity, are important and useful to navigate the delivery of coolant into the grinding zone. In conclusion, some recommendations are made for further study and practical applications in such field.

  14. Research on product size and grinding dynamics of vibration mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Zhong-jun; HAN Tian; CHEN Bing; ZHANG Wen-zhong

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve vibration mills grinding effect and increase productive efficiency, prime factors of vibration mills were gained much attention. The purpose of this study is to reveal product size distribution and grinding dynamics of vibration mills by orthogonal experi-ments. The metallurgical refractory materials were used as research object. In order to explore the relationships between grinding effect and primary factors, lots of milling experiments were carried out. Based on the results, the conclusions can be summarized: as time runs, the size distri-bution shows exponential trend, and range becomes more and more narrow. Also the quantitative analysis result between grinding effect and primary factors was obtained by non-linear regres-sion: high frequency, high amplitude and low fill ratio can increase grinding speed.

  15. Creating iPhone Apps with Cocoa Touch

    CERN Document Server

    Hockenberry, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Creating iPhone Apps with Cocoa Touch: The Mini Missing Manual walks you through developing your first iPhone App and introduces you to your programming environments and tools: Cocoa Touch, Interface Builder, Xcode, and the Objective-C programming language. If you're a Java or C developer, this eBook is your fast track to App development. This eBook is adapted from parts of iPhone App Development: The Missing Manual.

  16. Cocoa and Chocolate in Human Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, David L.; Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upr...

  17. Cocoa Polyphenols and Their Potential Benefits for Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Andújar, I.; Recio, M C; R. M. Giner; Ríos, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and t...

  18. Dark chocolate acceptability: influence of cocoa origin and processing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Moreno, Míriam; Tarrega, Amparo; Costell Ibáñez, Elvira; Blanch i Colat, Consol

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chocolate properties can vary depending on cocoa origin, composition and manufacturing procedure, which affect consumer acceptability. The aim of this work was to study the effect of two cocoa origins (Ghana and Ecuador) and two processing conditions (roasting time and conching time) on dark chocolate acceptability. RESULTS: Overall acceptability and acceptability for different attributes (colour, flavour, odour and texture) were evaluated by 95 consumers. Differences ...

  19. Cocoa and Chocolate in Human Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, David L; Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upr...

  20. Social Innovation Among Ethnics in Cocoa Farming at Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mujahiddin, Imam

    2014-01-01

    This study conducted in the Island of Sulawesi, precisely in the province of West and South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The purposes is to (i), determine the development pattern of social innovation and in the government innovation in cocoa farming among ethnics of Javanese, Buginese and Mandar in the island of Sulawesi, (ii) explore the influencing factors that differentiated the development of social innovation in cocoa farming among ethnics of Javanese, Buginese, and Mandar in the island of Sula...

  1. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    bean may prove to be a key component of future arable cropping systems where declining supplies and high prices of fossil energy are likely to constrain the affordability and use of fertilizers. This will help address the increasing demand by consumers and governments for agriculture to reduce its...... impact on the environment and climate through new, more sustainable approaches to food production. The aims of this paper are to review the role of faba bean in global plant production systems, the requirements for optimal faba bean production and to highlight the beneficial effects of faba bean...

  2. Hypoglycemic effects of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) autolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Bahareh; Aminuddin, Farhana; Hamid, Muhajir; Saari, Nazamid; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin

    2012-09-15

    Fat, alkaloid and polyphenol contents of two clones of cocoa (UIT1 and PBC 140) were removed and the remaining powder was autolyzed at pH 3.5 and 5.2. Based on the results, autolysates of UIT produced at pH 3.5 exhibited the highest ability to inhibit α-amylase activity. However, no α-glucosidase inhibition activity was observed under the conditions specified. Autolysates produced under pH 3.5 caused the highest amount of insulin secretion. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, all cocoa autolysates significantly decreased blood glucose at 4h. To assure that the results from the assays were not due to the polyphenols of cocoa autolysates qualitative and quantitative tests were applied. According to their results cocoa autolysates were found to be free from polyphenols. Analysis of amino acid composition revealed that cocoa autolysates were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. It can be suggested that besides other compounds of cocoa, its peptides and amino acids could contribute to its health benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigations of spherical grinding parameters on circularity error, finished diameter, and grinding forces for porous polyurethane foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isarawit Chaopanich

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of grinding variables on the circularity error, finished diameter, andgrinding forces of porous polyurethane foam (PPUF. A cube of PPUF having the size of 21 mm was transformed into a roundshape using a vertical wheel grinding with the circular groove pad developed. The grinding speed (Vs of the wheel wasvaried between 1.41 and 5.18 m/s. The cross head speed of the circular groove pad (f was controlled at 1, 3, 5 mm/min. Theabrasive grit size (A of 20 and 53 μm made of silicon carbide were applied. Two replications of experiment were randomlyperformed. Diameter and circularity error of the ground specimen were determined by vision measuring machine. The tangentialand normal forces of grinding were obtained using a dynamometer. The experimental data were statistically analyzed. The study found that (1 the grinding speed could remarkably affect the circularity error, finished diameter, and grinding forces,(2 the grinding speed ranged between 2.83 and 3.77 m/s could contribute to sphere shape specimens, and (3 the grinding speed of 3.30 m/s, cross head speed of 1 mm/min, and abrasive grit size of 20 μm provided the least circularity error.

  4. Numerical Simulation of a Grinding Process for the Spatial Work-pieces: Modeling of Grinding Forces and System Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kiselev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a computation-experimental technique to determine model coefficients of grinding forces using a Nelder-Mead algorithm. As an error function, the paper offers a deviation measure of calculating and experimental grinding forces averaged for a single-pass of the grinding wheel. As an example of cutting forces model coefficients calculation for linear model, in which the grinding forces depend on uncut chip thickness is analyzed. The coefficients vary on abrasive grain geometric parameters and are determined applying the authors-developed method based on Nelder-Mead technique. The measured forces while plane grinding of test work-piece are used to determine the coefficients. Model coefficients are identified if compare the measured data with the results of modeling for grinding by tool with the uniformly distributed abrasive grains with the triangular shape of cutting edge.Grinding dynamics simulation applying the determined coefficients was carried out for the processing of cantilever plane work-piece as a test example. The work-piece was processed by grinding wheel transverse passages made at different distances from the fixation. A selfoscillating process accompanied by vibration of high level was observed for some selected technological parameters of grinding. The simulation has shown qualitative and quantitative compliance with the experiment. It was shown that the intensity of the self-oscillating process arising during the processing depends on the work-piece rigidity and cutting conditions. The results of modeling can be applied in practice in developing the technology process of grinding the spatial work-pieces.

  5. Investigation on drilling-grinding of CFRP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanming QUAN; Wenwang ZHONG

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to machine polymer matrix composites reinforced by carbon fibre, and the hole-making process is the most necessary machining process for composite plate products. Conventional drills have a very short life in the drilling of this kind of composites and the quality of the hole is very poor. In this paper, the cemented or plated diamond core tools are tested to make holes in carbon fibre/epoxy composite plates. The effects of machining parameters, cooling and chip removal on the tool life, and the hole quality are investigated. The results indicate that the material removal mechanism of the two kinds of diamond tools is not like the cutting effect of the conventional drilling but similar to that of grinding. Satisfactory effects in making holes in the composites are obtained--quite acceptable machined hole quality, low costs, and long wear-resistant endurance.

  6. Modelling and simulation of fixtures during grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias; KLAERNER; Juergen; LEOPOLD; Lothar; KROLL

    2009-01-01

    The complex workpiece-fixture behaviour during machining is an essential component of the fixture development process.In detail,the forces acting on fixture components have to be analysed.A method for the prediction of the reaction forces due to process and clamping loads is presented in this article.At the beginning,detailed information about the workpiece-fixture behaviour during the process is determined by a complex finite element model.Secondly,the reduction of the number of elements leads to a smaller model with less computation time,validated and used for the variation of process parameters.Finally,an analytical description is developed based on the combination of both results.With the help of the empiric equation it is possible to predict the reaction forces and the dependency on several process parameters.This method has been validated by modelling shape grinding of a nozzle guide vane.

  7. Modelling and simulation of fixtures during grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias KLAERNER; Juergen LEOPOLD; Lothar KROLL

    2009-01-01

    The complex workpiece-fixture behaviour during machining is an essential component of the fixture development process. In detail, the forces acting on fixture components have to be analysed. A method for the prediction of the reaction forces due to process and clamping loads is presented in this article.At the beginning, detailed information about the workpiece-fixture behaviour during the process is determined by a complex finite element model. Secondly, the reduction of the number of elements leads to a smaller model with less computation time, validated and used for the variation of process parameters. Finally, an analytical description is developed based on the combination of both results.With the help of the empiric equation it is possible to predict the reaction forces and the dependency on several process parameters. This method has been validated by modelling shape grinding of a nozzle guide vane.

  8. Continuous grinding mill simulation using Austin's model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlos Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comminution is a frequently-required step in mineral processing and is responsible for almost 90% of all energy consumption in a mineral processing plant. Tumbling mill design has been studied since the middle of the XIX century. There are many comminution models in the literature, with preponderance, however, of Austin’s model (2002 for mineral impact breakage. In this paper, Austin’s model was applied to tubular tumbling mills. Once Austin's model was proposed for batch processing of narrowly-distributed fraction sizes, an artifice has allowed it to be used in continuous grinding mill processes with widely-distributed fraction sizes. Interesting results were obtained with errors less than 0.005 for mills with sharp residence time distributions.

  9. Experimental Studies on Ultrasonic Vibration Grinding of the Workpiece Made from Fine-crystalline Zirconia Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan; ZHU Xun-sheng; ZHAO Bo

    2006-01-01

    The performances of fine-crystalline zirconia ceramics in workpiece ultrasonic vibration grinding (WUVG) and conventional grinding (CG) with diamond wheel were researched. The effects of WUVG and CG on material removal rate, grinding forces, surface roughness and microstructure of zirconia ceramic were investigated.Experimental results indicated that: (1) The material removal rate (MRR) in ultrasonic grinding process is two times as large as that of in conventional grinding. The material removal rate increases with increasing grinding depth in both ultrasonic grinding and conventional grinding.(2) The ultrasonic vibration grinding force is lower than that of conventional grinding force, and the increase of the worktable speed leads to a decrease of the grinding force,while the grinding force increases with larger grinding depth in both WUVG and CG. (3) The surface of ultrasonic vibration grinding has no spur and build-up edge and its surface roughness is smaller than that of CG significantly.Surface quality of WUVG is superior to that of conventional grinding, it is easy for ultrasonic vibration grinding that material removal mechanism is ductile grinding.

