WorldWideScience

Sample records for grind ethanol processing

  1. Production of ethanol from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurantz M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US legislation requires the use of advanced biofuels to be made from non-food feedstocks. However, commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol technology is more complex than expected and is therefore running behind schedule. This is creating a demand for non-food, but more easily converted, starch-based feedstocks other than corn that can fill the gap until the second generation technologies are commercially viable. Winter barley is such a feedstock but its mash has very high viscosity due to its high content of β-glucans. This fact, along with a lower starch content than corn, makes ethanol production at the commercial scale a real challenge. Results A new fermentation process for ethanol production from Thoroughbred, a winter barley variety with a high starch content, was developed. The new process was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic process. In this process, in addition to the normal starch-converting enzymes, two accessory enzymes were used to solve the β-glucan problem. First, β-glucanases were used to hydrolyze the β-glucans to oligomeric fractions, thus significantly reducing the viscosity to allow good mixing for the distribution of the yeast and nutrients. Next, β-glucosidase was used to complete the β-glucan hydrolysis and to generate glucose, which was subsequently fermented in order to produce additional ethanol. While β-glucanases have been previously used to improve barley ethanol production by lowering viscosity, this is the first full report on the benefits of adding β-glucosidases to increase the ethanol yield. Conclusions In the EDGE process, 30% of total dry solids could be used to produce 15% v/v ethanol. Under optimum conditions an ethanol yield of 402 L/MT (dry basis or 2.17 gallons/53 lb bushel of barley with 15% moisture was achieved. The distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS co-product had extremely low β-glucan (below 0.2% making it suitable for use in both ruminant

  2. Scale-up of ethanol production from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process in fermentors up to 300 liters

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fermentation process, which was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process, has recently been developed for barley ethanol production. In the EDGE process, in addition to the enzymes normally required for starch hydrolysis, commercial Beta-glucanases were used to hydrolyze (1,3)(1,...

  3. modeling grinding modeling grinding processes as micro processes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    industrial precision grinding processes are cylindrical, center less and ... Several model shave been proposed and used to study grinding ..... grinding force for the two cases were 9.07237N/mm ..... International Journal of Machine Tools &.

  4. Grind hardening process

    CERN Document Server

    Salonitis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the grind-hardening process and the main studies published since it was introduced in 1990s.  The modelling of the various aspects of the process, such as the process forces, temperature profile developed, hardness profiles, residual stresses etc. are described in detail. The book is of interest to the research community working with mathematical modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  5. Reduction in energy usage during dry grind ethanol production by enhanced enzymatic dewatering of whole stillage: plant trial, process model and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A plant trial was conducted at a 54 MGPY dry grind fuel ethanol facility to evaluate the use of enhanced water removal from whole stillage by enzyme addition during fermentation. Laboratory data had previously shown significant improvements in water removal that could potentially result in significa...

  6. Changes in the phenolic acid content during commercial dry-grind processing of corn to ethanol and DDGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine fractions (ground corn-1, cooked slurry-2, liquefied slurry-3, fermented mash-4, whole stillage-5, thin stillage-6, condensed distillers soluble (CDS)-7, distillers wet grains (DWG)-8, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)-9) were collected from three commercial dry-grind bioethanol ...

  7. Manufacturing processes 2 grinding, honing, lapping

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    Presents a view of the most common machining and non-machining manufacturing processes. This volume describes the characteristics of abrasive tools, their design and manufacturing, followed by the fundamentals of grinding fluids. It also discusses grinding of different materials (steel, cast iron, hard and brittle materials, nickel and titanium).

  8. Effect of the corn breaking method on oil distribution between stillage phases of dry-grind corn ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, T; Johnson, L A; Pometto, A L

    2008-11-12

    The majority of fuel ethanol in the United States is produced by using the dry-grind corn ethanol process. The corn oil that is contained in the coproduct, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), can be recovered for use as a biodiesel feedstock. Oil removal will also improve the feed quality of DDGS. The most economical way to remove oil is considered to be at the centrifugation step for separating thin stillage (liquid) from coarse solids after distilling the ethanol. The more oil there is in the liquid, the more it can be recovered by centrifugation. Therefore, we studied the effects of corn preparation and grinding methods on oil distribution between liquid and solid phases. Grinding the corn to three different particle sizes, flaking, flaking and grinding, and flaking and extruding were used to break up the corn kernel before fermentation, and their effects on oil distribution between the liquid and solid phases were examined by simulating an industrial decanter centrifuge. Total oil contents were measured in the liquid and solids after centrifugation. Dry matter yield and oil partitioning in the thin stillage were highly positively correlated. Flaking slightly reduced bound fat. The flaked and then extruded corn meal released the highest amount of free oil, about 25% compared to 7% for the average of the other treatments. The freed oil from flaking, however, became nonextractable after the flaked corn was ground. Fine grinding alone had little effect on oil partitioning.

  9. A Review of Literature on analysis of JIG Grinding Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudheesh, P. K.; Puthumana, Govindan

    2016-01-01

    Jig grinding is a process practically used by tool and die makers in the creation of jigs or mating holes and pegs on dies.The abrasives normally used in jig grinding are divided into Natural Abrasives and Artificial Abrasives. Artificial Abrasiveare preferred in manufacturing of grinding wheels...... in jig grinding, because of their uniformity and purity. In this paper, abrief review of the analysis of jig grinding process considering various research trends is presented. The areas highlighted are: optimization, selection of abrasives, selection of processing conditions and practical considerations....... The optimization of parameters in jig grinding process is important to maximize productivity and to improve quality. The abrasives of hard jig grinding wheels get blunt quickly so these are recommended to grind workpiece of low hardness and soft grinding wheels are recommended for hard material workpieces. The jig...

  10. A Review of Literature on analysis of JIG Grinding Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudheesh, P. K.; Puthumana, Govindan

    2016-01-01

    in jig grinding, because of their uniformity and purity. In this paper, abrief review of the analysis of jig grinding process considering various research trends is presented. The areas highlighted are: optimization, selection of abrasives, selection of processing conditions and practical considerations....... The optimization of parameters in jig grinding process is important to maximize productivity and to improve quality. The abrasives of hard jig grinding wheels get blunt quickly so these are recommended to grind workpiece of low hardness and soft grinding wheels are recommended for hard material workpieces. The jig...

  11. Processing equipment for grinding of building powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.; Ibragimov, R. A.; Lesovik, V. S.; Pak, A. A.; Krylov, V. V.; Poleschuk, M. M.; Stoyushko, N. Y.; Gladkova, N. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the article questions of mechanical grinding up to nanosize of building powder materials are considered. In the process of mechanoactivation of the composite binder, active molecules of cement minerals arise when molecular packets are destroyed in the areas of defects and loosening of the metastable phase during decompensation of intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening Portland cement. Mechanical processes in the grinding of mineral materials cause, together with an increase in their surface energy, the growth of the isobaric potential of the powders and, accordingly, their chemical activity, which also contributes to high adhesion strength when they come into contact with binders. Thus, a set of measures for mechanical activation allows more fully use the mass of components of the filled cement systems and regulate their properties. At relatively low costs, it is possible to provide an impressive and, importantly, easily repeatable in production conditions result. It is revealed that the use of a vario-planetary mill allows to achieve the best results on grinding the powder building materials.

  12. System Analysis of Flat Grinding Process with Wheel Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a conducted system analysis of the flat grinding wheel face, considers the state parameters, input and output variables of subsystems, namely: machine tool, workpiece, grinding wheel, cutting fluids, and the contact area. It reveals the factors influencing the temperature and power conditions for the grinding process.Aim: conducting the system analysis of the flat grinding process with wheel face expects to enable a development of the system of grinding process parameters as a technical system, which will make it possible to evaluate each parameter individually and implement optimization of the entire system.One of the most important criteria in defining the optimal process conditions is the grinding temperature, which, to avoid defects appearance of on the surface of component, should not exceed the critical temperature values to be experimentally determined. The temperature criterion can be useful for choosing the conditions for the maximum defect-free performance of the mechanical face grinding. To define the maximum performance of defect-free grinding can also use other criteria such as a critical power density, indirectly reflecting the allowable thermal stress grinding process; the structure of the ground surface, which reflects the presence or absence of a defect layer, which is determined after the large number of experiments; flow range of the diamond layer.Optimal conditions should not exceed those of defect-free grinding. It is found that a maximum performance depends on the characteristics of circles and grade of processed material, as well as on the contact area and grinding conditions. Optimal performance depends on the diamond value (cost and specific consumption of diamonds in a circle.Above criteria require formalization as a function of the variable parameters of the grinding process. There is an option for the compromise of inter-criteria optimality, thereby providing a set of acceptable solutions, from

  13. Grinding Fluid Jet Characteristics and Their Effect on a Gear Profile Grinding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Geilert

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Profile gear grinding is characterized by a high level of achievable process performance and workpiece quality. However, the wide contact length between the workpiece and the grinding wheel is disadvantageous for the fluid supply to the contact zone and leads to the risk of locally burning the workpiece surface. For the reduction of both the thermal load and the risk of thermo-mechanical damage, the usage of a grinding fluid needs to be investigated and optimized. For this purpose, different kinds of grinding fluid nozzles were tested, which provide different grinding fluid jet characteristics. Through a specific design of the nozzles, it is possible to control the fluid flow inside the nozzle. It was found that this internal fluid flow directly influences the breakup of the coolant fluid jet. There are three groups of jet breakup (“droplet”, “wave & droplet”, and “atomization”. The first experimental results show that the influence of the jet breakup on the process performance is significant. The “wave & droplet” jet breakup can achieve a high process performance, in contrast to the “atomization” jet breakup. It can therefore be assumed that the wetting of the grinding wheel by the grinding fluid jet is significantly influenced by the jet breakup.

  14. Mathematical simulation of bearing ring grinding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltunov, I. I.; Gorbunova, T. N.; Tumanova, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    The paper suggests the method of forming a solid finite element model of the bearing ring. Implementation of the model allowed one to evaluate the influence of the inner cylindrical surface grinding scheme on the ring shape error.

  15. Eco-efficiency of grinding processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Marius

    2016-01-01

    This research monograph aims at presenting an integrated assessment approach to describe, model, evaluate and improve the eco-efficiency of existing and new grinding processes and systems. Various combinations of grinding process parameters and system configurations can be evaluated based on the eco-efficiency. The book presents the novel concept of empirical and physical modeling of technological, economic and environmental impact indicators. This includes the integrated evaluation of different grinding process and system scenarios. The book is a valuable read for research experts and practitioners in the field of eco-efficiency of manufacturing processes but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  16. Experimental Setup for Diamond Grinding Using Electrochemical InProcess Controlled Dressing (ECD of Grinding Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shavva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective method for finish machining of hard-metals and alloys is to use the diamond grinding wheels for grinding. An application of diamond wheels significantly increases the employee output, reduces costs, and raises manufacturing efficiency with achieving the high performance properties of treated surfaces.During grinding a working surface of diamond wheel wears out. It adversely affects the cutting capability of the diamond grains, and depending on the grinding conditions can occur through different mechanisms. Wear of diamond wheel causes distortion of its shape and reduces cutting properties. However, dressing of diamond wheels is a complicated and time-consuming operation in terms of manufacturing technique.Methods to make dressing of diamond grinding wheel have different types of classification. Classification of dressing methods by the type of energy used is as follows: mechanical, chemical, electrophysical, electromechanical, and electrochemical. All these methods have their advantages and disadvantages.Electrochemical method of dressing is the most productive and efficient. Electrochemical method comprises anode-mechanical dressing and electrochemical (electrolytic one. The paper presents the electrochemical in-process dressing (ECD and the electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID.The source of energy, grinding a wheel with metal bond, and an electrode are necessary for providing ELID. The ELID consists of several stages. The first stage is preliminary electrolytic dressing of diamond wheel. The electrolyte is placed into the gap between the wheel and electrode. The bond of the wheel is oxidized. An insulating layer is formed. It reduces an electrical conductivity of the wheel and controls consumption of diamond grains, as well as polishes the surface of the work piece. Further, the insulating layer is destroyed. The cycle of dressing begins anew.The ECD proceeds in the same way as ELID. However during the ECD-process there

  17. Westinghouse modular grinding process - improvement for follow on processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrmann, Henning

    2013-01-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) ion exchange (IX) resins are used in several systems for water treatment. The resins can be in bead or powdered form. For waste treatment of spent IX resins, two methods are basically used: Direct immobilization (e.g. with cement, bitumen, polymer or High Integrity Container (HIC)); Thermal treatment (e.g. drying, oxidation or pyrolysis). Bead resins have some properties (e.g. particle size and density) that can have negative impacts on following waste treatment processes. Negative impacts could be: Floatation of bead resins in cementation process; Sedimentation in pipeline during transportation; Poor compaction properties for Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC). Reducing the particle size of the bead resins can have beneficial effects enhancing further treatment processes and overcoming prior mentioned effects. Westinghouse Electric Company has developed a modular grinding process to crush/grind the bead resins. This modular process is designed for flexible use and enables a selective adjustment of particle size to tailor the grinding system to the customer needs. The system can be equipped with a crusher integrated in the process tank and if necessary a colloid mill. The crusher reduces the bead resins particle size and converts the bead resins to a pump able suspension with lower sedimentation properties. With the colloid mill the resins can be ground to a powder. Compared to existing grinding systems this equipment is designed to minimize radiation exposure of the worker during operation and maintenance. Using the crushed and/or ground bead resins has several beneficial effects like facilitating cementation process and recipe development, enhancing oxidation of resins, improving the Hot Resin Supercompaction volume reduction performance. (authors)

  18. Westinghouse modular grinding process - improvement for follow on processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrmann, Henning [Westinghouse Germany GmbH, Mannheim, State (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) ion exchange (IX) resins are used in several systems for water treatment. The resins can be in bead or powdered form. For waste treatment of spent IX resins, two methods are basically used: Direct immobilization (e.g. with cement, bitumen, polymer or High Integrity Container (HIC)); Thermal treatment (e.g. drying, oxidation or pyrolysis). Bead resins have some properties (e.g. particle size and density) that can have negative impacts on following waste treatment processes. Negative impacts could be: Floatation of bead resins in cementation process; Sedimentation in pipeline during transportation; Poor compaction properties for Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC). Reducing the particle size of the bead resins can have beneficial effects enhancing further treatment processes and overcoming prior mentioned effects. Westinghouse Electric Company has developed a modular grinding process to crush/grind the bead resins. This modular process is designed for flexible use and enables a selective adjustment of particle size to tailor the grinding system to the customer needs. The system can be equipped with a crusher integrated in the process tank and if necessary a colloid mill. The crusher reduces the bead resins particle size and converts the bead resins to a pump able suspension with lower sedimentation properties. With the colloid mill the resins can be ground to a powder. Compared to existing grinding systems this equipment is designed to minimize radiation exposure of the worker during operation and maintenance. Using the crushed and/or ground bead resins has several beneficial effects like facilitating cementation process and recipe development, enhancing oxidation of resins, improving the Hot Resin Supercompaction volume reduction performance. (authors)

  19. Gemstone Grinding Process Improvement by using Impedance Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamprommarat Chumpol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chula Automatic Faceting Machine has been developed by The Advance Manufacturing Research Lab, Chulalongkorn University to support Thailand Gems-Industry. The machine has high precision motion control by using position and force control. A contact stiffness model is used to estimate grinding force. Although polished gems from the Faceting Machine have uniform size and acceptable shape, the force of the grinding and polishing process cannot be maintain constant and has some fluctuation due to indirect force control. Therefor this research work propose a new controller for this process based on an impedance direct force control to improve the gemstone grinding performance during polishing process. The grinding force can be measured through motor current. The results show that the polished gems by using impedance direct force control can maintain uniform size as well as good shape and high quality surface.

  20. Composition of corn dry-grind ethanol by-products: DDGS, wet cake, and thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmi; Mosier, Nathan S; Hendrickson, Rick; Ezeji, Thaddeus; Blaschek, Hans; Dien, Bruce; Cotta, Michael; Dale, Bruce; Ladisch, Michael R

    2008-08-01

    DDGS and wet distillers' grains are the major co-products of the dry grind ethanol facilities. As they are mainly used as animal feed, a typical compositional analysis of the DDGS and wet distillers' grains mainly focuses on defining the feedstock's nutritional characteristics. With an increasing demand for fuel ethanol, the DDGS and wet distillers' grains are viewed as a potential bridge feedstock for ethanol production from other cellulosic biomass. The introduction of DDGS or wet distillers' grains as an additional feed to the existing dry grind plants for increased ethanol yield requires a different approach to the compositional analysis of the material. Rather than focusing on its nutritional value, this new approach aims at determining more detailed chemical composition, especially on polymeric sugars such as cellulose, starch and xylan, which release fermentable sugars upon enzymatic hydrolysis. In this paper we present a detailed and complete compositional analysis procedure suggested for DDGS and wet distillers' grains, as well as the resulting compositions completed by three different research groups. Polymeric sugars, crude protein, crude oil and ash contents of DDGS and wet distillers' grains were accurately and reproducibly determined by the compositional analysis procedure described in this paper.

  1. Surface topography of parallel grinding process for nonaxisymmetric aspheric lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ningning; Wang Zhenzhong; Pan Ri; Wang Chunjin; Guo Yinbiao

    2012-01-01

    Workpiece surface profile, texture and roughness can be predicted by modeling the topography of wheel surface and modeling kinematics of grinding process, which compose an important part of precision grinding process theory. Parallel grinding technology is an important method for nonaxisymmetric aspheric lens machining, but there is few report on relevant simulation. In this paper, a simulation method based on parallel grinding for precision machining of aspheric lens is proposed. The method combines modeling the random surface of wheel and modeling the single grain track based on arc wheel contact points. Then, a mathematical algorithm for surface topography is proposed and applied in conditions of different machining parameters. The consistence between the results of simulation and test proves that the algorithm is correct and efficient. (authors)

  2. ANFIS Modeling of the Surface Roughness in Grinding Process

    OpenAIRE

    H. Baseri; G. Alinejad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for estimation of surface roughness in grinding process. The Used data have been generated from experimental observations when the wheel has been dressed using a rotary diamond disc dresser. The input parameters of model are dressing speed ratio, dressing depth and dresser cross-feed rate and output parameter is surface roughness. In the experimental procedure the grinding conditions...

  3. Investigation of glycerol polymerization in the clinker grinding process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvulescu, A.N.; Rossi, M.; Della Pina, C.; Ciriminna, R.; Pagliaro, M.

    2011-01-01

    Concrete production is a large scale process that involves high energy consumption. In order to increase the sustainability of this process, the reduction of energy input is necessary. Bio-glycerol was demonstrated to be a highly efficient renewable-based additive in the grinding process for

  4. Industrial versus Laboratory Clinker Processing Using Grinding Aids (Scale Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jean Assaad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of grinding aid (GA effect on clinker processing in laboratory grinding mills is relatively simple. Yet, the results obtained cannot be directly transposed to industrial mills, given the fundamentally different operational modes and grinding parameters. This paper seeks to evaluate the scale effect by comparing the results obtained from a closed-circuit tube mill operating at 90 ton/hr to those determined using a 50-liter laboratory mill. Tests results have shown that the decrease in specific energy consumption (Ec due to glycol or amine-based GA can be evaluated under laboratory conditions. However, such tests underestimate the actual performance that could be achieved in real-scale mills; the Ec reduction due to GA is around twofold higher when grinding is performed in real-scale mill. Compared to industrial tests, the cement particle size distribution curves widened and shifted towards higher diameters when grinding was performed under laboratory conditions, particularly with GA additions. This led to remarkable changes in water demand, setting time, and 1- and 28-day compressive strengths.

  5. Nanofluid as coolant for grinding process: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananathan, J.; Samykano, M.; Sudhakar, K.; Subramaniam, S. R.; Selavamani, S. K.; Manoj Kumar, Nallapaneni; Keng, Ngui Wai; Kadirgama, K.; Hamzah, W. A. W.; Harun, W. S. W.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress and applications of nanoparticles in lubricants as a coolant (cutting fluid) for grinding process. The role of grinding machining in manufacturing and the importance of lubrication fluids during material removal are discussed. In grinding process, coolants are used to improve the surface finish, wheel wear, flush the chips and to reduce the work-piece thermal deformation. The conventional cooling technique, i.e., flood cooling delivers a large amount of fluid and mist which hazardous to the environment and humans. Industries are actively looking for possible ways to reduce the volume of coolants used in metal removing operations due to the economical and ecological impacts. Thus as an alternative, an advanced cooling technique known as Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) has been introduced to the enhance the surface finish, minimize the cost, to reduce the environmental impacts and to reduce the metal cutting fluid consumptions. Nanofluid is a new-fangled class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometre-size solid particles into base fluids such as water, lubrication oils to further improve the properties of the lubricant or coolant. In addition to advanced cooling technique review, this paper also reviews the application of various nanoparticles and their performance in grinding operations. The performance of nanoparticles related to the cutting forces, surface finish, tool wear, and temperature at the cutting zone are briefly reviewed. The study reveals that the excellent properties of the nanofluid can be beneficial in cooling and lubricating application in the manufacturing process.

  6. Dry-grind processing using amylase corn and superior yeast to reduce the exogenous enzyme requirements in bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Conventional corn dry-grind ethanol production process requires exogenous alpha and glucoamylases enzymes to breakdown starch into glucose, which is fermented to ethanol by yeast. This study evaluates the potential use of new genetically engineered corn and yeast, which can eliminate or minimize the use of these external enzymes, improve the economics and process efficiencies, and simplify the process. An approach of in situ ethanol removal during fermentation was also investigated for its potential to improve the efficiency of high-solid fermentation, which can significantly reduce the downstream ethanol and co-product recovery cost. The fermentation of amylase corn (producing endogenous α-amylase) using conventional yeast and no addition of exogenous α-amylase resulted in ethanol concentration of 4.1 % higher compared to control treatment (conventional corn using exogenous α-amylase). Conventional corn processed with exogenous α-amylase and superior yeast (producing glucoamylase or GA) with no exogenous glucoamylase addition resulted in ethanol concentration similar to control treatment (conventional yeast with exogenous glucoamylase addition). Combination of amylase corn and superior yeast required only 25 % of recommended glucoamylase dose to complete fermentation and achieve ethanol concentration and yield similar to control treatment (conventional corn with exogenous α-amylase, conventional yeast with exogenous glucoamylase). Use of superior yeast with 50 % GA addition resulted in similar increases in yield for conventional or amylase corn of approximately 7 % compared to that of control treatment. Combination of amylase corn, superior yeast, and in situ ethanol removal resulted in a process that allowed complete fermentation of 40 % slurry solids with only 50 % of exogenous GA enzyme requirements and 64.6 % higher ethanol yield compared to that of conventional process. Use of amylase corn and superior yeast in the dry-grind processing industry

  7. Subsurface damage mechanism of high speed grinding process in single crystal silicon revealed by atomistic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia; Fang, Qihong; Zhang, Liangchi; Liu, Youwen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Molecular dynamic model of nanoscale high speed grinding of silicon workpiece has been established. • The effect of grinding speed on subsurface damage and grinding surface integrity by analyzing the chip, dislocation movement, and phase transformation during high speed grinding process are thoroughly investigated. • Subsurface damage is studied by the evolution of surface area at first time for more obvious observation on transition from ductile to brittle. • The hydrostatic stress and von Mises stress by the established analytical model are studied subsurface damage mechanism during nanoscale grinding. - Abstract: Three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the nanoscale grinding process of single crystal silicon using diamond tool. The effect of grinding speed on subsurface damage and grinding surface integrity by analyzing the chip, dislocation movement, and phase transformation are studied. We also establish an analytical model to calculate several important stress fields including hydrostatic stress and von Mises stress for studying subsurface damage mechanism, and obtain the dislocation density on the grinding subsurface. The results show that a higher grinding velocity in machining brittle material silicon causes a larger chip and a higher temperature, and reduces subsurface damage. However, when grinding velocity is above 180 m s −1 , subsurface damage thickness slightly increases because a higher grinding speed leads to the increase in grinding force and temperature, which accelerate dislocation nucleation and motion. Subsurface damage is studied by the evolution of surface area at first time for more obvious observation on transition from ductile to brittle, that provides valuable reference for machining nanometer devices. The von Mises stress and the hydrostatic stress play an important role in the grinding process, and explain the subsurface damage though dislocation mechanism under high

  8. STUDY OF GRINDING PROCESS OF TITANIUM CARBIDE PRODUCED WITH SELF-PROPAGATING HIGH TEMPERATURE SYNTHESIS (SPHTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovziridze, Z.; Tabatadze, G.; Donadze, G.; Lezhava, A.; Gventsadze, D.

    2006-01-01

    It is stated that the specific character of SPHTS-preparations of TiC_x consists in crystal lattice strength reflecting the condition of synthesis in ''burning wave''. The use of roentgenographic and other methods of analysis allows to estimate the effect of the conditions of synthesis, causing carbon sublattice defect on grinding intensity of TiC_x phases. Study of the kinetics of vibro-grinding of TiC_x-phases in ethanol and benzene medium allows to establish high grinding intensity of the phases close to stoichiometry and the possibility of high depresion powderds (S_s_p H'' 4.5-6 m"2/g). (author)

  9. Performing in-feed type centerless grinding process on a surface grinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Wu, Y.; Sato, T.; Lin, W.

    2011-01-01

    In our previous study, a new centerless grinding method using surface grinder was proposed. In this method, centerless grinding operations are performed by installing a compact centerless grinding unit, consisting mainly of an ultrasonic elliptic-vibration shoe, a blade and their respective holders, on the worktable of a surface grinder. During grinding, the cylindrical workpiece is held on the ultrasonic shoe and the blade, and its rotational motion is controlled by the elliptic motion of the shoe end-face. An actual unit had been produced and its performance in tangential-feed type centerless grinding using a surface grinder had been confirmed in the previous workd. In this paper, the performance of the grinding unit in in-feed centerless grinding operation was confirmed, and the effects of the main process parameter, i.e., eccentric angle, on the workpiece roundness was investigated experimentally. The obtained results showed that: (1) the centerless grinding unit performed well in in-feed type centerless grinding; (2) the eccentric angle affects roundness significantly, and its optimal angle is 6 deg.; (3) the workpiece roundness can be further improved by varying the eccentric angle during grinding, and the final roundness reached 0.65 μm after grinding as the eccentric angle varied from 9 deg. to 6 deg. and to 3 deg.

  10. Isoflavone profile in soymilk as affected by soybean variety, grinding, and heat-processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chang, Sam K C; Liu, Zhisheng

    2015-05-01

    Isoflavones impart health benefits and their overall content and profile in foods are greatly influenced at each step during processing. In this study, 2 soybean varieties (Prosoy and black soybean) were processed with 3 different grinding (ambient, cold, and hot grinding) and heating methods (traditional stove cooking, 1-phase UHT, and 2-phase UHT) for soymilk making. The results showed after cold, ambient, and hot grinding, the total isoflavones were 3917, 5013, and 5949 nmol/g for Prosoy; the total isoflavones were 4073, 3966, and 4284 nmol/g for black soybean. Grinding could significantly increase isoflavone extraction. The grinding process had a destructive effect on isoflavones and this effect varied with grinding temperature. Different heating methods had different effects on different isoflavone forms. Two soybean varieties showed distinct patterns with respect to the change of isoflavone profile during processing. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Cylindrical plunge grinding of difficult to grind materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Toshikatsu; Uno, Yoshiyuki; Kayahara, Masayuki.

    1983-01-01

    Cylindrical plunge grinding processes of titanium alloy and nickel-base superalloys with various kinds of conventional grinding wheels, which are known as difficult to grind materials, are experimentally investigated, analyzing size generation process, grinding force, surface roughness, wheel wear, grinding ratio and so on. For grinding titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, GC grinding wheel yields most superior grinding results which leads to lower grinding force, smaller residual stock, less wheel wear and higher grinding ratio up to about 3 with GC 80 L 9 V wheel. Then, for grinding nickelbase superalloys Waspaloy and Rene 41, WA 150 L 9 V wheel yields better grinding results in surface roughness, wheel wear, grinding ratio without chatter vibration though grinding force is higher, and the grinding ratio about 3 is obtained. Furthermore, higher plunge speed and speed ratio result in higher grinding efficiency though grinding force, surface roughness, wheel wear increase for grinding titanium alloy and nickel-base superalloys. (author)

  12. Technological support of tool wear resistant qualities and cost saving of process of planetary grinding of flat parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, T. N.; Lyupa, D. C.; Revenko, N. F.; Berkutova, T. A.; Silivanova, O. A.

    2018-03-01

    A lot of factors varied in time lead to instability of the grinding process. Besides, the method of grinding influences significantly the productivity and quality of processing. In this regard a creation of processes of intensive defect-free grinding on the basis of new constructive and technology solutions represents the scientific problem which is of great importance. One of such solutions is application of planetary face grinding which allows simultaneously changing the kinematics of movement, implementing discontinuous grinding. The distinctive features of such grinding are decreasing the heat release rate in a contact zone; ensuring intermittence of the process with a solid grinding wheel; reverse grinding; cutting by different edges of an abrasive grain; stabilization of working parameters of a grinding wheel; ensuring work of a grinding wheel in a self-sharpening mode. The design of the planetary grinding tool was developed for plane surface processing for implementation of the specified distinctive features of planetary grinding. The kinematics of shaping a surface by flat face diamond grinding has been investigated; manufacturing capabilities of planetary face grinding have been revealed, and ways of improvement of quality and productivity have been offered. The algorithm and the program to define the motion path of a grain depending on the given set of grinding factors were received. Optimization of the process of face diamond grinding using the planetary grinding device has been confirmed with the developed program and techniques to choose cutting conditions of planetary grinding and characteristics of grinding wheels for processing different materials. While studying the process of planetary grinding, special attention was paid to the research how processing conditions influence microgeometry of the processed surface made of steel 4X5M (Russian State Standard (GOST)). As a result of the executed research, it was established that surface roughness

  13. A dynamic model of cylindrical plunge grinding process for chatter phenomena investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajmert Paweł

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, chatter vibrations in the cylindrical plunge grinding process are investigated. An improved model of the grinding process was developed which is able to simulate self-excited vibrations due to a regenerative effect on the workpiece and the grinding wheel surface. The model includes a finite-element model of the workpiece, two degrees of freedom model of the grinding wheel headstock and a model of wheel-workpiece geometrical interferences. The model allows to studying the influence of different factors, i.e. workpiece and machine parameters as well as grinding conditions on the stability limit and a chatter vibration growth rate. At the end, simulation results are shown and compared with exemplified real grinding results.

  14. Evaluating energy efficient strategies and product quality for distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in dry-grind ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian

    The drying of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of dry-grind corn processing to ethanol utilizes about 30% of the total energy required for the production of a liter of fuel ethanol. Therefore, improving DDGS drying energy efficiency could have significant impact on the economics of the dry-grind corn-to-ethanol process. Drying process improvements must take account into the effects of various drying strategies on the final quality of DDGS which is primarily utilized as a feed ingredient. Previous studies in the literature have shown that physical and chemical properties of DDGS vary according to the ratio of the two primarily feed streams, wet distillers grains (WDG) and condensed distillers solubles (CDS) which make up DDGS. Extensive research using plant-scale and bench-scale experiments have been conducted on the effect of process variables (ratios of WDG, CDS and DDGS add-back) during drying on the physical and chemical properties of DDGS. However, these investigations did not correlate the product characteristics data to drying efficiency. Additionally, it cannot be clearly determined from the literature on DDGS drying that processes used in the industry are optimized for both product quality and energy efficiency. A bench-scale rotary drum dryer heated by an electrically powered heat gun was used to investigate the effects of WDG, CDS and add-back ratios on both energy efficiency, drying performance and DDGS physical and chemical properties. A two stage drying process with the bench-scale rotary dryer was used to simulate the drying of DDGS using ICM (ICM, Inc., Colwich, KS) dry-grind process technology for DDGS drying which uses two rotary drum dryers in series. Effects of drying process variables, CDS content (0, 10, 20 and 40% by mass) and percent DDGS add-back (0, 20, 40 and 60% by mass) on energy performance and product quality were determined. Sixteen different drying strategies based on drying process variable ratios were

  15. Research of grinding process of gears with involute profile to increase its efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, T. N.; Korshunov, A. I.; Sannikov, I. N.; Tyukpiekov, V. N.

    2018-03-01

    Grinding as final processing exerts great influence on quality and accuracy of a surface layer of gears. Gear grinding is the most productive method of abrasive processing providing gears of 3 - 8 degrees of accuracy. However violation of the temperature condition of grinding leads to emergence of burns on the surfaces of gears. Therefore the research of the reasons generating defects and finding the ways of their elimination are relevant. The work presents the research of involute tooth profile grinding by wheels of different types with different ways to form a surface. For every way the movements of a tool and a workpiece in order to receive a contour of the tooth socket are simulated. The advantages and the shortcomings of the tooth grinding using form wheels in a grinding method and using dish, worm wheels in generating the grinding method are revealed. The experience of gear production shows that availability of burns in the certain part of a tooth profile is caused by features of the gear grinding process. Theoretical and experimental researches of the thermal phenomena of gear grinding with different configurations of spots in a contact zone and a trajectory of their movement are conducted. There are recommendations how to choose grinding modes, characteristics of abrasive tools taking into account a non-burnt condition of a working surface of a gear. The right choice of lubricating fluid and the way of its supply greatly affect the efficiency of the gear grinding process. It is established that lubricating fluid with special additives gives the best results to obtain desired roughness of a processed surface. The recommendations of effective fluids and their foreign analogs are made.

  16. Novel CNC Grinding Process Control for Nanometric Surface Roughness for Aspheric Space Optical Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Yeol Han

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Optics fabrication process for precision space optical parts includes bound abrasive grinding, loose abrasive lapping and polishing. The traditional bound abrasive grinding with bronze bond cupped diamond wheel leaves the machine marks of about 20 μm rms in height and the subsurface damage of about 1 μm rms in height to be removed by subsequent loose abrasive lapping. We explored an efficient quantitative control of precision CNC grinding. The machining parameters such as grain size, work-piece rotation speed and feed rate were altered while grinding the work-piece surfaces of 20-100 mm in diameter. The input grinding variables and the resulting surface quality data were used to build grinding prediction models using empirical and multi-variable regression analysis. The effectiveness of such grinding prediction models was then examined by running a series of precision CNC grinding operation with a set of controlled input variables and predicted output surface quality indicators. The experiment achieved the predictability down to ±20 nm in height and the surface roughness down to 36 nm in height. This study contributed to improvement of the process efficiency reaching directly the polishing and figuring process without the need for the loose abrasive lapping stage.

  17. Analysis of process parameters in surface grinding using single objective Taguchi and multi-objective grey relational grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant J. Patil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Close tolerance and good surface finish are achieved by means of grinding process. This study was carried out for multi-objective optimization of MQL grinding process parameters. Water based Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids of various concentrations are used as lubricant for MQL system. Grinding experiments were carried out on instrumented surface grinding machine. For experimentation purpose Taguchi's method was used. Important process parameters that affect the G ratio and surface finish in MQL grinding are depth of cut, type of lubricant, feed rate, grinding wheel speed, coolant flow rate, and nanoparticle size. Grinding performance was calculated by the measurement G ratio and surface finish. For improvement of grinding process a multi-objective process parameter optimization is performed by use of Taguchi based grey relational analysis. To identify most significant factor of process analysis of variance (ANOVA has been used.

  18. Grinding Parameter Optimization of Ultrasound-Aided Electrolytic in Process Dressing for Finishing Nanocomposite Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the precision and efficient processing of nanocomposite ceramics, the ultrasound-aided electrolytic in process dressing method was proposed. But how to realize grinding parameter optimization, that is, the maximum processing efficiency, on the premise of the assurance of best workpiece quality is a problem that needs to be solved urgently. Firstly, this research investigated the influence of grinding parameters on material removal rate and critical ductile depth, and their mathematic models based on the existing models were developed to simulate the material removal process. Then, on the basis of parameter sensitivity analysis based on partial derivative, the sensitivity models of material removal rates on grinding parameter were established and computed quantitatively by MATLAB, and the key grinding parameter for optimal grinding process was found. Finally, the theoretical analyses were verified by experiments: the material removal rate increases with the increase of grinding parameters, including grinding depth (ap, axial feeding speed (fa, workpiece speed (Vw, and wheel speed (Vs; the parameter sensitivity of material removal rate was in a descending order as ap>fa>Vw>Vs; the most sensitive parameter (ap was optimized and it was found that the better machining result has been obtained when ap was about 3.73 μm.

  19. Crush Grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.Q.

    2005-01-01

    Crush Grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. In this process, a precise profile of the desired product is formed on a tungsten carbide roll. This roll slowly transfers a mirror image of the profile onto the grinding surface of a wheel. The transfer rate of the profile is between 0.001 and 0.010 inches per minute. Crush grinding is desirable since it provides consistent surface finishes and thin walls at a high production rate. In addition, it generates very sharp fillet radii. However, crush grinding is a complex process since many variables affect the final product. Therefore, the process requires more attention and knowledge beyond basic metal removal practices. While the Kansas City Plant began using these machines in 1995, a formal study regarding crush grinding has not been conducted there. In addition, very little literature is available in the grinding industry regarding this process. As a result, new engineers at the Kansas City Plant must learn the process through trial and error. The purpose of this document is to address this literature deficit while specifically promoting a better understanding of the stem crush grinding process at the Kansas City Plant.

  20. Electrolytic in process dressing (ELID) applied to double side grinding of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Cristian E.

    The objective of the present work is to design, optimize, and validate an electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID)-assisted double side grinding process for finishing advanced ceramic components. To attain this objective, an original ELID double side grinding system was designed, fabricated, and operated at Precision Micro-Machining Center at The University of Toledo, Ohio. The ELID technique was selected from among other options to assure the in-situ dressing of the metal-bonded superabrasive grinding wheel and to maintain its cutting ability throughout the operation, which is, otherwise, a challenging enterprise. Optimizing the ELID double side grinding process parameters is an important goal of the present study. To achieve this goal, a complex integrated model was developed and validated through extensive experimental testing. Four analytical computerized models were developed and integrated: (1) an improved kinematic model of double side grinding accounting for workpiece rotation, which is used to simulate the grinding trajectories; (2) a microscopic model of the interaction between a single diamond grit and the work surface, which is used to predict the volume of material removed; (3) a stochastic model for the topographical characterization of the superabrasive wheel, which leads to a new prediction method of depth of indentation; and (4) an electrolytic oxidation model, which explains the dynamics of the oxide layer. In order to validate the models and to confirm the optimized process, experimental tests were conducted under different conditions: with vitrified and metallic bond grinding wheels, with various average grain sizes of diamond grits, with different superabrasive concentrations, with different grinding fluids, with and without ELID assistance. Our findings show that an optimized ceramic double side grinding process using fine diamond grit is more efficient than lapping in producing very fine surfaces. The experiments confirmed the superiority of

  1. Analysis of grinding of superalloys and ceramics for off-line process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayanan, G.

    The present study has compared the performances of resinoid, vitrified, and electroplated CBN wheels in creep feed grinding of M42 and D2 tool steels. Responses such as a specific energy, normal and tangential forces, and surface roughness were used as measures of performance. It was found that creep feed grinding with resinoid, vitrified, and electroplated CBN wheels has its own advantages, but no single wheel could provide good finish, lower specific energy, and high material removal rates simultaneously. To optimize the CBN grinding with different bonded wheels, a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methodology was used. Creep feed grinding of superalloys, Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718, has been modeled by utilizing neural networks to optimize the grinding process. A parallel effort was directed at creep feed grinding of alumina ceramics with diamond wheels to investigate the influence of process variables on responses based on experimental results and statistical analysis. The conflicting influence of variables was observed. This led to the formulation of ceramic grinding process as a multi-objective nonlinear mixed integer problem.

  2. Pilot-scale submersed cultivation of R. microsporus var. oligosporus in thin stillage, a dry-grind corn-to-ethanol co-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Daniel Thomas

    An innovative process to add value to a corn-to-ethanol co-product, Thin stillage, was studied for pilot-scale viability. A 1500L bioreactor was designed, operated, and optimized to cultivate Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus via submersed fermentation in Thin Stillage. The biomass was harvested and processed into a feed suitable for storage and ultimately for animal feeding trials. Characterization of the biomass and feed trials revealed that there is substantial potential as a nutrient dense feed supplement with 41.1% protein, 26.3% fat, and metabolizable energy on s dried basis. The amino acid profile is superior to that of DDGS, with most notably 1.7% Lys on dried basis. This process produces a significantly more nutrient dense product than DDGS, and could increase water-reclaimation in a dry-grind corn to ethanol plant. Industrially it would replace the energy intensive process of converting thin stillage into syrup that adds only $10-25/ton to DDG, while maintaining production of DDG. Using thin stillage as used a growth media for R. microsporus var. oligosporus, should not only lead to saving in energy costs, but also generate a high-value co-product which could lead to economic gains. Also there is still unexplored potential of enzymes, chitin, and co-culturing to further add value.

  3. Multiobjective Optimization of ELID Grinding Process Using Grey Relational Analysis Coupled with Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prabhu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube (CNT mixed grinding wheel has been used in the electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID grinding process to analyze the surface characteristics of AISI D2 Tool steel material. CNT grinding wheel is having an excellent thermal conductivity and good mechanical property which is used to improve the surface finish of the work piece. The multiobjective optimization of grey relational analysis coupled with principal component analysis has been used to optimize the process parameters of ELID grinding process. Based on the Taguchi design of experiments, an L9 orthogonal array table was chosen for the experiments. The confirmation experiment verifies the proposed that grey-based Taguchi method has the ability to find out the optimal process parameters with multiple quality characteristics of surface roughness and metal removal rate. Analysis of variance (ANOVA has been used to verify and validate the model. Empirical model for the prediction of output parameters has been developed using regression analysis and the results were compared for with and without using CNT grinding wheel in ELID grinding process.

  4. Determining the optimum process parameter for grinding operations using robust process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neseli, Suley Man; Asilturk, Ilhan; Celik, Levent [Univ. of Selcuk, Konya (Turkmenistan)

    2012-11-15

    We applied combined response surface methodology (RSM) and Taguchi methodology (TM) to determine optimum parameters for minimum surface roughness (Ra) and vibration (Vb) in external cylindrical grinding. First, an experiment was conducted in a CNC cylindrical grinding machine. The TM using L{sup 27} orthogonal array was applied to the design of the experiment. The three input parameters were workpiece revolution, feed rate and depth of cut; the outputs were vibrations and surface roughness. Second, to minimize wheel vibration and surface roughness, two optimized models were developed using computer aided single objective optimization. The experimental and statistical results revealed that the most significant grinding parameter for surface roughness and vibration is workpiece revolution followed by the depth of cut. The predicted values and measured values were fairly close, which indicates 2 ( 94.99 R{sup 2Ra}=and 2 92.73) R{sup 2Vb}=that the developed models can be effectively used to predict surface roughness and vibration in the grinding. The established model for determination of optimal operating conditions shows that a hybrid approach can lead to success of a robust process.

  5. Determining the optimum process parameter for grinding operations using robust process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neseli, Suley Man; Asilturk, Ilhan; Celik, Levent

    2012-01-01

    We applied combined response surface methodology (RSM) and Taguchi methodology (TM) to determine optimum parameters for minimum surface roughness (Ra) and vibration (Vb) in external cylindrical grinding. First, an experiment was conducted in a CNC cylindrical grinding machine. The TM using L 27 orthogonal array was applied to the design of the experiment. The three input parameters were workpiece revolution, feed rate and depth of cut; the outputs were vibrations and surface roughness. Second, to minimize wheel vibration and surface roughness, two optimized models were developed using computer aided single objective optimization. The experimental and statistical results revealed that the most significant grinding parameter for surface roughness and vibration is workpiece revolution followed by the depth of cut. The predicted values and measured values were fairly close, which indicates 2 ( 94.99 R 2Ra =and 2 92.73) R 2Vb =that the developed models can be effectively used to predict surface roughness and vibration in the grinding. The established model for determination of optimal operating conditions shows that a hybrid approach can lead to success of a robust process

  6. Matrix model of the grinding process of cement clinker in the ball mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, Rashid R.

    2018-02-01

    In the article attention is paid to improving the efficiency of production of fine powders, in particular Portland cement clinker. The questions of Portland cement clinker grinding in closed circuit ball mills. Noted that the main task of modeling the grinding process is predicting the granulometric composition of the finished product taking into account constructive and technological parameters used ball mill and separator. It is shown that the most complete and informative characterization of the grinding process in a ball mill is a grinding matrix taking into account the transformation of grain composition inside the mill drum. Shows how the relative mass fraction of the particles of crushed material, get to corresponding fraction. Noted, that the actual task of reconstruction of the matrix of grinding on the experimental data obtained in the real operating installations. On the basis of experimental data obtained on industrial installations, using matrix method to determine the kinetics of the grinding process in closed circuit ball mills. The calculation method of the conversion of the grain composition of the crushed material along the mill drum developed. Taking into account the proposed approach can be optimized processing methods to improve the manufacturing process of Portland cement clinker.

  7. DETERMINATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF CYLINDRICAL GRINDING PROCESS PARAMETERS USING TAGUCHI METHOD AND REGRESSION ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    M.Janardhan; Dr.A.Gopala Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Cylindrical grinding is one of the important metal cutting processes used extensively in the finishing operations. Metal removal rate and surface finish are the important out put responses in the production with respect to quantity and quality respectively. The Experiments are conducted on CNC cylindrical grinding machine with L9 Orthogonal array with input machining variables as work speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Empirical models are developed using design of experiments and response su...

  8. Virtual sensors for on-line wheel wear and part roughness measurement in the grinding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriandiaga, Ander; Portillo, Eva; Sánchez, Jose A; Cabanes, Itziar; Pombo, Iñigo

    2014-05-19

    Grinding is an advanced machining process for the manufacturing of valuable complex and accurate parts for high added value sectors such as aerospace, wind generation, etc. Due to the extremely severe conditions inside grinding machines, critical process variables such as part surface finish or grinding wheel wear cannot be easily and cheaply measured on-line. In this paper a virtual sensor for on-line monitoring of those variables is presented. The sensor is based on the modelling ability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for stochastic and non-linear processes such as grinding; the selected architecture is the Layer-Recurrent neural network. The sensor makes use of the relation between the variables to be measured and power consumption in the wheel spindle, which can be easily measured. A sensor calibration methodology is presented, and the levels of error that can be expected are discussed. Validation of the new sensor is carried out by comparing the sensor's results with actual measurements carried out in an industrial grinding machine. Results show excellent estimation performance for both wheel wear and surface roughness. In the case of wheel wear, the absolute error is within the range of microns (average value 32 μm). In the case of surface finish, the absolute error is well below Ra 1 μm (average value 0.32 μm). The present approach can be easily generalized to other grinding operations.

  9. Protease digestion from wheat stillage within a dry grind ethanol facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bals, Bryan; Brehmer, Ben; Dale, Bruce; Sanders, Johan

    2011-01-01

    As the current starch based ethanol market increases at its rapid pace, finding new markets for the primary coproduct, distiller's grains, has gained considerable interest. One possibility is to isolate the protein-rich fraction for use as precursors to biochemicals and bioplastics, further decreasing fossil fuel consumption. This research focuses on enzymatic extraction of protein peptides from wheat heavy stillage using commercially available proteases. The energy saved due to this process ranged from ∼ 1.5 to 3.0 GJ/ton wheat stillage compared to fossil fuel-based chemicals. Using Protex 6L (Genencor), ∼ 57% of the protein in the stillage was soluble 24 h after protease addition at 0.1% w/w loading. Of these proteins, ∼ 32% were already soluble, indicating the importance of using wet heavy stillage as the feedstock rather than dried distiller's grains. Peptide size was less than 6 kDa. Further improvements in protein removal may be obtained through a fed batch addition of protease and improved protease cocktails. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  10. Westinghouse Modular Grinding Process - Enhancement of Volume Reduction for Hot Resin Supercompaction - 13491

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrmann, Henning [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Dudenstr. 44, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Aign, Joerg [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Global D and D and Waste Management, Tarpenring 6, D-22419 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) ion exchange (IX) resins are used in several systems for water treatment. Spent resins can contain a significant amount of contaminates which makes treatment for disposal of spent resins mandatory. Several treatment processes are available such as direct immobilization with technologies like cementation, bitumisation, polymer solidification or usage of a high integrity container (HIC). These technologies usually come with a significant increase in final waste volume. The Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC) is a thermal treatment process which reduces the resin waste volume significantly. For a mixture of powdered and bead resins the HRSC process has demonstrated a volume reduction of up to 75 % [1]. For bead resins only the HRSC process is challenging because the bead resins compaction properties are unfavorable. The bead resin material does not form a solid block after compaction and shows a high spring back effect. The volume reduction of bead resins is not as good as for the mixture described in [1]. The compaction properties of bead resin waste can be significantly improved by grinding the beads to powder. The grinding also eliminates the need for a powder additive.Westinghouse has developed a modular grinding process to grind the bead resin to powder. The developed process requires no circulation of resins and enables a selective adjustment of particle size and distribution to achieve optimal results in the HRSC or in any other following process. A special grinding tool setup is use to minimize maintenance and radiation exposure to personnel. (authors)

  11. Numerical Simulation of a Grinding Process for the Spatial Work-pieces: a Model of the Workpiece and Grinding Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kiselev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a spatial grinding dynamics mathematical model. This model includes a grinding wheel dynamics model, a work-piece dynamics model, and a numerical algorithm of geometric modeling as well. The geometric modeling algorithm is based on the Z-buffer method with author’s modifications. This algorithm allows us to simulate the formation of a new workpiece surface when removing material and as well as to determine the cutting layer thickness for each abrasive grain of the grinding wheel. The use of the surface cell bilinear approximation and the simultaneous use of multiple projection directions are the special features of the algorithm. These features improve modeling quality of machined surface. The grinding wheel model is represented as cutting micro-edges (grains set. Abrasive grains are randomly distributed on the wheel outer surface. Grains size, shape, wheel structure and graininess are taken into account. To determine the uncut chip thickness, which is cut off by each grain of the grinding wheel is used the algorithm, which finds intersection point of uncut work-piece surface with radial ray passing through the grain cutting edge. Grinding forces for each grain are defined based on the cutting layer thickness value using the phenomenological models described in the literature. Using transformations described in the article, grinding forces determined for each grain are reduced to the total grinding force, which acts on the tool and machined work-piece in the appropriate coordinate systems. Work-piece dynamics is modeled with the help of the finite element method using quadratic tetrahedral elements. The described model of spatial grinding dynamics makes it possible to evaluate the level of vibration and grinding forces, as well as the shape errors and surface quality of machined work-piece.

  12. Protease digestion from wheat stillage within a dry grind ethanol facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bals, B.; Brehmer, B.; Dale, B.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    As the current starch based ethanol market increases at its rapid pace, finding new markets for the primary coproduct, distiller's grains, has gained considerable interest. One possibility is to isolate the protein-rich fraction for use as precursors to biochemicals and bioplastics, further

  13. Numerical Simulation of a Grinding Process Model for the Spatial Work-pieces: Development of Modeling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Voronov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a literature review in simulation of grinding processes. It takes into consideration the statistical, energy based, and imitation approaches to simulation of grinding forces. Main stages of interaction between abrasive grains and machined surface are shown. The article describes main approaches to the geometry modeling of forming new surfaces when grinding. The review of approaches to the chip and pile up effect numerical modeling is shown. Advantages and disadvantages of grain-to-surface interaction by means of finite element method and molecular dynamics method are considered. The article points out that it is necessary to take into consideration the system dynamics and its effect on the finished surface. Structure of the complex imitation model of grinding process dynamics for flexible work-pieces with spatial surface geometry is proposed from the literature review. The proposed model of spatial grinding includes the model of work-piece dynamics, model of grinding wheel dynamics, phenomenological model of grinding forces based on 3D geometry modeling algorithm. Model gives the following results for spatial grinding process: vibration of machining part and grinding wheel, machined surface geometry, static deflection of the surface and grinding forces under various cutting conditions.

  14. Online monitoring of a belt grinding process by using a light scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, Johannes; Vernes, Andras; Vorlaufer, Georg; Vellekoop, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Industrially ground surfaces often have a characteristic surface topography known as chatter marks. The surface finishing is mainly monitored by optical measurement techniques. In this work, the monitoring of an industrial belt grinding process with a light scattering sensor is presented. Although this technique is primarily applied for parametric surface roughness analysis, here it is shown that it enables also the measurement of the surface topography, i.e., the chatter marks occurring during the belt grinding process. In particular, it is proven that the light scattering method is appropriate to measure online the topography of chatter marks. Furthermore, the frequency analysis of the data reveals that the wavelength of chatter marks strongly depends on process parameters, such as the grinding speed.

  15. Determination of rational parameters for process of grinding materials pre-crushed by pressure in ball mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovich, A. A.; Romanovich, L. G.; Chekhovskoy, E. I.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of experimental studies on the grinding process of a clinker preliminarily ground in press roller mills in a ball mill equipped with energy exchange devices. The authors studied the influence of the coefficients of loading for grinding bodies of the first and second mill chambers, their lengths, angles of inclination, and the mutual location of energy exchange devices (the ellipse segment and the double-acting blade) on the output parameters of the grinding process (productivity, drive power consumption and specific energy consumption). It is clarified that the best results of the disaggregation and grinding process, judging by the minimum specific energy consumption in the grinding of clinker with an anisotropic texture after force deformation between the rolls of a press roller shredder, are achieved at a certain angle of ellipse segment inclination; the length of the first chamber and the coefficients of loading the chambers with grinding bodies.