  10. grain size and heat source effect on the drying profile of cocoa bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    moisture loss was monitored, humidity and temperature of the drying were determined ... under most conditions in developing economies. ... By integrating between limits M(r,0) =M, initial ... balance, the difference in weight was used to.

  11. Analysis of Pyrazine and Volatile Compounds in Cocoa Beans Using Solid Phase Microextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Analisis pirazin dan senyawa volatil pada biji kakao dilakukan dengan perangkat mikroekstraksi fase padat (solid phase micro extraction, SPME, untuk mengembangkan metode ekstraksi tanpa pelarut yang efisien. Perangkat SPME dilengkapi fiber stableflex dengan polimer DVB/Carboxen/PDMS yang menjerap senyawa volatil di area headspace. Biji kakao terfermentasi disangrai dan diambil lemaknya untuk ditempatkan dalam botol bertutup septa. Sampel dipanaskan pada suhu 70OC dan serat SPME ditusukkan menembus septa untuk mengekstrak senyawa volatil dari lemak kakao selama 30 menit. Senyawa volatil lemak kakao akan dijerap oleh serat SPME dan dilepaskan kembali untuk analisis kromatografi gas. Penelitian menunjukkan pirazin dan senyawa volatil yang diekstrak oleh serat SPME dapat terdeteksi dengan baik oleh kromatografi gas. Area puncak yang dihasilkan SPME meliputi 2,83–5,35% dari area puncak yang dihasilkan syringe, kendati demikian kemampuan ekstraksi SPME dapat disetarakan dengan syringe. Lima jenis pirazin yang sering terdapat di biji kakao telah diidentifikasi, meliputi metil pirazin (2MP; 2,3 dan 2,5-dimetilpirazin (DMP; dan 2,3,5 trimetilpirazin (TrMP dan tetrametil pirazin (TMP. Senyawa lainnya juga terdeteksi meliputi alkohol, asam karboksilat, aldehida, keton, ester, pirazin, amin dan senyawa volatil lainnya, dan diketahui erat kaitannya dengan aroma khas cokelat. Keberhasilan SPME dalam ekstraksi pirazin dan senyawa volatilsemi volatil yang berperan penting dalam pembentukan aroma cokelat menandakan SPME dapat digunakan lebih lanjut untuk analisis citarasa.

  12. Standardization of DNA isolation and PCR protocols for ISSR analysis in Cluster bean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L. Taub.] Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cluster bean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L Taub.] is one of the most important cash legume crop has played an increasingly important role in wide range of industries. Owing to the significance of molecular marker studies in numerous applications including in genetic improvement of crops, there is an obvious need to undertake such studies in cluster bean. Present research work was carried out with the genomic DNA optimization and PCR standardization for ISSR analysis in cluster bean genotypes. The standard CTAB method for isolation of genomic DNA from cluster bean have their own limitation as it produces gel image with high contamination of yellowish, sticky and viscous matrix. The commonly used CTAB method was modified by giving Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP treatments after grinding fresh young leaves of cluster bean. The yield of genomic DNA was increased in ranged from120 ng/µl to 220 ng/µl of 0.2 g leaf tissue and the purity (ratio was between 1.5-1.7 indicating minimal levels of contaminating metabolites. ISSR protocol was standardized after implementing various modifications. Based on above findings of present experiment work this modified genomic DNA isolation and PCR protocol may be utilized for ISSR profiling to produce sharp and clear bands in cluster bean genotypes.

  13. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coe cient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using di erent vegetable oils as base oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grind-ing temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven veg-etable oil types. Results revealed that (1) castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(2) palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(3) MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil;(4) viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding tem-perature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils;(5) although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less vis-cous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature;(6) saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid;and (7) a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7%energy ratio coefficient

  14. The Relationship between On-Farm Shade Trees and Cocoa Yields in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asare, Richard

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a crop that is widely cultivated across West Africa with Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroon, Ghana and Nigeria contributing about 70% of the global production. In Ghana cocoa contributes significantly to the national economy as over 20% of the world’s cocoa production comes from...... the country, making it the world’s second largest producer with an annual production level of over 700,000 metric tons, and an estimated cultivation area of ca. 1.6 million ha. Cocoa is mostly cultivated by smallholder farmers either as a monocrop or in association with other food crops, tree crops and under...... the cover of shade trees – cocoa agroforestry. This thesis hypothesizes that canopy cover of shade trees in low input (low-to-no fertilizer application) cocoa growing systems can contribute to cocoa yield improvements. The main theme deals with shade trees diversity and its effects on cocoa production...

  15. Frequency domain identification of grinding stiffness and damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonesio, Marco; Parenti, Paolo; Bianchi, Giacomo

    2017-09-01

    As equivalent stiffness and damping of the grinding process dominate cutting stability, their identification is essential to predict and avoid detrimental chatter occurrence. The identification of these process constants is not easy in large cylindrical grinding machines, e.g. roll grinders, since there are no practical ways to measure cutting force normal component. This paper presents a novel frequency domain approach for identifying these process parameters, exploiting in-process system response, measured via impact testing. This method adopts a sub-structuring approach to couple the wheel-workpiece relative dynamic compliance with a two-dimensional grinding force model that entails both normal and tangential directions. The grinding specific energy and normal force ratio, that determine grinding stiffness and damping, are identified by fitting the closed loop FRF (Frequency Response Function) measured during specific plunge-grinding tests. The fitting quality supports the predictive capability of the model. Eventually, the soundness of the proposed identification procedure is further assessed by comparing the grinding specific energy identified through standard cutting power measurements.

  16. Ultraprecision, high stiffness CNC grinding machines for ductile mode grinding of brittle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Patrick A.; Carlisle, Keith; Shore, Paul; Read, R. F.

    1990-10-01

    Under certain controlled conditions it is now possible to machine brittle materials such as glasses and ceramics using single or multi-point diamond tools (grinding), so that material is removed by plastic flow, leaving crack-free surfaces. This process is called 'shear' or 'ductile' mode grinding. It represents a major breakthrough in modern manufacturing engineering since it promises to enable: - complex optical components, both transmission and reflecting to be generated by advanced CNC machines with very little (or even zero) subsequent polishing. - complex shaped components such as turbine blades, nozzle guide vanes, etc. to be finish machined after near net shape forming, to high precision in advanced ceramics such as silicon nitride, without inducing micro-cracking and thus lowering ultimate rupture strength and fatigue life. Ductile mode "damage free" grinding occurs when the volume of materials stressed by each grit of the grinding wheel is small enough to yield rather than exhibit brittle fracture, i.e. cracking. In practice, this means maintaining the undeformed chip thickness to below the ductile-brittle transition value; this varies from material to material but is generally in the order of 0.1 pm or 100 nm, (hence the term "nanogrinding" is sometimes used) . Thus the critical factors for operating successfully in the ductile regime are machine system accuracy and dynamic stiffness between each grit and the workpiece. In detail this means: (i) High precision 'truing' of the diamond grits, together with dressing of the wheel bond to ensure adequate ' openness'; (ii) Design and build of the grinding wheel spindle with very high dynamic stiffness; error motions, radial and axial, must be considerably less than 100 nfl. (iii) Design and build of the workpiece carriage motion system with very high dynamic stiffness; error motions, linear or rotary, must be well within 100 nm. (iv) Smooth, rumble-free, high-stiffness servo-drives controlling the motions

  17. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  18. The Role of Credit Access in Improving Cocoa Production in West African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nyemeck, J.B.; Gockowski, James; Nkamleu, Guy Blaise

    2008-01-01

    This study uses survey data to examine the role of access to credit on cocoa production, in West African cocoa production countries under conditions of agricultural policy liberalization. The study specifies and estimates econometric models to simulate the counterfactual of what cocoa production would be in the absence of credit facilities. The survey results show that about 54% of cocoa farmers have access to credit in Nigeria, and respectively 37% in Cameroon, while in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoi...

  19. Bioactive compounds in soluble cocoa products; polyphenols, dietary fibre and methylxanthines

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Juaristi, Miren; Martínez López, Sara; Sarriá, Beatriz; Permanyer, Jon; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa powder is a highly consumed food product that may confer health benefits such as cardiovascular protection [1], antitumor and antioxidant effects [2]. These health benefits have been widely attributed to its phenolic composition and dietary fibre content [3]. Other bioactive compounds naturally present in cocoa are methylxanthines, alkaloids that induce modulation of the central nervous system. In response to cocoa consumers' demands, the food industry produces new cocoa products aimed ...

  20. Cocoa agroforestry systems vs. monocultures under conventional and organic management - results from tropical Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Andres, Christian; Milz, Joachim; Seidel, Renate; Trujillo, German; Alcon, Freddy; Weibel, Franco; Schneider, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa is one of the most important export commodities for many developing countries and provides income for millions of smallholders. The expansion of cocoa production has resulted in habitat destruction, biodiversity loss, and soil degradation. The prevalent cocoa production systems worldwide are conventional monoculture full sun systems. Agroforestry systems are argued to be a viable strategy for sustainable cocoa production. However, data-based information on advantages and limitations of ...

  1. Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, Zubaida; Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Dutta, Suparna; Ali, Ather; Katz, David L

    2008-07-01

    Studies suggest cardioprotective benefits of dark chocolate containing cocoa. This study examines the acute effects of solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa intake on endothelial function and blood pressure in overweight adults. Randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind crossover trial of 45 healthy adults [mean age: 53 y; mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30]. In phase 1, subjects were randomly assigned to consume a solid dark chocolate bar (containing 22 g cocoa powder) or a cocoa-free placebo bar (containing 0 g cocoa powder). In phase 2, subjects were randomly assigned to consume sugar-free cocoa (containing 22 g cocoa powder), sugared cocoa (containing 22 g cocoa powder), or a placebo (containing 0 g cocoa powder). Solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa ingestion improved endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated dilatation) compared with placebo (dark chocolate: 4.3 +/- 3.4% compared with -1.8 +/- 3.3%; P cocoa: 5.7 +/- 2.6% and 2.0 +/- 1.8% compared with -1.5 +/- 2.8%; P cocoa compared with placebo (dark chocolate: systolic, -3.2 +/- 5.8 mm Hg compared with 2.7 +/- 6.6 mm Hg; P cocoa: systolic, -2.1 +/- 7.0 mm Hg compared with 3.2 +/- 5.6 mm Hg; P cocoa (5.7 +/- 2.6% compared with 2.0 +/- 1.8%; P cocoa improved endothelial function and lowered blood pressure in overweight adults. Sugar content may attenuate these effects, and sugar-free preparations may augment them.

  2. McCarter superfinish grinding for silicon -- an update.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, F.; Khounsary, A.; McCarter, D.; Krasnicki, F.; Tangedahl, M.

    2000-11-03

    A grinding technique, referred to as the McCarter Superfinish, for grinding large size optical components is discussed and certain surface characterization information about flatness and the relative magnitude of the subsurface damage in silicon substrates is reported. The flatness measurements were obtained with a Zygo surface analyzer, and the substrate damage measurements were made by x-ray diffraction and acid etching. Results indicate excellent control of flatness and fine surface finish. X-ray measurements show that the diamond wheels with small particle sizes used in the final phases of the grinding operation renders surfaces with relatively small subsurface damage.

  3. Effect of wet grinding on structural properties of ball clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, A.; Hameed, A.; Chander, S.; Nehra, S. P.; Singh, P.; Dhaka, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the effect of wet grinding on structural properties of ball clay is undertaken. The wet grinding treatment was performed employing ball and vibro mills for different time spells of 2, 4, 8 and 16 hours. The structural properties were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structure of ground samples is found to be simple cubic. The crystallographic parameters are calculated and slight change in lattice constant, inter planner spacing and particle size is observed with grinding treatment. The results are in agreement with the available literature.

  4. Investigation on the Surface Coating of Grinding Balls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The surface coating of grinding balls was investigated experimentally. The results show that a coating may form on the surface of grinding balls when Cr or Al powders are subjected to ball grinding. The plastic deformation of the ball surface plays an important role during the coating formation, and the strong binding force between the powders and the balls is a necessary pre-condition. The thickness of coating increases with the plasticity of the powders and the balls. Annealing the balls with coating will result in an obvious diffusion of the elements in the bonding zone of inter-face.

  5. Eco-efficiency of grinding processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Marius

    2016-01-01

    This research monograph aims at presenting an integrated assessment approach to describe, model, evaluate and improve the eco-efficiency of existing and new grinding processes and systems. Various combinations of grinding process parameters and system configurations can be evaluated based on the eco-efficiency. The book presents the novel concept of empirical and physical modeling of technological, economic and environmental impact indicators. This includes the integrated evaluation of different grinding process and system scenarios. The book is a valuable read for research experts and practitioners in the field of eco-efficiency of manufacturing processes but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  6. 发酵方式对海南可可豆特性和风味的影响分析%Effect of Fermentation Methods on Characteristics and Flavor of Hainan Cacao Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房一明; 徐飞; 谷风林; 初众; 谭乐和; 赖剑雄

    2012-01-01

    Use the different fermentation methods,such as wooden box,plate,heap,intelligence incubator.Test the weight,absorbance at 240 nm,water content,pH and chroma were detected,and electronic nose was applied to detect the difference of dried and roasted fermented beans of Hainan cocoa beans,the principal component analysis(PCA) was used to analyze the data.The results show that different fermentation methods,obviously influence the quality and flavor of Hainan cocoa beans.Hainan cocoa beans fermented in heaps or in wooden box are different of other methods in quality electronic sensory flavor analysis.Fermented in heaps or in wooden box is suitable for Hainan cocoa beans.These two fermentation technology can improve the quality of Hainan cocoa beans.%检测了木箱子发酵、竹盘子发酵、堆积发酵和智能培养箱发酵等不同发酵方式下的海南可可豆的单粒重、吸光度、水分、pH、色度,并采用电子鼻测定了未烘烤和烘烤后的可可豆风味,对响应结果进行了主成分分析(PCA)。结果表明:不同发酵方式下的可可豆特性差异明显,采用木箱子和堆积发酵后的可可豆与竹盘子和智能培养箱发酵后的可可豆在电子感官风味分析上差异较大。认为木箱子发酵和堆积发酵为适合海南可可豆的发酵方式,利用该技术可以提高海南可可发酵豆的品质。

  7. Illustrated manual on composting for improved soil fertility and enhanced cocoa production

    Science.gov (United States)

    In West and Central Africa, most cocoa farms are old and the soils are highly depleted in major nutrients. Cocoa pod harvest continues to remove nutrients, and this loss of soil fertility is one of the major causes of low cocoa yields and subsequent economic losses. Plant pathogens, including nema...

  8. The Relationship between On-Farm Shade Trees and Cocoa Yields in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asare, Richard

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a crop that is widely cultivated across West Africa with Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroon, Ghana and Nigeria contributing about 70% of the global production. In Ghana cocoa contributes significantly to the national economy as over 20% of the world’s cocoa production comes from...

  9. 77 FR 21662 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY... amends Class D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL, by correcting the geographic... of Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. Also, the geographic coordinates for the airport...

  10. 76 FR 30298 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Cocoa, FL, as the... at Merritt Island Airport, Cocoa, FL. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to...

  11. 77 FR 28243 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY... in the Federal Register on April 11, 2012 that amends Class D airspace at Cocoa Beach, FL. DATES... D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. A typographical error was made in...

  12. Fundamentals of grinding : surface conditions of ground WC-Co systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, JBJW; De Hosson, JTM; Shulepov, SY; Lousberg, N; de With, G; Brebbia, CA; Kenny, JM

    1999-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the fundamentals of grinding of inorganic materials. A statistical grinding model was developed based on the topography of the grinding wheel. The results of the model are compared with the results of grinding experiments on WC-Co hardmetals. The calculated profiles and me

  13. Innovative grinding wheel design for cost-effective machining of advanced ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, R.H.; Kuo, P.; Liu, S.; Murphy, D.; Picone, J.W.; Ramanath, S.

    2000-05-01

    This Final Report covers the Phase II Innovative Grinding Wheel (IGW) program in which Norton Company successfully developed a novel grinding wheel for cost-effective cylindrical grinding of advanced ceramics. In 1995, Norton Company successfully completed the 16-month Phase I technical effort to define requirements, design, develop, and evaluate a next-generation grinding wheel for cost-effective cylindrical grinding of advanced ceramics using small prototype wheels. The Phase II program was initiated to scale-up the new superabrasive wheel specification to larger diameters, 305-mm to 406-mm, required for most production grinding of cylindrical ceramic parts, and to perform in-house and independent validation grinding tests.

  14. The Impact of Cocoa Flavanols on Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachojannis, Julia; Erne, Paul; Zimmermann, Benno; Chrubasik-Hausmann, Sigrun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to review the effect of cocoa flavanols on cardiovascular health, with emphasis on the doses ingested, and to analyze a range of cocoa products for content of these compounds. PubMed was searched from 2010 to locate systematic reviews (SR) on clinical effects of chocolate consumption. Thirteen SRs were identified and reviewed, and provided strong evidence that dark chocolate did not reduce blood pressure. The evidence was however strong for an association with increased flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) and moderate for an improvement in blood glucose and lipid metabolism. Our analysis showed that cocoa products with around 100 mg epicatechin can reliably increase FMD, and that cocoa flavanol doses of around 900 mg or above may decrease blood pressure in specific individuals and/or if consumed over longer periods. Out of 32 cocoa product samples analyzed, the two food supplements delivered 900 mg of total flavanols and 100 mg epicatechin in doses of 7 g and 20 g and 3 and 8 g, respectively. To achieve these doses with chocolate, around 100 to 500 g (for 900 mg flavanols) and 50 to 200 g (for 100 mg epicatechin) would need to be consumed. Chocolate products marketed for their purported health benefits should therefore declare the amounts of total flavanols and epicatechin. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Francene M; Bearden, Monica M; Keen, Carl L

    2003-02-01

    This paper offers a review of current scientific research regarding the potential cardiovascular health benefits of flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate. Recent reports indicate that the main flavonoids found in cocoa, flavan-3-ols and their oligomeric derivatives, procyanidins, have a variety of beneficial actions, including antioxidant protection and modulation of vascular homeostasis. These findings are supported by similar research on other flavonoid-rich foods. Other constituents in cocoa and chocolate that may also influence cardiovascular health are briefly reviewed. The lipid content of chocolate is relatively high; however, one third of the lipid in cocoa butter is composed of the fat stearic acid, which exerts a neutral cholesterolemic response in humans. Cocoa and chocolate contribute to trace mineral intake, which is necessary for optimum functioning of all biologic systems and for vascular tone. Thus, multiple components in chocolate, particularly flavonoids, can contribute to the complex interplay of nutrition and health. Applications of this knowledge include recommendations by health professionals to encourage individuals to consume a wide range of phytochemical-rich foods, which can include dark chocolate in moderate amounts.

  16. Solving Cocoa Pod Sigmoid Growth Model with Newton Raphson Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Albert Ling Sheng; Maisin, Navies

    Cocoa pod growth modelling are useful in crop management, pest and disease management and yield forecasting. Recently, the Beta Growth Function has been used to determine the pod growth model due to its unique for the plant organ growth which is zero growth rate at both the start and end of a precisely defined growth period. Specific pod size (7cm to 10cm in length) is useful in cocoa pod borer (CPB) management for pod sleeving or pesticide spraying. The Beta Growth Function is well-fitted to the pods growth data of four different cocoa clones under non-linear function with time (t) as its independent variable which measured pod length and diameter weekly started at 8 weeks after fertilization occur until pods ripen. However, the same pod length among the clones did not indicate the same pod age since the morphological characteristics for cocoa pods vary among the clones. Depending on pod size for all the clones as guideline in CPB management did not give information on pod age, therefore it is important to study the pod age at specific pod sizes on different clones. Hence, Newton Raphson method is used to solve the non-linear equation of the Beta Growth Function of four different group of cocoa pod at specific pod size.

  17. Cryopreservation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Raphael; Wetten, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Losses of cultivated cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) due to diseases and continued depletion of forests that harbour the wild progenitors of the crop make ex situ conservation of cocoa germplasm of paramount importance. In order to enhance security of in situ germplasm collections, 2-3 mm floral-derived secondary somatic embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification. This work demonstrates the most uncomplicated clonal cocoa cryopreservation. Optimal post-cryostorage survival (74.5 percent) was achieved by 5 d preculture of SSEs on 0.5 M sucrose medium followed by 60 min dehydration in cold PVS2. To minimise free radical related cryo-injury, cation sources were removed from the embryo development solution and/or the recovery medium, the former treatment resulting in a significant benefit. After optimisation with cocoa genotype AMAZ 15, the same protocol was effective across all five additional cocoa genotypes tested. For the multiplication of clones, embryos regenerated following cryopreservation were used as explant sources, and vitrification was found to maintain their embryogenic potential.