  16. Genetic Algorithm-Based Optimization for Surface Roughness in Cylindrically Grinding Process Using Helically Grooved Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çaydaş, Ulaş; Çelik, Mahmut

    The present work is focused on the optimization of process parameters in cylindrical surface grinding of AISI 1050 steel with grooved wheels. Response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) techniques were merged to optimize the input variable parameters of grinding. The revolution speed of workpiece, depth of cut and number of grooves on the wheel were changed to explore their experimental effects on the surface roughness of machined bars. The mathematical models were established between the input parameters and response by using RSM. Then, the developed RSM model was used as objective functions on GA to optimize the process parameters.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of whole stillage from dry-grind corn ethanol plant under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Kennedy, Kevin J; Marin, Juan; Strehler, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of whole stillage from a dry-grind corn-based ethanol plant was evaluated by batch and continuous-flow digesters under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. At whole corn stillage concentrations of 6348 to 50,786 mg total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD)/L, at standard temperature (0 °C) and pressure (1 atm), preliminary biochemical methane potential assays produced 88±8 L (49±5 L CH4) and 96±19 L (65±14 L CH4) biogas per L stillage from mesophilic and thermophilic digesters, respectively. Continuous-flow studies for the full-strength stillage (TCOD=254 g/L) at organic loadings of 4.25, 6.30 and 9.05 g TCOD/L days indicated unstable performance for the thermophilic digester. Among the sludge retention times (SRTs) of 60, 45 and 30 days tested, the mesophilic digestion was successful only at 60 days-SRT which does not represent a practical operation time for a large scale bioethanol plant. Future laboratory studies will focus on different reactor configurations to reduce the SRT needed in the digesters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The grinding behavior of ground copper powder for Cu/CNT nanocomposite fabrication by using the dry grinding process with a high-speed planetary ball mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heekyu; Bor, Amgalan; Sakuragi, Shiori; Lee, Jehyun; Lim, Hyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of ground copper powder for copper-carbon nanotube (copper-CNT) nanocomposite fabrication during high-speed planetary ball milling was investigated because the study of the behavior characteristics of copper powder has recently gained scientific interest. Also, studies of Cu/CNT composites have widely been done due to their useful applications to enhanced, advanced nano materials and components, which would significantly improve the properties of new mechatronics-integrated materials and components. This study varied experimental conditions such as the rotation speed and the grinding time with and without CNTs, and the particle size distribution, median diameter, crystal structure and size, and particle morphology were monitored for a given grinding time. We observed that pure copper powders agglomerated and that the morphology changed with changing rotation speed. The particle agglomerations were observed with maximum experiment conditions (700 rpm, 60 min) in this study of the grinding process for mechanical alloys in the case of pure copper powders because the grinding behavior of Cu/CNT agglomerations was affected by the addition of CNTs. Indeed, the powder morphology and the crystal size of the composite powder could be changed by increasing the grinding time and the rotation speed.

  19. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT GRINDING PROCESS OF CEMENT CLINKER IN A BALL MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova M.M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of theoretical and experimental research of grinding process of bulk materials in a ball mill. The new method of determination of energy efficiently mode of operation of ball mills in a process of a cement clinker grinding is proposed and experimentally tested.

  20. Single Side Electrolytic In-Process Dressing (ELID) Grinding with Lapping Kinematics of Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshaim, Ahmed Bakr

    The demand for Silicon Carbide ceramics (SiC) has increased significantly in the last decade due to its reliable physical and chemical properties. The silicon carbide is widely used for aerospace segments in addition to many uses in the industry. Sometimes, a single side grinding is preferable than conventional grinding, for it has the ability to produce flat ceramics. However, the manufacturing cost is still high because of the high tool wear and long machining time. Part of the solution is to use electrolytic in process dressing (ELID) to reduce the processing time. The study on ELID single side grinding of ceramics has never been attempted before. The study involves four variables with three levels each. One of the variables, which is the eccentricity, is being investigated for the first time on ceramics. A full factorial design, for both the surface roughness and material removal rate, guides to calculate mathematical models that can predict future results. Three grinding wheel mesh sizes are used. An investigation of the influence of different grain size on the results can then be evaluated. The kinematics of the process was studied based on eccentricity in order to optimize the pattern of the diamond grains. The experiment is performed with the assist of the proposed specialized ELID fluid, TRIM C270E.

  1. The study of sub-surface damage distributions during grinding process on different abrasion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Huang, Chien-Yao; Yu, Zong-Ru; Shu, Shyu-Cheng; Chang, Keng-Shou; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2017-10-01

    The grinding process is the primary technology for curvature generation (CG) on glass optics. The higher material removal rate (MRR) leads to deeper sub-surface damage (SSD) on lens surface. The SSD must be removed by following lapping and polishing processes to ensure the lens quality. However, these are not an easy and an efficient process to remove the SSD from ground surface directly for aspheric surfaces with tens or hundreds microns departure from bestfit- sphere (BFS). An efficient fabrication procedure for large aspheric departure on glass materials must be considered. We propose 3-step fabrication procedures for aspheric surface with larger departure. 1st step is to generate a specific aspheric surface with depth less than 10 μm of SSD residual. 2nd step is to remove SSD and keep the aspheric form by using Zeeko polisher with higher MRR pad. Final step is to figure and finish the aspheric surface by using QED MRF machine. In this study, we focus on the 1st step to investigate the residual depth of SSD after grinding process on different abrasion materials. The materials of tested part are fused silica, S-NPH2, and S-PHM52. The cross grinding would be configured and depth of SSD/surface roughness would be evaluated in this study. The characteristic of SSD could be observed after etching by confocal microscope. The experimental results show the depth of SSD below 31.1 μm with #400 grinding wheel. And the near 10 μm depth of SSD would be achieved with #1,000 grinding wheel. It means the aspherization polishing on large parts with large departure from best fit sphere would be replaced. The fabrication of large aspheric part would be efficient.

  2. Off-flavor related volatiles in soymilk as affected by soybean variety, grinding, and heat-processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Guo, Shuntang; Liu, Zhisheng; Chang, Sam K C

    2012-08-01

    Off-flavor of soymilk is a barrier to the acceptance of consumers. The objectionable soy odor can be reduced through inhibition of their formation or through removal after being formed. In this study, soymilk was prepared by three grinding methods (ambient, cold, and hot grinding) from two varieties (yellow Prosoy and a black soybean) before undergoing three heating processes: stove cooking, one-phase UHT (ultrahigh temperature), and two-phase UHT process using a Microthermics direct injection processor, which was equipped with a vacuuming step to remove injected water and volatiles. Eight typical soy odor compounds, generated from lipid oxidation, were extracted by a solid-phase microextraction method and analyzed by gas chromatography. The results showed that hot grinding and cold grinding significantly reduced off-flavor as compared with ambient grinding, and hot grinding achieved the best result. The UHT methods, especially the two-phase UHT method, were effective to reduce soy odor. Different odor compounds showed distinct concentration patterns because of different formation mechanisms. The two varieties behaved differently in odor formation during the soymilk-making process. Most odor compounds could be reduced to below the detection limit through a combination of hot grinding and two-phase UHT processing. However, hot grinding gave lower solid and protein recoveries in soymilk.

  3. Optimization of Process Variables for Grinding of Ibuprofen using Response Surface Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Chol-Ho [Sangji University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Ibuprofen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; NSAIDs, is a highly crystalline substance with the pharmaceutical properties of poor solubility and low bioavailability. The size reduction of ibuprofen is needed to improve the solubility. The objective of this study is to optimize the grinding condition of ibuprofen. Grinding of ibuprofen was carried out using a planetary mill. Grinding parameters were optimized using Box-Behnken experimental design method. The physical characteristics of ground ibuprofen were investigated for the particle size by particle size analyzer, for the crystal size by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and for the tensile strength by tensile/compression tester. The optimum conditions for the milling of ibuprofen were 290 rpm of the revolution number of mill, 24.6 g of the weight of sample, and 10minutes of grinding time. The measured value of the particle size of ground ibuprofen at these optimum conditions was 13.5 µm. The results showed that the crystal size of ibuprofen was reduced by the planetary milling process. In case the relative density of the tablets formulated of ground ibuprofen was range of 0.85-0.90, the tensile strength of them was range of 12-14 Kg{sub f}/cm{sup 2}.

  4. Optimization of Process Variables for Grinding of Ibuprofen using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Chol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Ibuprofen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; NSAIDs, is a highly crystalline substance with the pharmaceutical properties of poor solubility and low bioavailability. The size reduction of ibuprofen is needed to improve the solubility. The objective of this study is to optimize the grinding condition of ibuprofen. Grinding of ibuprofen was carried out using a planetary mill. Grinding parameters were optimized using Box-Behnken experimental design method. The physical characteristics of ground ibuprofen were investigated for the particle size by particle size analyzer, for the crystal size by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and for the tensile strength by tensile/compression tester. The optimum conditions for the milling of ibuprofen were 290 rpm of the revolution number of mill, 24.6 g of the weight of sample, and 10minutes of grinding time. The measured value of the particle size of ground ibuprofen at these optimum conditions was 13.5 µm. The results showed that the crystal size of ibuprofen was reduced by the planetary milling process. In case the relative density of the tablets formulated of ground ibuprofen was range of 0.85-0.90, the tensile strength of them was range of 12-14 Kg f /cm 2

  5. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  6. EFFECT OF ENDOSPERM HARDNESS ON AN ETHANOL PROCESS USING A GRANULAR STARCH HYDROLYZING ENZYME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, P; W Liu, D B; Johnston, K D; Rausch, S J; Schmidt, M E; Tumbleson, V Singh

    2010-01-01

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) can hydrolyze starch at low temperature (32°C). The dry grind process using GSHE (GSH process) has fewer unit operations and no changes in process conditions (pH 4.0 and 32°C) compared to the conventional process because it dispenses with the cooking and liquefaction step. In this study, the effects of endosperm hardness, protease, urea, and GSHE levels on GSH process were evaluated. Ground corn, soft endosperm, and hard endosperm were processed using two GSHE levels (0.1 and 0.4 mL per 100 g ground material) and four treatments of protease and urea addition. Soft and hard endosperm materials were obtained by grinding and sifting flaking grits from a dry milling pilot plant; classifications were confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. During 72 h of simultaneous granular starch hydrolysis and fermentation (GSHF), ethanol and glucose profiles were determined using HPLC. Soft endosperm resulted in higher final ethanol concentrations compared to ground corn or hard endosperm. Addition of urea increased final ethanol concentrations for soft and hard endosperm. Protease addition increased ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates for soft endosperm, hard endosperm, and ground corn. The effect of protease addition on ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates was most predominant for soft endosperm, less for hard endosperm, and least for ground corn. Samples (soft endosperm, hard endosperm, or corn) with protease resulted in higher (1.0% to 10.5% v/v) ethanol concentration compared to samples with urea. The GSH process with protease requires little or no urea addition. For fermentation of soft endosperm, GSHE dose can be reduced. Due to nutrients (lipids, minerals, and soluble proteins) present in corn that enhance yeast growth, ground corn fermented faster at the beginning than hard and soft endosperm.

  7. The influence of grinding oil viscosity on grinding heat and burn damage in creep-feed grinding{copyright}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen-Change Liu [Shandong Univ. of Technology, Jinan (China); Abe, Satoshi; Noda, Masahiro [Yushiro Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    Grinding oils are widely used in precision grinding, such as tool grinding, thread grinding and gear grinding, during which processes grinding burn is the most prevalent damage affecting the integrity of ground surface. This paper discusses the influence of oil viscosity on grinding heat and burn damage in creep-feed-grinding. Experimental results indicated that, under lighter grinding conditions, the effects of oil viscosity was not observed, but under heavy grinding conditions grinding burn occurred when using low viscosity oil. When the viscosity of the oil was increased, grinding heat and burn damage tended to be reduced. As the viscosity was increased to a certain level, grinding burn reduction, by further increasing the viscosity, became less while other problems such as much higher oil pump noise and reduced oil flow occurred. It is clear that a viscosity limit exists for given grinding conditions. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  9. Production of talc nano sheets via fine grinding and sonication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samayamutthirian Palaniandy; Noorina Hidayu Jamil Khairun Azizi Mohd Azizli; Syed Fuad Saiyid Hashim; Hashim Hussin

    2009-01-01

    Fine grinding of high purity talc in jet mill at low grinding pressure was carried out by varying the feed rate and classifier rotational speed. These ground particles were sonicated in laboratory ultrasonic bath by varying the soniction period at five levels. The ground and sonicated particles were characterized in terms of particle size and particle size distribution. Mechanochemical and sonochemical effect of talc was determine via X-ray diffraction. Particle shape and surface texture of the ground and sonicated product was determined via scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The ground particle size exhibited particle size below 10 μm with narrow size distribution. The reduction of peak intensity in (002) plane indicated the layered structure has been distorted. The sonicated talc shows that the thickness of the talc particles after the sonication process is 20 nm but the lateral particle size still remains in micron range. The reduction of the XRD peak intensity for (002) plane and thickness of sonicated talc as shown in SEM and TEM micrographs proves that fine grinding and sonication process produces talc nano sheets. (author)

  10. The effect of sample grinding procedures after processing on gas production profiles and end-product formation in expander processed barley and peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarfar, A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Tamminga, S.

    2007-01-01

    Grinding is a technological process widely applied in the feed manufacturing industry and is a prerequisite for obtaining representative samples for laboratory procedures (e.g. gas production analysis). When feeds are subjected to technological processes other than grinding (e.g. expander

  11. INTRODUCTION TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANICS OF THE DIAMOND GRINDING PROCESS WITH THE ACCOUNT OF WEAR OF WHEEL GRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feodor NOVIKOV

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the theoretical analysis of the mechanics of the diamond grinding process, taking into account the wear of the wheel grains for scientifically based choice of optimal processing conditions. A multiplicative probabilistic approach to the generalization of the cutting profile of a diamond grinding wheel in its consideration in a state of some steady wear during processing is considered. This is achieved by working the wheel in a mode of properly established self-sharpening or with the use of effective dressing methods. In this case, the linear wear of individual grains of diamond abrasive located on the working surface of the grinding wheel and opened to mechanical contact with the material being processed is assumed to proportionally to the depth of the introduction of grain into it. The analytical dependence of the maximum thickness of the cut is presented, and the relationship between the maximum grain wear and the accepted universal relative characteristic of the steady wear with the operational parameters of the tool and the grinding mode is shown. The obtained results can be used in the development of analytical models of processing productivity and microgeometric engineering of the treated surface, new approaches to increasing the efficiency of diamond grinding. The research is based on modern technical possibilities of controlling the state of the cutting relief of diamond-abrasive tools, especially in electro-physical-mechanical grinding technologies, for example, using the diamond-spark method developed at the Kharkov Polytechnic Institute.

  12. TRISO-coated spent fuel processing using a Grind-Leach head-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Barry B.; Del Cul, Guillermo D.; Mattus, Catherine H.; Collins, Emory D.

    2005-01-01

    Processing of TRISO-coated HTGR fuels with the grind-leach process requires that the fuel be finely pulverized for efficient and effective acid dissolution of the fuel components. Mechanical size reduction of the fuel is being investigated with jet mill technology as the final milling step. Laboratory experiments were performed with surrogates of crushed fuel compacts that indicate that milling to very small particle sizes is feasible. The size distribution of the milled product is sensitive to the solids feed rate, and the distribution may be bimodal which could support an effective solid-solid separation. (author)

  13. Grinding Wheel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Stephen; Gao, Robert; Guo, Changsheng; Varghese, Biju; Pathare, Sumukh

    2003-08-05

    A grinding wheel system includes a grinding wheel with at least one embedded sensor. The system also includes an adapter disk containing electronics that process signals produced by each embedded sensor and that transmits sensor information to a data processing platform for further processing of the transmitted information.

  14. Electrolytic In-process Dressing (ELID) for high-efficiency, precision grinding of ceramic parts: An experiment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, B.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report describes Electrolytic In-process Dressing (ELID) as applied to the efficient, high-precision grinding of structural ceramics, and describes work performed jointly by Dr. B.P. Bandyopadhyay, University of North Dakota, and Dr. R. Ohmori, of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RINEN), Tokyo, Japan, from June through August, 1994. Dr. Ohmori pioneered the novel ELID grinding technology which incorporates electrolytically enhanced, in-process dressing of metal bonded superabrasive wheels. The principle of ELID grinding technology is discussed in the report as will its application for rough grinding and precision grinding. Two types of silicon nitride based ceramics (Kyocerals Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and Eaton`s SRBSN) were ground under various conditions with ELID methods. Mirror surface finishes were obtained with {number_sign} 4000 mesh size wheel (average grain size = 4 {mu}m). Results of these investigations are presented in this report. These include the effects of wheel bond type, type of power supply, abrasive grit friability, and cooling fluid composition. The effects of various parameters are discussed in terms of the mechanisms of ELID grinding, and in particular, the manner of boundary layer formation on the wheels and abrasive grit protrusion.

  15. Reducing the Entrainment of Gangue Fines in Low Grade Microcrystalline Graphite Ore Flotation Using Multi-Stage Grinding-Flotation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Weng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A suitable grinding fineness and flow-sheet could potentially reduce the mechanical entrainment of gangue minerals in the flotation process of microcrystalline graphite. In this study, the suitable grinding fineness of a commercial graphite ore was estimated by mineralogy analysis and laboratory grind-flotation tests. The target grind size of this ore should be 92% passing 74 μm based on the mineralogical evaluation and the flotation performance. A comparison of a single-stage and a three-stage grinding circuit was conducted. Experimental results demonstrated that the three-stage grinding circuit could effectively improve the separation effect, which was attributed to the reduction of slimes. In the end, a more desirable beneficiation result was obtained with the application of three-stage grinding-flotation process by minimizing gangue entrainment.

  16. Multifunctional centrifugal grinding unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevostyanov, V. S.; Uralskij, V. I.; Uralskij, A. V.; Sinitsa, E. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents scientific and engineering developments of multifunctional centrifugal grinding unit in which the selective effect of grinding bodies on the crushing material is realized, depending on its physical and mechanical characteristics and various schemes for organizing the technological process

  17. Grinding mechanism of zirconia toughened alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukuda, A.; Kondo, Y.; Yokota, K.

    1998-01-01

    In the grinding process, physical properties of ceramics affect both grinding mechanism and quality of ground surface. In this study we focused on fracture toughness of ceramics and the effect on grinding. A grinding test was carried out by single point grinding for ten different zirconia toughened alumina ceramics with different monoclinic zirconia contents. Effects of zirconia contents on the grinding mechanism and crack initiation were discussed. Copyright (1998) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  18. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  19. Investigation of the Formation Process of Two Piracetam Cocrystals during Grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Rehder, Sönke; Klukkert, Marten; Löbmann, Korbinian A. M.; Strachan, Clare J.; Sakmann, Albrecht; Gordon, Keith; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S.

    2011-01-01

    Cocrystal formation rates during dry grinding and liquid-assisted grinding were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. Two polymorphic forms of piracetam were used to prepare known piracetam cocrystals as model substances, i.e., piracetam-citric acid and piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystals. Raman spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis was used to visualize the cocrystal formation pathways. During dry grinding, cocrystal formation appeared to ...

  20. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Influence of Tool Composite's Structure During Process of Diamond Grinding of Ceramic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlik Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the tests performed during the grinding process of the ceramic materials: – polycrystalline ceramics (Zirconium ZrO2 and mono-crystalline ceramics (sapphire α-Al2O3 by the diamond tools. Studies have shown that the concentration (thickening of the tool composite changes the tool's pore structure when using suitable wetted adamantine additives. Such modified composite has positive impact on tribological properties of the subsurface layer of the machined components. This is manifested by the reduction of the surface roughness and reduction of the vibration amplitude of the coefficient of friction. The possibilities of the positive effects when using wetted additives on the tool's composite during the pressing (briquetting stage confirm the study results.

  2. Nano finish grinding of brittle materials using electrolytic in-process ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Recent developments in grinding have opened up new avenues for finishing of hard and brittle materials with nano-surface finish, high tolerance and accuracy. Grinding with superabrasive wheels is an excellent way to produce ultraprecision surface finish. However, superabrasive diamond grits need ...

  3. Investigation of the formation process of two piracetam cocrystals during grinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehder, Sönke; Klukkert, Marten; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2011-01-01

    Cocrystal formation rates during dry grinding and liquid-assisted grinding were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. Two polymorphic forms of piracetam were used to prepare known piracetam cocrystals as model substances, i.e.,piracetam-citric acid and piracetam......-tartaric acid cocrystals. Raman spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis was used to visualize the cocrystal formation pathways. During dry grinding, cocrystal formation appeared to progress via an amorphous intermediate stage, which was more evident for the piracetam-citric acid than...... for the piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystal. It was shown that liquid-assisted grinding led to faster cocrystal formation than dry grinding, which may be explained by the higher transformation rate due to the presence of liquid. The cocrystal formation rate did not depend on the applied polymorphic form...

  4. Investigation of the Formation Process of Two Piracetam Cocrystals during Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Sönke; Klukkert, Marten; Löbmann, Korbinian A. M.; Strachan, Clare J.; Sakmann, Albrecht; Gordon, Keith; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S.

    2011-01-01

    Cocrystal formation rates during dry grinding and liquid-assisted grinding were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. Two polymorphic forms of piracetam were used to prepare known piracetam cocrystals as model substances, i.e., piracetam-citric acid and piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystals. Raman spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis was used to visualize the cocrystal formation pathways. During dry grinding, cocrystal formation appeared to progress via an amorphous intermediate stage, which was more evident for the piracetam-citric acid than for the piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystal. It was shown that liquid-assisted grinding led to faster cocrystal formation than dry grinding, which may be explained by the higher transformation rate due to the presence of liquid. The cocrystal formation rate did not depend on the applied polymorphic form of the piracetam and no polymorphic cocrystals were obtained. PMID:24309304

  5. Investigation of the Formation Process of Two Piracetam Cocrystals during Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Gordon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cocrystal formation rates during dry grinding and liquid-assisted grinding were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. Two polymorphic forms of piracetam were used to prepare known piracetam cocrystals as model substances, i.e.,piracetam-citric acid and piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystals. Raman spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis was used to visualize the cocrystal formation pathways. During dry grinding, cocrystal formation appeared to progress via an amorphous intermediate stage, which was more evident for the piracetam-citric acid than for the piracetam-tartaric acid cocrystal. It was shown that liquid-assisted grinding led to faster cocrystal formation than dry grinding, which may be explained by the higher transformation rate due to the presence of liquid. The cocrystal formation rate did not depend on the applied polymorphic form of the piracetam and no polymorphic cocrystals were obtained.

  6. Analysis of the influence of infeed rate and cutting fluid on cylindrical grinding processes using a conventional wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi Eduardo Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available New worldwide trends such as globalization have rendered grinding processes increasingly important for industry, making it essential to perform in-depth studies of variations in grinding process parameters in the pursuit of greater cost effectiveness. This paper presents a comparative analysis of three different infeed rates, using a conventional grinding wheel on quenched and tempered D2 steel workpieces. Higher infeed rates are known to be correlated with shorter grinding times, rendering the process more economically attractive. Two different coolant fluids, 5% emulsion and pure oil, were used. The tests were carried out using the smallest possible amount of coolant and an optimized 5 mm diameter nozzle. The parameters analyzed were tangential force, specific energy, acoustic emission, roundness error and surface roughness. The surfaces of the workpieces were also examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results revealed that increased infeed rates could reduce processing times without compromising the quality of the workpiece profile, thereby reducing the cost of the process. The best cutting fluid, albeit more harmful to human health and less environmentally friendly, was found to be pure oil.

  7. Distribution and detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) during an industrial grinding process of beef trim

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the grinding and packaging processes, it is important to understand how Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) would be distributed and how well it could be detected in beef trim. This study is important because it shows what would happen if contaminated meat is allowed into a commerc...

  8. Force characteristics in continuous path controlled crankpin grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Manchao; Yao, Zhenqiang

    2015-03-01

    Recent research on the grinding force involved in cylindrical plunge grinding has focused mainly on steady-state conditions. Unlike in conventional external cylindrical plunge grinding, the conditions between the grinding wheel and the crankpin change periodically in path controlled grinding because of the eccentricity of the crankpin and the constant rotational speed of the crankshaft. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of various grinding conditions on the characteristics of the grinding force during continuous path controlled grinding. Path controlled plunge grinding is conducted at a constant rotational speed using a cubic boron nitride (CBN) wheel. The grinding force is determined by measuring the torque. The experimental results show that the force and torque vary sinusoidally during dry grinding and load grinding. The variations in the results reveal that the resultant grinding force and torque decrease with higher grinding speeds and increase with higher peripheral speeds of the pin and higher grinding depths. In path controlled grinding, unlike in conventional external cylindrical plunge grinding, the axial grinding force cannot be disregarded. The speeds and speed ratios of the workpiece and wheel are also analyzed, and the analysis results show that up-grinding and down-grinding occur during the grinding process. This paper proposes a method for describing the force behavior under varied process conditions during continuous path controlled grinding, which provides a beneficial reference for describing the material removal mechanism and for optimizing continuous controlled crankpin grinding.

  9. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  10. Fabrication of a miniature diamond grinding tool using a hybrid process of micro-EDM and co-deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shun-Tong; Lai, Yun-Cheng; Liu, Ching-Chang

    2008-01-01

    A novel miniature diamond grinding tool usable for the precise micro-grinding of miniature parts is presented. A hybrid process that combines 'micro-EDM' with 'precision co-deposition' is proposed. The metal substrate is micro-EDMed to a 50 µm diameter and micro diamonds with 0–2 µm grains are 'electroformed' on the substrate surface, producing a miniature multilayered grinding tool. Nickel and diamond act as binders and cutters, respectively. A partition plate with an array of drilled holes is designed to ensure good convection in the electroforming solution. The dispersion of diamond grains and displacement of nickel ions are noticeably improved. A miniature funnel mould enables the diamond grains to converge towards the cathode to increase their deposition probability on the substrate, thereby improving their distribution on the substrate surface. A micro ZrO 2 ceramic ferrule is finely ground by the developed grinding tool and then yields a surface roughness of R a = 0.085 µm. The proposed approach is applied during the final machining process

  11. Development of a software-hardware complex for studying the process of grinding by a pendulum deformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the development of a software and hardware complex for investigating the grinding process on a pendulum deformer. The hardware part of this complex is the Raspberry Pi model 2B platform, to which a contactless angle sensor is connected, which allows to obtain data on the angle of deviation of the pendulum surface, usb-cameras, which allow to obtain grain images before and after grinding, and stepping motors allowing lifting of the pendulum surface and adjust the clearance between the pendulum and the supporting surfaces. The program part of the complex is written in C # and allows receiving data from the sensor and usb-cameras, processing the received data, and also controlling the synchronous-step motors in manual and automatic mode. The conducted studies show that the rational mode is the deviation of the pendulum surface by an angle of 400, and the location of the grain in the central zone of the support surface, regardless of the orientation of the grain in space. Also, due to the non-contact angle sensor, energy consumption for grinding, speed and acceleration of the pendulum surface, as well as vitreousness of grain and the energy consumption are calculated. With the help of photographs obtained from usb cameras, the work of a pendulum deformer based on the Rebinder formula and calculation of the grain area before and after grinding is determined.

  12. Optimization of processing parameters of amaranth grits before grinding into flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, I. M.; Safonova, Yu A.; Slepokurova, Yu I.

    2018-05-01

    There are the results of experimental studies about the influence of infrared treatment (IR processing) parameters of the amaranth grits before their grinding into flour on the composition and properties of the received product. Using the method called as regressionfactor analysis, the optimal conditions of the thermal processing to the amaranth grits were obtained: the belt speed of the conveyor – 0.049 m/s; temperature of amaranth grits in the tempering silo – 65.4 °C the thickness of the layer of amaranth grits on the belt is 3 - 5 mm and the lamp power is 69.2 kW/m2. The conducted researches confirmed that thermal effect to the amaranth grains in the IR setting allows getting flour with a smaller size of starch grains, with the increased water-holding ability, and with a changed value of its glycemic index. Mathematical processing of experimental data allowed establishing the dependence of the structural and technological characteristics of the amaranth flour on the IR processing parameters of amaranth grits. The obtained results are quite consistent with the experimental ones that proves the effectiveness of optimization based on mathematical planning of the experiment to determine the influence of heat treatment optimal parameters of the amaranth grits on the functional and technological properties of the flour received from it.

  13. Effect of ultrasound on dynamics characteristic of the cavitation bubble in grinding fluids during honing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ce; Zhu, Xijing

    2018-03-01

    The effect of ultrasound on generating and controlling the cavitation bubble of the grinding fluid during ultrasonic vibration honing was investigated. The grinding fluid on the surface of the honing stone was measured by utilizing the digital microscope VHX-600ESO. Based on analyzing the cavitation mechanism of the grinding fluid, the bubble dynamics model under conventional honing (CH) and ultrasonic vibration honing (UVH) was established respectively. Difference of dynamic behaviors of the bubble between the cases in UVH and CH was compared respectively, and the effects of acoustic amplitude and ultrasonic frequency on the bubble dynamics were simulated numerically using the Runge-Kutta fourth order method with variable step size adaptive control. Finally, the cavitation intensity of grinding fluids under ultrasound was measured quantitatively using acoustimeter. The results showed that the grinding fluid subjected to ultrasound can generate many bubbles and further forms numerous groups of araneose cavitation bubbles on the surface of the honing stone. The oscillation of the bubble under UVH is more intense than the case under CH, and the maximum velocity of the bubble wall under UVH is higher two magnitudes than the case under CH. For lower acoustic amplitude, the dynamic behaviors of the bubble under UVH are similar to that case under CH. As increasing acoustic amplitude, the cavitation intensity of the bubble is growing increased. Honing pressure has an inhabitation effect on cavitation effect of the grinding fluid. The perfect performance of cavitation of the grinding fluid can be obtained when the device of UVH is in the resonance. However, the cavitation intensity of the grinding fluid can be growing weakened with increasing ultrasonic frequency, when the device of UVH is in the off-resonance. The experimental results agree with the theoretical and numerical analysis, which provides a method for exploring applications of the cavitation effect in

  14. Ultrafiltration of thin stillage from conventional and e-mill dry grind processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Dien, Bruce S; Belyea, Ronald L; Wang, Ping; Singh, Vijay; Tumbleson, M E; Rausch, Kent D

    2011-05-01

    We used ultrafiltration (UF) to evaluate membrane filtration characteristics of thin stillage and determine solids and nutrient compositions of filtered streams. To obtain thin stillage, corn was fermented using laboratory methods. UF experiments were conducted in batch mode under constant temperature and flow rate conditions. Two regenerated cellulose membranes (10 and 100 kDa molecular weight cutoffs) were evaluated with the objective of retaining solids as well as maximizing permeate flux. Optimum pressures for 10 and 100 kDa membranes were 207 and 69 kPa, respectively. Total solids, ash, and neutral detergent fiber contents of input TS streams of dry grind and E-Mill processes were similar; however, fat and protein contents were different (p stillage fractionation had higher mean total solids contents (27.6% to 27.8%) compared to E-Mill (22.2% to 23.4%). Total solids in retentate streams were found similar to those from commercial evaporators used in industry (25% to 35% total solids). Fat contents of retentate streams ranged from 16.3% to 17.5% for the conventional process. A 2% increment in fat concentration was observed in the E-Mill retentate stream. Thin stillage ash content was reduced 60% in retentate streams.

  15. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  16. A non-destructive surface burn detection method for ferrous metals based on acoustic emission and ensemble empirical mode decomposition: from laser simulation to grinding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhensheng; Wu, Haixi; Yu, Zhonghua; Huang, Youfang

    2014-01-01

    Grinding is usually done in the final finishing of a component. As a result, the surface quality of finished products, e.g., surface roughness, hardness and residual stress, are affected by the grinding procedure. However, the lack of methods for monitoring of grinding makes it difficult to control the quality of the process. This paper focuses on the monitoring approaches for the surface burn phenomenon in grinding. A non-destructive burn detection method based on acoustic emission (AE) and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was proposed for this purpose. To precisely extract the AE features caused by phase transformation during burn formation, artificial burn was produced to mimic grinding burn by means of laser irradiation, since laser-induced burn involves less mechanical and electrical noise. The burn formation process was monitored by an AE sensor. The frequency band ranging from 150 to 400 kHz was believed to be related to surface burn formation in the laser irradiation process. The burn-sensitive frequency band was further used to instruct feature extraction during the grinding process based on EEMD. Linear classification results evidenced a distinct margin between samples with and without surface burn. This work provides a practical means for grinding burn detection. (paper)

  17. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.

    2015-01-01

    on the economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary.......In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...

  18. Selection of Levels of Dressing Process Parameters by Using TOPSIS Technique for Surface Roughness of En-31 Work piece in CNC Cylindrical Grinding Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sanjay S.; Bhalerao, Yogesh J.

    2017-02-01

    Grinding is metal cutting process used for mainly finishing the automobile components. The grinding wheel performance becomes dull by using it most of times. So it should be reshaping for consistent performance. It is necessary to remove dull grains of grinding wheel which is known as dressing process. The surface finish produced on the work piece is dependent on the dressing parameters in sub-sequent grinding operation. Multi-point diamond dresser has four important parameters such as the dressing cross feed rate, dressing depth of cut, width of the diamond dresser and drag angle of the dresser. The range of cross feed rate level is from 80-100 mm/min, depth of cut varies from 10 - 30 micron, width of diamond dresser is from 0.8 - 1.10mm and drag angle is from 40o - 500, The relative closeness to ideal levels of dressing parameters are found for surface finish produced on the En-31 work piece during sub-sequent grinding operation by using Technique of Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS).In the present work, closeness to ideal solution i.e. levels of dressing parameters are found for Computer Numerical Control (CNC) cylindrical angular grinding machine. After the TOPSIS technique, it is found that the value of Level I is 0.9738 which gives better surface finish on the En-31 work piece in sub-sequent grinding operation which helps the user to select the correct levels (combinations) of dressing parameters.

  19. The Effects of Wear upon the Axial Profile of a Grinding Wheel in the Construction of Innovative Grinding Wheels for Internal Cylindrical Grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Nadolny, K.; Słowiński, B.

    2011-01-01

    The article describes the effects of wear upon the axial profile of a grinding wheel in the axial cylindrical grinding processes. This mechanism was used to develop a grinding wheel with zone diversified structure made of microcrystalline sintered corundum abrasive grains and vitrifies bond. Such a grinding wheel is characterized by the conical rough grinding zone that is made by grains of a relatively large size, and a cylindrical finish grinding zone with grains of a smaller size and can be...

  20. Study of process of trueing diamond grinding wheels on metal bonds by method of free abrasive after processing of leucosapphire blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedonin, O. N.; Handozhko, A. V.; Fedukov, A. G.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of mechanical processing, in particular, grinding products from leucosapphire, is considered. The main problem with this treatment is the need to adjust the diamond tool. One of the methods of tool trueing using loose abrasive technique is considered. The results of a study on restoring the tool cutting ability, its shape and profile after straightening are given.

  1. Heat transfer fouling characteristics of microfiltered thin stillage from the dry grind process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Dien, Bruce S; Belyea, Ronald L; Singh, Vijay; Tumbleson, M E; Rausch, Kent D

    2010-08-01

    We investigated effects of microfiltration (MF) on heat transfer fouling tendencies of thin stillage. A stainless steel MF membrane (0.1 micron pore size) was used to remove solids from thin stillage. At filtration conditions of 690kPa, the MF process effectively recovered total solids from thin stillage. Thin stillage was concentrated from 7.0% to 22.4% solids with average permeate flux rates of 180+/-30 L/m(2)/h at 75 degrees C. In retentate streams, protein and fat contents were increased from 23.5 and 16.7% db to 27.6 and 31.1% db, respectively, and ash content was reduced from 10.5% to 3.8% db. Removal of solids, protein and fat generated a microfiltration permeate (MFP) that was used as an input stream to the fouling probe system; MFP fouling tendencies were measured. An annular fouling probe was used to measure fouling tendencies of thin stillage from a commercial dry grind facility. When comparing diluted thin stillage (DTS) stream and MFP, a reduction in solids concentration was not the only reason of fouling decrement. Selective removal of protein and fat played an important role in mitigating the fouling. At t=10h, mean fouling rates of MFP were an order of magnitude lower when compared to thin stillage and diluted streams. When maximum probe temperature (200 degrees C) was reached, mean fouling rates for thin stillage, DTS and MFP were 7.1x10(-4), 4.2x10(-4) and 2.6x10(-4) m(2) degrees C/kW/min, respectively. In DTS and MFP, the induction period was prolonged by factors of 4.3 and 9.5, respectively, compared to the induction period for thin stillage fouling. Mean fouling rates were decreased by factors of 2.3 and 23.4 for DTS and MFP, respectively. Fouling of MFP took twice the time to reach a probe temperature of 200 degrees C than did thin stillage (22 h vs 10 h, respectively). A reduction in heat transfer fouling could be achieved by altering process stream composition using microfiltration. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The New Grinding Process for Camshaft in Locomotive Engine%机车发动机用凸轮轴磨削新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王歆令; 李静; 沈南燕; 何永义

    2013-01-01

    According to the geometric characteristics of camshaft in locomotive engine,this paper analyzed the difficulties and disadvantages of traditional grinding process that the concave arc of cam is machined by single type grinding wheel,thus a new grinding process that camshaft is machined by large size and small size grinding wheels was proposed.To avoid the concave arc when machining by large size grinding wheel and guarantee no vibration and impact,the reconstruction of concave arc and optimization of grinding carriage velocity were completed.The experimental results of grinding show that grinding accuracy and efficiency were improved by this new process,which demonstrates its feasibility.%针对机车发动机用凸轮轴几何特征,分析了传统磨削工艺中磨削全程使用一种型号的砂轮对凸轮轮廓的凹弧段进行加工的难点和弊端,提出了大小砂轮配合磨削凸轮轴的新工艺.实施过程中为了保证大砂轮避开凸轮轮廓的凹孤段且加工过程无振动冲击,完成了凸轮凹孤段轮廓重构以及砂轮架速度优化.磨削实验结果表明,采用该新工艺能提高凸轮轴磨削的精度和效率,具有很高的可行性.

  3. Modifying yeast tolerance to inhibitory conditions of ethanol production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eCaspeta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S. cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular functions, the key contributions of integrated –omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose.

  4. Modifying Yeast Tolerance to Inhibitory Conditions of Ethanol Production Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Castillo, Tania; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption, and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S....... cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here, we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular...... functions, the key contributions of integrated -omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose....

  5. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Pavlečić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB. In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, ethanol yield was 59.89 g/L and production efficiency 78.8 %, and in fed-batch process the yield was 92.78 g/L and efficiency 93.4 %. At the same time, ethanol production in HRTB from the raw sugar beet cossettes with inoculum of 16.7 % V/m (raw sugar beet cossettes resulted in the highest ethanol yield of 54.53 g/L and production efficiency of 79.5 %. The obtained results clearly show that both intermediates of sugar beet processing can be successfully used for ethanol production.

  6. Grinding assembly, grinding apparatus, weld joint defect repair system, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Eric D.; Watkins, Arthur D.; Bitsoi, Rodney J.; Pace, David P.

    2005-09-27

    A grinding assembly for grinding a weld joint of a workpiece includes a grinder apparatus, a grinder apparatus includes a grinding wheel configured to grind the weld joint, a member configured to receive the grinding wheel, the member being configured to be removably attached to the grinder apparatus, and a sensor assembly configured to detect a contact between the grinding wheel and the workpiece. The grinding assembly also includes a processing circuitry in communication with the grinder apparatus and configured to control operations of the grinder apparatus, the processing circuitry configured to receive weld defect information of the weld joint from an inspection assembly to create a contour grinding profile to grind the weld joint in a predetermined shape based on the received weld defect information, and a manipulator having an end configured to carry the grinder apparatus, the manipulator further configured to operate in multiple dimensions.

  7. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of a novel process for converting food waste to ethanol and co-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, Jacqueline; Babbitt, Callie; Winer, Martin; Hilton, Brian; Williamson, Anahita

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-fermentation using SSF at ambient temperature has potential as an ethanol pathway. • Bio-refinery GHG emissions are similar to corn and MSW ethanol production processes. • Net production GHG impact is negative with inclusion of waste disposal avoidance. • Food waste diversion from landfills is the largest contributor to GHG benefits. - Abstract: Waste-to-ethanol conversion is a promising technology to provide renewable transportation fuel while mitigating feedstock risks and land use conflicts. It also has the potential to reduce environmental impacts from waste management such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change. This paper analyzes the life cycle GHG emissions associated with a novel process for the conversion of food processing waste into ethanol (EtOH) and the co-products of compost and animal feed. Data are based on a pilot plant co-fermenting retail food waste with a sugary industrial wastewater, using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process at room temperature with a grinding pretreatment. The process produced 295 L EtOH/dry t feedstock. Lifecycle GHG emissions associated with the ethanol production process were 1458 gCO 2 e/L EtOH. When the impact of avoided landfill emissions from diverting food waste to use as feedstock are considered, the process results in net negative GHG emissions and approximately 500% improvement relative to corn ethanol or gasoline production. This finding illustrates how feedstock and alternative waste disposal options have important implications in life cycle GHG results for waste-to-energy pathways

  8. Ethanol fermentation integrated with PDMS composite membrane: An effective process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chaohui; Cai, Di; Hu, Song; Miao, Qi; Wang, Yong; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-01-01

    The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, prepared in water phase, was investigated in separation ethanol from model ethanol/water mixture and fermentation-pervaporation integrated process. Results showed that the PDMS membrane could effectively separate ethanol from model solution. When integrated with batch ethanol fermentation, the ethanol productivity was enhanced compared with conventional process. Fed-batch and continuous ethanol fermentation with pervaporation were also performed and studied. 396.2-663.7g/m(2)h and 332.4-548.1g/m(2)h of total flux with separation factor of 8.6-11.7 and 8-11.6, were generated in the fed-batch and continuous fermentation with pervaporation scenario, respectively. At the same time, high titre ethanol production of ∼417.2g/L and ∼446.3g/L were also achieved on the permeate side of membrane in the two scenarios, respectively. The integrated process was environmental friendly and energy saving, and has a promising perspective in long-terms operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation - Process development and technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugulis, A.J.; Axford, D.B.; Mau, T.K.

    1991-01-01

    Extractive Fermentation is an ethanol processing strategy in which the operations of fermentation and product recovery are integrated and undertaken simultaneously in a single step. In this process an inert and biocompatible organic solvent is introduced directly into the fermentation vessel to selectively extract the ethanol product. The ethanol is readily recovered from the solvent at high concentration by means of flash vaporization, and the solvent is recycled in a closed loop back to the fermentor. This process is characterized by a high productivity (since ethanol does not build up to inhibitory levels), continuous operation, significantly reduced water consumption, and lower product recovery costs. The technical advantages of this processing strategy have been extensively demonstrated by means of a continuous, fully integrated and computer-controlled Process Demonstration Unit in the authors' laboratory. Numerous features of this technology have been protected by US patent. A thorough economic comparison of Extractive Fermentation relative to modern ethanol technology (continuous with cell recycle) has been completed for both new plants and retrofitting of existing facilities for a capacity of 100 million liters of ethanol per year. Substantial cost savings are possible with Extractive Fermentation ranging, depending on the process configuration, from 5 cents to 16 cents per liter. Activities are under way to transfer this proprietary technology to the private sector

  10. Multi response optimization of internal grinding process parameters for outer ring using Taguchi method and PCR-TOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnuadi, Alief Regyan; Damayanti, Retno Wulan; Pujiyanto, Eko

    2018-02-01

    Bearing is one of the most widely used parts in automotive industry. One of the leading bearing manufacturing companies in the world is SKF Indonesia. This company must produce bearing with international standard. SKF Indonesia must do continuous improvement in order to face competition. During this time, SKF Indonesia is only performing quality control at its Quality Assurance department. In other words, quality improvement at SKF Indonesia has not been done thoroughly. The purpose of this research is to improve quality of outer ring product at SKF Indonesia by conducting an internal grinding process experiment about setting speed ratio, fine position, and spark out grinding time. The specific purpose of this experiment is to optimize some quality responses such as roughness, roundness, and cycle time. All of the response in this experiment were smaller the better. Taguchi method and PCR-TOPSIS are used for the optimization process. The result of this research shows that by using Taguchi method and PCR-TOPSIS, the optimum condition occurs on speed ratio 36, fine position 18 µm/s and spark out 0.5 s. The optimum conditions result were roughness 0.398 µm, roundness 1.78 µm and cycle time 8.1 s. This results have been better than the previous results and meet the standards. The roughness of 0.523 µm decrease to 0.398 µm and the average cycle time of 8.5 s decrease to 8.1 s.

  11. Surface grinding of intermetallic titanium aluminides

    CERN Document Server

    Gröning, Holger Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A deductive kinematic model of creep-feed and speed-stroke grinding processes is developed to identify possibilities to reduce the energy introduced into the workpiece. By computer tomography analysis and tactile measurements of the grinding wheel the pore volume and the static cutting edge number are determined and included in the model. Based on the kinematic model and the grinding wheel characteristics an analytical evaluation of the specific grinding energy for speed-stroke and creep-feed grinding is carried out. The deducted process design is evaluated in experimental investigations. The

  12. A study of grinding characteristic of ferrule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Choi, H. Z.; Choi, Y. J.; Ahn, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    As recently optical communication industry is developed, request of optical communication part is increased. Ferrule is very important part which determines transmission efficiency and quality of information in the optical communication part. Most of ferrule processes are grinding which request high processing precision. Particularly, concentricity and cylindricity of inner and outer diameter is very important. The co-axle grinding process of ferrule is to make its concentricity all of uniform before centerless grinding. Surface integrity of ferrule is affected by kind of grinding wheels, grinding conditions, and characteristic of workpiece and equipment. In this study, surface integrity of workpiece according to change of grinding wheel speed, feed rate, regulating wheel speed and grinding force is investigate to improve the concentricity and roundness of ferrule from many experiments

  13. Grinding Wheel Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This graphic dubbed by engineers as the 'Grinding Wheel Profile' is the detective's tool used by the Opportunity team to help them understand one of the processes that formed the interior of a rock called 'McKittrick.' Scientists are looking for clues as to how layers, grains and minerals helped create this rock, and the engineers who built the rock abrasion tool (RAT) wanted to ensure that their instrument's handiwork did not get confused with natural processes.In the original microscopic image underlaying the graphics, engineers and scientists noticed 'layers' or 'scratches' on the spherical object nicknamed 'blueberry' in the lower right part of the image. The designers of the rock abrasion tool noticed that the arc length and width of the scratches were similar to the shape and size of the rock abrasion tool's grinding wheel, which is made out of a pad of diamond teeth.The scrapes on the bottom right blueberry appear to be caused by the fact that the berry got dislodged slightly and its surface was scraped with the grinding pad. In this image, the largest yellow circle is the overall diameter of the hole ground by the rock abrasion tool and the largest yellow rectangular shape is the area of the grinding wheel bit. The smaller yellow semi-circle is the path that the center of the grinding tool follows. The orange arrow arcing around the solid yellow circle (center of grinding tool) indicates the direction that the grinding tool spins around its own center at 3,000 revolutions per minute. The tool simultaneously spins in an orbit around the center of the hole, indicated by the larger orange arrow to the left.The grinding tool is 22 millimeters (0.9 inches) in length and the actual grinding surface, which consists of the diamond pad, is 1.5 millimeters (0.06 inches) in length, indicated by the two smaller rectangles. You can see that the smaller bottom rectangle fits exactly the width of the scrape marks.The grooves on the blueberry are also the same as the

  14. Ethanol production from waste processing tomato dry; Producao de etanol a partir de residuo do processamento de tomate seco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Carla A.P.; Dal Sotto, Jessica; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], emails: carlaschmidt@utfpr.edu.br, jeh.dalsotto@hotmail.com, fabianaschutz@utfpr.edu.br

    2011-07-01

    The generation of waste increases with the development of a region and increases the power consumption. Research about the reuse of waste for energy generation favors solving these two problems. This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of tomato seeds discarded from the production process of tomato pulp dried in ethanol production. Any product that has sugar or other carbohydrate constituted a feedstock for ethanol production, in this study was observed that approximately 26% by weight of 2kg of tomatoes assessed were represented by seeds. We obtained the juice of tomato seeds by use a blender to grind the product to facilitate the process of fermentation. Added to the fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing a pre inoculum with Brix and pH adjusted, sterilized at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, which was subsequently incubated at 28-30 deg C until the end of process. Mixed up to follow this pre inoculum to the rest of the must was sterilized and incubated again at 28-30 deg C until the end of the process. The acquisition of ethanol was carried through a distillation. It was concluded that the seed discarded in the process of the product can be used for this purpose. (author)

  15. Lignocellulosic ethanol: Technology design and its impact on process efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulova, Leona; Patakova, Petra; Branska, Barbora; Rychtera, Mojmir; Melzoch, Karel

    2015-11-01

    This review provides current information on the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, with the main focus on relationships between process design and efficiency, expressed as ethanol concentration, yield and productivity. In spite of unquestionable advantages of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for ethanol production (availability, price, non-competitiveness with food, waste material), many technological bottlenecks hinder its wide industrial application and competitiveness with 1st generation ethanol production. Among the main technological challenges are the recalcitrant structure of the material, and thus the need for extensive pretreatment (usually physico-chemical followed by enzymatic hydrolysis) to yield fermentable sugars, and a relatively low concentration of monosaccharides in the medium that hinder the achievement of ethanol concentrations comparable with those obtained using 1st generation feedstocks (e.g. corn or molasses). The presence of both pentose and hexose sugars in the fermentation broth, the price of cellulolytic enzymes, and the presence of toxic compounds that can inhibit cellulolytic enzymes and microbial producers of ethanol are major issues. In this review, different process configurations of the main technological steps (enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation of hexose/and or pentose sugars) are discussed and their efficiencies are compared. The main features, benefits and drawbacks of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with delayed inoculation (dSSF), consolidated bioprocesses (CBP) combining production of cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of biomass and fermentation into one step, together with an approach combining utilization of both pentose and hexose sugars are discussed and compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) processes. The impact of individual technological steps on final process efficiency is emphasized and the potential for use

  16. Effect of the time working on the process ethanol dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Блинков, Николай Андреевич

    2013-01-01

    The paper gives the analysis of ethanol dehydration by using a solid adsorbent, which is capable of forming crystalline hydrates by means of chemical bonding of water molecules with its further formation. The main objective of the research was to study the process of crystalline hydrates formation, as well as another type of interaction with water — hydrolysis. Ethanol, almost free from water, was obtained using one of the salts of phosphoric acid — sodium hydrogen phosphate, containing one h...

  17. Chemical elements dynamic in the fermentation process of ethanol producing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepomuceno, N.; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Bacchi, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides useful information about the dynamics of chemical elements analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and, found in the various segments of the fermentation process of producing ethanol from sugar cane. For this, a mass balance of Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Sc, Sm, and Th, terrigenous elements, as well as Br, K, Rb, and Zn, sugar cane plant elements, has been demonstrated for the fermentation vats in industrial conditions of ethanol production. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  18. Process for fermentation of ethanol. Verfahren zur Aethanolfermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, M S; Crawford, S D

    1980-06-19

    The invention concerns an improved process for the manufacture of ethanol from cellulose and substrates containing cellulate with cellulase enzymes and yeast (Candida brassicae ATCC 32196). The cellulase and the micro-organisms producing the alcohol are caused to react simultaneously on the same substrate. The yeast is active below and above 40/sup 0/C.

  19. FY 1998 annual report on the development of laser-aided, noncontacting, realtime, in-process dressing method using a grinding stone with ultrafine abrasive grains, and study on techniques for applying the method to grinding stone of superthin blades; 1998 nendo laser wo mochiita choteiryu toishi no hisesshoku real time inprocess dressing ho no kaihatsu oyobi gokuusuha toishi eno tekiyo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A new noncontacting dressing method using a laser as a tool has been studied and developed, in order to develop environment-compatible, energy-saving type machining machines. In this study, a cup-shaped grinding stone is developed for grinding performance testing by micron-order diamond abrasive powder, used for producing a grinding stone of superthin blades, is mixed with a cast iron binder, molded and sintered. In the grinding performance test, zirconia as a work is ground at a constant pressure to the grinding stone working surface before and after the laser-aided dressing, to analyze grinding/removal efficiency and grinding resistance. The grinding stone working surface conditions are observed by a scanning electron microscope after the laser-aided dressing, to correlate the surface conditions with the grinding data. It is found that the laser-aided dressing method needs no lubricant, is clean, cutting grinding time when incorporated in the machining process, suitable for grinding stone of low stiffness and ultrathin blades by use of ultrafine abrasive grains, suffering no exfoliation of the diamond grains, and hence economical. (NEDO)

  20. Tool grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Sr., Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thickness may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  1. Improved tool grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, C.E. Sr.

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thicknesses may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  2. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [Knoxville, TN

    2012-06-05

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  3. Control of grinding polygonal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрій Володимирович Петраков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grinding of non-round surfaces, in particular polygonal surfaces of dies, is characterized by substantial non stationary. At different sections of the profile, the change in the main characteristic (Material Removal Rate – MRR process reaches tens of times. To stabilize the grinding process, it is recommended to control the spindle speed of the workpiece CNC grinding machine. Created software that allows to design the control program on the basis of mathematical model of the system. The determination of MRR is realized automatically in the simulation of the grinding process which uses the algorithm developed for solving problems in geometric interaction of the workpiece and the wheel. In forming the control program is possible takes into account the limitations on the maximum circumferential force of cutting, and the maximum allowable acceleration of the machine spindle. Practice has shown that full stabilization is not obtained, even though the performance is increased more than 2 times, while ensuring the quality of the surface. The developed block diagram of the grinding process can serve as a basis for further improvement in the solution of dynamic problems.

  4. Collaborative study on the effect of grinding on the detection of bones from processed animal proteins in feed by light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veys, Pascal; Planchon, Viviane; Colbert, Ruairi; Cruz, Clara; Frick, Geneviève; Ioannou, Ioannis; Marchis, Daniela; Nordkvist, Erik; Paradies-Severin, Inge; Pohto, Arja; Weiss, Roland; Baeten, Vincent; Berben, Gilbert

    2017-08-01

    Bone fragments are essential structures for the detection of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in feed by light microscopy for official controls according to Annex VI of European Union Regulation EC/152/2009. The preparation of samples submitted for analysis requires a grinding step to make them suitable for microscopic slide preparation and observation. However, there are no technical guidelines set down for this step despite the fact that it can lead to an increase in bone numbers due to fragmentation. This was demonstrated by an in-house study carried out by the Irish National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for animal protein detection. The present collaborative study investigated the possible effects of three different grinding conditions on the final result for a feed adulterated with 0.05 and 0.01% (w/w) of PAP. The microscopic analysis either combined or not with an Alizarin Red staining was carried out by 10 different laboratories. The results demonstrated that although a large variation in the numbers of bone fragments was noted, five of the six different grinding/staining combinations applied at two levels of PAP adulteration did not significantly (at p = 0.05) differ from one another. The only exception occurred when grinding the feed containing 0.05% of PAP with a rotor mill equipped with a 0.5-mm sieve and combined with a staining which resulted in a greater number of bone fragments by forced fragmentation. Overall, the impact of the grinding/staining combinations on the final results was shown to be negligible when considering the regulatory limit of detection (LOD) requirement for the method and the current rules of implementation of the light microscopic method. From a total of 180 analyses carried out on the feed matrix containing 0.05% of PAP no false-negative result was observed, and at a level of 0.01% PAP only 10 false-negative results occurred.

  5. ABALONE (HALIOTIS SQUAMATA ANESTHESIA WITH ETHANOL ON GRADING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanni N.A.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An abalone is a group of marine molluscs that have high economic value. To increase abalone production, such cultivation needs to be done considering that abalone production still dominating. However, there are still obstacles in the cultivation which is the high mortality rates on the grading process of juvenile abalone. The fatality occurs due to the traditional grading process by gouging abalone to separate abalone that is attached to the substrate. The use of ethanol as an anesthetic material is expected to minimize the mortality and increase the survival rate of abalone. In this study, the use of ethanol by 30 ml/L as an anesthetic material can separate the abalone from its substrate 447.67 seconds faster than the dose of 10 ml/L. However, the 30 ml/L dose also showed the lowest survival rate of 86.67%. The best recovery test is at 10 ml/L with the fastest recovery time of 143.33 seconds which has a high survival rate of 98.33%. The success of anesthesia by using ethanol in this study can also be done in the grading process of abalone seed and can minimize death due to the traditional grading process.

  6. Conduit grinding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, Henry D.; Korytkowski, Alfred S.

    1991-01-01

    A grinding apparatus for grinding the interior portion of a valve stem receiving area of a valve. The apparatus comprises a faceplate, a plurality of cams mounted to an interior face of the faceplate, a locking bolt to lock the faceplate at a predetermined position on the valve, a movable grinder and a guide tube for positioning an optical viewer proximate the area to be grinded. The apparatus can either be rotated about the valve for grinding an area of the inner diameter of a valve stem receiving area or locked at a predetermined position to grind a specific point in the receiving area.

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Efficient Ethanol Recovery from Ethanol-Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions [1]. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation ...

  8. Mechanical Properties of Oxide Films on Electrolytic In-process Dressing (ELID) Copper-based Grinding Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, J. C.; Wang, J. W.; Jiang, C. R.; Zhang, H. L.; Yang, Z. B.

    2018-05-01

    The mechanical properties of oxide films on copper based grinding wheel were studied by nanoindentation technique. The analysis of load displacement shows that the creep phenomenon occurs during the loading stage. Results show that the oxide film and the matrix have different characteristics, and the rigidity of the copper based grinding wheel is 0.6-1.3mN/nm, which is weaker than that of the matrix; the hardness of the oxide film is 2000-2300MPa, which is higher than the matrix; and the elastic modulus of the oxide film is 100-120GPa, also higher than the matrix.

  9. Study of abrasive wear process of lining of grinding chamber of vortex-acoustic disperser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelygin, D. N.

    2018-03-01

    The theoretical and experimental studies of the process of gas-abrasive wear of the lining of a vortex-acoustic disperser made it possible to establish the conditions and patterns of their occurrence and also to develop proposals for its reduction.

  10. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) convert starch into fermentable sugars at low temperatures (≤48°C). Use of GSHE in dry grind process can eliminate high temperature requirements during cooking and liquefaction (≥90°C). In this study, GSHE was compared with two combinations of commercial alpha-amylase and glucoamylase (DG1 and DG2, respectively). All three enzyme treatments resulted in comparable ethanol concentrations (between 14.1 to 14.2% v/v at 72 hr), ethanol conversion efficiencies and ethanol and DDGS yields. Sugar profiles for the GSHE treatment were different from DG1 and DG2 treatments, especially for glucose. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the highest glucose concentration for the GSHE treatment was 7% (w/v); for DG1 and DG2 treatments, maximum glucose concentration was 19% (w/v). GSHE was used in one of the fractionation technologies (enzymatic dry grind) to improve recovery of germ and pericarp fiber prior to fermentation. The enzymatic dry grind process with GSHE was compared with the conventional dry grind process using GSHE with the same process parameters of dry solids content, pH, temperature, time, enzyme and yeast usages. Ethanol concentration (at 72 hr) of the enzymatic process was 15.5% (v/v), which was 9.2% higher than the conventional process (14.2% v/v). Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) generated from the enzymatic process (9.8% db) was 66% less than conventional process (28.3% db). Three additional coproducts, germ 8.0% (db), pericarp fiber 7.7% (db) and endosperm fiber 5.2% (db) were produced. Costs and amounts of GSHE used is an important factor affecting dry grind process economics. Proteases can weaken protein matrix to aid starch release and may reduce GSHE doses. Proteases also can hydrolyze protein into free amino nitrogen (FAN), which can be used as a yeast nutrient during fermentation. Two types of proteases, exoprotease and endoprotease, were studied; protease and urea

  11. Processing method for drained water containing ethanol amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakuta, Kuniharu; Ogawa, Naoki; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Kamiyoshi, Hideki; Fukunaga, Kazuo; Iwamoto, Ken; Miki, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Toshio

    1998-01-01

    Drained water containing ethanol amine is processed with microorganisms such as hydrazine resistant denitrification bacteria in a biodegrading vessel (A) in the coexistence of nitrous ions and/or nitric ions under an anaerobic condition, and then it is processed with microorganisms such as nitrification bacteria in another biotic oxidation vessel (B) under an aerobic condition to generate the coexistent nitrate ion and/or nitric ion, and returned to the biodegrading vessel (A). Further, they are exposed to air or incorporated with an oxidant and optionally a copper compound such as copper sulfate as a catalyst is added in a step of removing hydrazine. (T.M.)

  12. Application of the Taguchi Method for Optimizing the Process Parameters of Producing Lightweight Aggregates by Incorporating Tile Grinding Sludge with Reservoir Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, How-Ji; Chang, Sheng-Nan; Tang, Chao-Wei

    2017-11-10

    This study aimed to apply the Taguchi optimization technique to determine the process conditions for producing synthetic lightweight aggregate (LWA) by incorporating tile grinding sludge powder with reservoir sediments. An orthogonal array L 16 (4⁵) was adopted, which consisted of five controllable four-level factors (i.e., sludge content, preheat temperature, preheat time, sintering temperature, and sintering time). Moreover, the analysis of variance method was used to explore the effects of the experimental factors on the particle density, water absorption, bloating ratio, and loss on ignition of the produced LWA. Overall, the produced aggregates had particle densities ranging from 0.43 to 2.1 g/cm³ and water absorption ranging from 0.6% to 13.4%. These values are comparable to the requirements for ordinary and high-performance LWAs. The results indicated that it is considerably feasible to produce high-performance LWA by incorporating tile grinding sludge with reservoir sediments.

  13. The solvent absorption-extractive distillation (SAED) process for ethanol recovery from gas/vapor streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    A low energy system for ethanol recovery and dehydration has been developed. This system utilizes a solvent for (1) absorption of ethanol vapors, and then the same solvent for (2) extractive distillation. The ideal solvent for this process would have a high affinity for ethanol, and no affinity for water. Heavy alcohols such as dodecanol, and tridecanol, some phosphorals, and some fatty acids have been determined to meet the desired specifications. These solvents have the effect of making water more volatile than ethanol. Thus, a water stream is taken off initially in the dehydration column, and a near anhydrous ethanol stream is recovered from the ethanol/solvent stripper column. Thus the solvent serves dual uses (1) absorption media, and (2) dehydration media. The SAED process as conceptualized would use a solvent similar to solvents used for direct extractive separation of ethanol from aqueous ethanol solutions.

  14. Economic and process optimization of ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report demonstrates by computer simulation the economic advantages of extractive fermentation on an industrial scale compared to the best alternative technology currently available. The simulations were based on a plant capacity of 100 x 10 6 L/y of azeotropic ethanol. The simulation results were verified with a fully integrated, computer controlled extractive fermentation process demonstration unit based around a 7 L fermentor operated with a synthetic glucose medium and using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The system was also operated with natural substrates (blackstrap molasses and grain hydrolyzate). Preliminary tests with the organism Zymomonas mobilis were also carried out under extractive fermentation conditions.

  15. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in breathing zone and area air during large-scale commercial coffee roasting, blending and grinding processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. McCoy

    Full Text Available Recently described scientific literature has identified the airborne presence of 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione at concentrations approaching or potentially exceeding the current American Conference of Industrial Hygienists’ (ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLVs at commercial coffee roasting and production facilities. Newly established National Institutes of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione are even more conservative. Chronic exposure to these alpha-diketones at elevated airborne concentrations has been associated with lung damage, specifically bronchiolitis obliterans, most notably in industrial food processing facilities.Workers at a large commercial coffee roaster were monitored for both eight-hour and task-based, short-term, 15-min sample durations for airborne concentrations of these alpha-diketones during specific work processes, including the coffee bean roasting, blending and grinding processes, during two separate 8-h work periods. Additionally, the authors performed real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the workers’ breathing zone as well as the area workplace air for the presence of organic compounds to determine the sources, as well as quantitate and identify various organic compounds proximal to the roasting and grinding processes. Real-time FTIR measurements provided both the identification and quantitation of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, as well as other organic compounds generated during coffee bean roasting and grinding operations.Airborne concentrations of diacetyl in the workers’ breathing zone, as eight-hour time-weighted averages were less than the ACGIH TLVs for diacetyl, while concentrations of 2,3-pentanedione were below the limit of detection in all samples. Short-term breathing zone samples revealed airborne concentrations for diacetyl that exceeded the ACGIH short-term exposure limit of 0

  16. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Pavlečić; Ivna Vrana; Kristijan Vibovec; Mirela Ivančić Šantek; Predrag Horvat; Božidar Šantek

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol ...

  17. Towards High Productivity in Precision Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Brian Rowe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, substantial advances have been made, based on improved understanding of the requirements of grinding processes, machines, control systems, materials, abrasives, wheel preparation, coolants, lubricants, and coolant delivery. This paper reviews a selection of areas in which the application of scientific principles and engineering ingenuity has led to the development of new grinding processes, abrasives, tools, machines, and systems. Topics feature a selection of areas where relationships between scientific principles and new techniques are yielding improved productivity and better quality. These examples point towards further advances that can fruitfully be pursued. Applications in modern grinding technology range from high-precision kinematics for grinding very large lenses and reflectors through to medium size grinding machine processes and further down to grinding very small components used in micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS devices. The importance of material issues is emphasized for the range of conventional engineering steels, through to aerospace materials, ceramics, and composites. It is suggested that future advances in productivity will include the wider application of artificial intelligence and robotics to improve precision, process efficiency, and features required to integrate grinding processes into wider manufacturing systems.

  18. [Study on process and principle of lactose grinding modification to decrease hygroscopic of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Fang; Lin, Jun-Zhi; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ying-Guang; Yang, Ming

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract,with high hygroscopic,was selected as research model, while lactose was selected as modifiers to study the effect of the grinding modification method on the hygroscopic. Subsequently, particle size distribution, scannin electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were adopted for a phase analysis. The results showed that the modified extract, prepared by Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract grinding 5 min with the same amount of lactose UP2, which hygroscopic initial velocity, acceleration, and critical relative humidity moisture were less than that of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract and the mixture dramatically. In addition, compared with the mixture, the size distribution of modified extract was much less, the microstructure was also difference, while the infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were similar with that of lactose. It is the main principle that lactose particle adhered to the surface of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract after grinding mofication to decress the moisture obviously.

  19. Progress in abrasive and grinding technology

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xipeng

    2009-01-01

    The grinding and abrasive processing of materials are machining techniques which use bonded or loose abrasives to remove material from workpieces. Due to the well-known advantages of grinding and abrasive processes, advances in abrasive and grinding technology are always of great import in enhancing both productivity and component quality. In order to highlight the recent progress made in this field, the editor invited 21 world-wide contributions with the aim of gathering together all of the achievements of leading researchers into a single publication. The authors of the 21 invited papers, of

  20. Implications of Industrial Processing Strategy on Cellulosic Ethanol Production at High Solids Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David

    The production of cellulosic ethanol is a biochemical process of not edible biomasses which contain the cellulose. The process involves the use of enzymes to hydrolyze the cellulose in fermentable sugars to finally produce ethanol via fermentative microorganisms (i.e. yeasts). These biomasses...... are the leftover of agricultural productions (straws), not edible crops (giant reed) or wood, thus the ethanol so produced is also called second generation (or 2G ethanol), which differs from the first generation produced from starch (sugar beets mostly). In the industrial production of cellulosic ethanol high...... solids strategy resulted critical for its cost effectiveness: high concentration of initial biomass it will lead to high concentration of the final product (ethanol), thus more convenient to isolate. This thesis investigate the implementation of a high solids loading concept into cellulosic ethanol...

  1. Grinding Away Microfissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Gary N.; Malinzak, R. Michael

    1990-01-01

    Treatment similar to dental polishing used to remove microfissures from metal parts without reworking adjacent surfaces. Any variety of abrasive tips attached to small motor used to grind spot treated. Configuration of grinding head must be compatible with configurations of motor and workpiece. Devised to eliminate spurious marks on welded parts.

  2. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in breathing zone and area air during large-scale commercial coffee roasting, blending and grinding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Michael J; Hoppe Parr, Kimberly A; Anderson, Kim E; Cornish, Jim; Haapala, Matti; Greivell, John

    2017-01-01

    Recently described scientific literature has identified the airborne presence of 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) and 2,3-pentanedione at concentrations approaching or potentially exceeding the current American Conference of Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) at commercial coffee roasting and production facilities. Newly established National Institutes of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limits for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione are even more conservative. Chronic exposure to these alpha-diketones at elevated airborne concentrations has been associated with lung damage, specifically bronchiolitis obliterans, most notably in industrial food processing facilities. Workers at a large commercial coffee roaster were monitored for both eight-hour and task-based, short-term, 15-min sample durations for airborne concentrations of these alpha-diketones during specific work processes, including the coffee bean roasting, blending and grinding processes, during two separate 8-h work periods. Additionally, the authors performed real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the workers' breathing zone as well as the area workplace air for the presence of organic compounds to determine the sources, as well as quantitate and identify various organic compounds proximal to the roasting and grinding processes. Real-time FTIR measurements provided both the identification and quantitation of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, as well as other organic compounds generated during coffee bean roasting and grinding operations. Airborne concentrations of diacetyl in the workers' breathing zone, as eight-hour time-weighted averages were less than the ACGIH TLVs for diacetyl, while concentrations of 2,3-pentanedione were below the limit of detection in all samples. Short-term breathing zone samples revealed airborne concentrations for diacetyl that exceeded the ACGIH short-term exposure limit of 0.02 parts per million (ppm) in

  3. Metastable structure formation during high velocity grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarin, A.N.; Klyuev, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Metastable structures in surface layers of samples are; investigated during force high-velocity abrasive grinding. Samples of martensitic (40Kh13), austenitic (12Kh18N10T), ferritic (05Kh23Yu5) steels and some alloys, in particular KhN77TYuR (EhI437B), were grinded for one pass at treatment depth from 0.17 up to 2.6 mm. It is established that processes of homogenizing, recrystallization and coagulation are; developed during force high-velocity grinding along with polymorphic transformations in the zone of thermomechanical effect, that leads to changes of physical and mechanical properties of the surface

  4. Manufacture of barium hexaferrite (BaO3.98Fe2O3) from iron oxide waste of grinding process by using calcination process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idayanti, N.; Dedi; Kristiantoro, T.; Mulyadi, D.; Sudrajat, N.; Alam, G. F. N.

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of iron oxide waste of grinding process as raw materials for making barium hexaferrite has been completed by powder metallurgy method. The iron oxide waste was purified by roasting at 800 °C temperature for 3 hours. The method used varying calcination temperature at 1000, 1100, 1200, and 1250 °C for 3 hours. The starting iron oxide waste (Fe2O3) and barium carbonate (BaCO3) were prepared by mol ratio of Fe2O3:BaCO3 from the formula BaO3.98Fe2O3. Some additives such as calcium oxide (CaO), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were added after calcination process. The samples were formed at the pressure of 2 ton/cm2 and sintered at the temperature of 1250 °C for 1 hour. The formation of barium hexaferrite compounds after calcination is determined by X-Ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were observed by Permagraph-Magnet Physik with the optimum characteristic at calcination temperature of 1250 °C with the induction of remanence (Br) = 1.38 kG, coercivity (HcJ) = 4.533 kOe, product energy maximum (BHmax) = 1.086 MGOe, and density = 4.33 g/cm3.

  5. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.F.

    1985-08-08

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Technics study on high accuracy crush dressing and sharpening of diamond grinding wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yunhai; Lu, Xuejun; Li, Jiangang; Zhu, Lixin; Song, Yingjie

    2011-05-01

    Mechanical grinding of artificial diamond grinding wheel was traditional wheel dressing process. The rotate speed and infeed depth of tool wheel were main technics parameters. The suitable technics parameters of metals-bonded diamond grinding wheel and resin-bonded diamond grinding wheel high accuracy crush dressing were obtained by a mount of experiment in super-hard material wheel dressing grind machine and by analysis of grinding force. In the same time, the effect of machine sharpening and sprinkle granule sharpening was contrasted. These analyses and lots of experiments had extent instruction significance to artificial diamond grinding wheel accuracy crush dressing.

  7. Ethanol fermentation characteristics of recycled water by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an integrated ethanol-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinchao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui

    2016-11-01

    An process of integrated ethanol-methane fermentation with improved economics has been studied extensively in recent years, where the process water used for a subsequent fermentation of carbohydrate biomass is recycled. This paper presents a systematic study of the ethanol fermentation characteristics of recycled process water. Compared with tap water, fermentation time was shortened by 40% when mixed water was employed. However, while the maximal ethanol production rate increased from 1.07g/L/h to 2.01g/L/h, ethanol production was not enhanced. Cell number rose from 0.6×10(8) per mL in tap water to 1.6×10(8) per mL in mixed water but although biomass increased, cell morphology was not affected. Furthermore, the use of mixed water increased the glycerol yield but decreased that of acetic acid, and the final pH with mixed water was higher than when using tap water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Critical study of high efficiency deep grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, lain

    2002-01-01

    The recent years, the aerospace industry in particular has embraced and actively pursued the development of stronger high performance materials, namely nickel based superalloys and hardwearing steels. This has resulted in a need for a more efficient method of machining, and this need was answered with the advent of High Efficiency Deep Grinding (HEDG). This relatively new process using Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) electroplated grinding wheels has been investigated through experim...

  9. Conceptual design of heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer

    OpenAIRE

    Paritta Prayoonyong

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer is presented. The residue curve map of the ethanol/water/1-butanol mixture is computationally generated using non-random twoliquid thermodynamic model. It is found that 1-butanol leads to a residue curve map topological structure different from that generated by typical entrainers used in ethanol dehydration. Synthesis...

  10. Explaining the reductions in US corn ethanol processing costs: Testing competing hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoguang; Khanna, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    The processing costs of US corn ethanol have declined by 45% since 1983 as production volumes have increased seventeen-fold. We investigate the role of various factors that could explain this, including economies of scale, cumulative experience, induced innovation in response to rising input prices, an autonomous technological change, and trade induced competition from imported ethanol. Using data on dry-mill ethanol processing costs over the 1983–2005 period, we find evidence to show that US corn ethanol production exhibited decreasing returns to scale, that learning by doing played an important role in reducing these processing costs with a learning rate of 0.25, and that sugarcane ethanol imports contributed to making the corn ethanol industry more competitive. Other factors such as the rising prices of energy and labor did induce lower processing costs, but the effect is not statistically significant. The inclusion of these competing explanations for the reduction in processing costs of US corn ethanol lead to a significantly higher learning rate than otherwise, and this learning rate is found to be robust across specifications. - Highlights: ► We investigate the role of various factors that could explain the reduction in US corn ethanol processing costs over the period 1983–2005. ► We find that US corn ethanol production exhibited decreasing returns to scale. ► Learning by doing played an important role in reducing these costs with a learning rate of 0.25. ► Sugarcane ethanol imports contributed to making the corn ethanol industry more competitive. ► Rising prices of energy and labor did induce lower processing costs, but the effect is not statistically significant.

  11. Effect of acetic acid in recycling water on ethanol production for cassava in an integrated ethanol-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinchao; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jianhua; Tang, Lei; Mao, Zhonggui

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the integrated ethanol-methane fermentation process has been studied to prevent wastewater pollution. However, when the anaerobic digestion reaction runs poorly, acetic acid will accumulate in the recycling water. In this paper, we studied the effect of low concentration of acetic acid (≤25 mM) on ethanol fermentation at different initial pH values (4.2, 5.2 or 6.2). At an initial pH of 4.2, ethanol yields increased by 3.0% and glycerol yields decreased by 33.6% as the acetic acid concentration was increased from 0 to 25 mM. Raising the concentration of acetic acid to 25 mM increased the buffering capacity of the medium without obvious effects on biomass production in the cassava medium. Acetic acid was metabolized by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the reason that the final concentration of acetic acid was 38.17% lower than initial concentration at pH 5.2 when 25 mM acetic acid was added. These results confirmed that a low concentration of acetic acid in the process stimulated ethanol fermentation. Thus, reducing the acetic acid concentration to a controlled low level is more advantageous than completely removing it.

  12. Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Ganti S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of the common pretreatment technologies: dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion. Detailed process models incorporating feedstock handling, pretreatment, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, ethanol recovery and downstream processing were developed using SuperPro Designer. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb was used as a model feedstock. Results Projected ethanol yields were 252.62, 255.80, 255.27 and 230.23 L/dry metric ton biomass for conversion process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies respectively. Price of feedstock and cellulose enzymes were assumed as $50/metric ton and 0.517/kg broth (10% protein in broth, 600 FPU/g protein respectively. Capital cost of ethanol plants processing 250,000 metric tons of feedstock/year was $1.92, $1.73, $1.72 and $1.70/L ethanol for process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Ethanol production cost of $0.83, $0.88, $0.81 and $0.85/L ethanol was estimated for production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Water use in the production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment was estimated 5.96, 6.07, 5.84 and 4.36 kg/L ethanol respectively. Conclusions Ethanol price and energy use were highly dependent on process conditions used in the ethanol production plant. Potential for

  13. The Study on Grinding Ratio in Form Grinding with White Fused Alumina (WA) Grinding Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junming, Wang; Jiong, Wang; Deyuan, Lou

    2018-03-01

    The study is carried out based on an experiment of form grinding spur rack with white fused alumina (WA) grinding wheels. In the experiment, SOV-3020A type tri-axial image mapper is utilized to measure the profile of the tooth space in the rack, and the curve equations between the sectional area of the tooth space and the tooth sequence under different grinding depths are established by nonlinear curve regress using software of origin8.0. Then, it deduces the prediction equations for current grinding ratio and cumulative grinding ratio under different grinding depths. The result shows that the grinding ratio is exponential decline relationship with the increase of the number of the tooth to be ground under the same grinding depth, and the decline speed is fast in the initial stage. With the increase of grinding depth, the grinding ratio increases gradually. The cumulative grinding ratio is about twice as high as the current grinding ratio. Thus, large grinding depth is generally used in rough grinding to improve grinding efficiency.

  14. Energy-effective Grinding of Inorganic Solids Using Organic Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratan K; Weibel, Martin; Müller, Thomas; Heinz, Hendrik; Flatt, Robert J

    2017-08-09

    We present our research findings related to new formulations of the organic additives (grinding aids) needed for the efficient grinding of inorganic solids. Even though the size reduction phenomena of the inorganic solid particles in a ball mill is purely a physical process, the addition of grinding aids in milling media introduces a complex physicochemical process. In addition to further gain in productivity, the organic additive helps to reduce the energy needed for grinding, which in the case of cement clinker has major environmental implications worldwide. This is primarily due to the tremendous amounts of cement produced and almost 30% of the associated electrical energy is consumed for grinding. In this paper, we examine the question of how to optimize these grinding aids linking molecular insight into their working mechanisms, and also how to design chemical additives of improved performance for industrial comminution.

  15. Process and technoeconomic analysis of leading pretreatment technologies for lignocellulosic ethanol production using switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ling; Aden, Andy; Elander, Richard T; Pallapolu, Venkata Ramesh; Lee, Y Y; Garlock, Rebecca J; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Kim, Youngmi; Mosier, Nathan S; Ladisch, Michael R; Falls, Matthew; Holtzapple, Mark T; Sierra, Rocio; Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat A; Redmond, Tim; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E; Hames, Bonnie; Thomas, Steve; Warner, Ryan E

    2011-12-01

    Six biomass pretreatment processes to convert switchgrass to fermentable sugars and ultimately to cellulosic ethanol are compared on a consistent basis in this technoeconomic analysis. The six pretreatment processes are ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), dilute acid (DA), lime, liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), and sulfur dioxide-impregnated steam explosion (SO(2)). Each pretreatment process is modeled in the framework of an existing biochemical design model so that systematic variations of process-related changes are consistently captured. The pretreatment area process design and simulation are based on the research data generated within the Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI) 3 project. Overall ethanol production, total capital investment, and minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) are reported along with selected sensitivity analysis. The results show limited differentiation between the projected economic performances of the pretreatment options, except for processes that exhibit significantly lower monomer sugar and resulting ethanol yields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of cultivar selection and process optimization on ethanol yield from different varieties of sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of ‘energycane’ varieties of sugarcane is underway, targeting the use of both sugar juice and bagasse for ethanol production. The current study evaluated a selection of such ‘energycane’ cultivars for the combined ethanol yields from juice and bagasse, by optimization of dilute acid pretreatment optimization of bagasse for sugar yields. Method A central composite design under response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of dilute acid pretreatment parameters followed by enzymatic hydrolysis on the combined sugar yield of bagasse samples. The pressed slurry generated from optimum pretreatment conditions (maximum combined sugar yield) was used as the substrate during batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes at different solid loadings and enzyme dosages, aiming to reach an ethanol concentration of at least 40 g/L. Results Significant variations were observed in sugar yields (xylose, glucose and combined sugar yield) from pretreatment-hydrolysis of bagasse from different cultivars of sugarcane. Up to 33% difference in combined sugar yield between best performing varieties and industrial bagasse was observed at optimal pretreatment-hydrolysis conditions. Significant improvement in overall ethanol yield after SSF of the pretreated bagasse was also observed from the best performing varieties (84.5 to 85.6%) compared to industrial bagasse (74.5%). The ethanol concentration showed inverse correlation with lignin content and the ratio of xylose to arabinose, but it showed positive correlation with glucose yield from pretreatment-hydrolysis. The overall assessment of the cultivars showed greater improvement in the final ethanol concentration (26.9 to 33.9%) and combined ethanol yields per hectare (83 to 94%) for the best performing varieties with respect to industrial sugarcane. Conclusions These results suggest that the selection of sugarcane variety to optimize ethanol

  17. Elucidating Grinding Mechanism by Theoretical and Experimental Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMM Sharif Ullah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Grinding is one of the essential manufacturing processes for producing brittle or hard materials-based precision parts (e.g., optical lenses. In grinding, a grinding wheel removes the desired amount of material by passing the same area on the workpiece surface multiple times. How the topography of a workpiece surface evolves with these passes is thus an important research issue, which has not yet been addressed elaborately. The present paper tackles this issue from both the theoretical and the experimental points of view. In particular, this paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical investigations on the multi-pass surface grinding operations where the workpiece surface is made of glass and the grinding wheel consists of cBN abrasive grains. Both investigations confirm that a great deal of stochasticity is involved in the grinding mechanism, and the complexity of the workpiece surface gradually increases along with the number of passes.

  18. Elucidating Grinding Mechanism by Theoretical and Experimental Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Amm Sharif; Caggiano, Alessandra; Kubo, Akihiko; Chowdhury, M A K

    2018-02-09

    Grinding is one of the essential manufacturing processes for producing brittle or hard materials-based precision parts (e.g., optical lenses). In grinding, a grinding wheel removes the desired amount of material by passing the same area on the workpiece surface multiple times. How the topography of a workpiece surface evolves with these passes is thus an important research issue, which has not yet been addressed elaborately. The present paper tackles this issue from both the theoretical and the experimental points of view. In particular, this paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical investigations on the multi-pass surface grinding operations where the workpiece surface is made of glass and the grinding wheel consists of cBN abrasive grains. Both investigations confirm that a great deal of stochasticity is involved in the grinding mechanism, and the complexity of the workpiece surface gradually increases along with the number of passes.

  19. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  20. Development of ELID mirror surface grinding by cast iron bond grinding wheel. Ohkochi memorial technology prize; Chutetsu bond toishi ni yoru denkai inpurosesu doresshingu (ELID) kyomen kensakuho no kaihatsu. Okochi kinen gijutsusho jusho ni yosete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, H.; Takahashi, I. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Hagiuda, Y.; Karikome, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautical Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Development was accomplished on the electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) mirror surface grinding process using a cast iron bonded grinding wheel. This paper describes the history of the development, which may be summarized as follows: a study was begun on powder forging of cutting chips in 1970; a research was started on powder forging of decarburized cast iron powder; developments were made on powder metallurgy of cast irons and cast iron bonded lapping tools in 1980, and cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheels were put on the market; a high-efficiency grinding process using MC and cast iron fiber-bonded grinding wheels were developed in 1985 and the grinding wheels made therefrom were put on the market; and a study was begun on the ELID grinding in 1987, and marketing was started on power supply, grinding liquid and tools for the ELID grinding process in 1990. Discussions on converting raw materials for the powder forging into cutting chips have triggered developing the cast iron bonded grinding wheel. The cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheel improves dressability and sharpness of conventional grinding wheels. The grinding wheel is fabricated by mixing carbonyl iron powder, diamond grinding grains and cast iron powder, pressing the mixture in a die, sintering it at 1140 degC, and assembling and dressing the sinter. The grinding stone can grind high-tech materials. 4 figs.

  1. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-membrane process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane separati...

  2. Process development studies on the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1978-12-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: raw materials and process evaluation, enzyme fermentation studies, ethanol fermentation studies, hydrolysis reactor development, and utilization of hemi-cellulose sugars. (MHR)

  3. Efficient ethanol recovery from yeast fermentation broth with integrated distillation-membrane process

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to conventional distillatio...

  4. Experimental Validation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Energy Efficient Ethanol-Water Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step,...

  5. Grinding kinetics and equilibrium states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoczky, L.; Farnady, F.

    1984-01-01

    The temporary and permanent equilibrium occurring during the initial stage of cement grinding does not indicate the end of comminution, but rather an increased energy consumption during grinding. The constant dynamic equilibrium occurs after a long grinding period indicating the end of comminution for a given particle size. Grinding equilibrium curves can be constructed to show the stages of comminution and agglomeration for certain particle sizes.

  6. Electro-chemical grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagans, P. L.

    1972-01-01

    Electro-chemical grinding technique has rotation speed control, constant feed rates, and contour control. Hypersonic engine parts of nickel alloys can be almost 100% machined, keeping tool pressure at virtual zero. Technique eliminates galling and permits constant surface finish and burr-free interrupted cutting.

  7. Fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose: a challenge for metabolic engineering and process integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaldivar, Jesus; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2001-01-01

    and with the implementation of environmental protection laws in many countries, demand for this fuel is increasing. Efficient ethanol production processes and cheap substrates are needed. Current ethanol production processes using crops such as sugar cane and corn are well-established; however, utilization of a cheaper...... substrate such as lignocellulose could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuel. The processing and utilization of this substrate is complex, differing, in many aspects from crop-based ethanol production. One important requirement is an efficient microorganism able to ferment a variety of sugars......With industrial development growing rapidly, there is a need for environmentally sustainable energy sources. Bioethanol (ethanol from biomass) is an attractive, sustainable energy source to fuel transportation. Based on the premise that fuel bioethanol can contribute to a cleaner environment...

  8. Ultrasonic grinding of optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael; Bechtold, Michael; Fess, Edward; Stephan, Thomas; Bechtold, Rob

    2017-10-01

    Hard ceramic optical materials such as sapphire, ALON, Spinel, PCA, or Silicon Carbide can present a significant challenge in manufacturing precision optical components due to their tough mechanical properties. These are also the same mechanical properties that make them desirable materials when used in harsh environments. Slow processing speeds, premature tool wear, and poor surface quality are common results of the tough mechanical properties of these materials. Often, as a preparatory stage for polishing, the finish of the ground surface greatly influences the polishing process and the resulting finished product. To overcome these challenges, OptiPro Systems has developed an ultrasonic assisted grinding technology, OptiSonic, which has been designed for the precision optics and ceramics industry. OptiSonic utilizes a custom tool holder designed to produce oscillations, in microns of amplitude, in line with the rotating spindle. A software package, IntelliSonic, is integral to the function of this platform. IntelliSonic can automatically characterize tooling during setup to identify and select the ideal resonant peak which to operate at. Then, while grinding, IntelliSonic continuously adjusts the output frequency for optimal grinding efficiency while in contact with the part. This helps maintain a highly consistent process under changing load conditions for a more precise surface. Utilizing a variety of instruments, tests have proven to show a reduction in force between tool and part by up to 50%, while increasing the surface quality and reducing tool wear. This paper will present the challenges associated with these materials and solutions created to overcome them.

  9. Ethanol production from banana peels using statistically optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Vadlani, Praveen V; Saida, Lavudi; Bansal, Sunil; Hughes, Joshua D

    2011-07-01

    Dried and ground banana peel biomass (BP) after hydrothermal sterilization pretreatment was used for ethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize concentrations of cellulase and pectinase, temperature and time for ethanol production from BP using SSF. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value of 0.92 for ethanol production. On the basis of model graphs and numerical optimization, the validation was done in a laboratory batch fermenter with cellulase, pectinase, temperature and time of nine cellulase filter paper unit/gram cellulose (FPU/g-cellulose), 72 international units/gram pectin (IU/g-pectin), 37 °C and 15 h, respectively. The experiment using optimized parameters in batch fermenter not only resulted in higher ethanol concentration than the one predicted by the model equation, but also saved fermentation time. This study demonstrated that both hydrothermal pretreatment and SSF could be successfully carried out in a single vessel, and use of optimized process parameters helped achieve significant ethanol productivity, indicating commercial potential for the process. To the best of our knowledge, ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity of 28.2 g/l and 2.3 g/l/h, respectively from banana peels have not been reported to date. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of hardboard manufacturing process wastewater as a feedstream for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Stephanie; Liu, Jifei; Shonnard, David; Bagley, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Waste streams from the wood processing industry can serve as feedstream for ethanol production from biomass residues. Hardboard manufacturing process wastewater (HPW) was evaluated on the basis of monomeric sugar recovery and fermentability as a novel feedstream for ethanol production. Dilute acid hydrolysis, coupled with concentration of the wastewater resulted in a hydrolysate with 66 g/l total fermentable sugars. As xylose accounted for 53 % of the total sugars, native xylose-fermenting yeasts were evaluated for their ability to produce ethanol from the hydrolysate. The strains selected were, in decreasing order by ethanol yields from xylose (Y p/s, based on consumed sugars), Scheffersomyces stipitis ATCC 58785 (CBS 6054), Pachysolen tannophilus ATCC 60393, and Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 46537. The yeasts were compared on the basis of substrate utilization and ethanol yield during fermentations of the hydrolysate, measured using an HPLC. S. stipitis, P. tannophilus, and K. marxianus produced 0.34, 0.31, and 0.36 g/g, respectively. The yeasts were able to utilize between 58 and 75 % of the available substrate. S. stipitis outperformed the other yeast during the fermentation of the hydrolysate; consuming the highest concentration of available substrate and producing the highest ethanol concentration in 72 h. Due to its high sugar content and low inhibitor levels after hydrolysis, it was concluded that HPW is a suitable feedstream for ethanol production by S. stipitis.

  11. Characteristics of the products of hydrothermal liquefaction combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rundong; Xie, Yinghui; Yang, Tianhua; Li, Bingshuo; Zhang, Yang; Kai, Xingping

    2016-01-01

    The integration utilization of fermentation residues from cellulosic bio-ethanol has attracted a great deal of attention to balance the total cost of bio-ethanol production while simultaneously dealing with bio-ethanol wastewater. A process of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of intact materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol in a batch reactor was proposed. The effects of the reaction temperature and time on the liquefaction characteristics were examined. The optimum condition for liquefaction fermentation residues was 370 °C (21.25 MPa) and 30 min with a bio-oil yield of 40.79 wt%. GC-MS results indicated that the major chemical species in the bio-oil were phenols, ketones, long-chain hydrocarbons and fatty acids. Supercritical conditions (375 °C, 23.50 MPa) was favored for the low-molecular-weight species formation compared to subcritical conditions (370 °C, 21.25 MPa), as some long-chain species decreased. This work thus can provide a novel idea for bio-oil production from HTL of cellulosic bio-ethanol fermentation residues. - Highlights: • Bio-oil production via HTL combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process was proposed. • Optimum condition for HTL of materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol was 370 °C and 30 min. • Bio-oil contained higher content of hydrocarbons and lower contents of organic acids.

  12. Dehydration of ethanol with salt extractive distillation-a comparative analysis between processes with salt recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligero, E.L.; Ravagnani, T.M.K. [Departamento de Engenharia de Sistemas Qumicos, Faculdade de Engenharia Qumica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Anhydrous ethanol can be obtained from a dilute aqueous solution of ethanol via extractive distillation with potassium acetate. Two process flowsheets with salt recovery were proposed. In the first, dilute ethanol is directly fed to a salt extractive distillation column and, after that, the salt is recovered in a multiple effect evaporator followed by a spray dryer. In the second, the concentrated ethanol from conventional distillation is fed to a salt extractive distillation column. In this case, salt is recovered in a single spray dryer. In both processes the recovered salt is recycled to be used in the extractive distillation column. Every component of each process was rigorously modeled and its behavior was simulated for a wide range of operating conditions. A global simulation was then carried out. The results show that the second process is more interesting in terms of energy consumption than the first. Furthermore, it would be easier to implement changes on existing benzene extractive anhydrous ethanol plants to convert them to more ecologically attractive concentrated ethanol feed processes. (author)

  13. Modelling and simulation of a pervaporation process using tubular module for production of anhydrous ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Nguyen Huu

    2017-09-01

    Pervaporation is a potential process for the final step of ethanol biofuel production. In this study, a mathematical model was developed based on the resistance-in-series model and a simulation was carried out using the specialized simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics to describe a tubular type pervaporation module with membranes for the dehydration of ethanol solution. The permeance of membranes, operating conditions, and feed conditions in the simulation were referred from experimental data reported previously in literature. Accordingly, the simulated temperature and density profiles of pure water and ethanol-water mixture were validated based on existing published data.

  14. High-speed, low-damage grinding of advanced ceramics Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, J.A. [Eaton Corp., Willoughby Hills, OH (United States). Mfg. Technologies Center; Malkin, S. [Univ. of Massachusetts (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In manufacture of structural ceramic components, grinding costs can comprise up to 80% of the entire manufacturing cost. Most of these costs arise from the conventional multi-step grinding process with numerous grinding wheels and additional capital equipment, perishable dressing tools, and labor. In an attempt to reduce structural ceramic grinding costs, a feasibility investigation was undertaken to develop a single step, roughing-finishing process suitable for producing high-quality silicon nitride ceramic parts at high material removal rates at lower cost than traditional, multi-stage grinding. This feasibility study employed combined use of laboratory grinding tests, mathematical grinding models, and characterization of resultant material surface condition. More specifically, this Phase 1 final report provides a technical overview of High-Speed, Low-Damage (HSLD) ceramic grinding and the conditions necessary to achieve the small grain depths of cut necessary for low damage grinding while operating at relatively high material removal rates. Particular issues addressed include determining effects of wheel speed and material removal rate on resulting mode of material removal (ductile or brittle fracture), limiting grinding forces, calculation of approximate grinding zone temperatures developed during HSLD grinding, and developing the experimental systems necessary for determining HSLD grinding energy partition relationships. In addition, practical considerations for production utilization of the HSLD process are also discussed.

  15. Conceptual design of heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paritta Prayoonyong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer is presented. The residue curve map of the ethanol/water/1-butanol mixture is computationally generated using non-random twoliquid thermodynamic model. It is found that 1-butanol leads to a residue curve map topological structure different from that generated by typical entrainers used in ethanol dehydration. Synthesised by residue curve map analysis, the distillation flowsheet for ethanol dehydration by 1-butanol comprises a double-feed column integrated with an overhead decanter and a simple column. The double-feed column is used to recover water as the top product, whereas the simple column is used for recovering ethanol and 1-butanol. The separation feasibility and the economically near-optimal designs of distillation columns in the flowsheet are evaluated and identified by using the boundary value design method. The distillation flowsheet using 1-butanol is compared with the conventional process using benzene as entrainer. Based on their total annualised costs, the ethanol dehydration process using 1-butanol is less economically attractive than the process using benzene. However, 1-butanol is less toxic than benzene.

  16. Ethanol production in an integrated fermentation/membrane system. Process simulations and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, W J; Kraayenbrink, M R; Lans, R.G.J.M. van der; Luyben, K C.A.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering

    1993-01-01

    Four systems comprising of an ethanol fermentation integrated with microfiltration and/or pervaporation, and a conventional continuous culture, were compared with respect to the performance of the fermentation and economics. The processes are compared on the basis of the same kinetic model. It is found that cell retention by microfiltration leads to lower production costs, compared to a conventional continuous culture. Pervaporation becomes profitable at a high selectivity of ethanol/water separation and low membrane prices. (orig.).

  17. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, I. D.; Uyazán, A. M.; Aguilar, J. L.; Rodríguez, G.; Caicedo, L. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration pro...

  18. Process Design of Wastewater Treatment for the NREL Cellulosic Ethanol Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwinder, T.; Gill, E.; Gerhardt, M.

    2011-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary process design for treating the wastewater from NREL's cellulosic ethanol production process to quality levels required for recycle. In this report Brown and Caldwell report on three main tasks: 1) characterization of the effluent from NREL's ammonia-conditioned hydrolyzate fermentation process; 2) development of the wastewater treatment process design; and 3) development of a capital and operational cost estimate for the treatment concept option. This wastewater treatment design was incorporated into NREL's cellulosic ethanol process design update published in May 2011 (NREL/TP-5100-47764).

  19. Carotenoid content of the varieties Jaranda and Jariza (Capsicumannuum L.) and response during the industrial slow drying and grinding steps in paprika processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Mosquera, M I; Pérez-Gálvez, A; Garrido-Fernández, J

    2000-07-01

    Fruits of the pepper varieties Jaranda and Jariza (Capsicum annuum L. ) ripen as a group, enabling a single harvesting, showed a uniform carotenoid content that is high enough (7.9 g/kg) for the production of paprika. The drying system at mild temperature showed that fruits with moisture content of 85-88% generated a dry product with carotenoid content equal to or higher than the initial one. Those high moisture levels allowed the fruits to have a longer period of metabolic activity, increasing the yellow fraction, the red fraction, or both as a function of what biosynthetic process was predominant. This fact indicates under-ripeness of the fruits in the drying step. The results obtained allow us to establish that both varieties, Jaranda and Jariza, fit the dehydration process employed, yielding a dry fruit with carotenoid concentration similar to that the initial one. During the grinding step of the dry fruit, the heat generated by the hammers of the mill caused degradation of the yellow fraction, while the red fraction is maintained. The ripeness state of the harvested fruits and the appropriateness or severity of the processing steps are indicated by the ratio of red to yellow (R/Y) and/or red to total (R/T) pigments, since fluctuations in both fractions and in total pigments are reflected in and monitored by these parameters.

  20. Impacts of retrofitting analysis on first generation ethanol production: process design and techno-economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Karthik; Rajoli, Sreevathsava; Teichert, Oliver; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-02-01

    More than half of the bioethanol plants in operation today use corn or grains as raw materials. The downstream processing of mash after fermentation to produce ethanol and distiller grains is an energy-demanding process, which needs retrofitting for optimization. In addition, the fluctuation in the ethanol and grain prices affects the overall profitability of the plant. For this purpose, a process simulation was performed in Aspen Plus(®) based on an existing industrial plant located in Sweden. The simulations were compared using different scenarios including different concentrations of ethanol, using the stillage for biogas production to produce steam instead of distiller grains as a by-product, and altering the purity of the ethanol produced. Using stillage for biogas production, as well as utilizing the steam, reduced the overall energy consumption by 40% compared to the plant in operation. The fluctuations in grain prices had a high impact on the net present value (NPV), where grain prices greater than 349 USD/ton reached a zero NPV. After 20 years, the plant in operation producing 41,600 tons ethanol/year can generate a profit of 78 million USD. Compared to the base case, the less purified ethanol resulted in a lower NPV of 30 million USD.

  1. [Process development for continuous ethanol fermentation by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Lihan; Liu, Chenguang; Bai, Fengwu

    2014-02-01

    Propionic acid, a major inhibitor to yeast cells, was accumulated during continuous ethanol fermentation from corn meal hydrolysate by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions. Based on its inhibition mechanism in yeast cells, strategies were developed for alleviating this effect. Firstly, high temperature processes such as medium sterilization generated more propionic acid, which should be avoided. Propionic acid was reduced significantly during ethanol fermentation without medium sterilization, and concentrations of biomass and ethanol increased by 59.3% and 7.4%, respectively. Secondly, the running time of stillage backset should be controlled so that propionic acid accumulated would be lower than its half inhibition concentration IC50 (40 mmol/L). Finally, because low pH augmented propionic acid inhibition in yeast cells, a higher pH of 5.5 was validated to be suitable for ethanol fermentation under the stillage backset condition.

  2. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from...... of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately...

  3. Carving up Word Meaning: Portioning and Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisson, S.; Frazier, L.

    2005-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments investigated the processing of mass nouns used as count nouns and count nouns used as mass nouns. Following Copestake and Briscoe (1995), the basic or underived sense of a word was treated as the input to a derivational rule (''grinding'' or ''portioning'') which produced the derived sense as output. It was…

  4. Twyman effect mechanics in grinding and microgrinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambropoulos, J C; Xu, S; Fang, T; Golini, D

    1996-10-01

    In the Twyman effect (1905), when one side of a thin plate with both sides polished is ground, the plate bends: The ground side becomes convex and is in a state of compressive residual stress, described in terms of force per unit length (Newtons per meter) induced by grinding, the stress (Newtons per square meter) induced by grinding, and the depth of the compressive layer (micrometers). We describe and correlate experiments on optical glasses from the literature in conditions of loose abrasive grinding (lapping at fixed nominal pressure, with abrasives 4-400 μm in size) and deterministic microgrinding experiments (at a fixed infeed rate) conducted at the Center for Optics Manufacturing with bound diamond abrasive tools (with a diamond size of 3-40 μm, embedded in metallic bond) and loose abrasive microgrinding (abrasives of less than 3 μm in size). In brittle grinding conditions, the grinding force and the depth of the compressive layer correlate well with glass mechanical properties describing the fracture process, such as indentation crack size. The maximum surface residual compressive stress decreases, and the depth of the compressive layer increases with increasing abrasive size. In lapping conditions the depth of the abrasive grain penetration into the glass surface scales with the surface roughness, and both are determined primarily by glass hardness and secondarily by Young's modulus for various abrasive sizes and coolants. In the limit of small abrasive size (ductile-mode grinding), the maximum surface compressive stress achieved is near the yield stress of the glass, in agreement with finite-element simulations of indentation in elastic-plastic solids.

  5. Microbial community composition is consistent across anaerobic digesters processing wheat-based fuel ethanol waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Jennifer; Annand, Holly; Pratt, Dyan; Dumonceaux, Tim; Fonstad, Terrance

    2014-04-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays were conducted on byproducts from dry-grind wheat-based ethanol plants amended with feedlot manure at two input ratios. Whole stillage (WST), thin stillage (TST) and wet cake (WCK) were tested alone and with 1:1 and 2:1 ratios (VS basis) of byproduct:feedlot manure in bench-scale batch reactors. The addition of manure increased both the rate and consistency of methane production in triplicate reactors. In addition, digesters co-digesting thin stillage and cattle manure at 1:1 and 2:1 stillage:manure produced 125% and 119% expected methane based on the biomethane potential of each substrate digested individually. Bacterial community analysis using universal target amplification and pyrosequencing indicated there was a numerically dominant core of 42 bacteria that was universally present in the reactors regardless of input material. A smaller-scale analysis of the archaeal community showed that both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens were present in significant quantities. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ductile mode grinding of reaction-bonded silicon carbide mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhichao; Cheng, Haobo

    2017-09-10

    The demand for reaction-bonded silicon carbide (RB-SiC) mirrors has escalated recently with the rapid development of space optical remote sensors used in astronomy or Earth observation. However, RB-SiC is difficult to machine due to its high hardness. This study intends to perform ductile mode grinding to RB-SiC, which produces superior surface integrity and fewer subsurface damages, thus minimizing the workload of subsequent lapping and polishing. For this purpose, a modified theoretical model for grain depth of cut of grinding wheels is presented, which correlates various processing parameters and the material characteristics (i.e., elastic module) of a wheel's bonding matrix and workpiece. Ductile mode grinding can be achieved as the grain depth of cut of wheels decreases to be less than the critical cut depth of workpieces. The theoretical model gives a roadmap to optimize the grinding parameters for ductile mode grinding of RB-SiC and other ultra-hard brittle materials. Its feasibility was validated by experiments. With the optimized grinding parameters for RB-SiC, the ductile mode grinding produced highly specular surfaces (with roughness of ∼2.2-2.8  nm Ra), which means the material removal mechanism of RB-SiC is dominated by plastic deformation rather than brittle fracture. Contrast experiments were also conducted on fused silica, using the same grinding parameters; this produced only very rough surfaces, which further validated the feasibility of the proposed model.

  7. Grinding Inside A Toroidal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Walter; Adams, James F.; Burley, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    Weld lines ground smooth within about 0.001 in. Grinding tool for smoothing longitudinal weld lines inside toroidal cavity includes curved tunnel jig to guide grinding "mouse" along weld line. Curvature of tunnel jig matched to shape of toroid so grinding ball in mouse follows circular arc of correct radius as mouse is pushed along tunnel. Tool enables precise control of grindout shape, yet easy to use.

  8. Process simulation of ethanol production from biomass gasification and syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Phillips, John R; Aichele, Clint P; Mohammad, Sayeed

    2017-12-01

    The hybrid gasification-syngas fermentation platform can produce more bioethanol utilizing all biomass components compared to the biochemical conversion technology. Syngas fermentation operates at mild temperatures and pressures and avoids using expensive pretreatment processes and enzymes. This study presents a new process simulation model developed with Aspen Plus® of a biorefinery based on a hybrid conversion technology for the production of anhydrous ethanol using 1200tons per day (wb) of switchgrass. The simulation model consists of three modules: gasification, fermentation, and product recovery. The results revealed a potential production of about 36.5million gallons of anhydrous ethanol per year. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the effects of gasification and fermentation parameters that are keys for the development of an efficient process in terms of energy conservation and ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Raw materials evaluation and process development studies for conversion of biomass to sugars and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C.R.; Yang, R.D.; Sciamanna, A.S.; Freitas, R.P.

    1978-06-01

    A range of cellulosic raw materials in the form of agricultural crop residue was analyzed for chemical composition and assessed for potential yields of sugars through chemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of these materials. Corn stover was used as a representative raw material for a preliminary process design and economic assessment of the production of sugars and ethanol. With the process as presently developed, 23 gallons of ethanol can be obtained per ton of corn stover at a processing cost of about $1.80 per gallon exclusive of by-product credits. The analysis shows the cost of ethanol to be highly dependent upon (1) the cost of the biomass, (2) the extent of conversion to glucose, (3) enzyme recovery and production cost and (4) potential utilization of xylose. Significant cost reduction appears possible through further research in these directions.