  18. Unsweetened natural cocoa has anti-asthmatic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awortwe, C; Asiedu-Gyekye, I J; Nkansah, E; Adjei, S

    2014-01-01

    Unsweetened natural cocoa powder is enriched with nutraceutical abundance of anti-asthmatic compounds theobromine and theophylline. Cocoa powder, which is prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, contains about 1.9% theobromine and 0.21% caffeine. Anecdotal reports indicate that regular consumption of unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP), a common practice in Ghana, West Africa, has the potential to reduce the tendency of asthmatic episodes. In the present paper we studied the effect of regular ingestion of aqueous extract of UNCP on hematological and histopathological changes that occur in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pigs. OVA-sensitized guinea pigs were challenged with aerosolized OVA 1 hour after ingestion of 300 mg/kg (low dose) or 600 mg/kg (high dose) of UNCP for 35 consecutive days. Histopathological and haematological changes in the OVA-sensitized guinea pigs were evaluated. Both negative and positive controls with distilled water and prednisolone, respectively, were used. OVA-sensitized guinea pigs demonstrated concentration-independent reduction in immune response to aerosolized OVA. There were no histo-architectural changes in the bronchiolar smooth muscles of the treated groups. Unsweetened natural cocoa powder has potential anti-asthmatic properties when administered orally at the doses tested.

  19. Applying life cycle management of colombian cocoa production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Orlando Ortiz-R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to evaluate the usefulness of the application of Life Cycle Management in the agricultural sector focusing on the environmental and socio-economic aspects of decision making in the Colombian cocoa production. Such appraisal is based on the application of two methodological tools: Life Cycle Assessment, which considers environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of the cocoa production system, and Taguchi Loss Function, which measures the economic impact of a process' deviation from production targets. Results show that appropriate improvements in farming practices and supply consumption can enhance decision-making in the agricultural cocoa sector towards sustainability. In terms of agri-business purposes, such qualitative shift allows not only meeting consumer demands for environmentally friendly products, but also increasing the productivity and competitiveness of cocoa production, all of which has helped Life Cycle Management gain global acceptance. Since farmers have an important role in improving social and economic indicators at the national level, more attention should be paid to the upgrading of their cropping practices. Finally, one fundamental aspect of national cocoa production is the institutional and governmental support available for farmers in face of socio-economic or technological needs.

  20. Flavanol and procyanidin content (by degree of polymerization 1-10) of chocolate, cocoa liquors, cocoa powders, and cocoa extracts: first action 2012.24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca J; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Li, Julia; Johnson, J Christopher; Collins, Tom; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H

    2013-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted on an HPLC method with fluorescent detection for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate and cocoa-containing materials. The sum of the oligomeric fractions with degree of polymerization 1-10 was the determined content value. Sample materials included dark and milk chocolates, cocoa powder, cocoa liquors, and cocoa extracts. The content ranged from approximately 2 to 500 mg/g (defatted basis). Thirteen laboratories--representing commercial, industrial, and academic institutions in six countries--participated in this interlaboratory study. Fourteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results for 12 laboratories yielded repeatability RSD (RSDr) values below 10% for all materials analyzed, ranging from 4.17 to 9.61%. Reproducibility RSD (RSDR) values ranged from 5.03 to 12.9% for samples containing 8.07 to 484.7 mg/g material analyzed. In one sample containing a low content of flavanols and procyanidins (approximately 2 mg/g), the RSDR was 17.68%.

  1. Laser-assisted Grinding Wheel Dressing (Ⅱ)-Experimental Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming CHEN; Fanghong SUN; Youngmoon LEE; Seunghan YANG; Jongchan LEE

    2003-01-01

    Most of the mechanical dressing technologies for resin bonded superabrasive grinding wheels are time consumingand costly. Based on the outcomes of the simulations in the previous study, this paper demonstrates the comprehensive researches on the laser-ass

  2. Gemstone Grinding Process Improvement by using Impedance Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamprommarat Chumpol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chula Automatic Faceting Machine has been developed by The Advance Manufacturing Research Lab, Chulalongkorn University to support Thailand Gems-Industry. The machine has high precision motion control by using position and force control. A contact stiffness model is used to estimate grinding force. Although polished gems from the Faceting Machine have uniform size and acceptable shape, the force of the grinding and polishing process cannot be maintain constant and has some fluctuation due to indirect force control. Therefor this research work propose a new controller for this process based on an impedance direct force control to improve the gemstone grinding performance during polishing process. The grinding force can be measured through motor current. The results show that the polished gems by using impedance direct force control can maintain uniform size as well as good shape and high quality surface.

  3. Grinding efficiency improvement of hydraulic cylinders parts for mining equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkov Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to find out ways to improve parts treatment and components of mining equipment on the example of hydraulic cylinders parts, used as pillars for mine roof supports, and other actuator mechanisms. In the course of the research work methods of machine retaining devices design were used, the scientific approaches for the selection of progressive grinding schemes were applied; theoretical and practical experience in the design and production of new constructions of grinding tools was used. As a result of this work it became possible to create a progressive construction of a machine retaining device for grinding of large parts of hydraulic cylinders, to apply an effective scheme of rotary abrasive treatment, to create and implement new design of grinding tools by means of grains with controllable shape and orientation. Implementation of the results obtained in practice will improve the quality and performance of repairing and manufacturing of mining equipment.

  4. A critical study of high efficiency deep grinding

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, I

    2002-01-01

    The recent years, the aerospace industry in particular has embraced and actively pursued the development of stronger high performance materials, namely nickel based superalloys and hardwearing steels. This has resulted in a need for a more efficient method of machining, and this need was answered with the advent of High Efficiency Deep Grinding (HEDG). This relatively new process using Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) electroplated grinding wheels has been investigated through experimental and theoretical means applied to two widely used materials, M50 bearing steel and IN718 nickel based superalloy. It has been shown that this grinding method using a stiff grinding centre such as the Edgetek 5-axis machine is a viable process. Using a number of experimental designs, produced results which were analysed using a variety of methods including visual assessment, sub-surface microscopy and surface analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), residual stress measurement using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques, Ba...

  5. E-Records a Grind for Many Doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160789.html E-Records a Grind for Many Doctors And this ... direct contact with patients and 37 percent on E-health records and other clerical work, the study ...

  6. Development of database and searching system for tool grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Y. Chen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: For achieving the goal of saving time on the tool grinding and design, an efficient method of developing the data management and searching system for the standard cutting tools is proposed in this study.Design/methodology/approach: At first the tool grinding software with open architecture was employed to design and plan grinding processes for seven types of tools. According to the characteristics of tools (e.g. types, diameter, radius and so on, 4802 tool data were established in the relational database. Then, the SQL syntax was utilized to write the searching algorithms, and the human machine interfaces of the searching system for the tool database were developed by C++ Builder.Findings: For grinding a square end mill with two-flute, a half of time on the tool design and the change of production line for grinding other types of tools can be saved by means of our system. More specifically, the efficiency in terms of the approach and retract time was improved up to 40%, and an improvement of approximately 10.6% in the overall machining time can be achieved.Research limitations/implications: In fact, the used tool database in this study only includes some specific tools such as the square end mill. The step drill, taper tools, and special tools can also be taken into account in the database for future research.Practical implications: The most commercial tool grinding software is the modular-based design and use tool shapes to construct the CAM interface. Some limitations on the tool design are undesirable for customers. On the contrary, employing not only the grinding processes to construct the grinding path of tools but the searching system combined with the grinding software, it gives more flexible for one to design new tools.Originality/value: A novel tool database and searching system is presented for tool grinding. Using this system can save time and provide more convenience on designing tools and grinding. In other words, the

  7. Teeth Grinding: Is Emotional Stability related to Bruxism?

    OpenAIRE

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio; Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the association between personality traits and bruxism, the repetitive grinding or clenching of teeth. Community-dwelling participants (N = 470) had a comprehensive oral examination by a dentist and completed a dental history and personality questionnaires. Consistent with the literature on state anxiety and depression as antecedents of bruxism, Neuroticism-related traits were associated with self-reported teeth grinding. These traits were also associated with other oral c...

  8. Performance analysis of magnesium phosphate cement mortar containing grinding dust

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium phosphate cement materials are formed by reacting magnesium oxide with water-soluble phosphates such as monoammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP), which solidifies at ambient temperature through the formation of hydrated phases in the material. Cylindrical specimens of magnesium phosphate cement were molded and varying amounts (0 to 30% weight) of grinding dust were added to the ceramic matrices. The influence of the addition of grinding dust on the characteristics of the mortars in t...

  9. A Path Planning Method for Robotic Belt Surface Grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; YUN Chao

    2011-01-01

    The flexible contact and machining with wide strip are two prominent advantages for the robotic belt grinding system,which can be widely used to improve the surface quality and machining efficiency while finishing the workpieces with sculptured surfaces.There lacks research on grinding path planning with the constraint of curvature.With complicated contact between the contact wheel and the workpiece,the grinding paths for robot can be obtained by the theory of contact kinematics.The grinding process must satisfy the universal demands of the belt grinding technologies,and the most important thing is to make the contact wheel conform to the local geometrical features on the contact area.For the local surfaces with small curvature,the curve length between the neighboring cutting locations becomes longer to ensure processing efficiency.Otherwise,for the local areas with large curvature,the curve length becomes shorter to ensure machining accuracy.A series of planes are created to intersect with the target surface to be ground,and the corresponding sectional profile curves are obtained.For each curve,the curve length between the neighboring cutting points is optimized by inserting a cutter location at the local area with large curvatures.A method of generating the grinding paths including curve length spacing optimization is set up.The validity is completely approved by the off-line simulation,and during the grinding experiments with the method,the quality of surface is improved.The path planning method provides a theoretical support for the smooth and accuracy path of robotic surface grinding.

  10. Development and Performance Evaluation of Maize Threshing and Grinding Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu K. C.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Maize threshing and grinding machine was designed, fabricated and its performance was evaluated. The machine consists of two compartments which include the threshing and grinding chamber. Threshing chamber is where the maize grain is been separated from the cob, and the cob will be collected through the outlet chute. Therefore, before the maize grain enters into the grinding chamber, blower will separate the grain from the chaff. The separated grain enters the grinding chamber and is being grounded by compressive means through the stationary disc and the grinding plate. A 2 hp electric motor provides drive through belt connections to drive the pulley on threshing chamber and another 2 hp electric motor provide drive for the grinding chamber. The actual test was conducted using three different moisture contents and feed rates. It was observed that the efficiency of the machine was hindered by high moisture content. The results obtained showed that the machine performed well at low moisture content. The efficiency of the machine was 99.01% on the moisture content of 10%. The analysis of variance (ANOVA of the results obtained at 5% percent probability confirmed that the moisture content of the maize was an important parameter that affects the performance of the machine

  11. Direct Estimate of Cocoa Powder Content in Cakes by Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Kulcsár, R.

    2014-12-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index (brightness) and total color difference ().