  10. Conversion of paper sludge to ethanol, II: process design and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhiliang; Lynd, Lee R

    2007-01-01

    Process design and economics are considered for conversion of paper sludge to ethanol. A particular site, a bleached kraft mill operated in Gorham, NH by Fraser Papers (15 tons dry sludge processed per day), is considered. In addition, profitability is examined for a larger plant (50 dry tons per day) and sensitivity analysis is carried out with respect to capacity, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Conversion based on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with intermittent feeding is examined, with ethanol recovery provided by distillation and molecular sieve adsorption. It was found that the Fraser plant achieves positive cash flow with or without xylose conversion and mineral recovery. Sensitivity analysis indicates economics are very sensitive to ethanol selling price and scale; significant but less sensitive to the tipping fee, and rather insensitive to the prices of cellulase and power. Internal rates of return exceeding 15% are projected for larger plants at most combinations of scale, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Our analysis lends support to the proposition that paper sludge is a leading point-of-entry and proving ground for emergent industrial processes featuring enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass.

  11. Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2014-04-01

    The fuel processor in which hydrogen is produced from fuels is an important unit in a fuel cell system. The aim of this study is to apply a thermodynamic concept to identify a suitable reforming process for an ethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Three different reforming technologies, i.e., steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming, are considered. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to determine an energy demand and to describe how efficiently the energy is supplied to the reforming process. Effect of key operating parameters on the distribution of reforming products, such as H2, CO, CO2 and CH4, and the possibility of carbon formation in different ethanol reformings are examined as a function of steam-to-ethanol ratio, oxygen-to-ethanol ratio and temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Energy and exergy analysis are performed to identify the best ethanol reforming process for SOFC applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Research on operation mode of abrasive grain during grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, T. N.; Dement’ev, V. B.; Nikitina, O. V.

    2018-03-01

    The processing of materials by cutting with an abrasive tool is carried out by means of thousands of grains bonded together as a single whole. The quality of the abrasive tool is defined by cutting properties of abrasive grains and depends on features of spreading the temperature field in time and in the abrasive grain volume. Grains are exposed to heating and cooling during work. It leads to undesired effects such as a decrease of durability of grain retention in the binder, hardness, intensification of diffusion and oxidation processes between the binder and the grain, the occurrence of considerable temperature stresses in the grain itself. The obtained equation which allows calculation of temperature field of grain for one rotation of grinding wheel shows that the temperature of the wheel depends on grinding modes and thermophysical properties of abrasive material. Thus, as the time of contact of grain with processed material increases, the temperature in the cutting area rises. As thermophysical properties increase, the temperature in cutting area decreases. Thermal working conditions are determined to be different from each other depending on contact time of the grain and the material. For example, in case of creep-feed grinding, the peak value of temperature is higher than during multistep grinding; the depth of expansion is greater. While the speed of the thermal process in creep-feed grinding is 2-3 times lower than in multistep grinding, the gradient reduces 3-4 times. The analysis of machining methods shows that creep-feed grinding ensures greater depth of grain heating, a smaller heating rate and a reduced velocity gradient. It causes a decrease of probable allotropic modifications and prevents from occurring of heat strokes - cracking of grains due to high temperature falls. Consequently, it is necessary to employ creep-feed grinding to increase the efficiency of abrasive tool employing. Three operation modes of grinding wheel including blunting, full

  13. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  14. Production of ethanol 3G from Kappaphycus alvarezii: evaluation of different process strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Barcelos, Carolina Araújo; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto; Pereira, Nei

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the potential of Kappaphycus alvarezii as feedstock for ethanol production, i.e. ethanol 3G. First, aquatic biomass was subjected to a diluted acid pretreatment. This acid pretreatment generated two streams--a galactose-containing liquid fraction and a cellulose-containing solid fraction, which were investigated to determine their fermentability with the following strategies: a single-stream process (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of both fractions altogether), which achieved 64.3 g L(-1) of ethanol, and a two-stream process (fractions were fermented separately), which resulted in 38 g L(-1) of ethanol from the liquid fraction and 53.0 g L(-1) from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the solid fraction. Based on the average fermentable carbohydrate concentration, it was possible to obtain 105 L of ethanol per ton of dry seaweed. These preliminaries results indicate that the use of the macro-algae K. alvarezii has a good potential feedstock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Production of bio-fuel ethanol from distilled grain waste eluted from Chinese spirit making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li; Sun, Zhaoyong; Zhang, Wenxue; Tang, Yueqin; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    Distilled grain waste eluted from Chinese spirit making is rich in carbohydrates, and could potentially serve as feedstock for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. Our study evaluated two types of saccharification methods that convert distilled grain waste to monosaccharides: enzymatic saccharification and concentrated H2SO4 saccharification. Results showed that enzymatic saccharification performed unsatisfactorily because of inefficient removal of lignin during pretreatment. Concentrated H2SO4 saccharification led to a total sugar recovery efficiency of 79.0 %, and to considerably higher sugar concentrations than enzymatic saccharification. The process of ethanol production from distilled grain waste based on concentrated H2SO4 saccharification was then studied. The process mainly consisted of concentrated H2SO4 saccharification, solid-liquid separation, decoloration, sugar-acid separation, oligosaccharide hydrolysis, and continuous ethanol fermentation. An improved simulated moving bed system was employed to separate sugars from acid after concentrated H2SO4 saccharification, by which 95.8 % of glucose and 85.8 % of xylose went into the sugar-rich fraction, while 83.3 % of H2SO4 went into the acid-rich fraction. A flocculating yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae KF-7, was used for continuous ethanol fermentation, which produced an ethanol yield of 91.9-98.9 %, based on glucose concentration.

  16. EFFECT OF CHICKEN BONE-MARROW ADDITION TO BREAST AND LEG MEAT SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT GRINDING PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    POLLONIO, MAR; ANTUNES, AJ

    1993-01-01

    Mechanical deboning makes chicken meat highly suscetible to lipid oxidation. Tissue disruption and the incorporation of unknown amounts of bone marrow are among the main factors involved. This research was undertaken to evaluate the effect of chicken bone marrow addition to breast and leg meat, ground in a regular meat grinder and passed through a mechanical deboner on lipid stability during frozen storage at -18-degrees-C. Breast and leg meat were manually deboned: a portion was processed th...

  17. Optimizing fermentation process miscanthus-to-ethanol biorefinery scale under uncertain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomberg, Matthew; Sanchez, Daniel L; Lipman, Timothy E

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol produced from cellulosic feedstocks has garnered significant interest for greenhouse gas abatement and energy security promotion. One outstanding question in the development of a mature cellulosic ethanol industry is the optimal scale of biorefining activities. This question is important for companies and entrepreneurs seeking to construct and operate cellulosic ethanol biorefineries as it determines the size of investment needed and the amount of feedstock for which they must contract. The question also has important implications for the nature and location of lifecycle environmental impacts from cellulosic ethanol. We use an optimization framework similar to previous studies, but add richer details by treating many of these critical parameters as random variables and incorporating a stochastic sub-model for land conversion. We then use Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a probability distribution for the optimal scale of a biorefinery using a fermentation process and miscanthus feedstock. We find a bimodal distribution with a high peak at around 10–30 MMgal yr −1 (representing circumstances where a relatively low percentage of farmers elect to participate in miscanthus cultivation) and a lower and flatter peak between 150 and 250 MMgal yr −1 (representing more typically assumed land-conversion conditions). This distribution leads to useful insights; in particular, the asymmetry of the distribution—with significantly more mass on the low side—indicates that developers of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries may wish to exercise caution in scale-up. (letters)

  18. Optimizing fermentation process miscanthus-to-ethanol biorefinery scale under uncertain conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomberg, Matthew; Sanchez, Daniel L.; Lipman, Timothy E.

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol produced from cellulosic feedstocks has garnered significant interest for greenhouse gas abatement and energy security promotion. One outstanding question in the development of a mature cellulosic ethanol industry is the optimal scale of biorefining activities. This question is important for companies and entrepreneurs seeking to construct and operate cellulosic ethanol biorefineries as it determines the size of investment needed and the amount of feedstock for which they must contract. The question also has important implications for the nature and location of lifecycle environmental impacts from cellulosic ethanol. We use an optimization framework similar to previous studies, but add richer details by treating many of these critical parameters as random variables and incorporating a stochastic sub-model for land conversion. We then use Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a probability distribution for the optimal scale of a biorefinery using a fermentation process and miscanthus feedstock. We find a bimodal distribution with a high peak at around 10-30 MMgal yr-1 (representing circumstances where a relatively low percentage of farmers elect to participate in miscanthus cultivation) and a lower and flatter peak between 150 and 250 MMgal yr-1 (representing more typically assumed land-conversion conditions). This distribution leads to useful insights; in particular, the asymmetry of the distribution—with significantly more mass on the low side—indicates that developers of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries may wish to exercise caution in scale-up.

  19. The Influence of Wet Dressing of Grinding Wheel on the Grinding Performance

    OpenAIRE

    重松, 日出見; 冨田, 進

    1989-01-01

    Experiments on the relation between the form of working plane of grinding wheel which was formed by dressing, and the grinding performance of working plane of grinding wheel in the early stage of grinding, were carried out supplying the same grinding fluid in dressing time and grinding time. As a result, it was found that the difference of the action or the effect of grinding fluids on the working plane of grinding fluid were related to the grinding performance in the early stage of grinding....

  20. Establishment and assessment of a novel cleaner production process of corn grain fuel ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jianhua; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Hongjian; Zhang, Guiying; Yang, Xizhao; Liu, Pei; Mao, Zhonggui

    2013-11-01

    An integrated corn ethanol-methane fermentation system was proposed to solve the problem of stillage handling, where thin stillage was treated by anaerobic digestion and then reused to make mash for the following ethanol fermentation. This system was evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale. Anaerobic digestion of thin stillage ran steadily with total chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 98% at laboratory scale and 97% at pilot scale. Ethanol production was not influenced by recycling anaerobic digestion effluent at laboratory and pilot scale. Compared with dried distillers' grains with solubles produced in conventional process, dried distillers' grains in the proposed system exhibited higher quality because of increased protein concentration and decreased salts concentration. Energetic assessment indicated that application of this novel process enhanced the net energy balance ratio from 1.26 (conventional process) to 1.76. In conclusion, the proposed system possessed technical advantage over the conventional process for corn fuel ethanol production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-vapor permeation hybrid process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative hybrid process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane s...

  2. Development of a mixed culture chain elongation process based on municipal solid waste and ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, T.I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: mixed culture fermentation; Carboxylates; Caproate; Heptanoate; ethanol; OFMSW

    To reduce dependence on oil, alternative fuel and chemical production processes are investigates. In this thesis, we investigated the production of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) using an anaerobic

  3. Study on Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on Grinding Force and Surface Quality in Ultrasonic Assisted Micro End Grinding of Silica Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vibration assisted micro end grinding (UAMEG is a promising processing method for micro parts made of hard and brittle materials. First, the influence of ultrasonic assistance on the mechanism of this processing technology is theoretically analyzed. Then, in order to reveal the effects of ultrasonic vibration and grinding parameters on grinding forces and surface quality, contrast grinding tests of silica glass with and without ultrasonic assistance using micro radial electroplated diamond wheel are conducted. The grinding forces are measured using a three-component dynamometer. The surface characteristics are detected using the scanning electron microscope. The experiment results demonstrate that grinding forces are significantly reduced by introducing ultrasonic vibration into conventional micro end grinding (CMEG of silica glass; ultrasonic assistance causes inhibiting effect on variation percentages of tangential grinding force with grinding parameters; ductile machining is easier to be achieved and surface quality is obviously improved due to ultrasonic assistance in UAMEG. Therefore, larger grinding depth and feed rate adopted in UAMEG can lead to the improvement of removal rate and machining efficiency compared with CMEG.

  4. Ethanol addition enhances acid treatment to eliminate Lactobacillus fermentum from the fermentation process for fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M A S; Cerri, B C; Ceccato-Antonini, S R

    2018-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the most critical steps of the fuel ethanol production and it is directly influenced by the fermentation system, selected yeast, and bacterial contamination, especially from the genus Lactobacillus. To control the contamination, the industry applies antibiotics and biocides; however, these substances can result in an increased cost and environmental problems. The use of the acid treatment of cells (water-diluted sulphuric acid, adjusted to pH 2·0-2·5) between the fermentation cycles is not always effective to combat the bacterial contamination. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanol addition to the acid treatment to control the bacterial growth in a fed-batch system with cell recycling, using the industrial yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2. When only the acid treatment was used, the population of Lactobacillus fermentum had a 3-log reduction at the end of the sixth fermentation cycle; however, when 5% of ethanol was added to the acid solution, the viability of the bacterium was completely lost even after the first round of cell treatment. The acid treatment +5% ethanol was able to kill L. fermentum cells without affecting the ethanol yield and with a low residual sugar concentration in the fermented must. In Brazilian ethanol-producing industry, water-diluted sulphuric acid is used to treat the cell mass at low pH (2·0) between the fermentative cycles. This procedure reduces the number of Lactobacillus fermentum from 10 7 to 10 4  CFU per ml. However, the addition of 5% ethanol to the acid treatment causes the complete loss of bacterial cell viability in fed-batch fermentation with six cell recycles. The ethanol yield and yeast cell viability are not affected. These data indicate the feasibility of adding ethanol to the acid solution replacing the antibiotic use, offering a low cost and a low amount of residue in the biomass. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. A critical study of high efficiency deep grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, Iain

    2002-01-01

    The recent years, the aerospace industry in particular has embraced and actively pursued the development of stronger high performance materials, namely nickel based superalloys and hardwearing steels. This has resulted in a need for a more efficient method of machining, and this need was answered with the advent of High Efficiency Deep Grinding (HEDG). This relatively new process using Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) electroplated grinding wheels has been investigated through experimental and theoretical means applied to two widely used materials, M50 bearing steel and IN718 nickel based superalloy. It has been shown that this grinding method using a stiff grinding centre such as the Edgetek 5-axis machine is a viable process. Using a number of experimental designs, produced results which were analysed using a variety of methods including visual assessment, sub-surface microscopy and surface analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), residual stress measurement using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques, Barkhausen Noise Amplitude (BNA) measurements, surface roughness and Vickers micro-hardness appraisal. It has been shown that the fundamentals of the HEDG process have been understood through experimental as well as theoretical means and that through the various thermal models used, grinding temperatures can be predicted to give more control over this dynamic process. The main contributions to knowledge are made up of a number of elements within the grinding environment, the most important being the demonstration of the HEDG effect, explanation of the phenomenon and the ability to model the process. It has also been shown that grinding is a dynamic process and factors such as wheel wear will result in a continuous change in the optimum grinding conditions for a given material and wheel combination. With the significance of these factors recognised, they can be accounted for within an industrial adaptive control scenario with the process engineer confident of a

  6. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  7. Investigation on Surface Roughness in Cylindrical Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrapati, Ramesh; Bandyopadhyay, Asish; Pal, Pradip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Cylindrical grinding is a complex machining process. And surface roughness is often a key factor in any machining process while considering the machine tool or machining performance. Further, surface roughness is one of the measures of the technological quality of the product and is a factor that greatly influences cost and quality. The present work is related to some aspects of surface finish in the context of traverse-cut cylindrical grinding. The parameters considered have been: infeed, longitudinal feed and work speed. Taguchi quality design is used to design the experiments and to identify the significantly import parameter(s) affecting the surface roughness. By utilization of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), second order differential equation has been developed and attempts have also been made for optimization of the process in the context of surface roughness by using C- programming.

  8. Process for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, David A.; Jain, Mahendra K.; Datta, Rathin

    1991-01-01

    A process including multistage continuous fermentation followed by batch fermentation with carefully chosen temperatures for each fermentation step, combined with an asporogenic strain of C. acetobutylicum and a high carbohydrate substrate concentration yields extraordinarily high butanol and total solvents concentrations.

  9. Process model and economic analysis of ethanol production from sugar beet raw juice as part of the cleaner production concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučurović, Damjan G; Dodić, Siniša N; Popov, Stevan D; Dodić, Jelena M; Grahovac, Jovana A

    2012-01-01

    The batch fermentation process of sugar beet processing intermediates by free yeast cells is the most widely used method in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for producing ethanol as fuel. In this study a process and cost model was developed for producing ethanol from raw juice. The model can be used to calculate capital investment costs, unit production costs and operating costs for a plant producing 44 million l of 99.6% pure ethanol annually. In the sensitivity analysis the influence of sugar beet and yeast price, as well as the influence of recycled biomass on process economics, ethanol production costs and project feasibility was examined. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that the raw material costs have a significant influence on the expenses for producing ethanol. Also, the optimal percentage of recycled biomass turned out to be in the range from 50% to 70%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mild-temperature dilute acid pretreatment for integration of first and second generation ethanol processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Kalif, Mahdi; Ferreira, Jorge A; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Lennartsson, Patrik R

    2017-12-01

    The use of hot-water (100°C) from the 1st generation ethanol plants for mild-temperature lignocellulose pretreatment can possibly cut down the operational (energy) cost of 2nd generation ethanol process, in an integrated model. Dilute-sulfuric and -phosphoric acid pretreatment at 100°C was carried out for wheat bran and whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment time and acid type influenced the release of sugars from wheat bran, while acid-concentration was found significant for whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment led up-to 300% improvement in the glucose yield compared to only-enzymatically treated substrates. The pretreated substrates were 191-344% and 115-300% richer in lignin and glucan, respectively. Fermentation using Neurospora intermedia, showed 81% and 91% ethanol yields from wheat bran and stillage-fibers, respectively. Sawdust proved to be a highly recalcitrant substrate for mild-temperature pretreatment with only 22% glucose yield. Both wheat bran and whole-stillage are potential substrates for pretreatment using waste heat from the 1st generation process for 2nd generation ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fuel Processing Plants - ETHANOL_PRODUCTION_FACILITIES_IN: Ethanol Production Facilities in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This GIS layer shows the locations of ethanol production facilities in the state of Indiana. Attributes include the name and address of the facility, and information...

  12. Flotation performances and surface properties of chalcopyrite with xanthate collector added before and after grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huiqing; Wu, Di; Abdelmonem, Mohamed

    In this study, effects of the collector added before grinding and after grinding on the subsequent flotation and mineral surface properties were investigated. The pH was controlled at 10 during the grinding and flotation processes opened to the atmosphere. With enough amounts of sodium butyl xanthate addition, adding the collector before grinding recovered more chalcopyrite than adding it after grinding in single mineral flotation. The Eh of each ground pulp before and after conditioning were measured and it was found that adding collector before grinding obtained higher and relatively suitable pulp potential for chalcopyrite flotation. Particle size analyses of the flotation products indicate that the different flotation recoveries occurred due to the different flotation losses in fine particles (flotation feedings and found that more carbon and oxygen, and less iron were remained on mineral surfaces when the collector was added before grinding, due to the higher collector adsorption capacity, larger free oxygen adsorbance and less iron oxide/hydroxide species.

  13. Process and utility water requirements for cellulosic ethanol production processes via fermentation pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing need of additional water resources for energy production is a growing concern for future economic development. In technology development for ethanol production from cellulosic feedstocks, a detailed assessment of the quantity and quality of water required, and the ...

  14. Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.A.; Ziobro, G.

    1982-01-01

    Processing and fermentation trials on Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) tubers, and on pure inulin media were carried out. Acid and thermal treatments, pure and mixed cultures of yeast, and enzyme preparations were investigated. Best EtOH yields on either substrate were obtained with pH 2 thermal treatments, resulting in 131.6lEtOH/ton fresh tuber.

  15. [Feedforward control strategy and its application in quality improvement of ethanol precipitation process of danhong injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bin-Jun; Guo, Zheng-Tai; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhao, Bu-Chang; Zhao, Tao

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a feedforward control strategy basing on the concept of quality by design was established for the manufacturing process of traditional Chinese medicine to reduce the impact of the quality variation of raw materials on drug. In the research, the ethanol precipitation process of Danhong injection was taken as an application case of the method established. Box-Behnken design of experiments was conducted. Mathematical models relating the attributes of the concentrate, the process parameters and the quality of the supernatants produced were established. Then an optimization model for calculating the best process parameters basing on the attributes of the concentrate was built. The quality of the supernatants produced by ethanol precipitation with optimized and non-optimized process parameters were compared. The results showed that using the feedforward control strategy for process parameters optimization can control the quality of the supernatants effectively. The feedforward control strategy proposed can enhance the batch-to-batch consistency of the supernatants produced by ethanol precipitation.

  16. Comparison of Wet and Dry Grinding in Electromagnetic Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Ogonowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of dry and wet grinding process in an electromagnetic mill is presented in this paper. The research was conducted in a batch copper ore grinding. Batch mode allows for precise parametrization and constant repetitive conditions of the experiments. The following key aspects were tested: processing time, feed size, size of the grinding media, mass of the material and graining media, and density of the pulp. The particles size distribution of the product samples was analyzed in the laboratory after each experiment. The paper discusses the experimental results as well as the concept of dry and wet grinding and classification circuits for the electromagnetic mill. The main points of the discussion are the size reduction effectiveness and power consumption of the entire system.

  17. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: An experience curve approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettinga, W.G.; Junginger, H.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Hoogwijk, M.; McAloon, A.J.; Hicks, K.B.

    2009-01-01

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its costs competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by using the experience curve approach, scrutinizing costs of dry grind ethanol production over the timeframe 1980-2005. Cost reductions are differentiated between feedstock (corn) production and industrial (ethanol) processing. Corn production costs in the US have declined by 62% over 30 years, down to 100$ 2005 /tonne in 2005, while corn production volumes almost doubled since 1975. A progress ratio (PR) of 0.55 is calculated indicating a 45% cost decline over each doubling in cumulative production. Higher corn yields and increasing farm sizes are the most important drivers behind this cost decline. Industrial processing costs of ethanol have declined by 45% since 1983, to below 130$ 2005 /m 3 in 2005 (excluding costs for corn and capital), equivalent to a PR of 0.87. Total ethanol production costs (including capital and net corn costs) have declined approximately 60% from 800$ 2005 /m 3 in the early 1980s, to 300$ 2005 /m 3 in 2005. Higher ethanol yields, lower energy use and the replacement of beverage alcohol-based production technologies have mostly contributed to this substantial cost decline. In addition, the average size of dry grind ethanol plants increased by 235% since 1990. For the future it is estimated that solely due to technological learning, production costs of ethanol may decline 28-44%, though this excludes effects of the current rising corn and fossil fuel costs. It is also concluded that experience curves are a valuable tool to describe both past and potential future cost reductions in US corn-based ethanol production

  18. Ethanol as an inducer of apoptotic process in cheek mucosae in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Borowska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is the process that plays a important role in development and tissue homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by caspases. The caspases are specific cysteine proteases. The aim of this study was to prove how ethanol induces apoptotic process in cheek mucosae cells in rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats were used in the research. They were divided into two treated groups (group A and group Abis and control group. The biggest histological changes of cheek mucosae was observed in group with ethanol four weeks after last consumption. There is no indication of ability to regeneration in short time after treatment. The most marked was expression of caspase 8 in group A bis. In caspase 9 expression group A was more visible.

  19. Converting Eucalyptus biomass into ethanol: Financial and sensitivity analysis in a co-current dilute acid process. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Treasure, T.; Phillips, R.; Jameel, H.; Saloni, D.; Wright, J.; Abt, R.

    2011-01-01

    The technical and financial performance of high yield Eucalyptus biomass in a co-current dilute acid pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis process was simulated using WinGEMS registered and Excel registered . Average ethanol yield per dry Mg of Eucalyptus biomass was approximately 347.6 L of ethanol (with average carbohydrate content in the biomass around 66.1%) at a cost of 0.49 L -1 of ethanol, cash cost of ∝0.46 L -1 and CAPEX of 1.03 L -1 of ethanol. The main cost drivers are: biomass, enzyme, tax, fuel (gasoline), depreciation and labor. Profitability of the process is very sensitive to biomass cost, carbohydrate content (%) in biomass and enzyme cost. Biomass delivered cost was simulated and financially evaluated in Part I; here in Part II the conversion of this raw material into cellulosic ethanol using the dilute acid process is evaluated. (author)

  20. Co-production of electricity and ethanol, process economics of value prior combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treasure, T.; Gonzalez, R.; Venditti, R.; Pu, Y.; Jameel, H.; Kelley, S.; Prestemon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Economics of producing cellulosic ethanol and bio-power in the same facility using an autohydrolysis process. ► Feedstock considerably affect the economics of the biorefinery facility. ► Lower moisture content improves financial performance of the bio-power business. - Abstract: A process economic analysis of co-producing bioethanol and electricity (value prior to combustion) from mixed southern hardwood and southern yellow pine is presented. Bioethanol is produced by extracting carbohydrates from wood via autohydrolysis, membrane separation of byproducts, enzymatic hydrolysis of extracted oligomers and fermentation to ethanol. The residual solids after autohydrolysis are pressed and burned in a power boiler to generate steam and electricity. A base case scenario of biomass combustion to produce electricity is presented as a reference to understand the basics of bio-power generation economics. For the base case, minimum electricity revenue of $70–$96/MWh must be realized to achieve a 6–12% internal rate of return. In the alternative co-production cases, the ethanol facility is treated as a separate business entity that purchases power and steam from the biomass power plant. Minimum ethanol revenue required to achieve a 12% internal rate of return was estimated to be $0.84–$1.05/l for hardwood and $0.74–$0.85/l for softwood. Based on current market conditions and an assumed future ethanol selling price of $0.65/l, the co-production of cellulosic bioethanol and power does not produce financeable returns. A risk analysis indicates that there is a probability of 26.6% to achieve an internal rate of return equal or higher than 12%. It is suggested that focus be placed on improving yield and reducing CAPEX before this technology can be applied commercially. This modeling approach is a robust method to evaluate economic feasibility of integrated production of bio-power and other products based on extracted hemicellulose.

  1. Development of combined nanofiltration and forward osmosis process for production of ethanol from pretreated rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Masafumi; Sasaki, Kengo; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Yasukawa, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tomoki; Kondo, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2017-07-01

    A membrane process combining nanofiltraion (NF) and forward osmosis (FO) was developed for the sugar concentration with the aim of high bio-ethanol production from the liquid fraction of rice straw. The commercial NF membrane, ESNA3, was more adequate for removal of fermentation inhibitors (such as acetic acid) than the FO membrane, whereas the commercial FO membrane, TFC-ES, was more adequate for concentration of the sugars than the NF membrane. The liquid fraction was subjected to the following process: NF concentration with water addition (NF (+H2O) )→enzymatic hydrolysis→FO concentration. This NF (+H2O) -FO hybrid process generated a total sugar content of 107g·L -1 . Xylose-assimilating S. cerevisiae produced 24g·L -1 ethanol from the liquid fraction that was diluted 1.5-fold and then concentrated by the NF (+H2O) -FO hybrid process. The NF (+H2O) -FO hybrid process has the potential for optimized ethanol production from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Grinding media of Zr O2-Y2 O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ussui, V.; Leitao, F.; Paschoal, J.O.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment carried out to test Yttria 3 mol% stabilized zirconia as a grinding media. The Powders were produced in experimental operations of a wet chemical coprecipitation process at the Zirconium Pilot Plant in IPEN. The stabilised zirconia powders obtained were cold pressed in to cylindrical shapes and sintered at 1500 0 C for hour. The ceramics produced presented good wear resistance and were found to be efficient as zirconia powders grinding media. (author)

  3. AUTOMATION OF IN FEED CENTERLESS GRINDING MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Piyusha P. Jadhav*, Sachin V. Lomte, Sudhir Surve

    2017-01-01

    In-feed centerless grinding technique offers a major contribution to the industries. This is the alternative in-feed centerless grinding technique using regulating wheel. Mainly centerless grinding is divided in three types, and those are End feed, in-feed and through feed Centerless grinding. This paper mainly deals with low cost automation on in-feed Centerless grinding machine using regulating wheel suitable for multiple in-feed type jobs. It deals with the development of a Centerless grin...

  4. Grinding Method and Error Analysis of Eccentric Shaft Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiming; Han, Qiushi; Li, Qiguang; Peng, Baoying; Li, Weihua

    2017-12-01

    RV reducer and various mechanical transmission parts are widely used in eccentric shaft parts, The demand of precision grinding technology for eccentric shaft parts now, In this paper, the model of X-C linkage relation of eccentric shaft grinding is studied; By inversion method, the contour curve of the wheel envelope is deduced, and the distance from the center of eccentric circle is constant. The simulation software of eccentric shaft grinding is developed, the correctness of the model is proved, the influence of the X-axis feed error, the C-axis feed error and the wheel radius error on the grinding process is analyzed, and the corresponding error calculation model is proposed. The simulation analysis is carried out to provide the basis for the contour error compensation.

  5. Process analysis and optimization of simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of ethylenediamine-pretreated corn stover for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Zhao, Xiong; Li, Wen-Chao; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Liu, Li; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Improving ethanol concentration and reducing enzyme dosage are main challenges in bioethanol refinery from lignocellulosic biomass. Ethylenediamine (EDA) pretreatment is a novel method to improve enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulose. In this study, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) process using EDA-pretreated corn stover was analyzed and optimized to verify the constraint factors on ethanol production. Highest ethanol concentration was achieved with the following optimized SSCF conditions at 6% glucan loading: 12-h pre-hydrolysis, 34 °C, pH 5.4, and inoculum size of 5 g dry cell/L. As glucan loading increased from 6 to 9%, ethanol concentration increased from 33.8 to 48.0 g/L, while ethanol yield reduced by 7%. Mass balance of SSCF showed that the reduction of ethanol yield with the increasing solid loading was mainly due to the decrease of glucan enzymatic conversion and xylose metabolism of the strain. Tween 20 and BSA increased ethanol concentration through enhancing enzymatic efficiency. The solid-recycled SSCF process reduced enzyme dosage by 40% (from 20 to 12 mg protein/g glucan) to achieve the similar ethanol concentration (~ 40 g/L) comparing to conventional SSCF. Here, we established an efficient SSCF procedure using EDA-pretreated biomass. Glucose enzymatic yield and yeast viability were regarded as the key factors affecting ethanol production at high solid loading. The extensive analysis of SSCF would be constructive to overcome the bottlenecks and improve ethanol production in cellulosic ethanol refinery.

  6. Ethanol from softwood. Process development based on steam pretreatment and SSF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenberg, Kerstin

    1999-05-01

    Fuel ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosics by the enzymatic hydrolysis process, which consists of a pretreatment step prior to hydrolysis, followed by fermentation and finally refining. This thesis deals with the development of the enzymatic process using softwood as raw material. The focus has not only been on how to obtain high yields, but also on how to solve problems, which can arise in an industrial process, such as inhibition and contamination. The pretreatment step was evaluated using steam-pretreatment and impregnation with an acid catalyst, either SO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Both impregnation methods resulted in approximately the same yield, 65% of the theoretical of fermentable sugars, i.e. glucose and mannose, after enzymatic hydrolysis. However, impregnation with SO{sub 2}, resulted in higher ethanol productivity and yield in the fermentation. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was investigated using various substrate and cellulase concentrations. An overall ethanol yield of 70% of the theoretical was obtained using the whole slurry from the pretreatment step at an insoluble dry weight content of 5%, which was shown to be optimal. SSF resulted in both higher productivity and higher ethanol yield than in separate hydrolysis and fermentation, but proved to be more sensitive to infection by lactic aid bacteria. More complex process integration, in the form of recirculation of process streams, which is desirable in an industrial process, was investigated using bench-scale equipment. A reduction in the fresh-water demand of 50%, from 3 kg/kg dry raw material to 1.5 kg/kg dry raw material, was found to be possible without any negative effects on either hydrolysis or fermentation. A techno-economic evaluation of different process configurations in a process applying SSF was also performed. It was found that the ethanol production cost could be reduced by 20% by internal energy integration and by another 15% by recirculation to the

  7. Process development studies on the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C.R.

    1978-02-01

    Progress is reported on studies on the NO--O/sub 2/ pretreatment of wheat straw prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Studies of the conversion of xylose to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum were continued. Progress is also reported on pilot plant process development and design studies on continuous cellulase production, enzyme recovery, batch cellulase enzyme production from Trichoderma viride, and kinetic modelling of the enzymatic hydrolysis of 5 percent newsprint. (JGB)

  8. Approach to automation of a process of yeast inoculum production on industrial scale for ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibeth Viviana Ordóñez-Ortega

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of an applied research for automation the stage of reproduction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeas to produce ethanol, are presented in this paper. The identification of the variables to be instrumented, the instrumentation requirements and the proposed control scheme are based on the analysis of the functioning and operation of the process.

  9. Comparison of tungsten carbide and stainless steel ball bearings for grinding single maize kernels in a reciprocating grinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reciprocating grinders can grind single maize kernels by shaking the kernel in a vial with a ball bearing. This process results in a grind quality that is not satisfactory for many experiments. Tungesten carbide ball bearings are nearly twice as dense as steel, so we compared their grinding performa...

  10. The contribution of enzymes and process chemicals to the life cycle of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, Heather L; Spatari, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    Most life cycle studies of biofuels have not examined the impact of process chemicals and enzymes, both necessary inputs to biochemical production and which vary depending upon the technology platform (feedstock, pretreatment and hydrolysis system). We examine whether this omission is warranted for sugar-platform technologies. We develop life cycle ('well-to-tank') case studies for a corn dry-mill and for one 'mature' and two near-term lignocellulosic ethanol technologies. Process chemical and enzyme inputs contribute only 3% of fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for corn ethanol. Assuming considerable improvement compared to current enzyme performance, the inputs for the near-term lignocellulosic technologies studied are found to be responsible for 30%-40% of fossil energy use and 30%-35% of GHG emissions, not an insignificant fraction given that these models represent technology developers' nth plant performance. Mature technologies which assume lower chemical and enzyme loadings, high enzyme specific activity and on-site production utilizing renewable energy would significantly improve performance. Although the lignocellulosic technologies modeled offer benefits over today's corn ethanol through reducing life cycle fossil energy demand and GHG emissions by factors of three and six, achieving those performance levels requires continued research into and development of the manufacture of low dose, high specific activity enzyme systems. Realizing the benefits of low carbon fuels through biological conversion will otherwise not be possible. Tracking the technological performance of process conversion materials remains an important step in measuring the life cycle performance of biofuels.

  11. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Gil

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

  12. MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF CYLINDRICAL GRINDING PARAMETERS FOR MRR AND SURFACE ROUGHNESS

    OpenAIRE

    Kshitij R Patil1, Rupesh J Karande2, Dadaso D. Mohite3, Vishwas S Jadhav4

    2017-01-01

    Cylindrical grinding is one of the important metal cutting processes used extensively in the finishing operations. The grinding process plays an important role in every manufacturing activity. The surface properties can be altered by changing various grinding parameters in order to achieve best surface finish resulting in low surface roughness value and with possible maximum metal removal rate. Four parameters, namely spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut and hardness of material were identi...

  13. Grinding in lead-zinc concentrator Sasa – choice between different grinding media

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris

    2004-01-01

    In this paper will be present result obtained from investigation in the grinding circuit of the lead-zinc concentrator Sasa,using differen grindng media: • Litzkhun-Niederwipper Forged Steel grinding balls; • GSI LUCCHINI Moly-Cop Forged Steel grinding balls; • Cast steel grinding balls from Ukraina and Bulgaria; In the same time will be shown comparation between obtained parameters using different grinding balls specially: • Capacity of the grinding mill; • Particle size; ...

  14. Evaluation of processing technology for Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai for ethanol production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqin Gao

    Full Text Available The effects of dilute H2SO4 concentration, forage:sulfuric acid ratio, digestion time, and digestion temperature were evaluated to determine effects on ethanol yield of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai. Twenty single factor experiments were conducted to evaluate H2SO4 concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, w/w, forage:sulfuric acid ratio (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12, and 1:14, g/ml, digestion time (15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, min, digestion temperature (80, 100, 110, 120, and 125 °C for 3 replicates of the 5 levels of each factor. Based on results of the single factor experiments, an incomplete factorial was designed to evaluate ethanol yield from the best combinations of single factors. Finally, the best combination was tested by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation experiment in selected combinations according to pretreatment results. Percentage cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of forage residue after pretreatment, and glucose and xylose concentrations of the filtrate were analyzed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, and percentage crystallinity was observed in untreated grass and pretreated residue. In addition, the solid residues were then hydrolysed and fermented by cellulase and yeast, the concentrations of glucose and ethanol being monitored for 96 h. Results showed that the order of the effect of main effect factors was as follows: digestion temperature > dilute H2SO4 concentration > digestion time > forage:sulfuric acid ratio. The best process parameters evaluated were sulfuric acid concentration of 1.5%, forage:sulfuric acid ratio of 1:6, digestion time of 15 min, and digestion temperature of 120°C. With this combination of factors, 80% of the cellulose was hydrolysed in 96 h, and 78% converted to ethanol. The findings identified that hemicelluloses were the key deconstruction barrier for pretreatment of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai for ethanol production. The results of this research provide evidence of

  15. Evaluation of processing technology for Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fengqin; Yang, Fuyu; Zhou, He; Sun, Qizhong; Zhang, Yunwei; Brown, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dilute H2SO4 concentration, forage:sulfuric acid ratio, digestion time, and digestion temperature were evaluated to determine effects on ethanol yield of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai. Twenty single factor experiments were conducted to evaluate H2SO4 concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, w/w), forage:sulfuric acid ratio (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12, and 1:14, g/ml), digestion time (15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, min), digestion temperature (80, 100, 110, 120, and 125 °C) for 3 replicates of the 5 levels of each factor. Based on results of the single factor experiments, an incomplete factorial was designed to evaluate ethanol yield from the best combinations of single factors. Finally, the best combination was tested by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation experiment in selected combinations according to pretreatment results. Percentage cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of forage residue after pretreatment, and glucose and xylose concentrations of the filtrate were analyzed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, and percentage crystallinity was observed in untreated grass and pretreated residue. In addition, the solid residues were then hydrolysed and fermented by cellulase and yeast, the concentrations of glucose and ethanol being monitored for 96 h. Results showed that the order of the effect of main effect factors was as follows: digestion temperature > dilute H2SO4 concentration > digestion time > forage:sulfuric acid ratio. The best process parameters evaluated were sulfuric acid concentration of 1.5%, forage:sulfuric acid ratio of 1:6, digestion time of 15 min, and digestion temperature of 120°C. With this combination of factors, 80% of the cellulose was hydrolysed in 96 h, and 78% converted to ethanol. The findings identified that hemicelluloses were the key deconstruction barrier for pretreatment of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for ethanol production. The results of this research provide evidence of appropriate

  16. Purifying, concentrating and anhydriding bio-ethanol: Alternative process schemes and innovative separation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreri, G.; Lovati, A.

    1992-01-01

    Starting with the conventional process scheme for bio-ethanol production, this paper illustrates how the anhydriding section, which incorporates an azeotropic distillation process, can be conveniently substituted with a plate and frame pervaporation process which makes use of optimum heat exchange with the stripping section. This technical feasibility study, which proves the superior energy efficiency of the pervaporation scheme as compared with the conventional scheme, is followed by a cost benefit analysis which evidences the economic benefits also to be had with pervaporation

  17. Improving the plunge grinding technology efficiency through a rigid scheme use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. О. Рябенков

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical bases of grinding technology researches results form the basis of this work. It has been shown that grinding efficiency increase can be achieved through the use of new kinematic grinding schemes and progressive designs of abrasive tools. However, not enough attention is paid to the calculation of the main technological machining parameters with due regard to separate processes of cutting and friction at grinding, thus restricting the effective application of these kinematic grinding schemes and scientifically grounded selection of optimal processing conditions. In this paper a mathematical model has been developed for determining the material removal rate and cutting force at plunge grinding, what made it possible to substantiate reducing the power strength at grinding and to increase productivity. Calculations revealed that the cutting force at plunge grinding is conditioned by the disk bond friction against the material being processed, the intensity of which in the course of processing time increases proportionally due to an increase of elastic movements in the technological system. Proceeding from these results the optimum grinding conditions based on the use of the abrasive disk that works under self-sharpening conditions, thus eliminating the disk bond friction against the material being processed, have been grounded. In this case, the abrasive disk provides complete removal of the processed material supplied to the cutting zone at the nominal speed of a workpiece movement. Also the ability to reduce cutting forces through the increase of the disk speed and the workpiece speed ratio has been shown

  18. Process of preparing ethanol by continuous fermentation of polysaccharide-containing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehnstroem, L.K.J.

    1981-04-16

    The invention concerns a process of preparing ethanol by continuous fermentation of polysaccharide - containing raw materials. Fermentation, hereby, occurs in one or several fermentors while dividing one stream of the fermentation liquid into a yeast-concentrate stream and a yeast-free stream and, if neccessary, a sludge stream. The yeast-concentrate stream is re-fed into the fermentor and at least part of the yeast-free stream is directed into a simple evaporator corresponding to one or several distilling stages where it is separated partially in an ethanol-enriched initial vapour stream supplying a facility to produce the desired ethanol quality, and partially in a liquid initial bottom stream re-fed at least in part into the fermentor. The characteristic feature of this new process is that a raw-material stream is fed into a closed circuit containing the fermentor and the evaporator, and that, in the evaporator, the raw-material stream is hydrolysed to a fermentable state. This hydrolysis is carried out most favourably by enzymes - preferably a gluco-amylase - at a temperature ranging from 35/sup 0/C to 75/sup 0/C.

  19. Evaluation of semiconductor gas sensor system for ethanol determination during fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picque, D; Corrieu, G

    1988-10-01

    Using commercial gas sensitive semi-conductors, an ethanol sensor has been constructed which operates by direct immersion in fermentation media. The calibration range of 0.1 to 10 or 13 % depending on the component. However, they are very often subjected to considerable drift (in the same case up to 10 %/h of the measured value). The electrical resistance of component may vary by a factor of 1 to 5 for a well-defined ethanol concentration. The effects of temperature changes in fermentation media are easily compensated. Other volatile compounds (methanol, ammonia,...) substantially affect component responses. Thus, all work on sensors requires careful calibration. Wine fermentation processes can be monitored satisfactorily, providing the sensor is recalibrated about every six hours.

  20. [Studies on purification of total glycosides of paeony (TGP) from Paeonia lactiflora by ethanol gradient combined with resin processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xin-Ying; Meng, Xian-Sheng; Pan, Ying; Han, Ling; Bao, Yong-Rui; Guo, Xiao-Rui

    2010-11-01

    To study the purification technology of TGP from Paeonia lactiflora by ethanol gradient combined with resin processing and determine the optimum technological conditions and parameters. Using orthogonal test design to investigate the effect of ethanol gradient treatment on the content of TGP. Moreover, from the static and dynamic adsorption nine types of macroporous adsorption resin were evaluated to select the best resin type and the optimum separation and purification conditions. The best technology of Paeonia lactiflora ethanol precipitation was concentration of 1 g crude drug/mL precipitated by 95% ethanol to 90% concentration and then frozen for 10 h. HPD300 resin was the optimal model for the separation and purification of TGP from Paeonia lactiflora, with 5BV of 50% ethanol eluenting and the ratio of herb to resin was 2:1 . This technology is suitable and advanced for industry production and it is simple and convenient, rapid, accurate, etc.

  1. Optimization of prehydrolysis time and substrate feeding to improve ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of furfural process residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianlong; Zhang, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Xu, Ning; Xiong, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Ethanol is a very important industrial chemical. In order to improve ethanol productivity using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fermentation from furfural process residue, we developed a process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of furfural process residue, optimizing prehydrolysis cellulase loading concentration, prehydrolysis time, and substrate feeding strategy. The ethanol concentration obtained from the optimized process was 19.3 g/L, corresponding 76.5% ethanol yield, achieved by running SSF for 48 h from 10% furfural process residue with prehydrolysis at 50°C for 4 h and cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g furfural process residue. For higher ethanol concentrations, fed-batch fermentation was performed. The optimized fed-batch process increased the ethanol concentration to 37.6 g/L, 74.5% yield, obtained from 10% furfural process residue with two additions of 5% substrate at 12 and 24 h. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural and chemical analysis of process residue from biochemical conversion of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Anders Tengstedt; Jørgensen, Henning; Laursen, Kristian Holst

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical conversion of lignocellulose to fermentable carbohydrates for ethanol production is now being implemented in large-scale industrial production. Applying hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for the conversion process, a residue containing substantial amounts of lignin...

  3. Optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hyeun Jong; Wi, Seung Gon; Lee, Yoon Gyo; Kim, Ho Myung; Kim, Su Bae

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this project is optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. The 2nd year Research scope includes: 1) Optimization of pre-treatment conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and 2) Demonstration of enzymatic hydrolysis by recombinant enzymes. To optimize the pretreatment, we applied two processes: a wet process (wet milling + popping), and dry process (popping + dry milling). Out of these, the wet process presented the best glucose yield with a 93.1% conversion, while the dry process yielded 69.6%, and the unpretreated process yielded <20%. The recombinant cellulolytic enzymes showed very high specific activity, about 80-1000 times on CMC and 13-70 times on filter paper at pH 3.5 and 55 .deg. C

  4. Evaluation of the parameters effects on the bio-ethanol production process from Ricotta Cheese Whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Curcio, Stefano; Calabrò, Vincenza

    2010-01-01

    composite design, constituted by 26 runs, has been carried out, and the effects of the parameters have been evaluated. Eventually, once eliminated the negligible effects, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been applied to optimize the four parameters values in RCW fermentation process. After......The work consists of an experimental analysis to evaluate the effects of the variables temperature (T), pH, agitation rate (K) and initial lactose concentration (L) on the batch fermentation process of Ricotta Cheese Whey (RCW) into bio-ethanol by using the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. A central...

  5. Grinding model and material removal mechanism of medical nanometer zirconia ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongkun; Li, Changhe; Jia, Dongzhou; Wang, Sheng; Li, Runze; Qi, Xiaoxiao

    2014-01-01

    Many patents have been devoted to developing medical nanometer zirconia ceramic grinding techniques that can significantly improve both workpiece surface integrity and grinding quality. Among these patents is a process for preparing ceramic dental implants with a surface for improving osseo-integration by sand abrasive finishing under a jet pressure of 1.5 bar to 8.0 bar and with a grain size of 30 µm to 250 µm. Compared with other materials, nano-zirconia ceramics exhibit unmatched biomedical performance and excellent mechanical properties as medical bone tissue and dentures. The removal mechanism of nano-zirconia materials includes brittle fracture and plastic removal. Brittle fracture involves crack formation, extension, peeling, and chipping to completely remove debris. Plastic removal is similar to chip formation in metal grinding, including rubbing, ploughing, and the formation of grinding debris. The materials are removed in shearing and chipping. During brittle fracture, the grinding-led transverse and radial extension of cracks further generate local peeling of blocks of the material. In material peeling and removal, the mechanical strength and surface quality of the workpiece are also greatly reduced because of crack extension. When grinding occurs in the plastic region, plastic removal is performed, and surface grinding does not generate grinding fissures and surface fracture, producing clinically satisfactory grinding quality. With certain grinding conditions, medical nanometer zirconia ceramics can be removed through plastic flow in ductile regime. In this study, we analyzed the critical conditions for the transfer of brittle and plastic removal in nano-zirconia ceramic grinding as well as the high-quality surface grinding of medical nanometer zirconia ceramics by ELID grinding.

  6. Ultrasonic grinding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Shuji.

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasonic generator and a liquid supply nozzle are opposed to an object to be ground and a pump is started in this state to supply an organic solvent. Matters to be decontaminated which adheres to the surface of the object to be ground and are difficult to be removed by a mere mechanical removing method can be eliminated previously by the surface active effect of the organic solvent such as ethanol prior to the oscillation of the ultrasonic generator. Subsequently, when the ultrasonic generator is oscillated, scales in the floated state can be removed simply. Further, since the organic solvent can penetrate to provide the surface active effect even in such a narrow portion that the top end of the ultrasonic generator is difficult to the intruded at the surface of the object to be ground, the decontaminating treatment can be applied also to such a narrow portion. (T.M.)

  7. Process development and modeling of fluidized-bed reactor with coimmobilized biocatalyst for fuel ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, May Yongmei

    This research focuses on two steps of commercial fuel ethanol production processes: the hydrolysis starch process and the fermentation process. The goal of this research is to evaluate the performance of co-immobilized biocatalysts in a fluidized bed reactor with emphasis on economic and engineering aspects and to develop a predictive mathematical model for this system. The productivity of an FBR is higher than productivity of a traditional batch reactor or CSTR. Fluidized beds offer great advantages over packed beds for immobilized cells when small particles are used or when the reactant feed contains suspended solids. Plugging problems, excessive pressure drops (and thus attrition), or crushing risks may be avoided. No mechanical stirring is required as mixing occurs due to the natural turbulence in the fluidized process. Both enzyme and microorganism are immobilized in one catalyst bead which is called co-immobilization. Inside this biocatalyst matrix, starch is hydrolyzed by the enzyme glucoamylase to form glucose and then converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide by microorganisms. Two biocatalysts were evaluated: (1) co-immobilized yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and glucoamylase. (2) co-immobilized Zymomonas mobilis and glucoamylase. A co-immobilized biocatalyst accomplishes the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process). When compared to a two-step process involving separate saccharification and fermentation stages, the SSF process has productivity values twice that given by the pre-saccharified process when the time required for pre-saccharification (15--25 h) was taken into account. The SSF process should also save capital cost. The information about productivity, fermentation yield, concentration profiles along the bed, ethanol inhibition, et al., was obtained from the experimental data. For the yeast system, experimental results showed that: no apparent decrease of productivity occurred after two and half months, the productivity

  8. Ethanol Production by Soy Fiber Treatment and Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation in an Integrated Corn-Soy Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasreen K. Sekhon

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Insoluble fiber (IF recovered from the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP of soybeans is a fraction rich in carbohydrates and proteins. It can be used to enhance ethanol production in an integrated corn-soy biorefinery, which combines EAEP with traditional corn-based ethanol processing. The present study evaluated IF as a substrate for ethanol production. The effects of treatment of IF (soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA, liquid hot water (LHW, and enzymatic hydrolysis, primarily simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF, as well as scaling up (250 mL to 60 L on ethanol production from IF alone or a corn and IF slurry were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis (pectinase, cellulase, and xylanase, each added at 5% soy solids during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation/SSCF was the best treatment to maximize ethanol production from IF. Ethanol yield almost doubled when SSCF of IF was performed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli KO11. Addition of IF in dry-grind corn fermentation increased the ethanol production rate (~31%, but low ethanol tolerance of E. coli KO11 was a limiting factor for employing SSCF in combination corn and IF fermentation. Nonlinear Monod modeling accurately predicted the effect of ethanol concentration on E. coli KO11 growth kinetics by Hanes-Woolf linearization. Collectively, the results from this study suggest a potential of IF as a substrate, alone or in dry-grind corn fermentation, where it enhances the ethanol production rate. IF can be incorporated in the current bioethanol industry with no added capital investment, except enzymes.

  9. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  10. Teeth grinding, oral motor performance and maximal bite force in cerebral palsy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti Rodrigues Santos, Maria Teresa; Duarte Ferreira, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira Guaré, Renata; Guimarães, Antonio Sergio; Lira Ortega, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Identify whether the degree of oral motor performance is related to the presence of teeth grinding and maximal bite force values in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Ninety-five spastic cerebral palsy children with and without teeth grinding, according to caregivers' reports, were submitted to a comprehensive oral motor performance evaluation during the feeding process using the Oral Motor Assessment Scale. Maximal bite force was measured using an electronic gnathodynamometer. The teeth grinding group (n = 42) was younger, used anticonvulsant drugs, and was more frequently classified within the subfunctional oral motor performance category. Teeth grinding subfunctional spastic cerebral palsy children presented lower values of maximal bite force. The functional groups showing the presence or absence of teeth grinding presented higher values of maximal bite force compared with the subfunctional groups. In spastic cerebral palsy children, teeth grinding is associated with the worse oral motor performance. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of grinding aid fly ash blended mortar effect on bond strength of masonry prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaraj, L.; Ravichandran, P. T.; Sagadevan, Suresh

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of particle size reduction by applying top-down nanotechnology such as ball mill grinding process with the addition of amine-based grinding aids. The particle size reduction in synthesis process and its characterization were investigated for fly ash particles. The Rosin-Rammler-Bennet (RRB) distribution model using mathematical formulations were studied for fly ash ground particles. The hardened properties of grinding aid fly ash composite mortar were studied using compressive strength test. The optimum grinding time was 120 min identified through the particle size distribution analysis. The mean particle size decreased from 92.09 μm to 10.5 μm in which there is 89% reduction in particle size due to the grinding of fly ash particle with grinding aids. The compressive strength results show that substitutions of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) mortar by Amine-based Grinding aid Fly Ash (AGFA) 15% gives 12, 23% and at 30% gives 6, 8% of higher strength compare to the substitutions of raw fly ash. The addition of grinding aids in grinding process gives more advantages to reduce the particle size without changing chemical composition. The AGFA sample shows better performance in compressive strength and bond strength behavior of masonry prism. It may suggest that amine based grinding aids play a vital role and feasible to use in fly ash grinding process.

  12. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  13. Bruxism (Teeth Grinding or Clenching) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Bruxism (Teeth Grinding or Clenching) KidsHealth / For Parents / Bruxism ( ... called bruxism , which is common in kids. About Bruxism Bruxism is the medical term for the grinding ...

  14. Kinetic model of continuous ethanol fermentation in closed-circulating process with pervaporation membrane bioreactor by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Senqing; Chen, Shiping; Tang, Xiaoyu; Xiao, Zeyi; Deng, Qing; Yao, Peina; Sun, Zhaopeng; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Chunyan

    2015-02-01

    Unstructured kinetic models were proposed to describe the principal kinetics involved in ethanol fermentation in a continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) process with a pervaporation membrane bioreactor. After ethanol was removed in situ from the broth by the membrane pervaporation, the secondary metabolites accumulated in the broth became the inhibitors to cell growth. The cell death rate related to the deterioration of the culture environment was described as a function of the cell concentration and fermentation time. In CCCF process, 609.8 g L(-1) and 750.1 g L(-1) of ethanol production were obtained in the first run and second run, respectively. The modified Gompertz model, correlating the ethanol production with the fermentation period, could be used to describe the ethanol production during CCCF process. The fitting results by the models showed good agreement with the experimental data. These models could be employed for the CCCF process technology development for ethanol fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  16. Grinding and cooking dry-mill germ to optimize aqueous enzymatic oil extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The many recent dry grind plants that convert corn to ethanol are potential sources of substantial amounts of corn oil. This report describes an aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method to separate oil from dry-mill corn germ (DMG). The method is an extension of AEE previously developed for wet...

  17. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  18. Lab-scale roller table mill for investigating the grinding behaviour of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, V.; Zelkowski, J.; Schoenert, K. [Inst. for Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology and Inst. of Mineral Processing, Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    The test mill is equipped with one roller. The material bed can be discharged completely after overroling. Grinding force, torque and gap width are measured. Cycle tests with three coals have been performed for simulating a closed circuit process. The grinding behaviour is characterized by the following relations: compaction of the particle bed and specific power draft vs. specific grinding force, production of fine material (dust), circuit factor, specific surface of the dust and specific work-input of the grinding circuit vs. specific power draft. (orig.)

  19. Experimental and Numerical Investigations in Shallow Cut Grinding by Workpiece Integrated Infrared Thermopile Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Marcel; Lang, Walter; Dumstorff, Gerrit

    2017-09-30

    The purpose of our study is to investigate the heat distribution and the occurring temperatures during grinding. Therefore, we did both experimental and numerical investigations. In the first part, we present the integration of an infrared thermopile array in a steel workpiece. Experiments are done by acquiring data from the thermopile array during grinding of a groove in a workpiece made of steel. In the second part, we present numerical investigations in the grinding process to further understand the thermal characteristic during grinding. Finally, we conclude our work. Increasing the feed speed leads to two things: higher heat flux densities in the workpiece and higher temperature gradients in the material.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Investigations in Shallow Cut Grinding by Workpiece Integrated Infrared Thermopile Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Reimers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to investigate the heat distribution and the occurring temperatures during grinding. Therefore, we did both experimental and numerical investigations. In the first part, we present the integration of an infrared thermopile array in a steel workpiece. Experiments are done by acquiring data from the thermopile array during grinding of a groove in a workpiece made of steel. In the second part, we present numerical investigations in the grinding process to further understand the thermal characteristic during grinding. Finally, we conclude our work. Increasing the feed speed leads to two things: higher heat flux densities in the workpiece and higher temperature gradients in the material.

  1. Imaging subsurface damage of grinded fused silica optics by confocal fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neauport, J.; Cormont, P.; Destribats, J.; Legros, P.; Ambard, C.

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental investigation of fluorescence confocal microscopy as a tool to measure subsurface damage on grinded fused silica optics. Confocal fluorescence microscopy was performed with an excitation at the wavelength of 405 nm on fixed abrasive diamond grinded fused silica samples. We detail the measured fluorescence spectrums and compare them to those of oil based coolants and grinding slurries. We evidence that oil based coolant used in diamond grinding induces a fluorescence that marks the subsurface damages and eases its observation. Such residual traces might also be involved in the laser damage process. (authors)

  2. Steel grinding media in production use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nass, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews the types of steel being used for grinding rods and balls by the mining industry in U. S. and Canada. Results of a Dec. 1973 grinding media survey of U. S. and Canadian mills are summarized. Common alloying elements (C, Mn, Cr, Mo, Cu, etc.) are discussed. Grinding balls and rods are discussed separately; wear tests using irradiated balls are described. Finally, defects in grinding media are discussed

  3. Effect of the Reduction Temperature of PdAg Nanoparticles during the Polyol Process in the Ethanol Electrooxidation Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera-Cerritos, R.; Salazar-Hernandez, C.; Galindo-Esquivel, I. R.; Fuentes-Ramirez, R.

    2018-01-01

    This work reports the effect of reduction temperature during the synthesis of PdAg catalysts through the polyol process and their evaluation in the ethanol electrooxidation reaction (EOR). The characterization was performed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical evaluation for the ethanol electrooxidation reaction was implemented in alkaline medium using chronoamperometry (CA) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). An important effect of the reduct...

  4. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Gorin, Andrew H.; Seals, Roland D.

    1994-01-01

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  5. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Gorin, A.H.; Seals, R.D.

    1994-11-22

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  6. Grinding, Machining Morphological Studies on C/SiC Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chun-fang; Han, Bing

    2018-05-01

    C/SiC composite is a typical material difficult to machine. It is hard and brittle. In machining, the cutting force is large, the material removal rate is low, the edge is prone to collapse, and the tool wear is serious. In this paper, the grinding of C/Si composites material along the direction of fiber distribution is studied respectively. The surface microstructure and mechanical properties of C/SiC composites processed by ultrasonic machining were evaluated. The change of surface quality with the change of processing parameters has also been studied. By comparing the performances of conventional grinding and ultrasonic grinding, the surface roughness and functional characteristics of the material can be improved by optimizing the processing parameters.

  7. High-temperature fermentation. How can processes for ethanol production at high temperatures become superior to the traditional process using mesophilic yeast?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Banat, Babiker M.A.; Hoshida, Hisashi; Nonklang, Sanom; Akada, Rinji [Yamaguchi Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Ube (Japan). Dept. of Applied Molecular Bioscience; Ano, Akihiko [Iwata Chemical Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    The process of ethanol fermentation has a long history in the production of alcoholic drinks, but much larger scale production of ethanol is now required to enable its use as a substituent of gasoline fuels at 3%, 10%, or 85% (referred to as E3, E10, and E85, respectively). Compared with fossil fuels, the production costs are a major issue for the production of fuel ethanol. There are a number of possible approaches to delivering cost-effective fuel ethanol production from different biomass sources, but we focus in our current report on high-temperature fermentation using a newly isolated thermotolerant strain of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. We demonstrate that a 5 C increase only in the fermentation temperature can greatly affect the fuel ethanol production costs. We contend that this approach may also be applicable to the other microbial fermentations systems and propose that thermotolerant mesophilic microorganisms have considerable potential for the development of future fermentation technologies. (orig.)

  8. "Grinding" cavities in polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, J. R.; Davey, R. E.; Dixon, W. F.; Robb, P. H.; Zebus, P. P.

    1980-01-01

    Grinding tool installed on conventional milling machine cuts precise cavities in foam blocks. Method is well suited for prototype or midsize production runs and can be adapted to computer control for mass production. Method saves time and materials compared to bonding or hot wire techniques.

  9. Ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse through process optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavudi, Saida; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu

    2017-08-01

    In this study, comparative evaluation of acid- and alkali pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) was carried out for sugar production after enzymatic hydrolysis. Results indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of alkali-pretreated SSB resulted in higher production of glucose, xylose and arabinose, compared to the other alkali concentrations and also acid-pretreated biomass. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was, therefore, used to optimize parameters, such as alkali concentration, temperature and time of pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to maximize the production of sugars. The independent variables used during RSM included alkali concentration (1.5-4%), pretreatment temperature (125-140 °C) and pretreatment time (10-30 min) were investigated. Process optimization resulted in glucose and xylose concentration of 57.24 and 10.14 g/L, respectively. Subsequently, second stage optimization was conducted using RSM for optimizing parameters for enzymatic hydrolysis, which included substrate concentration (10-15%), incubation time (24-60 h), incubation temperature (40-60 °C) and Celluclast concentration (10-20 IU/g-dwt). Substrate concentration 15%, (w/v) temperature of 60 °C, Celluclast concentration of 20 IU/g-dwt and incubation time of 58 h led to a glucose concentration of 68.58 g/l. Finally, simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) as well as separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) was evaluated using Pichia kudriavzevii HOP-1 for production of ethanol. Significant difference in ethanol concentration was not found using either SSF or SHF; however, ethanol productivity was higher in case of SSF, compared to SHF. This study has established a platform for conducting scale-up studies using the optimized process parameters.

  10. Hot ethanol extraction: economic feasibility of a new and green process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new extraction process using ethanol at a temperature above boiling point is assessed from an economic point of view. The study was based on an assessment of the main operating costs adjusted by Lang’s factor. Operating costs were assessed based on energy consumption calculated using a model of the process developed from experimental results, and for a hypothetical unit with a 160 000 t/year rapeseed crushing capacity. The processing cost was estimated at 47.4 € per ton of processed seed. Amortization represented 35% of this cost, energy 32% and manpower 10%. Uncertainty about investment is the main factor that could lead to significant error in this cost, but this uncertainty could be offset by an adjustment of the amortization duration, most of the equipment being durable. Profit generated by the process relies principally on a better valuation of the meal: higher value comes from higher protein content and quality on the market for GM-free high protein feedstuffs. Oil quality is also improved by a lower oleic acidity, low phospholipid content and pigment concentration. This gain was estimated at 2.5% of the crude oil value. Unlike the conventional hexane process, hot ethanol extraction produces molasses in small proportions. Molasses value was set at 70% of corn price. The process profitability appears sufficiently positive to justify further research to test the hypothesis underlying our model. The main uncertainty lies in the performance of the process in real conditions of counter-flow extraction and solvent regeneration.

  11. Liquid-assisted grinding and ion pairing regulates percentage conversion and diastereoselectivity of the Wittig reaction under mechanochemical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Kendra Leahy; Ortiz-Trankina, Lianna; Carr, Preston; Benson, Kingsley; Waddell, Daniel C; Mack, James

    2018-01-01

    Mechanochemistry is maturing as a discipline and continuing to grow, so it is important to continue understanding the rules governing the system. In a mechanochemical reaction, the reactants are added into a vessel along with one or more grinding balls and the vessel is shaken at high speeds to facilitate a chemical reaction. The dielectric constant of the solvent used in liquid-assisted grinding (LAG) and properly chosen counter-ion pairing increases the percentage conversion of stilbenes in a mechanochemical Wittig reaction. Utilizing stepwise addition/evaporation of ethanol in liquid-assisted grinding also allows for the tuning of the diastereoselectivity in the Wittig reaction.

  12. Bioconversion of starch to ethanol in a single-step process by coculture of amylolytic yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, G.; Singh, D.; Chaudhary, K. [CCS Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hisar (India). Dept. of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology; Nigam, P. [Ulster Univ., Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences

    2000-05-01

    Ethanol production by a coculture of Saccharomyces diastaticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 21 was 24.8 g/l using raw unhydrolysed starch in a single-step fermentation. This was 48% higher than the yield obtained with the monoculture of S. diastaticus (16.8 g/l). The maximum ethanol fermentation efficiency was achieved (93% of the theoretical value) using 60 g/l starch concentration. In another coculture fermentation with E. capsularis and S. cerevisiae 21, maximum ethanol yield was 16.0 g/l, higher than the yield with the monoculture of Endomycopsis capsularis. In batch fermentations using cocultures maximum ethanol production occurred in 48 h of fermentation at 30{sup o}C using 60 g/l starch. Fermentation efficiency was found lower in a two-step process using {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase-treated starch. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of minimum quantity lubrication grinding with nano-particles and recent related patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhe; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Dongzhou

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, a large number of patents have been devoted to developing minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) grinding techniques that can significantly improve both environmentally conscious and energy saving and costeffective sustainable grinding fluid alternatives. Among them, one patent is about a supply system for the grinding fluid in nano-particle jet MQL, which produced MQL lubricant by adding solid nano-particles in degradable grinding fluid. The MQL supply device turns the lubricant to the pulse drops with fixed pressure, unchanged pulse frequency and the same drop diameter. The drops will be produced and injected in the grinding zone in the form of jet flow under high pressure gas and air seal. As people become increasingly demanding on our environment, minimum quantity lubrication has been widely used in the grinding and processing. Yet, it presents the defect of insufficient cooling performance, which confines its development. To improve the heat transfer efficiency of MQL, nano-particles of a certain mass fraction can be added in the minimum quantity of lubricant oil, which concomitantly will improve the lubrication effects in the processing. In this study, the grinding experiment corroborated the effect of nano-particles in surface grinding. In addition, compared with other forms of lubrication, the results presented that the grinding force, the friction coefficient and specific grinding energy of MQL grinding have been significantly weakened, while G ratio greatly rose. These are attributed to the friction oil-film with excellent anti-friction and anti-wear performance, which is generated nano-particles at the wheel/workpiece interface. In this research, the cooling performance of nano-particle jet MQL was analyzed. Based on tests and experiments, the surface temperature was assayed from different methods, including flood lubricating oil, dry grinding, MQL grinding and nano-particle jet MQL grinding. Because of the outstanding heat transfer

  14. An experimental assessment on the performance of different lubrication techniques in grinding of Inconel 751.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, A S S; Vijayaraghavan, L; Krishnamurthy, R; Kuppan, P; Oyyaravelu, R

    2016-09-01

    The application of emulsion for combined heat extraction and lubrication requires continuous monitoring of the quality of emulsion to sustain a desired grinding environment; this is applicable to other grinding fluids as well. Thus to sustain a controlled grinding environment, it is necessary to adopt an effectively lubricated wheel-work interface. The current study was undertaken to assess experimentally the ​ effects of different grinding environments such as dry, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and Cryo-MQL on performance, such as grinding force, temperature, surface roughness and chip morphology on Inconel 751, a higher heat resistance material posing thermal problems and wheel loading. The results show that grinding with the combination of both liquid nitrogen (LN2) and MQL lowers temperature, cutting forces, and surface roughness as compared with MQL and dry grinding. Specific cutting energy is widely used as an inverse measure of process efficiency in machining. It is found from the results that specific cutting energy of Cryo-MQL assisted grinding is 50-65% lower than conventional dry grinding. The grindability of Inconel 751 superalloy can be enhanced with Cryo-MQL condition.

  15. An experimental assessment on the performance of different lubrication techniques in grinding of Inconel 751

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.S. Balan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of emulsion for combined heat extraction and lubrication requires continuous monitoring of the quality of emulsion to sustain a desired grinding environment; this is applicable to other grinding fluids as well. Thus to sustain a controlled grinding environment, it is necessary to adopt an effectively lubricated wheel-work interface. The current study was undertaken to assess experimentally the ​ effects of different grinding environments such as dry, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL and Cryo-MQL on performance, such as grinding force, temperature, surface roughness and chip morphology on Inconel 751, a higher heat resistance material posing thermal problems and wheel loading. The results show that grinding with the combination of both liquid nitrogen (LN2 and MQL lowers temperature, cutting forces, and surface roughness as compared with MQL and dry grinding. Specific cutting energy is widely used as an inverse measure of process efficiency in machining. It is found from the results that specific cutting energy of Cryo-MQL assisted grinding is 50–65% lower than conventional dry grinding. The grindability of Inconel 751 superalloy can be enhanced with Cryo-MQL condition.

  16. Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass with Emphasis of Wheat Straw Utilization. Analysis of Strategies for Process Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dimitrov Kroumov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Green and Blue Technologies Strategies in HORIZON 2020" has increased the attention of scientific society on global utilization of renewable energy sources. Agricultural residues can be a valuable source of energy because of drastically growing human needs for food. The goal of this review is to show the current state of art on utilization of wheat straw as a substrate for ethanol production. The specifics of wheat straw composition and the chemical and thermodynamic properties of its components pre-determined the application of unit operations and engineering strategies for hydrolysis of the substrate and further its fermentation. Modeling of this two processes is crucially important for optimal overall process development and scale up. The authors gave much attention on main hydrolisis products as a glucose and xylose (C6 and C5 sugars, respectivelly and on the specifics of their metabolization by ethanol producing microorganisms. The microbial physiology reacting on C6 and C5 sugars and mathematical aproaches describing these phenomena are discussing, as well.

  17. Ethanol production process from banana fruit and its lignocellulosic residues: Energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Arredondo, H.I. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil); Ruiz-Colorado, A.A. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); De Oliveira, S. Jr. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Tropical countries, such as Brazil and Colombia, have the possibility of using agricultural lands for growing biomass to produce bio-fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. This study applies an energy analysis to the production process of anhydrous ethanol obtained from the hydrolysis of starch and cellulosic and hemicellulosic material present in the banana fruit and its residual biomass. Four different production routes were analyzed: acid hydrolysis of amylaceous material (banana pulp and banana fruit) and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (flower stalk and banana skin). The analysis considered banana plant cultivation, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, dehydration, residue treatment and utility plant. The best indexes were obtained for amylaceous material for which mass performance varied from 346.5 L/t to 388.7 L/t, Net Energy Value (NEV) ranged from 9.86 MJ/L to 9.94 MJ/L and the energy ratio was 1.9 MJ/MJ. For lignocellulosic materials, the figures were less favorable; mass performance varied from 86.1 to 123.5 L/t, NEV from 5.24 to 8.79 MJ/L and energy ratio from 1.3 to 1.6 MJ/MJ. The analysis showed, however, that both processes can be considered energetically feasible. (author)

  18. A short review on SSF – an interesting process option for ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertilsson Magnus

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF is one process option for production of ethanol from lignocellulose. The principal benefits of performing the enzymatic hydrolysis together with the fermentation, instead of in a separate step after the hydrolysis, are the reduced end-product inhibition of the enzymatic hydrolysis, and the reduced investment costs. The principal drawbacks, on the other hand, are the need to find favorable conditions (e.g. temperature and pH for both the enzymatic hydrolysis and the fermentation and the difficulty to recycle the fermenting organism and the enzymes. To satisfy the first requirement, the temperature is normally kept below 37°C, whereas the difficulty to recycle the yeast makes it beneficial to operate with a low yeast concentration and at a high solid loading. In this review, we make a brief overview of recent experimental work and development of SSF using lignocellulosic feedstocks. Significant progress has been made with respect to increasing the substrate loading, decreasing the yeast concentration and co-fermentation of both hexoses and pentoses during SSF. Presently, an SSF process for e.g. wheat straw hydrolyzate can be expected to give final ethanol concentrations close to 40 g L-1 with a yield based on total hexoses and pentoses higher than 70%.

  19. Research on Grinding and Polishing Force Control of Compliant Flange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the grinding and polishing process is important to improve the production efficiency of the part surfaces. In this paper, a new compliant flange mounted on the end of the industrial robots for the robotic grinding and polishing force control is developed. With regard to the non-linear and time-varying problem of the contact force, the mathematical model of the new force control system was presented and the fuzzy PID control strategy was used to drive the proposed system. Especially, the air spring and electric proportional valve is studied to establish the model. The simulation results show that the selected control strategy has quick response and good robustness, which satisfies the real-time requirements of the grinding and polishing force control in processing.

  20. Modeling and parameter identification of the simultaneous saccharification-fermentation process for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Silvia; Yoo, Ahrim; Repke, Jens-Uwe; Wozny, Günter; Yang, Dae Ryook

    2007-01-01

    Despite many environmental advantages of using alcohol as a fuel, there are still serious questions about its economical feasibility when compared with oil-based fuels. The bioethanol industry needs to be more competitive, and therefore, all stages of its production process must be simple, inexpensive, efficient, and "easy" to control. In recent years, there have been significant improvements in process design, such as in the purification technologies for ethanol dehydration (molecular sieves, pressure swing adsorption, pervaporation, etc.) and in genetic modifications of microbial strains. However, a lot of research effort is still required in optimization and control, where the first step is the development of suitable models of the process, which can be used as a simulated plant, as a soft sensor or as part of the control algorithm. Thus, toward developing good, reliable, and simple but highly predictive models that can be used in the future for optimization and process control applications, in this paper an unstructured and a cybernetic model are proposed and compared for the simultaneous saccharification-fermentation process (SSF) for the production of ethanol from starch by a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The cybernetic model proposed is a new one that considers the degradation of starch not only into glucose but also into dextrins (reducing sugars) and takes into account the intracellular reactions occurring inside the cells, giving a more detailed description of the process. Furthermore, an identification procedure based on the Metropolis Monte Carlo optimization method coupled with a sensitivity analysis is proposed for the identification of the model's parameters, employing experimental data reported in the literature.

  1. Novel heat–integrated and intensified biorefinery process for cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhien, Le Cao; Long, Nguyen Van Duc; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A compact biorefinery design was proposed for cellulosic ethanol purification. • Actual fermentation broth from lignocellulosic biomass was considered. • Process integration and intensification achieves competitive biorefinery context. • The response surface method optimizes the complex column structure effectively. • The proposed process could save up to 47.6% of total annual cost. - Abstract: Biofuels have the most potential as an alternative to fossil fuels and overcoming global warming, which has become one of the most serious environmental issues over the past few decades. As the world confronts food shortages due to an increase in world population, the development of biofuels from inedible lignocellulosic feedstock may be more sustainable in the long term. Inspired by the NREL conventional process, this paper proposes a novel heat–integrated and intensified biorefinery design for cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. For the preconcentration section, heat pump assisted distillation and double–effect heat integration were evaluated, while a combination of heat–integrated technique and intensified technique, extractive dividing wall column (EDWC), was applied to enhance the process energy and cost efficiency for the purification section. A biosolvent, glycerol, which can be produced from biodiesel production, was used as the extracting solvent in an EDWC to obtain a high degree of integration in a biorefinery context. All configuration alternatives were simulated rigorously using Aspen Plus were based on the energy requirements, total annual costs (TAC), and total carbon dioxide emissions (TCE). In addition, the structure of the EDWC was optimized using the reliable response surface method, which was carried out using Minitab statistical software. The simulation results showed that the proposed heat–integrated and intensified process can save up to 47.6% and 56.9% of the TAC and TCE for the purification

  2. Improving conversion yield of fermentable sugars into fuel ethanol in 1st generation yeast-based production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Andreas K; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2015-06-01

    Current fuel ethanol production using yeasts and starch or sucrose-based feedstocks is referred to as 1st generation (1G) ethanol production. These processes are characterized by the high contribution of sugar prices to the final production costs, by high production volumes, and by low profit margins. In this context, small improvements in the ethanol yield on sugars have a large impact on process economy. Three types of strategies used to achieve this goal are discussed: engineering free-energy conservation, engineering redox-metabolism, and decreasing sugar losses in the process. Whereas the two former strategies lead to decreased biomass and/or glycerol formation, the latter requires increased process and/or yeast robustness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation of Grinding Aid Using Waste Acid Residue from Plasticizer Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxiao; Feng, Yanchao; Liu, Manchao; Zhao, Fengqing

    2017-09-01

    The grinding aid for granulated blast-furnace slag were prepared from waste acid residue from plasticizer plant through neutralization, de-methanol and granulation process. In this process, sulfuric acid was transformed into gypsum which has much contribution for grinding effect by combined use with the glycerol and poly glycerin in the waste. Fly ash was used for granulation for the composite grinding aid. Methanol can be recycled in the process. The result showed that the suitable addition of grinding aid is 0.03 % of granulated blast-furnace slag (mass). In this case, the specific surface area is 14% higher than that of the blank. Compared with the common grinding aids, it has excellent performance and low cost.

  4. Novel process combining anaerobic-aerobic digestion and ion exchange resin for full recycling of cassava stillage in ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinchao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui

    2017-04-01

    A novel cleaner ethanol production process has been developed. Thin stillage is treated initially by anaerobic digestion followed by aerobic digestion and then further treated by chloride anion exchange resin. This allows the fully-digested and resin-treated stillage to be completely recycled for use as process water in the next ethanol fermentation batch, which eliminates wastewater discharges and minimizes consumption of fresh water. The method was evaluated at the laboratory scale. Process parameters were very similar to those found using tap water. Maximal ethanol production rate in the fully-recycled stillage was 0.9g/L/h, which was similar to the 0.9g/L/h found with the tap water control. The consumption of fresh water was reduced from 4.1L/L (fresh water/ethanol) to zero. Compared with anaerobically-aerobically digested stillage which had not been treated with resin, the fermentation time was reduced by 28% (from 72h to 52h) and reached the level achieved with tap water. This novel process can assist in sustainable development of the ethanol industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phosphoric acid based pretreatment of switchgrass and fermentation of entire slurry to ethanol using a simplified process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Rondon, Vanessa; Weeks, Kalvin; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2018-03-01

    Switchgrass (Alamo) was pretreated with phosphoric acid (0.75 and 1%, w/w) at three temperatures (160, 175 and 190 °C) and time (5, 7.5 and 10 min) using a steam gun. The slurry after pretreatment was liquefied by enzymes and the released sugars were fermented in a simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process to ethanol using ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain SL100. Among the three variables in pretreatment, temperature and time were critical in supporting ethanol titer and yield. Enzyme hydrolysis significantly increased the concentration of furans in slurries, apparently due to release of furans bound to the solids. The highest ethanol titer of 21.2 ± 0.3 g/L ethanol obtained at the pretreatment condition of 190-1-7.5 (temperature-acid concentration-time) and 10% solids loading accounted for 190 ± 2.9 g ethanol/kg of raw switch grass. This converts to 61.7 gallons of ethanol per ton of dry switchgrass, a value that is comparable to other published pretreatment conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hyun Jong; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Su Bae; Shin, You Jung; Yi, Ju Hui [Chonnam National University, Bio-Energy Research Institute, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this project is optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. Research scope includes 1) screening of various microorganisms from decayed biomass in order to search for more efficient lignocellulose degrading microorganism, 2) identification and verification of new cell wall degrading cellulase for application cellulose bioconversion process, and 3) identification and characterization of novel genes involved in cellulose degradation. To find good microorganism candidates for lignocellulose degrading, 75 decayed samples from different areas were assayed in triplicate and analyzed. For cloning new cell wall degrading enzymes, we selected microorganisms because it have very good lignocellulose degradation ability. From that microorganisms, we have apparently cloned a new cellulase genes (10 genes). We are applying the new cloned cellulase genes to characterize in lignocellulsoe degradation that are most important to cellulosic biofuels production

  7. Optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hyun Jong; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Su Bae; Shin, You Jung; Yi, Ju Hui

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this project is optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. Research scope includes 1) screening of various microorganisms from decayed biomass in order to search for more efficient lignocellulose degrading microorganism, 2) identification and verification of new cell wall degrading cellulase for application cellulose bioconversion process, and 3) identification and characterization of novel genes involved in cellulose degradation. To find good microorganism candidates for lignocellulose degrading, 75 decayed samples from different areas were assayed in triplicate and analyzed. For cloning new cell wall degrading enzymes, we selected microorganisms because it have very good lignocellulose degradation ability. From that microorganisms, we have apparently cloned a new cellulase genes (10 genes). We are applying the new cloned cellulase genes to characterize in lignocellulsoe degradation that are most important to cellulosic biofuels production

  8. Polyhexamethyl biguanide can eliminate contaminant yeasts from fuel-ethanol fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsztein, Carolina; de Menezes, João Assis Scavuzzi; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Industrial ethanol fermentation is a non-sterile process and contaminant microorganisms can lead to a decrease in industrial productivity and significant economic loss. Nowadays, some distilleries in Northeastern Brazil deal with bacterial contamination by decreasing must pH and adding bactericides. Alternatively, contamination can be challenged by adding a pure batch of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-a time-consuming and costly process. A better strategy might involve the development of a fungicide that kills contaminant yeasts while preserving S. cerevisiae cells. Here, we show that polyhexamethyl biguanide (PHMB) inhibits and kills the most important contaminant yeasts detected in the distilleries of Northeastern Brazil without affecting the cell viability and fermentation capacity of S. cerevisiae. Moreover, some physiological data suggest that PHMB acts through interaction with the yeast membrane. These results support the development of a new strategy for controlling contaminant yeast population whilst keeping industrial yields high.

  9. Ethanol dehydration in HZSM-5 studied by density functional theory: evidence for a concerted process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonah; Robichaud, David J; Beckham, Gregg T; Paton, Robert S; Nimlos, Mark R

    2015-04-16

    Dehydration over acidic zeolites is an important reaction class for the upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors to hydrocarbon fuels or to precursors for myriad chemical products. Here, we examine the dehydration of ethanol at a Brønsted acid site, T12, found in HZSM-5 using density functional theory (DFT). The geometries of both cluster and mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM:MM) models are prepared from the ZSM-5 crystal structure. Comparisons between these models and different DFT methods are conducted to show similar results among the models and methods used. Inclusion of the full catalyst cavity through a QM:MM approach is found to be important, since activation barriers are computed on average as 7 kcal mol(-1) lower than those obtained with a smaller cluster model. Two different pathways, concerted and stepwise, have been considered when examining dehydration and deprotonation steps. The current study shows that a concerted dehydration process is possible with a lower (4-5 kcal mol(-1)) activation barrier while previous literature studies have focused on a stepwise mechanism. Overall, this work demonstrates that fairly high activation energies (∼50 kcal mol(-1)) are required for ethanol dehydration. A concerted mechanism is favored over a stepwise mechanism because charge separation in the transition state is minimized. QM:MM approaches appear to provide superior results to cluster calculations due to a more accurate representation of charges on framework oxygen atoms.

  10. Surface grinding characteristics of ferrous metals under high-speed and speed-stroke grinding conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghani, A.K.; Choudhury, I.A.; Ahim, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Some ferrous metals have been ground under different conditions with high-speed and speed-stroke in surface grinding operation. The paper describes experimental investigation of grinding forces in grinding some ferrous metals with the application of cutting fluids. Grinding tests have been carried out on mild steel, assab steel and stainless steel with different combinations of down feed and cross feed. The wheel speed was 27 m/sec while the table speed was maintained at the maximum possible 25 m/min. The grindability has been evaluated by measuring the grinding forces, grinding ratio, and surface finish. Grinding forces have been plotted against down feed of the grinding wheel and cross feed of the table. It has been observed that the radial and tangential grinding forces in stainless steel were higher than those in assab steel and mild steel

  11. Overall process considerations for using dilute acid cellulose hydrolysis technology to produce ethanol from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elander, R.; Ibsen, K.; Hayward, T.; Nagle, N.; Torget, R.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in reactors, designed for the dilute acid thermochemical treatment of biomass, have resulted in the development of process alternatives in which both cellulose and hemicellulose are hydrolyzed to soluble sugars in high yields. The optimal extent of cellulose hydrolysis will depend on both the performance and economics of the thermochemical treatment operation, and on subsequent unit operations in the bioethanol production process. Examples of subsequent unit operation interactions include the extent to which cellulase enzymes are used to hydrolyze any remaining cellulose, kinetics and conditions of a largely soluble mixed sugar cofermentation, and the extent to which removal of compounds that inhabit fermenting microorganisms is required. In addition, a number of process operation and economic considerations affect the ultimate economic viability of this type of biomass hydrolysis process. These considerations include reactor design issues to accommodate the kinetic parameters of the various hydrolysis and sugar degradation reactions, liquid volume requirements to achieve acceptable sugar yields, sugar concentrations that result from such a process and their impact on subsequent fermentation volumes and ethanol recovery operations, potential co-product opportunities that result from solubilized lignin, and process steam requirements. Several potential whole-process configurations are presented and key process and economic issues for each are discussed. (author)

  12. Techno-economic evaluation of stillage treatment with anaerobic digestion in a softwood-to-ethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barta Zsolt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replacing the energy-intensive evaporation of stillage by anaerobic digestion is one way of decreasing the energy demand of the lignocellulosic biomass to the ethanol process. The biogas can be upgraded and sold as transportation fuel, injected directly into the gas grid or be incinerated on-site for combined heat and power generation. A techno-economic evaluation of the spruce-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, has been performed using the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus™. Various process configurations of anaerobic digestion of the stillage, with different combinations of co-products, have been evaluated in terms of energy efficiency and ethanol production cost versus the reference case of evaporation. Results Anaerobic digestion of the stillage showed a significantly higher overall energy efficiency (87-92%, based on the lower heating values, than the reference case (81%. Although the amount of ethanol produced was the same in all scenarios, the production cost varied between 4.00 and 5.27 Swedish kronor per litre (0.38-0.50 euro/L, including the reference case. Conclusions Higher energy efficiency options did not necessarily result in lower ethanol production costs. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage with biogas upgrading was demonstrated to be a favourable option for both energy efficiency and ethanol production cost. The difference in the production cost of ethanol between using the whole stillage or only the liquid fraction in anaerobic digestion was negligible for the combination of co-products including upgraded biogas, electricity and district heat.

  13. Techno-economic evaluation of stillage treatment with anaerobic digestion in a softwood-to-ethanol process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Zsolt; Reczey, Kati; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-09-15

    Replacing the energy-intensive evaporation of stillage by anaerobic digestion is one way of decreasing the energy demand of the lignocellulosic biomass to the ethanol process. The biogas can be upgraded and sold as transportation fuel, injected directly into the gas grid or be incinerated on-site for combined heat and power generation. A techno-economic evaluation of the spruce-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, has been performed using the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus™. Various process configurations of anaerobic digestion of the stillage, with different combinations of co-products, have been evaluated in terms of energy efficiency and ethanol production cost versus the reference case of evaporation. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage showed a significantly higher overall energy efficiency (87-92%), based on the lower heating values, than the reference case (81%). Although the amount of ethanol produced was the same in all scenarios, the production cost varied between 4.00 and 5.27 Swedish kronor per litre (0.38-0.50 euro/L), including the reference case. Higher energy efficiency options did not necessarily result in lower ethanol production costs. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage with biogas upgrading was demonstrated to be a favourable option for both energy efficiency and ethanol production cost. The difference in the production cost of ethanol between using the whole stillage or only the liquid fraction in anaerobic digestion was negligible for the combination of co-products including upgraded biogas, electricity and district heat.

  14. Efficient Fuel Pretreatment: Simultaneous Torrefaction and Grinding of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti; Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Combining torrefaction and grinding of biomass in one reactor may be an attractive fuel pretreatment process. A combined laboratory torrefaction and ball mill reactor has been constructed for studies of the influence of temperature and residence time on the product yields and particle size...... reductions of Danish wheat straw, spruce chips, and pine chips. On the basis of initial experiments, which evaluated the influence of reactor mass loading, gas flow, and grinding ball size and material, a standard experimental procedure was developed. The particle size reduction capability......, and ash composition, where straw has a higher alkali content. This and other studies indicate that the large difference in the alkali contents of the biomasses is the main cause for the observed difference in torrefaction characteristics. Experiments with separate particle heating and grinding showed...

  15. Evaluation of ball and roller bearings restored by grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. Groups of each of these bearings were visually and dimensionally inspected for suitability for restoration. A total of 250 bearings were restored by grinding. Of this number, 30 bearings from each type were endurance tested to a TBO of 1600 hours. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The two bearing failures which occurred were due to defective rolling elements and were typical of those which may occur in new bearings. The restorable component yield to the three groups was in excess of 90 percent.

  16. Dynamic modeling and analyses of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process to produce bio-ethanol from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jordon; Su, Wen-Jun; Chien, I-Lung; Chang, Der-Ming; Chou, Sheng-Hsin; Zhan, Rui-Yu

    2010-02-01

    The rice straw, an agricultural waste from Asians' main provision, was collected as feedstock to convert cellulose into ethanol through the enzymatic hydrolysis and followed by the fermentation process. When the two process steps are performed sequentially, it is referred to as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). The steps can also be performed simultaneously, i.e., simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In this research, the kinetic model parameters of the cellulose saccharification process step using the rice straw as feedstock is obtained from real experimental data of cellulase hydrolysis. Furthermore, this model can be combined with a fermentation model at high glucose and ethanol concentrations to form a SSF model. The fermentation model is based on cybernetic approach from a paper in the literature with an extension of including both the glucose and ethanol inhibition terms to approach more to the actual plants. Dynamic effects of the operating variables in the enzymatic hydrolysis and the fermentation models will be analyzed. The operation of the SSF process will be compared to the SHF process. It is shown that the SSF process is better in reducing the processing time when the product (ethanol) concentration is high. The means to improve the productivity of the overall SSF process, by properly using aeration during the batch operation will also be discussed.

  17. Development of the pellet grinding and inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Toshihiro; Kawasaki, Takao; Inui, Toshihiko; Yamada, Hiroyuki.

    1996-01-01

    The pellet grinding and inspection system is the facility of producing the MOX fuel for FBRs, and it was delivered in March, 1996 to the No. 3 Development Office of the plutonium fuel shop in Tokai of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. This facility realized the high speed processing using the compact facility by combining the grinding of pellets, the inspection of outer density and appearance, the rationalization of the facility and the high performance automation equipment. The production processes of MOX comprise the processes of powder, sinter, finish and inspection, fabrication and assembling. The requirement for developing these facilities is shown. The features of this pellet grinding and inspection system are the compact facility by the combination of functions, high speed processing, the reduction of holdup in processes and the improvement of maintenance. These features are explained. The main components are simple sorting equipment, grinder, grinding dust recovering equipment, outside diameter and density sorting equipment and appearance inspection equipment. The constitution and the main functions of the control facility are described. The operational process is explained. (K.I.)

  18. Work Index and Grinding Energy Assessment of Dilband Iron Ore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ishaque Abro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance of comminution in mineral processing sector is highly acknowledged from energy perspective. In present study an attempt was made to understand the comminuting behavior of Dilband iron ore and to compute the grinding energy requirement for production of ultrafine particles up to mesh of liberation. In this regard standard grindability tests developed by the Chair of Mineral Processing Leoben Austria was used for calculating work index of Dilband iron ore. The grinding tests were conducted in rod and ball mills. The work index value of two feed size fractions with 80% passing at 3800?m and 5200?m was noted to be 11.85 kwh/t and 9.3 kwh/ton respectively. Ball mill grinding test indicates that dry grinding in open circuit is not efficient and consumes more energy of 88.48kwh/t of ore for grinding 1000/40?m to 80% <40?m size.

  19. Valorization of sugar-to-ethanol process waste vinasse: A novel biorefinery approach using edible ascomycetes filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the integration of edible ascomycetes filamentous fungi into the existing sugar- or molasses-to-ethanol processes, to grow on vinasse or stillage and produce ethanol and protein-rich fungal biomass. Two fungal strains, Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae were examined in shake flasks and airlift-bioreactors, resulting in reduction of vinasse COD by 34% and viscosity by 21%. Utilization of glycerol and sugars were observed, yielding 202.4 or 222.8g dry fungal biomass of N. intermedia or A. oryzae respectively, per liter of vinasse. Integration of the current process at an existing ethanol facility producing about 100,000m 3 of ethanol per year could produce around 200,000-250,000tons of dry fungal biomass (40-45% protein) together with about 8800-12,600m 3 extra ethanol (8.8-12.6% of production-rate improvement). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The project and technical study on the track of vertical axis linkage abrasive belt grinding of turbine blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yujian; Tang Xiaoqi; Chen Jihong; Yang Jianzhong

    2010-01-01

    A method of CNC turbine blade profile abrasive belt grinding is introduced based on optimum grinding effect, where the direction of the axis of trolley wheel is consistent with that of minimum principal curvature on the contact point of turbine blade. And the cutter location path is determined, and then the NC code is derived from post-processing. A virtual machine model is built in VERICUT software to simulate actual grinding process and applied in practice, which yielded satisfactory results. (authors)

  1. Reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol by integrating biomass to produce heat and power at ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance; Tiffany, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of corn ethanol was conducted to determine the reduction in the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for corn ethanol compared to gasoline by integrating biomass fuels to replace fossil fuels (natural gas and grid electricity) in a U.S. Midwest dry-grind corn ethanol plant producing 0.19 hm 3 y -1 of denatured ethanol. The biomass fuels studied are corn stover and ethanol co-products [dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and syrup (solubles portion of DDGS)]. The biomass conversion technologies/systems considered are process heat (PH) only systems, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems. The life-cycle GHG emission reduction for corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 38.9% for PH with natural gas, 57.7% for PH with corn stover, 79.1% for CHP with corn stover, 78.2% for IGCC with natural gas, 119.0% for BIGCC with corn stover, and 111.4% for BIGCC with syrup and stover. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. GHG emission reductions for CHP, IGCC, and BIGCC include power sent to the grid which replaces electricity from coal. BIGCC results in greater reductions in GHG emissions than IGCC with natural gas because biomass is substituted for fossil fuels. In addition, underground sequestration of CO 2 gas from the ethanol plant's fermentation tank could further reduce the life-cycle GHG emission for corn ethanol by 32% compared to gasoline.

  2. Grinding arrangement for ball nose milling cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, C. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A grinding arrangement for spiral fluted ball nose end mills and like tools includes a tool holder for positioning the tool relative to a grinding wheel. The tool is mounted in a spindle within the tool holder for rotation about its centerline and the tool holder is pivotably mounted for angular movement about an axis which intersects that centerline. A follower arm of a cam follower secured to the spindle cooperates with a specially shaped cam to provide rotation of the tool during the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle, by an amount determined by the cam profile. In this way the surface of the cutting edge in contact with the grinding wheel is maintained at the same height on the grinding wheel throughout the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle.

  3. A generalized disjunctive programming framework for the optimal synthesis and analysis of processes for ethanol production from corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Felipe; Aroca, Germán; Caballero, José Antonio; Conejeros, Raúl

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the techno-economic performance of process configurations for ethanol production involving solid-liquid separators and reactors in the saccharification and fermentation stage, a family of process configurations where few alternatives have been proposed. Since including these process alternatives creates a large number of possible process configurations, a framework for process synthesis and optimization is proposed. This approach is supported on kinetic models fed with experimental data and a plant-wide techno-economic model. Among 150 process configurations, 40 show an improved MESP compared to a well-documented base case (BC), almost all include solid separators and some show energy retrieved in products 32% higher compared to the BC. Moreover, 16 of them also show a lower capital investment per unit of ethanol produced per year. Several of the process configurations found in this work have not been reported in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New alternatives for the fermentation process in the ethanol production from sugarcane: Extractive and low temperature fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Ensinas, Adriano; Modesto, Marcelo; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is produced in large scale from sugarcane in Brazil by fermentation of sugars and distillation. This is currently considered as an efficient biofuel technology, leading to significant reduction on greenhouse gases emissions. However, some improvements in the process can be introduced in order to improve the use of energy. In current distilleries, a significant fraction of the energy consumption occurs in the purification step – distillation and dehydration – since conventional fermentation systems employed in the industry require low substrate concentration, which must be distilled, consequently with high energy consumption. In this study, alternatives to the conventional fermentation processes are assessed, through computer simulation: low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. The aim of this study is to assess the incorporation of these alternative fermentation processes in ethanol production, energy consumption and electricity surplus produced in the cogeneration system. Several cases were evaluated. Thermal integration technique was applied. Results shown that the ethanol production increases between 3.3% and 4.8% and a reduction in steam consumption happens of up to 36%. About the electricity surplus, a value of 85 kWh/t of cane can be achieved when condensing – extracting steam turbines are used. - Highlights: • Increasing the wine concentration in the ethanol production from sugarcane. • Alternatives to the conventional fermentation process. • Low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. • Reduction of steam consumption through the thermal integration of the processes. • Different configurations of cogeneration system maximizing the electricity surplus

  5. Optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding based on a generalized utility function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The existing studies, concerning the dressing process, focus on the major influence of the dressing conditions on the grinding response variables. However, the choice of the dressing conditions is often made, based on the experience of the qualified staff or using data from reference books. The optimal dressing parameters, which are only valid for the particular methods and dressing and grinding conditions, are also used. The paper presents a methodology for optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding. The generalized utility function has been chosen as an optimization parameter. It is a complex indicator determining the economic, dynamic and manufacturing characteristics of the grinding process. The developed methodology is implemented for the dressing of aluminium oxide grinding wheels by using experimental diamond roller dressers with different grit sizes made of medium- and high-strength synthetic diamonds type ??32 and ??80. To solve the optimization problem, a model of the generalized utility function is created which reflects the complex impact of dressing parameters. The model is built based on the results from the conducted complex study and modeling of the grinding wheel lifetime, cutting ability, production rate and cutting forces during grinding. They are closely related to the dressing conditions (dressing speed ratio, radial in-feed of the diamond roller dresser and dress-out time), the diamond roller dresser grit size/grinding wheel grit size ratio, the type of synthetic diamonds and the direction of dressing. Some dressing parameters are determined for which the generalized utility function has a maximum and which guarantee an optimum combination of the following: the lifetime and cutting ability of the abrasive wheels, the tangential cutting force magnitude and the production rate of the grinding process. The results obtained prove the possibility of control and optimization of grinding by selecting particular dressing

  6. Recognition of diamond grains on surface of fine diamond grinding wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengwei HUO; Zhuji JIN; Renke KANG; Dongming GUO; Chun YANG

    2008-01-01

    The accurate evaluation of grinding wheel sur-face topography, which is necessary for the investigation of the grinding principle, optimism, modeling, and simu-lation of a grinding process, significantly depends on the accurate recognition of abrasive grains from the measured wheel surface. A detailed analysis of the grain size distri-bution characteristics and grain profile wavelength of the fine diamond grinding wheel used for ultra-precision grinding is presented. The requirements of the spatial sampling interval and sampling area for instruments to measure the surface topography of a diamond grinding wheel are discussed. To recognize diamond grains, digital filtering is used to eliminate the high frequency disturb-ance from the measured 3D digital surface of the grinding wheel, the geometric features of diamond grains are then extracted from the filtered 3D digital surface, and a method based on the grain profile frequency characteris-tics, diamond grain curvature, and distance between two adjacent diamond grains is proposed. A 3D surface pro-filer based on scanning white light interferometry is used to measure the 3D surface topography of a #3000 mesh resin bonded diamond grinding wheel, and the diamond grains are then recognized from the 3D digital surface. The experimental result shows that the proposed method is reasonable and effective.

  7. The effect of grinding on magnetic properties of agglomereted MnFe2O4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslibeiki, B.; Kameli, P.; Salamati, H.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of grinding on interparticle magnetic interactions for an ensemble of agglomerated MnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles have been studied. Structural analyses showed that by grinding the samples, a small variation in size of crystallites and lattice strain will occur. ac Magnetic susceptibility measurements under different conditions and spin dynamics analysis suggest that freezing temperature is frequency dependent and it is in good agreement with critical slowing down model. This is an indication that these nanoparticles have superspin glass behavior. The estimated zυ and τ 0 parameters using critical slowing down model show that by increasing the grinding time the interaction between nanoparticles decreases. ac Susceptibility measurements in cooling and heating process show a thermal hysteresis. The thermal hysteresis decreased by increasing the grinding time. Also, the thermal hysteresis is frequency dependent and it increased as frequency decreased. These results showed that interparticle interactions such as dipole-dipole and exchange interactions between nanoparticles become weaker by grinding. - Highlights: → We studied the effects of grinding on interparticle interactions of MnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles. → Critical slowing model used to estimate the interparticle interaction strength. → The results showed interparticle interactions become weaker by grinding. → Ac Susceptibility shows the irreversibility of spins decreased by grinding.

  8. Mechanism and experimental research on ultra-precision grinding of ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Xinxing; Zhao, Huiying; Dong, Longchao; Zhu, Xueliang; Zhang, Chupeng; Gu, Yawen

    2017-02-01

    Ultra-precision grinding of ferrite is conducted to investigate the removal mechanism. Effect of the accuracy of machine tool key components on grinding surface quality is analyzed. The surface generation model of ferrite ultra-precision grinding machining is established. In order to reveal the surface formation mechanism of ferrite in the process of ultraprecision grinding, furthermore, the scientific and accurate of the calculation model are taken into account to verify the grinding surface roughness, which is proposed. Orthogonal experiment is designed using the high precision aerostatic turntable and aerostatic spindle for ferrite which is a typical hard brittle materials. Based on the experimental results, the influence factors and laws of ultra-precision grinding surface of ferrite are discussed through the analysis of the surface roughness. The results show that the quality of ferrite grinding surface is the optimal parameters, when the wheel speed of 20000r/mm, feed rate of 10mm/min, grinding depth of 0.005mm, and turntable rotary speed of 5r/min, the surface roughness Ra can up to 75nm.

  9. Surface crack formation on rails at grinding induced martensite white etching layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Carsten Jørn; Fæster, Søren; Dhar, Somrita

    2017-01-01

    The connection between profile grinding of rails, martensite surface layers and crack initiation has been investigated using visual inspection, optical microscopy and 3D X-ray computerized tomography. Newly grinded rails were extracted and found to be covered by a continuous surface layer...... of martensite with varying thickness formed by the grinding process. Worn R350HT and R200 rails were extracted from the Danish rail network as they had transverse bands resembling grinding marks on the running surface. The transverse bands were shown to consist of martensite which had extensive crack formation...... at the martensite/pearlite interface. The cracks in R350HT propagated down into the rail while those in the soft R200 returned to the surface causing only very small shallow spallation. The transverse bands had the same shape, size, orientation, location and periodicity which would be expected from grinding marks...

  10. Specific grinding energy and surface roughness of nanoparticle jet minimum quantity lubrication in grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongkun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles with the anti-wear and friction reducing features were applied as cooling lubricant in the grinding fluid. Dry grinding, flood grinding, minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL, and nanoparticle jet MQL were used in the grinding experiments. The specific grinding energy of dry grinding, flood grinding and MQL were 84, 29.8, 45.5 J/mm3, respectively. The specific grinding energy significantly decreased to 32.7 J/mm3 in nanoparticle MQL. Compared with dry grinding, the surface roughness values of flood grinding, MQL, and nanoparticle jet MQL were significantly reduced with the surface topography profile values reduced by 11%, 2.5%, and 10%, respectively, and the ten point height of microcosmic unflatness values reduced by 1.5%, 0.5%, and 1.3%, respectively. These results verified the satisfactory lubrication effects of nanoparticle MQL. MoS2, carbon nanotube (CNT, and ZrO2 nanoparticles were also added in the grinding fluid of nanoparticle jet MQL to analyze their grinding surface lubrication effects. The specific grinding energy of MoS2 nanoparticle was only 32.7 J/mm3, which was 8.22% and 10.39% lower than those of the other two nanoparticles. Moreover, the surface roughness of workpiece was also smaller with MoS2 nanoparticle, which indicated its remarkable lubrication effects. Furthermore, the role of MoS2 particles in the grinding surface lubrication at different nanoparticle volume concentrations was analyzed. MoS2 volume concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 3% were used. Experimental results revealed that the specific grinding energy and the workpiece surface roughness initially increased and then decreased as MoS2 nanoparticle volume concentration increased. Satisfactory grinding surface lubrication effects were obtained with 2% MoS2 nanoparticle volume concentration.

  11. Getting to Yes or Bailing on No: The Site Selection Process of Ethanol Plants in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Leann M.; Noble, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies of ethanol location rest on the assumption that ethanol producers are economic free agents--evaluating sites as if all counties are contenders for their business, weighing the availability of feedstocks along with their infrastructure needs, operating without ties to localities, and being subject to enticement from policy incentives.…

  12. Contact and Non-contact Measurements of Grinding Pins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziak Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of contact and non-contact measurements of external profiles of selected grinding pins. The measurements were conducted in order to choose the appropriate measuring technique in the case of the considered measurement task. In the case of contact measurements the coordinate measuring machine ACCURA II was applied. The used coordinate measuring machine was equipped with the contact scanning probe VAST XT and the Calypso inspection software. Contact coordinate measurements were performed by using of different measurement strategies. The applied strategies included different scanning velocities and distances between measured points. Non-contact measurements were conducted by means of the tool presetter produced by the Mahr company. On the basis of gained results the guidelines concerning measurements of grinding pins were formulated. The measurements of analyzed grinding pins performed by means of the non-contact measuring system are characterized by higher reproducibility than the contact measurements. The low reproducibility of contact measurements may be connected with the inaccuracy of the selected coordinate measuring machine and the measuring probe, the measurement parameters and environmental conditions in the laboratory where the coordinate measuring machine is located. Moreover, the paper presents the possible application of results of conducted investigations. The results of non-contact measurements can be used in the simulation studies of grinding processes. The simulations may reduce the costs of machining processes.

  13. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  14. Ethanol dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Uyazán; Iván Dario Gil; J L Aguilar; Gerardo Rodríguez Niño; Luis Alfonso Caicedo

    2004-01-01

    This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the op...

  15. Ethanol dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the operational, energy consumption and industrial services points of view.

  16. Development of an Effective Chain Elongation Process From Acidified Food Waste and Ethanol Into n-Caproate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Roghair

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs, such as n-caproate, are potential valuable platform chemicals. MCFAs can be produced from low-grade organic residues by anaerobic reactor microbiomes through two subsequent biological processes: hydrolysis combined with acidogenesis and chain elongation. Continuous chain elongation with organic residues becomes effective when the targeted MCFA(s are produced at high concentrations and rates, while excessive ethanol oxidation and base consumption are limited. The objective of this study was to develop an effective continuous chain elongation process with hydrolyzed and acidified food waste and additional ethanol.Results: We fed acidified food waste (AFW and ethanol to an anaerobic reactor while operating the reactor at long (4 d and at short (1 d hydraulic retention time (HRT. At long HRT, n-caproate was continuously produced (5.5 g/L/d at an average concentration of 23.4 g/L. The highest n-caproate concentration was 25.7 g/L which is the highest reported n-caproate concentration in a chain elongation process to date. Compared to short HRT (7.1 g/L n-caproate at 5.6 g/L/d, long HRT resulted in 6.2 times less excessive ethanol oxidation. This led to a two times lower ethanol consumption and a two times lower base consumption per produced MCFA at long HRT compared to short HRT.Conclusions: Chain elongation from AFW and ethanol is more effective at long HRT than at short HRT not only because it results in a higher concentration of MCFAs but also because it leads to a more efficient use of ethanol and base. The HRT did not influence the n-caproate production rate. The obtained n-caproate concentration is more than twice as high as the maximum solubility of n-caproic acid in water which is beneficial for its separation from the fermentation broth. This study does not only set the record on the highest n-caproate concentration observed in a chain elongation process to date, it notably demonstrates that

  17. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  18. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin Jt

    2012-01-12

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes.