  12. [Dark or white chocolate? Cocoa and cardiovascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Roberto; Perdrix, Jean; Flammer, Andreas J; Noll, Georg

    2010-03-10

    Epidemiological data show that a regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Recent research indeed demonstrates interesting data about cocoa consumption, with high concentrations of polyphenols, and beneficial effects on blood pressure, insulin resistance and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert their benefits on cardiovascular health have been suggested: activation of nitric oxide, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet effects, which might in turn improve endothelial function, lipid levels, blood pressure and insulin resistance. This article reviews available data about the effects of the consumption of cocoa and different types of chocolate on cardiovascular health, and outlines potential mechanisms involved on the basis of recent studies.

  13. WILLINGNESS TO TAKE AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE BY COCOA FARMERS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Falola

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines willingness to take agricultural insurance by cocoa farmers in Nigeria. A three-stage sampling procedure was used to select 120 cocoa farm households and structured questionnaire was used to elicit data from the respondents. The data were analysed with descriptive statistics and probit regression model. Results showed that 77.5% of the farmers were aware of Agricultural Insurance but only 50% were willing to take it. The average willingness-to-pay (WTP for Agricultural Insurance by the respondents was N11,087.5/ha ($69.85/ha. The significant variables influencing willingness to take agricultural insurance by the farmers were age of household head, educational level, access to extension service and farm income. The study therefore recommends encouraging young well educated people to engage in cocoa farming, overhauling agricultural extension services as well as provision of insurance services to farmers at affordable rate.

  14. Cocoa in Full-sun Monocultures vs. Shaded Agroforestry Systems under Conventional and Organic Management in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Monika; Andres, Christian; Trujillo, German; Alcon, Freddy; Amurrio, Patricia; Seidel, Renate; Weibel, Franco; Milz, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa is a crucial export commodity for many developing countries and provides income for millions of smallholders. However, cocoa cultivation has resulted in habitat destruction, biodiversity loss and soil degradation. While much of the world’s cocoa is produced in arguably unsustainable full-sun monoculture systems, shaded agroforestry systems may be an alternative for sustainable cocoa production. However, data-based information on advantages and limitations of different cocoa production s...

  15. Cocoa polyphenols and fiber modify colonic gene expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J

    2017-08-01

    Cocoa intake has been associated with health benefits, improving cardiovascular function and metabolism, as well as modulating intestinal immune function. The aim of this study was to take an in-depth look into the mechanisms affected by the cocoa intake by evaluating the colonic gene expression after nutritional intervention, and to ascertain the role of the fiber of cocoa in these effects. To achieve this, Wistar rats were fed for 3 weeks with either a reference diet, a diet containing 10 % cocoa (C10), a diet based on cocoa fiber (CF) or a diet containing inulin (I). At the end of the study, colon was excised to obtain the RNA to evaluate the differential gene expression by microarray. Results were validated by RT-PCR. The C10 group was the group with most changes in colonic gene expression, most of them down-regulated but a few in common with the CF diet. The C10 diet significantly up-regulated the expression of Scgb1a1 and Scnn1 g and down-regulated Tac4, Mcpt2, Fcer1a and Fabp1 by twofold, most of them related to lipid metabolism and immune function. The CF and I diets down-regulated the expression of Serpina10 and Apoa4 by twofold. Similar patterns of expression were found by PCR. Most of the effects attributed to cocoa consumption on genes related to the immune system (B cell and mast cell functionality) and lipid metabolism in the colon tissue were due not only to its fiber content, but also to the possible contribution of polyphenols and other compounds.

  16. Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, A-M; Scott, P M

    2011-06-01

    In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46-61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OTA was determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of OTA from spiked cocoa powder (0.5 and 5 ng g(-1)) were 75-84%; while recoveries from chocolate were 93-94%. The optimized method was sensitive (limit of quantification (LOQ) = 0.07-0.08 ng g(-1)), accurate (recovery = 75-94%) and precise (coefficient of variation (CV) < 5%). It is applicable to cocoa and chocolate. Analysis of 32 samples of cocoa powder (16 alkalized and 16 natural) for OTA showed an incidence of 100%, with concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.8 ng g(-1); in six samples the OTA level exceeded 2 ng g(-1), the previously considered European Union limit for cocoa. The frequency of detection of OTA in 28 chocolate samples (21 dark or baking chocolate and seven milk chocolate) was also 100% with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 ng g(-1); one sample had a level higher than the previously considered European Union limit for chocolate (1 ng g(-1)).

  17. An Analysis of Competitiveness and Government Policies Impact on Development of Cocoa Farming in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Emelda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian cocoa plantations from year to year increase, on the other hand decreased cocoa production andsome government policies have been carried out in order to increase exports and tried to occupy the first rank world cocoa exporting countries.This study aims to analyze (1 comparative and competitive advantages of cocoa farming in North Luwu, (2 the impact of government policies on development of cocoa farming in North Luwu.This is a descriptive analytic study. The sampling method used was purposive sampling of 40 farmers selected. Data collected through interviews, observation and documentation. Data were analyzed using the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM.The results showed that the value of DRC and PCR of cocoa farming is respectively 0.03 and 0.04. The impact of government policies provide incentives to develop cocoa farming in North Luwu reflected NPCI value = 1.25; NPCO = 1.12, and EPC = 1.09 are all positive values.

  18. Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science

    OpenAIRE

    Deanna L. Pucciarelli

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés’s first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America—ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa’s bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in ...

  19. Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Turcotte, A.-M.; Scott, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46–61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OT...

  20. Improved high-performance liquid chromatography method to determine theobromine and caffeine in cocoa and cocoa products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pura Naik, J

    2001-08-01

    At present, the commonly used HPLC method for the analysis of caffeine and theobromine contents in aqueous cocoa extracts employs direct application of the extracts on the column. This practice gradually reduces the efficiency of the column and shortens its life. Also, this method gives inflated values due to interfering substances and difficulty in achieving baseline resolution. In the improved method, the interfering cocoa pigments are effectively removed by passing the aqueous extract through a Sep-pak C(18) cartridge. Subsequent injection on a C(18) reverse-phase column employing acetonitrile and water (20:80) as the mobile phase reduces the analysis time without affecting either resolution of the peak or the accuracy of caffeine and theobromine determination or achieving baseline resolution. Therefore, this method is ideally suited for rapid routine analysis of cocoa and its products.

  1. Climate change induced occupational stress and reported morbidity among cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Climate change is one of the major development hurdles in many developing countries. The health outcome of farm households are related to climate change, which is related to several external and internal health-related issues, such as management of occupational stressors. This study seeks, inter alia, to determine the climate related occupational stress and factors influencing reported sick times among cocoa farmers. Material and Method. Data were collected from selected cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and Negative Binomial regression were used for data analyses. Results. The results showed that cocoa farmers were ageing, and that the majority had cultivating cocoa for most of their years of farming. Cocoa was the primary crop for the majority of the farmers, while 92.00% of the farmers in Osun state owned the cultivated cocoa farms. The forms of reported climate change induced occupational stresses were increase in pest infestation (74.5% in Ekiti state, difficulties in weed control (82.1% in Ekiti state, missing regular times scheduled for spraying cocoa pods (45.7% in Ondo state, inability to spray cocoa effectively (58.5% in Ondo state, and reduction in cocoa yield (71.7% in Ekiti state. The Negative Binomial regression results showed that the age of farmers (0.0103, their education (-0.0226, years of cocoa farming (-0.0112, malaria infection (0.4901, missed spraying (0.5061, re-spraying of cocoa (0.2630, reduction in cocoa yield (0.20154, contact with extension (0.2411 and residence in Ondo state (-0.2311 were statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion. Climate change influences the farm operations of cocoa farmers with resultant occupational stresses. Efforts to assist cocoa farmers should include, among others, provision of weather forecasts and some form of insurance.

  2. Physical properties and bioactive constituents of powdered mixtures and drinks prepared with cocoa and various sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belscak-Cvitanović, Ana; Benković, Maja; Komes, Drazenka; Bauman, Ingrid; Horzić, Dunja; Dujmić, Filip; Matijasec, Matea

    2010-06-23

    In the present study the physical properties of powdered cocoa drink mixtures prepared from two cocoa powders with various fat contents and different sweeteners, as well as the bioactive content and sensory properties of cocoa drinks prepared from them, were investigated. Particle size and bulk density of the used sugars and sweeteners, as well as the formulated mixtures, were determined and their influence on cohesion index was evaluated. To compare the content of polyphenols in the formulated cocoa drink mixtures, UV-vis spectrophotometric methods were applied. Antioxidant capacity of cocoa drinks was evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The analyzed cocoa drinks prepared from cocoa powder and different sugars or sweeteners delivered a substantial content of cocoa antioxidants, whereas the content and the type of sugar or sweetener did not affect the polyphenolic constituents of the prepared cocoa mixtures. Cocoa powder mixtures prepared with the cocoa powder containing higher fat content (16-18%) generally provided lower total polyphenol, total flavonoid, flavan-3-ol, and proanthocyanidin contents, compared to the mixtures prepared with cocoa containing lower fat content (10-12%). Total phenol content of cocoa drinks prepared from experimental mixtures ranged from 320.45 to 480.45 mg of GAE/L, whereas the ranking of the antioxidant capacities varied depending on the used assay, and the fat content of cocoa powder did not affect the antioxidant capacity of cocoa mixtures. As determined, the addition of sugar to cocoa powder increases the solubility and dispersibility of the mixtures; on the basis of their cohesion index all mixtures can be classified as very cohesive or hardened/extremely cohesive. Results of the sensory evaluation, using the 9-point hedonic scale, showed that there was a preference for the cocoa drinks made

  3. Quenching simulation of steel grinding balls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapata-Hernández, Oscar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The phase transformations of high carbon steel during quenching and equalizing were modelled using commercial computer packages based on the finite element method and the kinetic transformation of steel. The model was used to predict the temperature and microstructural changes taking place within balls of two different sizes that are used for grinding mineral ores. A good correlation between the temperatures measured by inserted thermocouples and those predicted by the model was obtained after modifying the thermal conductivity of the steel within the temperature domain at which mixed phases are present. The phase transformations predicted were confirmed by metallographic analyses.Las transformaciones de fase en aceros de alto carbono durante su temple y un posterior periodo de estabilización fueron modelizadas por medio del uso de paquetes computacionales basados en el método del elemento finito y de la transformación cinética de los aceros. El modelo se usó para predecir los cambios de temperatura y microestructura que se presentan en bolas de dos diferentes tamaños empleadas en estaciones de molienda de minerales. Se encontró una buena correlación entre las temperaturas medidas mediante la inserción de termopares y aquellas predichas por el modelo una vez que se modificó la conductividad térmica del acero en el intervalo mixto de fases. La predicción de las transformaciones de fase se confirmó a través del análisis metalográfico.