  19. Cellulase production using different streams of wheat grain- and wheat straw-based ethanol processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyalai-Korpos, Miklós; Mangel, Réka; Alvira, Pablo; Dienes, Dóra; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Réczey, Kati

    2011-07-01

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in the biomass-to-ethanol conversion process. The side stream of the pretreatment step is the liquid fraction, also referred to as the hydrolyzate, which arises after the separation of the pretreated solid and is composed of valuable carbohydrates along with compounds that are potentially toxic to microbes (mainly furfural, acetic acid, and formic acid). The aim of our study was to utilize the liquid fraction from steam-exploded wheat straw as a carbon source for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30. Results showed that without detoxification, the fungus failed to utilize any dilution of the hydrolyzate; however, after a two-step detoxification process, it was able to grow on a fourfold dilution of the treated liquid fraction. Supplementation of the fourfold-diluted, treated liquid fraction with washed pretreated wheat straw or ground wheat grain led to enhanced cellulase (filter paper) activity. Produced enzymes were tested in hydrolysis of washed pretreated wheat straw. Supplementation with ground wheat grain provided a more efficient enzyme mixture for the hydrolysis by means of the near-doubled β-glucosidase activity obtained.

  20. Dynamics of chemical elements in the fermentation process of ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepomuceno, N.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Bacchi, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Brazil has become the largest producer of biomass ethanol derived from sugar cane. The industrial production is based on the fermentation of sugar cane juice by yeast, inside of large volume vats, in a fed-batch process that recycles yeast cells. To study the dynamics of chemical elements in each operating cycle, five stages of the fermentation process were considered: must, yeast suspension, wine, non-yeast wine and yeast cream. For this, a mass balance of the terrigenous elements, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Sc, Sm, and Th, and the sugar cane plant elements, Br, K, Rb, and Zn, were established in fermentation vats of an industrial scale unit, with sampling undertaken during different climatic conditions (dry and rainy periods). A similar distribution of the sugar cane characteristics elements was found for the stages analysed, while for the terrigenous elements a trend of accumulation in the yeast cream was observed. Preferential absorption of Br, K, Rb, and Zn by yeast cells was indicated by the smaller concentrations observed in yeast suspension than in yeast cream. (author)

  1. Next generation grinding spindle for cost-effective manufacture of advanced ceramic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, J.A.; Laurich, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Finish grinding of advanced structural ceramics has generally been considered an extremely slow and costly process. Recently, however, results from the High-Speed, Low-Damage (HSLD) program have clearly demonstrated that numerous finish-process performance benefits can be realized by grinding silicon nitride at high wheel speeds. A new, single-step, roughing-process capable of producing high-quality silicon nitride parts at high material removal rates while dramatically reducing finishing costs has been developed.

  2. Experiment research on grind-hardening of AISI5140 steel based on thermal copensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiang Ming; Ren, Ying Hui; Zheng, Bo; Zhou, Zhixiong [College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Deng, Zhao Hui [Key Laboratory for High Efficiency and Precision Machining of Difficult-to-Cut Material of Hunan Province, Hunan (China)

    2016-08-15

    The grind-hardening process utilizes the heat generated to induce martensitic phase transformation. However, the maximum achievable harden layer depth is limited due to high grinding forces, and the tensile residual stress appears on the ground surface in the grind-hardening process. This paper proposes a new grind-hardening technology using thermal compensation. The workpiece of AISI5140 steel is preheated by electric resistance heating, and ground under the condition of the workpiece temperature 25°C, 120°C, 180°C and 240°C. The grinding force, harden layer depth and surface quality including residual stress on ground surface, surface roughness and micro-hardness are investigated. The experimental results show that a deep harden layer with a fine grain martensite can be obtained with the thermal compensation. The ground workpiece surface produces a certain compressive residual stress, and the residual compressive stress value increases with preheating temperature. As the preheating temperature increases, grinding force slightly decreases, while there is slightly increment of surface roughness. Compared with the conventional grind-hardening process, both the harden layer depth and residual stress distribution are significantly improved.

  3. Review of pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic ethanol production, and development of an innovative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonti, David; Prussi, Matteo; Ferrero, Simone; Oriani, Luis; Ottonello, Piero; Torre, Paolo; Cherchi, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Biomass pretreatment aims at separating and providing easier access to the main biomass components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin), eventually removing lignin, preserving the hemicellulose, reducing the cellulose crystallinity and increasing the porosity of the material. Pretreatment is an essential step towards the development and industrialization of efficient 2nd generation lignocellulosic ethanol processes. The present work reviewed the main options available in pretreatment. Autohydrolysis and steam explosion were then selected for further investigation. Experimental work was carried out on batch scale reactors, using Miscanthus as biomass feedstock: the effects on sugar solubilization and degradation products generation have been examined for each of these two pretreatment systems. A new process using only water and steam as reacting media was then developed, experimentally tested, and results compared to those achieved by the autohydrolysis and steam explosion processes. Products obtained with the new pretreatment contained a lower amount of usual fermentation inhibitor compounds compared to that typically obtained in steam explosion. This result was achieved under operating conditions that at the same time allowed a good xylan yield, preventing degradation of hemicelluloses. The new pretreatment process was also able to act as an equalization step, as the solid material from the pretreatment phase had a similar composition even under different operating conditions. As regards the effect of pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis, the new process achieved yields similar to steam explosion on glucans: however, this was obtained reducing the formation of degradation products from sugars, mainly from C5 sugars. These results made the proposed pretreatment system suitable for further development and industrialization on pilot and industrial scale.

  4. Simultaneous or separated; comparison approach for saccharification and fermentation process in producing bio-ethanol from EFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardant, Teuku Beuna; Dahnum, Deliana; Amaliyah, Nur

    2017-11-01

    Simultaneous Saccharification Fermentation (SSF) of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) empty fruit bunch (EFB) pulp were investigated as a part of ethanol production process. SSF was investigated by observing the effect of substrate loading variation in range 10-20%w, cellulase loading 5-30 FPU/gr substrate and yeast addition 1-2%v to the ethanol yield. Mathematical model for describing the effects of these three variables to the ethanol yield were developed using Response Surface Methodology-Cheminformatics (RSM-CI). The model gave acceptable accuracy in predicting ethanol yield for Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) with coefficient of determination (R2) 0.8899. Model validation based on data from previous study gave (R2) 0.7942 which was acceptable for using this model for trend prediction analysis. Trend prediction analysis based on model prediction yield showed that SSF gave trend for higher yield when the process was operated in high enzyme concentration and low substrate concentration. On the other hand, even SHF model showed better yield will be obtained if operated in lower substrate concentration, it still possible to operate in higher substrate concentration with slightly lower yield. Opportunity provided by SHF to operate in high loading substrate make it preferable option for application in commercial scale.

  5. Lathe converted for grinding aspheric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmer, J. W.; Levinsohn, M.; Mc Craw, D.; Pessagno, E. H.; Taub, F. J.

    1964-01-01

    A standard overarm tracing lathe converted by the addition of an independently driven diamond grinding wheel is used for grinding aspheric surfaces. The motion of the wheel is controlled by the lathe air tracer following the template which produces the desired aspheric profile.

  6. Cocrystal Screening of Ibuprofen with Oxalic Acid and Citric Acid via Grinding Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M. F.; Anuar, N.; Rahman, S. Ad; Taifuddin, N. A. Ahmad

    2018-05-01

    Ibuprofen is a Class II Biological Safety Class (BSC) drugs used for relief of arthritis, as an analgesic and possesses the effect of antiplatelet. The major problem involves in ibuprofen is it has a low solubility and high permeability thus causes an unsatisfactory therapeutic effect to humans. Thus, in this work, alteration of ibuprofen’s physicochemical properties is conducted by means of cocrystallization technique. Co-crystallizations of ibuprofen were prepared with selected coformers using dry grinding and liquid assisted grinding (LAG) techniques in different molar ratios while ethanol and propanol were used as a solvent. The new crystalline forms were identified and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Analysis for Ibuprofen-Citric acid (IBP-CA) system, co-crystal was successfully formed in 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 molar ratios for neat grinding method although the co-crystal produced is unstable. Meanwhile, for Ibuprofen-Oxalic acid (IBP-OA) system, the co-crystal formation was identified only in 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 molar ratios for the neat grinding method. LAG method shows that co-crystal formation was unsuccessful in both solvents for IBP-CA, while IBP-OA co-crystal was formed in the molar ratio 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 in ethanol, and 2:1 and 3:1 in propanol.

  7. Improving sustainability of maize to ethanol processing by plant breeding and process optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Torres Salvador, A.F.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Trindade, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Efficient management of plant resources is essential for a sustainable biobased economy. The biomass conversion efficiency and sustainability performance depend greatly on the choice of feedstock and the applied processing technology. The aim of this research was to enhance the biomass use of maize

  8. Energy Efficient Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Ethanol Recovery ad Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower f...

  9. Precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.; Paul, H.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the effect of machine parameters and material properties on precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass. The critical grinding depth to initiate the plastic flow-to-brittle fracture regime will be directly measured using plunge-grind tests. This information will be correlated with machine parameters such as wheel bonding and diamond grain size. Multiaxis grinding tests will then be made to provide data more closely coupled with production technology. One important aspect of the material property studies involves measuring fracture toughness at the very short crack sizes commensurate with grinding damage. Short crack toughness value`s can be much less than the long-crack toughness values measured in conventional fracture tests.

  10. Investigation of finely dispersed grind of magnetically hard SmCo5 and Nd2Fe14B alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balalaev, Yu.N.; Kosobudskij, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    Possibility of preparation of finely dispersed powders of SmCo 5 and Nd 2 Fe 14 B allays investigated and comparison of different types of grinding processes is conducted. Results of comparison of the processes in vibrational mills and disintegrators permit to conclude that density and structure of grindable materials effect on the rate and quality of grinding of magnetically hard alloys [ru

  11. Surface quality prediction model of nano-composite ceramics in ultrasonic vibration-assisted ELID mirror grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Bo; Chen, Fan; Jia, Xiao-feng; Zhao, Chong-yang; Wang, Xiao-bo [Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China)

    2017-04-15

    Ultrasonic vibration-assisted Electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) grinding is a highly efficient and highly precise machining method. The surface quality prediction model in ultrasonic vibration-assisted ELID mirror grinding was studied. First, the interaction between grits and workpiece surface was analyzed according to kinematic mechanics, and the surface roughness model was developed. The variations in surface roughness under different parameters was subsequently calculated and analyzed by MATLAB. Results indicate that compared with the ordinary ELID grinding, ultrasonic vibration-assisted ELID grinding is superior, because it has more stable and better surface quality and has an improved range of ductile machining.

  12. The Effect of the Wear of Rotor Pins on Grinding Efficiency in a High-speed Disintegrator

    OpenAIRE

    Karel DVOŘÁK; Dušan DOLÁK; David PALOUŠEK; Ladislav ČELKO; David JECH

    2018-01-01

    One of the directions intensively investigated in the field of milling is high-energy milling (HEM). One type of HEM is high-speed grinding in high-speed disintegrators. This type of mill is particularly suitable for the grinding and activation of fine powder materials. It has several advantages, such as a very intensive and continual refining process. One disadvantage is that its grinding pins are prone to abrasion, which may result in a decrease of the efficiency of grinding. This effect wa...

  13. The Economics of Ethanol from Sweet Sorghum Using the MixAlco Process

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Michael H.; Richardson, James W.; Outlaw, Joe L.; Holtzapple, Mark T.; Ochoa, Rene F.

    2006-01-01

    The United States is becoming more dependent on ethanol production as a renewable fuel source to decrease dependency on foreign oil. The increase in demand for renewable fuels, due in part to the Energy Policy Act of 2005, has led to increased research on alternative renewable fuels from biomass. One such avenue of research has been the conversion of biomass to renewable fuels, and specifically sweet sorghum, as an ethanol fuel stock.

  14. The effect of seed moisture and temperature on grinding characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassoon Waleed Hameed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd is a native food plant of the Andean region of South America. Quinoa seeds have remarkable nutritional properties, not only from its high protein content, but also from its good amino acid balance. The aim of the study was evaluate the influence of quinoa seed moisture content (10, 12, 14, 16 and 18% and temperature (-20, 3, 20 and 40°C, with the initial grain moisture content of 10.5% on grinding process. Especially the particle size distributions and grinding energy indices were determined. The results showed that the increase of seed moisture content from 10 to 16% caused an increase the specific grinding energy from 6.9 to 8.3 kJ·kg-1, beside of this as the moisture increased the average particle also increased. The highest changes were observed in the fraction of coarse particles (above 1.0 mm. Interestingly, the mass fraction of fine particles (below 0.2 mm also increased. Other grinding indices also confirmed an increase the grinding energy requirements with the increase seed moisture content. The temperature of seed has little influence on quinoa grinding process. The highest grinding energy requirements were observed when the frozen seeds were ground.

  15. A modified indirect mathematical model for evaluation of ethanol production efficiency in industrial-scale continuous fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco Grellet, M A; Castagnaro, A; Dantur, K I; De Boeck, G; Ahmed, P M; Cárdenas, G J; Welin, B; Ruiz, R M

    2016-10-01

    To calculate fermentation efficiency in a continuous ethanol production process, we aimed to develop a robust mathematical method based on the analysis of metabolic by-product formation. This method is in contrast to the traditional way of calculating ethanol fermentation efficiency, where the ratio between the ethanol produced and the sugar consumed is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical conversion yield. Comparison between the two methods, at industrial scale and in sensitivity studies, showed that the indirect method was more robust and gave slightly higher fermentation efficiency values, although fermentation efficiency of the industrial process was found to be low (~75%). The traditional calculation method is simpler than the indirect method as it only requires a few chemical determinations in samples collected. However, a minor error in any measured parameter will have an important impact on the calculated efficiency. In contrast, the indirect method of calculation requires a greater number of determinations but is much more robust since an error in any parameter will only have a minor effect on the fermentation efficiency value. The application of the indirect calculation methodology in order to evaluate the real situation of the process and to reach an optimum fermentation yield for an industrial-scale ethanol production is recommended. Once a high fermentation yield has been reached the traditional method should be used to maintain the control of the process. Upon detection of lower yields in an optimized process the indirect method should be employed as it permits a more accurate diagnosis of causes of yield losses in order to correct the problem rapidly. The low fermentation efficiency obtained in this study shows an urgent need for industrial process optimization where the indirect calculation methodology will be an important tool to determine process losses. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felby Claus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment.

  17. Chemical treatment of coal by grinding and aqueous caustic leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaz, P.; LaCount, R.B.; Kern, D.G.; Turcaniova, L. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Inst. of Geotechnics

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this work has been to point out the possibility of using GACL process for chemical cleaning of brown coal Nivaky (Slovakia) and Pittsburgh coal. Simultaneous grinding and aqueous chemical leaching, which is the principle of the process, reduces the inorganic and inorganic sulfur content in both coals. Dearsenificiation nearly up to 96% is detected in GACL-treated samples of Novaky coal. The possibility of enhancing the recovery of humic acid as a consequence of GACL treatment is demonstrated. The process under study works under atmospheric pressure, temperature of 90{degree}C and NaOH consumption, which is six times lower compared with the MCL process. Further research is needed to minimize the wear of grinding media and to improve the washing step. 24 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Manufacturing and sustainability of bonding systems for grinding tools

    OpenAIRE

    Linke, B

    2016-01-01

    © 2016, German Academic Society for Production Engineering (WGP). Grinding and honing processes are quality-defining operations in the production of many modern products. Process performance and product quality are contingent on selecting the correct abrasive tool for a specific application. Thus, tools with different bonding systems are used, namely resin bonded tools, vitrified bonded tools, and metallic bonded tools. Tool manufacturers have great knowledge in the choice and intricate prod...

  19. Modelling transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 during simulation of grinding of pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide; Nauta, Maarten; Christensen, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to develop a model to predict cross‐contamination of Salmonella during grinding of pork. Methods and Results: Transfer rates of Salmonella were measured in three experiments, where between 10 and 20 kg meat was ground into 200‐g portions. In each experiment, five...... during a small‐scale grinding process. It was, therefore, hypothesized that transfer occurred from two environmental matrices inside the grinder and a model was developed. The developed model satisfactorily predicted the observed concentrations of Salmonella during its cross‐contamination in the grinding...

  20. The study of grinding patterns and factors influencing the grinding areas during sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianxiang; Liu, Weicai; Wu, Junhua; Zhang, Xuying; Zhang, Yongting

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the grinding patterns and discuss the factors influencing the position relationship between intercuspal position (ICP) and grinding area during sleep bruxism. Lateral condylar inclination, inclination of lateral incisal path and freedom in long centric of thirty subjects were measured. The grinding patterns during sleep bruxism were recorded with a bruxism recording device, BruxChecker. The position relationship between ICP and the grinding area was examined. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for correlation analysis between grinding area and free factors (grinding patterns, freedom in long centric and discrepancy between lateral condylar inclination and inclination of lateral incisal path). All 12 subjects with 0mm-freedom in long centric exhibited that ICP of both sides located within the grinding areas. 4 subjects showed that ICP of both sides located outside the grinding areas. There is a significant correlation between 0mm-freedom in long centric and ICP within the grinding areas (p grinding area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Process Design Report for Wood Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Desing and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Majdeski, Henry [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States); Galves, Adrian [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process based on co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis, along with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production.

  2. Physicochemical characterization of the yeast cells and the waste lignocellulosic particles in the immobilization process for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agudelo-Escobar, Lina María; Mussatto, Solange I.; Peñuela, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Ethanol is one of the leading alternative fuels. Efforts have increased the development of technologies for producing ethanol efficiently and economically. The continuous fermentation using yeast cells immobilized in low‐cost materials is presented as an excellent alternative. We used four...... to confirm the hydrophobic or hydrophilic character and the free energies interaction was established. Images were obtained by scanning electron microscope, and determination of surface areas and volumes was performed by adsorption and desorption isotherms. It was established that cell surface properties...... are modified by the immobilization process to which they are subjected. It was evident that cell immobilization depended on the properties of the carrier, as well as cell surface properties. Thus, in order to improve the process of cell immobilization, it is essential to understand the type of carrier‐cell...

  3. Zirconia changes after grinding and regeneration firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Gabriel R; Polli, Gabriela S; Fais, Laiza M G; Reis, José Maurício Dos S N; Pinelli, Lígia A P

    2017-07-01

    Despite improvements in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) systems, grinding during either laboratory procedures or clinical adjustments is often needed to modify the shape of 3 mol(%) yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) restorations. However, the best way to achieve adjustment is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microstructural and crystallographic phase changes, flexural strength, and Weibull modulus of a 3Y-TZP zirconia after grinding with or without water cooling and regeneration firing. Ninety-six bar-shaped specimens were obtained and divided as follows: as-sintered, control; as-sintered with regeneration firing; grinding without water cooling; grinding and regeneration firing with water cooling; and grinding and regeneration firing. Grinding (0.3 mm) was performed with a 150-μm diamond rotary instrument in a high-speed handpiece. For regeneration firing, the specimens were annealed at 1000°C for 30 minutes. The crystalline phases were evaluated by using x-ray powder diffraction. A 4-point bending test was conducted (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min). The Weibull modulus was used to analyze strength reliability. The microstructure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Data from the flexural strength test were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α=.05). Tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation was identified in the ground specimens; R regeneration firing groups showed only the tetragonal phase. The median flexural strength of as-sintered specimens was 642.0; 699.3 MPa for as-sintered specimens with regeneration firing; 770.1 MPa for grinding and water-cooled specimens; 727.3 MPa for specimens produced using water-cooled grinding and regeneration firing; 859.9 MPa for those produced by grinding; and 764.6 for those produced by grinding and regeneration firing; with statistically higher values for the ground groups. The regenerative firing did not affect the flexural

  4. A lignocellulosic ethanol strategy via nonenzymatic sugar production: process synthesis and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeehoon; Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Alonso, David Martin; Dumesic, James A; Maravelias, Christos T

    2015-04-01

    The work develops a strategy for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. In this strategy, the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions are simultaneously converted to sugars using a γ-valerolactone (GVL) solvent containing a dilute acid catalyst. To effectively recover GVL for reuse as solvent and biomass-derived lignin for heat and power generation, separation subsystems, including a novel CO2-based extraction for the separation of sugars from GVL, lignin and humins have been designed. The sugars are co-fermented by yeast to produce ethanol. Furthermore, heat integration to reduce utility requirements is performed. It is shown that this strategy leads to high ethanol yields and the total energy requirements could be satisfied by burning the lignin. The integrated strategy using corn stover feedstock leads to a minimum selling price of $5 per gallon of gasoline equivalent, which suggests that it is a promising alternative to current biofuels production approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of yeast's requirement for glycerol formation in very high ethanol performance fed-batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevoigt Elke

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycerol is the major by-product accounting for up to 5% of the carbon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanolic fermentation. Decreasing glycerol formation may redirect part of the carbon toward ethanol production. However, abolishment of glycerol formation strongly affects yeast's robustness towards different types of stress occurring in an industrial process. In order to assess whether glycerol production can be reduced to a certain extent without jeopardising growth and stress tolerance, the yeast's capacity to synthesize glycerol was adjusted by fine-tuning the activity of the rate-controlling enzyme glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH. Two engineered strains whose specific GPDH activity was significantly reduced by two different degrees were comprehensively characterized in a previously developed Very High Ethanol Performance (VHEP fed-batch process. Results The prototrophic strain CEN.PK113-7D was chosen for decreasing glycerol formation capacity. The fine-tuned reduction of specific GPDH activity was achieved by replacing the native GPD1 promoter in the yeast genome by previously generated well-characterized TEF promoter mutant versions in a gpd2Δ background. Two TEF promoter mutant versions were selected for this study, resulting in a residual GPDH activity of 55 and 6%, respectively. The corresponding strains were referred to here as TEFmut7 and TEFmut2. The genetic modifications were accompanied to a strong reduction in glycerol yield on glucose; the level of reduction compared to the wild-type was 61% in TEFmut7 and 88% in TEFmut2. The overall ethanol production yield on glucose was improved from 0.43 g g-1 in the wild type to 0.44 g g-1 measured in TEFmut7 and 0.45 g g-1 in TEFmut2. Although maximal growth rate in the engineered strains was reduced by 20 and 30%, for TEFmut7 and TEFmut2 respectively, strains' ethanol stress robustness was hardly affected; i.e. values for final ethanol concentration (117 ± 4 g

  6. Automatic grinding apparatus to control uniform specimen thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Joseph S.

    1982-01-01

    This invention is directed to a new and improved grinding apparatus comprising (1) a movable grinding surface, (2) a specimen holder, (3) a displacing device for moving the holder and/or grinding surface toward one another, and (4) at least three devices for limiting displacement of the holder to the grinding surface.

  7. 30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than... the wheel. (3) Safety washers. (b) Grinding wheels shall be operated within the specifications of the...

  8. Co-grinding Effect on Crystalline Zaltoprofen with ?-cyclodextrin/Cucurbit[7]uril in Tablet Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shanshan; Lin, Xiang; Xu, Kailin; He, Jiawei; Yang, Hongqin; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate the co-grinding effects of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) on crystalline zaltoprofen (ZPF) in tablet formulation. Crystalline ZPF was prepared through anti-solvent recrystallization and fully analyzed through single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Co-ground dispersions and mono-ground ZPF were prepared using a ball grinding process. Results revealed that mono-ground ZPF slightly affected the solid state, solubility, and dissolution of crystalline Z...

  9. Sucrose purification and repeated ethanol production from sugars remaining in sweet sorghum juice subjected to a membrane separation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Tsuge, Yota; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Yasukawa, Masahiro; Sasaki, Daisuke; Sazuka, Takashi; Kamio, Eiji; Ogino, Chiaki; Matsuyama, Hideto; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-08-01

    The juice from sweet sorghum cultivar SIL-05 (harvested at physiological maturity) was extracted, and the component sucrose and reducing sugars (such as glucose and fructose) were subjected to a membrane separation process to purify the sucrose for subsequent sugar refining and to obtain a feedstock for repeated bioethanol production. Nanofiltration (NF) of an ultrafiltration (UF) permeate using an NTR-7450 membrane (Nitto Denko Corporation, Osaka, Japan) concentrated the juice and produced a sucrose-rich fraction (143.2 g L -1 sucrose, 8.5 g L -1 glucose, and 4.5 g L -1 fructose). In addition, the above NF permeate was concentrated using an ESNA3 NF membrane to provide concentrated permeated sugars (227.9 g L -1 ) and capture various amino acids in the juice, enabling subsequent ethanol fermentation without the addition of an exogenous nitrogen source. Sequential batch fermentation using the ESNA3 membrane concentrate provided an ethanol titer and theoretical ethanol yield of 102.5-109.5 g L -1 and 84.4-89.6%, respectively, throughout the five-cycle batch fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741. Our results demonstrate that a membrane process using UF and two types of NF membranes has the potential to allow sucrose purification and repeated bioethanol production.

  10. Preliminary investigation into the pressing process of sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum biomass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, M.; Khelifi, M.; Vanasse, A. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science and Agri-Food Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Corn is the main source for biofuel production in North America. However, both sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum crops represent an interesting alternative to corn for ethanol production because of their high biomass yield under a wide range of environmental conditions and high concentration of readily fermentable sugars. Coproducts such as pressing residues can be also be utilized so that nothing is lost in the process. However, in order to improve the extraction of juice for ethanol production, the pressing process of this biomass must be optimized. Preliminary experiments were therefore conducted to optimize the juice extraction from sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum using 2 different presses, notably a screw press and a manually operated hydraulic press. Both types of biomass were either chopped finely or coarsely and were exposed to various pressures with the hydraulic press. The volume of juice extracted from both crops increased linearly with increasing pressure. Sweet sorghum appeared to be a better feedstock for ethanol production because it produced about 0.03 to 0.06 litre of juice per kg of biomass more than sweet pearl millet. Juice extraction was more effective with the screw press, but only a small difference was noted between the 2 chopping modes.

  11. Effect of the Reduction Temperature of PdAg Nanoparticles during the Polyol Process in the Ethanol Electrooxidation Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Carrera-Cerritos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effect of reduction temperature during the synthesis of PdAg catalysts through the polyol process and their evaluation in the ethanol electrooxidation reaction (EOR. The characterization was performed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The electrochemical evaluation for the ethanol electrooxidation reaction was implemented in alkaline medium using chronoamperometry (CA and cyclic voltammetry (CV. An important effect of the reduction temperature on electroactivity and catalytic stability was observed: both the maximum current density and the catalytic stability were higher in the catalyst synthesized at the highest temperature (135°C. This performance was associated with the extent of the interaction between Pd and Ag which was measured in terms of the structural expansion of Pd.

  12. Low specific-grinding energy machining of ceramics by a laser dressed diamond grinding stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodan, K.; Matsumaru, K.; Ishizaki, K.

    2003-01-01

    A laser dressing is an effective dressing method to accomplish efficient ceramic grinding. Since laser dressing achieves protrusion heights of abrasive-grains without grain dislodgment, the number of abrasive-grains in a laser dressed grinding stone (LGS) is higher than that in a mechanically dressed grinding stone (MGS), remaining the initial grain distribution. Thus, the LGS contains higher number of effective cutting edges, and forms higher number of ground grooves on a ground surface than the MGS. Consequently, the LGS can achieve lower specific grinding energy than the MGS. Copyright (2003) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  13. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  14. Comparative technoeconomic analysis of a softwood ethanol process featuring posthydrolysis sugars concentration operations and continuous fermentation with cell recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Steven J; Gurram, Raghu N; Menkhaus, Todd J; Gilcrease, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    Economical production of second generation ethanol from Ponderosa pine is of interest due to widespread mountain pine beetle infestation in the western United States and Canada. The conversion process is limited by low glucose and high inhibitor concentrations resulting from conventional low-solids dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Inhibited fermentations require larger fermentors (due to reduced volumetric productivity) and low sugars lead to low ethanol titers, increasing distillation costs. In this work, multiple effect evaporation (MEE) and nanofiltration (NF) were evaluated to concentrate the hydrolysate from 30 g/l to 100, 150, or 200 g/l glucose. To ferment this high gravity, inhibitor containing stream, traditional batch fermentation was compared with continuous stirred tank fermentation (CSTF) and continuous fermentation with cell recycle (CSTF-CR). Equivalent annual operating cost (EAOC = amortized capital + yearly operating expenses) was used to compare these potential improvements for a local-scale 5 MGY ethanol production facility. Hydrolysate concentration via evaporation increased EAOC over the base process due to the capital and energy intensive nature of evaporating a very dilute sugar stream; however, concentration via NF decreased EAOC for several of the cases (by 2 to 15%). NF concentration to 100 g/l glucose with a CSTF-CR was the most economical option, reducing EAOC by $0.15 per gallon ethanol produced. Sensitivity analyses on NF options showed that EAOC improvement over the base case could still be realized for even higher solids removal requirements (up to two times higher centrifuge requirement for the best case) or decreased NF performance. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. The grinding of uranium dioxide from fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Folgueras, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    This work deals with the UO 2 vibratory grinding, the UO 2 obtained from fluidized beds. In this study the grinding time has been correlated with surface area, stoichiometry, granulometry and grinded product contamination. The efficiency losses in the grinding of moisten UO 2 are outlined. Finally it is made a brief study of the granulate obtained from the grinded UO 2 as well as the green pellets resulting from it, taking into consideration the dispersion of its density and height. (Author)

  16. A method of detection to the grinding wheel layer thickness based on computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuchen; Fu, Luhua; Yang, Dujuan; Wang, Lei; Liu, Changjie; Wang, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposed a method of detection to the grinding wheel layer thickness based on computer vision. A camera is used to capture images of grinding wheel layer on the whole circle. Forward lighting and back lighting are used to enables a clear image to be acquired. Image processing is then executed on the images captured, which consists of image preprocessing, binarization and subpixel subdivision. The aim of binarization is to help the location of a chord and the corresponding ring width. After subpixel subdivision, the thickness of the grinding layer can be calculated finally. Compared with methods usually used to detect grinding wheel wear, method in this paper can directly and quickly get the information of thickness. Also, the eccentric error and the error of pixel equivalent are discussed in this paper.

  17. Unusual effects of manual grinding and subsequent annealing process observed in Gd5.09Ge2.03Si1.88 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A. M. G.; Alves, C. S.; Trevizoli, P. V.; dos Santos, A. O.; Gama, S.; Coelho, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The Gd5.09Ge2.03Si1.88 compound, as well as other magnetocaloric materials, certainly will not be used in their un-manufactured as-cast condition in future magnetic refrigeration applications or other devices. In this work, we have studied the Gd5.09Ge2.03Si1.88 compound processed in different ways, mainly, the as-cast powder, the annealed powder, and the pressed and sintered powder. The annealed powder (1370 K/20 h) does not present the monoclinic phase and the first-order magneto-structural transition observed in the as-cast powder. The pressed and sintered powder also do not present the first-order transition. Furthermore, the compacting pressure shifts the second-order magnetic transition to lower temperatures. The behavior of cell parameters as a function of the compacting pressure indicates that T C is directly affected by parameter c change.

  18. Integrated Process for Extraction of Wax as a Value-Added Co-Product and Improved Ethanol Production by Converting Both Starch and Cellulosic Components in Sorghum Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Grain sorghum is a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production due to its high starch content, which is equivalent to that of corn, and has been successfully used in several commercial corn ethanol plants in the United States. Some sorghum grain varieties contain significant levels of surface wax, which may interact with enzymes and make them less efficient toward starch hydrolysis. On the other hand, wax can be recovered as a valuable co-product and as such may help improve the overall process economics. Sorghum grains also contain lignocellulosic materials in the hulls, which can be converted to additional ethanol. An integrated process was developed, consisting of the following steps: 1. Extraction of wax with boiling ethanol, which is the final product of the proposed process; 2. Pretreatment of the dewaxed grains with dilute sulfuric acid; 3. Mashing and fermenting of the pretreated grains to produce ethanol. During the fermentation, commercial cellulase was also added to release fermentable sugars from the hulls, which then were converted to additional ethanol. The advantages of the developed process were illustrated with the following results: (1 Wax extracted (determined by weight loss: ~0.3 wt % of total mass. (2 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using raw grains: 86.1 g/L. (3 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using dewaxed grains: 106.2 g/L (23.3% improvement. (4 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using dewaxed and acid-treated grains (1 wt % H2SO4 plus cellulase (CTec2: 117.8 g/L (36.8% improvement.

  19. Bio-Ethanol Production from Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known as bio-ethanol, since it is produced from plant materials by biological processes. Bioethanol is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar containing crops like corn, maize, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, potatoes, ...

  20. Effect of technological parameters the process of ethanol production in the saccharification of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Agafonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenderized saccharification process is a mass of the cores in the production of ethanol from starch-containing raw materials. Saccharification of starchy raw materials needed because main production races alcohol yeast do not synthesize and amylolytic enzymes are not able to use in their metabolism Nepo-starch, facility and internalize only mono – and disaccharides. The main aim is to obtain a mash saccharification with a high content of fermentable carbohydrates. The main objective is to obtain a saccharification wort with a high con-zhaniem fermentable carbohydrates. From the course of the saccharification process, the quality of the alcohol depends on the completeness of the fermentation of starch raw materials and product yield. On saccharification sodden mass affected by temperature, pH, glucoamylase dosage and duration of the process. From these factors depend technical-economic production figures. Saccharification boiled barley weight carried glucoamylase enzyme preparation bios 800 A at the rate of 6.0 units per g starch SFS. Control is tenderized weight obtained using one enzyme preparation Alfaferm 3500 A at a dose of 1.0 units per g starch AS. Saccharification takes place at a temperature of 50–65 0 C and pH 4.0–5.5 for 120 minutes. pH was adjusted weight tenderized by making it in sulfuric acid. The saccharification process dynamics studied glucose accumulation in the barley wort in function of temperature, pH, and the dosage of glucoamylase. Samples for glucose determination were taken every 30 minutes. At a temperature of 65 0 C in the first 30 minutes of the accumulation of glucose goes fast, then suddenly slows down, it is possible due to the inactivation of glucoamylase due to changes in the structure of the enzyme molecule. The maximum amount of glucose stored at a temperature of 60 0 C and 11.1 g / cm3, which corresponds to the optimum action of glucoamylase enzyme preparation used. Theconcentration of

  1. Comparison of Grinding Characteristics of Converter Steel Slag with and without Pretreatment and Grinding Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihui Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The converter steel slag cannot be widely used in building materials for its poor grindability. In this paper, the grinding characteristics of untreated and pretreated (i.e., magnetic separation steel slag were compared. Additionally, the grinding property of pretreated steel slag was also studied after adding grinding aids. The results show that the residues (i.e., oversize substance that passed a 0.9 mm square-hole screen can be considered as the hardly grinding phases (HGP and its proportion is about 1.5%. After the initial 20 min grinding, the RO phase (RO phase is a continuous solid solution which is composed of some divalent metal oxides, such as FeO, MgO, MnO, CaO, etc., calcium ferrite, and metallic iron phase made up most of the proportion of the HGP, while the metallic iron made up the most component after 70 min grinding. The D50 of untreated steel slag could only reach 32.89 μm after 50 min grinding, but that of pretreated steel slag could reach 18.16 μm after the same grinding time. The grinding efficiency of steel slag was obviously increased and the particle characteristics were improved after using grinding aids (GA, especially the particle proportions of 3–32 μm were obviously increased by 7.24%, 7.22%, and 10.63% after 40 min, 50 min, and 60 min grinding, respectively. This is mainly because of the reduction of agglomeration and this effect of GA was evidenced by SEM (scanning electron microscope images.

  2. The bioconversion of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine to fuel ethanol using the organosolv process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuejun; Xie, Dan; Yu, Richard W; Saddler, Jack N

    2008-09-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) killed by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (BLP) was compared with healthy lodgepole pine (HLP) for bioconversion to ethanol and high-value co-products. The BLP and HLP chips were pretreated using an ethanol organosolv process at a variety of severities. It was shown that the BLP was easier to pretreat and delignify than were the HLP chips. The resulting pretreated BLP substrate had a lower residual lignin, lower degree of polymerization of cellulose, lower cellulose crystallinity, smaller fiber size and thereby a better enzymatic hydrolysability than did the HLP substrates. However, under the same conditions, the BLP showed lower substrate yield and cellulose recovery than did the HLP, which likely resulted from the excessive hydrolysis and subsequent decomposition of the cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment. The BLP wood yielded more ethanol organosolv lignin than was obtained with the HLP material. The HLP lignin had a lower molecular weight and narrower distribution than did the BLP lignin. It appears that the beetle killed LP is more receptive to organosolv pretreatment other than a slightly lower recovery of carbohydrates.

  3. Process design and economics of a flexible ethanol-butanol plant annexed to a eucalyptus kraft pulp mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Guilherme C Q; Braz, Danilo S; Hamaguchi, Marcelo; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Mariano, Adriano P

    2018-02-01

    This work proposes a strategy, from a process design standpoint, for pulp companies to enter the Brazilian ethanol market. The flexible plant converts eucalyptus-derived glucose to either ethanol or butanol (according to market conditions) and xylose only to butanol production. Depending on the biomass pretreatment technology, Monte Carlo simulations showed that the Net Present Value (NPV) of the flexible plant increases by 20-28% in relation to an ethanol-dedicated plant. Whereas the lower costs of the steam explosion technology turns the investment more attractive (NPV = 184 MMUSD; IRR = 29%), the organosolv technology provides better flexibility to the plant. This work also shows that excessive power consumption is a hurdle in the development of flash fermentation technology chosen for the flexible plant. These results indicate that conventional batch fermentation is preferable if the enzymatic hydrolysis step operates with solids loading up to 20 wt%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. State and parameter estimation based on a nonlinear filter applied to an industrial process control of ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meleiro L.A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Most advanced computer-aided control applications rely on good dynamics process models. The performance of the control system depends on the accuracy of the model used. Typically, such models are developed by conducting off-line identification experiments on the process. These experiments for identification often result in input-output data with small output signal-to-noise ratio, and using these data results in inaccurate model parameter estimates [1]. In this work, a multivariable adaptive self-tuning controller (STC was developed for a biotechnological process application. Due to the difficulties involving the measurements or the excessive amount of variables normally found in industrial process, it is proposed to develop "soft-sensors" which are based fundamentally on artificial neural networks (ANN. A second approach proposed was set in hybrid models, results of the association of deterministic models (which incorporates the available prior knowledge about the process being modeled with artificial neural networks. In this case, kinetic parameters - which are very hard to be accurately determined in real time industrial plants operation - were obtained using ANN predictions. These methods are especially suitable for the identification of time-varying and nonlinear models. This advanced control strategy was applied to a fermentation process to produce ethyl alcohol (ethanol in industrial scale. The reaction rate considered for substratum consumption, cells and ethanol productions are validated with industrial data for typical operating conditions. The results obtained show that the proposed procedure in this work has a great potential for application.

  5. Modeling formalin fixation and histological processing with ribonuclease A: effects of ethanol dehydration on reversal of formaldehyde cross-links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Carol B; O'Leary, Timothy J; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2008-07-01

    Understanding the chemistry of protein modification by formaldehyde fixation and subsequent tissue processing is central to developing improved methods for antigen retrieval in immunohistochemistry and for recovering proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues for proteomic analysis. Our initial studies of single proteins, such as bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A), in 10% buffered formalin solution revealed that upon removal of excess formaldehyde, monomeric RNase A exhibiting normal immunoreactivity could be recovered by heating at 60 degrees C for 30 min at pH 4. We next studied tissue surrogates, which are gelatin-like plugs of fixed proteins that have sufficient physical integrity to be processed using normal tissue histology. Following histological processing, proteins could be extracted from the tissue surrogates by combining heat, detergent, and a protein denaturant. However, gel electrophoresis revealed that the surrogate extracts contained a mixture of monomeric and multimeric proteins. This suggested that during the subsequent steps of tissue processing protein-formaldehyde adducts undergo further modifications that are not observed in aqueous proteins. As a first step toward understanding these additional modifications we have performed a comparative evaluation of RNase A following fixation in buffered formaldehyde alone and after subsequent dehydration in 100% ethanol by combining gel electrophoresis, chemical modification, and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies. Our results reveal that ethanol-induced rearrangement of the conformation of fixed RNase A leads to protein aggregation through the formation of large geometrically compatible hydrophobic beta-sheets that are likely stabilized by formaldehyde cross-links, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions. It requires substantial energy to reverse the formaldehyde cross-links within these sheets and regenerate protein monomers free of formaldehyde modifications

  6. Analysis of transesterification comparing processes with methanol and ethanol for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz; Park, Kil Jin [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The increasing demand for energy on the industrialized world stimulates researches in a renewable fuel. Biodiesel appears like an alternative and utilizes a vegetable oil or animal fat as raw material. The most common method for conversion of the raw material in fuel that can be utilized in Diesel engines is called transesterification. Brazil has a big agricultural potential to produce grains and oils. One of them is the peanut oil that is predominantly cultivated in the southeast of Brazil. There is a prevision that the peanut production reaches 232 thousand tons this year. In this work was evaluated the methanol transesterification and ethanol transesterification of peanut oil using a basic catalyst. The comparison between reactions with the two alcohols showed that methyl esters yield was greater than ethyl esters, with maximum yield of 88.04% for methanol and 84.64% for ethanol. Besides the higher yield, reactions with methanol are easily conducted than with ethanol, the biodiesel purification treatment of final product is quickly and the separation between esters and glycerol is instantaneous. (author)

  7. Intra-pulp temperature increase of equine cheek teeth during treatment with motorized grinding systems: influence of grinding head position and rotational speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussler, Silvia; Luepke, Matthias; Seifert, Hermann; Staszyk, Carsten

    2014-02-21

    In equine practice, teeth corrections by means of motorized grinding systems are standard procedure. The heat resulting from that treatment may cause irreparable damage to the dental pulp. It has been shown that a 5.5°C temperature rise may cause severe destruction in pulp cells. Hence, the capability to continuously form secondary dentine is lost, and may lead, due to equine-typical occlusal tooth abrasion, to an opening of the pulp cavity.To obtain reliable data on the intra-pulp increase in temperature during corrective treatments, equine cheek teeth (CT) were modified in a way (occlusal surface smoothed, apical parts detached, pulp horns standardized) that had been qualified in own former published studies. All parameters influencing the grinding process were standardized (force applied, initial temperatures, dimensions of pulp horns, positioning of grinding disk, rotational speed). During grinding experiments, imitating real dental treatments, the time span for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was determined. The minimum time recorded for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was 38 s in mandibular CT (buccal grinding, 12,000 rpm) and 70 s in maxillary CT (flat occlusal grinding, 12,000 rpm). The data obtained showed that doubling the rotational speed of the disk results in halving the time span after which the critical intra-pulp temperature increase in maxillary CT is reached. For mandibular CT, the time span even drops by two thirds. The use of standardized hypsodont CT enabled comparative studies of intra-pulp heating during the grinding of occlusal tooth surfaces using different tools and techniques. The anatomical structure of the natural vital hypsodont tooth must be kept in mind, so that the findings of this study do not create a deceptive sense of security with regard to the time-dependent heating of the native pulp.

  8. Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant – part B: Techno-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornell, Rickard; Berntsson, Thore; Åsblad, Anders

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study by the authors, energy efficiency measures in a conceptual kraft pulp mill converted to a lignocellulosic ethanol plant were investigated. The results suggested a number of different process designs which would give a substantial improvement in steam economy in the ethanol plant, compared to the original design. In the present study the different process designs are evaluated from an economic point-of-view, in order to determine if energy efficiency measures and increasing by-product sales decrease the production cost of ethanol from this specific process, or if the increased costs related to the implementation of these measures overshadow the benefits from increased by-product sales. The different energy efficiency measures are compared with less capital demanding alternatives (i.e. including low or no energy efficiency improvements) in order to assess the economic benefits of different strategies when converting a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. The study indicates the economic importance of considering energy efficiency measures when repurposing a kraft pulp mill to an ethanol plant. It is also shown that, within the context of this study, a larger investment in measures will give better economic results than less capital demanding alternatives (with less improvement in energy efficiency). From an economic and energy efficiency viewpoint many of the suggested process designs will give approximately similar results, therefore the process design should be made based on other criteria (e.g. low complexity, low maintenance). - Highlights: ► Conversion of a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. ► Heat integration of distillation/evaporation in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant. ► Energy efficiency measures lead to lower ethanol production cost. ► If capital costs and raw material prices are low the production cost could be as low as 365 €/m 3 EtOH.

  9. Influence of Cooling Condition on the Performance of Grinding Hardened Layer in Grind-hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. C.; Chen, J.; Xu, G. Y.; Li, X.

    2018-02-01

    45# steel was grinded and hardened on a surface grinding machine to study the effect of three different cooling media, including emulsion, dry air and liquid nitrogen, on the microstructure and properties of the hardened layer. The results show that the microstructure of material surface hardened with emulsion is pearlite and no hardened layer. The surface roughness is small and the residual stress is compressive stress. With cooling condition of liquid nitrogen and dry air, the specimen surface are hardened, the organization is martensite, the surface roughness is also not changed, but high hardness of hardened layer and surface compressive stress were obtained when grinding using liquid nitrogen. The deeper hardened layer grinded with dry air was obtained and surface residual stress is tensile stress. This study provides an experimental basis for choosing the appropriate cooling mode to effectively control the performance of grinding hardened layer.

  10. Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

    2011-07-29

    The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing

  11. Temperature measurement of flat glass edge during grinding and effect of wheel and workpiece speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, Tala; Garnier, Bertrand; Peerhossaini, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Flat glass temperature at the vicinity of the grinding wheel during grinding can become very high and reach that of the glass transition (typically around 550–600 °C). In such cases, the mechanical strength of glass is greatly affected and the grinding process cannot be carried out properly. Hence, thermal phenomena must be managed by adjusting the machining parameters to avoid overheating. For this purpose, it is very important to be able to measure the glass temperature, especially at the grinding interface. However, measuring the interfacial glass temperature is difficult and none of the existing methods for metal grinding is adequate for glass grinding. This work shows a novel temperature method that uses constantan and copper strips on both sides of the glass plates; thermoelectric contact being provided by the metallic binder of diamond particles in the grinding wheel. This new technique allows the measurement of the glass edge temperature during the wheel displacement around the glass plate. The experimental results show an average glass edge temperature between 300 and 600 °C depending on the value of the machining parameters such as work speed, wheel speed, depth of cut and water coolant flow rate. As this new thermal instrumentation is rather intrusive, glass temperature biases were analysed using a 3D heat transfer model with a moving source. Model computations performed using finite elements show that the temperature biases are less than 70 °C, which is smaller than the standard deviation of the glass edge temperatures measured during grinding. (paper)

  12. Effect of different grinding burs on the physical properties of zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Rok; Choe, Han-Cheol; Heo, Yu-Ri; Lee, Jang-Jae; Son, Mee-Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    Grinding with less stress on 3Y-TZP through proper selection of methods and instruments can lead to a long-term success of prosthesis. The purpose of this study was to compare the phase transformation and physical properties after zirconia surface grinding with 3 different grinding burs. Forty disc-shaped zirconia specimens were fabricated. Each Ten specimens were ground with AllCeramic SuperMax (NTI, Kahla, Germany), Dura-Green DIA (Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan), and Dura-Green (Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan). Ten specimens were not ground and used as a control group. After the specimen grinding, XRD analysis, surface roughness test, FE-SEM imaging, and biaxial flexural strength test were performed. After surface grinding, small amount of monoclinic phase in all experimental groups was observed. The phase change was higher in specimens, which were ground with Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs. The roughness of surfaces increased in specimens, which were ground with Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs than control groups and ground with Dura-Green. All experimental groups showed lower flexural strength than control group, but there was no statistically significant difference between control group and ground with Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs. The specimens, which were ground with Dura- Green showed the lowest strength. The use of dedicated zirconia-specific grinding burs such as Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs decreases the grinding time and did not significantly affect the flexural strength of zirconia, and therefore, they may be recommended. However, a fine polishing process should be accompanied to reduce the surface roughness after grinding.

  13. Preparation and characterization of Dendrobium officinale powders through superfine grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingran; Fan, Haoran; Chen, Feng; Xiao, Tiancun; Zhang, Lianfu

    2018-03-01

    Dendrobium officinale has been used in China for several thousand years as a health food and has become one of the most expensive tea materials worldwide as a result of extremely scarce resources in the wild and an increasing demand. Hence, it is very important to improve the depth and width of its application. In the present study, the physico-chemical, surface chemistry and thermal properties of micron range particles and coarse particles prepared by superfine grinding and shear pulverization were investigated. As the particle size decreased, the specific surface area of D. officinale powders increased significantly. Microscopy observations confirmed that superfine grinding effectively changed the original structure of D. officinale. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra depicted the characteristic bands shifted in terms of absorbance and/or wave number as the powder particle size decreased. The crystallinity and intensity of the crystal peaks of D. officinale powders increased as the particle size decreased. Moisture sorption isotherms suggested that superfine powders were more unstable as a result of the increase in surface area, as well as the exposure of polar groups. The results of the present study suggest that superfine grinding may provide new methods of processing for D. officinale with respect to further enhancement of its application value. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP: A comparison with grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, F D; Cong, W L; Pei, Z J; Treadwell, C

    2016-03-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites have been intensively used in various industries due to their superior properties. In aircraft and aerospace industry, a large number of holes are required to be drilled into CFRP components at final stage for aircraft assembling. There are two major types of methods for hole making of CFRP composites in industry, twist drilling and its derived multi-points machining methods, and grinding and its related methods. The first type of methods are commonly used in hole making of CFRP composites. However, in recent years, rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM), a hybrid machining process combining ultrasonic machining and grinding, has also been successfully used in drilling of CFRP composites. It has been shown that RUM is superior to twist drilling in many aspects. However, there are no reported investigations on comparisons between RUM and grinding in drilling of CFRP. In this paper, these two drilling methods are compared in five aspects, including cutting force, torque, surface roughness, hole diameter, and material removal rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of drill grinding parameters using laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanping, Peng; Kumehara, Hiroyuki; Wei, Zhang; Nomura, Takashi

    2005-12-01

    To measure the grinding parameters and geometry parameters accurately for a drill point is essential to its design and reconditioning. In recent years, a number of non-contact coordinate measuring apparatuses, using CCD camera or laser sensors, are developed. But, a lot work is to be done for further improvement. This paper reports another kind of laser coordinate meter. As an example of its application, the method for geometry inspection of the drill flank surface is detailed. Measured data from laser scanning on the flank surface around some points with several 2-dimensional curves are analyzed with mathematical procedure. If one of these curves turns to be a straight line, it must be the generatrix of the grinding cone. Thus, the grinding parameters are determined by a set of three generatrices. Then, the measurement method and data processing procedure are proposed. Its validity is assessed by measuring a sample with given parameters. The point geometry measured agrees well with the known values. In comparison with other methods in the published literature, it is simpler in computation and more accurate in results.

  16. Economic analysis of hydrogen production through a bio-ethanol steam reforming process: Sensitivity analyses and cost estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hua; Ozkan, Umit S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the hydrogen selling price from ethanol steam reforming has been estimated for two different production scenarios in the United States, i.e. central production (150,000 kg H 2 /day) and distributed (forecourt) production (1500 kg H 2 /day), based on a process flowchart generated by Aspen Plus registered including downstream purification steps and economic analysis model template published by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE). The effect of several processing parameters as well as catalyst properties on the hydrogen selling price has been evaluated. 2.69/kg is estimated as the selling price for a central production process of 150,000 kg H 2 /day and 4.27/kg for a distributed hydrogen production process at a scale of 1500 kg H 2 /day. Among the parameters investigated through sensitivity analyses, ethanol feedstock cost, catalyst cost, and catalytic performance are found to play a significant role on determining the final hydrogen selling price. (author)

  17. Temperature prediction in high speed bone grinding using motor PWM signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Bruce L; Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Anthony C; Sullivan, Stephen; Wang, Guangjun; Shih, Albert J

    2013-10-01

    This research explores the feasibility of using motor electrical feedback to estimate temperature rise during a surgical bone grinding procedure. High-speed bone grinding is often used during skull base neurosurgery to remove cranial bone and approach skull base tumors through the nasal corridor. Grinding-induced heat could propagate and potentially injure surrounding nerves and arteries, and therefore, predicting the temperature in the grinding region would benefit neurosurgeons during the operation. High-speed electric motors are controlled by pulse-width-modulation (PWM) to alter the current input and thus maintain the rotational speed. Assuming full mechanical to thermal power conversion in the grinding process, PWM can be used as feedback for heat generation and temperature prediction. In this study, the conversion model was established from experiments under a variety of grinding conditions and an inverse heat transfer method to determine heat flux. Given a constant rotational speed, the heat conversion was represented by a linear function, and could predict temperature from the experimental data with less than 20% errors. Such results support the advance of this technology for practical application. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis and Compensation for Gear Accuracy with Setting Error in Form Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of form grinding, gear setting error was the main factor that influenced the form grinding accuracy; we proposed an effective method to improve form grinding accuracy that corrected the error by controlling the machine operations. Based on establishing the geometry model of form grinding and representing the gear setting errors as homogeneous coordinate, tooth mathematic model was obtained and simplified under the gear setting error. Then, according to the gear standard of ISO1328-1: 1997 and the ANSI/AGMA 2015-1-A01: 2002, the relationship was investigated by changing the gear setting errors with respect to tooth profile deviation, helix deviation, and cumulative pitch deviation, respectively, under the condition of gear eccentricity error, gear inclination error, and gear resultant error. An error compensation method was proposed based on solving sensitivity coefficient matrix of setting error in a five-axis CNC form grinding machine; simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the method can effectively correct the gear setting error, as well as further improving the forming grinding accuracy.

  19. Production of ethanol from a mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste via a process of successive liquefaction, presaccharification, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Kira, Noriko; Tomiyama, Shigeo; Yamada, Kazuo; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    Efficient ethanol production from waste paper requires the addition of expensive nutrients. To reduce the production cost of ethanol from waste paper, a study on how to produce ethanol efficiently by adding kitchen waste (potentially as a carbon source, nutrient source, and acidity regulator) to waste paper was performed and a process of successive liquefaction, presaccharification, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (L+PSSF) was developed. The individual saccharification performances of waste paper and kitchen waste were not influenced by their mixture. Liquefaction of kitchen waste at 90°C prior to presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) was essential for efficient ethanol fermentation. Ethanol at concentrations of 46.6 or 43.6g/l was obtained at the laboratory scale after fermentation for 96h, even without pH adjustment and/or the addition of extra nutrients. Similarly, ethanol at a concentration of 45.5g/l was obtained at the pilot scale after fermentation for 48h. The ethanol concentration of L+PSSF of the mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste was comparable to that of PSSF of waste paper with added nutrients (yeast extract and peptone) and pH adjustment using H 2 SO 4 , indicating that kitchen waste is not only a carbon source but also an excellent nutrient source and acidity regulator for fermentation of the mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Sequential Strategy Of Experimental Design I: Optimization Of Extractive Distillation Process Of Ethanol-water Using [bmim][n(cn)(2)] As Entrainer

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimes Figueroa; Jaiver Efren; Rodrigues; Maria Isabel; Wolf Maciel; Maria Regina

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the methods available to obtain the anhydrous ethanol is the extractive distillation process, which presents great potential depending on the solvent used. It is imperative that the solvent promotes dehydration, but low cost, the low energy consumption, and low waste generation and emissions must be taken into account. Within this context, there is high demand for new efficient solvents for extractive distillation of ethanol-water mixture, so, the ionic liquids (ILs) have som...

  1. Analysing a Relationship Between Wheel Wear and Cutting Forces During Diamond Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shavva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In diamond grinding cutting forces affect the quality of the machined surface. We can estimate a wear rate of the diamond wheel by the magnitude of the forces and promptly resort to the restoration of its cutting properties. To solve this problem it is necessary to define a relationship between grinding wheel wear and cutting forces. There was no this dependence found in the sources of literature.The forces acting on a single worn diamond grain are considered to find the relationship between wheel wear and cutting forces. The main forces acting on the diamond grain are such as a reaction force of machining material, a frictional force over a worn place of the grain, and a total pressure on the contact surface of the grain and machining material. According to calculation results, in grinding the cutting forces are proportional to the hardness of machining material, and depend on the grain wear, as well as on the process operation conditions.The paper presents a technique for calculating the number of cutting (active grains per unit surface of diamond wheel to determine a total cutting force in grinding. The number of cutting grains depends on the properties of diamond wheel and on the operation conditions of grinding process.During grinding a total cutting force is calculated through the single grain cutting force, the number of cutting grains per unit surface of the grinding wheel and the contact area between the wheel and the work piece. Theoretical calculation of the forces is based on the condition that protrusions of all cutting grains are identical and all grains have a maximum wear, i.e. maximum worn place of grain.Calculations based on proposed theoretical formulas are compared with the calculations from the empirical formulas given in the literature. Varying the operation conditions of grinding makes the comparison. Convergence of results in the range of 5-20% is regarded as acceptable.On the BMSTU base flat diamond grinding of tungsten

  2. Process Design Report for Stover Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jechura, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neeves, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallace, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Montague, L. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Slayton, A. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL.

  3. Workpiece Temperature Variations During Flat Peripheral Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Vitalii A.; Repko, Aleksandr V.

    2018-06-01

    The paper presents the results of researches of temperature variations during flat peripheral grinding. It is shown that the temperature variations of the workpiece can reach 25...30% of the average values, which can lead to some thermal defects. A nonlinear two-dimensional thermophysical grinding model is suggested. It takes into account local changes in the cutting conditions: the fluctuation of the cut layer and the cutting force, the thermal impact of the cutting grains, and the presence of surface cavities in the intermittent wheel. For the numerical solution of the problem, the method of finite differences is adapted. Researches of the method stability and convergence are made, taking into account the specific nature of the problem. A high accuracy of the approximation of the boundary conditions and the nonlinear heat equation is provided. An experimental verification of the proposed thermophysical model was carried out with the use of installation for simultaneous measurement of the grinding force and temperature. It is shown that the discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental values of the grinding temperature does not exceed 5%. The proposed thermophysical model makes it possible to predict with high accuracy the temperature variations during grinding by the wheel periphery.

  4. Novel DDR Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations from Enzymatic Hydrolysis (230 g/L) and High Ethanol Concentration (10% v/v) During Fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Jennings, Ed; Shekiro, Joe; Kuhn, Erik M.; O' Brien, Marykate; Wang, Wei; Schell, Daniel J.; Himmel, Mike; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2015-04-03

    Distilling and purifying ethanol, butanol, and other products from second and later generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating cost for biofuels production. The energy costs associated with distillation affects plant gate and life cycle analysis costs. Lower titers in fermentation due to lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment increase both energy and production costs. In addition, higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuels production for several decades. In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymatic hydrolysis using the novel deacetylation and disc refining (DDR) process on corn stover. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations from the DDR process allowed ethanol titers as high as 82 g/L in 22 hours, which translates into approximately 10 vol% ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 10 vol% ethanol in fermentation derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps has been reported. Techno-economic analysis shows the higher titer ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.

  5. Fermentation Process Modeling with Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm and Runge-Kutta Method on Ethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The core of the Chinese rice wine making is a typical simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process. In order to control and optimize the SSF process of Chinese rice wine brewing, it is necessary to construct kinetic model and study the influence of temperature on the Chinese rice wine brewing process. An unstructured kinetic model containing 12 kinetics parameters was developed and used to describe the changing of kinetic parameters in Chinese rice wine fermentation at 22, 26, and 30°C. The effects of substrate and product inhibitions were included in the model, and four variable, including biomass, ethanol, sugar and substrate were considered. The R-square values for the model are all above 0.95 revealing that the model prediction values could match experimental data very well. Our model conceivably contributes significantly to the improvement of the industrial process for the production of Chinese rice wine.

  6. Modeling and evaluating of surface roughness prediction in micro-grinding on soda-lime glass considering tool characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Gong, Yadong; Wang, Jinsheng

    2013-11-01

    The current research of micro-grinding mainly focuses on the optimal processing technology for different materials. However, the material removal mechanism in micro-grinding is the base of achieving high quality processing surface. Therefore, a novel method for predicting surface roughness in micro-grinding of hard brittle materials considering micro-grinding tool grains protrusion topography is proposed in this paper. The differences of material removal mechanism between convention grinding process and micro-grinding process are analyzed. Topography characterization has been done on micro-grinding tools which are fabricated by electroplating. Models of grain density generation and grain interval are built, and new predicting model of micro-grinding surface roughness is developed. In order to verify the precision and application effect of the surface roughness prediction model proposed, a micro-grinding orthogonally experiment on soda-lime glass is designed and conducted. A series of micro-machining surfaces which are 78 nm to 0.98 μm roughness of brittle material is achieved. It is found that experimental roughness results and the predicting roughness data have an evident coincidence, and the component variable of describing the size effects in predicting model is calculated to be 1.5×107 by reverse method based on the experimental results. The proposed model builds a set of distribution to consider grains distribution densities in different protrusion heights. Finally, the characterization of micro-grinding tools which are used in the experiment has been done based on the distribution set. It is concluded that there is a significant coincidence between surface prediction data from the proposed model and measurements from experiment results. Therefore, the effectiveness of the model is demonstrated. This paper proposes a novel method for predicting surface roughness in micro-grinding of hard brittle materials considering micro-grinding tool grains protrusion

  7. Analysis of fractionation in corn-to-ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Camille

    As the dry grind ethanol industry has grown, the research and technology surrounding ethanol production and co-product value has increased. Including use of back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation. Front-end fractionation is pre-fermentation separation of the corn kernel into 3 fractions: endosperm, bran, and germ. The endosperm fraction enters the existing ethanol plant, and a high protein DDGS product remains after fermentation. High value oil is extracted out of the germ fraction. This leaves corn germ meal and bran as co-products from the other two streams. These 3 co-products have a very different composition than traditional corn DDGS. Installing this technology allows ethanol plants to increase profitability by tapping into more diverse markets, and ultimately could allow for an increase in profitability. An ethanol plant model was developed to evaluate both back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation technology and predict the change in co-products based on technology installed. The model runs in Microsoft Excel and requires inputs of whole corn composition (proximate analysis), amino acid content, and weight to predict the co-product quantity and quality. User inputs include saccharification and fermentation efficiencies, plant capacity, and plant process specifications including front-end fractionation and backend oil extraction, if applicable. This model provides plants a way to assess and monitor variability in co-product composition due to the variation in whole corn composition. Additionally the co-products predicted in this model are entered into the US Pork Center of Excellence, National Swine Nutrition Guide feed formulation software. This allows the plant user and animal nutritionists to evaluate the value of new co-products in existing animal diets.

  8. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)

  9. Analysis on the grinding quality of palm oil fibers by using combined grinding equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, H. L.; Gan, L. M.; Law, H. C.

    2015-12-01

    As known, Malaysia is the second largest palm oil producer worldwide after Indonesia, therefore indicating the abundance of its wastes within the country. The plantation would be seen to increase to at least 5.2 million ha by 2020, and the waste generation would be 50-70 times the plantation. However, the efficiency of bulk density is reduced. This is one of the main reasons of the initiation of this size reduction/ grinding research. With appropriate parameters, grinding will be seen to be helping in enhancing the inter-particle bindings, subsequently increasing the quality of final products. This paper focuses on the grinding quality involving palm oil wastes by using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The samples would first be ground to powder at varying grinding speed and finally got the randomly chosen particles measured to obtain the size range. The grinding speed was manipulated from 15 Hz to 40 Hz. From the data obtained, it was found the particles fineness increased with increasing grinding speed. In general, the size ranged from 45 μm to about 600 μm, where the finest was recorded at the speed of 40 Hz. It was also found that the binding was not so encouraging at very low speeds. Therefore, the optimum grinding speed for oil palm residues lied in the range of 25 Hz to 30 Hz. However, there were still limitations to be overcome if the accuracy of the image clarity is to be enhanced.

  10. Extreme thermophilic ethanol production from rapeseed straw: using the newly isolated Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus and combining it with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a two-step process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karagöz, Pınar; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2013-01-01

    from the liquid fraction of pretreated rapeseed straw, without any dilution or need for additives. However, when the hydrolysate was used undiluted the ethanol yield was only 37% compared to yield of the control, in which pure sugars in synthetic medium were used. The decrease of ethanol yield...... showed that the two strains together could achieve up to 85% of the theoretical ethanol yield based on the sugar composition of the rapeseed straw, which was 14% and 50% higher compared to the yield with the yeast or the bacteria alone, respectively. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.......The newly isolated extreme thermophile Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus was used for ethanol production from alkaline-peroxide pretreated rapeseed straw (PRS). Both the liquid and solid fractions of PRS were used. T. pentosaceus was able to metabolize the typical process inhibitors present...

  11. Socio-economic impact in a region in the southern part of Jutland by the establishment of a plant for processing of bio ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Henning; Hjort-Gregersen, K.

    2005-09-15

    The Farmers Association of Southern Jutland took an interest in the establishment of a plant for processing of Ethanol primarily due to the wish to contribute to the business development in the western part of Southern Jutland. A large plant for production of bio ethanol will bring along a significant number of local jobs with positive derived economic effects in the local community. Further the plant will also form the basis for a new possibility of marketing of cereal crops. From asocial point of view the request to produce ethanol and other biomass based propellants are motivated by the international obligation to reduce emission of greenhouse gasses, which primarily originate from energy production from conventional fossil fuels. A certain amount of fossil fuels is required in the production of crops, but it has been estimated that the net emission of CO{sub 2} by production of ethanol only constitutes 10% of the emission by fossil energy. (au)

  12. Optimization of process parameters for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, Bodhisatta; Shekhawat, Mitali; Srivastava, Pradeep [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). School of Biochemical Engineering; Rathore, Ankita [Nizam College, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Biotechnology; Srivastava, Saurav [National Institute of Technology, Durgapur (India). Dept. of Biotechnology

    2011-04-15

    Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation time) for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using Box-Behnken experimental design and genetic algorithm (GA). An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to analyze the effects of the process parameters on ethanol production. The data obtained after performing the experiments based on statistical design was utilized for regression analysis and analysis of variance studies. The regression equation obtained after regression analysis was used as a fitness function for the genetic algorithm. The GA optimization technique predicted a maximum ethanol yield of 59.59 g/L at temperature 31 C, pH 5.13, initial TRS concentration 216 g/L and fermentation time 44 h. The maximum experimental ethanol yield obtained after applying GA was 58.4 g/L, which was in close agreement with the predicted value. (orig.)

  13. Two-stage pervaporation process for effective in situ removal acetone-butanol-ethanol from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Hu, Song; Miao, Qi; Chen, Changjing; Chen, Huidong; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-01-01

    Two-stage pervaporation for ABE recovery from fermentation broth was studied to reduce the energy cost. The permeate after the first stage in situ pervaporation system was further used as the feedstock in the second stage of pervaporation unit using the same PDMS/PVDF membrane. A total 782.5g/L of ABE (304.56g/L of acetone, 451.98g/L of butanol and 25.97g/L of ethanol) was achieved in the second stage permeate, while the overall acetone, butanol and ethanol separation factors were: 70.7-89.73, 70.48-84.74 and 9.05-13.58, respectively. Furthermore, the theoretical evaporation energy requirement for ABE separation in the consolidate fermentation, which containing two-stage pervaporation and the following distillation process, was estimated less than ∼13.2MJ/kg-butanol. The required evaporation energy was only 36.7% of the energy content of butanol. The novel two-stage pervaporation process was effective in increasing ABE production and reducing energy consumption of the solvents separation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy requirement for fine grinding of torrefied wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repellin, Vincent; Govin, Alexandre; Guyonnet, Rene [Department of Powder and Multi-Components Materials (PMMC), SPIN Research Center, Ecole des Mines de Saint Etienne (EMSE), 158 Cours Fauriel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Rolland, Matthieu [Process Developments and Engineering Division, Chemical Engineering Department, Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP-Lyon), F-69390 Vernaison (France)

    2010-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of torrefaction on wood grinding energy. Wood chips were torrefied at different temperatures and durations. The energy required to obtain fine powder was measured. Particle size analyses were carried out on each powder sample. It is showed that torrefaction decreases both grinding energy and particle size distribution. A criterion to compare grindability of natural and torrefied wood is proposed. It takes into account both grinding energy and particle size distribution. It accounts the energy required for grinding particles to sizes inferior to 200 {mu}m, for given grinding conditions. Torrefaction is characterised by the anhydrous weight loss (AWL) of wood. For AWL inferior to around 8%, grinding energy decreases fast. Over 8%, grinding energy decreases at a slow rate. Particle size distribution decreases linearly as the AWL increases. Both for spruce and beech, the grinding criterion is decreased of 93% when the AWL is around 28%. (author)

  15. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  16. Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant – Part A: Potential for heat integration of thermal separation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornell, Rickard; Berntsson, Thore

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important parameter for the profitability of biochemical ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw material. The yield of ethanol is generally low due to the limited amount of fermentable compounds in the raw material. Increasing energy efficiency leads to possibilities of exporting more by-products, which in turn might reduce the net production cost of ethanol. Energy efficiency is also an important issue when discussing the repurposing of kraft pulp mills to biorefineries, since the mills in question most likely will be old and inefficient. Investing in energy efficiency measures might therefore have a large effect on the economic performance. This paper discusses energy efficiency issues related to the repurposing of a kraft pulp mill into a lignocellulosic ethanol production plant. The studied process is a typical Scandinavian kraft pulp mill that has been converted to a biorefinery with ethanol as main product. A process integration study, using pinch analysis and process simulations, has been performed in order to assess alternative measures for improving the energy efficiency. The improvements found have also been related to the possibilities for by-product sales from the plant (electricity and/or lignin). In a forthcoming paper, which is the second part of this process integration study, an economic analysis based on the results from this paper will be presented. - Highlights: ► Conversion of a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. ► Heat integration of distillation/evaporation in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant. ► Advanced pinch curves used to find new integration possibilities. ► 35–40% reduction of steam demand.

  17. On-machine measurement of the grinding wheels' 3D surface topography using a laser displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yongcheng; Zhao, Qingliang; Guo, Bing

    2014-08-01

    A method of non-contact, on-machine measurement of three dimensional surface topography of grinding wheels' whole surface was developed in this paper, focusing on an electroplated coarse-grained diamond grinding wheel. The measuring system consists of a Keyence laser displacement sensor, a Keyence controller and a NI PCI-6132 data acquisition card. A resolution of 0.1μm in vertical direction and 8μm in horizontal direction could be achieved. After processing the data by LabVIEW and MATLAB, the 3D topography of the grinding wheel's whole surface could be reconstructed. When comparing the reconstructed 3D topography of the grinding wheel's marked area to its real topography captured by a high-depth-field optical digital microscope (HDF-ODM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), they were very similar to each other, proving that this method is accurate and effective. By a subsequent data processing, the topography of every grain could be extracted and then the active grain number, the active grain volume and the active grain's bearing ration could be calculated. These three parameters could serve as the criterion to evaluate the grinding performance of coarse-grained diamond grinding wheels. Then the performance of the grinding wheel could be evaluated on-machine accurately and quantitatively.

  18. Integrated Process for Ethanol, Biogas, and Edible Filamentous Fungi-Based Animal Feed Production from Dilute Phosphoric Acid-Pretreated Wheat Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Kabir, Maryam M; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári

    2018-01-01

    Integration of wheat straw for a biorefinery-based energy generation process by producing ethanol and biogas together with the production of high-protein fungal biomass (suitable for feed application) was the main focus of the present study. An edible ascomycete fungal strain Neurospora intermedia was used for the ethanol fermentation and subsequent biomass production from dilute phosphoric acid (0.7 to 1.2% w/v) pretreated wheat straw. At optimum pretreatment conditions, an ethanol yield of 84 to 90% of the theoretical maximum, based on glucan content of substrate straw, was observed from fungal fermentation post the enzymatic hydrolysis process. The biogas production from the pretreated straw slurry showed an improved methane yield potential up to 162% increase, as compared to that of the untreated straw. Additional biogas production, using the syrup, a waste stream obtained post the ethanol fermentation, resulted in a combined total energy output of 15.8 MJ/kg wheat straw. Moreover, using thin stillage (a waste stream from the first-generation wheat-based ethanol process) as a co-substrate to the biogas process resulted in an additional increase by about 14 to 27% in the total energy output as compared to using only wheat straw-based substrates. ᅟ.

  19. Estimating the potential of energy saving and carbon emission mitigation of cassava-based fuel ethanol using life cycle assessment coupled with a biogeochemical process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Fu, Jingying; Tian, Guangjin; Ding, Fangyu

    2017-09-01

    Global warming and increasing concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) have prompted considerable interest in the potential role of energy plant biomass. Cassava-based fuel ethanol is one of the most important bioenergy and has attracted much attention in both developed and developing countries. However, the development of cassava-based fuel ethanol is still faced with many uncertainties, including raw material supply, net energy potential, and carbon emission mitigation potential. Thus, an accurate estimation of these issues is urgently needed. This study provides an approach to estimate energy saving and carbon emission mitigation potentials of cassava-based fuel ethanol through LCA (life cycle assessment) coupled with a biogeochemical process model—GEPIC (GIS-based environmental policy integrated climate) model. The results indicate that the total potential of cassava yield on marginal land in China is 52.51 million t; the energy ratio value varies from 0.07 to 1.44, and the net energy surplus of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 92,920.58 million MJ. The total carbon emission mitigation from cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 4593.89 million kgC. Guangxi, Guangdong, and Fujian are identified as target regions for large-scale development of cassava-based fuel ethanol industry. These results can provide an operational approach and fundamental data for scientific research and energy planning.

  20. 30 CFR 57.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 57.14115 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14115 Stationary grinding machines. Stationary grinding machines, other than special bit grinders, shall be equipped with— (a) Peripheral hoods...

  1. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped with...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 56.14115 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14115 Stationary grinding machines. Stationary grinding machines, other than special bit grinders, shall be equipped with— (a) Peripheral hoods capable of...

  3. Grinding of WC–Co hardmetals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, J.B.J.W.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; With, G. de

    2001-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the morphology of the ground surface of cobalt tungsten carbide (WC) composite materials that belong to the category of so-called hardmetals. A deformed and detached surface layer was found on top of the specimens after surface grinding with a diamond wheel. In order to

  4. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Abrasive Grinding Wheel Formulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a study on the formulation and manufacture of abrasive grinding wheel using locally formulated silicon carbide abrasive grains. Six local raw material substitutes were identified through pilot study and with the initial mix of the identified materials, a systematic search for an optimal formulation of silicon ...

  6. Effects of grinding on certain crystalline structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekiz, Y.

    1965-06-01

    The effects of grinding on certain crystalline substances (ZnO, ZnS, Sb), have been studied using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The treatments were carried out using a vibrating mill which involves a higher energy than more conventional equipment such as ball-mills. Various methods have been proposed for determining the width of the intrinsic profile (β). In the case of zinc oxide it has been shown possible to differentiate the respective contributions of the fragmentation effects and of lattice deformation effects to the overall effects of the grinding. For the two types of zinc sulfide (blend and Wurtzite) it has been shown that the blend-wurtzite) transition point is very much decreased, and that the rate of transformation of wurtzite into the stable form (blend) at room temperature is considerably increased by the grinding. In the case of antimony, the method of fragmentation shows the existence of an anisotropy which appears to be connected with easily cleavable planes. These observations show that in the case of grinding carried out with sufficient energy, the accumulation of this energy in the matter through the creation of lattice defects can accelerate the reaction rate or bring about physical transformations. (author) [fr

  7. Evaluation of a cross contamination model describing transfer of salmonella spp. and listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Hansen, Tina Beck; Aabo, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The cross contamination model (Møller et al. 2012) was evaluated to investigate its capability of describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef of varying sizes (50 – 324 g) and numbers of pieces to be ground (10 – 100), in two...... processing. QMRA risk estimates and TTP both revealed that risk attribution from grinding was mainly influenced by sharpness of grinder knife > specific grinder > grinding temperature whereas the specific pathogen was of minor importance....

  8. Determination of high-strength materials diamond grinding rational modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, P. V.; Lobanov, D. V.; Rychkov, D. A.; Yanyushkin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of methods of high-strength materials abrasive processing is carried out. This method made it possible to determine the necessary directions and prospects for the development of shaping combined methods. The need to use metal bonded diamond abrasive tools in combination with a different kind of energy is noted to improve the processing efficiency and reduce the complexity of operations. The complex of experimental research on revealing the importance of mechanical and electrical components of cutting regimes, on the cutting ability of diamond tools, as well as the need to reduce the specific consumption of an abrasive wheel as one of the important economic indicators of the processing process is performed. It is established that combined diamond grinding with simultaneous continuous correction of the abrasive wheel contributes to an increase in the cutting ability of metal bonded diamond abrasive tools when processing high-strength materials by an average of 30% compared to diamond grinding. Particular recommendations on the designation of technological factors are developed depending on specific production problems.

  9. Simulation and experimental investigation of inner-jet electrochemical grinding of GH4169 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong LI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available GH4169 alloy is one of the most commonly used materials in aero engine turbine blades, but its machinability is poor because of its excellent strength at high temperatures. Electrochemical machining (ECM has become a common method for machining this alloy and other difficult-to-machine materials. Electrochemical grinding (ECG is a hybrid process combining ECM and conventional grinding. In this paper, investigations conducted on inner-jet ECG of GH4169 alloy are described. Two types of inner-jet ECG grinding wheels were used to machine a flat bottom surface. The machining process was simulated using COMSOL software, and machining gaps under different machining parameters were obtained. In addition, maximum feed rates and maximum material removal rates under different machining parameters were studied experimentally. The maximum sizes and the uniformity of the distributions of the gaps machined by the two grinding wheels were compared. The effects of different applied voltages on the machining results were also investigated. Keywords: Electrochemical grinding, GH4169 alloy, Inner-jet, Material removal rate, Maximum feed rate

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF GRINDING CONDITIONS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF RESIDUAL STRESS IN THE SURFACE LAYER OF 17crni6-6 STEEL AFTER CARBURIZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sawicki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study aimed at determining the residual stress which results from developing the surface layer by low-pressure and conventional carburizing and grinding of 17CrNi6-6 steel. A synergistic effect of thermochemical and abrasive treatment was examined on ring samples used to study residual stress by Davidenkov’s method. Samples were subjected to vacuum carburizing and conventional carburizing, which was followed by grinding with a 38A60K8V aloxite grinding wheel and a CBN grinding wheel - RNB80/63B75V. The following cutting fluids were used during the grinding process: oil emulsion 5%, supply rate ca. 20 l/min, Micro5000 oil supplied at the minimum quantity lubrication (MQL of ca. 25 ml/h, dry machining. The study determined the effect of the type of grinding wheel and the cooling and lubricating agent on the distribution of residual stress in the sur-face layer. The best effects of grinding with respect to the residual stress were achieved with flood cooling with oil emulsion and grinding with a CBN grinding wheel.

  11. Effects of steam pretreatment and co-production with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, heat and electricity production from industrial hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-based processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-production of biogas, district heat and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of heat demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Results Producing biogas, heat and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (based on lower heating values), providing that the maximum capacity of district heat is delivered. The combined production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district heat is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-production with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103–128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The production and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the production and prices of electricity and district heat. Conclusions To reduce the production cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined production with

  12. Application of focus-variation Technique in Measurements of Ultrasonic Vibrations of Grinding pins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wdowik Roman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of focus-variation technique in measurements of ultrasonic vibrations of grinding pins. Ultrasonic vibrations of tools are applied in ultrasonic assisted grinding. Their measurements are significant for development of this hybrid machining process. Alumina and zirconia ceramic materials in the final fired state were machined in experiments which are known as scratch tests. Diamond grinding pin was used as a tool to machine scratches. Marks of diamond grains, left on the surface of workpieces after machining process, were investigated using The Infinite Focus Real 3D optical microscope. Focus-variation is the principle of operation of this microscope. Investigations concerned possibilities of measurements of an amplitude of axial and radial vibrations in the case of two ceramic materials. Results of performed measurements are presented and discussed for selected machining parameters.

  13. Extraction of Lithium from Lepidolite Using Mixed Grinding with Sodium Sulfide Followed by Water Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeryeong Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mixed grinding with Na2S followed by water leaching was performed to extract Li from lepidolite. The leachability of Li increases dramatically in the ground mixture, regardless of the mixing ratio over the range of 1:1 to 3:1, while only 4.53% of Li was extracted in lepidolite ground without Na2S. The leachability increased with an increase of the grinding time, and ultimately, 93% of the Li was leached by water from the ground mixture with a weight ratio of 3:1 (Na2S:Lepidolite. In the process of the mixed grinding, the Li-contained lepidolite was destructured crystallographically, and it might have changed to different compounds. This process enables us to extract Li from lepidolite via a water leaching treatment.

  14. Recycling cellulases for cellulosic ethanol production at industrial relevant conditions: potential and temperature dependency at high solid processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindedam, Jane; Haven, Mai Østergaard; Chylenski, Piotr; Jørgensen, Henning; Felby, Claus

    2013-11-01

    Different versions of two commercial cellulases were tested for their recyclability of enzymatic activity at high dry matter processes (12% or 25% DM). Recyclability was assessed by measuring remaining enzyme activity in fermentation broth and the ability of enzymes to hydrolyse fresh, pretreated wheat straw. Industrial conditions were used to study the impact of hydrolysis temperature (40 or 50°C) and residence time on recyclability. Enzyme recycling at 12% DM indicated that hydrolysis at 50°C, though ideal for ethanol yield, should be kept short or carried out at lower temperature to preserve enzymatic activity. Best results for enzyme recycling at 25% DM was 59% and 41% of original enzyme load for a Celluclast:Novozyme188 mixture and a modern cellulase preparation, respectively. However, issues with stability of enzymes and their strong adsorption to residual solids still pose a challenge for applicable methods in enzyme recycling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Wood Alignment on Wood Grinding – Part 2: Fines Character and Microscopic Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Heinemann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During industrial wood grinding, logs are pressed against a rotating stone, with the logs and fibre axes parallel to the axis of the stone. For this study, wood blocks were fed into a laboratory grinder with various alignments in relation to the surface of the grinding stone. The effects of the alignment on the properties of the pulp, the amount, and the quality of the fines were measured, and a grinding mechanism is proposed. In this paper, the obtained results showed that the pulp quality was highly sensitive to the angle between the stone surface and the log, and different for fatigue-based and force-based grinding. The tests were observed using microscopic techniques and discussed in terms of fines amount and fines quality. In gentle refining, the fibre structure is loosened by fatigue before it is bent on the surface, pressure pulses produce fibrillar material, and fibres develop good bonding ability. In forced grinding, the process is “violent” and the fibre wears and is crushed immediately on the surface into small particles with low bonding ability.

  16. Effect of Grinding on Chrysotile, Amosite and Crocidolite and Implications for Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bloise

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the adverse health effects associated with exposure to asbestos, its inertization is one of the most important issues of waste risk management. Based on the research line of mechano-chemical and thermal treatment of asbestos containing materials, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of dry grinding on the structure, temperature stability and fibre size of chrysotile from Balangero (Italy, as well as standard UICC (Union for International Cancer Control amosite and standard UICC (Union for International Cancer Control crocidolite. Dry grinding was accomplished in an eccentric vibration mill by varying the grinding time (30 s, 5 and 10 min. Results show a decrease in crystallinity, the formation of lattice defects and size reduction with progressive formation of agglomerates in the samples after the mechanical treatment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM results show that the final product obtained after 10 min of grinding is composed of non-crystalline particles and a minor residue of crystalline fibres that are not regulated because they do not meet the size criteria for a regulated fibre. Grinding results in a decrease of temperature and enthalpy of dehydroxylation (ΔHdehy of chrysotile, amosite and crocidolite. This permits us to completely destroy these fibres in thermal inertization processes using a lower net thermal energy than that used for the raw samples.

  17. Techniques for chamfer and taper grinding of oxide fuel pellets (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.G.R.; Allison, J.W.

    1981-10-01

    Floor mounted centerless grinding machines were adapted for shaping the edges of cylindrical oxide fuel pellets for the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) by plunge grinding. Edge configurations consisted of chamfers, either 0.015 inch x 45 0 or 0.006 inch x 45 0 , or tapers 0.150 inch long x .0025 inch deep. Grinding was done by plunging the pellet against a shaped grinding wheel which ground both the diameter to the required size and shaped the edges of the pellet. Two plunges per pellet were required to complete the operation. Separate wheels were needed for grinding either a chamfer or a taper, the set up was adjustable to vary the size of the chamfer or taper as needed. The set up also had the flexibility to accommodate the multiple pellet lengths and diameters required by the LWBR design. Tight manufacturing tolerances in the chamfer and taper dimensions required the use of dimensional control charts and statistical sampling plans as process controls

  18. Development of a Laser-Guided Deep-Hole Internal-Grinding Tool (Series 1) : Grinding Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuki, Akio; Onikura, Hiromichi; Sajima, Takao; Park, Hyunkoo

    2005-01-01

    The laser-guided deep-hole internal grinding tool is developed to bore accurate and straight deep-holes with high surface quality. The tool consists of a grinding head, the front and rear actuators mounted on an actuator holder and a laser diode set in the back end of the holder. The grinding head consists of a diamond or CBN wheel, an air motor, and the piezoelectric actuators for the compensation of tool diameter. The grinding wheel is located eccentrically at the grinding head. The grindin...

  19. The Effect of Wood Alignment on Wood Grinding – Part 1: Properties of Pulp and Fines Revealed in the Grinding Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Tapani Saharinen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In industrial wood grinding, logs are pressed against a rotating stone, with the logs and fiber axis parallel to the axis of the stone. The objective of this study is to clarify how the wood alignment affects the process and pulp properties. In this research, wood blocks were fed into a laboratory grinder with various alignments in relation to the surface of the grinding stone. The effects of the alignment on the properties of the pulp and the amount and quality of fines were measured. A grinding mechanism was proposed. The results show that the pulp quality is very sensitive to the angle between the stone surface and the log. In gentle refining, the fiber structure is loosened by fatigue before it is bent on the surface; pressure pulses produce fibrillar material, and fibers develop toward having good bonding ability. In forced grinding, the process is “violent”, and the fiber wears and becomes crushed immediately on the surface into small particles with low bonding ability.

  20. Cellulosic ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Bruun, Sander; Jørgensen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield) from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.......5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw) and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could...... be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher...

  1. Grinding and polishing of conformal windows and domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fess, Edward; Ross, James; Matthews, Greg

    2017-05-01

    Conformal optics require special manufacturing techniques to produce them to optical tolerances. In many cases the materials used are very hard optical ceramics that present additional manufacturing challenges due to their hardness and grain structure. OptiPro has developed grinding technologies such as OptiSonic grinding, as well as sub-aperture polishing technologies like UltraForm Finishing (UFF) to manufacture these challenging components. We have also developed a custom computer aided manufacturing (CAM) software package, ProSurf, to generate the complex tool paths for both grinding and polishing processes. One of the main advantages of ProSurf over traditional CAM software packages is that it uses metrology feedback for deterministic corrections. The metrology input can be obtained from OptiPro's 5-axis UltraSurf metrology system, which is capable of measuring these complex shapes to sub-micron accuracies. Through the development of these technologies much work has been performed in creating, measuring and analyzing the alignment fiducials or datum's used to qualify the location of the optical surfaces. Understanding the sensitivity of the optical surface to any datum misalignment is critical to knowing not only where the part is in space, but how good the optical surfaces are to each other. Working with the optical designer to properly tolerance surfaces to these datums is crucial. This paper will present the technologies developed by OptiPro to manufacture conformal windows as well as information related to the optical surfaces sensitivity to datums and how accurately those datums can be measured.

  2. Evaluation of Ethanol Production and Cogeneration of Energy by Sweet Sorghum Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Olivieri De Nóbile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of fossil fuels and environmental pollution have led to the discussions of new biofuels. For this reason new sources of renewable fuels are sought and an alternative to ethanol production, besides sugar cane, is sweet sorghum, using it as a complement, not as a competitor of sugar cane, considering that the demand for biofuels is growing on a large scale worldwide. The aim was to analyze the production of ethanol and the cogeneration of sweet sorghum in the offseason of sugar cane, and to compare the yield of sweet sorghum with sugar cane, the processes to obtain and to produce etnhanol from sweet sorgo and the production cost, supplying the lack of raw materials in the offseason and increasing the period of grinding mill. The methodology used was a bibliographical review in scientific journals, books and internet. In a near future, with research of new more productive varieties, sweet sorghum is an alternative to produce ethanol during the offseason of sugar cane for its short cycle of sowing and harvesting, besides climatic factors which favor its development and utilization of the same systems used for the production of ethanol from sugar cane.

  3. Efficient production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from cassava by a fermentation-pervaporation coupled process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Zhang, Yuming; Su, Yi; Wan, Yinhua

    2014-10-01

    Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from cassava was investigated with a fermentation-pervaporation (PV) coupled process. ABE products were in situ removed from fermentation broth to alleviate the toxicity of solvent to the Clostridium acetobutylicum DP217. Compared to the batch fermentation without PV, glucose consumption rate and solvent productivity increased by 15% and 21%, respectively, in batch fermentation-PV coupled process, while in continuous fermentation-PV coupled process running for 304 h, the substrate consumption rate, solvent productivity and yield increased by 58%, 81% and 15%, reaching 2.02 g/Lh, 0.76 g/Lh and 0.38 g/g, respectively. Silicalite-1 filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane modules ensured media recycle without significant fouling, steadily generating a highly concentrated ABE solution containing 201.8 g/L ABE with 122.4 g/L butanol. After phase separation, a final product containing 574.3g/L ABE with 501.1g/L butanol was obtained. Therefore, the fermentation-PV coupled process has the potential to decrease the cost in ABE production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reducing the Edge Chipping for Capillary End Face Grinding and Polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hošek J.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of glass capillary end face grinding and polishing by approach that reduces the edge chipping. Brittle materials have natural tendency for edge chipping what leads to beveling the sharp edges. Not beveled sharp edges on glass capillary are important for special applications like surface tension measurement of small liquid samples. We use common grinding and polishing process for capillary end face machining modified with gradual decreasing of grinding load based on the relation of the critical chipping load. Achieved surface roughness is measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Capillary inner edge quality is checked both with optical microscopes and electron microscope too. We achieved a non-chipped capillary inner edge with radius down to 100 nm.

  5. Numerical and experimental validation of a particle Galerkin method for metal grinding simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. T.; Bui, Tinh Quoc; Wu, Youcai; Luo, Tzui-Liang; Wang, Morris; Liao, Chien-Chih; Chen, Pei-Yin; Lai, Yu-Sheng

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a numerical approach with an experimental validation is introduced for modelling high-speed metal grinding processes in 6061-T6 aluminum alloys. The derivation of the present numerical method starts with an establishment of a stabilized particle Galerkin approximation. A non-residual penalty term from strain smoothing is introduced as a means of stabilizing the particle Galerkin method. Additionally, second-order strain gradients are introduced to the penalized functional for the regularization of damage-induced strain localization problem. To handle the severe deformation in metal grinding simulation, an adaptive anisotropic Lagrangian kernel is employed. Finally, the formulation incorporates a bond-based failure criterion to bypass the prospective spurious damage growth issues in material failure and cutting debris simulation. A three-dimensional metal grinding problem is analyzed and compared with the experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed numerical approach.

  6. First Grinding of a Rock on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The round, shallow depression in this image resulted from history's first grinding of a rock on Mars. The rock abrasion tool on NASA's Spirit rover ground off the surface of a patch 45.5 millimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter on a rock called Adirondack during Spirit's 34th sol on Mars, Feb. 6, 2004. The hole is 2.65 millimeters (0.1 inch) deep, exposing fresh interior material of the rock for close inspection with the rover's microscopic imager and two spectrometers on the robotic arm. This image was taken by Spirit's panoramic camera, providing a quick visual check of the success of the grinding. The rock abrasion tools on both Mars Exploration Rovers were supplied by Honeybee Robotics, New York, N.Y.

  7. Ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine : preliminary evaluation of mass balance and process energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; Wenyuan Zhu; Patricia OBryan; Bruce S. Dien; Shen Tian; Roland Gleisner; X.J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 L per metric ton of wood or 72% of theoretical yield. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subjected to sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) pretreatment and then disk-...

  8. MICRO-ARC DIELECTRIC COATINGS ON ALUMINUM ALLOYS OF GRINDING WHEEL FRAMEWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury GUTSALENKO

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is presented the development of local electrically insulating coatings for tool of the technologies of high-efficient processing with the introduction the energy of electrical discharges into the cutting zone to maintain a working capacity of grinding wheels with diamond-metal composition of the working part. Development is an alternative to the electrical insulation upgrade of spindle units of universal grinding machines. The dielectric properties of micro-arc oxide coatings on deformable aluminum alloys formed on an alternating current in the regime of an arbitrarily falling power in alkali-silicate solutions have been studied. Information about the features of practical implementation of development is given.

  9. The development of an open architecture control system for CBN high speed grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, E. Jannone da; Biffi, M.; Oliveira, J. F. G. de

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this project is the development of an open architecture controlling (OAC) system to be applied in the high speed grinding process using CBN tools. Besides other features, the system will allow a new monitoring and controlling strategy, by the adoption of open architecture CNC combined with multi-sensors, a PC and third-party software. The OAC system will be implemented in a high speed CBN grinding machine, which is being developed in a partnership between the University of São Paul...

  10. Enhanced electro-oxidation of ethanol using PtSn/CeO{sub 2}-C electrocatalyst prepared by an alcohol-reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Almir Oliveira; Farias, Luciana A.; Dias, Ricardo R.; Brandalise, Michelle; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    PtSn/CeO{sub 2}-C electrocatalysts were prepared by an alcohol-reduction process using ethylene glycol as solvent and reduction agent and CeO{sub 2} and Vulcan Carbon XC72 as supports. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX and XRD. The electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied at room temperature by chronoamperometry. PtSn/CeO{sub 2}-C electrocatalyst with 15 wt% of CeO{sub 2} showed a significant increase of performance for ethanol oxidation compared to PtSn/C catalyst. Preliminary tests at 100C on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) also confirm the results obtained by chronoamperometry. (author)

  11. Integrated distillation-membrane process for bio-ethanol and bio-butanol recovery from actual fermentation broths: Separation energy efficiency and fate of secondary fermentation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol and/or 1-butanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to convent...

  12. Influence of acid-base properties on the Lebedev ethanol-to-butadiene process catalyzed by SiO2-MgO materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelici, Carlo; Velthoen, Marjolein E. Z.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Lebedev ethanol-to-butadiene process entails a complex chain of reactions that require catalysts to possess a subtle balance in the number and strength of acidic and basic sites. SiO2-MgO materials can be excellent Lebedev catalysts if properly prepared, as catalyst performance has been found to

  13. Electrotechnologies, microwaves, and ultrasounds combined with binary mixtures of ethanol and water to extract steviol glycosides and antioxidant compounds from Stevia rebaudiana leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonell-Capella, Juana M.; Šic Žlabur, Jana; Rimac Brnčić, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    /g) was obtained after ultrasound-assisted extraction, while microwave allowed the highest yields of rebaudioside A (22.7 ± 0.1 mg/g). However, pulsed electric field technology was the most efficient to recover stevioside (44.2 ± 0.1 mg/g) and rebaudioside A (22.4 ± 0.3 mg/g) when using 50% ethanol-water. Results...... leaves in food industry is usually performed using thermal extraction under agitation after drying and grinding. Although efficient, this technique generates an extract not only rich in targeted compounds but also in impurities, which complicates the downstream processing steps. Selective extraction...

  14. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  15. Ethanol production from steam exploded rapeseed straw and the process simulation using artificial neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talebnia, Farid; Mighani, Moein; Rahimnejad, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    and 67% of maximum theoretical value. Next, data of the experimental runs were exploited for modeling the processes by artificial neural networks (ANNs) and performance of the developed models was evaluated. The ANN-based models showed a great potential for time-course prediction of the studied processes....... Efficiency of the joint network for simulating the whole process was also determined and promising results were obtained....

  16. Process design and economics of on-site cellulase production on various carbon sources in a softwood-based ethanol plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Zsolt; Kovacs, Krisztina; Reczey, Kati; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-06-28

    On-site cellulase enzyme fermentation in a softwood-to-ethanol process, based on SO(2)-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, was investigated from a techno-economic aspect using Aspen Plus© and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator© softwares. The effect of varying the carbon source of enzyme fermentation, at constant protein and mycelium yields, was monitored through the whole process. Enzyme production step decreased the overall ethanol yield (270 L/dry tonne of raw material in the case of purchased enzymes) by 5-16 L/tonne. Capital cost was found to be the main cost contributor to enzyme fermentation, constituting to 60-78% of the enzyme production cost, which was in the range of 0.42-0.53 SEK/L ethanol. The lowest minimum ethanol selling prices (4.71 and 4.82 SEK/L) were obtained in those scenarios, where pretreated liquid fraction supplemented with molasses was used as carbon source. In some scenarios, on-site enzyme fermentation was found to be a feasible alternative.

  17. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A.; Ruth, M.; Ibsen, K.; Jechura, J.; Neeves, K.; Sheehan, J.; Wallace, B.; Montague, L.; Slayton, A.; Lukas, J.

    2002-06-01

    This report is an update of NREL's ongoing process design and economic analyses of processes related to developing ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL. We envision updating this process design report at regular intervals; the purpose being to ensure that the process design incorporates all new data from NREL research, DOE funded research and other sources, and that the equipment costs are reasonable and consistent with good engineering practice for plants of this type. For the non-research areas this means using equipment and process approaches as they are currently used in industrial applications. For the last report, published in 1999, NREL performed a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process utilizing co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design included the core technologies being researched by the DOE: prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production. In addition, all ancillary areas--feed handling, product recovery and purification, wastewater treatment (WWT), lignin combustor and boiler-turbogenerator, and utilities--were included. NREL engaged Delta-T Corporation (Delta-T) to assist in the process design evaluation, the process equipment costing, and overall plant integration. The process design

  18. Numerical investigation to the dual-fuel spray combustion process in an ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI + GPI) engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuhan; Hong, Guang; Huang, Ronghua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 5D PDF table was used to model the dual-fuel turbulence–chemistry interactions. • The cooling effect of ethanol direct injection (EDI) was examined. • The higher flame speed of ethanol in EDI + GPI increased the thermal efficiency. • The partially premixed combustion in EDI + GPI reduced the combustion temperature. • Ethanol’s low evaporation rate in low temperature led to incomplete combustion. - Abstract: Ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI + GPI) is a new technology to make the use of ethanol fuel more effective and efficient in spark ignition engines. Multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modelling was conducted on an EDI + GPI engine in both single and dual fuelled conditions. The in-cylinder flow field was solved in the realizable k−ε turbulence model with detailed engine geometry. The temporal and spatial distributions of the liquid and vapour fuels were simulated with the spray breakup and evaporation models. The combustion process was modelled with the partially premixed combustion concept in which both mixture fraction and progress variable were solved. The three-dimensional and five-dimensional presumed Probability Density Function (PDF) look-up tables were used to model the single-fraction-mixture and two-fraction-mixture turbulence–chemistry interactions respectively. The model was verified by comparing the numerical and experimental results of spray pattern and cylinder pressure. The simulation results showed that the combustion process of EDI + GPI dual-fuelled condition was partially premixed combustion because of the low evaporation rate of ethanol spray in low temperature environment before combustion. Compared with GPI only, the higher flame speed of ethanol fuel contributed to the greater pressure rise rate and maximum cylinder pressure in EDI + GPI condition, which consequently resulted in higher power output and thermal efficiency. The lower adiabatic flame temperature of

  19. Acetone-butanol-ethanol from sweet sorghum juice by an immobilized fermentation-gas stripping integration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Qin, Peiyong; Miao, Qi; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) was used as the substrate in a simplified ABE fermentation-gas stripping integration process without nutrients supplementation. The sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) after squeezing the fermentable juice was used as the immobilized carrier. The results indicated that the productivity of ABE fermentation process was improved by gas stripping integration. A total 24g/L of ABE solvents was obtained from 59.6g/L of initial sugar after 80h of fermentation with gas stripping. Then, long-term of fed-batch fermentation with continuous gas stripping was further performed. 112.9g/L of butanol, 44.1g/L of acetone, 9.5g/L of ethanol (total 166.5g/L of ABE) was produced in overall 312h of fermentation. At the same time, concentrated ABE product was obtained in the condensate of gas stripping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fine grinding of brittle minerals and materials by jet mill

    OpenAIRE

    Lek Sikong; Kalayanee Kooptanond; Noparit Morasut; Thammasak Pongprasert

    2008-01-01

    Various variables affecting grinding, such as air pressure, minerals or materials hardness, feed size were investigated.The limitations of grinding of gypsum, barite, ilmenite, quartz and ferrosilicon were also elucidated by means of particlefineness size distribution and morphology of ground products. It was found that:1) The density of particles, which are in the grinding zone affects the product fineness, i.e. higher feed rate resultsin a larger product size. The appropriate feed rate is s...

  1. Development of Composite Grinding Wheels for Hard and Soft Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Pruti, Faruk

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the performance of grinding wheel in terms of its internal granular particles and their effect on the surface finish for both soft and hard metals subjected to both dry and wet conditions of use. The study considers the properties of materials of construction including hardness of the granular particles and their size and distributions that affects the grinding wheel efficiency in abrading of soft and hard metal surfaces. Furthermore, in order to improve grinding pe...

  2. Sensor-Based Inspection of the Formation Accuracy in Ultra-Precision Grinding (UPG) of Aspheric Surface Considering the Chatter Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yao; Bai, Yue; Xu, Zhijun

    2018-06-01

    This paper proposes an experimental approach for monitoring and inspection of the formation accuracy in ultra-precision grinding (UPG) with respect to the chatter vibration. Two factors related to the grinding progress, the grinding speed of grinding wheel and spindle, and the oil pressure of the hydrostatic bearing are taken into account to determining the accuracy. In the meantime, a mathematical model of the radius deviation caused by the micro vibration is also established and applied in the experiments. The results show that the accuracy is sensitive to the vibration and the forming accuracy is much improved with proper processing parameters. It is found that the accuracy of aspheric surface can be less than 4 μm when the grinding speed is 1400 r/min and the wheel speed is 100 r/min with the oil pressure being 1.1 MPa.

  3. Sensor-Based Inspection of the Formation Accuracy in Ultra-Precision Grinding (UPG) of Aspheric Surface Considering the Chatter Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yao; Bai, Yue; Xu, Zhijun

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes an experimental approach for monitoring and inspection of the formation accuracy in ultra-precision grinding (UPG) with respect to the chatter vibration. Two factors related to the grinding progress, the grinding speed of grinding wheel and spindle, and the oil pressure of the hydrostatic bearing are taken into account to determining the accuracy. In the meantime, a mathematical model of the radius deviation caused by the micro vibration is also established and applied in the experiments. The results show that the accuracy is sensitive to the vibration and the forming accuracy is much improved with proper processing parameters. It is found that the accuracy of aspheric surface can be less than 4 μm when the grinding speed is 1400 r/min and the wheel speed is 100 r/min with the oil pressure being 1.1 MPa.

  4. The NREL Biochemical and Thermochemical Ethanol Conversion Processes: Financial and Environmental Analysis Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Sky Daystar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial and environmental performance of the National Renewable Energy Lab’s (NREL thermochemical and biochemical biofuel conversion processes are examined herein with pine, eucalyptus, unmanaged hardwood, switchgrass, and sweet sorghum. The environmental impacts of the process scenarios were determined by quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and TRACI impacts. Integrated financial and environmental performance metrics were introduced and used to examine the biofuel production scenarios. The thermochemical and biochemical conversion processes produced the highest financial performance and lowest environmental impacts when paired with pine and sweet sorghum, respectively. The high ash content of switchgrass and high lignin content of loblolly pine lowered conversion yields, resulting in the highest environmental impacts and lowest financial performance for the thermochemical and biochemical conversion processes, respectively. Biofuel produced using the thermochemical conversion process resulted in lower TRACI single score impacts and somewhat lower GHG emissions per megajoule (MJ of fuel than using the biochemical conversion pathway. The cost of carbon mitigation resulting from biofuel production and corresponding government subsidies was determined to be higher than the expected market carbon price. In some scenarios, the cost of carbon mitigation was several times higher than the market carbon price, indicating that there may be other more cost-effective methods of reducing carbon emissions.

  5. Grinding into Soft, Powdery Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This hole in a rock dubbed 'Clovis' is the deepest hole drilled so far in any rock on Mars. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this view with its microscopic imager on martian sol 217 (Aug. 12, 2004) after drilling 8.9 millimeters (0.35 inch) into the rock with its rock abrasion tool. The view is a mosaic of four frames taken by the microscopic imager. The hole is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter. Clovis is key to a developing story about environmental change on Mars, not only because it is among the softest rocks encountered so far in Gusev Crater, but also because it contains mineral alterations that extend relatively deep beneath its surface. In fact, as evidenced by its fairly crumbly texture, it is possibly the most highly altered volcanic rock ever studied on Mars. Scientific analysis shows that the rock contains higher levels of the elements sulfur, chlorine, and bromine than are normally encountered in basaltic rocks, such as a rock dubbed 'Humphrey' that Spirit encountered two months after arriving on Mars. Humphrey showed elevated levels of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine only in the outermost 2 millimeters (less than 0.1 inch) of its surface. Clovis shows elevated levels of the same elements along with the associated softness of the rock within a borehole that is 4 times as deep. Scientists hope to compare Clovis to other, less-altered rocks in the vicinity to assess what sort of water-based processes altered the rock. Hypotheses include transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water vapor in volcanic gases; hydrothermal circulation (flow of volcanically heated water through rock); or saturation in a briny soup containing the same elements. In this image, very fine-grained material from the rock has clumped together by electrostatic attraction and fallen into the borehole. NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS

  6. Grinding tool for making hemispherical bores in hard materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, E.L.

    1985-04-03

    A grinding tool for forming hemispherical bores in hard materials such as boron carbide. The tool comprises a hemicircular grinding bit, formed of a metal bond diamond matrix, which is mounted transversely on one end of a tubular tool shaft. The bit includes a spherically curved outer edge surface which is the active grinding surface of the tool. Two coolant fluid ports on opposite sides of the bit enable introduction of coolant fluid through the bore of the tool shaft so as to be emitted adjacent the opposite sides of the grinding bit, thereby providing optimum cooling of both the workpiece and the bit.