  4. Research on Stability Prediction of the Crankshaft CNC Tangential Point Tracing Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoda Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the key part of internal combustion engines, crankshaft with high efficiency and accuracy processing has always been the target of the engine manufacturer’s pursuit. Grinding is used to obtain the ultimate dimensional accuracy and surface finish in the crankshaft machining. Grinding of the main journals and the pin journals can be accomplished in a single clamping operation by CNC Tangential Point Tracing grinding technology. However, the chatter in the grinding process is harmful to the precision and surface quality. In this paper, stability lobe diagram is developed to predict the grinding chatter. First the dynamic model of Tangential Point Tracing grinding system is established. Then the limit formula of the critical grinding depth is calculated and the stability lobe diagram of the grinding system is presented. Finally, the validation experiments are carried out on the crankshaft grinding machine and the results are consistent with the calculation.

  5. Cluster analysis for the systematic grouping of genuine cocoa butter and cocoa butter equivalent samples based on triglyceride patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Ulberth, Franz; Anklam, Elke

    2004-06-16

    The triglyceride profile of cocoa butters (CBs) from different geographical origins, varieties, growing seasons, and a number of cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) was determined by capillary gas liquid chromatography. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to the five main triglycerides of the samples for the ability to find natural groupings among (a) CBs of various provenance and (b) CBE samples of different types. The samples were clustered using Ward's method, and the similarity values of the linkages were represented by dendrograms. The five triglycerides contained adequate information to obtain a meaningful sample differentiation. This information can be used to assess the purity and the origin of the CB sample examined.

  6. Geometrical principium of fewer-axis grinding for large complex optical mirrors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; ZhenHua; YIN; YueHong

    2013-01-01

    Ultraprecision grinding is an important approach to efficiently fabricate large complex optical mirrors, and five-axis grinding method is commonly used for ultraprecision grinding. However, this method can hardly meet the high stiffness requirement for grinding large mirror, especially with a diameter over 2 m. Meanwhile, the use of fewer-axis grinding solves this problem, as it reduces the number of the grinder’s axes to improve the rigidity of the system and minimize deformation for hard and brittle materials. But its characteristic of unfixed grinding point which changes with workpiece surface curvature increases geometric complexity and requires a higher geometric shape accuracy of grinding wheel. This paper parameterizes grinding wheel’s geometric shape, reveals the relationship between fewer-axis and five-axis grinding methods from the point of view of the differential geometry, and establishes virtual-axis equivalence principium of feweraxis grinding. A quantitative method to determine grinding wheel’s geometric parameters and its shaft inclination angle is proposed based on the requirements of geometric properties of optical mirror, grinder features and grinding process. Moreover, according to the properties of Gauss curvature of curved surface, the wear law of the toric grinding wheel is found and the surface geometric error distribution due to wear is achieved for fewer-axis grinding. The correctness of the principium and method above are verified through simulations.

  7. Effects of organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of bush bean, winged bean and yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT VC (20%, TC (20% and N:P:K fertilizer (farmer's practice were used to determine the growth and yield attributes of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus and yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata. Plants grown with VC (20% produced the highest fresh biomass for bush bean (527.55 g m-2, winged bean (1168.61 g m-2 and yard long bean (409.84 g m-2. In all the tested legumes the highest pod weight, pod number, pod dry weight and pod length were found in the VC (20% treatment. Photosynthetic rates in the three legumes peaked at pod formation stage in all treatments, with the highest photosynthetic rate observed in winged bean (56.17 µmol m-2s-1 grown with VC (20%. The highest yield for bush bean (2.98 ton ha-1, winged bean (7.28 ton ha-1 and yard long bean (2.22 ton ha-1 were also found in VC (20% treatment. Furthermore, protein content was highest in bush bean (26.50 g/100g, followed by yard long bean (24.74 g/100g and winged bean (22.04 g/100g, under VC (20% treatment. It can be concluded that legumes grown with VC (20% produced the highest yield and yield attributes.

  8. Breeding Beans with Bruchid and Multiple Virus Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are worldwide threats to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. Beans planted in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean also need resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). The common bean weev...

  9. Starch grain analysis reveals function of grinding stone tools at Shangzhai site, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoYan; YU JinCheng; LI HouYuan; CUI TianXing; GUO JingNing; GE QuanSheng

    2009-01-01

    Prehistoric groundstone tools including slabs (metate, mo-pan) and mullers (mano, mo-bang) are often considered to be tools that were used to process cereals in ancient China. Most archaeologists believe that groundstone tools are indicators of an agrarian economy. This study employed starch grain analysis to examine a slab and a muller excavated from the Shangzhai Site (7500--7000 cal a BP), Beijing. Identifiable starch grains recovered from the stone tools were classified into 9 genera and 12 species, most of which were from acorns and foxtail millets. Remains from the oak species Q. mongolicus, Q. acuttssima, and Q. dentate were identified as well as a few starch grains from broomcorn (Panicum miliaseum) and bean (Vigna sp.). Other starch grains were from unidenUfiable roots and grasses. A variety of starch grains indicates that the grinding stone tools were used to process not only cereals, but also other seeds or roots that had to be ground or husked, thus bringing into question the aforementioned cereal hypothesis. Because the numbers of starch grains from nuts and millets were so large, both gathering and cultivation might have been important economic patterns before 7000 years ago in Beijing area. Moreover, the starch remains are derived from plants that indicate that the paleoclimate of Beijing was wetter and warmer than today's.

  10. Starch grain analysis reveals function of grinding stone tools at Shangzhai site, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Prehistoric groundstone tools including slabs (metate, mo-pan) and mullers (mano, mo-bang) are often considered to be tools that were used to process cereals in ancient China. Most archaeologists believe that groundstone tools are indicators of an agrarian economy. This study employed starch grain analysis to examine a slab and a muller excavated from the Shangzhai Site (7500-7000 cal a BP), Beijing. Identifiable starch grains recovered from the stone tools were classified into 9 genera and 12 species, most of which were from acorns and foxtail millets. Remains from the oak species Q. mongolicus, Q. acuttssima, and Q. dentate were identified as well as a few starch grains from broomcorn (Panicum miliaseum) and bean (Vigna sp.). Other starch grains were from unidentifiable roots and grasses. A variety of starch grains indicates that the grinding stone tools were used to process not only cereals, but also other seeds or roots that had to be ground or husked, thus bringing into question the aforementioned cereal hypothesis. Because the numbers of starch grains from nuts and millets were so large, both gathering and cultivation might have been important economic patterns before 7000 years ago in Beijing area. Moreover, the starch remains are derived from plants that indicate that the paleoclimate of Beijing was wetter and warmer than today’s.

  11. STUDIES ON CONTINUOUS GRINDING PROCESS FOR DRIED WATER CHESTNUT KERNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. GARG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Grinding is a unit operation to break big solid material into smaller pieces. As far as process of grinding is concerned, power consumption, specific energy consumption and particle size distribution and mill capacity are main considerations from engineering point of view. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of speed of mill, sieve size, feed rate and time of grinding on power consumption and average particle diameter of water chestnut in continuous grinding process. Power consumption was measured for a constant feed rate of 1 and 2 kg/h at different speed of the mill varied from 800 to 1200 rpm for the sieve openings of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm. For all the sieve sizes and feed rates, it was observed that as the speed of the mill increases, there is an increase in power consumption and found significantly low for higher sieve size and lower feed rate. The size distribution of the water chestnut kernel for different speeds and sieve sizes at constant feed rate were obtained by sieve analysis. The milling speed has no significant effect on particle size distribution of ground product and mass fraction was minimum at lower feed rate and higher sieve size. Harris model was found best suitable to describe the size distribution in continuous grinding process. Fineness modulus decreases with increase of milling speed for experimental sieve size and feed rate.

  12. Low-Rank Coal Grinding Performance Versus Power Plant Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajive Ganguli; Sukumar Bandopadhyay

    2008-12-31

    The intent of this project was to demonstrate that Alaskan low-rank coal, which is high in volatile content, need not be ground as fine as bituminous coal (typically low in volatile content) for optimum combustion in power plants. The grind or particle size distribution (PSD), which is quantified by percentage of pulverized coal passing 74 microns (200 mesh), affects the pulverizer throughput in power plants. The finer the grind, the lower the throughput. For a power plant to maintain combustion levels, throughput needs to be high. The problem of particle size is compounded for Alaskan coal since it has a low Hardgrove grindability index (HGI); that is, it is difficult to grind. If the thesis of this project is demonstrated, then Alaskan coal need not be ground to the industry standard, thereby alleviating somewhat the low HGI issue (and, hopefully, furthering the salability of Alaskan coal). This project studied the relationship between PSD and power plant efficiency, emissions, and mill power consumption for low-rank high-volatile-content Alaskan coal. The emissions studied were CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and Hg (only two tests). The tested PSD range was 42 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. Within the tested range, there was very little correlation between PSD and power plant efficiency, CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2}. Hg emissions were very low and, therefore, did not allow comparison between grind sizes. Mill power consumption was lower for coarser grinds.

  13. Ductile streaks in precision grinding of hard and brittle materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V C Venkatesh; S Izman; S Sharif; T T Mon; M Konneh

    2003-10-01

    Ductile streaks produced during diamond grinding of hard and brittle materials have aided the subsequent process of polishing. Two novel techniques were used to study the formation of ductile mode streaks during diamond grinding (primary process) of germanium, silicon, and glass. In the first technique, aspheric surfaces were generated on Ge and Si at conventional speeds (5000 rpm). In the second technique, diamond grinding of plano surfaces on glass and Si surfaces using high speed (100,000 rpm) was carried out. Form accuracy, surface finish and ductile mode grinding streaks are discussed in this paper. It was found that resinoid diamond wheels gave more ductile streaks than metal-bonded wheels but better form accuracy was obtained with the latter. Ductile streaks were obtained more easily with pyrex rather than with BK 7 glass thus necessitating very little time for polishing. Ductile streaks appeared in abundance on germanium rather than silicon. Both the novel grinding techniques were used on CNC machining centres.