  7. Multi-scale structures and pasting characteristics of starch in whole-wheat flour treated by superfine grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Meng; Zhang, Binjia; Jia, Caihua; Zhao, Siming

    2017-11-01

    The multi-scale structures and pasting properties of starch in WWF were investigated after superfine grinding. Five particle size distributions of WWF and their corresponding starch were obtained. The grinding process reduced the particle size of WWF and starch. However, a slight increase of fragments from starch granules was observed with enhanced grinding strength because of the small decrease in starch particle size and the existence of other WWF components that undertook some of shearing force and friction during grinding. A prominent reduction in starch crystallinity was resulted due to the destruction of crystalline structure by grinding. Small-angle X-ray scattering analyses indicated the disordering in starch semi-crystalline lamellae with thinner lamellae thickness. Additionally, the 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectra demonstrated the alterations in starch chain conformation by varying peak areas of starch carbons (C1 and C4). Along with these structural changes, Starch pasting characteristics showed substantial variations, indicating decreased viscosities and higher pasting stability. The results suggest that the grinding treatments influenced the structures and pasting properties of starch even at a non-separated state, the changes in starch structures were related to the variations in starch gelatinization characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimal Design of Algae Biorefinery Processing Networks for the production of Protein, Ethanol and Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Vivion, Anthony; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2015-01-01

    analysis such as microalgae production cost, composition of microalgae (e.g. oil content) and biodiesel/bioethanol market prices is considered. New optimal processing paths are found with potential of producing higher amount of biodiesel. Last, the methodology is intended as decision support tool for early...

  9. Performance assessment of river sand versus ceramic grinding media on the Fimiston Ultra-fine Grinding application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Guillaume; Clermont, Benoit; Gianatti, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-fine grinding increases the amenability of the refractory concentrate to direct cyanide leaching. Low cost media such as silica river sand gives very fine product grind sizes, however the sand media is quite angular and is often supplied with a broad size distribution. It is generally accepted that the use of a ceramic grinding media will result in a finer product size or allow an increase in the mill throughput. The capacity of a mill is known to increase with decreasing grinding media diameter, the mill wear can be decreased and efficiency of grinding increased. Magotteaux Keramax-MTX Ceramic grinding media was purchased for a plant trial, to assess its' performance.

  10. Technical and economical analyses of combined heat and power generation from distillers grains and corn stover in ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lijun; Hanna, Milford A.; Weller, Curtis L.; Jones, David D.

    2009-01-01

    The technical and economical feasibilities of a novel integrated biomass gasification and fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system were analyzed for supplying heat and power in an ethanol plant from distillers grains (DG) and corn stover. In a current dry-grind plant with an annual production capacity of 189 million liters (50 million gallons) of ethanol, the energy cost for ethanol production using natural gas at a price of 6.47 US$/GJ for processing heat and commercial grid at a price of 0.062 US$/kWh for electrical power supply was 0.094 US$/liter. If the integrated CHP system using wet DG with 64.7% moisture on a wet basis at 105 US$/dry tonne and corn stover with 20% moisture at 30 US$/dry tonne as feedstock was used to supply heat and power in the ethanol plant, the energy costs for ethanol production would be 0.101 US$/liter and 0.070 US$/liter, which are 107% and 75% of the current energy cost for ethanol production, respectively. To meet the demand of processing heat and power in the ethanol plant, the integrated CHP system required 22.1 dry tonnes of corn stover with 20% moisture or 14.5 dry tonnes of DG with 64.7% moisture on a wet basis per hour, compared with the available 18.8 dry tonnes of DG per hour in the ethanol plant. High-value chemicals such as policosanols, phytosterols and free fatty acids can be extracted out of the raw DG to reduce the cost of DG as a feedstock of the integrated CHP system. The energy cost for ethanol production using the integrated CHP system with corn stover and DG as the feedstock for supplying heat and power can be reduced further by increasing ethanol production scale, decreasing the moisture content of biomass feedstock, and decreasing thermal energy to electricity output ratio of the CHP system. In terms of the energy efficiency of the integrated CHP system and the energy cost for ethanol production, the moisture content of the feedstock going into the integrated CHP should be lower than 70% on a wet basis

  11. Modelling and simulation of a direct ethanol fuel cell considering multistep electrochemical reactions, transport processes and mixed potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Marco; Melke, Julia; Gerteisen, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A DEFC model considering the mixed potential formation at cathode and anode. → The low cell voltage at open circuit is due to the parasitic reaction of ethanol and oxygen. → Under load, only the parasitic oxidation of ethanol is significant. → Inhibiting the parasitic reactions can approximately double the current density. - Abstract: In this work a one-dimensional mathematical model of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) is presented. The electrochemical oxidation of ethanol in the catalyst layers is described by several reaction steps leading to surface coverage with adsorbed intermediates (CH 3 CO, CO, CH 3 and OH) and to the final products acetaldehyde, acetic acid and CO 2 . A bifunctional reaction mechanism is assumed for the activation of water on a binary catalyst favouring the further oxidation of adsorbates blocking active catalyst sites. The chemical reactions are highly coupled with the charge and reactant transport. The model accounts for crossover of the reactants through the membrane leading to the phenomenon of cathode and anode mixed potentials due to the parasitic oxidation and reduction of ethanol and oxygen, respectively. Polarisation curves of a DEFC were recorded for various ethanol feed concentrations and were used as reference data for the simulation. Based on one set of model parameters the characteristic of electronic and protonic potential, the relative surface coverage and the parasitic current densities in the catalyst layers were studied.

  12. Design of a lamella settler for biomass recycling in continuous ethanol fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabera, J; Iznaola, M A

    1989-04-20

    The design and application of a settler to a continuous fermentation process with yeast recycle were studied. The compact lamella-type settler was chosen to avoid large volumes associated with conventional settling tanks. A rationale of the design method is covered. The sedimentation area was determined by classical batch settling rate tests and sedimentation capacity calculation. Limitations on the residence time of the microorganisms in the settler, rather than sludge thickening considerations, was the approach employed for volume calculation. Fermentation rate tests with yeast after different sedimentation periods were carried out to define a suitable residence time. Continuous cell recycle fermentation runs, performed with the old and new sedimentation devices, show that lamella settler improves biomass recycling efficiency, being the process able to operate at higher sugar concentrations and faster dilution rates.

  13. Learning Activity Packets for Grinding Machines. Unit I--Grinding Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) is one of three that accompany the curriculum guide on grinding machines. It outlines the study activities and performance tasks for the first unit of this curriculum guide. Its purpose is to aid the student in attaining a working knowledge of this area of training and in achieving a skilled or moderately…

  14. Learning Activity Packets for Grinding Machines. Unit II--Surface Grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) is one of three that accompany the curriculum guide on grinding machines. It outlines the study activities and performance tasks for the second unit of this curriculum guide. Its purpose is to aid the student in attaining a working knowledge of this area of training and in achieving a skilled or moderately…

  15. Learning Activity Packets for Grinding Machines. Unit III--Cylindrical Grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) is one of three that accompany the curriculum guide on grinding machines. It outlines the study activities and performance tasks for the third unit of this curriculum guide. Its purpose is to aid the student in attaining a working knowledge of this area of training and in achieving a skilled or moderately…

  16. Quenching simulation of steel grinding balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Hernandez, O.; Reyes, L. A.; Camurri, C.; Carrasco, C.; Garza-Monte-de-Oca, F.; Colas, R.

    2015-07-01

    The phase transformations of high carbon steel during quenching and equalizing were modelled using commercial computer packages based on the finite element method and the kinetic transformation of steel. The model was used to predict the temperature and microstructural changes taking place within balls of two different sizes that are used for grinding mineral ores. A good correlation between the temperatures measured by inserted thermocouples and those predicted by the model was obtained after modifying the thermal conductivity of the steel within the temperature domain at which mixed phases are present. The phase transformations predicted were confirmed by metallographic analyses. (Author)

  17. Mechanical properties of silicon in subsurface damage layer from nano-grinding studied by atomistic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Chen, Pei; Qin, Fei; An, Tong; Yu, Huiping

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-thin silicon wafer is highly demanded by semi-conductor industry. During wafer thinning process, the grinding technology will inevitably induce damage to the surface and subsurface of silicon wafer. To understand the mechanism of subsurface damage (SSD) layer formation and mechanical properties of SSD layer, atomistic simulation is the effective tool to perform the study, since the SSD layer is in the scale of nanometer and hardly to be separated from underneath undamaged silicon. This paper is devoted to understand the formation of SSD layer, and the difference between mechanical properties of damaged silicon in SSD layer and ideal silicon. With the atomistic model, the nano-grinding process could be performed between a silicon workpiece and diamond tool under different grinding speed. To reach a thinnest SSD layer, nano-grinding speed will be optimized in the range of 50-400 m/s. Mechanical properties of six damaged silicon workpieces with different depths of cut will be studied. The SSD layer from each workpiece will be isolated, and a quasi-static tensile test is simulated to perform on the isolated SSD layer. The obtained stress-strain curve is an illustration of overall mechanical properties of SSD layer. By comparing the stress-strain curves of damaged silicon and ideal silicon, a degradation of Young's modulus, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and strain at fracture is observed.

  18. Mechanical properties of silicon in subsurface damage layer from nano-grinding studied by atomistic simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-thin silicon wafer is highly demanded by semi-conductor industry. During wafer thinning process, the grinding technology will inevitably induce damage to the surface and subsurface of silicon wafer. To understand the mechanism of subsurface damage (SSD layer formation and mechanical properties of SSD layer, atomistic simulation is the effective tool to perform the study, since the SSD layer is in the scale of nanometer and hardly to be separated from underneath undamaged silicon. This paper is devoted to understand the formation of SSD layer, and the difference between mechanical properties of damaged silicon in SSD layer and ideal silicon. With the atomistic model, the nano-grinding process could be performed between a silicon workpiece and diamond tool under different grinding speed. To reach a thinnest SSD layer, nano-grinding speed will be optimized in the range of 50-400 m/s. Mechanical properties of six damaged silicon workpieces with different depths of cut will be studied. The SSD layer from each workpiece will be isolated, and a quasi-static tensile test is simulated to perform on the isolated SSD layer. The obtained stress-strain curve is an illustration of overall mechanical properties of SSD layer. By comparing the stress-strain curves of damaged silicon and ideal silicon, a degradation of Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile strength (UTS, and strain at fracture is observed.

  19. Modeling bacterial contamination of fuel ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Kenneth M; Liu, Siqing; Leathers, Timothy D; Worthington, Ronald E; Rich, Joseph O

    2009-05-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria may limit the effectiveness of antibiotics to treat bacterial contamination in fuel ethanol plants, and therefore, new antibacterial intervention methods and tools to test their application are needed. Using shake-flask cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on saccharified corn mash and strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a dry-grind ethanol facility, a simple model to simulate bacterial contamination and infection was developed. Challenging the model with 10(8) CFU/mL Lactobacillus fermentum decreased ethanol yield by 27% and increased residual glucose from 6.2 to 45.5 g/L. The magnitude of the effect was proportional to the initial bacterial load, with 10(5) CFU/mL L. fermentum still producing an 8% decrease in ethanol and a 3.2-fold increase in residual glucose. Infection was also dependent on the bacterial species used to challenge the fermentation, as neither L. delbrueckii ATCC 4797 nor L. amylovorus 0315-7B produced a significant decrease in ethanol when inoculated at a density of 10(8) CFU/mL. In the shake-flask model, treatment with 2 microg/mL virginiamycin mitigated the infection when challenged with a susceptible strain of L. fermentum (MIC for virginiamycin model may find application in developing new antibacterial agents and management practices for use in controlling contamination in the fuel ethanol industry. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fuel ethanol production from granular corn starch using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a long term repeated SSF process with full stillage recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, Wojciech; Szymanowska, Daria; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2010-05-01

    A major problem with fermentative ethanol production is the formation of large amounts of numerous organic pollutants. In an industrial distillery, stillage, fermenter and condenser cooling water are the main sources of wastewater. However, the selection of a proper technology makes it possible to almost completely avoid emissions of such kind of wastewater to the environment. This study examines the effect of stillage recirculation on fuel ethanol production. It is based on the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process using a native starch obtained from corn flour. It was shown that the yield of the ethanol production was not influenced by the recycled stillage, a mean yield being 83.38% of the theoretical value. No significant trend for change in the ethanol concentration or in the residual starch was observed during any particular run, even after the 75% of fresh water was replaced with stillage. Thus, by applying this new clean technology it is possible to significantly reduce the rate of water consumption and in this way the production of by-products such as stillage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Temperature, pH and SO/sub 2/ on Ethanol Concentration and Sugar Consumption Rate (SCR) in Apple Wine Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoglu, M. D.; Ertunc, S.; Akay, B.; Vural, N.; Hapoglu, H.; Demirci, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effects of operating parameters on ethanol concentration (ethanol) in apple wine production process. Examined parameters were temperature (T), pH and sulphur dioxide concentration (SO/sub 2/). Experiments were planned and executed according to a full two-level factorial experimental design method. The studied levels were 18 degree C and 25 degree C for temperature, 3 and 4 for pH and 50 and 150 ppm for SO/sub 2/. Ethanol concentration of apple wine for each set of experiments was determined by GC/MS. Experimental data were analyzed by using both graphical and quantitative Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) Techniques. The main effect of each factor on sugar consumption rate (SCR) was also examined. The results show that the effect of examined operating parameters on ethanol was negative. High temperature level caused faster fermentation rate than the one caused by low temperature. Low level of pH and high level of SO/sub 2/ inhibited the activities of both harmful microorganisms and wine yeast. (author)

  2. THE EFFICIENCY OF IMPURITIES EXTRACTION DURING THE PROCESS OF ETHANOL EPURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Nikitina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The static model of the hydroselection column that describes the concentration variation of the main components was proposed. The purpose of this work is an optimization of the shared mixture input-position and evaluation of efficiency of the digestion and the impurity compound concentration during the epuration process. To this end, the author developed a static model of epuration columns, which allows to reveal the dependence of the degree of digestion and the degree of concentration of the main impurities in the column of the number of plates in each of these parts. It’s proved that with the increasing of theoretical plates number in the concentration part of the column the concentration effect tends to the limit value. The effects of the head impurities digestion increase indefinitely with the growth of exhausting part. The proportion of the output from the condenser impurities depends more from the digestion effect than from the condensation effect. The effect of alcohol cleaning from the fusel oil components depends strongly from the ratio of the number of plates in the digestion and concentration parts (the optimal ratio for isopropanol, isoamyl, butanol is 1.5, for the propanol, isobutanol is 0.45.

  3. Effect of pretreatment of hydrothermally processed rice straw with laccase-displaying yeast on ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Akihito; Bae, Jun Gu; Fukai, Kotaro; Tokumoto, Naoki; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ogawa, Jun; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Div. of Applied Life Sciences; Nakatani, Masato [Daiwa Kasei, Shiga (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    A gene encoding laccase I was identified and cloned from the white-rot fungus Trametes sp. Ha1. Laccase I contained 10 introns and an original secretion signal sequence. After laccase I without introns was prepared by overlapping polymerase chain reaction, it was inserted into expression vector pULD1 for yeast cell surface display. The oxidation activity of a laccase-I-displaying yeast as a whole-cell biocatalyst was examined with 2,2{sup '}-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and the constructed yeast showed a high oxidation activity. After the pretreatment of hydrothermally processed rice straw (HPRS) with laccase-I-displaying yeast with ABTS, fermentation was conducted with yeast codisplaying endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and {beta}-glucosidase with HPRS. Fermentation of HPRS treated with laccase-I-displaying yeast was performed with 1.21-fold higher activities than those of HPRS treated with control yeast. The results indicated that pretreatment with laccase-I-displaying yeast with ABTS was effective for direct fermentation of cellulosic materials by yeast codisplaying endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and {beta}-glucosidase. (orig.)

  4. Butia Yatay coconut oil: Process development for biodiesel production and kinetics of esterification with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanuttini, M.S.; Pisarello, M.L.; Querini, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Coconut oil contains high levels of phosphorous and free fatty acids. • Especial degumming process is needed in order to decrease the phosphorous content. • Kinetic constant for esterification reaction decreases as a function of time. • Two-step esterification is more efficient to reduce acidity than one-step. • Approximately 15% of esters are formed by acid-catalyzed transesterification. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study biodiesel production using Butia Yatay coconut oil. This oil has acid values between 109 and 140 mg KOH/g, and phosphorus content in the order of 600 ppm. A three-step degumming pre-treatment of the raw material was adjusted in order to decrease the phosphorus content to approximately 200 ppm. Afterwards, a two-step esterification followed by transesterification was required in order to obtain a high-quality product. The esterification kinetics was studied including the simultaneous reactions that take place during the esterification of free fatty acids: autocatalysis, triacylglycerides hydrolysis, transesterification, and the reaction of sulphuric acid with the alcohol, being the most important ones. The kinetic parameters for the esterification and autocatalysis reactions were also obtained, being different compared to sunflower oil, due to the presence of short chain fatty acids. The kinetic constant for the esterification reaction rapidly decreases as a function of time, due to the consumption of the catalyst by the alkyl-sulphate formation reaction

  5. Performance and economic assessments of a solid oxide fuel cell system with a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming process using CaO sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2016-02-01

    The hydrogen production process is known to be important to a fuel cell system. In this study, a carbon-free hydrogen production process is proposed by using a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming procedure, which consists of ethanol dehydrogenation and steam reforming, as a fuel processor in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. An addition of CaO in the reformer for CO2 capture is also considered to enhance the hydrogen production. The performance of the SOFC system is analyzed under thermally self-sufficient conditions in terms of the technical and economic aspects. The simulation results show that the two-step reforming process can be run in the operating window without carbon formation. The addition of CaO in the steam reformer, which runs at a steam-to-ethanol ratio of 5, temperature of 900 K and atmospheric pressure, minimizes the presence of CO2; 93% CO2 is removed from the steam-reforming environment. This factor causes an increase in the SOFC power density of 6.62%. Although the economic analysis shows that the proposed fuel processor provides a higher capital cost, it offers a reducing active area of the SOFC stack and the most favorable process economics in term of net cost saving.

  6. Conceptual design of cost-effective and environmentally-friendly configurations for fuel ethanol production from sugarcane by knowledge-based process synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Óscar J; Cardona, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the hierarchical decomposition methodology was used to conceptually design the production of fuel ethanol from sugarcane. The decomposition of the process into six levels of analysis was carried out. Several options of technological configurations were assessed in each level considering economic and environmental criteria. The most promising alternatives were chosen rejecting the ones with a least favorable performance. Aspen Plus was employed for simulation of each one of the technological configurations studied. Aspen Icarus was used for economic evaluation of each configuration, and WAR algorithm was utilized for calculation of the environmental criterion. The results obtained showed that the most suitable synthesized flowsheet involves the continuous cultivation of Zymomonas mobilis with cane juice as substrate and including cell recycling and the ethanol dehydration by molecular sieves. The proposed strategy demonstrated to be a powerful tool for conceptual design of biotechnological processes considering both techno-economic and environmental indicators. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Some processes of energy saving and expenditure occurring during ethanol perfusion in the isolated liver of fed rats; a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin Henri

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the isolated liver of fed rats, a 10 mM ethanol perfusion rapidly induced a rapid 25% decrease in the total ATP content, the new steady state resulting from both synthesis and consumption. The in situ rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis without activation of the respiration was increased by 27%, implying an increased energy demand. An attempt to identify the ethanol-induced ATP-consuming pathways was performed using 31P and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Results Ethanol (i transiently increased sn-glycerol-3-phosphate formation whereas glycogenolysis was continuously maintained; (ii decreased the glycolytic ATP supply and (iii diminished the intracellular pH in a dose-dependent manner in a slight extend. Although the cytosolic oxidation of ethanol largely generated H+ (and NADH, intracellular pHi was maintained by (i the large and passive excretion of cellular acetic acid arising from ethanol oxidation (evidenced by exogenous acetate administration, without energetic cost or (ii proton extrusion via the Na+-HCO3- symport (implying the indirect activation of the Na+-K+-ATPase pump and thus an energy use, demonstrated during the addition of their specific inhibitors SITS and ouabaïn, respectively. Conclusion Various cellular mechanisms diminish the cytosolic concentration of H+ and NADH produced by ethanol oxidation, such as (i the large but transient contribution of the dihydroxyacetone phosphate / sn-glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle between cytosol and mitochondria, mainly implicated in the redox state and (ii the major participation of acetic acid in passive proton extrusion out of the cell. These processes are not ATP-consuming and the latter is a cellular way to save some energy. Their starting in conjunction with the increase in mitochondrial ATP synthesis in ethanol-perfused whole liver was however insufficient to alleviate either the inhibition of glycolytic ATP synthesis and/or the implication of Na+-HCO3- symport and

  8. Processing cereal grains, thin stillage, and cheese whey to fuel ethanol in a farm-scale plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, W R; Westby, C A

    1988-01-01

    Hydrous fuel ethanol (95%) and distiller's wet grain (DWG) were produced in a farm-scale plant from corn, wheat, and grain sorghum particles of various sizes, from corn combined with thin stillage-whey, and from various other cereal grains. These variations were made in a search to find the best set of conditions for maximizing the energy balance and minimizing the cost of ethanol production. We found that the optimum hammermill screen size for corn, wheat, and grain sorghum was 1.59 - 2.38 mm. In tests with thin stillage and whey a higher energy balance (2.91) occurred when one part whey was mixed with three parts stillage, rather than the reverse (2.69). However, the reverse (three parts whey and one part stillage) gave a lower ethanol cost ($0.45 liter/sup -1/) than the original ($0.47 liter/sup -1/). Tests with various cereal grains (corn, oats, wheat, barley, rye, and grain sorghum) gave identical energy balance values (2.26) when 10% (v/v) ethanol beers were produced. However, rye ($0.50 liter/sup -1/), grain sorghum ($0.46 liter/sup -1/), and corn ($0.51 liter/sup -1/) yielded ethanol at the lowest net cost. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are also provided.

  9. Evaluation of factors that may influence the simultaneous saccharification-fermentation process for the production of ethanol from amylaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Morales, Barbara; Molina Cordoba, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of performing the steps of saccharification and fermentation simultaneously, was evaluated in order to reduce the time of production of ethanol from starch. Factors such as type and concentration of starch, concentration of ethanol, time and temperature of saccharification, presence of ethanol and nutrients (K_2HPO_4, MgSO_4• 7H_2O, NH_4NO_3 y peptone) were evaluated during the hydrolysis step of the starch, fermentation temperature. The yield of reducing sugars was measured using a type of starch and its concentration without being significantly affected. Furthermore, the activity of the enzyme AMG neither was affected with the presence of ethanol in concentrations of 0% and up to 12% v/v during the saccharification at temperatures of 60 degrees and 32 degrees. The time of saccharification affect significantly the production of reducing sugars. Nutrients at concentrations usual for a fermentation were added to the enzyme AMG during the hydrolysis of the starch without affecting its activity. To increase the yield of reducing sugars we conclude that the best combination of temperature and time of saccharification was: 60 degrees and 2 h. Also, it was concluded that the saccharification and fermentation steps may take place simultaneously even when operating at 32 degrees. The results of concentration of ethanol obtained (6.0 to 7.5) % v/v are comparable to those values in industry. (author) [es

  10. Electrooxidations of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid using PtRuSn/C catalysts prepared by modified alcohol-reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Gang [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Swaidan, Raja [Department of Chemical Engineering, Cooper Union, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Cui, Guofeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun-Yat Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2007-10-11

    Well-dispersed ternary PtRuSn catalysts of various atomic ratios (60:30:10, 60:20:20 and 60:10:30) were deposited onto carbon using modified alcohol-reduction process for electrochemical oxidation of ethanol. The alloy phase structure and surface morphology for each variation of the PtRuSn/C catalysts were determined by XRD and HRTEM. In order to evaluate the contributions of Ru and Sn in the different stages of ethanol oxidation, electrochemical oxidations of adsorbed CO, ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid were performed on each PtRuSn/C catalyst. The results indicated that the Ru-rich PtRuSn/C catalyst (60:30:10) exhibited the lowest onset potential for the electrooxidations of adsorbed CO, ethanol and acetaldehyde, revealing that the removal through oxidation of the intermediate C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} species from Pt sites is primarily attributed to the Ru and Pt{sub 3}Sn alloy structures. However, for the overall oxidation of ethanol, the Sn-rich PtRuSn/C catalyst (60:10:30) containing PtSn phase and SnO{sub 2} structure is favorable for the activation of C-C bond breaking, thereby generating higher current density (mass activity) at higher potentials. Moreover, in the electrooxidation of acetic acid, a remarkable improvement for oxidizing acetic acid to C{sub 1} species was observed in the Sn-rich PtRuSn/C catalyst (60:10:30), while the Ru-rich PtRuSn/C catalyst (60:30:10) was almost incapable of breaking the C-C bond to further oxidize acetic acid. The possible reasons for the different reactivities on the studied PtRuSn/C catalysts were discussed based on the removal of intermediates and activation of the C-C bonds on the different surfaces. (author)

  11. Pyrolysis of a waste from the grinding of scrap tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A M; Barriocanal, C; Alvarez, R

    2012-02-15

    The fibres that are used to reinforce tyres can be recovered as a waste in the process of grinding of scrap tyres. In this paper beneficiation through pyrolysis is studied since the fibres are made up of polymers with a small amount of rubber because the latter is difficult to separate. The experiments were performed at three temperatures (400, 550 and 900°C) in a horizontal oven. The three products - gas, oil and char - obtained from the pyrolysis were investigated. The composition of the gas was analyzed by means of gas chromatography. The oil was studied by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The char porous structure was determined by N(2) adsorption. In addition, the topography of the chars was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products resulting from the pyrolysis of the fibres were compared with those obtained from scrap rubber. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Strength and residual stress of Mg-PSZ after grinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, P.H.J.; With, de G.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of grinding with two grinding wheels, differing mainly in diamond-grain size, on the properties of MgO-partially stabilized ZrO2 ceramics (Mg-PSZ) was examd. The residual stress, the amt. of monoclinic zirconia, and the strength of the material were detd. From these measurements, depth

  13. Occlusal Grinding Pattern during Sleep Bruxism and Temporomandibular Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Wijaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep Bruxism is a significant etiology of temporomandibular disorder (TMD and causes many dental or oral problems such as tooth wear or facet. There is no study analyzing the relationship between sleep bruxism and TMD. Objective: To investigate any relationship between occlusal grinding pattern during sleep bruxism and temporomandibular disorder. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 30 sleep bruxism patients attended the Faculty Dentistry Universitas Indonesia Teaching Hospital (RSGMP FKG UI. Completion of 2 forms of ID-TMD index and questionnaire from American Academy of Sleep Medicine were done. BruxChecker was fabricated and used for two nights to record the occlusal grinding pattern. The occlusal grinding pattern was categorized into laterotrusive grinding (LG and mediotrusive side. Further divisons of LG were: incisor-canine (IC, incisor-caninepremolar (ICP and incisor-canine-premolar-molar (ICPM. Mediotrusive side was classified as mediotrusive contact (MC and mediotrusive grinding (MG. Results: It was found that occlusal grinding pattern in non-TMD subjects were IC+MC, in subjects with mild TMD were ICP+MG and in subjects with moderate TMD were ICP+MG and ICPM+MG. TMJ was more significantly affected by ICP and ICPM grinding pattern than that of IC. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between occlusal grinding pattern during sleep bruxism and TMD.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.149

  14. Assessment of Metallic Contaminants in Grinded Millet using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    Separate grinding discs were used for different millet forms, while the same quantity of millet ... have bad effects on human health (Normayo et al, 2010, Edem et al, 2012 .... grinding discs to have close contact due to the hardness of the millet.

  15. Adhesive wear mechanism under combined electric diamond grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Vyacheslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a scientific substantiation of loading of metal-bond diamond grinding wheels and describes the mechanism of contact interaction (interlocking of wheels with tool steel as well as its general properties having an influence on combined electric diamond grinding efficiency. The study concluded that a loaded layer can be formed in a few stages different by nature. It is known, that one of the causes of grinding degradation is a continuous loading of active grits (abrasive grinding tool by workpiece chips. It all affects the diamond grinding wheels efficiency and grinding ability with a result in increase of tool pressure, contact temperature and wheels specific removal rate. Science has partially identified some various methods to minimize grinding wheel loading, however, as to loading of metal-bond diamond grinding wheels the search is still in progress. Therefore, research people have to state, that in spite of the fact that the wheels made of cubic boron nitride are of little use as applied to ceramic, ultrahard, hard-alloyed hard-to-machine and nano-materials of the time, but manufactures have to apply cubic boron nitride wheels wherein diamond ones preferable.

  16. 7 CFR 58.726 - Cutting and grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutting and grinding. 58.726 Section 58.726 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.726 Cutting and grinding. The trimmed and cleaned cheese should be cut into sections of...

  17. In-situ roundness measurement and correction for pin journals in oscillating grinding machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongxiang; Xu, Mengchen; Zhao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    In the mass production of vehicle-engine crankshafts, pin chasing grinding using oscillating grinding machines is a widely accepted method to achieve flexible and efficient performance. However, the eccentric movement of pin journals makes it difficult to develop an in-process roundness measurement scheme for the improvement of contour precision. Here, a new in-situ roundness measurement strategy is proposed with high scanning speed. The measuring mechanism is composed of a V-block and an adaptive telescopic support. The swing pattern of the telescopic support and the V-block is analysed for an equal angle-interval signal sampling. Hence roundness error signal is extracted in frequency domain using a small-signal model of the V-block roundness measurement method and the Fast Fourier Transformation. To implement the roundness data in the CNC coordinate system of an oscillating grinding machine, a transformation function is derived according to the motion model of pin chasing grinding methodology. Computer simulation reveals the relationship between the rotational position of the crankshaft component and the scanning angle of the displacement probe on the V-block, as well as the influence introduced by the rotation centre drift. Prototype investigation indicates the validity of the theoretical analysis and the feasibility of the new strategy.

  18. Investigation on the potential of waste cooking oil as a grinding aid in Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoxin; Zhao, Jianfeng; Huang, Yuyan; Jiang, Zhengwu; Yang, Xiaojie; Yang, Zhenghong; Chen, Qing

    2016-12-15

    Although there are several methods for managing waste cooking oil (WCO), a significant result has not been achieved in China. A new method is required for safe WCO management that minimizes the environmental threat. In this context, this work was developed in which cement clinker and gypsum were interground with various WCOs, and their properties, such as grindability, water-cement ratio required to achieve a normal consistency, setting times, compressive strength, contents of calcium hydroxide and ettringite in the hardened paste, microstructure and economic and environmental considerations, were addressed in detail. The results show that, overall, WCO favorably improves cement grinding. WCO prolonged the cement setting times and resulted in longer setting times. Additionally, more remarkable effects were found in cements in which WCO contained more unsaturated fatty acid. WCOs increased the cement strength. However, this enhancement was rated with respect to the WCO contents and components. WCOs decreased the CH and AFt contents in the cement hardened paste. Even the AFt content at later ages was reduced when WCO was used. WCO also densify microstructure of the hardened cement paste. It is economically and environmentally feasible to use WCOs as grinding aids in the cement grinding process. These results contribute to the application of WCOs as grinding aids and to the safe management of WCO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Industrial symbiosis: corn ethanol fermentation, hydrothermal carbonization, and anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brandon M; Jader, Lindsey R; Schendel, Frederick J; Hahn, Nicholas J; Valentas, Kenneth J; McNamara, Patrick J; Novak, Paige M; Heilmann, Steven M

    2013-10-01

    The production of dry-grind corn ethanol results in the generation of intermediate products, thin and whole stillage, which require energy-intensive downstream processing for conversion into commercial animal feed products. Hydrothermal carbonization of thin and whole stillage coupled with anaerobic digestion was investigated as alternative processing methods that could benefit the industry. By substantially eliminating evaporation of water, reductions in downstream energy consumption from 65% to 73% were achieved while generating hydrochar, fatty acids, treated process water, and biogas co-products providing new opportunities for the industry. Processing whole stillage in this manner produced the four co-products, eliminated centrifugation and evaporation, and substantially reduced drying. With thin stillage, all four co-products were again produced, as well as a high quality animal feed. Anaerobic digestion of the aqueous product stream from the hydrothermal carbonization of thin stillage reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) by more than 90% and converted 83% of the initial COD to methane. Internal use of this biogas could entirely fuel the HTC process and reduce overall natural gas usage. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mandibular condylar morphology for bruxers with different grinding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianxiang; Wu, Junhua; Zhang, Xuying

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mandibular condylar morphology for bruxers with different grinding patterns. Condylar sectional morphology and condylar position of 30 subjects were determined by two viewers using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image data sets. The grinding patterns during sleep bruxism (SB) were determined objectively using a Brux-checker device.Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis for the condylar morphology type between different tooth grinding patterns. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for correlation analysis between condylar position and the canine guidance area during SB. Theincidence of condylarmorphologicaldivergence from idealwas35%.There isa significant difference in distribution of condylar morphology type between the group grinding (GG) and GG combined with mediotrusive side grinding (MG) (p < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between condylar position and canine guidance area during bruxism. MG during SB is associated with condylar morphology that is considered not to be ideal.

  1. Exploring the role of curcumin containing ethanolic extract obtained from Curcuma longa (rhizomes) against retardation of wound healing process by aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rajesh Singh; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Mandloi, Avinash Singh; Shaikh, Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the curcumin containing ethanolic extract (EtOH) obtained from Curcuma longa (Cl) against retardation of wound healing by aspirin. Wound healing process was retarded by administering the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight of aspirin orally for 9 days to observe the effect of EtOH obtained from Cl using excision and incision wound model in rats. The various parameters such as % wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline, tensile strength were observed at variant time intervals and histopathological study was also performed. Curcumin containing 5% and 10% ethanolic extract ointment have shown significant (P < 0.01) wound healing activity against an aspirin (administered 150 mg/kg body weight orally for 9 days) retarded wound healing process. Topical application of ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) difference as compared to the control group. Histopathological studies also showed healing of the epidermis, increased collagen, fibroblasts and blood vessels. Ethanolic extract of Cl ointment (EtOHCl) containing 10% curcumin displayed remarkable healing process against wound retardation by aspirin.

  2. Quantification of loosely associated and tightly associated bacteria on broiler carcass skin using swabbing, stomaching, and grinding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Lee, H C; Chin, K B; Ha, S D; Kang, I

    2015-12-01

    This research was conducted to quantify bacterial populations after swabbing or stomaching, followed by grinding the swabbed or stomached broiler skins. For each of 3 replications, 3 eviscerated broilers were randomly taken from a processing line in a local broiler processing plant. Ten swabs and 10 stomachs per bird were conducted on the left- and the right-side skins (10×7 cm), respectively, which were then finally ground. Results indicated that mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) in the first swabbed sample were significantly lower than those in the first stomached sample (P0.05). During 10 swabbings followed by final grinding, 8, 9, and 83% of MAB were detected after the first swabbing, after the second through 10th swabbings, and after final grinding of the skin, respectively. During 10 stomachings followed by the final grinding, 17, 18, and 65% of MAB were detected after the first stomaching, after the second through 10th stomachings, and after final grinding of the skin, respectively. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms were significantly higher in the first stomaching than those in the first swabbing (P0.05). Populations of E. coli and coliforms decreased step-wisely from the highest after grinding to the intermediate after first and second sampling, and to the least after 10th sampling (Pgrinding. In this study, less than 35% of MAB seemed loosely associated in the skin of eviscerated broiler, whereas more than 65% of MAB looked tightly associated, which were not recovered by stomaching or swabbing even 10 times but were recovered by grinding the skin. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of thin stillage for energy recovery and water reuse in corn-ethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan-Ozkaynak, A; Karthikeyan, K G

    2011-11-01

    Recycling of anaerobically-digested thin stillage within a corn-ethanol plant may result in the accumulation of nutrients of environmental concern in animal feed coproducts and inhibitory organic materials in the fermentation tank. Our focus is on anaerobic digestion of treated (centrifugation and lime addition) thin stillage. Suitability of digestate from anaerobic treatment for reuse as process water was also investigated. Experiments conducted at various inoculum-to-substrate ratios (ISRs) revealed that alkalinity is a critical parameter limiting digestibility of thin stillage. An ISR level of 2 appeared optimal based on high biogas production level (763 mL biogas/g volatile solids added) and organic matter removal (80.6% COD removal). The digester supernatant at this ISR level was found to contain both organic and inorganic constituents at levels that would cause no inhibition to ethanol fermentation. Anaerobic digestion of treated-thin stillage can be expected to improve the water and energy efficiencies of dry grind corn-ethanol plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hybrid Multiple Soft-Sensor Models of Grinding Granularity Based on Cuckoo Searching Algorithm and Hysteresis Switching Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Sheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of grinding process and accuracy requirements of technical indicators, a hybrid multiple soft-sensor modeling method of grinding granularity is proposed based on cuckoo searching (CS algorithm and hysteresis switching (HS strategy. Firstly, a mechanism soft-sensor model of grinding granularity is deduced based on the technique characteristics and a lot of experimental data of grinding process. Meanwhile, the BP neural network soft-sensor model and wavelet neural network (WNN soft-sensor model are set up. Then, the hybrid multiple soft-sensor model based on the hysteresis switching strategy is realized. That is to say, the optimum model is selected as the current predictive model according to the switching performance index at each sampling instant. Finally the cuckoo searching algorithm is adopted to optimize the performance parameters of hysteresis switching strategy. Simulation results show that the proposed model has better generalization results and prediction precision, which can satisfy the real-time control requirements of grinding classification process.

  5. Simulation-Assisted Evaluation of Grinding Circuit Flowsheet Design Alternatives: Aghdarreh Gold Ore Processing Plant / Ocena Alternatywnych Schematów Technologicznych Procesu Rozdrabniania W Zakładach Przeróbki Rud Złota W Aghdarreh, Z Wykorzystaniem Metod Symulacji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzanegan, A.; Ghalaei, A. Ebtedaei

    2015-03-01

    The run of mine ore from Aghdarreh gold mine must be comminuted to achieve the desired degree of liberation of gold particles. Currently, comminution circuits include a single-stage crushing using a jaw crusher and a single-stage grinding using a Semi-Autogenous Grinding (SAG) mill in closed circuit with a hydrocyclone package. The gold extraction is done by leaching process using cyanidation method through a series of stirred tanks. In this research, an optimization study of Aghdarreh plant grinding circuit performance was done to lower the product particle size (P80) from 70 μm to approximately 40 μm by maintaining current throughput using modeling and simulation approach. After two sampling campaigns from grinding circuit, particle size distribution data were balanced using NorBal software. The first and second data sets obtained from the two sampling campaigns were used to calibrate necessary models and validate them prior to performing simulation trials using MODSIM software. Computer simulations were performed to assess performance of two proposed new circuit flowsheets. The first proposed flowsheet consists of existing SAG mill circuit and a new proposed ball mill in closed circuit with a new second hydrocyclone package. The second proposed flowsheet consists of existing SAG mill circuit followed by a new proposed ball mill in closed circuit with the existing hydrocyclone package. In all simulations, SAGT, CYCL and MILL models were selected to simulate SAG mill, Hydrocyclone packages and ball mill units. SAGT and MILL models both are based on population balance model of grinding process. CYCL model is based on Plitt's empirical model of classification process in hydrocyclone units. It was shown that P80 can be reduced to about 40 μm and 42 μm for the first and second proposed circuits, respectively. Based on capital and operational costs, it can be concluded that the second proposed circuit is a more suitable option for plant grinding flowsheet

  6. Anhydrous ethanol: A renewable source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Neetu; Prasad, Ram [Department of Chemical Engineering, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Anhydrous ethanol is one of the biofuels produced today and it is a subset of renewable energy. It is considered to be an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to gasoline. Anhydrous ethanol is commercially produced by either catalytic hydration of ethylene or fermentation of biomass. Any biological material that has sugar, starch or cellulose can be used as biomass for producing anhydrous ethanol. Since ethanol-water solution forms a minimum-boiling azeotrope of composition of 89.4 mol% ethanol and 10.6 mol% water at 78.2 C and standard atmospheric pressure, the dilute ethanol-water solutions produced by fermentation process can be continuously rectified to give at best solutions containing 89.4 mol% ethanol at standard atmospheric pressure. Therefore, special process for removal of the remaining water is required for manufacture of anhydrous ethanol. Various processes for producing anhydrous ethanol have been used/suggested. These include: (i) chemical dehydration process, (ii) dehydration by vacuum distillation process, (iii) azeotropic distillation process, (iv) extractive distillation processes, (v) membrane processes, (vi) adsorption processes and (vii) diffusion distillation process. These processes of manufacturing anhydrous ethanol have been improved continuously due to the increasingly strict requirements for quantity and quality of this product. The literature available on these processes is reviewed. These processes are also compared on the basis of energy requirements. (author)

  7. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  8. Non-catalytic production of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil with supercritical ethanol in a two-step process using a microtube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Camila da; Lima, Ana Paula de; Castilhos, Fernanda de; Cardozo Filho, Lucio; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical ethanol in a continuous catalyst-free process using different reactor configurations. Experiments were performed in a microtube reactor with experimental simulation of two reactors operated in series and a reactor with recycle, both configurations at a constant temperature of 573 K, pressure of 20 MPa and oil to ethanol mass ratio of 1:1. Results show that the configurations studied with intermediate separation of glycerol afford higher conversions of vegetable oil to its fatty acid ethyl ester derivatives when compared to the one-step reaction, with relatively low decomposition of fatty acids (<3.0 wt%).

  9. Performance of Metal Cutting on Endmills Manufactured by Cooling-Air and Minimum Quantity Lubrication Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shigeru; Aoyama, Tojiro

    Grinding fluids have been commonly used during the grinding of tools for their cooling and lubricating effect since the hard, robust materials used for cutting tools are difficult to grind. Grinding fluids help prevent a drop in hardness due to burning of the cutting edge and keep chipping to an absolute minimum. However, there is a heightened awareness of the need to improve the work environment and protect the global environment. Thus, the present study is aimed at applying dry grinding, cooling-air grinding, cooling-air grinding with minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), and oil-based fluid grinding to manufacturing actual endmills (HSS-Co). Cutting tests were performed by a vertical machining center. The results indicated that the lowest surface inclination values and longest tool life were obtained by cooling-air grinding with MQL. Thus, cooling-air grinding with MQL has been demonstrated to be at least as effective as oil-based fluid grinding.

  10. Ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine. Preliminary evaluation of mass balance and process energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.Y. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zhu, Wenyuan [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China). State Key Lab Pulp and Paper Engineering; OBryan, Patricia; Dien, Bruce S. [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Peoria, IL (United States). National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research; Tian, Shen [Capital Normal Univ., Beijing (China). College of Life Science; Gleisner, Rolland [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Pan, X.J. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering

    2010-05-15

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 L per metric ton of wood or 72% of theoretical yield. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subjected to sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) pretreatment and then disk-milled; the recovered cellulose substrate was quasi-simultaneously saccharified enzymatically and fermented to ethanol using commercial cellulases and Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A. The liquor stream from the pretreatment containing hydrolyzed sugars mainly from hemicelluloses was fermented by the same yeast strain after detoxification using an XAD resin column. The SPORL pretreatment was conducted at 180 C for a period of 25 min with a liquor-to-wood ratio of 3:1 (v/w) in a laboratory digester. Three levels of sulfuric acid charge (0.0%, 1.4%, and 2.2% on an oven dried wood basis in w/w) and three levels of sodium bisulfite charge (0.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% in w/w) were applied. Mechanical and thermal energy consumption for milling and pretreatment were determined. These data were used to determine the efficiency of sugar recoveries and net ethanol energy production values and to formulate a preliminary mass and energy balance. (orig.)

  11. Ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine: preliminary evaluation of mass balance and process energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Zhu, Wenyuan; Obryan, Patricia; Dien, Bruce S; Tian, Shen; Gleisner, Rolland; Pan, X J

    2010-05-01

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 L per metric ton of wood or 72% of theoretical yield. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subjected to sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) pretreatment and then disk-milled; the recovered cellulose substrate was quais-simultaneously saccharified enzymatically and fermented to ethanol using commercial cellulases and Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A. The liquor stream from the pretreatment containing hydrolyzed sugars mainly from hemicelluloses was fermented by the same yeast strain after detoxification using an XAD resin column. The SPORL pretreatment was conducted at 180 degrees C for a period of 25 min with a liquor-to-wood ratio of 3:1 (v/w) in a laboratory digester. Three levels of sulfuric acid charge (0.0%, 1.4%, and 2.2% on an oven dried wood basis in w/w) and three levels of sodium bisulfite charge (0.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% in w/w) were applied. Mechanical and thermal energy consumption for milling and pretreatment were determined. These data were used to determine the efficiency of sugar recoveries and net ethanol energy production values and to formulate a preliminary mass and energy balance.

  12. Requirements of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae,Y 10 for Bioconversion of Lignocellulose Substrates to Ethanol under Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; Younis, N.A.; Sidkey, N.M.; Ouda, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol production increased gradually with increasing the incubation period to a maximum value at 72 hrs for rice straw, bagasse and CHW (Cellulosic hospital wastes) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation technique (SSF). bagasse was the best substrate for maximum production . maximum Values of ethanol were recorded when crude cellulses were 1.79, 0.597 and 1.19 (FPU /ml fermentation medium) for substrates respectively. the optimum inoculum number of yeast was (9x10 8 free cells / ml for rice straw, (1.2x10 9 cells/ml) of immobilized and free yeast for bagasse and CHW respectively. Maximum yield was recorded with ph 5 at 30 degree C for the three substrates. Fe SO 4 .7H 2 O(0.05%) increased ethanol production from pretreated bagasse and CHW .L-Iysine increased the productivity for both bagasse and CHW. molasses (9 g/l) achieved the highest productivity from treated rice straw, while thiamine B1 (100 and 200 ppm) for treated bagsse and CHW respectively. Gamma rays at doses 0.05 and 0.8 K.Gy increased ethanol yield 7.5 and 2 % for treated bagasse and CHW respectively. Highest values recorded at 300,200 and 100 rpm. for treated rice straw, bagasse and CHW, respectively

  13. A biorefinery concept for simultaneous recovery of cellulosic ethanol and phenolic compounds from oil palm fronds: Process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori-Boateng, Cynthia; Lee, Keat Teong; Saad, Bahruddin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biorefinery concept for simultaneous recovery of cellulose and phenolic compounds. • Sono-assisted organosolv/H 2 O 2 pretreatment was used to isolate palm fronds cellulose. • Optimum conditions for pretreatment: 60 °C, 40 min, 1:20 g/ml, 3% NaOH concentration. • Optimum conditions yielded 55.3% cellulose, 20.1 g/l glucose and 0.769 g/g ethanol. • Pretreatment liquor contained 4.691 mg GAE/g phenolics. - Abstract: In this study, process optimization of an ultrasonic-assisted organosolv/liquid oxidative pretreatment (SOP) of oil palm fronds (OPFs) for the simultaneous recovery of cellulose, bioethanol and biochemicals (i.e. phenolic compounds) in a biorefinery concept was carried out. The effects of time (30–60 min.), temperature (40–80 °C), NaOH concentration (1–5%) and sample:solvent ratio (1:10–1:50 g/ml) on cellulose content, bioethanol yield and total phenolics contents (TPC) after SOP were investigated. At optimum conditions of pretreatment (i.e. 60 °C, 40 min, 3% w/v aq. NaOH and 1:20 g/ml sample to solvent ratio), the recovered cellulose (55.30%) which served as substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation yielded about 20.1 g/l glucose, 11.3 g/l xylose and 9.3 g/l bioethanol (yield of 0.769 g/g). The pretreatment liquor (mostly regarded as wastes) obtained at the optimum pretreatment conditions contained about 4.691 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g OPFs of TPC, 0.297 mg vanillic acid (VA)/g OPFs, 1.591 mg gallic acid (GA)/g OPFs and 0.331 mg quercetin (QU)/g OPFs. The pretreatment liquor was again analyzed to possess high antiradical scavenging activity (about 97.2%) compared to the synthetic antioxidant, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT) (80.7%) at 100 ppm. Thus one sustainable way of managing wastes in biorefinery is the recovery of multi-bioproducts (e.g. bioethanol and biochemicals) during the pretreatment process

  14. Effect of iron and magnesium addition for ethanol production from the conversion of palm oil mill effluent by anaerobic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handajani, M.; Gumilar, A.; Syafila, M.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, crisis of the energy is the main problem in the world. Currently, most the energy resource derived from the fossil material that cannot be refurbished. Ethanol is an alternative fuel that content as a fossil fuels. Wastewater with the high concentration of the organic can be used for the ethanol production to replace foodstuff as a raw material. In this study, palm oil mill effluent (POME) with the concentration of COD is 24,500 mg/L has been used as a substrate. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the metal addition in the substrate metabolic pathways. Circulating batch reactor (CBR) is used with the flushing N2 1L/min for 24 hours and continued operates for 72 hours by internal biogas. The additional variation concentration of Fe(II) ion are 0.5; 1.0 and 2.5 mg/L, and Mg(II) are 0.5 and 1.5 mg/L were added by combination. The results showed that the combination of Fe (II) 2.5 mg/L and Mg(II) 1.5 mg/L produced the highest ethanol concentration is 715.8 mg/L and degree of acidification (DA) 0.284-0.357. Another combination of Fe(II) and Mg(II) provide results for the ethanol production 463.7-689.7 mg/L with the rate of ethanol production is 1.09-26.5 mg/L/hour.

  15. Comparing the energy required for fine grinding torrefied and fast heat treated pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokko, Lauri; Tolvanen, Henrik; Hämäläinen, Kai; Raiko, Risto

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare torrefaction to partial pyrolysis conducted with a fast heat treatment process. Both torrefaction and the fast heat treatment tests were performed in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The study investigated the anhydrous weight losses, the fine grinding energy requirements, and the lower heating values of the samples produced with the two methods i.e. torrefaction and the fast heat treatment. The effect of particle size to these quantities was also investigated. The measurements demonstrated that the fine grinding energy requirement decreased rapidly as a function of anhydrous weight loss. The overall energy content remaining in the solid product decreased linearly as a function of anhydrous weight loss. The study shows that there is only little difference in the final products of the two processes when using particle sizes less than 4 mm. This means that it is possible to get similar products from the fast heat treatment process that takes only seconds compared to the slower torrefaction process that takes minutes. -- Highlights: ► Fine grinding energy requirement is dependent on anhydrous weight loss. ► A fast heat treatment process of only 10 s is possible for pine wood. ► A particle size of less than 4 mm is required for the fast process.

  16. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coe cient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using di erent vegetable oils as base oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grind-ing temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven veg-etable oil types. Results revealed that (1) castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(2) palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(3) MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil;(4) viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding tem-perature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils;(5) although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less vis-cous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature;(6) saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid;and (7) a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7%energy ratio coefficient

  17. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, R.; Ruth, M.; Sheehan, J.; Ibsen, K.; Majdeski, H.; Galvez, A.

    1999-07-20

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol enzymatic based process. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production. In addition, all ancillary areas--feed handling, product recovery and purification, wastewater treatment lignin burner and boiler--turbogenerator, and utilities--are included. NREL engaged Delta-T Corporation to assist in the process design evaluation, equipment costing, and overall plant integration. The process design and costing for the lignin burner and boiler turbogenerator has been reviewed by Reaction Engineering Inc. and the wastewater treatment by Merrick and Company. An overview of both reviews is included here. The purpose of this update was to ensure that the process design and equipment costs were reasonable and consistent with good engineering practice for plants of this type using available technical data. This work has resulted in an economic model that can be used to predict the cost of producing ethanol from cellulosic biomass using this technology if a plant were to be built in the next few years. The model was also extended using technology improvements that are expected to be developed based on the current DOE research plan. Future process designs and cost estimates are given for the years 2005, 2010, and 2015.

  18. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...

  19. Utility of an unitary-shredding method to evaluate the conditions and selection of constructional features during grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macko Marek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate and improve the efficiency of the process of grinding, various investigations are conducted, based on the relevant research methodology. One of them is the method in which the crushed sample is subjected to single stroke loads. On this basis, the influence of the geometric features of the chipper system and the dynamic process on the efficiency of the grinding is determined. Charpy hammers instrument were used to perform these modifications so that the momentary force of the resistance could be recorded with varying sample alignment, blade geometry changes and others. In addition, it was proposed to use a super fast camera (up to 1200 fps to record the deformation of the sample and its destruction, in order to interpretation the burdens there. Under such idealized conditions, a range of variables has been identified that significantly affect the reduction of energy demand during grinding.

  20. System identification to characterize human use of ethanol based on generative point-process models of video games with ethanol rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozil, Ipek; Plawecki, Martin H; Doerschuk, Peter C; O'Connor, Sean J

    2011-01-01

    The influence of family history and genetics on the risk for the development of abuse or dependence is a major theme in alcoholism research. Recent research have used endophenotypes and behavioral paradigms to help detect further genetic contributions to this disease. Electronic tasks, essentially video games, which provide alcohol as a reward in controlled environments and with specified exposures have been developed to explore some of the behavioral and subjective characteristics of individuals with or at risk for alcohol substance use disorders. A generative model (containing parameters with unknown values) of a simple game involving a progressive work paradigm is described along with the associated point process signal processing that allows system identification of the model. The system is demonstrated on human subject data. The same human subject completing the task under different circumstances, e.g., with larger and smaller alcohol reward values, is assigned different parameter values. Potential meanings of the different parameter values are described.