  14. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. “Lima Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Bacon in Sauce,”...

  15. Herbal antihyperlipidemic formulation of cocoa tea: Preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Camellia ptilophylla) is a natural (caffeine-free) plant used for centuries ... Research on the therapeutic effects of the plant .... Table 1: Effect of a formulation of cocoa tea leaf extract on the body weights of obese mice consuming a high-fat diet.

  16. Cocoa farming households' vulnerability to climate variability in Ekiti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRO OKOJIE

    the degree of vulnerability of cocoa farmers in Ekiti State to climate variability hazards using the. Integrated Vulnerability ... All efforts should be in put in place by all relevant agencies to promote integrated ... internal processes within the climate system. (internal .... four Local Government Areas from each zone. This was ...

  17. Cocoa Polyphenols and Their Potential Benefits for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andújar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compiles the beneficial effects of cocoa polyphenols on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer prevention. Their antioxidant properties may be responsible for many of their pharmacological effects, including the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the protection of LDL-cholesterol against oxidation, and increase resistance to oxidative stress. The phenolics from cocoa also modify the glycemic response and the lipid profile, decreasing platelet function and inflammation along with diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, which, taken together, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Cocoa polyphenols can also modulate intestinal inflammation through the reduction of neutrophil infiltration and expression of different transcription factors, which leads to decreases in the production of proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The phenolics from cocoa may thus protect against diseases in which oxidative stress is implicated as a causal or contributing factor, such as cancer. They also have antiproliferative, antimutagenic, and chemoprotective effects, in addition to their anticariogenic effects.

  18. Development of kairomone based control programs for cocoa pod borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoa Pod Borer moth presents a unique opportunity to develop host volatile attractants for control strategies for the following reasons. First, knowing what volatiles are critical for host finding by females will allow for development of mass trapping and/or attract and kill strategies to cont...

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cocoa pod husks. [Trichoderma reesei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.K.; Oldham, J.H.; Martin, A.M

    1984-07-01

    Laboratory results are presented of the bioconversion of cellulose from cocoa pod husks, utilizing cellulase from three mutants of Trichoderma reesei. Total reducing sugars in filtered hydrolysates were estimated by the dinitrosalicylic acid method. The sugars present were identified by paper chromatography as glucose and xylose.

  20. Effect of cocoa butter structure on oil migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleky, Fatemeh; McCarthy, Kathryn L; McCarthy, Michael J; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2012-03-01

    Oil migration from a high oil content filling into adjacent chocolate causes changes in product quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the oil migration from a cream filling system into cocoa butter, which provided a model for the behavior of chocolate-enrobed confectionery products with a soft, creamy center. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to monitor spatial and temporal changes of liquid lipid content. A multislice spin echo pulse sequence was used to acquire images with a 7.8 ms echo time and a 200 ms repetition time using a 1.03 T Aspect Imaging MRI spectrometer. Samples were prepared as a 2-layer model system of cocoa butter and model cream filling. Three methods were used to prepare the cocoa butter: static, seeded, and sheared. Samples were stored at 25 °C for a time frame of 56 d. The rate of oil migration was quantified by a kinetic expression based on the linear dependence of oil uptake by cocoa butter and the square root of the time. Samples showed distinctly different rates of oil migration, as evidenced by quantitative differences in the kinetic rate constant. Practical Application:  This work will be helpful to elucidate the influence of crystallization process and structural properties such as crystal nanostructure and crystal habit on the migration of oil through a crystalline fat matrix.

  1. Activity of Bacillis thuringiensis toxins against cocoa pod borer larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santoso, D.; Chaidamsari, T.; Wiryadiputra, S.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Twelve Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were tested in bioassays on cacao plantations in Indonesia for activity against the larvae of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)), an insect pest of the cacao tree. Through the damage caused by their feeding, the larvae of coco

  2. Screening antioxidants using LC-MS: case study with cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Angela I; Wright, Brian J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; van Breemen, Richard B

    2009-07-08

    Oxidative stress enhances pathological processes contributing to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, and dietary antioxidants may counteract these deleterious processes. Because rapid methods to evaluate and compare food products for antioxidant benefits are needed, a new assay based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed for the identification and quantitative analysis of antioxidants in complex natural product samples such as food extracts. This assay is based on the comparison of electrospray LC-MS profiles of sample extracts before and after treatment with reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide or 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). Using this assay, methanolic extracts of cocoa powder were analyzed, and procyanidins were found to be the most potent antioxidant species. These species were identified using LC-MS, LC-MS/MS, accurate mass measurement, and comparison with reference standards. Furthermore, LC-MS was used to determine the levels of these species in cocoa samples. Catechin and epicatechin were the most abundant antioxidants followed by their dimers and trimers. The most potent antioxidants in cocoa were trimers and dimers of catechin and epicatechin, such as procyanidin B2, followed by catechin and epicatechin. This new LC-MS assay facilitates the rapid identification and then the determination of the relative antioxidant activities of individual antioxidant species in complex natural product samples and food products such as cocoa.

  3. 40 CFR 180.491 - Propylene oxide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Commodity Parts per million Cacao bean, dried bean 200 Cacao bean, cocoa powder 200 Fig 3.0 Garlic, dried...: Commodity Parts per million Basil, dried leaves 6000 Cacao bean, dried bean 20.0 Cacao bean, cocoa powder...

  4. Vulnerability to climate change of cocoa in West Africa: Patterns, opportunities and limits to adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Götz; Läderach, Peter; Martinez-Valle, Armando Isaac; Bunn, Christian; Jassogne, Laurence

    2016-06-15

    The West African cocoa belt, reaching from Sierra Leone to southern Cameroon, is the origin of about 70% of the world's cocoa (Theobroma cacao), which in turn is the basis of the livelihoods of about two million farmers. We analyze cocoa's vulnerability to climate change in the West African cocoa belt, based on climate projections for the 2050s of 19 Global Circulation Models under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change intermediate emissions scenario RCP 6.0. We use a combination of a statistical model of climatic suitability (Maxent) and the analysis of individual, potentially limiting climate variables. We find that: 1) contrary to expectation, maximum dry season temperatures are projected to become as or more limiting for cocoa as dry season water availability; 2) to reduce the vulnerability of cocoa to excessive dry season temperatures, the systematic use of adaptation strategies like shade trees in cocoa farms will be necessary, in reversal of the current trend of shade reduction; 3) there is a strong differentiation of climate vulnerability within the cocoa belt, with the most vulnerable areas near the forest-savanna transition in Nigeria and eastern Côte d'Ivoire, and the least vulnerable areas in the southern parts of Cameroon, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia; 4) this spatial differentiation of climate vulnerability may lead to future shifts in cocoa production within the region, with the opportunity of partially compensating losses and gains, but also the risk of local production expansion leading to new deforestation. We conclude that adaptation strategies for cocoa in West Africa need to focus at several levels, from the consideration of tolerance to high temperatures in cocoa breeding programs, the promotion of shade trees in cocoa farms, to policies incentivizing the intensification of cocoa production on existing farms where future climate conditions permit and the establishment of new farms in already deforested areas.

  5. Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod (Theobroma cacao) through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laconi, Erika B; Jayanegara, Anuraga

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa pod is among the by-products of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plantations. The aim of this study was to apply a number of treatments in order to improve nutritional quality of cocoa pod for feeding of ruminants...

  6. Cocoa shells for heavy metal removal from acidic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, N; Laroulandie, J; Blais, J F; Tyagi, R D

    2003-12-01

    The development of economic and efficient processes for the removal of heavy metals present in acidic effluents from industrial sources or decontamination technologies has become a priority. The purpose of this work was to study the efficiency with which cocoa shells remove heavy metals from acidic solutions (pH 2) and to investigate how the composition of these solutions influences heavy metal uptake efficiency. Adsorption tests were conducted in agitated flasks with single-metal solutions (0.25 mM Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), multi-metal solution (comprised of 0.25 mM of each of the cations above) and an effluent obtained from chemical leaching of metal-contaminated soil, in the presence of different cocoa shell concentrations (5-40 g/l). Results from the single-metal solution assays indicated that the fixation capacity of heavy metals by cocoa shells followed a specific order: Pb>Cr>Cd=Cu=Fe>Zn=Co>Mn=Ni=Al. Cocoa shells are particularly efficient in the removal of lead from very acidic solutions (q(max)=6.2 mg Pb/g, pH(i)=2.0 and T=22 degrees C). The presence of other metals and cations in solution did not seem to affect the recovery of lead. It was also observed that the maximum metal uptake was reached in less than 2 h. This research has also demonstrated that the removal of metals caused a decline in solution proton concentration (pH increase) and release of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium from the cocoa shells.

  7. Identification of a Disease on Cocoa Caused by Fusariumin Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Rosmana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A disease presumed to be caused by Fusarium was observed in cocoa open fields with few or without shade trees. Within the population of cocoa trees in the field, some trees had died, some had yellowing leaves and dieback, and the others were apparently healthy. In order to demonstrate Fusarium species as the causal pathogen and to obtain information concerning the incidence of the disease, its distribution and its impact on sustainability of cocoa, isolation of the pathogen, inoculation of cocoa seedlings with isolates and a survey of disease has been conducted. Fusarium was isolated from roots and branches, and inoculated onto cocoa seedlings (one month old via soil. Symptoms appeared within 3-4 weeks after infection. These symptoms consisted of yellowing of leaves beginning from the bottom until the leaves falldown, and browning internal of vascular tissue. Darkened vascular traces in the petiole characteristic of vascularstreak dieback infection were absent. The occurrence of Fusarium in the field was characterized by the absence of obvious signs of fungal infestation on root of infected trees, yellowing of leaves on twigs, dieback, and tree mortality in severe infestations. Disease incidence could reach 77% and in this situation it was difficult for trees recover from heavy infections or to be regenerated in the farm. The study proves that Fusarium is a pathogen causing dieback and the disease is called as Fusarium vascular dieback (FVD. Its development is apparently enhanced by dry conditions in the field. Key words: Fusarium sp., vascular disease, dieback, FVD, Theobroma cacao L.

  8. Cocoa butter-like lipid production ability of non-oleaginous and oleaginous yeasts under nitrogen-limited culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongjun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-02-06

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans is the main raw material for chocolate production. However, growing chocolate demands and limited CB production has resulted in a shortage of CB supply. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), POP (C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), POS (C16:0-C18:1-C18:0), and SOS (C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). The storage lipids of yeasts, mainly TAGs, also contain relative high-level of C16 and C18 fatty acids and might be used as CB-like lipids (CBL). In this study, we cultivated six different yeasts, including one non-oleaginous yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D, and five oleaginous yeast strains, Trichosporon oleaginosus DSM11815, Rhodotorula graminis DSM 27356, Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296, Rhodosporidium toruloides DSM 70398, and Yarrowia lipolytica CBS 6124, in nitrogen-limited medium and compared their CBL production ability. Under the same growth conditions, we found that TAGs were the main lipids in all six yeasts and that T. oleaginosus can produce more TAGs than the other five yeasts. Less than 3% of the total TAGs were identified as potential SOS in the six yeasts. However, T. oleaginosus produced 27.8% potential POP and POS at levels of 378 mg TAGs/g dry cell weight, hinting that this yeast may have potential as a CBL production host after further metabolic engineering in future.

  9. Shape-Grinding by Direct Position/Force Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanghua; Xu, Weiwei; Minami, Mamoru

    Based on the analysis of the interaction between a manipulator's hand and a working object, a model representing the constrained dynamics of the robot is first discussed. The constrained forces are expressed by an algebraic function of states, input generalized forces, and the constraint condition, and then a direct position/force controller without force sensor is proposed based on the algebraic relation. To give a grinding system the ability to adapt to any object shape being changed by the grinding, we add a function estimating the constraint condition in real time for the adaptive position/force control. Evaluations through simulations, by fitting the changing constraint surface with spline functions, indicate that reliable position/force control and shape-grinding can be achieved by the proposed controller.

  10. Grinding process within vertical roller mills: experiment and simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-huai; CHEN Qing-ru; KUANG Ya-li; LYNCH A J; ZHUO Jin-wu

    2009-01-01

    Based on screening analysis, laser size analysis, grindability and rigidity tests of samples collected on line from a cement and a power plant, a simulation of the grinding process in vertical roller mills was carried out. The simulation calculation used a breakage function, B. The results indicate that the breakage function, B, and the selection function, S, in the form of a matrix, can be used to express the probability of the material breaking during the grinding process. This allows the size distribution of the product to be numerically estimated. The simulation results also show that the simulated size distribution curves fit the actual ex-perimental product curves quite well. The model provides a good starting point for simulation of the grinding process. Further re-search is needed to determine the proper breakage function and the matrix value of the selection function.

  11. Design and experimental study of a micro-groove grinding wheel with spray cooling effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Chaofeng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of grinding fluid supply has a crucial impact on grinding quality and efficiency in high speed grinding. In order to improve the cooling and lubrication, through in-depth research of self-inhaling internal cooling method and intermittent grinding mechanism, a new spray cooling method used in high speed grinding is proposed. By referring to the structure of bowl-shaped dispersion disk, the grinding wheel matrix with atomization ability is designed; through studying heat transfer of droplet collision and the influence of micro-groove on the boiling heat transfer, grinding segment with micro-groove is designed to enhance the heat flux of coolant and achieve maximum heat transfer between droplets and grinding contact zone. High-speed grinding experiments on GH4169 with the developed grinding wheel are carried out. The results show that with the micro-groove grinding wheel just 5.4% of pump outlet flow rate and 0.5% of spindle energy is needed to reduce the grinding temperature to 200 °C, which means the developed grinding wheel makes cooling high efficient and low energy consuming.

  12. High-speed, low-damage grinding of advanced ceramics Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, J.A. [Eaton Corp., Willoughby Hills, OH (United States). Mfg. Technologies Center; Malkin, S. [Univ. of Massachusetts (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In manufacture of structural ceramic components, grinding costs can comprise up to 80% of the entire manufacturing cost. Most of these costs arise from the conventional multi-step grinding process with numerous grinding wheels and additional capital equipment, perishable dressing tools, and labor. In an attempt to reduce structural ceramic grinding costs, a feasibility investigation was undertaken to develop a single step, roughing-finishing process suitable for producing high-quality silicon nitride ceramic parts at high material removal rates at lower cost than traditional, multi-stage grinding. This feasibility study employed combined use of laboratory grinding tests, mathematical grinding models, and characterization of resultant material surface condition. More specifically, this Phase 1 final report provides a technical overview of High-Speed, Low-Damage (HSLD) ceramic grinding and the conditions necessary to achieve the small grain depths of cut necessary for low damage grinding while operating at relatively high material removal rates. Particular issues addressed include determining effects of wheel speed and material removal rate on resulting mode of material removal (ductile or brittle fracture), limiting grinding forces, calculation of approximate grinding zone temperatures developed during HSLD grinding, and developing the experimental systems necessary for determining HSLD grinding energy partition relationships. In addition, practical considerations for production utilization of the HSLD process are also discussed.

  13. Efficacy of oral administration of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cocoa in a fermented milk preparation: reduction of colitis in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, T F; Melo, T A; Santos, D S; Rezende, R P; Dias, J C T; Romano, C C

    2016-07-29

    We investigated the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) obtained from cocoa fermentation using an experimental rat model of colitis. Cocoa beans were collected from fermentation boxes every 12 h for 5 days to isolate the microorganisms. Strains were isolated by serial dilution and plating on MRS agar. Gram-positive and catalase-negative rods were subjected to DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing. Ten strains were randomly pooled and used to prepare a fermented milk drink that was used to treat the experimental colitis. A parallel group was treated with a single strain drink. Serum concentrations of cytokines and IgA, total and differential counts of blood leukocytes, and histological appearance were compared with the untreated control colitis group. Eighty strains of LAB were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (68) and Lactobacillus plantarum (12). The multi-strain LAB pool significantly reduced the total number of leukocytes. There was a significant reduction in the percentage of neutrophils and monocytes compared with the control colitis group. IFN-γ concentration was downregulated in animals treated with the LAB pool. IL-10 and IgA increased significantly in the group treated with the strains. Histological analysis showed that the LAB pool reduced the inflammatory infiltrate and restored tissue architecture. The group treated with the single strain LAB drink (L. fermentum) showed no signs of inflammation remission. The results confirm the probiotic action of cocoa-derived LAB in the treatment of experimental colitis. Studies using isogenic models and humans will clarify the mechanisms of immune response modulation in inflammatory bowel disease.

  14. The impact of yeast starter cultures on the microbial communities and volatile compounds in cocoa fermentation and the resulting sensory attributes of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Nádia Nara; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2016-02-01

    Theobroma cacao seeds are the main raw material for chocolate production. During their fermentation, a succession of microorganisms are responsible for the physicochemical changes occurring in the pulp and inside the beans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast inoculation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CA11, Pichia kluivery CCMA0237, and Hanseniaspora uvarum CCMA0236) on the profile of the volatile compounds and microbial communities in cocoa fermentation. The resulting chocolate was also evaluated by temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) analyses. The dominant microorganisms during spontaneous fermentation were S. cerevisiae, H. uvarum, H. guilliermondii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Pediococcus sp., and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Similarly, S. cerevisiae, P. kluyveri, Candida sp., Pediococcus sp., and A. pasteurianus were the predominant microorganisms assessed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) in inoculated fermentation. Sixty-seven volatile compounds were detected and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) at the end of fermentation and chocolates. The main group of volatile compound found after the inoculated and spontaneous fermentations was esters (41 and 39 %, respectively). In the chocolates, the main group was acids (73 and 44 % from the inoculated and spontaneous fermentations, respectively). The TDS analyses showed a dominance of bitter and cocoa attributes in both chocolates. However, in the inoculated chocolate, lingering fruity notes were more intense, while the chocolate produced by spontaneous fermentation was more astringent. Thus, the inoculation of yeast influenced the microbial profile, which likely affected the volatile compounds that affect sensory characteristics, resulting in chocolate with dominant bitter, cocoa, and fruity attributes.

  15. Robotic Instrument for Grinding Rocks Into Thin Sections (GRITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Gale; Zacny, Kris; Dreyer, Christopher B.; Szucs, Attila; Szczesiak, Matt; Santoro, Chris; Craft, Jack; Hedlund, Magnus; Skok, John

    2013-06-01

    We have developed a rock grinding and polishing mechanism for in situ planetary exploration based on abrasive disks, called Grinding Rocks Into Thin Sections (GRITS). Performance characteristics and design considerations of GRITS are presented. GRITS was developed as part of a broader effort to develop an in situ automated rock thin section (ISARTS) instrument. The objective of IS-ARTS was to develop an instrument capable of producing petrographic rock thin sections on a planetary science spacecraft. GRITS may also be useful to other planetary science missions with in situ instruments in which rock surface preparation are necessary.

  16. Performance analysis of magnesium phosphate cement mortar containing grinding dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Véras Ribeiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium phosphate cement materials are formed by reacting magnesium oxide with water-soluble phosphates such as monoammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP, which solidifies at ambient temperature through the formation of hydrated phases in the material. Cylindrical specimens of magnesium phosphate cement were molded and varying amounts (0 to 30% weight of grinding dust were added to the ceramic matrices. The influence of the addition of grinding dust on the characteristics of the mortars in terms of microstructure (SEM, mechanical strength and capillary water absorption was verified. The results obtained proved very satisfactory for the use of this waste as an additive in magnesium phosphate mortars.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN HIGH-EFFICIENCY DEEP GRINDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Henghua; Cai Guangqi; Jin Tan

    2005-01-01

    A new thermal model with triangular heat flux distribution is given in high-efficiency deep grinding. The mathematical expressions are driven to calculate the surface temperature. The transient behavior of the maximum temperature on contact area is investigated in different grinding conditions with a J-type thermocouple. The maximum contact temperatures measured in different conditions are found to be between 1 000 ℃ and 1 500 ℃ in burn-out conditions. The experiment results show good agreement with the new thermal model.

  18. Land distribution and acquisition practices in Ghana’s cocoa frontier: The impact of a state-regulated marketing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Michael Helt; Fold, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Substantial differences in the size of landholdings among cocoa farmers in the Western Region – the last cocoa “frontier” in Ghana – are primarily a result of inheritance practices and the purchase of vast tracts of land by migrants in the initial period of the cocoa boom. Individual accumulation...... surplus from their higher volume of cocoa production into investments in non-farm activities and construction of new residential houses—and not in land acquisition based on market transactions. State regulation of the cocoa sector has spurred increased efficiency among private cocoa purchasing companies...

  19. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  20. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio