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Sample records for grimmi saule sals

  1. Saul Fia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçal Mayos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de: Saul fia (El hijo de Saúl, Año 2015, Duración 107 min., País Hungría, Director László Nemes, Guión László Nemes, Clara Royer, Música László Melis, Fotografía Mátyás Erdély; Reparto: Géza Röhrig,  Levente Molnár,  Urs Rechn,  Sándor Zsótér,  Todd Charmont,  Björn Freiberg,  Uwe Lauer,  Attila Fritz,  Kamil Dobrowolski,  Christian Harting;  Productora Laokoon Filmgroup.

  2. Saul: Towards Declarative Learning Based Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordjamshidi, Parisa; Roth, Dan; Wu, Hao

    2015-07-01

    We present Saul , a new probabilistic programming language designed to address some of the shortcomings of programming languages that aim at advancing and simplifying the development of AI systems. Such languages need to interact with messy, naturally occurring data, to allow a programmer to specify what needs to be done at an appropriate level of abstraction rather than at the data level, to be developed on a solid theory that supports moving to and reasoning at this level of abstraction and, finally, to support flexible integration of these learning and inference models within an application program. Saul is an object-functional programming language written in Scala that facilitates these by (1) allowing a programmer to learn, name and manipulate named abstractions over relational data; (2) supporting seamless incorporation of trainable (probabilistic or discriminative) components into the program, and (3) providing a level of inference over trainable models to support composition and make decisions that respect domain and application constraints. Saul is developed over a declaratively defined relational data model, can use piecewise learned factor graphs with declaratively specified learning and inference objectives, and it supports inference over probabilistic models augmented with declarative knowledge-based constraints. We describe the key constructs of Saul and exemplify its use in developing applications that require relational feature engineering and structured output prediction.

  3. Jaan Saul ei unune / Maris Balbat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balbat, Maris, 1936-

    2002-01-01

    Näitlejale pühendatud mälestusõhtust 2. dets. Vanemuises, kus teda meenutasid kolleegid ja sõbrad ning lähedased P. Saul, M. Sööt, L. Kuusma-Olmaru, L. Laats, H. Elviste., R. Adlas, L. Eelmäe, E. Koger ja abikaasa A. Piirsalu

  4. Saul: Towards Declarative Learning Based Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Kordjamshidi, Parisa; Roth, Dan; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    We present Saul, a new probabilistic programming language designed to address some of the shortcomings of programming languages that aim at advancing and simplifying the development of AI systems. Such languages need to interact with messy, naturally occurring data, to allow a programmer to specify what needs to be done at an appropriate level of abstraction rather than at the data level, to be developed on a solid theory that supports moving to and reasoning at this level of abstraction and,...

  5. Canada as an Immigrant Nation: Implications for Educators Excerpts from an Interview with John Ralston Saul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Ralston Saul, one of Canada's pre-eminent thinkers. In the interview, Mr. Saul shares his provocative and compelling thoughts on the state of Canada's public education systems.

  6. Saul Alinsky, community organizing and rules for Radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Seal, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Saul Alinsky's work is an important reference point for thinking about community organizing and community development. His books Reveille for Radicals (1946) and Rules for Radicals (1971) were both classic explorations of organizing and remain popular today. Mike Seal examines Alinsky's continuing relevance to the activities of informal educators, community organizers and animateurs.

  7. The road to virtual: the Sauls Memorial Virtual Library journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Stacie; Harkness, Amy; Cohen, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    The Sauls Memorial Virtual Library closed its physical space in 2012. This article outlines the reasons for this change and how the library staff and hospital leadership planned and executed the enormous undertaking. Outcomes of the change and lessons learned from the process are discussed.

  8. A Complicated Personality in "Seize the Day" by Saul Bellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalay, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Saul Bellow, a distinctive prominent writer in American literature, is frequently concerned with the themes of Jewish culture, and alienation. In Bellow's novel "Seize the Day," Tommy Adler "the maladroit, suffering middle-aged hero of the book, is the pathetic heir in post-war fiction to the failure of the American Dream"…

  9. A Complicated Personality in Seize The Day By Saul Bellow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Kalay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Saul Bellow, a distinctive prominent writer in American literature, is frequently concerned with the themes of Jewish culture, and alienation. In Bellow’s novel Seize the Day, Tommy Adler “the maladroit, suffering middle-aged hero of the book, is the pathetic heir in post-war fiction to the failure of the American Dream” (Richmond 15. Tommy abandons his family and endeavors to emulate his father. However, his father’s perfectionism and preference for avoidance of his son lead to the protagonist’s physical and psychological alienation. Furthermore, the resemblance of their lifestyles and attitudes indicates that their consciousness, sub-conscious, and psychologies follow the same routine. This study will therefore argue the novel’s psychoanalytic characteristics. Keywords: Mind Structure, Personality, Psychoanalysis, Saul Bellow, Seize the Day, Tommy Adler, Wilhelm Adler

  10. Review: John S. Saul, Liberation Lite: The Roots of Recolonization in Southern Africa (2011 Buchbesprechung: John S. Saul, Liberation Lite: The Roots of Recolonization in Southern Africa (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Melber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: John S. Saul, Liberation Lite: The Roots of Recolonization in Southern Africa, Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 2011, ISBN 978-1-59221-835-6, 133 pagesBesprechung der Monographie: John S. Saul, Liberation Lite: The Roots of Recolonization in Southern Africa, Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 2011, ISBN 978-1-59221-835-6, 133 Seiten

  11. Review: John S. Saul, Liberation Lite: The Roots of Recolonization in Southern Africa (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Henning Melber; Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation

    2012-01-01

    Review of the monograph: John S. Saul, Liberation Lite: The Roots of Recolonization in Southern Africa, Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 2011, ISBN 978-1-59221-835-6, 133 pages Besprechung der Monographie: John S. Saul, Liberation Lite: The Roots of Recolonization in Southern Africa, Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 2011, ISBN 978-1-59221-835-6, 133 Seiten

  12. Lauko baseino šildymo saulės energija tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Simonaitis, Ramūnas

    2011-01-01

    Darbo tikslas: Parengti lauko baseino vandens šildymo sistemą naudojant saulės kolektorius, siekiant prailginti jo naudojimo laiką. Nagrinėjama tema yra aktuali, kadangi bet koks saulės energijos panaudojimas žmonių tikslams energiją paverčiant šiluma yra aktyviai skatinamas, nes ši energija yra atsinaujinanti, nieko nekainuoja ir neteršia aplinkos, o panaudojimo galimybės - didelės. Atlikti įvairūs tyrimai ir skaičiavimai leidžia teigti, jog baseino panaudojimo negalima prailginti naudojant ...

  13. Multiculturalità ottomana e scrittori italiani da Saul Israel a Miro Silvera e Daniel Fishman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dall’ex Impero Ottomano, società multiculturale per eccellenza, della quale facevano parte fra l’altro Grecia e Bulgaria, Siria, Egitto, Libia e Israele, provengono molti ebrei scrittori in lingua italiana. Esaminiamo tre di essi: Saul Israel, scienziato nato a Selanik (Salonicco) e autore di un

  14. Berkeley Lab's Saul Perlmutter wins E.O. Lawrence Award; scientist's work on supernovae reveals accelerating Universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Saul Perlmutter, from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Physics Division and leader of the Supernova Cosmology Project based there, has won the DOE's 2002 E.O. Lawrence Award in the physics category (2 pages).

  15. La sal en el queso: diversas interacciones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sabastián Ramírez-Navas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el efecto de la sal sobre algunas propiedades físicas del queso, su interacción con los componentes del queso, y el efecto del contenido de sodio sobre la salud de los consumidores. La sal es un ingrediente importante, ya que determina en gran parte la calidad del producto y la aceptación del consumidor. El salado del queso tiene in uencia en la calidad debido a sus efectos sobre la composición, el crecimiento microbiano y la actividad enzimática. Ejerce una in uencia signi cativa sobre la reología y textura, así como en la maduración, principalmente a través de sus efectos sobre la actividad del agua. Los niveles de sal en queso van desde aproximadamente 0,6% p/p hasta aproximadamente 7% p/p. Debido a que el consumo de queso está aumentando en todo el mundo, se debe dar importancia a la reducción de la sal sin afectar su consumo. Entre las estrategias que se han planteado con tal n está la sustitución parcial de la sal por otros compuestos. Pero el inconveniente de la sustitución del NaCl es su efecto sobre las propiedades sensoriales, la composición química, la proteólisis y la textura del queso. Otra interesante alternativa para el reemplazo del NaCl, es el uso de la tecnología de membranas para obtener permeado rico en sales provenientes del lactosuero; la adición de estas sales en la elaboración quesera, produce quesos bajos en sodio, con buena textura.

  16. Modeling and Analysis of Asynchronous Systems Using SAL and Hybrid SAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashish; Dutertre, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We present formal models and results of formal analysis of two different asynchronous systems. We first examine a mid-value select module that merges the signals coming from three different sensors that are each asynchronously sampling the same input signal. We then consider the phase locking protocol proposed by Daly, Hopkins, and McKenna. This protocol is designed to keep a set of non-faulty (asynchronous) clocks phase locked even in the presence of Byzantine-faulty clocks on the network. All models and verifications have been developed using the SAL model checking tools and the Hybrid SAL abstractor.

  17. Cinematic narratives of Sonderkommando: Son of saul or narrating the victim, perpetrator, trauma and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković Nevena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to map out - by analysing the film Son of Saul, but also by its comparison with two other films dealing with the topic, Himmelkommando and The Grey Zone, the narrative mechanism that satisfies the complex ethical and aesthetical demands imposed by the theme of Sonderkommando as the particular episode of the Holocaust. The key element of the narrative structure is the construction of the Levi’s “dead and drowned” witness who “resurrected” through the narrative intervention becomes the only reliable and credible narrator of the historical trauma. The prerequisite for his emergence is the narration and representation of the death which makes but also solves the traumatised - understood as multiple, fragmented, opposed - identities of the members of the special squad. Their entangled identity involves the simultaneous presence of a victim, perpetrator, witness and the authentic narrator of the trauma of the death camp. The death of the perpetrator is the condition sina qua non for the emergence of the figure of the victim-witness narrator but also for making of narrative which overcomes the initial trauma of the Holocaust. The detailed analysis of the film Son of Saul confirms and identifies these narratives as the modernist narration of the post-traumatic film.

  18. Berkeley Lab's Saul Perlmutter wins E.O. Lawrence Award scientist's work on supernovae reveals accelerating universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Saul Perlmutter, a member of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Physics Division and leader of the international Supernova Cosmology Project based there, has won the Department of Energy's 2002 E.O. Lawrence Award in the physics category" (1/2 page).

  19. A lecture by Saul Perlmutter, winner of the 2011 Nobel prize in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CNRS National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Pierre et Marie Curie University and the Laboratory of Nuclear and High-energy Physics (LPNHE) are happy to invite you to a talk by Nobel laureate Saul Perlmutter.   Perlmutter shared the 2011 Nobel prize in physics "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae." He will give a public talk in Paris on 17 December at 5pm: "Supernovae, Dark Energy, and the Accelerating Universe" Amphithéâtre Farabeuf des Cordeliers 21, rue de l’école de Médecine 75006 Paris Free entrance (places are limited) and live translation available.

  20. The Phenomenology of Trauma. Sound and Haptic Sensuality in Son of Saul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincze Teréz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The winner of many prestigious prizes (Oscar for the best foreign language film, Grand Prize of the Cannes Film Festival, and the Golden Globe among them, the Hungarian film, Son of Saul – according to most critics – represents the Holocaust trauma in a completely new and intriguing way. The filmmakers have invented a special form in order to tackle the heroic task of showing the unwatchable, representing the unthinkable. In this essay I analyse the representational strategy of the film from a phenomenological point of view, and position it in the theoretical framework of haptic sensuality formulated by Vivian Sobchack and Laura U. Marks, among others. I mainly focus on the use of sound, in particular the role of sound design in the creation of haptic space. With the help of the analysis of the representation and artistic invocation of the different bodily senses in the film, I demonstrate how traditional artistic formal elements (characteristic of highly artistic, even experimental productions are combined with high impact effects often present in popular film forms. I argue that the successful combination of these two factors makes the film an example of artistic immersive cinema.1

  1. Saul Bellow’s Response to Nietzsche’s Ideas on Nihilism in The Victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Farshid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to expound Saul Bellow’s response to Nietzsche’s ideas on nihilism. The latter contends that the life-denying morality of Christianity has ultimately resulted in modern nihilism to solve which he propounds “active nihilism”. While “passive nihilism”, he argues, has darkened human life, the active one can save modern human, because it enables them to go beyond infertile moral judgments. In his second novel The Victim (1947 which portrays human anxieties in the modern era, Bellow comparatively asks his readers to confront nihilism, instead of ignoring it, and then make efforts to prevail over it, nevertheless the path he suggests differs from the one offered by Nietzsche. He depicts modern human’s predicament in The Victim by posing its central character in a disheartening situation, but concurrently shows his perturbed endeavors to discern a way to surmount that situation. Eventually he realizes that to divest himself out of that quandary, he must overcome his fear of death to salute life, and also to acknowledge the bond of human beings that creates in them a sense of responsibility toward each other. It is here that Bellow parts with Nietzsche who holds that elevation is only gained by the egotistic Overman.

  2. The Impact of Materialism on the Familial Ties in Post-War American Society: A Study of Saul Bellow's Seize the Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sabbar Abdulbaqi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Saul Bellow (1915 –2005 is an American novelist and the winner of Nobel and Pulitzer Prizes for literature (1976. He is known for his critique of Post-II World War American society. The research discusses Saul Bellow's Seize the Day (1956 in regard of materialism and its impact on the familial ties not only in terms of monetary considerations but also the maltreatment of family members among themselves. It reviews the materialistic relationship between the father and son on the one hand and the husband and wife on the other hand. The study aims to recognize to what extent materialism represents a dispersed element for the family unit.

  3. The Impact of Materialism on the Familial Ties in Post-War American Society: A Study of Saul Bellow's Seize the Day

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Sabbar Abdulbaqi

    2017-01-01

    Saul Bellow (1915 –2005) is an American novelist and the winner of Nobel and Pulitzer Prizes for literature (1976). He is known for his critique of Post-II World War American society. The research discusses Saul Bellow's Seize the Day (1956) in regard of materialism and its impact on the familial ties not only in terms of monetary considerations but also the maltreatment of family members among themselves. It reviews the materialistic relationship between the father and son on the one hand an...

  4. The C-2 derivatives of salvinorin A, ethoxymethyl ether Sal B and β-tetrahydropyran Sal B, have anti-cocaine properties with minimal side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Amy W M; Bosch, Peter J; Culverhouse, Aimee; Crowley, Rachel Saylor; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Kivell, Bronwyn M

    2017-08-01

    Kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr) agonists have pre-clinical anti-cocaine and analgesic effects. However, side effects including sedation, dysphoria, aversion, anxiety and depression limit their therapeutic development. The unique structure of salvinorin A has been used to develop longer acting KOPr agonists. We evaluate two novel C-2 analogues of salvinorin A, ethoxymethyl ether Sal B (EOM Sal B) and β-tetrahydropyran Sal B (β-THP Sal B) alongside U50,488 for their ability to modulate cocaine-induced behaviours and side effects, pre-clinically. Anti-cocaine properties of EOM Sal B were evaluated using the reinstatement model of drug seeking in self-administering rats. EOM Sal B and β-THP Sal B were evaluated for effects on cocaine-induced hyperactivity, spontaneous locomotor activity and sucrose self-administration. EOM Sal B and β-THP Sal B were evaluated for aversive, anxiogenic and depressive-like effects using conditioned place aversion (CPA), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim tests (FSTs), respectively. EOM Sal B (0.1, 0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) dose dependently attenuated drug seeking, and EOM Sal B (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and β-THP Sal B (1 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated cocaine-induced hyperactivity. No effects on locomotor activity, open arm times (EPM) or swimming behaviours (FST) were seen with EOM (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or β-THP Sal B (1 or 2 mg/kg, i.p.). However, β-THP Sal B decreased time spent in the drug-paired chamber. EOM Sal B is more potent than Sal A and β-THP Sal B in reducing drug-seeking behaviour with fewer side effects. EOM Sal B showed no effects on sucrose self-administration (0.1 mg/kg), locomotor, depressive-like, aversive-like or anxiolytic effects.

  5. Preparation and infrared spectra of the Schiff base solid complexes [UO2(sal-O-phdn)(H2O)] and [UO2(sal-O-phdn) (Et3N)] (sal-O-phdn=n, n'-o-phenylenebissalicylideniminato)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeek, S.A.; Teleb, S.M.; Al-Kority, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In the present communication, we report the preparation of the related two new complexes, [UO 2 (sal-o-phdn)(H 2 O)] and LUO 2 (sal-o-phdn)(Et 3 N)], where sal-o-phdn=N, N'-o-phenylenebis (salicylideneiminato); here U VI is seven-coordinate. The infrared spectra of these two complexes are recorded and assigned. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab

  6. Hinduism’s Four Stages of Life in Saul Bellow’s Henderson the Rain King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manimangai Mani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The oldest of Hindu’s philosophical writings, the Rig Veda, which came to being about 4500 BC underlined that, the cause of all misery that befalls  mankind  is his/her desire; or more promptly said, his/her attachment to the desire. In Hinduism, this physical plane is just a stage with life itself is nothing more than a play. The stage is set in such a way to enable the souls which took the human form to evolve and to find the enlightenment and ultimately to become one with the creator. All the material elements including the complex relationship found in this plane is nothing but a mere illusion. This study aims to explore elements of Hindu philosophy in Saul Bellow’s novel, Henderson the Rain King (1976. Eugene Henderson, the main character in this novel is portrayed as drowning in the materialistic world. Being constantly mugged by a desirable voice within him whispering, I want, I want, it is not an irony if he generated a sense of uselessness and emptiness. This study shows how Henderson’s decision to go to Africa to find the meaning of life coincides with the Hindu philosophy of the four stages of life; Brahmacharya (celibacy, Grahasthya (householdership, Vanaprastha (detachment in attachment and Sanyas (seclusion.  Henderson comes to realization in his third stage and proceeds to the fourth stage. Henderson is taught to eradicate fear and to break the cycle of desire. Towards the end, Henderson realises that the voice was actually referring to, “He wants, She wants and They want”. The voice was actually echoing the desires of mankind.

  7. User Guide: How to Use and Operate Virtual Reality Equipment in the Systems Assessment and Usability Laboratory (SAUL) for Conducting Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Assessment and Usability Laboratory (SAUL) for Conducting Demonstrations by Michael N Geuss and Joseph A Campanelli Human Research and...Master unable to communicate with necessary computers .... 15 Fig. 14 PPT Studio N setup for 4 users...to communicate with each other and display the same virtual environment to multiple users. Cluster Master must be run on the computer running the

  8. SalMar ASA : Strategic analysis and valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to estimate the theoretical value of equity for SalMar ASA and thereby the value per share at 27.11.2017. Fundamental valuation through a two-stage discounted cash flow model is chosen as the main method, while a valuation using comparable firms is performed as a supplement. In the fundamental valuation I have estimated the enterprise value by discounting the expected future cash flows to present value. To find the value of equity, the net-intere...

  9. Exploration of Shorea robusta (Sal seeds, kernels and its oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Kumar C.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of Shorea robusta seed with wing, seed without wing, and kernel were investigated in the present work. The physico-chemical composition of sal oil was also analyzed. The physico-mechanical properties and proximate composition of seed with wing, seed without wing, and kernel at three moisture contents of 9.50% (w.b, 9.54% (w.b, and 12.14% (w.b, respectively, were studied. The results show that the moisture content of the kernel was highest as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The sphericity of the kernel was closer to that of a sphere as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The hardness of the seed with wing (32.32, N/mm and seed without wing (42.49, N/mm was lower than the kernels (72.14, N/mm. The proximate composition such as moisture, protein, carbohydrates, oil, crude fiber, and ash content were also determined. The kernel (30.20%, w/w contains higher oil percentage as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The scientific data from this work are important for designing of equipment and processes for post-harvest value addition of sal seeds.

  10. Simon van der Stel en Constantia sal in my gedagtes bly. Die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simon van der Stel en Constantia sal in my gedagtes bly. Die byfigure sal nie vervaag nie en bo dit alles is, vir almal wat in die boeien- de verhaal 'n rol speel, die vraag aangaande die lotsbestemming van die mens gestel, 'n vraag waarop die skrywer Monica Dacosta laat antwoord: "Dutchmen never speak about destiny" [ ...

  11. Erigeron mancus (Asteraceae) density as a baseline to detect future climate change in La Sal Mountain habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Barb Smith

    2010-01-01

    The La Sal Daisy, Erigeron mancus Rydb., is endemic to timberline and alpine habitats of the La Sal Mountains in Utah, an insular, laccolithic mountain range on the Colorado Plateau in southeastern Utah. It occurs in alpine herbaceous communities from timberline to the crestline of the La Sals. Our primary goal in this study was to measure basic population biology...

  12. “ÁGUA VIRA SAL LÁ NA SALINA”: O GLOSSÁRIO DOS TERMOS DO SAL NO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE NUMA PERSPECTIVA SOCIOTERMINOLÓGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Batista da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo apresentarresultados da pesquisa sobre os termos usados na Indústriado sal, em três municípios que fazem parte da região salineirado Rio Grande do Norte. Primeiramente, abordamosas diferentes ciências do Léxico estudadas por Boutin--Quesnel (1985, Barbosa (1994,1995, Barros (2004,dando ênfase maior nas orientações teórico-metodológicasda Socioterminologia (FAULSTICH, 1995, 1996, 1998,2006. Em seguida, expomos os procedimentos tanto dametodologia de campo quanto da metodologia da organizaçãodo Glossário da Terminologia do Sal - GLOSSAL(SILVA, 2007. Depois, apresentamos uma amostra dosverbetes, as análises feitas a partir desse repertório e, porfim, as considerações finais quanto aos fatos linguísticos,observados nesse glossário. Desse modo, essa pesquisa sejustifica por possibilitar a divulgação de um produto terminográficodestinado, não só aos especialistas e pesquisadoresdas Ciências do Léxico, como também ao grandepúblico e aos interessados em aprofundar seus estudos naterminologia do sal.Palavras-chave: Sal. Indústria do Sal. Terminologia. Socioterminologia.Glossário.

  13. Estrategias mundiales en la reducción de sal/sodio en el pan

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Valverde Guillén; Jennifer Picado Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Proporcionar información sobre las acciones mundiales en la reducción de sal/sodio en el pan para generar datos útiles en la implementación de estrategias que busquen la disminución del consumo de sal/sodio a partir de productos panificados. Método: Se realizó una búsqueda de información en las bases de datos de Binass, PubMed, Scielo e instituciones gubernamentales. Las palabras claves fueron: contenido de sodio en el pan, menos sodio en pan, acciones para reducir sal en el pan, co...

  14. O Debate do Salário Mínimo no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Eloisa Vilmar da Silva Lemos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Num contexto de estabilidade econômica, o salário mínimo pode voltar a desempenhar o seu papel original de tentar garantir ao trabalhador um salário que é o mínimo para a sua sobrevivência. Para a análise do papel do salario mínimo no mercado de trabalho brasileiro, uma resenha da literatura especifica existente parece ser um bom ponto de partida.

  15. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J Tett

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  16. SalB inactivation modulates culture supernatant exoproteins and affects autolysis and viability in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Jayendra; Walker, Rachel G; Wilkinson, Mark C; Ward, Deborah; Horsburgh, Malcolm J

    2012-07-01

    The culture supernatant fraction of an Enterococcus faecalis gelE mutant of strain OG1RF contained elevated levels of the secreted antigen SalB. Using differential fluorescence gel electrophoresis (DIGE) the salB mutant was shown to possess a unique complement of exoproteins. Differentially abundant exoproteins were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Stress-related proteins including DnaK, Dps family protein, SOD, and NADH peroxidase were present in greater quantity in the OG1RF salB mutant culture supernatant. Moreover, several proteins involved in cell wall synthesis and cell division, including d-Ala-d-Lac ligase and EzrA, were present in reduced quantity in OG1RF salB relative to the parent strain. The salB mutant displayed reduced viability and anomalous cell division, and these phenotypes were exacerbated in a gelE salB double mutant. An epistatic relationship between gelE and salB was not identified with respect to increased autolysis and cell morphological changes observed in the salB mutant. SalB was purified as a six-histidine-tagged protein to investigate peptidoglycan hydrolytic activity; however, activity was not evident. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of reduced muropeptides from peptidoglycan digested with mutanolysin revealed that the salB mutant and OG1RF were indistinguishable.

  17. The evolutionary history of the SAL1 gene family in eutherian mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callebaut Isabelle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SAL1 (salivary lipocalin is a member of the OBP (Odorant Binding Protein family and is involved in chemical sexual communication in pig. SAL1 and its relatives may be involved in pheromone and olfactory receptor binding and in pre-mating behaviour. The evolutionary history and the selective pressures acting on SAL1 and its orthologous genes have not yet been exhaustively described. The aim of the present work was to study the evolution of these genes, to elucidate the role of selective pressures in their evolution and the consequences for their functions. Results Here, we present the evolutionary history of SAL1 gene and its orthologous genes in mammals. We found that (1 SAL1 and its related genes arose in eutherian mammals with lineage-specific duplications in rodents, horse and cow and are lost in human, mouse lemur, bushbaby and orangutan, (2 the evolution of duplicated genes of horse, rat, mouse and guinea pig is driven by concerted evolution with extensive gene conversion events in mouse and guinea pig and by positive selection mainly acting on paralogous genes in horse and guinea pig, (3 positive selection was detected for amino acids involved in pheromone binding and amino acids putatively involved in olfactory receptor binding, (4 positive selection was also found for lineage, indicating a species-specific strategy for amino acid selection. Conclusions This work provides new insights into the evolutionary history of SAL1 and its orthologs. On one hand, some genes are subject to concerted evolution and to an increase in dosage, suggesting the need for homogeneity of sequence and function in certain species. On the other hand, positive selection plays a role in the diversification of the functions of the family and in lineage, suggesting adaptive evolution, with possible consequences for speciation and for the reinforcement of prezygotic barriers.

  18. Striving for Diversity, Accessibility and Quality: Evaluating SiSAL Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Mynard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After establishing a journal, it is important to evaluate its progress to ensure that the principles that underpin its existence continue to be a priority. In this article, the author reports on measures that were used to evaluate Studies in Self-Access Learning (SiSAL Journal. The research was designed to investigate the three principles that the journal values: diversity, accessibility and quality. The results identified some successful factors such as accessibility and favourable perceptions of SiSAL Journal’s quality. However, the results also identified areas that could be improved to further increase diversity and to encourage submissions from more authors based in different locations.

  19. Molecular and neurochemical substrates of the audiogenic seizure strains: The GASH:Sal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Martín, Ana I; Aroca-Aguilar, J Daniel; Sánchez-Sánchez, Francisco; Muñoz, Luis J; López, Dolores E; Escribano, Julio; de Cabo, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Animal models of audiogenic epilepsy are useful tools to understand the mechanisms underlying human reflex epilepsies. There is accumulating evidence regarding behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, and genetic substrates of audiogenic seizure strains, but there are still aspects concerning their neurochemical basis that remain to be elucidated. Previous studies have shown the involved of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in audiogenic seizures. The aim of our research was to clarify the role of the GABAergic system in the generation of epileptic seizures in the genetic audiogenic seizure-prone hamster (GASH:Sal) strain. We studied the K + /Cl - cotransporter KCC2 and β2-GABAA-type receptor (GABAAR) and β3-GABAAR subunit expressions in the GASH:Sal both at rest and after repeated sound-induced seizures in different brain regions using the Western blot technique. We also sequenced the coding region for the KCC2 gene both in wild- type and GASH:Sal hamsters. Lower expression of KCC2 protein was found in GASH:Sal when compared with controls at rest in several brain areas: hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, pons-medulla, and mesencephalon. Repeated induction of seizures caused a decrease in KCC2 protein content in the inferior colliculus and hippocampus and an increase in the pons-medulla. When compared to controls, the basal β 2 -GABA A R subunit in the GASH:Sal was overexpressed in the inferior colliculus, rest of the mesencephalon, and cerebellum, whereas basal β 3 subunit levels were lower in the inferior colliculus and rest of the mesencephalon. Repeated seizures increased β2 both in the inferior colliculus and in the hypothalamus and β 3 in the hypothalamus. No differences in the KCC2 gene-coding region were found between GASH:Sal and wild-type hamsters. These data indicate that GABAergic system functioning is impaired in the GASH:Sal strain, and repeated seizures seem to aggravate this dysfunction. These results have potential clinical

  20. Imagens apesar de tudo: problemas e polêmicas em torno da representação, de Shoah a O filho de Saul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo pretende investigar as polêmicas e os problemas em torno da representação do Holocausto (Shoah, a partir de três ensaios de Georges Didi-Huberman, Images malgré tout (2003, "Cascas" (2013 e Sortir du noir (2015. Tais textos se endereçam ao “inimaginável” e ao “irrepresentável”, filosófico e estético, e o refutam, por meio da análise de quatro fotografias, capturadas por membros do Sonderkommando em Auschwitz-Birkenau em agosto de 1944. Em cotejo com o cinema, de Shoah a O filho de Saul, passando por Noite e neblina e Kapo, atualizamos a querela das imagens, cada vez mais atual e longe de ser encerrada.

  1. Een onwrikbaar geloof in zijn gelijk : Sal Tas (1905-1976): journalist van de wereld

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Tity

    Biography of the Dutch Sal Tas, activist, political writer and reporter/foreign correspondent in Paris of the newspaper Het Parool and the American non-communist left journal The New Leader during the 1950s. Tas was a controversial man with outspoken opinions. Radical left in his young years, later

  2. Economic contribution of participatory agroforestry program to poverty alleviation: a case from Sal forests, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, K.K.; Hoogstra, M.A.; Ullah, M.O.; Sato, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the Forest Department of Bangladesh, a Participatory Agroforestry Program (PAP) was initiated at a denuded Sal forests area to protect the forest resources and to alleviate poverty amongst the local poor population. We explored whether the PAP reduced poverty and what factors might be responsible

  3. The Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) in the Agency's safeguards measurement system activity in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliano, G.; Cappis, J.; Deron, S.; Parus, J.L.

    1991-05-01

    The IAEA applies Safeguards at the request of a Member State to whole or part of its nuclear materials. The verification of nuclear material accountability still constitutes the fundamental method of control, although sealing and surveillance procedures play an important complementary and increasing role in Safeguards. A small fraction of samples must still be analyzed at independent analytical laboratories using conventional Destructive Analytical (DA) methods of highest accuracy in order to verify that small potential biases in the declarations of the State are not masking protracted diversions of significant quantities of fissile materials. The Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) is operated by the Agency's Laboratories at Seibersdorf to provide to the Department of Safeguards and its inspectors such off-site Analytical Services, in collaboration with the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) of the Agency. In the last years SAL and the Safeguards DA Services have become more directly involved in the qualification and utilization of on-site analytical instrumentation such as K-edge X-Ray absorptiometers and quadrupole mass spectrometers. The nature and the origin of the samples analyzed, the measurements usually requested by the IAEA inspectors, the methods and the analytical techniques available at SAL and at the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) with the performances achieved during the past years are described and discussed in several documents. This report gives an evaluation compared with 1989 of the volume and the quality of the analyses reported in 1990 by SAL and by the NWAL in reply to requests of IAEA Safeguards inspectors. The reports summarizes also on-site DA developments and support provided by SAL to the Division of Safeguards Operation and special training courses to the IAEA Safeguards inspectors. 55 refs, 7 figs, 15 tabs

  4. Procesos electrolíticos industriales. Electrolisis de la sal NaCl en disolución acuosa y como sal fundida.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Se explica en este ejercicio de electroquímica los procesos correspondientes a la electrolisis de una disolución de cloruro de sodio para obtener cloro, hidrógeno y disolución de hidróxido sódico y la electrolisis de esta misma sal a la temperatura de fusión (electrolisis de sales fundidas) en presencia de cloruro de calcio. Esta última es la base para la obtención industrial de sodio metal y de gas cloro. Mediante animaciones se explican ambos procesos electrolíticos. Asimismo se justifican ...

  5. Marx e a crítica à forma salário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Prado

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo desse artigo é descrever, a partir da leitura de “O Capital”, a crítica de Marx a forma salário. Tal categoria é fundamental para encobrir e mistificar as relações entre capital e trabalho. A partir de uma feroz crítica a Economia Política, Marx afirma que fetiche da forma salário cumpre a função de ocultar a apropriação da mais-valia pelo capitalista. Por conseguinte, trata-se de uma forma fundamental para a manutenção das relações capitalistas de produção.

  6. EJB 3.0 un EJB 2.0 salīdzinājums

    OpenAIRE

    Karnigins, Vadims

    2013-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā „EJB 3.0 un EJB 2.0 salīdzinājums” ir apskatītas atšķirības starp EJB 2.0 un EJB 3.0 tehnoloģijām - uzlabojumi tehnoloģijas trešajā versijā, salīdzinot ar otro, kā arī atšķirības programmēšanas pieejās, kas tiek diktētas ar EJB 3.0, salīdzinot ar EJB 2.0, un atšķirības starp 2. un 3. EJB tehnoloģijas versiju komponentēm. Darba praktiskajā daļā tiek apskatīta konkrētās Java EE lietotnes migrācija uz EJB 3.0 arhitektūru no EJB 2.0. Lietotne ir bankas karšu sistēmas sastāvdaļa...

  7. Reparation and validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9951

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubek, N.; Jammet, G.; Zoigner, A.

    1991-02-01

    To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing about 2mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 98%) and 37mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 19%) have been prepared by the IAEA-SAL and verified by three analytical laboratories: NMCC-SAL, OEFZS, IAEA-SAL; they will be used to spike samples of concentrated spent fuel solutions with a high burnup and a low 235 U enrichment. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBL-112A and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing about 3.2 mg/ml of Pu and 64.3 mg/ml of 18.7% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution are dried to give Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of a fifth batch of LSD-spike which is intended to be used as a common spike by the plant operator, the national and the IAEA inspectorates. 7 refs, 6 tabs

  8. Synthesis, structural, thermal and optical studies of rare earth coordinated complex: Tb(Sal){sub 3}Phen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Dwivedi, Y. [Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in [Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: {yields} RE coordinated complex of Tb(Sal){sub 3}Phen in crystalline phases were synthesized. {yields} Enhancement in luminescence of Tb{sup 3+} was observed in complex on 355 nm excitation. {yields} Fluorescence enhancement is due to the efficient energy transfer from Sal to Tb{sup 3+}. {yields} An observed increase in lifetime of Tb{sup 3+} is due to encapsulation in Sal/Phen network. {yields} The present system is a deserving candidate for LSC when coupled with solar cells. - Abstract: Complexes of salicylic acid (Sal) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) were synthesized coordinated with terbium ion (Tb{sup 3+}) in crystalline phases. The structural characterizations of the lanthanide complex were made using FT-IR, NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) and XRD techniques. These measurements confirm the formation of Tb(Sal){sub 3}Phen complex structure. The thermal aspects of the complex were examined using DTA and TGA techniques. An enhancement in luminescence intensity of Tb{sup 3+} ion bands were observed in Tb(Sal){sub 3}Phen complex as compared to TbCl{sub 3} crystals on 355 nm laser excitation. Enhancement is reported due to the efficient energy transfer process from Sal to Tb{sup 3+} ions. This is also confirmed by the time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy with increase in lifetime of Tb{sup 3+} ions due to encapsulation in Sal/Phen network. Our system in itself can be a deserving candidate for luminescent solar collector material when coupled with solar cells.

  9. A recombinant Sal k 1 isoform as an alternative to the polymorphic allergen from Salsola kali pollen for allergy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Salvador; Boissy, Patrice; Monsalve, Rafael I; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Fernández, Javier; Colás, Carlos; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Barderas, Rodrigo; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Amaranthaceae pollen allergy has increased due to the desertification occurring in many countries. In some regions of Spain, Salsola kali is the main cause of pollinosis, at almost the same level as olive and grass pollen. Sal k 1 - the sensitization marker of S. kali pollinosis - is used in clinical diagnosis, but is purified at a low yield from pollen. We aimed to produce a recombinant (r)Sal k 1 able to span the structural and immunological properties of the natural isoforms from pollen, and validate its potential use for diagnosis. Specific cDNA was amplified by PCR, cloned into the pET41b vector and used to transform BL21 (DE3) Escherichia coli cells. Immunoblotting, ELISA, basophil activation and skin-prick tests were used to validate the recombinant protein against Sal k 1 isolated from pollen. Sera and blood cells from S. kali pollen-sensitized patients and specific monoclonal and polyclonal antisera were used. rSal k 1 was produced in bacteria with a yield of 7.5 mg/l of cell culture. The protein was purified to homogeneity and structural and immunologically validated against the natural form. rSal k 1 exhibited a higher IgE cross-reactivity with plant-derived food extracts such as peanut, almond or tomato than with pollen sources such as Platanus acerifolia and Oleaceae members. rSal k 1 expressed in bacteria retains intact structural and immunological properties in comparison to the pollen-derived allergen. It spans the immunological properties of most of the isoforms found in pollen, and it might substitute natural Sal k 1 in clinical diagnosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Sal die ‘ewolusie’ vanaf biologie na lewenswetenskappe ‘uitsterwing’ van die vakgebied voorkom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna G. Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word die wysiging van die skoolvak van ‘biologie’ na ‘lewenswetenskappe’ bespreek, asook die gepaardgaande en verwagte implikasies van die verandering. Die vraag word gestel of die beoogde wysiging wel noemenswaardig is en of dit enigsins ‘n verskil aan die dalende belangstelling in die lewenswetenskappe op tersiêre vlak sal maak. Die wysigings in die nuwe kurrikula verhoog die relevansie van die vakinhoud vir leerders en vir die gemeenskap, maar sekere kwessies kry nie aandag nie. Voorstelle word gemaak om die kurrikulum te wysig en onderrigmetodes aan te pas om die nodige vaardighede by leerders te vestig.

  11. Changements climatiques et infiltrations d'eau salée le long du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La Méditerranée orientale est très exposée aux infiltrations d'eau salée dans les aquifères (qui contiennent de l'eau douce) se trouvant sur son littoral. La dégradation des aquifères pourrait entraîner de graves conséquences socioéconomiques pour les personnes qui vivent en ces lieux. Le projet consistera à étudier ...

  12. Mobility Analysis of the Population of Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer

    OpenAIRE

    F. Ghaiti

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present the 2006 survey study origin destination and price that we carried out during 2006 fall in the area in the Moroccan region of Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer. The survey concerns the people-s characteristics, their displacements behavior and the price that they will be able to pay for a tramway ticket. The main objective is to study a set of relative features to the households and to their displacement's habits and to their choices among public and privet transport modes. A ...

  13. Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta forests of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAM KEERTI VERMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soni KK, Pyasi A, Verma RK. 2011. Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta forests of central India. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 136-144. The present study aim on isolation and identification of fungi associated with decomposition of litter of sal forest in central India. Season wise successional changes in litter mycoflora were determined for four main seasons of the year namely, March-May, June-August, September-November and December-February. Fungi like Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Rhizopus stolonifer were associated with litter decomposition throughout the year, while Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. oxysporum, Curvularia indica, and C. lunata were recorded in three seasons. Some fungi including ectomycorrhiza forming occur only in the rainy season (June-August these are Astraeus hygrometricus, Boletus fallax, Calvatia elata, Colletotrichum dematium, Corticium rolfsii, Mycena roseus, Periconia minutissima, Russula emetica, Scleroderma bovista, S. geaster, S. verrucosum, Scopulariopsis alba and four sterile fungi. Fungi like Alternaria citri, Gleocladium virens, Helicosporium phragmitis and Pithomyces cortarum were rarely recorded only in one season.

  14. An Experiment to Study Sporadic Atom Layers in the Earth's Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (SAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael C.

    1999-01-01

    The Sudden Atom Layer (SAL) Rocket was successfully launched in February 1998. All instruments worked well except those supplied by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. (A dummy weight was launched for the neutral mass spectrometer and the ion version died shortly after lift-off.) A paper has already been published in GRL concerning the dust layer detected by an on board instrument and compared to ground-based observations made at the Arecibo Observatory by Cornell graduate student S. Collins (lidar) and Q. Zhou (radar). Collins presented a comparison of the sodium lidar data and onboard observations with a theoretical model by Plane and Cox at the Fan AGU Meeting. In addition Gelinas and Kelley presented a review paper dealing with the entire SAL instrument complement at the same meeting. An unexpected new explanation for the outer scale of E region plasma irregularities has come out of the data set. We anticipate at least a total of four papers will be published within a year of launch.

  15. Tsunami vulnerability and damage assessment in the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Atillah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, a companion paper to Renou et al. (2011, focuses on the application of a GIS-based method to assess building vulnerability and damage in the event of a tsunami affecting the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco. This approach, designed within the framework of the European SCHEMA project (www.schemaproject.org is based on the combination of hazard results from numerical modelling of the worst case tsunami scenario (inundation depth based on the historical Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and the Portugal earthquake of 1969, together with vulnerability building types derived from Earth Observation data, field surveys and GIS data. The risk is then evaluated for this highly concentrated population area characterized by the implementation of a vast project of residential and touristic buildings within the flat area of the Bouregreg Valley separating the cities of Rabat and Salé. A GIS tool is used to derive building damage maps by crossing layers of inundation levels and building vulnerability. The inferred damage maps serve as a base for elaborating evacuation plans with appropriate rescue and relief processes and to prepare and consider appropriate measures to prevent the induced tsunami risk.

  16. EFFECTS OF LAND-USE CHANGE ON THE PROPERTIES OF TOP SOIL OF DECIDUOUS SAL FOREST IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kashem

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of land use change on the physico-chemical properties of top soil in the deciduous Sal forest of Bangladesh. Relatively less disturbed Sal (Shorea robusta Roxb. Ex Gaertn. forest stands and the nearby stands those were converted into Acacia (Acacia auriculiformis Benth. plantation and pineapple (Ananus comosus (L. Merr. cultivation were selected to examine the effects of land use change on soil properties. For each land use type, soil samples were collected from 4 locations, 50m distant from each other, as replicates. Soil samples were collected at 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm depths. Soil moisture content, conductivity, pH organic C, total N and total P were determined as soil properties. Leaf litter of Sal, Acacia and pineapple was incubation for 90 and 180 days in independent identical soil in order to examine the effects of plant species through leaf litter on the soil chemical nutrient (N and P status. Data showed that soil moisture content, conductivity and pH were significantly affected by land use but not by depth. However, soil organic C was affected by both land-use type (P< 0.02 and soil depth (P< 0.003, although no significant interactions appeared between these two factors. Soil total N and P did not differ between land use types but by depth and, N and P contents decreased with the increase of depth. Rates of nutrients (N and P released from Sal, Acacia and pineapple did not differ significantly among them during incubation. Results of the present study reveal that properties of the top soil of the Madhupur Sal forest are different in their responses to the varying land uses. The findings of this study are thus relevant for the sustainable management of the deciduous Sal forest ecosystems.

  17. Performance and emission characteristics of an agricultural diesel engine fueled with blends of Sal methyl esters and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pali, Harveer S.; Kumar, N.; Alhassan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sal seed oil is unexplored biodiesel feedstock which is abundantly found in India. • Sal seed oil has good oxidation stability. • Performance and emission characteristics of the blends of Sal methyl esters with diesel evaluated. • At higher loads, CO, HC and smoke emissions of SME blends were lower than diesel. - Abstract: The present work deals with an underutilized vegetable oil; Sal seed oil (Shorea robusta) as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The production potential of Sal seed oil is very promising (1.5 million tons in a year) in India. The pressure filtered Sal seed oil was transesterified into Sal Methyl Ester (SME). The kinematic viscosity (5.89 cSt), density (0.8764 g/cc) and calorific value (39.65 MJ/kg) of the SME were well within the ASTM/EN standard limits. Various test fuels were prepared for the engine trials by blending 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of SME in diesel on volumetric basis and designated as SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 respectively. The BTE, in general, was found to be decreased with increased volume fraction of SME in the blends. At full load, BSEC for SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 were 13.6 MJ/kW h, 14.3 MJ/kW h, 14.7 MJ/kW h and 14.8 MJ/kW h respectively as compared to 13.9 MJ/kW h in case of diesel. At higher load conditions, CO, UHC and smoke emissions were found lower for all SME blends in comparison to neat diesel due to oxygenated nature of fuel. SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 showed 51 ppm, 44 ppm, 46 ppm and 48 ppm of UHC emissions respectively as compared to 60 ppm of diesel. The NOx emissions were found to be increased for SME based fuel in comparison to neat diesel operation. At peak load condition, SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 had NOx emissions of 612 ppm, 644 ppm, 689 ppm and 816 ppm as compared to 499 ppm for diesel. It may be concluded from the experimental investigations that Sal seed biodiesel is a potential alternative to diesel fuel for reducing dependence on crude petroleum derived fuels and

  18. Contenido de yodo en sal a nivel de puestos de venta provenientes de distintas localidades en tres regiones argentinas

    OpenAIRE

    López Linares, S; Heer I, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La deficiencia de yodo es la principal causa prevenible de retardo mental y daño cerebral en la población. La yodación de la sal en Argentina es obligatoria según Ley 17259/67. El objetivo fue determinar el contenido de yodo en sal obtenida de puestos de venta de distintas localidades de provincias que integran la región del noroeste (NOA), nordeste (NEA) y Cuyo. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo y transversal. Se analizaron 80 sales adquiridas por compra directa, mercado ...

  19. Stakeholder perceptions of decision-making process on marine biodiversity conservation on sal island (Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Sal Island (Cape Verde there is a growing involvement, will and investment in the creation of tourism synergies. However, much of the economic potential of the island can be found submerged in the sea: it is its intrinsic 'biodiversity'. Due to this fact, and in order to balance environmental safety and human pressure, it has been developed a strategy addressing both diving and fishing purposes. That strategy includes the deployment of several artificial reefs (ARs around the island. In order to allocate demand for diving and fishing purposes, we have developed a socio-economic research approach addressing the theme of biodiversity and reefs (both natural and artificial and collected expectations from AR users by means of an inquiry method. It is hypothesized a project where some management measures are proposed aiming marine biodiversity conservation. Using the methodology named as analytic hierarchy process (AHP it was scrutinized stakeholders' perception on the best practice for marine biodiversity conservation in the Sal Island. The results showed that to submerge obsolete structures in rocky or mixed areas have a high potential, but does not gathers consensuality. As an overall conclusion, it seems that limitation of activities is the preferred management option to consider in the future.Na Ilha do Sal (Cabo Verde existe um crescente envolvimento, vontade e investimento na criação de sinergias turísticas. Contudo, muito do potencial económico da ilha está submerso - a biodiversidade marinha. Devido a este facto, e tendo em vista promover a sustentabilidade ambiental associada ao eco-turismo, vem sendo desenvolvida uma estratégia direccionada, quer ao mergulho, quer à pesca. Esta estratégia inclui a implantação de vários recifes artificiais (RA na Baía de Santa Maria. De modo a alocar a procura para propósitos como o mergulho e a pesca, desenvolvemos um plano de pesquisa socio-económica relativo ao tema da biodiversidade

  20. Insights into an Optimization of Plasmodium vivax Sal-1 In Vitro Culture: The Aotus Primate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaldía, Nicanor; Nuñez, Marlon; Dutary, Sahir; Lim, Caeul; Barnes, Samantha; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Adams, John H.; Pasini, Erica M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant tropical diseases, and of the Plasmodium species that cause human malaria, P. vivax is the most geographically widespread. However, P. vivax remains a relatively neglected human parasite since research is typically limited to laboratories with direct access to parasite isolates from endemic field settings or from non-human primate models. This restricted research capacity is in large part due to the lack of a continuous P. vivax in vitro culture system, which has hampered the ability for experimental research needed to gain biological knowledge and develop new therapies. Consequently, efforts to establish a long-term P. vivax culture system are confounded by our poor knowledge of the preferred host cell and essential nutrients needed for in vitro propagation. Reliance on very heterogeneous P. vivax field isolates makes it difficult to benchmark parasite characteristics and further complicates development of a robust and reliable culture method. In an effort to eliminate parasite variability as a complication, we used a well-defined Aotus-adapted P. vivax Sal-1 strain to empirically evaluate different short-term in vitro culture conditions and compare them with previous reported attempts at P. vivax in vitro culture Most importantly, we suggest that reticulocyte enrichment methods affect invasion efficiency and we identify stabilized forms of nutrients that appear beneficial for parasite growth, indicating that P. vivax may be extremely sensitive to waste products. Leuko-depletion methods did not significantly affect parasite development. Formatting changes such as shaking and static cultures did not seem to have a major impact while; in contrast, the starting haematocrit affected both parasite invasion and growth. These results support the continued use of Aotus-adapted Sal-1 for development of P. vivax laboratory methods; however, further experiments are needed to optimize culture conditions to support long-term parasite

  1. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p=0.004 to 34.6% (p=0.05 in the APAP and 46.3% (p<0.001 to 29.9% (p=0.02 in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage.

  2. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Aparecida Resende

    Full Text Available Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum. A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract in dogs at baseline (T0, during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd and after early (T90 and late (T885 times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with "LbSapSal" is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β, even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after "LbSapSal" immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9% and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the "LbSapSal" vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection.

  3. 76 FR 9403 - Finding That the Lebanese Canadian Bank SAL Is a Financial Institution of Primary Money...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Bank SAL Is a Financial Institution of Primary Money Laundering Concern AGENCY: Financial Crimes...'') is a financial institution of primary money laundering concern. DATES: The finding made in this... Law 107-56. Title III of the USA PATRIOT Act amended the anti- money laundering provisions of the Bank...

  4. A formação dos salários nos setores público e privado

    OpenAIRE

    Marconi, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho visa comprovar a existência de segmentação entre os mercados de trabalho público e privado, evidenciada através dos diferenciais salariais e das distintas regras de formação de salários em ambos, buscando discutir de modo mais detalhado quais seriam estas regras no setor público.

  5. Tsunami hazard assessment in the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Renou

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the three-year SCHEMA European project (www.schemaproject.org, we present a generic methodology developed to produce tsunami building vulnerability and impact maps. We apply this methodology to the Moroccan coast. This study focuses on the Bouregreg Valley which is at the junction between Rabat (administrative capital, and Salé. Both present large populations and new infrastructure development. Using a combination of numerical modelling, field surveys, Earth Observation and GIS data, the risk has been evaluated for this vulnerable area.

    Two tsunami scenarios were studied to estimate a realistic range of hazards on this coast: a worst-case scenario based on the historical Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and a moderate scenario based on the Horseshoe earthquake of 28 February 1969. For each scenario, numerical models allowed the production of tsunami hazard maps (maximum inundation extent and maximum inundation depths. Moreover, the modelling results of these two scenarios were compared with the historical data available.

    A companion paper to this article (Atillah et al., 2011 presents the following steps of the methodology, namely the elaboration of building damage maps by crossing layers of building vulnerability and the so-inferred inundation depths.

  6. SalHUD—A Graphical Interface to Public Health Data in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto G. Ortiz-Zuazaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes SalHUD, a prototype web-based application for visualizing health data from Puerto Rico. Our initial focus was to provide interactive maps displaying years of potential life lost (YPLL. Methods: The public-use mortality file for year 2008 was downloaded from the Puerto Rico Institute of Statistics website. Data was processed with R, Python and EpiInfo to calculate years of potential life lost for the leading causes of death on each of the 78 municipalities in the island. Death records were classified according to ICD-10 codes. YPLL for each municipality was integrated into AtlasPR, a D3 Javascript map library. Additional Javascript, HTML and CSS programing was required to display maps as a web-based interface. Results: YPLL for all municipalities are displayed on a map of Puerto Rico for each of the ten leading causes of death and for all causes combined, so users may dynamically explore the impact of premature mortality. Discussion: This work is the first step in providing the general public in Puerto Rico with user-friendly, interactive, visual access to public health data that is usually published in numerical, text-based media.

  7. SalHUD--A Graphical Interface to Public Health Data in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Zuazaga, Humberto G; Arce-Corretjer, Roberto; Solá-Sloan, Juan M; Conde, José G

    2015-12-22

    This paper describes SalHUD, a prototype web-based application for visualizing health data from Puerto Rico. Our initial focus was to provide interactive maps displaying years of potential life lost (YPLL). The public-use mortality file for year 2008 was downloaded from the Puerto Rico Institute of Statistics website. Data was processed with R, Python and EpiInfo to calculate years of potential life lost for the leading causes of death on each of the 78 municipalities in the island. Death records were classified according to ICD-10 codes. YPLL for each municipality was integrated into AtlasPR, a D3 Javascript map library. Additional Javascript, HTML and CSS programing was required to display maps as a web-based interface. YPLL for all municipalities are displayed on a map of Puerto Rico for each of the ten leading causes of death and for all causes combined, so users may dynamically explore the impact of premature mortality. This work is the first step in providing the general public in Puerto Rico with user-friendly, interactive, visual access to public health data that is usually published in numerical, text-based media.

  8. Comparison of Pu isotopic composition between gamma and mass spectrometry: Experience from IAEA-SAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parus, J.L.; Raab, W.

    1998-01-01

    About 2000 Pu containing samples have been analysed during the last 8 years at SAL using gamma spectrometry (GS) in parallel with mass spectrometry (MS). Four different detectors have been used for the measurement of gamma-ray spectra and several versions of the MGA program have been used for spectra evaluation. The results of Pu isotopic composition obtained by both methods have neem systematically compared. Attempts to improve the agreement between GS and MS are described. This was done by adjustment of the emission probabilities for some gamma energies and the development of a new correlation equation for 242 Pu. These improvements have been applied for evaluation of two sets containing 320 and 404 samples, respectively analysed in 1991 and in 1992-93. The mean differences and their standard deviations between MS and GS were calculated, showing mean relative differences for 238-241 Pu isotopes in the range from 0.1 to 0.5% with standard deviations within ± 0.4 to ±1%. For 242 Pu these values are about 0.5% and ± 5%, respectively. (author)

  9. Landscape and Astronomy in Megalithic Portugal: the Carregal do Sal Nucleus and Star Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Central Portugal, delimited by the Douro river to the north and the Mondego to the south, is the second densest region of megalithic monuments in the country. The Neolithic archaeological record indicates seasonal transhumance between higher pastures in the summer and lower grounds in the winter. The monuments are found in lower ground and it has been suggested that they were built during the winter occupation of their surroundings. The astronomical orientation of their entrances lends further support to this hypothesis. A recent survey of the orientation of the chambers and corridors of these dolmens, conducted by the author, found good agreement with prior surveys, but also demonstrated that other interpretations are possible. This paper presents an update on the survey, including extra sites surveyed in the spring of 2011, as well as the GIS confirmation of all horizon altitudes that couldn’t be empirically measured. The megalithic nucleus of Carregal do Sal, on the Mondego valley, is then looked at in more detail. It is found that there is a preference for the orientation of dolmens towards Star Mountain Range in-line with the topographic arguments of landscape archaeology. In addition, it was found that the topography also marks the rise of particular red stars, Betelgeuse and Aldebaran, during the period of megalithic building, at the onset of spring marking the transition from low ground to the high pastures. This hypothesis finds further support from toponymic folktales that explain the origin of the name of the mountain range.

  10. Preparation and provisional validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9931

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, G.; Zoigner, A.; Doubek, N.; Grabmueller, G.; Bagliano, G.

    1990-05-01

    To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing about 2 mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 98%) and 40 mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 19%) have been prepared and verified by SAL to be used to spike samples of concentrated spent fuel solutions with a high burn-up and a low 235 U enrichment. The advantages of such a Large Size Dried (LSD) Spike have been pointed out elsewhere and proof of the usefulness in the field reported. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBS-960 and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing 1.8 mg/ml of Pu and 37.3 mg/ml of 19.4% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution are dried to give Large Size Dried Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of a Large Size Dried Spike which is intended to be used as a common spike by the plant operator, the national and the IAEA inspectorates. 6 refs, 7 tabs

  11. Preparation and provisional validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9934

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, G.; Zoigner, A.; Doubek, N.; Aigner, H.; Deron, S.; Bagliano, G.

    1990-05-01

    To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing about 2 mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 98%) and 40 mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 19%) have been prepared and verified by SAL to be used to spike samples of concentrated spent fuel solutions with a high burn-up and a low 235 U enrichment. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBS-960 and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing 3.2 mg/ml of Pu and 64.3 mg/ml of 18.8% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution are dried to give Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of a third batch of LSD-Spike which is intended to be used as a common spike by the plant operator, the national and the IAEA inspectorates. 6 refs, 6 tabs

  12. Novel acyloxy derivatives of branched mono- and polyol esters of sal fat: multiviscosity grade lubricant base stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakar, Kotte; Sai Manoj, Gorantla N V T; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Karuna, Mallampalli S L

    2014-12-10

    Sal fat, a nontraditional seed oil, was chemically modified to obtain base stocks with a wide range of specifications that can replace mineral oil base stocks. Sal fatty acids were enriched to 72.6% unsaturation using urea adduct method and reacted with branched mono alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol (2-EtH), and polyols namely neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) to obtain corresponding esters. The esters were hydroxylated and then acylated using propionic, butyric, and hexanoic anhydrides to obtain corresponding acylated derivatives. The acylated TMP esters exhibited very high viscosities (427.35-471.93 cSt at 40 °C) similar to those of BS 150 mineral oil base stock range, ISO VG 460, while the acylated NPG esters (268.81-318.84 cSt at 40 °C) and 2-EtH esters viscosities (20.94-24.44 cSt at 40 °C) exhibited viscosities in the range of ISO VG 320 and 22 respectively with good viscosity indices. Acylated NPG esters were found suitable for high temperature and acylated 2-ethylhexyl esters for low viscosity grade industrial applications. It was observed that the thermo-oxidative stabilities of all acylated products were found better compared to other vegetable oil based base stocks. Overall, all the sal fat based lubricant base stocks are promising candidates with a wide range of properties, which can replace most of the mineral oil base stocks with appropriate formulations.

  13. O salário na obra de Frederick Winslow Taylor Frederick Winslow Taylor's oeuvre: an analysis of wages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paulo Gomes da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa e explica a perspectiva de Frederick Winslow Taylor sobre o salário, tal como enunciada em suas duas grandes obras: Shop management (1903 e Principles of scientific management (1911. A primeira parte consubstancia-se na apresentação de aspectos econômicos relevantes que caracterizaram o tempo em que ele viveu e o quanto influenciaram suas obras. Na segunda parte, é efetuada uma análise da forma como o salário é apresentado nas duas obras de F. W. Taylor. O artigo termina com um comentário sobre as obras supracitadas no que se refere à perspectiva taylorista do salário.This paper analyses and explains Frederick Winslow Taylor's perspective on wages, as it is presented in his main literary works: Shop management (1903 and Principles of scientific management (1911. The first part presents the main economic aspects that characterized his lifetime, which undoubtedly influenced his literary works. The second part analyses F. W. Taylor's two main books in which the author's perspective about wages is discussed. The paper concludes with a critical view of F. W. Taylor's view on wages.

  14. Rutas de circulación e intercambio de sal en la provincia de Tunja, segunda mitad del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Ofelia Acuña Rodriguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A través de este texto se pretende dar a conocer cómo las rutas de circulación de sal en la Provincia de Tunja contribuyeron a configurar un gran espacio económico, que integró a las provincias de Santa Fe, Pamplona y Tunja en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, durante el siglo XVI. Se partió de una reflexión historiográfica relacionada con la circulación y el comercio de la sal, los medios de transporte y las rutas usadas por los indígenas y los españoles; a partir de las cuales se consolidó un espacio económico mediado por la producción y distribución de la sal, que convirtió a la provincia de Tunja en un eje articulador de relaciones entre los sitios productores de sal en la provincia de Santa Fe y los consumidores de las provincias de Tunja y Pamplona. Esta articulación regional facilitó tanto la circulación de productos de distintos pisos térmicos, como la integración de un amplio territorio colonial. Esto debido a que la localización de Tunja como lugar de paso y conexión entre las Provincias de Santafé, Pamplona y los Llanos de San Juan, hizo de esta ciudad y sus términos un atractivo para el asentamiento hispano, a la vez que generó, durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVI, la posibilidad para que se organizaran en toda la Provincia de Tunja, sitios de aposento, venta y reventa de productos importados de España y productos de la tierra, para el sustento y abastecimiento de las necesidades básicas, y de esta forma sacar provecho de las producciones locales como la sal, el hayo, el algodón, las mantas y otros productos.

  15. Simulating SAL formation and aerosol size distribution during SAMUM-I

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit Ali

    2015-04-01

    To understand the formation mechanisms of Saharan Air Layer (SAL), we combine model simulations and dust observations collected during the first stage of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM-I), which sampled dust events that extended from Morocco to Portugal, and investigated the spatial distribution and the microphysical, optical, chemical, and radiative properties of Saharan mineral dust. We employed the Weather Research Forecast model coupled with the Chemistry/Aerosol module (WRF-Chem) to reproduce the meteorological environment and spatial and size distributions of dust. The experimental domain covers northwest Africa including the southern Sahara, Morocco and part of the Atlantic Ocean with 5 km horizontal grid spacing and 51 vertical layers. The experiments were run from 20 May to 9 June 2006, covering the period of most intensive dust outbreaks. Comparisons of model results with available airborne and ground-based observations show that WRF-Chem reproduces observed meteorological fields as well as aerosol spatial distribution across the entire region and along the airplane\\'s tracks. We evaluated several aerosol uplift processes and found that orographic lifting, aerosol transport through the land/sea interface with steep gradients of meteorological characteristics, and interaction of sea breezes with the continental outflow are key mechanisms that form a surface-detached aerosol plume over the ocean. Comparisons of simulated dust size distributions with airplane and ground-based observations are generally good, but suggest that more detailed treatment of microphysics in the model is required to capture the full-scale effect of large aerosol particles.

  16. Jihâd dalam Pandangan Muhammad ‘Abd al-Salâm Faraj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muis Naharong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jihâd is one of the Islamic teachings which has been extensively discussed since the last few decades due to the increasing acts of violence perpetrated by some Muslims. This article tries to join this discussion by presenting Muh ammad ‘Abd al-Salâm Faraj’s concept of jihâd and his ideas of Islamic state and Caliphate by referring to his al-Farîd ah al-Ghâ’ibah (the Neglected Duty. We argue that Faraj’s basic perception of the Egyptian politics and society at the time shaped his whole concept of state and Caliphate. We hence contend that his proposal of jihâd is born out of his disappointment of the Egyptian government and even society as far as applying Islamic law is concerned. He uncompromisingly believed that the government and society are hypocrite and apostate for distancing themselves from the divine law of God. This belief prompted four members of Jihâd Organization to which Faraj belongs, to assassinate President Sadat in October 1981. By jihad, Faraj means fighting and confrontation against enemies even through bloodshed. And by enemies he means anyone who is not willing to apply God’s law on earth. The most controversial idea that Faraj has tried to pose is that jihâd is considered to the sixth pillar of Islam, which has to be carried out by each and every member of Muslim ummah.

  17. Reducing salt intake to prevent hypertension and cardiovascular disease Reducción del consumo de sal para prevenir la hipertensión y las enfermedades cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng J. He

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that dietary salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure (BP and that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of ≈ 9 - 12 g/day in most countries to the recommended level of 9 g/day is highly prevalent. Sources of salt in the diet vary hugely among countries; in developed countries, 75% of salt comes from processed foods, whereas in developing countries such as parts of Brazil, 70% comes from salt added during cooking or at the table. To reduce population salt intake, the food industry needs to implement a gradual and sustained reduction in the amount of salt added to foods in developed countries. In developing countries, a public health campaign plays a more important role in encouraging consumers to use less salt coupled with widespread replacement of salt with substitutes that are low in sodium and high in potassium. Numerous countries in the Americas have started salt reduction programs. The challenge now is to engage other countries. A reduction in population salt intake will result in a major improvement in public health along with major health-related cost savings.Hay datos probatorios irrefutables de que la ingesta de sal alimentaria es la principal causa de hipertensión y de que una reducción del consumo de sal, del nivel actual de aproximadamente 9 a 12 g/d en la mayor parte de los países al nivel recomendado de menos de 5 g/d, disminuye la presión arterial. Una reducción adicional hasta 3 a 4 g/d tiene un mayor efecto y es necesario seguir teniendo en cuenta la posibilidad de metas de consumo de sal inferiores en la población. Los estudios de cohortes y los ensayos clínicos han demostrado que el menor consumo de sal se asocia con una reducción del riesgo de padecer enfermedades cardiovasculares. La reducción de sal es una de las medidas más rentables para mejorar la salud pública a escala mundial. En la Región de las Américas, hay una alta prevalencia de un consumo de

  18. Domates Salçalarının Mikroflorası ve Depolama Sürecinde Miktarlarındaki Değişiklikler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikri Başoğlu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available - Ticari sterilize edilen domates salçasının muhafazası esnasında sterilliği azalmaktadır. 12 aylık muhafaza süresinde sterillik %100’den %15 ve 8’e hatta daha aza düşebilir. - Pastörizasyonda tatbik edilen sıcaklık derecesi (89-93 oC laktik asit bakterileri ile maya ve küflerin yaşamasına imkan vermemektedir. - Domates salçasının kalıntı mikroflorasını umumiyetle spor yapan bakteriler (B. subtilis, B. mesentericus, B. cereus ..... temsil etmektedir. - Domates salçasının kuru maddesi %28-30 veya %38-40 olması B. subtilis ve B. mesentericus’un ölmesine tesir etmemektedir. - Salçanın 10-15 oC ta muhafaza edilmesi termofil mikroorganizmaların çoğalmasına engel olmaktadır. - Salçanın pH’sı yükseltilirse sporlar çabuk gelişmektedir. - Hermetikli kapatmadaki hatalarda laktik asit bakterileri ve mayalar salçayı bozmaktadırlar. - Salçada bulunan bazı sporlu ve sporsuz mikroorganizmaların termal ölüm müddetlerine ortamın pH’sı, organik asitler ve spor konsantrasyonu etki etmektedir.

  19. Toxicidade aguda ao sal comum e larvicultura intensiva do jundiá Rhamdia quelen em água salobra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.E.H.P. Fabregat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A tolerância de peixes de água doce à salinidade e os níveis adequados de náuplios de Artemia na alimentação durante a larvicultura são de extrema importância para a padronização dos manejos em ambientes de criação intensiva. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi estimar a salinidade letal (SL50 para larvas de jundiá Rhamdia quelen e determinar o efeito da salinidade e da concentração de presas vivas na larvicultura intensiva. No primeiro ensaio, larvas ao final do período lecitotrófico (1,1±0,8mg foram submetidas às salinidades de 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 e 20g de sal/L por um período de 96h. No segundo experimento, as larvas de jundiá, no início da alimentação exógena (1,2±0,3mg, foram submetidas a três salinidades (água doce 0, 2 e 4g de sal/L e três concentrações de presas vivas (início: 300, 500, 700 náuplios de Artemia/larvas/dia, sendo esse montante aumentado a cada cinco dias. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x3, por um período de 15 dias. No experimento 1, as larvas de jundiá submetidas às salinidades de 10, 15 e 20g de sal/L morreram após 12, duas e uma hora de exposição, respectivamente. As SL50 de 72 e 96h foram estimadas em 9,93 e 4,95g de sal/L, respectivamente. No final do teste de toxicidade, não houve diferença na sobrevivência entre as salinidades de 0, 2 e 4g de sal/L. No experimento 2, não foi observado efeito da interação entre salinidade e concentração de presas para o peso e o comprimento. Quanto maior a quantidade de presas, maior o crescimento das larvas. A sobrevivência apresentou interação entre os fatores. O aumento da salinidade proporcionou uma diminuição da sobrevivência, independentemente da concentração de presas. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a SL50 diminuiu com o aumento do tempo de exposição à água salinizada e que a larvicultura da espécie pode ser realizada em salinidades de até 2g de sal/L, com

  20. ELABORAÇÃO DE PÃO DE SAL UTILIZANDO FARINHA MISTA DE TRIGO E LINHAÇA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. OLIVEIRA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A linhaça (Linum usitatissimum L. é uma semente que possui compostos fisiologicamente ativos, sendo fonte de fibras, ômega-3 e lignanas. Seu consumo vem sendo associado à prevenção de algumas doenças e a benefícios nutricionais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi testar a viabilidade de utilização de uma farinha mista, composta de trigo e linhaça na produção de pão de sal através da avaliação das características físico-químicas, sensoriais e tecnológicas do pão. Testes preliminares de farinografia, extensografia e panificação experimental foram realizados para determinaçãoda melhor formulação, que foi utilizada para produção do pão em uma panificadora comercial. Esse pão foi avaliado quanto a características físico-químicas, sensoriais e de textura. A adição de farinha de linhaça ao pão de sal na proporção de 10% mostrou ser viável tecnicamente, com uma excelente aceitação pelos consumidores, sabor agradável e características físico-químicas similares ao pão de sal tradicional, representando uma opção mais nutritiva e saborosa para a alimentação diária de vários consumidores.

  1. OPTIMIZACIÓN DE LA LOGÍSTICA DE OPERACIONES DE UNA PLANTA DE MOLIENDA DE SAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Araya Pasten

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un modelo de simulación mediante el uso del software Awesim para optimizar el sistema de producción y transporte de sal de una empresa minera del norte de Chile, con la finalidad de incrementar la productividad mediante la reducción de los tiempos de detención de la planta de producción, compatibilizando los ciclos de llenado de las tolvas de almacenamiento con los ciclos de transporte de los camiones.

  2. Memory, Art and Mourning: the Case of the 'Salón del Nunca Más' of Granada (Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Rubiano Pinilla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This document examines the work produced in the 'Salón del Nunca Más', located in Granada (Antioquia on the subject of collective memory. In this rural town, the 'Salón' has articulated different practices that, along with the construction of memory, have allowed survivors of violence and family members of killed and disappeared individuals to symbolize loss by means of public rituals. On the other hand, the article explores the visual settings that lay down the event, not only the exposure of violent events but the practices of the local community: what happens in the 'Salón', the journalistic covering (written press, the documental photography (Jesús Abad Colorado and the artistic work (Erika Diettes. For this purpose, archival material, a historical interdisciplinary approach, psychoanalysis and image and communication theories, as well as interviews is referenced through this article.

  3. Observaciones histopatologicas de juveniles penaeus vannamei sometidos a dietas artificiales con diferentes concentraciones de una sal de ácido ascórbico (vitamina c)

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Muñoz, L.

    1995-01-01

    Observaciones histopatologicas de juveniles Penaeus Vannamei sometidos a dietas artificiales con diferentes concentraciones de una sal de ácido ascórbico (vitamina C) Se realizaron análisis histológicos y comprobación mediante métodos histoquímicos de la presencia de melanina, a juveniles Penaeus vannamei sometidos a cinco dietas experimentales con diferentes concentraciones de una sal de L-Ascorbato-2-Fosfato de Mg (APM) usada como fuente de ácido ascórbico (AA).

  4. Domates Pulpu ve Salçasında Viskozite (Konsistens ve Renk Üzerine Proses Koşullarının Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Ekşi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kıvam ve renk, domates pulpu ve salçada kaliteyi belirleyen ve ticarette üzerinde en çok durulan iki önemli etkendir. Domates salçasında renk ve kıvam ile hammaddenin durumu arasında yakın bir ilişki bulunduğu bilinmektedir. Ancak her iki kalite öğesini ve özellikle kıvamı, hammadde olduğu kadar, proses koşulları da etkilemektedir.

  5. Avaliação dos efeitos da adição de sal e da densidade no transporte de tambaqui

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    Gomes Levy de Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram testar a eficiência do sal como redutor de estresse e verificar a melhor densidade de transporte de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomun em caixas de plástico adaptadas. No primeiro experimento foram testadas diferentes concentrações de sal de cozinha (NaCl na água; no segundo, o transporte foi realizado por três horas em caixas de plástico de 200 L estocadas com diferentes densidades de peixe, com 8 g de sal/L de água. O cortisol plasmático dos peixes sofreu aumento significativo após o transporte no tratamento sem sal e com 2 g de sal/L de água, retornando para níveis normais após 96 horas. A glicose plasmática dos peixes sofreu aumento após o transporte em todas as concentrações de sal testadas, com exceção da com 8 g/L de água, retornando para níveis normais em 24 horas. Nos peixes transportados no segundo experimento, com 8 g de sal/L de água, não foi verificada mudança significativa no cortisol plasmático, mas a glicose aumentou significativamente em todas as densidades após o transporte, retornando para níveis normais em 24 horas. Houve mortalidade de 11% em uma das repetições da densidade de 200 kg/m³ de água. Para o transporte com 8 g de sal/L de água, a densidade máxima deve ser de 150 kg/m³ de água. Nesta densidade os parâmetros físico-químicos de qualidade de água se mantêm com características adequadas, as respostas ao estresse são mínimas e não há mortalidade.

  6. TV REKLAMLARINDAN KAÇINMA: DAVRANIŞSAL VE MEKANİK KAÇINMAYA ETKİ EDEN FAKTÖRLER

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    Ayşen AKYÜZ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available TV ADVERTISING AVOIDANCE: THE FACTORS INFLUINCING BEHAVIOURAL AND MECHANISTIC AVOIDANCEAbstract: TV advertising avoidance, presents a main issue for advertisers and marketers. Creation of TV ads involves great effort, imaginative strategy formulation and high expenditures. The expectations of the companies and advertisers from the medium are intrinsically high. The current study examines the influence of both the general attitude towards advertising and the belief factors (product information, good for economy, hedonic/pleasure and materialism on behavioral (e.g .making phone calls and mechanical avoidance (e.g. zapping by conducting surveys with the university students. Structural Equation Model is employed to investigate the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. It is believed that, the findings would make a significant contribution towards a development of the theory and create bases for a further research on this topic. Keywords: Ad Avoidance, Behavioral Avoidance, Mechanical Avoidance, Beliefs, Attitude Toward Advertising.  TV REKLAMLARINDAN KAÇINMA: DAVRANIŞSAL VE MEKANİK KAÇINMAYA ETKİ EDEN FAKTÖRLER Özet: Reklamdan kaçınma davranışı, reklamcılar ve pazarlamacılar için oldukça önemli bir gündem oluşturmaktadır. Televizyon reklamlarının yaratılması yoğun çaba, yaratıcı strateji ve yüksek harcamaları kapsar. Firmaların ve reklamcıların bu iletişim aracından beklentileri ise doğal olarak yüksek olacaktır. Bu çalışma, hem inanç faktörlerinin (bilgilendirme, ekonomik fayda, zevk/hoşnutluk, materyalizm; hem de reklama yönelik genel tutumun, davranışsal ve mekanik kaçınma üzerindeki etkilerini üniversite öğrencileri ile yapılan bir anket çalışması ile incelemektedir. Bağımlı ve bağımsız değişkenler arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemek için Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli kullanılmıştır. Bulguların hem konuyla ilgili gelecekte yapılacak araştırmalarda hem de

  7. Feasibility of salt reduction in processed foods in Argentina Factibilidad de reducir el contenido de sal de los alimentos procesados en la Argentina

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    Daniel Ferrante

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess an intervention to reduce salt intake based on an agreement with the food industry. METHODS: Salt content was measured in bakery products through a national survey and biochemical analyses. Low-salt bread was evaluated by a panel of taste testers to determine whether a reduced salt bread could remain undetected. French bread accounts for 25% of the total salt intake in Argentina; hence, reducing its salt concentration from 2% to 1.4% was proposed and tested. A crossover trial was conducted to evaluate the reduction in urinary sodium and blood pressure in participants during consumption of the low-salt bread compared with ordinary bread. RESULTS: Average salt content in bread was 2%. This study evaluated low-salt bread containing 1.4% salt. This reduction remained mostly undetected by the panels of taste testers. In the crossover trial, which included 58 participants, a reduction of 25 milliequivalents in 24hour urine sodium excretion, a reduction in systolic blood pressure of 1.66 mmHg, and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.76 mmHg were found during the low-salt bread intake. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that dietary salt reduction was feasible and well accepted in the population studied through a reduction of salt content in bread. Although the effects on urinary sodium and blood pressure were moderate, a countrywide intervention could have a greater public health impact.OBJETIVO: Evaluar una intervención destinada a reducir el consumo de sal a partir de un convenio con la industria alimentaria. MÉTODOS: Se midió el contenido de sal de los productos de panadería por medio de una encuesta nacional y análisis bioquímicos. Un grupo de catadores evaluó el pan con bajo contenido de sal para determinar si la disminución pasaba inadvertida. Dado que el pan francés representa 25% del consumo total de sal en la Argentina, se propuso someter a prueba este tipo de pan con una disminución de la concentración de

  8. Sal-like 4 (SALL4) suppresses CDH1 expression and maintains cell dispersion in basal-like breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itou, Junji; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Yoshikawa, Kiyotsugu; Toi, Masakazu

    2013-09-17

    In cell cultures, the dispersed phenotype is indicative of the migratory ability. Here we characterized Sal-like 4 (SALL4) as a dispersion factor in basal-like breast cancer. Our shRNA-mediated SALL4 knockdown system and SALL4 overexpression system revealed that SALL4 suppresses the expression of adhesion gene CDH1, and positively regulates the CDH1 suppressor ZEB1. Cell behavior analyses showed that SALL4 suppresses intercellular adhesion and maintains cell motility after cell-cell interaction and cell division, which results in the dispersed phenotype. Our findings indicate that SALL4 functions to suppress CDH1 expression and to maintain cell dispersion in basal-like breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PREVALENCIA DE BOCIO ENDEMICO POR EL METODO ECOGRAFICO, DETERMINACION DE YODURIAS y YODO EN SAL EN ESCOLARES DEL PARAGUAY.

    OpenAIRE

    Jara Y, Jorge A; Pretell, Eduardo A; Zaracho de Irazusta, Juana; Goetting, Sonia; Riveros, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    Paraguay, país mediterráneo ubicado en el corazón de America del Sur, con una superficie de 406.542 Km2 y con una población de 5,8 millones de habitantes importa toda la sal que consume de países cercanos como la Argentina, Brasil y Chile. En el presente estudio observacional, de tipo descriptivo utiliza el método ecográfico para determinar el tamaño y las características de la glándula tiroides, se examinaron 1034 escolares de ambos sexos de 13 distritos del país y fue realizado durante 3 me...

  10. Traditions matrimoniales dans la région de Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Hami, H.; Soulaymani, A.; Mokhtari, A.

    2011-01-01

    La pratique des mariages consanguins est très répandue au Moyen-Orient, en Afrique du Nord et dans le Sud-Ouest Asiatique où 20 à plus de 50 % de mariages sont consanguins. L’analyse d’un échantillon de 270 femmes mariées, pris au hasard dans le service de Maternité de l’Hôpital Souissi à Rabat (2004-2005), a fait l’objet d’une étude prospective visant à déterminer la fréquence des mariages consanguins dans la région de Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer au Maroc. Les résultats obtenus montrent que 20...

  11. O Mercado interno na América portuguesa: "exclusivo" metropolitano do comércio colonial e os "descaminhos do sal" na Capitania de São Paulo na primeira metade do século XVIII

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    Artur José Renda Vitorino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa analisar as atividades mercantis de Francisco Pinheiro, mercador português de grosso trato, e seus agentes comerciais na capitania de São Paulo na primeira metade do século XVIII, com o comércio do sal, produto monopolizado pela Coroa portuguesa. Contudo, o contrato do sal ofereceu à sua agência muito mais embaraços do que um meio seguro de amealhar riquezas, pois se deparou com a concorrência ilegal dos "donos do sal" presentes na região e a interferência das Câmaras Municipais em seus negócios.

  12. Las expediciones a salinas: caravanas en la pampa colonial. El abastecimiento de sal a Buenos Aires (Siglos XVII y XVIII

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    Gabriel Darío Taruselli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El abastecimiento de sal en cantidades sufi cientes fue una de las principales preocupaciones del Cabildo de Buenos Aires. Fue este un producto de importancia vital no sólo por su aplicación en las comidas cotidianas, sino también por su aplicación en la conservación de las carnes y los cueros. Las características de su uso y su obtención, aumentaron su valor, no sólo comercial sino también estratégico. El hallazgo de yacimientos locales permitió a los habitantes de Buenos Aires abastecerse mediante la práctica de expediciones periódicas que fueron promovidas por las autoridades capitulares, lo que les permitió ejercer un mayor control sobre dicha producción. Como la actividad requería una importante capacidad de transporte y de mano de obra, era una práctica aprovechada por muchos para emplearse en ella y para obtener benefi cios con el comercio que se generaba en la oportunidad. Esto convertía a las expediciones a salinas, organizadas por las autoridades de la ciudad, en grandes caravanas que se internaban en pleno territorio indí-gena, involucrando un amplio conjunto de actores sociales tanto de la ciudad como de la campaña y el mundo indígena

  13. Mihaila Bulgakova Volands un Marijas Korelli Lučija (salīdzinošā analīze)

    OpenAIRE

    Suhackis, Aleksandrs

    2009-01-01

    Darbs ir veltīts sātana tēlu romānos «Sātana Sēras» Marijas Korelli un «Meistars un Margarita» Mihaila Bulgakova salidzinošās analīzei. Pētīšanas mērķis ir salīdzināt Lučio Rimanca un Volanda tēlus simvolisma un demonoloģijas tradīcijas aspektā. Īpaša uzmanība ir veltīta arī uz simvolisma tradicijas, dekadanca un romantīsma abskatiem, ar mērķi analīzēt, literārus darbus „Satana Sēras” un „Meistars un Margarita” šaja aspektā. Darbs ir dalīts uz divam daļām. Pirmā ir aprakstīti teoretiskie ...

  14. Aboveground tree biomass in a recovering tropical sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.) forest of Eastern Ghats, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Soumit K.; Misra, Malaya K. [Ecology and Floristic Laboratory, Department of Botany, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, Orissa (India)

    2006-06-15

    Aboveground biomass of individual tree species by component and total biomass per unit area for four different stages of a recovering tropical dry deciduous forest stands, dominated by sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.) of the Eastern Ghats, India were investigated during 2001-2002. Different periods of recovering (2, 4, 6, and 10-year) forest stands (84{sup o}13'E, 20{sup o}29'N) were selected in the Kandhamal district of Orissa, India and sample trees of all species were harvested. Tree species diversity was 23, 23, 21 and 22 in 2, 4, 6, and 10-year recovering stands, respectively. Species-wise Ixora pavetta showed the highest biomass in 2 and 4-year stands while Shorea robusta in 6 and 10-year stands. Component-wise, in all species, bole-wood contribution ranged between 22.6% and 60.9%. Aboveground tree biomass, in all the stands, was dominated by Shorea robusta, which ranged between 12.68 and 231.91Mgha{sup -1}. Total aboveground tree biomass was 30.12, 49.21, 107.54 and 261.08Mgha{sup -1} in 2, 4, 6 and 10-year stands, respectively. (author)

  15. mSalUV: un nuevo sistema de mensajería móvil para el control de la diabetes en México

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Iván Cabrera Mendoza; Pedro Pablo Castro Enriquez; Verónica Patricia Demeneghi Marini; Luis Fernández Luque; Jaime Morales Romero; Luis Sainz Vazquez; María Cristina Ortiz León

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Diseñar y desarrollar un sistema de mensajería móvil llamado mSalUV, que permita recordar a pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 la toma de medicación y la asistencia a citas y que promueva estilos de vida saludables, así como explorar su opinión con respecto al uso del sistema. MÉTODOS: Se consideraron tres etapas: la primera incluyó el diseño y desarrollo de mSalUV. La segunda abarcó el diseño y construcción de los mensajes de texto. La tercera exploró la opinión de los usuarios...

  16. Avances en la reducción del consumo de sal y sodio en Costa Rica Advances in reducing salt and sodium intake in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Blanco-Metzler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se describen los avances logrados en Costa Rica -así como los desafíos y limitaciones- en la reducción del consumo de sal. El establecimiento del Plan Nacional para la Reducción del Consumo de Sal/sodio en la Población de Costa Rica 2011 - 2021 se complementó con programas y proyectos multisectoriales específicos dirigidos a: 1 conocer la ingesta de sodio y el contenido de sal o sodio en los alimentos de mayor consumo; identificar los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos del consumidor respecto a la sal/sodio, su relación con la salud y el etiquetado nutricio-nal; evaluar la relación costo-efectividad de las medidas dirigidas a reducir la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial; 2 implementar estrategias para disminuir el contenido de sal/sodio en los alimentos procesados y los preparados en casa; 3 promover cambios de conducta en la población para reducir el consumo de sal en la alimentación; y 4 monitorear y evaluar las acciones dirigidas a reducir el consumo de sal o sodio en la población. Para alcanzar las metas propuestas se debe lograr una exitosa coordinación interinstitucional con los actores estratégicos, negociar compromisos con la industria alimentaria y los servicios de alimentación, y mejorar la regulación de los nutrientes críticos asociados con las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, en los alimentos. Se espera que a partir de los avances logrados durante la ejecución del Plan Nacional, Costa Rica logre alcanzar la meta internacional de reducción del consumo de sal.This article describes the progress-as well as the challenges and limitations-in reducing salt intake in Costa Rica. The National Plan to Reduce Public Consumption of Salt/Sodium in Costa Rica 2011 - 2021 was complemented with multisectoral programs and projects specifically designed to: 1 determine sodium intake and the salt/sodium content of the most widely consumed foods; identify the consumer knowledge, attitudes

  17. Propuesta de sistema de vigilancia de la producción, distribución y consumo de la sal yodada en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Berro, Blanca; Zulueta Torres, Daisy; Paz Luna, Maytell de la

    2006-01-01

    La implementación de componentes de vigilancia constituye un elemento esencial en cualquier programa de fortificación de alimentos para garanta nacional. El presente trabajo aborda la propuesta de diseño del sistema de vigilancia de la yodación de la sal, elemento indispensable para lograr la sostenibidad del programa. The implementation of surveillance components is an essential element in any food fortification program to guarantee that the beneficiary population receives on account of t...

  18. Concentraciones de yodo en orina y en sal de consumo en mujeres entre 12 a 49 años del Perú

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    Carolina Tarqui-Mamani

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar las concentraciones de yodo en orina y sal de consumo en mujeres entre 12 a 49 años en Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional y transversal. Durante el 2012 y 2013, se incluyó mujeres entre 12 a 49 años residentes en los hogares peruanos seleccionadas mediante un muestreo probabilístico, estratificado y multietápico. La determinación de yodo en orina se realizó por espectrofotometría basada en la reacción de Sandell-Kolthoff. La evaluación cualitativa de yodo en sal se realizó por yoditest y la cuantitativa por volumetría. El procesamiento se realizó mediante muestras complejas con ponderaciones. Se obtuvo medianas, rango intercuartílico y percentiles. Resultados. La mediana de yoduria en las participantes fue 250,4 ug/L; los departamentos con medianas de yoduria elevadas fueron: Moquegua (389,3 ug/L; Tacna (320,5 ug/L; Madre de Dios (319,8 ug/L, y Ucayali (306,0 ug/L; mientras que Puno (192,9 ug/L; Piura (188,1 ug/L y Tumbes (180,5 ug/L tuvieron medianas dentro de lo recomendado por la OMS. La mediana de yoduria en gestantes fue 274,6 ug/L (RIQ: 283 ug/L. El 82,5% de las muestras de sal tuvieron yodo ≥30 ppm y 1,9% tuvo valores de 0 ppm. Conclusiones. La mediana de yoduria en las mujeres peruanas está por encima de lo recomendado por la OMS y la mayoría de las muestras de sal tuvieron concentraciones adecuadas de yodo según la OMS

  19. An effective parameter optimization technique for vibration flow field characterization of PP melts via LS-SVM combined with SALS in an electromagnetism dynamic extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Guangming

    2018-03-01

    A method for predicting the optimal vibration field parameters by least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) is presented in this paper. One convenient and commonly used technique for characterizing the the vibration flow field of polymer melts films is small angle light scattering (SALS) in a visualized slit die of the electromagnetism dynamic extruder. The optimal value of vibration vibration frequency, vibration amplitude, and the maximum light intensity projection area can be obtained by using LS-SVM for prediction. For illustrating this method and show its validity, the flowing material is used with polypropylene (PP) and fifteen samples are tested at the rotation speed of screw at 36rpm. This paper first describes the apparatus of SALS to perform the experiments, then gives the theoretical basis of this new method, and detail the experimental results for parameter prediction of vibration flow field. It is demonstrated that it is possible to use the method of SALS and obtain detailed information on optimal parameter of vibration flow field of PP melts by LS-SVM.

  20. Pré-Sal: Petróleo e políticas públicas no Brasil (2007-2016

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    Paulo Henrique Martinez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a relação entre políticas sociais e economia no Brasil a partir da exploração do Pré-sal até os dias de hoje. O anúncio das reservas de petróleo na camada de Pré-sal resultou em rápidas alterações nas perspectivas econômicas, sociais e legais do país nas primeiras duas décadas do século XXI. A nova escala da produção petrolífera nacional seria a base para uma agenda de desenvolvimento econômico e social nos governos dos presidentes Lula e Dilma. Em seus respectivos governos ambos promoveram reformulações no marco regulatório do petróleo. A legislação foi alterada no tocante aos modelos de contrato, a distribuição dos royalties e o controle das reservas, assegurando ao Governo Federal maior soberania na extração, refino e distribuição do petróleo. As modificações legislativas e políticas visavam à destinação de parte dos lucros do Pré-sal para investimentos em infraestrutura e para políticas setoriais de desenvolvimento humano no Brasil.

  1. Apmierinātības ar dzīvi saistība ar sociālo salīdzināšanu.

    OpenAIRE

    Tamsone, Liliāna

    2011-01-01

    Šajā bakalaura darbā tika izvirzīti trīs pētījuma jautājumi: 1)Kāda saistība pastāv starp apmierinātību ar dzīvi un sociālās salīdzināšanas līmeni? 2)Kāda saistība pastāv starp apmierinātību ar dzīvi un augšupejošo salīdzināšanu? 3)Kāda saistība pastāv starp apmierinātību ar dzīvi un lejupejošo salīdzināšanu? Pētījumā piedalījās 58 respondenti – 12 vīrieši un 46 sievietes vecumā no 25 līdz 45 gadiem. Respondentu vidējais vecums ir M = 31,67, SD = 5,11. Pētījuma instrumentārijs iekļauj divas m...

  2. Determinantes da satisfação e atributos da qualidade em serviços de salão de beleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Duarte Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um modelo de representação dos determinantes da satisfação dos clientes de serviços em salões de beleza e dos atributos de qualidade percebidos por eles. Para isso, foram aplicadas duas pesquisas junto a usuários de salões de beleza com a finalidade de: (i determinar as relações entre os determinantes da satisfação dos clientes; e (ii identificar e hierarquizar atributos de qualidade percebidos, de acordo com sua importância para os clientes do serviço em questão. A confirmação de expectativas e a qualidade percebida aparecem como os principais determinantes da satisfação dos clientes. Competência técnica, limpeza do ambiente e dos utensílios, cumprimento de horários e localização conveniente aparecem como os principais atributos de qualidade percebidos. Os resultados desta pesquisa podem ser usados pelos gerentes de salões de beleza para aprimorar a qualidade do serviço e a satisfação dos clientes, estabelecendo um diferencial competitivo para sua empresa.

  3. Surto de intoxicação por sal em ovinos no estado do Pará

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    Marcos D. Duarte

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata um surto de intoxicação por sal em ovinos no Brasil, em uma propriedade no estado do Pará. De um total de 545 ovinos, oito animais adoeceram (1,46% e quatro destes morreram (50%. A avaliação das instalações e do manejo indicaram como fatores predisponentes a ingestão excessiva de mistura mineral e a restrição hídrica. Os principais sinais clínicos foram decúbito, diminuição ou ausência da sensibilidade cutânea, ausência dos reflexos de ameaça, palpebral e auricular, midríase, nistagmo, opistótono, espasticidade de membros, sonolência e estupor. Havia ainda, timpanismo, diarreia, taquipneia, taquicardia, desidratação e poliúria. A evolução do quadro clínico nos animais que morreram variou de duas horas e meia a 48 horas. As médias das concentrações séricas de sódio e de potássio de 31 ovinos do mesmo lote afetado pela intoxicação, em amostras colhidas durante o surto, revelaram hipernatremia (190mEq/l e hipercalemia (8,2mEq/l. À necropsia, observou-se em um animal, achatamento das circunvoluções cerebrais. Microscopicamente, neste animal, evidenciou-se vacuolização moderada do neurópilo, particularmente nas lâminas intermediárias do córtex cerebral, com aumento dos espaços perineural e perivascular. Nessas áreas foram observados ainda, acentuada tumefação e edema dos astrócitos e necrose neuronal aguda. A dosagem de sódio no encéfalo de um ovino, revelou-se elevada com valor de 3.513ppm. O diagnóstico foi realizado com base na epidemiologia, nos sinais clínicos, nas lesões macro e microscópicas e nas dosagens de sódio no soro e no encéfalo dos ovinos.

  4. Uso de sal durante o transporte de juvenis (1kg de pirarucu (Arapaima gigas Use of salt during the transportation of pirarucu juveniles (1kg (Arapaima gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franmir Rodrigues Brandão

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O pirarucu é um peixe nativo da bacia Amazônica cuja criaçãovem sendo estudada em algumas partes do Brasil. O objetivo desse trabalho foi testar o sal de cozinha como mitigador de estresse durante o transporte de juvenis de pirarucu (1 kg. Para isso, os peixes foram transportados em dois diferentes sistemas: caixas sem adição de oxigênio (transporte aberto e sacos plásticos com injeção de oxigênio e lacrado (transporte fechado. Nos dois sistemas os peixes foram transportados em três diferentes tratamentos: controle e duas concentrações de sal na água (3 e 6 g.L-1. Após o transporte os peixes foram colocados em viveiros para avaliação da recuperação. Foram analisados parâmetros do metabolismo energético (cortisol, glicose e lactato e de hematologia (hematócrito. O sal de cozinha não foi eficiente em mitigar as respostas de estresse no transporte em nenhum dos dois sistemas de transporte estudados.Pirarucu is a native fish of the Amazon basin, widely used in culture systems in some parts of Brazil. The objective of this work was to test table salt as a stress mitigator during transportation of pirarucu juveniles (1kg. Fish were transported by two different systems: boxes without addition of oxygen (open system and closed oxygen filled plastic bags (closed system. To both systems fish were transported at three different treatments: control and two table salt concentration (3 and 6 gL-1. After transportation, fish were stocked in ponds to monitor recovery. Metabolic (cortisol, glucose and lactate and hematological (hematocrit parameters were analyzed. The table salt was not efficient in mitigating stress response during the both tested transport system.

  5. Influencia del consumo de sal y de analgésicos efervescentes con sodio en pacientes con hipertensión y riesgo vascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Pérez SR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La ingesta del sodio que contienen los alimentos y algunos medicamentos puede producir una elevación de los valores de presión arterial de los individuos. La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda de forma global no superar la ingesta diaria de 2 g de sodio en los adultos sanos (5 g de sal común. Para grupos de riesgo se establecen límites más estrictos (0,5-1,5 g de sodio diarios. En España se estima que cada persona consume al día 11 g de sal por término medio. Diversos estudios, realizados en distintas poblaciones, han podido objetivar una correlación directa entre la ingesta de sodio en la dieta y la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial. Otros estudios corroboran el efecto de la reducción del consumo de sal en la dieta sobre la disminución de los valores de presión arterial y de la morbilidad y mortalidad cardiovascular. Muchos medicamentos contienen una elevada cantidad de sodio por tener excipientes efervescentes (1 g de paracetamol efervescente puede llegar a aportar más de 0,5 g de sodio, de forma que, si su posología es cada 6-8 horas, pueden superar los límites diarios de sodio recomendados, incluso para un adulto sano. En este artículo se revisa la evidencia disponible sobre el efecto beneficioso de una dieta hiposódica para el control de la hipertensión, las consideraciones sobre el uso de analgésicos y AINE en los pacientes con enfermedad cardiovascular y se insiste en la advertencia de evitar, siempre que sea posible, el uso de medicamentos efervescentes, especialmente en los mayores de 50 años.

  6. Estudo microbiológico do sal (Cloreto de sódio de origem marinha Microbiological study of marine salt (sodium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niber da Paz Moreira da Silva

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 19 amostras de SAL (NaCl, tipo grosso, oriundas de diferentes salinas, para verificação da flora microbiana e presença de bactérias nocivas em Microbiologia Alimentar. O material apresentou grande contaminação por microrganismos saprófitas, bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias, Gram positivas e negativas, proteolíticas, pigmentadas, esporuladas, leveduras e fungos. A alta incidência das bactérias halofílicas "vermelhas", responsáveis pela deterioração de carnes, pescados e outros produtos salgados foi estudada. A freqüência, em 15 amostras de SAL, de bactérias esporuladas termorresistentes foi calculada em 33%, possuindo um SAL germe termofílico. Para anaeróbios a positividade foi de 80%, havendo esporulação em 40% das culturas isoladas. Os índices para leveduras e fungos foram de 73% e 93%, respectivamente.19 samples of marine salt (NaCl, granular type, from different salines, were analized to verify the microbial flora and the presence of "food-poisoning" bacteria. The material presented a great contamination by saprofit microorganisms, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria Gram positives and negatives, proteolitics, pigmented, sporulated, yeast and fungi. The high incidence of "red halophilic bacteria", responsible for meat deterioration, fish and other salted products, was studied. The frequence, in 15 samples of salt, of sporulated heat-resistant bacteria was estimated at 33% containing one salt termophilic germ. For anaerobic microorganisms the positiveness reached 80%, sporulation processed in 40% of the isolated cultures. The index for yeast and fungi was 73% and 93%, respectively.

  7. Effectiveness of sal deoiled seed cake as an inducer for protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1 for its application in kitchen wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vandana; Bhattacharya, Amrik; Gupta, Anshu

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of sal (Shorea robusta) deoiled cake--a forest-based industrial by-product--as a cheaper media supplement for augmented protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1 and application of protease in the treatment of kitchen wastewater. Under optimized conditions, protease production could successfully be enhanced to 5.13-fold (527.5 U mL(-1)) on using sal deoiled seed cake extract (SDOCE), as medium additive, compared to an initial production of 102.7 U mL(-1) in its absence. The culture parameters for optimum production of protease were determined to be incubation time (48 h), pH (7.0), SDOCE concentration (3 % (v/v)), inoculum size (0.3-0.6 % (v/v)), and agitation rate (100 rpm). The enzyme was found to have an optimum pH and temperature of 8.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The protease preparation was tested for treatment of organic-laden kitchen wastewater. After 96 h of wastewater treatment under static condition, enzyme preparation was able to reduce 74 % biological oxygen demand, 37 % total suspended solids, and 41 % oil and grease. The higher and improved level of protease obtained using sal deoiled seed cake-based media hence offers a new approach for value addition to this underutilized biomass through industrial enzyme production. The protease produced using this biomass could also be used as pretreatment tool for remediation of organic-rich food wastewater.

  8. La comunidad sefardita de Salónica después de las guerras balcánicas (1912-1913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Morcillo Rosillo

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta comunicación no pretende ir más allá de una primera aproximación al colectivo de judíos españoles de Salónica tras finalizar las guerras balcánicas. Un período justificado en sí mismo por cuanto coincide con el hundimiento del Imperio otomano y el resurgimiento de la nueva Grecia, lo que dificultará las relaciones de convivencia entre israelitas y griegos.

  9. Determinación del consumo de sal corriente y sodio en estudiantes universitarios de la Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza Bernardo, Sissy Liliana

    2016-01-01

    El consumo de sal es un problema de salud cuya ingesta supera la necesidad fisiológica. La ingesta excesiva de sodio es el principal factor de riesgo de la hipertensión arterial así como un contribuyente a enfermedades cardiovasculares, renales y a otras enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. El estilo de vida de los universitarios y su entorno hace que estén expuestos a un mayor consumo de alimentos ultra procesados y/o alimentos de conveniencia con alto contenido de sodio, déficit de nutri...

  10. La comunidad sefardita de Salónica después de las guerras balcánicas (1912-1913)

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo Rosillo, Matilde

    1993-01-01

    Esta comunicación no pretende ir más allá de una primera aproximación al colectivo de judíos españoles de Salónica tras finalizar las guerras balcánicas. Un período justificado en sí mismo por cuanto coincide con el hundimiento del Imperio otomano y el resurgimiento de la nueva Grecia, lo que dificultará las relaciones de convivencia entre israelitas y griegos.

  11. Mitmetasandiline hinnang: vaade 360 kraadi / Kaspar Saul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saul, Kaspar

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade Kaspar Sauli 2008. aastal Tallinna Ülikoolis kaitstud magistritööst "Ajateenijatele antud hinnangute ja militaarsoorituse seos Eesti kaitseväes jalaväe väljaõppekeskuse Pärnu üksik-jalaväepataljon näitel", milles analüüsitakse ajateenijatele antud hinnangute seoseid nende militaarsooritusega ning hinnanguankeedi kui mõõdiku usaldusväärsust. Tabel

  12. Baltics support Kosovo independence / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2008-01-01

    Balti riigid teatasid päev pärast Kosovo iseseisvuse väljakuulutamist, et toetavad riigi iseseisvust. Eriarvamusi pretsedendi suhtes on venelaste esindajate hulgas ning Euroopa riikide vahel. Baltimaade liidrite põhjendused

  13. Zatlers takes over presidency / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Läti uus president Valdis Zatlers võttis ametist lahkunud riigipealt Vaira Vike-Freibergalt ametivolitused üle. Vaira Vike-Freiberga lahkumiskõnest. Korruptsioonisüüdistused seni kirurgina töötanud Valdis Zatlersi aadressil

  14. Validación del método Potenciométrico por Ión Selectivo para la determinación de Flúor en sal, agua y orina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Aguilar R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Validar el método potenciómetro por ión selectivo en la determinación de fluoruro. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron 3 tipos de muestras (sal, agua, y orina, trabajándose con 3 analistas para el agua y sal, y 2 para la orina. La validación se realizó en 2 días, realizándose 10 ensayos por día. Se calculó la precisión (en condiciones de repetibilidad y reproducibilidad y exactitud del método (en términos de recuperación del analito adicionado a la muestra. Resultados: Se obtuvo una desviación estándar relativa (RSD de 2.68%, 3.29% y 2.52% en sal, agua y orina, respectivamente, y se logró recuperar 98.20%, 99.42% y 98.11 % del analito en las mismas muestras de sal, agua y orina, respectivamente. Conclusión: El método potenciómetro, por ión selectivo, realizado en condiciones óptimas y apropiadas, puede aplicarse para la determinación de flúor en muestras de sal, agua y orina.

  15. El paisaje como infraestructura. Caso de estudio: el río Salí en el sistema metropolitano de Tucumán (SIMET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Llomparte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La incorporación de la noción de paisaje como infraestructura se presenta como una alternativa estratégica para la generación de un espacio participativo, de calidad ambiental y de inclusión social, que atienda a recursos culturales y naturales en el marco de la planificación del territorio.Las dinámicas y procesos de expansión del Área Metropolitana de Tucumán (AMeT han afectado al río Salí como recurso y a sus paisajes como componentes fundamentales para la concreción de un modelo más cercano a la sustentabilidad. Desde mediados del siglo XX hasta la actualidad se impulsaron numerosos planes y propuestas que procuran revertir esta situación.El presente trabajo propone revisar las diferentes propuestas de actuación en los márgenes del Salí a los fines de evaluar si propician o atienden al paisaje como elemento estructurante del espacio metropolitano. Se argumenta que los planes propuestos se reproducen desde una lógica netamente extractivista, afectando al río como patrimonio cultural y ambiental y desatendiendo el aprovechamiento responsable de los recursos territoriales.

  16. Luminescence properties of Sm, Tb(Sal){sub 3}Phen complex in polyvinyl alcohol: an approach for white-light emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Rai, S B, E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in [Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 (India)

    2011-10-26

    Polyvinyl alcohol polymer films doped with Sm,Tb(Sal){sub 3}Phen complexes have been synthesized using solution casting technique. An enhancement in absorption intensity is observed revealing the encapsulation of rare earth ions by salicylic acid (Sal)/1,10 phenanthroline (Phen) complex. Photoluminescence spectra of the co-doped samples were examined by varying the concentration of Tb{sup 3+} keeping concentration of Sm{sup 3+} ions fixed and vice-versa. It is found that the polymer samples emit a combination of blue, green and orange-red wavelengths tunable to white light when excited with 355 nm radiation. The emission spectra also show a self-quenching effect at higher concentration of Sm{sup 3+} ions. An efficient energy transfer was observed from Tb{sup 3+} : {sup 5}D{sub 4} {yields} Sm{sup 3+} : {sup 4}G{sub 9/2}. The reason for the enhancement in fluorescence intensities of Sm{sup 3+} in the co-doped polymer sample is the intermolecular as well as the intramolecular energy transfer.

  17. Preparation and characterization of Tb3+ and Tb(sal)3.nH2O doped PC:PMMA blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Y.; Singh, A.K.; Prakash, Rajiv; Rai, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Tb doped polycarbonate:poly(methyl methacrylate) (Tb-PC:PMMA) blend was prepared with varying proportions of PC and PMMA. Thermal and spectroscopic properties of the doped polymer have been investigated employing Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) absorption and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) techniques. PC:PMMA blend (with 10 wt% PC and 90 wt% PMMA) shows better miscibility. Optical properties of the dopant Tb 3+ ions have been investigated using UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excited by 355 nm radiation. It is seen that luminescence intensity of Tb 3+ ion depends on PC:PMMA ratio and on Tb 3+ ion concentration. Concentration quenching is seen for TbCl 3 .6H 2 O concentration larger than 4 wt%. Addition of salicylic acid to the polymer blend increases the luminescence from Tb 3+ ions. Luminescence decay curve analysis affirms the non-radiative energy transfer from salicylic acid to Tb 3+ ions, which is identified as the reason behind this enhancement. - Highlights: → Blend formation is confirmed at PC/90PMMA, using FTIR and DSC techniques. → Absorption and bandgap studies of blend and parent components were studied. → Optical properties of Tb and Tb(sal) 3 .nH 2 O complex have been studied in PC/PMMA blend. → Luminescence decay curves confirm non-radiative energy transfer from Sal to Tb 3+ ions.

  18. Diabetes gestacional, hipotiroidismo y concentración urinaria de yodo en embarazadas. Yodurias en escolares en Paraguay: Exceso de yodo en la sal y riesgo de hiper e hipotiroidismo

    OpenAIRE

    Jara Yorg, Jorge Antonio; Pretell, Eduardo A; Ovelar, Elsi; Sánchez Bernal, S; Mendoza, L; Jara Mark, A; Jara Ruiz, Jessica M; Jara Ruiz, Elías; Ortellado, José; Acuña, Vicente; Brizuela, Félix; Rodriguez, Amada; Santos, Jorge; Peña, Giuliana; Arevalos, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    El principal indicador del impacto de la yodación de la sal de consumo humano es la concentración urinaria de yodo la cual es útil en el monitoreo de la sal. En la encuesta del año 1988 realizada en el Paraguay, se alcanzó una prevalencia de bocio de 48,6% en la población escolar con un déficit de yodo en la sal, pero el año 2000 en el estudio del proyecto de Tiroides Móvil, se redujo por el método ecográfico a 17%. Ese mismo año la mediana de los niveles urinarios en niños escolares de 6-12 ...

  19. Suplementação com zinco pode recuperar apetite para refeições de sal Zinc supplementation may recover taste for salt meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dioclécio Campos Jr

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do zinco em crianças de 8 meses a 5 anos de idade com falta de apetite para refeições de sal. POPULAÇÃO E MÉTODOS: Estudo duplo-cego com placebo. Dois grupos de crianças apresentando recusa a alimentos de sal foram acompanhados durante 6 meses. As crianças do primeiro grupo receberam 1 mg/kg/dia de zinco sob forma de quelato, durante três meses, enquanto as do segundo grupo receberam uma solução placebo durante o mesmo período. Os dois grupos eram semelhantes quanto a idade, sexo, peso, duração do aleitamento materno, idade de desmame e exames hetamatológicos e bioquímicos. A resposta das crianças ao tratamento foi informada em questionário preenchido regularmente pelas mães. RESULTADOS: 17/20 (85% das crianças que receberam zinco e 10/20 (50% das que receberam placebo recuperaram o apetite para refeições de sal. A diferença foi estatisticamente significativa para p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of zinc on the appetite for salt foods in children aged 8 months to 5 years. METHOD: Double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Two groups of 20 children refusing to eat salt foods were followed during six months. The children in the first group received zinc chelate 1 mg/kg daily for three months. The second group received a placebo solution. The two groups were similar in terms of age, sex, weight, duration of breastfeeding, age at weaning, biochemical and hematological data. The response of children to treatment was informed by their mothers. RESULTS: 17/20 (85% of the children receiving zinc chelate and 10/20 (50% of the children receiving placebo improved their appetite for salt foods. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05, chi-square test. CONCLUSION: Zinc supplementation may improve the acceptance of salt foods by children.

  20. Etkin Piyasalar Hipotezi ve Davranışsal Finans Çatışması(A Conflict Beetween The Efficient Market Hypothesis and Behavioral Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Kulali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Etkin piyasalar hipotezi (EPH, çoğu finansal iktisatçı tarafından yaygın şekilde kabul görmektedir. Modeli savunanlar sermaye piyasalarının, hisse senedi fiyatlarının ilgili elde edilebilir tüm bilgileri yansıtması nedeniyle, etkin olduğuna inanmaktadır. Yeni bir bilgi ortaya çıktığı zaman, haberler anında yayılmakta ve hisse senedi fiyatlarına gecikmeksizin yansımaktadır. Bu görüşe göre hisse senetlerinin gelecek fiyatlarının tahmini için teknik ve temel analize ihtiyaç bulunmamaktadır çünkü hiçbir yatırımcının piyasayı yenmesi ve aşırı kar elde etmesi mümkün değildir. Model, bütün yatırımcıların rasyonel ve faydalarını maksimize etmeye çalışan kişiler olduğunu varsaymaktadır. Yirminci yüzyılın başlarında davranışsal finans gündeme gelmiştir. Birçok finansal iktisatçı hisse senedi fiyatlarının en azında belirli ölçülerde tahmin edilebilir olduğuna inanmaktadır. Pek çok piyasa anomalisi ise psikolojik ve davranışsal faktörler ile açıklanmaktadır. Davranışsal finans yatırımcıları rasyonel değil normal olarak kabul etmektedir. Buna göre piyasa balonları ve krizler bilişsel ön yargılardan kaynaklanmaktadır.

  1. Intervenciones para reducir el consumo de sal a través del etiquetado Interventions to reduce salt consumption through labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sanz-Valero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el grado en que el etiquetado de productos alimentarios informa acerca del consumo de sal. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis crítico y sistemático de 9 estudios -seleccionados de un total de 133- recogidos mediante revisión de la literatura científica sobre las intervenciones realizadas en población humana orientadas a reducir el consumo de sal a través de mensajes en el etiquetado. Toda la información se obtuvo mediante consulta directa y vía Internet a la literatura científica recogida en varias bases de datos. RESULTADOS: De los 133 artículos recuperados, una vez aplicados los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se seleccionaron para la revisión 9 trabajos: en todos ellos se planteaba a la población en estudio su conocimiento acerca de la interpretación de la etiqueta sobre el contenido de sal de los alimentos. CONCLUSIONES: Los consumidores de alimentos entienden y valoran más a los logotipos que a la composición nutricional que figura en la etiqueta. Se justificaría entonces el uso de logotipos alternativos que facilitaran esta información y que además fueran normalizados. Esta situación se ve reforzada porque la inclusión de símbolos fácilmente entendibles favorece la correcta elección por parte de los consumidores.OBJECTIVE: Determine the extent to which labeling of food products informs about salt consumption. METHODS: A critical and systematic analysis was conducted of 9 studies selected out of a total of 133 studies. The studies were collected by reviewing the scientific literature on interventions conducted in the human population aimed towards reducing salt consumption through label messaging. All of the information was obtained by direct consultation and by Internet from the scientific literature collected in several databases. RESULTS: Out of the 133 articles recovered, after the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 9 studies were selected for review. All of them took into

  2. Microcrustáceos y Vibrio cholerae O1 viable no cultivable (VNC: resultados en la Cuenca del Río Salí, Tucumán, Argentina Microcrustaceans and viable but nonculturable (VNC Vibrio cholerae O1: results in the Salí River basin, Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Locascio de Mitrovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae reside habitualmente en aguas marinas y continentales. Según las condiciones ambientales y los recursos le sean “favorables” o “desfavorables”, se generan estados viables cultivables (VC o viables no cultivables (VNC respectivamente y, bajo esta última forma sobrevive. Para abordar la problemática del cólera en la Cuenca del Río Salí (Tucumán, Argentina, se realizaron muestreos durante los años 2003-2005 donde se consideraron aspectos fisicos, químicos, biológicos y sanitarios. Para evaluar los probables reservorios del patógeno, se analizó el zooplancton del Río Salí (Canal Norte y Banda Río Salí y Río Lules. La mayor representatividad taxonómica la registraron los copépodos, especialmente Eucyclops neumani (Pesta, 1927, junto a Acanthocyclops robustus (Sars, 1863, Metacyclops sp., Paracyclops chiltoni y Notodiaptomus incompositus (Brian, 1925, además de algunos rotíferos y cladóceros como (Lecane sp., y (Brachionus sp., Moina sp. y Leydigia sp.. La frecuencia de ocurrencia fue baja y no superó el 25%. El Canal Norte fue ambiente más propicio por la riqueza específica, abundancia y constancia de la comunidad. Las variables fisicas y químicas asociadas al zooplancton coincidirían con los valores que por nuestros registros y los antecedentes, se conocen para el desarrollo del patógeno. En el período estival hubo coincidencia entre la presencia de la forma VNC de V. cholerae O1 (inmunofluorescencia con anticuerpos anti O1 y el desarrollo del zooplancton. Se observaron formas VNC sobre apéndices o estructuras de copépodos ciclopoideos y cladóceros quidóridos, reflejando probablemente afinidad con sustratos quitinosos.Vibrio cholerae habitually lives in marine and continental waters. According to "favourable" or "unfavourable" resources and environmental conditions, viable (VC or viable non-culturable (VNC states will be generated, surviving only the latter form. To address the problem of

  3. Effets des sels sur la réflectance et télédétection des sols salés

    OpenAIRE

    Mougenot, Bernard

    1993-01-01

    La présence de sels dans les sols et les nappes modifie les états de surface. La télédétection facilite leur identification et améliore la cartographie des sols salés. On distingue des effets directs sur la réflectance avec la présence de sels en surface (croûtes ou efflorescences salines), et des effets indirects sur la structure (pseudosables), la végétation (stress salin, végétation spécifique) ou l'absence de végétation dans les cas extrêmes. Les caractéristiques spectrales des sels du vi...

  4. Klīnisko atradņu salīdzinājums FemtoLASIK un LASIK metodēs

    OpenAIRE

    Bistere, Aivija

    2010-01-01

    Maģistra darbs ir uzrakstīts latviešu valodā uz 60 lpp. Tas satur 36 att., 1 tab., 4 pielikumus. Izmantoti 57 literatūras avoti. Darba mērķis:Novērtēt un salīdzināt klīniskos rezultātus starp metodēm, kur radzenes vāciņš lāzerķirurģijas laikā veidots ar VisuMax femtosekunžu lāzeri(FemtoLASIK metode) un ar mehānisko mikrokeratomu(LASIK metode). Metodika:Pētījumā tika analizēti 84 miopi pacienti(154 acis)-LASIK metodē-59 pacienti,FemtoLASIK-25. Vidējais vecums 29±8 gadi. Pirms operācijas subjek...

  5. Izlases dizainu salīdzināšana ar simulācijas eksperimentu palīdzību

    OpenAIRE

    Rikačova, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Darbā tika aplūkoti trīs veidu izlases dizaini: vienkāršā gadījuma izlase, sistemātiskā gadījuma izlase un stratificētā gadījuma izlase, kā arī tika apskatīta GREG novērtējumu teorija. Pētījuma mērķis bija ar simulācijas eksperimentu palīdzību salīdzināt iepriekš minētos izlases dizainus, lai noteiktu izlases dizainu, kas dod precīzākus konkrētās populācijas parametru novērtējumus. Lai veiktu simulācijas eksperimentus tika ģenerēti dati un uzrakstītas programmas, kas tika palaistas va...

  6. É possível determinar a maturidade fisiológica das sementes de milho (Zea mays) utilizando o sal de tetrazólio?

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Felipe Nicoleti Torrezan

    2016-01-01

    Nessa pesquisa foi avaliada a utilização do sal de tetrazólio para determinar a maturidade fisiológica das sementes de milho. As sementes utilizadas foram dos híbridos Pioneer 4285 e Dow 2B587, semeadas em 03/10/2014 e 05/12/2014 respectivamente, e colhidas a partir dos 40 dias após o florescimento (DAF), com intervalos de 4 dias até os 68 DAF. As sementes colhidas foram avaliadas quanto à viabilidade e ao vigor (testes de germinação, de emergência da plântula, de condutividade elétrica, de e...

  7. Use of coccidiostat in mineral salt and study on ovine eimeriosis Uso de coccidiostático no sal mineral e estudo da eimeriose ovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Luiz Freire de Andrade Júnior

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a serious obstacle to sheep production, which is becoming a limiting factor, especially with regard to lamb production. However, there are few studies on this parasite in the State of Rio Grande do Norte. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of decoquinate, added to mineral salt, for controlling Eimeria infection in lambs, and to identify which species are infecting sheep in the eastern region of the state. This study was carried out from August 2009 to January 2010, and used 76 animals. These were divided into two treatment groups: one with common mineral salt, and the other with mineral salt enriched with 6% micronized decoquinate. Fecal samples and body weight measurements were taken every 14 days for parasitological diagnosis, weight gain follow-up and quantitative analysis. The study showed that there was a significant difference in OPG only at the 7th collection, but no significant difference in weight gain. The Eimeria species found were E. ahsata. E. crandallis. E. granulosa. E. intrincata. E. ovina. E. faurei. E. ovinoidalis. E. pallida and E. parva. It was concluded that addition of decoquinate to mineral salt gave rise to lower oocyst elimination, thus favoring eimeriosis control in sheep.A coccidiose constitui-se num sério obstáculo à ovinocultura, a qual vem se tornando um fator limitante para a exploração, especialmente para a produção de cordeiros precoces. Porém, poucos são os estudos com esse parasito no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ação do decoquinato, adicionado ao sal mineral, no controle da infecção causada por parasitas do gênero Eimeria em cordeiros, e identificar quais as espécies infectam ovinos na região leste Potiguar. O trabalho foi desenvolvido entre agosto de 2009 e janeiro de 2010, e foram usados 76 animais, distribuídos em dois tratamentos, um com sal mineral comum e o outro com sal mineral enriquecido com decoquinato a 6

  8. Bioécologie des Coléoptères (Arthropodes- Insectes) du marais salé de l‘embouchure de la Tafna (Tlemcen).

    OpenAIRE

    BOUKLI HACENE, Samira

    2014-01-01

    Le marais salé de l‘embouchure de la Tafna présente plusieurs originalités liées, d‘une part à sa situation naturelle en tant que zone éponge de la zone d‘estuaire du bassin versant de la Tafna et d‘autre part à son état perturbé engendré par une action anthropique intense (mise en place de l‘usine d‘aquaculture et agriculture). L‘hydrologie de surface a révélé des niveaux de submersion différents, ainsi le marais est soumis à des inondations fréquentes déterminant une unité de...

  9. El piano de la música de salón. Un estudio de caso en Guadalajara de Buga, 1890-1930

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    Maria Victoria Casas Figueroa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza, a partir de las partituras empastadas y obras manuscritas, entre otro tipo de fuentes, la música de salón y la interpretación del piano en Guadalajara de Buga (Valle del Cauca entre 1897 y 1930. En particular el papel jugado por las mujeres pianistas, los compositores y directores locales. La autora estudia también la composición musical y tendencias registradas, los distintos esquemas rítmicos del vals y el pasillo manifiestos en la escritura de la música para piano. Identifica que para ciertos aires tales como el vals, el pasillo, entre otros, existen diferentes formas de ejecución del instrumento, uso del teclado, y que la armonía del repertorio está dada por el ambiente tonal. El piano se muestra como un factor diferenciador respecto de la colectividad.

  10. Cover beds older than the mid-pleistocene revolution and the provenance of their eolian components, La Sal Mountains, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautz, Jana; Gärtner, Andreas; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf; Kleber, Arno

    2018-04-01

    We used uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating of zircons from a tephra layer deposited in the La Sal Mountains to assign an age of more than c. 1.3 Ma to underlying loess-mixed slope deposits (cover beds) and paleosols developed therein. For the first time, we show that properties of cover beds and soils before the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution were similar to those formed after the revolution. However, the deepest exposed carbonate-enriched horizon is much farther developed than younger ones, indicating that there was a period of enrichment by far exceeding intensities of younger calcic horizons some time before the revolution, possibly in Neogene times. Remarkable differences between age distributions of detrital zircons (DZ) within the cover beds allow reconstructing the regional provenance of mixed eolian matter with high accuracy: we were able to trace particular cover beds back to areas with outcropping Permian and Upper Cretaceous rocks.

  11. O diferencial de salários formal-informal no Brasil: segmentação ou viés de seleção?

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    Naércio Aquino Menezes Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são investigados os determinantes do diferencial de salários entre os mercados de trabalho formal e informal no Brasil. Utiliza-se um método econométrico de cross-section repetidas (pseudo-paineis, no qual o agrupamento dos dados por geração, tempo e escolaridade permite controlar o fenômeno estudado por características observáveis e não observáveis dos indivíduos. Há fortes evidências de viés de auto-seleção, indicando que os salários mais altos no setor formal decorrem dos melhores atributos individuais não observáveis dos empregados neste setor e não de características intrínsecas a este setor, como seria de se esperar pela hipótese de segmentação.The paper examines the determinants of the wage differential between workers in the formal and informal sectors of the Brazilian labor market. An econometric method of repeated cross-sections (pseudo-panel is used, that allows the researcher to control for observed and unobserved characteristics of the individuals in the sample. We present strong evidence of self-selection bias, meaning that the wage differentials are the consequence of better individual non-observable characteristics of the workers in the formal sector and not to the characteristics of this sector.

  12. Salários e tecnologia num modelo de crescimento com restrição externa Wages and technology in a growth model with external constraints

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    Marcus Dutra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O modelo proposto formaliza uma preocupação que se encontra cada vez com mais freqüência na literatura, a saber, a de que trabalhadores que não têm acesso a condições adequadas de capacitação, saúde e motivação tendem a aprender menos, reduzindo a velocidade de inovação em produtos e processos na firma. Na medida em que a competitividade internacional repousa crescentemente na inovação e/ou na imitação rápida de tecnologia, um nível baixo de desenvolvimento humano implicará oportunidades de crescimento perdidas. Assim, o modelo assume que, até certo valor crítico do salário real, aumentos de salário real produzem aumentos de competitividade e da taxa de crescimento com equilíbrio externo, tornando compatíveis o crescimento econômico e a distribuição da renda, inclusive num contexto de abertura e de intensa concorrência internacional.The model formalizes a topic that the economic literature addresses with increasing frequency, namely that workers who have no access to adequate levels of education, health and motivation tend to learn more slowly and this in turn reduces the rate of innovation in products and processes in the firm. To the extent that international competitiveness increasingly relies on innovation and imitation of technology, a low level of human development will render lost opportunities for growth. Thus, the model assumes that - up to a certain critical level of the real wage - increases in real wages lead to a higher rate of growth consistent with balance-of-payments equilibrium, which makes compatible growth and income distribution even in contexts of external openness and intense international competition.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and self-reported practices toward children oral health among mother's attending maternal and child's units, Salé, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chala, Sanaa; Houzmali, Soumia; Abouqal, Redouane; Abdallaoui, Faïza

    2018-05-11

    The occurrence of severe dental caries is particularly prevalent and harmful in children. A better understanding of parental factors that may be indicators of children's risk of developing dental caries is important for the development of preventive measures. This study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of mothers in Salé, Morocco regarding oral health and their predictors. A cross-sectional KAP study was conducted of Mother and Child units in Salé, Morocco. Mothers attending the selected units from November 2014 to 29 January 2015 were recruited. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, administered by face-to-face interviews, to record socio-demographic factors and KAPs. The main outcome measures included knowledge about oral health diseases and preventive measures, and attitudes and practices related to oral health prevention measures and dental care. KAPs scores were then recoded based on responses and scores were determined for each KAP domain. Linear regression analysis was conducted to assess predictors of KAP scores. Among 502 mothers included, 140 (27.8%) were illiterate and 285 (60.9%) were aware that fluoride has a beneficial effect in caries prevention. Mothers' own practices about dental care were statistically related to their children's use of dental care services (p knowledge score was associated with mother's age (β = 0.05; 95% CI; p oral health-related practices were mother's education level and children's health status. Limited KAP scores were observed among the studied population. A great emphasis on oral health education and some risk factor modifications are recommended.

  14. Need for coordinated programs to improve global health by optimizing salt and iodine intake Necesidad de programas coordinados para mejorar la salud a escala mundial mediante la optimización de la ingesta de sal y yodo

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    Norm R. C. Campbell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available High dietary salt is a major cause of increased blood pressure, the leading risk for death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO has recommended that salt intake be less than 5 g/day, a goal that only a small proportion of people achieve. Iodine deficiency can cause cognitive and motor impairment and, if severe, hypothyroidism with serious mental and growth retardation. More than 2 billion people worldwide are at risk of iodine deficiency. Preventing iodine deficiency by using salt fortified with iodine is a major global public health success. Programs to reduce dietary salt are technically compatible with programs to prevent iodine deficiency through salt fortification. However, for populations to fully benefit from optimum intake of salt and iodine, the programs must be integrated. This review summarizes the scientific basis for salt reduction and iodine fortification programs, the compatibility of the programs, and the steps that need to be taken by the WHO, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations to ensure that populations fully benefit from optimal intake of salt and iodine. Specifically, expert groups must be convened to help countries implement integrated programs and context-specific case studies of successfully integrated programs; lessons learned need to be compiled and disseminated. Integrated surveillance programs will be more efficient and will enhance current efforts to optimize intake of iodine and salt. For populations to fully benefit, governments need to place a high priority on integrating these two important public health programs.El alto contenido de sal en la dieta es una causa principal de incremento de la presión arterial, el principal factor de riesgo de muerte a escala mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS ha recomendado que el consumo de sal sea inferior a 5 g/d, una meta que solo logran una pequeña proporción de personas. La falta de yodo puede causar deficiencia cognoscitiva y

  15. Geo-diversity and geo-materials in the region of Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer: Characterization and Rationalization of Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, Siham; Bahi, Lahcen; Akhssas, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    The Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer (RSZZ) is distinguished by a rich geology is varied. Outcrops are found in both the Paleozoic basement, especially along the major wadis in the area and a fairly extensive coverage postpaléozoïque and locally very thick. It offers a wide variety of petrographic facies some of which the construction of geomaterials value (GMC), very solicited by the construction sector and public works (BTP). Among the most important GMC furniture and beds of RSZZ: - The sands. They are a fundamental component for the preparation of mortar and hydraulic concrete. They also enter into the composition of adobe and are used for the foundation of shoes. -The Clays. They are mainly used by ceramists (industrial units manufacturing tiles). The red clay of Triassic age are most represented in the Region in deposits whose thickness can reach several tens of meters. -The Calcarenite. : It is the most used local stone in building the cities of Rabat and Salé, where she is well known as the Stone of Salé. The same stone is used in the manufacture of lime through calcination. Geologically, it is a calcareous sandstone, of Pliocene-Quaternary age that is in the form of a dune system that runs parallel to the Atlantic coast. -The Limestones: These massive limestones and more or less metamorphosed dolomitized Devonian. These limestone outcrop along major wadis of the region (Akrech, Ykem, ...) as layers sometimes quite thick and more or less tectonized. According to localities, these limestones show a wide range of colors (white, gray, black pink) and a wide variety of structures (colorful, beaded, veined, textured) - The quartzites. They correspond to Ordovician bars that appear quite often emerged in relation to other surrounding formations because of their high resistance to erosion. The rock is generally brownish gray and shows a very high hardness related to its siliceous. Local and temporary holdings allow blocks extraction for various public works

  16. Fueros y sal: controversias fiscales entre la provincia de Álava y la corona durante el periodo Borbónico

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    María Rosario PORRES MARIJUÁN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir del reinado de Felipe II, la política fiscal de la Corona en relación a la sal entró en contradicción con algunos de los usos, costumbres y privilegios detentados por las provincias vascas en esa materia. Álava, como consumidora y productora con sus salinas de Añana mantuvo algunas controversias durante el primer período borbónico. Sus autoridades se enfrentaron a la Corona por cuestiones relacionadas con la sal en esta etapa que coincide con una fase evolutiva en la administración aduanera del Distrito de Cantabria. Una fase de reforma que tiene en 1740 la fecha clave, pues es entonces cuando se implanta la administración directa de la Corona sobre las rentas. Su objetivo era doble: la obtención de ingresos más elevados y más regulares, al mismo tiempo que hacer más efectiva la maquinaria aduanera en su fin de perseguir y eliminar las actividades fraudulentas. Álava tuvo que resignarse a la pérdida de ciertos privilegios relacionados con el consumo de la sal, pero nunca llegó a renunciar a los referidos al precio y su exención ante los continuos sobreprecios impuestos por la Corona con fines diversos. Las autoridades alavesas se aferraban a la figura del contrafuero en la medida en la que los fines destinatarios del «crecimiento» solían ser dos materias que los alaveses asumían a través de su propia hacienda: los servicios militares y el reparo de los caminos.ABSTRACT: From Philip ll’s reign onwards, the taxation policy of the Crown in relation to salt came into conflict with some of the uses, customs and privileges retained by the Basque provinces in this field. Alava, as both consumer and producer, with its Añana saltworks, sustained some controversy during the first Bourbon period. Its authorities opposed the Crown on questions related to salt iln this period, which coincided with a developmental phase in the customs administration of the district of Cantabria. The key date of this reform phase was

  17. Metodologia de pesquisa da história da arte para o estudo de obras de Salões de Arte da década de 1960

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    Nelyane Gonçalves Santos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Na tendência de estudos acerca dos salões na história da arte no Brasil é necessário o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia pautada na análise das obras que compuseram esses eventos. A constituição dos circuitos artísticos a partir da efervescência que os salões geravam entre artistas, críticos e público, nos chama a atenção sobre a necessidade de ampliarmos a compreensão das propostas artísticas vistas a partir da materialidade e visualidade das obras. Isto porque, o estabelecimento de marcos definidores de uma arte brasileira na transição do moderno ao contemporâneo, afastou os discursos históricos das obras e os aproximou da interpretação de fontes documentais, forçosamente associadas aos movimentos de arte em esfera internacional. Assim, a proposta metodológica que aqui se apresenta, coloca o desafio da interpretação das obras a partir de seus próprios vestígios e sentidos, sem desconsiderar a ampliação da pesquisa por meio de fontes documentais que esclareçam, mas não “profetizem” uma revelação de significado para a arte no Brasil da década de 1960. ABSTRACT The trend of studies on the salons in Brazil's art history is necessary to develop a guided methodology in the analysis of the works that made up those events. The constitution of the artistic circuit from the effervescence that the halls generated among artists, critics and the public draws our attention on the need to broaden the understanding of artistic proposals views from the visual and materiality of the works. This is because the establishment of the defining landmarks of Brazilian art in the transition from modern to contemporary, away from the historical discourse of the works and approached the interpretation of documentary sources, necessarily associated with art movements in the international sphere. Thus, the methodological proposal presented here, puts the challenge of interpretation of works from its own traces and directions

  18. Salón social del club natación Metropole Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, España

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    López Díaz, Luis

    1978-02-01

    Full Text Available This hall is the first stage of an ambitious programme of reforms and extensions to the Metropole Swimming Club which, apart from increasing and diversifying the number of the sports installations, includes others of an eminently social nature. The numerous conditioning factors which limited the construction of the hall from the beginning, both regarding the surface —rectangular and extremely elongated, messuring 13 x 13 m, and height— about 3 m, and regarding its situation within the whole, lead to the arrangement of three articulated atmospheres within a single space, covered with thin reinforced concrete warped membranes, as the only solution capable, on the one hand, of reducing the coldness and stiffness of the structure imposed, and on the other, of satisfactorily answering the design bases which prefixed multifunctionality, transparency and representativity of the building. A final premiss which called for the integration of the work in a surrounding gardaned environment was solved by the complete glazing of the frontages and the light tones of the finishing materials.

    Este salón es la primera fase de un ambicioso programa de reformas y ampliaciones para el Club Natación Metropole que, además de aumentar y diversificar el número de las instalaciones deportivas, incluye otras de carácter eminentemente social. Los numerosos condicionantes que desde un principio limitaron la construcción del salón, tanto en cuanto a superficie —rectángulo sumamente alargado de 13 x 33 m— y altura —unos 3 m—, como a su situación dentro del conjunto, condujeron a la organización de tres ambientes articulados dentro de un espacio único, cubiertos con sendas membranas delgadas de hormigón armado, de formas alabeadas, como única solución capaz, por una parte, de reducir la frialdad y rigidez de la conformación impuesta, y por otra, de responder satisfactoriamente a las bases de diseño que prefijaban la multifuncionalidad

  19. Sal de iodônio aumenta a resistência coesiva de uma resina adesiva experimental na presença de solvente

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    Fernanda B. Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o efeito da concentração de solvente na resistência coesiva de um adesivo experimental contendo um derivado do difeniliodônio. Uma blenda monomérica baseada em Bis-GMA, TEGDMA e HEMA foi utilizada como resina adesiva modelo. Foram avaliados dois sistemas de fotoiniciação: um sistema bináriocanforquinona (CQ e etil 4-dimetilamino benzoato (EDAB] e um sistema ternário [CQ, EDAB e hexafluorfosfato de difeniliodônio (DPI]. Nestas resinas foram adicionadas diferentes concentrações de etanol, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40% e teste de resistência coesiva foi utilizado para investigar o efeito deste solvente sobre as propriedades do material. A presença de solvente reduziu a resistência coesiva do polímero, independentemente do sistema de fotoiniciação utilizado. Além disso, o uso do sal de iodônio no sistema de fotoiniciação aumentou a resistência coesiva quando comparado com o sistema binário, e independentemente da concentração de solvente, a resistência coesiva dos polímeros contendo difeniliodônio foi superior à do sistema binário de fotoiniciação.

  20. Soft soil strengthening by stone columns: case of the embankment under the bridge “Moulay Youssef” (Rabat/Salé

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    Nehab Noura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The soil is generally a heterogeneous material presenting very variable characteristics. In a general way, the main problems related to soils are: low bearing capacity, deformations under static or dynamic loads, large displacements and large settlements of soft soil where the soil moves according to a fixed ground water table. The development of soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering has led to the amelioration of a wide range of soil improvement techniques. These techniques consist in modifying the characteristics of the ground by physical action or by incorporating columnar inclusions made of highly compacted gravel or granular material into the original soil. Stone column is one of the soft ground improvement methods, applicable to a wide range of soil strata and an economical method of support in compressible and cohesive soils. However, there are many difficulties in quantitative analysis of soil column interaction due to the fact that bearing capacity and consolidation behavior of stone column-mat foundation system is affected by various parameters. In the present study, mechanism and various parameters of stone column behavior are investigated by loading tests. Also, tests results are compared to the finite element numerical modeling “Plaxis 2D” (case study: the embankment under the bridge “Moulay Youssef, Rabat/Salé”.

  1. Análisis del papel del turismo residencial en la cabecera municipal de Ixtapan de la Sal, Estado de México

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    Esteban Arias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es resultado de un trabajo de tesis para la obtención del título de licenciatura. El propósito del estudio fue analizar los efectos que genera el turismo residencial en Ixtapan de la Sal a fin de conocer de manera puntual la incidencia en el desarrollo turístico de este destino. El método aplicado en este trabajo, fue el clínico y se empleó con la finalidad de conocer la situación actual del turismo residencial. Así también, con el método deductivo emanado de la revisión teórica de la propuesta de Daniel Hiernaux en su obra Segundas Residencias fue posible lograr confrontar su teoría con los datos recogidos en campo. A partir de la década de los cuarenta, el turismo en México ha presentado distintas modalidades: el turismo de sol y playa; el turismo religioso o el ecoturismo; particularmente, el turismo residencial es una tendencia de reciente auge, práctica aún cuestionada como modalidad turística por no hacer uso de los servicios de alojamiento hotelero como lo hace el turismo convencional, pero que tiene repercusiones importantes en las comunidades anfitrionas, como es el caso de estudio.

  2. El sueño premonitorio de Moisés Almosnino sobre Yosef Nasí en el Tratado de los sueños (Salónica 1564

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    Romeu Ferré, Pilar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Moshe Almosnino and Yosef Nasi did not only share a common political and social context, namely Salónica, Constantinople in the 16th century. They also devoted their time and effort to help the Sephardic people of the Diaspora to which they both belonged. One can say that their work got rewarded as the premonitory dream was fulfilled.Dos personajes famosos, Moisés Almosnino y Yosef Nasí, coincidieron en un espacio geográfico y temporal común (Salónica-Constantinopla a mediados del siglo XVI. Ambos trabajaron desde allí denodadamente en favor del pueblo sefardí en la diáspora. La realización del sueño premonitorio vendría a colmar las expectativas de ambos.

  3. Desempenho reprodutivo e metabólitos sanguíneos de ovelhas Ile de France sob suplementação com sal orgânico ou sal comum durante a estação de monta Reproductive performance and blood metabolites from Ile de France ewes fed organic or common salt in the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antero de Oliveira Peixoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho reprodutivo de ovelhas sob suplementação com sal orgânico ou sal comum durante a estação de monta e sua associação com os constituintes metabólicos do sangue. O experimento foi conduzido no período de novembro de 2005 a maio de 2006 utilizando-se 40 ovelhas da raça Ile de France. Durante a estação de monta, as ovelhas permaneceram em duas áreas de campo nativo, cada uma com 15 hectares, e foram distribuídas em dois grupos, conforme o tipo de suplementação: recebendo apenas mistura mineral (sal+fosfato ou suplementação diária de sal orgânico. Foram analisados os indicadores bioquímicos do perfil nutricional por meio da quantificação de albumina, ureia, glicose, colesterol e triglicerídeos do soro sanguíneo. As ovelhas sob suplementação com mineral orgânico tiveram teor de nitrogênio ureico sérico superior ao daquelas que receberam mineral na forma tradicional (39,00 vs 35,69 mg/dL, respectivamente. Os demais componentes bioquímicos avaliados não apresentaram diferença entre as formas de suplementação. Os níveis séricos de albumina, ureia, glicose e colesterol apresentaram variação entre os períodos avaliados durante a estação de monta. Os níveis séricos de albumina e nitrogênio ureico não influenciam a taxa de parição das ovelhas. A suplementação com mineral orgânico não melhora os índices reprodutivos do rebanho ovino na estação de monta das ovelhas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of ewes supplemented with organic or common mineral salt in the breeding season, and the effect on metabolic constituents of the blood. The experiment was carried out from November 2005 to May 2006 using 40 Ile de France breed ewes. During the breeding season, sheep grazed on two native pasture areas of 15 ha each and were distributed in two groups, depending on the supplementation: submitted to treatments: receiving only mineral mix (salt

  4. Investigación: La historia de la sal en México, las salinas de Cuyutlán y el caso de la cooperativa de salineros de Colima

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    Oriana Zaret Gaytán Gómez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En México, y en muchos lugares del mundo, existen productores artesanales que extraen sal de maneras casi tan autóctonas como lo hicieron nuestros antepasado prehispánicos. En este trabajo se pretende exponer el caso de una cooperativa ubicada en la región de Cuyutlán, en el Estado de Colima, que, si bien ya ha implementado algunas innovaciones, aún sigue utilizando el trabajo intensivo para poder llevar a cabo la extracción de la sal. Conoceremos un poco de la historia de la cooperativa, de los conflictos que enfrentó durante su constitución y a lo largo de toda su existencia. Asimismo, se abordará el tema de la cultura regional que ha emergido alrededor de ella. Antes de exponer dicha situación, se presentará un panorama general de lo que ha sido la historia de la sal en México antes y después de la llegada de los españoles, durante el México independiente y la Revolución, hasta llegar a la situación actual; ello con el fin de contextualizar la investigación y poner en antecedentes al lector de la importancia de este mineral en la historia de nuestro país. Para finalizar el trabajo, se expondrá la realidad presente y pasada de las salinas de la Costa de Colima para con ello exponer la pertinencia de estudiar a mayor profundidad el fenómeno de explotación de la sal a través de dicha sociedad, la cual el 1º de enero de 2015 cumplió 90 años de existencia.

  5. Análise epidemiológica de lesões no futebol de salão durante o XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Seleções Sub 20 Análisis epidemiológico de las lesiones en el fútbol de salón durante el XV Campeonato Brasileño de Selecciones Sub 20 Epidemiologic analysis of injuries occurred during the 15th Brazilian Indoor Soccer (Futsal Sub20 Team Selection Championship

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    Rodrigo Nogueira Ribeiro

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Vários autores têm investigado a incidência de lesões no futebol. Entretanto, poucos trabalhos têm analisado as lesões no Futebol de Salão. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a incidência, circunstâncias e características das lesões registradas no Futebol de Salão durante o XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol de Salão Sub 20. MÉTODOS: Fisioterapeutas ou médicos de todas as seleções participantes do XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol de Salão Sub 20 responderam a um questionário para investigar a ocorrência de lesões durante as partidas. A taxa de resposta foi de 100%. RESULTADOS: Um total de 32 lesões foi registrado durante as 23 partidas, com incidência de 1,39 lesão por partida ou 208,6 lesões por 1.000 horas/jogo. Aproximadamente 1 a 3 lesões por partida resultaram em afastamento de jogadores em partidas ou treinamentos. As lesões de contato eram predominantes em 65,62% (21 das 32 lesões e a maioria dessas lesões não resultou no afastamento dos jogadores. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo observou que a incidência das lesões durante o XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol de Salão Sub 20 foi semelhante à registrada em torneios de Futebol de Salão, mas superior aos achados em torneios de futebol, caracterizando a especificidade do esporte. Entretanto, circunstâncias e características são similares entre eles devido à semelhança de demanda do esporte.INTRODUCCIÓN: Varios autores han estado investigando la incidencia de lesiones en el fútbol. Sin embargo, pocos trabajos han estado analizando las lesiones en el fútbol de salón. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de analizar la incidencia, y las circunstancias, y características de las lesiones registradas en el fútbol de salón durante el XV Campeonato Brasileño de Fútbol de salón Sub 20. MÉTODOS: Médicos y/o fisioterapeutas del todos los participantes del XV Campeonato Brasileño de Fútbol de salón Sub 20 contestaron una encuesta

  6. Problem Davranışların Azaltılmasında Olumlu Davranışsal Destek Planı Hazırlama

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    Dilek Erbaş

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Günümüzde problem davranışlara, normal gelişim gösteren ve özürlü çocuklarda oldukça sık rastlanılmaktadır. Problem davranışlar öğrencilerin yaşamlarını farklı şekillerde olumsuz olarak etkilemekledir. Problem davranış gösteren bireyler bit davranışları nedeniyle, eğitim ve öğretim olanaklarından yeterince yararlanamamaktadır. Ayrıca, bu bireyler akranları ve toplumdaki diğer bireyler tarafından dışlanabildikleri için bazı sosyal becerileri geliştirememekle ya da sınırlı düzeyde geliştirebilmekledirler. Dolayısıyla, öğretmenler, öğrencilerin yaşamlarını olumsuz etkileyen bu davranışları azaltmak için, olumlu davranışsal destek planı hazırlamalıdır. Hazırlanan bu planlar, uygulamalı davranış analiz ilkelerine dayalı olmalıdır. Ayrıca, hazırlanan planın Öğrenciye ve uygulayacak bireylerin değer yargılarına uygun olması gereklidir. Olumlu davranışsal destek planının sahip olması gereken diğer önemli bir özelliği ise, hazırlanan planın. Öğrencinin yaşam kalitesini arttıracak şekilde desenlenınesi ve uygulanmasıdır. Kapsamlı bir plan hazırlamak için, planı ayrıntılı şekilde yazmak, tutarlı ve sistemli olarak uygulamak ve planın etkililiğini değerlendirmek ve gerektiğinde düzenlemeleri yapmak için veri toplamak gibi basamakları gerçekleştirmek gereklidir. Problem behaviors are frequently seen among the children with normal development as well as children with disabilities- Problem behaviors affect the students' lives in different negative ways. Individuals exhibiting problem behaviors cannot make the most out of their educational opportunities due to their behaviors. What's more, these individuals may run the risk of being incompetent or restricted İn some social skills because of being excluded by their peers. Thus, teachers should prepare behavior-changing plans based on positive behavior support to mitigate the problem behaviors

  7. The Correlation Between Porosity, Density and Degree of Serpentinization in Ophiolites from Point Sal, California: Implications for Strength of Oceanic Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrasch, A. K.; Farough, A.; Lowell, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Hydration and serpentinization of oceanic lithosphere influences its strength and behavior under stress. Serpentine content is the limiting factor in deformation and the correlation between crustal strength and the degree of serpentinization is not linear. Escartin et al., [2001] shows that the presence of only 10% serpentine results in a nominally non-dilatant mode of brittle deformation and reduces the strength of peridotites dramatically. In this study, we measured density and porosity of ophiolite samples from Point Sal, CA that had various degrees of serpentinization. The densities ranged between 2500- 3000 kg/m3 and porosities ranged between 2.1-4.8%. The degree of serpentinization was estimated from mineralogical analysis, and these data were combined with that of 4 other samples analyzed by Farough et al., [2016], which were obtained from various localities. The degree of serpentinization varied between 0.6 and 40%. We found that degree of serpentinization was inversely correlated with density with a slope of 7.25 (kg/m3)/%. Using Horen et al., [1996] models, estimated P-wave velocity of the samples ranged between 6.75-7.90 km/s and S-wave velocity ranged between 3.58-4.35 km/s. There were no distinguishable difference in the results between olivine-rich or pyroxene-rich samples. These results, along with correlations to strength and deformation style, can be used as a reference for mechanical properties of the crust at depth, analysis of deep drill cores and to estimate the rate of weakening of the oceanic crust after the onset of serpentinization reactions.

  8. Intervenção Aplicada a um Salão de Beleza para Adequação dos Aspectos Financeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernanda Dias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O relato técnico tem como objetivo apresentar os resultados de intervenções aplicadas nos aspectos financeiros de um salão de beleza, após a realização de uma consultoria na pequena empresa no mês de março em 2016. Foram identificadas dificuldades para apuração do lucro obtido pela organização, resistência para utilização de sistema de informação para controles dos processos e na percepção e formação do preço de venda. Foram realizadas a contabilização das receitas; cálculo da margem de contribuição e do resultado do estabelecimento. A partir do conhecimento do resultado, foi definida uma meta de pró-labore à proprietária, deixando de destinar todo lucro da organização para gastos pessoais. Identificou-se também os valores que podem ser destinados a novos investimentos e futuras necessidades de capital de giro em função da previsão de mudança para uma nova sede. Foi reforçado junto à empresária a importância da utilização de software, tanto para controle efetivo das receitas e despesas, como também para melhoria do do atendimento.

  9. Development and reliability of an instrument to measure psychosocial determinants of salt consumption among hypertensive patients Desarrollo y confiabilidad de un instrumento para medir los factores psicosociales determinantes en el consumo de sal entre hipertensos Desenvolvimento e confiabilidade de instrumento para mensuração dos fatores psicossociais determinantes do consumo de sal entre hipertensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Estevam Cornélio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present the content validity and reliability analyses of an instrument to study the determinant factors of salt consumption among hypertensive subjects, based on an extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Content validity was assessed by 3 experts and a pre-test was carried out with 5 subjects. The final tool, comprising 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption and corresponding psychosocial variables, was applied to 32 subjects for internal consistency and temporal stability (15-day interval analysis. Cronbach's alpha coefficients > 0.70 and significant intra-class correlation coefficients were observed for most variables, indicating the temporal stability of the measured concepts. The developed instrument exhibited evidence of both content validity and reliability.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo presentar el análisis de validez de contenido y de confiabilidad de un instrumento para estudiar los factores determinantes del consumo de sodio entre hipertensos, basado en la extensión de la Teoría del Comportamiento Planificado. El instrumento fue sometido a validez de contenido por 3 jueces y a una prueba piloto con 5 sujetos. El instrumento final, compuesto por 3 comportamientos relacionados al consumo de la sal y por las variables psicosociales correspondientes, fue aplicado a 32 sujetos para evaluación de la consistencia interna y de la estabilidad temporal (intervalo de 15 días. Fueron observados coeficientes alfa de Cronbach>0,70 para la mayoría de las variables y coeficientes de correlación entra clases significativas, que apuntaron la estabilidad temporal de los conceptos mensurados. El instrumento desarrollado mostró evidencias de validez de contenido y de confiabilidad.Este estudo teve como objetivo apresentar a análise da validade de conteúdo e da confiabilidade de um instrumento para estudo dos fatores determinantes do consumo de sódio entre hipertensos, baseado na extensão da Teoria do

  10. Eliminación de sal inorgánica residual producida en la fermentación farmacéutica por nanofiltración y ósmosis inversa: experimento y modelo matemático

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    Jesús Mora Molina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available El problema del agua residual con altos contenidos de sal es una importante preocupación de las autoridades medioambientalistas. Los metódos de tratamientos de aguas residuales existentes, tanto municipales como industriales, son incapaces de retener eficientemente los compuestos inorgánicos. En este trabajo se presentan nuevos resultados con membranas de ósmosis inversa (OI y nanofiltración (NF preparadas por las compañías Filmtec y Millipore. Los objetivos principales de esta investigación fueron estos: 1. Encontrar un sistema con alta eficiencia para separar la sal del agua residual generada en el proceso fermentativo farmacéutico y obtener una concentración según lo establecido por la legislación ambiental (concentración de sal: 2500 mg/l, y concentración de los sólidos totales: 1200 mgO2/l; además, que a la planta de tratamiento biológico o directamente al medio ambiente. 2.Determinar la retención de sal demanda química de oxígeno y el flujo del filtrado con sistemas de NF y OI. Asimismo, con base en los datos experimentales, poder describir soluciones similares a las basadas en el modelo de ósmosis a aguas residuales. La temperatura experimental, la presión y el flujo de recirculación fueron mantenidos constantes, en la NF 30°C, 30 bar y 200 l/h, en la OI 30-40°C, 40-50 bar y 300 l/h. En los experimentos de la NF y la OI el factor de concentración fue de Cff = Vaguaori(m3 /Vretenido (m3 = 2,67. Se midieron y se calcularon el flujo del filtrado, la conductividad eléctrica del filtrado, la demanda química de oxígeno y los sólidos totales. En el sistema de OI se obtuvieron los siguientes resultados: contenido de sólidos totales en el agua original 2,06%, en el filtrado, 0,048%; demanda química de oxígeno en el agua original 8750 mg O2/l, en el filtrado 289 mgO2/l. Los resultados demostraron claramente que las membranas de NF investigadas no fueron lo suficientemente eficientes en la retención de sal del agua

  11. Susceptibilidade da mucosa gástrica à ação lesiva de um sal biliar em ratos chagásicos crônicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernesto de Almeida Troncon

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Ratos inoculados previamente com a cepa Y do Trypanosoma cruzi (n = 15 e ratos-controles de mesma idade e sexo (n = 15 foram submetidos a estudo que consistiu no exame da mucosa gástrica após a exposição in vivo da mesma à solução acidificada de um sal biliar, o taurocolato de sódio (TC. Em 10 animais de cada grupo procedeu-se também à contagem dos neurônios do plexo mientérico do estômago e ao exame histopatológico dos corpos neuronais, feito em microscopia óptica convencional. Escores indicativos da gravidade das lesões produzidas pelo TC foram significativamente maiores (P < 0,002 nos ratos chagásicos que nos controles. A área erosada da mucosa gástrica, em % da área total da região glandular do estômago, foi significativamente maior (P0,10 entre os ratos chagásicos (1683,6 ± 449,7 n = 10 e os controles (1732,8 ± 401,1 n = 10. Não houve diferença qualitativa ao exame histopatológico dos corpos neuronais. Estes resultados indicam que, na doença de Chagas experimental crônica, a mucosa gástrica é mais sensível à ação lesiva do TC, o que sugere redução da citoproteção natural do estômago. Esta anormalidade não deve decorrer de alterações da inervação intrínseca que impliquem redução do número de neurônios intramurais do estômago, mas pode ser o resultado de alterações qualitativas não detectáveis à microscopia óptica.

  12. AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE E COMPOSIÇÃO DE TEMPEROS ALHO E SAL INDUSTRIALIZADOS, COMERCIALIZADOS NA CIDADE DE JUIZ DE FORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALTER DE CARVALHO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer um perfil de composição físicoquímica, microscópica e sensorial de temperos do tipo alho e sal industrializados. Foram analisadas trinta amostras, coletadas ao acaso no varejo do município de Juiz de Fora - MG. Os resultados demonstraram ausência de padronização quanto à qualidade microbiológica, aspectos sensoriais e rotulagem Observou-se excessiva concentração de cloreto de sódio nas amostras, com valores percentuais variando entre 69 e 93,22 e média aritmética de 83,74. O teor de umidade variou de 5,76 a 25,54, com média aritmética de 12,08 (valores percentuais Com relação às amostras, 4,17% delas encontraram-se em desacordo com a legislação vigente no que diz respeito à contagem de bolores e leveduras. A microscopia não se mostrou eficiente para verificar a composição deste produto, impossibilitando a detecção de possíveis adulterações com cebola. Preparou-se um tempero-padrão com base nos valores médios de composição, o qual foi submetido às mesmas análises, apresentando composição de 83,78% de cloreto de sódio e 10,63% de umidade. Constatou -se a necessidade de fixação de especificações para teores máximos de cloreto de sódio e umidade, padronização da rotulagem e adoção de boas práticas de fabricação como forma de garantir um produto de melhor qualidade ao consumidor.

  13. AÇÃO ANTILISTERIAL DO EXTRATO BRUTO DE Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens EM DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE PROTEÍNA, pH E SAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. PEREIRA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O elevado índice de morbidade em função da contaminação dos alimentos tem aumentado a necessidade de metodologias alternativas para conservação dos mesmos. Nesse sentido, essa pesquisa teve por objetivo: (1 otimizar a ação antilisterial do extrato bruto produzido por Bacillus amyloliquefaciens em diferentes concentrações proteicas, pH e sal; (2 avaliar a ação do extrato bruto otimizado em ostras artificialmente contaminadas com Listeria monocytogenes. A ação do extrato bruto em diferentes concentrações de proteína (0,0; 5,0; 40; 80 µg/mL sobre o inóculo de 106 UFC.mL-1 de Listeria monocytogenes foi verificada em caldo TSB-YE previamente ajustado para pH 4,0 e 8,0 e concentrações de NaCl de 0; 2,5 e 4,5 % p/v. Os ensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 25ºC em estufa DBO. Para determinar a recuperação microbiana, realizaram-se contagens de Listeria monocytogenes a cada 4 h, por até 50 h. Dos tratamentos testados, a combinação de 80 g/mL de proteína do extrato bruto, pH 4,0 e 4,5 % de NaCl mostrou melhor performance quanto a atividade antimicrobiana, chegando a uma redução de até 5 ciclos logarítmicos de Listeria monocytogenes. Quando testada a ação do tratamento conjunto de 80 g/mL de extrato bruto, pH 4,0 e 4,5 % de NaCl sobre carne de ostra, obteve-se uma redução no número de Listeria monocytogenes de aproximadamente 3 ciclos logarítmicos, (3,0x106 para 1,5x103 UFC.mL-1, após 24 h de incubação a 25ºC. Esses resultados indicam a possível utilização do antimicrobiano produzido por Bacillus amyloliquefaciens como conservador de alimentos.

  14. A promissora província petrolífera do pré-sal The promising oil province of the pre-salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Aloise de Seabra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O desafio nacional a partir da descoberta da promissora provincia petrolífera do pré-sal é estabelecer parâmetros que norteiem um desenvolvimento sustentável, com respeito ao meio ambiente e às populações locais. Em geral, os problemas dos países abundantes em petróleo decorrem da dificuldade no gerenciamento das rendas da produção. Nesse contexto, o presente artigo considera a aplicação dos royalties na zona costeira do país necessária e legítima. A partir de uma metodologia argumentativa, analisou-se a concentração da atividade petrolífera na costa, a natureza jurídica dos royalties, bem como a estrutura legislativa da divisão do recurso, a fim de contribuir com o debate sobre o rearranjo institucional dessa matéria. Conclui-se que a divisão igualitária dos recursos petrolíferos só é legítima após a retirada da parcela referente à mitigação dos impactos. Antes disso, tal divisão violaria os Princípios da Igualdade e do Poluidor-Pagador.The national challenge since the discovery of the promising oil province of the pre-salt is to establish parameters to guide sustainable development, with respect to the environment and local populations. In general, the problems of oil-abundant countries arise from the difficulty in managing incomes from the oil production. In this context, this study considers the application of royalties in the brazilian coastal zone necessary and legitimate. Through an argumentative approach, the concentration of oil activity on the coast, the legal nature of royalties, and the legislative framework regarding the division of the resource were analyzed in order to contribute to the debate about the institutional rearrangement of the matter. It could be concluded that the equal division of oil resources is legitimate only after removal of the portion relating to mitigation of impacts. Otherwise, such partition would violate the principles of equality and polluter payer.

  15. Determinantes da satisfação e atributos da qualidade em serviços de salão de beleza Determinants of satisfaction and quality attributes in beauty salon services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Duarte Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um modelo de representação dos determinantes da satisfação dos clientes de serviços em salões de beleza e dos atributos de qualidade percebidos por eles. Para isso, foram aplicadas duas pesquisas junto a usuários de salões de beleza com a finalidade de: (i determinar as relações entre os determinantes da satisfação dos clientes; e (ii identificar e hierarquizar atributos de qualidade percebidos, de acordo com sua importância para os clientes do serviço em questão. A confirmação de expectativas e a qualidade percebida aparecem como os principais determinantes da satisfação dos clientes. Competência técnica, limpeza do ambiente e dos utensílios, cumprimento de horários e localização conveniente aparecem como os principais atributos de qualidade percebidos. Os resultados desta pesquisa podem ser usados pelos gerentes de salões de beleza para aprimorar a qualidade do serviço e a satisfação dos clientes, estabelecendo um diferencial competitivo para sua empresa.This paper presents a model to represent customer satisfaction determinants and perceived quality attributes in the hairdressing and beauty service segment. Two surveys were applied to beauty salon users with the purpose of: (i determine the relationships among customer satisfaction determinants, and (ii identify and rank attributes of perceived quality, according to their importance for customers of this segment. Confirmation of expectations and perceived quality appear as the main determinants of customer satisfaction. Technical competence, cleanliness of environment and tools, compliance to appointments, and convenient locations appear as the main attributes of perceived quality. These results can be used by managers of beauty salons to improve service quality and customer satisfaction, establishing a competitive advantage for their companies.

  16. Conocimientos, percepciones y comportamientos relacionados con el consumo de sal, la salud y el etiquetado nutricional en Argentina, Costa Rica y Ecuador Knowledge, perceptions, and behavior related to salt consumption, health, and nutritional labeling in Argentina, Costa Rica, and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Germana Sánchez; Lorena Peña; Soledad Varea; Patricia Mogrovejo; María Lorena Goetschel; María de los Ángeles Montero-Campos; Raúl Mejía; Adriana Blanco-Metzler

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Identificar los conocimientos, percepciones y comportamientos relacionados con el consumo de la sal y el sodio alimentarios y su relación con la salud y el etiquetado nutricional de los alimentos, en tres países de la Región. MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo-exploratorio basado en entrevistas semiestructuradas, según las categorías del modelo de creencias en salud. Se realizaron 34 entrevistas y 6 grupos focales con líderes comunales (71 informantes en total) en áreas rurales y urbanas ...

  17. Preparação, caracterização e aplicação de capilares modificados com quitosana e sal de quitosana quaternizada em eletroforese capilar

    OpenAIRE

    Vitali, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Físicas e Matemáticas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química O objetivo do presente estudo foi modificar internamente capilares de sílica fundida com quitosana (QTS) e sal de quitosana quaternizada (SAQQ), além do uso do polímero aniônico ?-carragena e do agente reticulante glutaraldeído empregado na reticulação da QTS e do SAQQ, e explorar algumas de suas aplicações em eletroforese capilar. Os capilares foram rev...

  18. Evaluación del desarrollo de Salíx humboldtiana, Erythrina edulis y Trichantera gigantea asociados al cultivo de mora sin espina (Rubus glaucus Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Guapacha, Cristiam Camilo; Mesa, Jhon Jairo; Patiño, Andrés Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    En el Municipio de Quinchía, Departamento de Risaralda (Colombia), se evaluó el desarrollo de los tutores vivos Salíx humboldtiana, Erythrina edulis y Trichantera gigantea asociados al cultivo de mora sin espina (Rubus glaucus Benth), también la incidencia de Peronospora sparsa y Oidium sp en plantas de mora asociadas a estos sistemas agroforestales. Se utilizo un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones cada uno. Los resultados indican que Erythrina edulis es el tutor con mejor adapta...

  19. Geometric microliths as chronological and cultural markers in the Sado shell middens? Reflections from Amoreiras (Alcácer do Sal, Portugal

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    Diana Nukushina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of geometric microliths from bladelets has been identified as one of the main strategies of lithic production during the Late Mesolithic in southwestern Portugal. The Sado shell middens generally possess an abundance of these tools, similarly to sites found in other regions. However, systematic lithic studies are still scarce. In this work, we discuss the value of the geometric microliths as chronological and cultural markers, through the analysis of lithic remains from Amoreiras shell midden (Alcácer do Sal. First, a formal characterization of this assemblage is performed. Second, a diachronic and cultural perspective of these materials in the Sado shell middens is provided. Finally, a comparison with other Late Mesolithic and the Early Neolithic assemblages from southwestern Iberia is presented. A set of lithic remains from Amoreiras, which was recovered in the 1950s and 1960s, was subject to a techno-typological analysis, following the assumptions of the ‘chaîne opératoire’. Also, a statistical analysis, including variance analysis, was performed. This work shows that the geometric microliths from Amoreiras clearly represent one of the main purposes for the debitage at this site, which presents an outstanding typological and size uniformity. The characteristics found by this study suggest the existence of a well-standardized production of geometric microliths. This production scheme would be more economic in terms of raw material requirements and production time-effort. The material and chronometrical data from Amoreiras contradicts the cultural uniformity perspective for this specific site and for the Sado shell middens in general. Moreover, in light of the presented data, a strict chrono-cultural significance of the segment dominance is difficult to sustain. Despite the standardized production and the importance given to geometric microliths, the data provided by the forms and their variations is still insufficient for

  20. Biocontrol potential of salinity tolerant mutants of Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum Potencial de biocontrole de mutantes sal-tolerantes de Trichoderma harzianum contra Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abdel-Latif A. Mohamed

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposing a wild-type culture of Trichoderma harzianum to gamma irradiation induced two stable salt-tolerant mutants (Th50M6 and Th50M11. Under saline conditions, both mutants greatly surpassed their wild type strain in growth rate, sporulation and biological proficiency against Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of tomato wilt disease. Tolerant T. harzianum mutants detained a capability to grow and convinced sporulation in growth media containing up to 69 mM NaCl. In comparison with their parent strain, characterization of both mutants confirmed that they have reinforced contents of proline and hydroxyproline, relatively higher sodium content compared to potassium, calcium or magnesium contents, higher level of total phenols. Electrophoretic analysis of total soluble proteins in the salt tolerance mutant Th50M6 showed different bands accumulated in response to 69 mM NaCl. Data also showed that mutants produce certain active metabolites, such as chitinases, cellulases, beta-galactosidases, as well as, some antibiotics i.e., trichodermin, gliotoxin and gliovirin. Trichoderma mutants significantly reduced wilt disease incidence and improved yield and mineral contents of tomato plants under both saline and non-saline soil conditions, as well as, under infested and natural conditions. T. harzianum mutants were also more efficient in dropping the F. oxysporum growth in rhizosphere compared to the wild type strain. Population density of both mutants in rhizosphere far exceeded that of T. harzianum wild type strain.A exposição de uma cepa selvagem de Trichoderma harzianum à irradiação gama induziu dois mutantes tolerantes a sal (Th50M6 e Th50M11. Em condições salinas, os dois mutantes foram muito superiores à cepa selvagem em relação à velocidade de multiplicação, esporulação e eficiência contra Fusarium oxysporum, o agente causador da doença wilt do tomate. Os mutantes tolerantes foram capazes de multiplicação e esporulação em

  1. Papel do sal iodado na oxidação lipídica em hambúrgueres bovino e suíno (misto ou de frango The role of iodide salts on beef and chicken patties lipid oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A.F.S. TORRES

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a adição de iodo ao sal, com o objetivo de erradicar o bócio, é obrigatório por lei. A adição de sal em produtos cárneos é um problema para a qualidade dos mesmos; tem sido associada à oxidação lipídica e à descoloração de carnes com a presença de metais atuando como catalisadores. Hambúrgueres elaborados com dianteiro bovino e gordura suína ou recortes de frangos, adicionados de gelo, sal, cebola, alho e pimenta in natura foram usados no experimento. Após moldados, os mesmos foram congelados, embalados e estocados. O experimento foi conduzido em triplicata e as amostras retiradas em duplicatas no tempos de 0 a 90 dias. O método de TBA de destilação foi utilizado para acompanhar a oxidação lipídica. Foram determinadas a composição centesimal e os teores de cloreto. Os hambúrgueres misto(carne suína e bovina apresentaram teor de lipídios de 73,31% e por um outro lado, a oxidação lipídica foi mais 54,40% mas ativa nas amostras de frango. A presença de sal iodado (menor que 14,41% parece não ter afetado a oxidação lipídica em ambas as carnes, contrariando a expectativa de que um sal halogênico deveria atuar como um oxidante.In Brazil it’s a legal practice to add iodide to salt. Lipid oxidation is a problem to the quality of meat products. NaCl added to this products acts as a catalyst in lipid oxidation. It has been associated to increasing of TBARS index and also to meat discoloration because of metals contamination. We studied the lipid stability in patties prepared with salt with or without iodide, and mixed with meat from chicken or beef. Ground meat was mixed and ice, salt, onion, garlic and white powder pepper were added, shaped, packaged and stored in freezer. Lipid oxidation was monitored by TBARS (distillation method, in frozen samples and iodide was quantitatively measured throughout 90 days of experiment. The content of lipids in beef samples was 73,31% higher than for chickens one. On

  2. Determinação do melhor nível de sal comum para codornas japonesas em postura Determination of the best level of salt for Japanese laying quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Eiko Murakami

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar o melhor nível de sal comum para codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica em postura. Foram utilizadas 336 codornas com 13 semanas de idade, alojadas em gaiolas de 118 cm²/codorna durante 84 dias (quatro ciclos de 21 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos (0; 0,15; 0,20; 0,25; 0,30; 0,35 e 0,45% de sal comum e seis repetições de oito aves por parcela. A cada 21 dias, foram avaliados os parâmetros de desempenho (postura, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar e qualidade dos ovos (peso médio do ovo, massa de ovo, porcentagem e espessura da casca e Unidade Haugh. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos às análises de variância e de regressão e as médias comparadas pelo teste Dunnett a 5% de significância. A equação de regressão ajustada não foi significativa para os parâmetros avaliados em função dos níveis de sal na dieta. Entretanto, pela comparação entre as médias, observou-se que, nos tratamentos com a adição de sal, as aves apresentaram melhor desempenho produtivo e qualidade externa dos ovos, sendo que o nível de 0,15% de sal (equivalente a 0,10% de Na e 0,12% de Cl foi suficiente para obtenção destes resultados.The aim of this experiment was to determine the best level of salt for Japanese laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Three hundred and thirty-six quails with 13 weeks of age were housed in cages with 118 cm²/quail for 84 days (four cycles of 21 days each. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with seven treatments (0, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, and 0.45% of salt with six replicates of eight quails per pen. Every 21 days, the productive performance (% of production, feed intake and feed gain ratio [kg/kg and kg/dozen] and egg quality (average egg weight, egg mass, eggshell percentage and thickness and Unit Haugh were evaluated. Data were submitted to analyses of

  3. La solución constructiva de la bóveda encamonada del salón de plenos del palacio del Senado en Madrid (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante, R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The constructive type of the timber vault that covers the Plenary Hall of the Palace of the Senate of Spain belonging to the first quarter of the 19th century is analyzed, being composed of the following elements: a rectangular soffit or timber slab with the voids filled up with plaster armed with fibers of esparto, which is hung by means of claspers from a few longitudinal straps of the wooden trusses of the original cover; a half vault formed by double table “camones” supported by a continuous wooden perimeter. By the inner face the soffit and the half vault are provided by plaster and separated by a semicircular perimetric molding in the North and South sides. The papers presents a historical investigation of the changes since the former Augustinian church to the Lounge of Spanish Parliament and Lounge of Plenary sessions, an analysis of the constructive type to which the vault belongs, a geometric characterization and a description of the principal elements.

    Se analiza el tipo constructivo de la bóveda encamonada que cubre el Salón de Plenos del Palacio del Senado de España del primer cuarto del siglo XIX, que está compuesta por los siguientes elementos: un plafón rectangular o forjado de tablas con entrevigado de yeso armado con fibras de esparto, que está colgado mediante abrazaderas de unas vigas longitudinales que se apoyan sobre los tirantes de las cerchas de madera de la cubierta original. Y por una semibóveda formada por camones de dobles tablas apoyados en un encadenado perimetral. Por el intradós el plafón y la semibóveda están guarnecidos con yeso y separados entre sí por una moldura perimetral semicircular en los lados Norte y Sur. En el trabajo se presenta una investigación histórica de los cambios registrados desde la antigua iglesia agustina, hasta el Salón de Cortes y Salón de Plenos, un análisis del tipo constructivo al que pertenece la bóveda, una caracterización geométrica y una descripci

  4. Natureza e civilização: os painéis decorativos do Salão Nobre do Teatro Amazonas Nature and civilization: the decorative panels of the Teatro Amazonas foyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Lima Daou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os painéis decorativos do salão nobre do Teatro Amazonas singularizam-se em relação ao restante da iconografia que decora o edifício, inaugurado em 1896. Na ocasião, as capitais do Pará e do Amazonas, enriquecidas pela economia gomífera, passaram por significativas transformações no tecido urbano e nas formas de sociabilidade, projetando-se nacional e internacionalmente. O artigo procura identificar paralelos entre as representações paisagísticas da natureza amazônica que decoram o salão nobre do edifício, a construção da cidade moderna e os usos sociais do Teatro Amazonas, símbolo do período e emblema da elite enriquecida que se afirmava no cenário regional e nacional. O Teatro Amazonas ocupou o centro da vida social da época, e em seu salão nobre ocorreram verdadeiros rituais de 'civilização' em que os convidados - brasileiros ou estrangeiros - tinham como cenário privilegiado a natureza amazônica representada nos painéis parietais decorativos.The decorative panels in the foyer of the Teatro Amazonas, inaugurated in 1896, stand out from the rest of the building's ornamental iconography. The rubber trade brought great wealth to the capitals of Pará and Amazonas and as these cities gained national and international fame, their urban fabric and forms of sociability underwent significant changes. The article looks for parallels between the landscape representations of Amazonian nature adorning the building's foyer, the construction of the modern city, and social uses of the Teatro Amazonas, symbol of the era and emblem of the newly rich elite, who were then taking their place on the regional and national stages. The Teatro Amazonas formed the center of the era's social life and its foyer played host to veritable rituals of 'civilization', in which Brazilian and foreign guests enjoyed the fine setting of Amazon's nature as represented in the decorative wall panels.

  5. Kinoteātru Forum Cinemas, Multikino, Cinamon komunikācija sociālajos tīklos facebook, twitter, instagram 2016 gadā: analīze un salīdzinājums

    OpenAIRE

    Krahmaļovs, Artūrs Rinats

    2017-01-01

    Bakalaura tēma “Kinoteātru Forum Cinemas, Multikino, Cinamon komunikācija sociālajos tīklos facebook, twitter, instagram 2016 gadā: analīze un salīdzinājums”. Pētījuma rezultātā tika analizētas kinoteātru publikācijas “Forum cinemas”, “Multikino” un “Cinamon” publikācijas 2016. gadā sociālajos tīklos “Facebook”, “Twitter” un “Instagram”. Visas publikācijas tika sadalītas kategorijās un analizētas pēc noteiktiem kritērijiem. Visi pētāmie materiāli bija brīvi pieejami sociālajos tīklos kinoteā...

  6. Veri Transferi Ve İşlem Güvenliğinin Sağlanmasında Kullanılan Şifreleme Yöntemleri Ve Sayısal İmza

    OpenAIRE

    ANBAR, Adem

    2004-01-01

    İnternetin ve e-ticaretin gelişmesi ve yaygınlaşması, güvenlik problemlerinin çözümüyle yakından ilişkilidir. Güvenlik sorununu; yetkilendirme, www (world wide web) güvenliği ve veri-işlem güvenliği olmak üzere üç açıdan inceleyebiliriz. Bu çalışmada, yetkilendirme ve www güvenliğine kısaca değinildikten sonra, veri-işlem güvenliği üzerinde ayrıntılı olarak durularak, veri işlem güvenliğinde kullanılan, kriptografi, onay kurumu, elektronik noter, elektronik ve sayısal imza gibi yeni güvenlik ...

  7. Apport à la connaissance de la bioécologie des Coléoptères des milieux salés et humides de l'ouest algérien

    OpenAIRE

    BOUKLI HACENE, Samira; HASSAINE, Karima

    2010-01-01

    Vingt deux espèces de Coléoptères trouvent gîte et couvert dans les micromilieux des marais salés et humides en périphérie de la Sebkha d’Oran. Un exemple d’organisation du peuplement est établi selon la ségrégation spatiale qui a aboutit à subdiviser celle-ci en entité fonctionnelle composé de deux à trois espèces inféodée à des groupements végétaux qui leur sont associés. Douze espèces dont cinq espèces halophiles sont inféodées au groupement à Suaeda fruticosa, situé dans les poin...

  8. Retención y Penetración en Estacones de Eucalyptus Saligna. Sometidos a Tratamiento con CuSO4 y Sal CCC, en Baño Caliente y frio y Vacio-Presión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar C. Oscar

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe y da los resultados obtenidos con el pretratamiento de estacones de Eucalyptus saligna a tres soluciones de CUS04 y su posterior tratamiento con sales CCA (OSMOSE K-33. El sulfato de cobre se aplicó por el método de baño caliente y frío, seguido por el proceso de difusión durante una semana; para los anteriores tratamientos se usó madera verde o parcialmente seca al aire; las sales CCA se aplicaron a madera seca por el método de vacío-presión. Una de las razones para llevar a cabo este refuerzo de las sales CCA, es haber encontrado postes de eucalipto severamente atacados por hongos, en especial con pudrición blanda. Los estacones fueron tratados inicialmente con soluciones de sulfato de cobre a 1 %, 2% y 3% de concentración; luego los estacones fueron tratados con una solución de sal CCA al 2.5% de concentración por vacío-presión. Se usaron 40 estacones distribuídos en 4 grupos de 10: tres (3 grupos fueron usados para el tratamiento con las soluciones de CUS04 y solución de CCA; el grupo restante fue tratado con la sal CCA únicamente, el cual fue usado como grupo testigo para fines de comparación en los ensayos de campo (cementerios.

  9. Young PM candidate harsh criticism / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Läti Rahvaerakonna peaministrikandidaati Edgars Zalansit süüdistatakse kogemuste puudumises. Edgars Zalans ei kavatse osaleda tuntud teleajakirjaniku Janis Dombursi saates "Mis toimub Lätis?". Teised kandidaadid peaministri kohale

  10. Alleged assassin "jumped of bridge" / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Uued asjaolud ei lisa selgust julgeolekuteenistuse töötaja Edgars Gulbise sattumisse Daugava jõkke 26. septembril uurimisvanglasse konvoeerimise ajal. Kahtlustatakse, et politsei kasutas tema suhtes vägivalda

  11. Controversial 2008 budget passed by Cabinet / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Läti valitsus kiitis erakorralisel kohtumisel heaks 2008. aasta eelarve kava ja saatis selle parlamendile. Eelarvega rahulolematust on väljendanud ka koalitsioon ja rahvuspartei Isamaa ja Vabaduse Eest

  12. Freak weather throws Balts into confusion / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Erakordselt soe talv Baltimaades võib kahjustada suusakeskuste ja põllumajandusettevõtete majandustulemusi. Baltimaade võimalused EL-i uue kasvuhoonegaaside vähendamist nõudva keskkonnastrateegia täitmiseks

  13. President attacks Seglins on comments / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2008-01-01

    Läti president kritiseeris Läti siseministrit Mareks Seglinsit, kui viimane kasutas inglaste iseloomustamiseks ebatsensuurset väljendit, saades teada, et Läti Vabadussamba rüvetajateks olid briti kodanikud

  14. Engineering international relations / Maris Riekstins ; interv. Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riekstins, Maris

    2008-01-01

    Läti annab peatselt Läänemeremaade Nõukogu eesistuja teatepulga üle Taanile. Läti välisminister Maris Riekstins Läänemeremaade Nõukogu teemadest ning suhetest Venemaaga. Maris Riekstins'i CV

  15. Political battle drifts into pensioners' realm / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2008-01-01

    Läti endised ministrid lõid poliitilise organisatsiooni, mis korraldab referendumi Läti madala vanaduspensioni tõstmise toetuseks. Samas valmistub ka valitsus pensionite tõstmiseks. Lisa: Faktid pensioni ja pensionäride kohta Lätis

  16. PACE president criticizes Baltics minority rights / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Euroopa Nõukogu Parlamentaarse Assamblee president Rene van der Linden külastas Baltimaid ning kritiseeris vähemusrahvuste olukorda Eestis ja Lätis, tuues eeskujuks Leedut. Kriitikale vastavad Läti ja Eesti välisministrid

  17. Competition and corporate governance in transition / Saul Estrin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Estrin, Saul

    2002-01-01

    Üleminekumajanduse analüüs: institutsionaalsete muutuste mõju ettevõtluse arengule (algtingimused; erastamise viisid; institutsionaalne ja seadusandlik võrgustik; erasektori ja riigi vahekord; tootmise konkurentsivõime). Tabelid

  18. Union considers drastic action over wages / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Läti ühinenud ametiühingud teatasid piketikavatsusest parlamendihoone ees 11. oktoobril, mil valitsus arutab järgmise aasta eelarvet. Ametiühingud nõuavad kõrgemat palka meditsiinitöötajatele ja õpetajatele

  19. Presidents forgive Polish no-show / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    30. oktoobril 2007 Riias kohtunud Läti president Valdis Zatlers, Leedu president Valdas Adamkus ja Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves olid optimistlikud kolme riigi ja Poola koostöö osas tuumaelektrijaama projektis

  20. Presidents bid farewell to Vike-Freiberga / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Leedu president Valdas Adamkus jätsid 3. juulil 2007 Riias hüvasti ametist lahkuva Läti presidendi Vaira Vike-Freibergaga. Baltimaade liidrid arutasid koostöö küsimusi

  1. Gulbis investigation reveals fake CV / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Endise julgestustöötaja Edgars Gulbise suhtes on alustatud mitu kriminaalprotsessi: tollitöötaja auto süütamise, kelmuse, võltsitud haridust tõendava dokumendi kasutamise ning teadliku valevandumise eest. President Zatlers kritiseeris julgestusteenistust ning põhiseaduse kaitse bürood

  2. Parliament divided over border treaty / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Läti seim võttis kümme tundi kestnud debattide järel esimesel lugemisel vastu seaduse, mis volitab valitsust allkirjastama piirilepingut Venemaaga, selgitavat deklaratsiooni lisamata. Poliitikute erinevatest vaadetest piirilepingu suhtes

  3. Puitmaja klaster : intervjuu Argo Sauliga / Argo Saul ; intervjueerinud Kalle Komissarov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saul, Argo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Puitmajaliidu juhatuse esimehe ning Nordic Houses osaniku ja juhatuse esimehe Argo Sauliga arhitektide ja tüüpmaja tootjate võimalikust koostööst Eesti puitmaja klastris, millega Eesti Arhitektide Liit on liitunud. Nordic Houses on norra arhitektide projektide järgi tootnud ja tarninud üle 700 puhkemaja Norrasse

  4. Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to salt consumption in sentinel countries of the Americas Actitudes, conocimientos y comportamiento de los consumidores en relación con el consumo de sal en países centinelas de la Región de las Américas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreira Claro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe individual attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding salt intake, its dietary sources, and current food-labeling practices related to salt and sodium in five sentinel countries of the Americas. METHODS: A convenience sample of 1 992 adults (≥ 18 years old from Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, and Ecuador (approximately 400 from each country was obtained between September 2010 and February 2011. Data collection was conducted in shopping malls or major commercial areas using a questionnaire containing 33 questions. Descriptive estimates are presented for the total sample and stratified by country and sociodemographic characteristics of the studied population. RESULTS: Almost 90% of participants associated excess intake of salt with the occurrence of adverse health conditions, more than 60% indicated they were trying to reduce their current intake of salt, and more than 30% believed reducing dietary salt to be of high importance. Only 26% of participants claimed to know the existence of a recommended maximum value of salt or sodium intake and 47% of them stated they knew the content of salt in food items. More than 80% of participants said that they would like food labeling to indicate high, medium, and low levels of salt or sodium and would like to see a clear warning label on packages of foods high in salt. CONCLUSIONS: Additional effort is required to increase consumers' knowledge about the existence of a maximum limit for intake and to improve their capacity to accurately monitor and reduce their personal salt consumption.OBJETIVO: Describir las actitudes, los conocimientos y el comportamiento individuales con respecto al consumo de sal, sus fuentes alimentarias, y las prácticas actuales de etiquetado de alimentos en relación con su contenido en sal y sodio en cinco países centinelas de la Región de las Américas. MÉTODOS: De septiembre del 2010 a febrero del 2011, se obtuvo una muestra de conveniencia de 1

  5. A substituição de trabalhadores como instrumento para redução de gastos com salários: evidências para a indústria paulista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Orellano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O movimento de substituição de trabalhadores por parte das firmas - aqui tratado como churning - é um importante componente da rotatividade da mão-de-obra no Brasil, que também inclui a realocação de emprego entre firmas. A evolução do labor churning ao longo da d��cada de 1990, ao menos para os empregados formais da indústria paulista, segue uma trajetória muito semelhante para as diferentes faixas de tamanho de firmas e para os diferentes subsetores da indústria, sugerindo que mudanças no ambiente macroeconômico afetam o churning de forma similar em firmas com características diferentes. Este artigo propõe um modelo para explicar o movimento de labor churning dos empregados formais no país. O modelo admite que as firmas, ao enfrentarem choques exógenos que elevam o salário real, podem substituir empregados com o objetivo de reduzir seus gastos com salários, particularmente em momentos de baixa inflação, em que há maior rigidez dos salários reais. Um estudo econométrico é realizado a partir dos microdados da RAIS (Relação Anual de Informações Sociais, do Ministério do Trabalho para o setor industrial da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. Os resultados obtidos corroboram a hipótese do modelo. As estimações ainda sugerem que, no período pós-plano real, controlada a inflação e quando os instrumentos são válidos, o churning da mão-de-obra foi relativamente maior que no início da década de 1990.Labor churning is an important component of labor turnover in Brazil, which includes job reallocation betweenfirms. The labor churning evolution in the nineties, at least for the industrysector in São Paulo, folows a verysimilar path for different groups of firms (divided by size or by subsectors, suggesting that changes in the macroe-conomic environment affect labor churning in a very similar way for different firms. This paper proposes a model to explain the path of formal labor churning in Brazil. The model

  6. Phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA identification of culturable non-obligate halophilic bacterial communities from a hypersaline lake, La Sal del Rey, in extreme South Texas (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kristen; Zaidan, Frederic; Elizondo, Omar R; Lowe, Kristine L

    2012-02-02

    La Sal del Rey ("the King's Salt") is one of several naturally-occurring salt lakes in Hidalgo County, Texas and is part of the Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge. The research objective was to isolate and characterize halophilic microorganisms from La Sal del Rey. Water samples were collected from the lake and a small creek that feeds into the lake. Soil samples were collected from land adjacent to the water sample locations. Sample salinity was determined using a refractometer. Samples were diluted and cultured on a synthetic saline medium to grow halophilic bacteria. The density of halophiles was estimated by viable plate counts. A collection of isolates was selected, gram-stained, tested for catalase, and characterized using API 20E® test strips. Isolates were putatively identified by sequencing the 16S rDNA. Carbon source utilization by the microbial community from each sample site was examined using EcoPlate™ assays and the carbon utilization total activity of the community was determined. Results showed that salinity ranged from 4 parts per thousand (ppt) at the lake water source to 420 ppt in water samples taken just along the lake shore. The density of halophilic bacteria in water samples ranged from 1.2 × 102 - 5.2 × 103 colony forming units per ml (cfu ml-1) whereas the density in soil samples ranged from 4.0 × 105 - 2.5 × 106 colony forming units per gram (cfu g-1). In general, as salinity increased the density of the bacterial community decreased. Microbial communities from water and soil samples were able to utilize 12 - 31 carbon substrates. The greatest number of substrates utilized was by water-borne communities compared to soil-based communities, especially at lower salinities. The majority of bacteria isolated were gram-negative, catalase-positive, rods. Biochemical profiles constructed from API 20E® test strips showed that bacterial isolates from low-salinity water samples (4 ppt) showed the greatest phenotypic diversity

  7. Salinidade, sodicidade e propriedades microbiológicas de Argissolo cultivado com erva-sal e irrigado com rejeito salino Salinity, sodicity and microbiological properties of an Ultisol cultivated with saltbush and irrigated with saline effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Maganhotto de Souza Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da irrigação com rejeito da dessalinização, oriundo de tanques de produção de tilápia-rosa, sobre as propriedades químicas e microbiológicas de solos cultivados com erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia Lindl.. Quatro áreas foram usadas, das quais duas foram irrigadas com rejeito salino e cultivadas, durante um e cinco anos, com erva-sal. As outras duas áreas foram conduzidas sem irrigação: uma cultivada com vegetação natural e outra com a halófita. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros relativos à salinidade e sodicidade do solo, e também as seguintes características: carbono da biomassa microbiana (Cmic; relação Cmic/carbono orgânico; atividade das enzimas fosfatase ácida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucosidase, protease, L-asparaginase, L-glutaminase. A adição de sais afetou as propriedades físicas e químicas dos solos irrigados com rejeito salino, com tendência à salinização e sodificação. A salinidade afetou as propriedades microbiológicas nos solos irrigados, mas o cultivo da halófita favoreceu a produção das enzimas estudadas. O cultivo da erva-sal em áreas que recebem rejeito salino pela irrigação melhora a qualidade biológica dos solos e sua fertilidade, mas não impede a salinização.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with saline effluents, from red tilapia production ponds, on chemical and microbiological properties of soils cultivated with saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lindl. Four areas were used, from which two were irrigated with saline waste and cultivated with A. nummularia, during one and five years. The other two areas were not irrigated, and one was cultivated with natural vegetation and the other with the halophyte. The parameters related to soil salinity and sodicity were evaluated, as well as the following characteristics: microbial biomass carbon (Cmic; Cmic/organic carbon; the activity of acid and alcaline phosphatase

  8. Uso do rejeito da dessalinização de água salobra para irrigação da erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia The use of the brine from desalting brackish water to irrigate saltbush (Atriplex nummularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo R. Porto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se reduzir os impactos causados pela dessalinização de água salobra proveniente do cristalino no trópico semi-árido brasileiro, a erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia foi cultivada durante um ano, nos campos da Estação Experimental da Embrapa Semi-Árido. As plantas foram irrigadas com rejeito do processo de dessalinização, com concentração salina média de 11,38 dS m-1, e cada uma recebeu 75 L de água por semana, durante 48 semanas. A salinidade média do perfil de solo, da camada de 0 a 90 cm, era de 0,64 dS m-1 antes de se iniciar a irrigação das plantas; depois da colheita das plantas, a salinidade do mesmo perfil de solo foi de 12,74 dS m-1, enquanto a produtividade da erva-sal foi de 6.537,0 kg ha-1 de matéria seca, com teor de proteína bruta de 18,40% nas folhas. A Atriplex apresentou grande potencial de extração de sais do perfil de solo, mas quando as plantas são irrigadas com rejeito de alta concentração salina, a quantidade de sais extraída desse perfil pela planta, é da ordem de 3,93% do total de sais adicionados ao solo pelas irrigações; isto implica no fato de que, para um manejo de água sustentável, há necessidade de se gerar mais informações sobre as relações de solo e água para a erva-sal, nas condições das zonas áridas do Brasil.Looking forward to reducing environmental impacts resulting from desalting brackish water in the region of the crystalline rocks in the semi-arid tropic of Brazil, saltbush (Atriplex nummularia was cultivated during one year in an experimental field of Embrapa Semi-Arid. The plants were irrigated with the brine from the desalting plant which presented a salt concentration of 11.38 dS m-1. Each plant received 75 L of water per week, during 48 weeks. The soil salinity, at the depth of 0-90 cm, of the cropped area averaged 0.64 dS m-1 before starting the irrigation process. After the plants were harvested, the soil salinity in the same profile averaged 12.74 d

  9. Desempenho de novilhos suplementados com sal mineral protéico e energético em pastagem no período da seca = Performance of Steers Supplemented in Pasture with Protein-energy Mineral Salt in dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado objetivando avaliar os efeitos energético e protéico em uplementos múltiplos sobre o ensaio de produção, concentração do N uréico no plasma e parâmetros econômicos de bovinos em fase de recria, manejados em pastagens, durante a época da seca. Foram utilizados 32 novilhos de corte divididos em 4 grupos de 8 animais e analisados por um delineamento de blocos ao acaso a 5% de significância. Cada grupo recebeu um tratamento com pastagem e acrescido de sal mineralizado + uréia + milho; sal mineralizado + uréia + farelo de soja; sal mineralizado + uréia + milho + farelo de soja. Não observou diferença (P>0,05 das suplementações no ganho de peso e o peso médio metabólico, o que pode ser justificado pela qualidade da pastagem aliada à disponibilidade de MS/ha e para a variável N-uréico no sangue indicou o maior teor protéico, oriundo dos 50,0% de participação do farelo de soja na composição do tratamento. A suplementação para animais em pastejo com misturas de natureza múltipla e de baixo consumo proporcionou ganhos de pesoapreciáveis, e sua aplicação depende do preço dos insumos e o da arroba de carne.The research was carried out to evaluate the protein-energy effect of multiple supplements on animal production, N urea in plasmatic quantities and economic parameter of growing beef cattle in pasture during dry season. Thirty-two castrated beef cattle steers were divided into four groups of eight animals. They were analyzedaccording to a randomized block design at 5% of significance. Each group received one treatment to pasture with addition of mineral salt + urea + corn; mineral salt + urea + soybean meal; mineral salt + urea + corn + soybean meal. There was no difference (P>0.05 betweensupplements for daily LWG and for average metabolic weight. This can be justified by forage quality combined with availability of DM/ha. As for the variable N-urea in the blood, results indicated higher protein

  10. Sensibilidade gustativa ao sal, natriúria e pressão arterial em indivíduos normotensos Salt taste threshold, 24 hour natriuresis and blood pressure variation in normotensive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sperb Antonello

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo avalia sensibilidade gustativa ao sal, excreção urinária de sódio e pressão arterial (PA em normotensos. A hipótese foi de que limiar de sensibilidade gustativa ao sal (LSGS aumentado se associasse a maior natriúria em 24 horas e níveis aumentados de PA. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 24 voluntários sem diagnóstico de HA. Para avaliar LSGS, usou-se soluções de cloreto de sódio (NaCl em diferentes concentrações. Os voluntários foram submetidos à monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial (MAPA de 24 horas e coleta de urina de 24 horas para dosagem de sódio (NaU. Para análise, foram agrupados de acordo com o LSGS, aumentado ou normal. RESULTADOS: Os grupos não diferiram para idade, índice de massa corporal (IMC, variáveis demográficas, uso de álcool, fumo e PA. NaU foi significativamente maior no grupo com LSGS aumentado. Utilizando-se o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, com significância determinada pelo teste t, houve correlação de forte intensidade entre médias de PA sistólica e diastólica com IMC, de regular intensidade entre LSGS e NaU, assim como para PA sistólica e NaU. CONCLUSÃO: Natriúria de 24 horas foi maior em indivíduos com LSGS aumentado, sugerindo que esta maior avidez ao sal determine maior ingestão de sódio. Houve forte associação entre PA e IMC. Não foi evidenciada associação entre LSGS e PA, diferente do já documentado em pacientes com PA aumentada. Aumentando-se o número de pessoas, faixa etária e pacientes com níveis pressóricos aumentados, talvez se respondam outras perguntas a respeito da relação entre LSGS, natriúria e PA.OBJECTIVE: The study evaluates salt taste sensibility, urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure (BP in normotensive persons. The hypothesis was that a higher salt taste threshold (STT can be associated to a higher 24 hour natriuresis and increased BP levels. METHODS: Twenty four not hypertensive volunteers were selected. To

  11. Efeitos do posicionamento e quantidade de prática mental na aprendizagem do arremesso do dardo de salão Effects of position and amount of mental practice in dart saloon throwing learning

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    Thábata Viviane Brandão Gomes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A prática mental parece contribuir no processo de aprendizagem motora, mas ainda não estão claros os efeitos do posicionamento e da quantidade de prática mental em relação à prática física, sendo este o objetivo do presente estudo. Setenta e dois universitários de ambos os sexos e novatos na tarefa foram distribuídos em seis grupos de prática combinada (física e mental para a aprendizagem do arremesso do dardo de salão. Na fase de aquisição, os sujeitos realizaram 50 tentativas de prática física e 18, 90 ou 180 tentativas de prática mental (conforme cada grupo antes ou após a prática física. Dez minutos após a fase de aquisição foram realizados os testes de retenção e transferência. Não foi observada diferença significante entre os grupos nos testes. Os resultados indicaram que a quantidade e o posicionamento da prática mental não influenciaram a aprendizagem do arremesso do dardo de salão.Mental practice seems to contribute to the motor learning process but it is still not clear the effects of position and amount of mental practice in relation to physical practice, which was the aim of this study. Seventy two undergraduate students of both sexes and novice in the task were assigned in six groups of combined practice (physical and mental for learning the dart saloon throwing. In acquisition phase, subjects performed 50 trials of physical practice and 18, 90 or 180 trials of mental practice (according to each experimental group before or after physical practice. Ten minutes after acquisition phase it was performed retention and transfer tests. The results showed that amount and the position of mental practice did not influence dart saloon throwing learning.

  12. Salting kinetics and salt diffusivities in farmed Pantanal caiman muscle Cinética de salga e difusividades de sal em carne de jacaré do Pantanal criado em cativeiro

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    Vânia Regina Nicoletti Telis

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The legal Pantanal caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare farming, in Brazil, has been stimulated and among meat preservation techniques the salting process is a relatively simple and low-cost method. The objective of this work was to study the sodium chloride diffusion kinetics in farmed caiman muscle during salting. Limited volumes of brine were employed, with salting essays carried at 3, 4 and 5 brine/muscle ratios, at 15%, 20% and 25% w/w brine concentrations, and brine temperatures of 10, 15 and 20ºC. The analytical solution of second Fick's law considering one-dimensional diffusion through an infinite slab in contact with a well-stirred solution of limited volume was used to calculate effective salt diffusion coefficients and to predict the sodium chloride content in the fillets. A good agreement was obtained between the considered analytical model and experimental data. Salt diffusivities in fillets were found to be in the range of 0.47x10-10 to 9.62x10-10 m²/s.A criação de jacaré do Pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare em cativeiro tem sido estimulada, e entre as técnicas de processamento de sua carne, a salga é um processo de conservação relativamente simples e de baixo custo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a cinética de difusão de cloreto de sódio em carne de jacaré do Pantanal criado em cativeiro, durante a salga úmida. Foram utilizados volumes limitados de salmoura e os experimentos foram realizados com relações salmoura/músculo de 3, 4 e 5, com concentrações de salmoura de 15%, 20% e 25% em peso e temperaturas de 10, 15 e 20ºC. A solução analítica da segunda lei de Fick, considerando difusão unidimensional em uma placa infinita em contato com uma solução bem agitada de volume limitado, foi utilizada para calcular os coeficientes de difusão efetivos de sal e estimar o conteúdo de cloreto de sódio nos filés. Obteve-se boa concordância entre o modelo analítico considerado e os dados experimentais. As

  13. On the nature of T(Al2Mg3Zn3) and S(Al2CuMg) phases present in as-cast and annealed 7055 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Chandan; Mukhopadhyay, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum alloys, encompassed by AA 7055 alloy composition, having the nominal zinc content (i.e. 8 wt.%) but varying copper and magnesium contents across the alloy composition range were examined in the as-cast form by a combination of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is observed that for all compositions, the second phases based on η(MgZn 2 ), T(Al 2 Mg 3 Zn 3 ) and S(Al 2 CuMg) are present. The T phase dissolves copper up to 28 wt.%, whilst the S phase shows metastable solubility of zinc that may range up to 30 wt.%. In alloys with magnesium at the lower limit and the copper contents approaching the upper limit of the alloy composition, the θ phase (Al 2 Cu) of the constituent binary Al-Cu system is further observed. The θ phase (Al 2 Cu) does not dissolve either zinc or magnesium. Below the nominal composition, the alloys could be homogenized substantially using a commercially viable homogenization treatment leaving small amounts of undissolved S phase that does not contain any zinc

  14. Türkiye’de süs bitkileri sektörünün üretim ve yapısal sorunları ve öneriler

    OpenAIRE

    ONAY, Hatice Aslı

    2008-01-01

    ÖZET:

    Bu tez çalışması Türkiye’de süs bitkileri sektörünün üretim ve yapısal sorunlarını analiz ederek bunlara yapıcı ve sürdürülebilir çözümler üretmek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Bunun için öncelikle sektörün ülkemizdeki mevcut durumu ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Mevcut durumu ortaya koymak için ise sektörün üretim, ithalat ve ihracat verilerinden yararlanılmıştır. Birçok kurum ve kuruluşlardan edinilen bu veriler ışığında sekt...

  15. Détection de souches multi-résistantes d’Escherichia coli d’origine aviaire dans la région de Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer

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    N. RAHMATALLAH

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance surveillance is a standard measure in the sanitary policies. In order to monitor multi-resistance within APEC strains, a study was conducted on 370 broiler chickens farms from the Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer region in Morocco. The isolation of Escherichia coli was made from lesions of avian colibacillosis. Biochemical identification, serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility tests as well as phenotypic identifications on lactamases resistance were carried out on the isolates. Serogrouping showed that 66.7 % of the isolates belong to the dominant serotypes O78, O 2 and O1. Drug sensitivity tests showed extremely high levels of resistance to oxytetracyclin (100 %, amoxicillin (90.9%, trimethoprim + sulphamethoxazol (82.2 %, enrofloxacin (75.9 % and florfenicol (61.5 %. Low frequencies of resistances were noted for gentamicin (24.8 %, fosfomycin (16.1 % and colistin (2%. In parallel, tests for the determination of the phenotype of resistance to beta-lactamases and cephalosporinases on 250 strains revealed that 66.1% of the strains were classified as class A penicillinases; 14.8% were class C cephalosporinases. The ESBL class A was found in 11.1% of the tested stains and only 3.7% were classified as wild-type strains. The multi-resistance is very high since 97.4% and 55.1% of the strains were respectively resistant to three and five antibacterial drugs.

  16. Tolerância ao sal e às altas temperaturas de estirpes de Sinorhizobium provenientes de zonas secas do Alentejo Salt and temperature tolerance of Sinorhizobium strains isolated from dry environments in Alentejo

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    P. Fareleira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como principal objectivo a obtenção de estirpes de rizóbio adequadas à nodulação de luzernas anuais e adaptadas a sobreviver nas condições ambientais susceptíveis de ocorrer em solos degradados. Dado que as populações de rizóbio apresentam variabilidade considerável no que respeita à tolerância a factores ambientais, os estudos focaram-se na pesquisa e na selecção de estirpes resistentes a condições adversas. Efectuaram-se colheitas de solos em diversas zonas no sul do País, seleccionando-se locais afectados por secura, temperaturas elevadas e, pontualmente, salinidade. A partir destes solos, isolaram-se estirpes de rizóbio, usando como planta hospedeira a luzerna anual Medicago polymorpha. Estudaram-se os efeitos de condições de stresse ambiental, como a salinidade e as altas temperaturas, no crescimento das estirpes isoladas. Dos 41 isolamentos analisados, 11 apresentaram crescimento em meio con-tendo 1,4 M de cloreto de sódio e suplementado com 10% de extracto de terra, e 22 cresceram quando incubadas a 45 ºC em meio sem aditivos. Três estirpes mostraram ter capacidade para crescer sob os efeitos conjuntos da salinidade e da alta temperatura. A análise de extractos etanólicos de estirpes tolerantes à salinidade revelou, na maior parte dos casos, a acumulação, induzida pelo sal, dos solutos compatíveis de Sinorhizobium: o dipéptido N - acetilglutaminilglutamina amida, vários tipos de betaínas, trealose, glutamato e prolina. A observação, por NMR de 31P in vivo, de uma estirpe tolerante ao sal, proveniente de um solo xistoso de baixo teor em fósforo, mostrou a presença de níveis elevados de reservas intracelulares de fosfato inorgânico (polifosfato, sugerindo um bom potencial para utilização em solos onde os riscos de salinização se conjuguem com deficiências em fósforo assimilável.The main objective of this work was to obtain rhizobial strains able to nodulate annual medics and

  17. A relação entre educação pré-primária, salários, escolaridade e proficiência escolar no Brasil

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    Andréa Zaitune Curi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo analisamos a relação entre a educação pré-primária (creche e pré-escola e os salários, a escolaridade e a proficiência escolar no Brasil, utilizando dados da PPV e do SAEB. Os resultados mostram que a pré-escola tem uma relação positiva e significante com a conclusão dos quatro ciclos escolares, com efeito marginal crescente nos três primeiros, e que a creche tem relação positiva e significante apenas com a conclusão do ensino médio e do ensino universitário. Além disso, a pré-escola está associada com um aumento de 1 ano e meio de escolaridade e de 16% na renda, independentemente da sua relação com a educação. Finalmente, os alunos que frequentaram a pré-escola têm um desempenho escolar melhor, medido por testes de proficiência, na 4ª e 8ª séries do ensino fundamental e na 3ª série do ensino médio.This paper examines the relations between daycare and pre-school, wages, education and school performance in Brazil using a survey with detailed information on education and earnings trajectories. We find that pre-school attendance has a positive relationship with primary, middle school, high school and college conclusion, even when we condition on parental education. Pre-schooling is associated with increases of 1.5 year in schooling and about 27% in wages. Pre-schooling is also associated with increases in standardized test scores in the 4th, 8th and 11th grades.

  18. Sinop Yarımadası (Güney Karadeniz Kıyısal Sularındaki Bazı Syngnathid Türlerinin (Syngnathus sp., Nerophis sp., Hippocampus sp. Besin Kompozisyonları

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    Şule GÜRKAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, Temmuz 2001 - Mayıs 2002 tarihleri arasında Sinop yarımadası (güney Karadeniz kıyısal sularının 5 – 15 m derinliklerindeki farklı biyotoplarından el direci kullanılarak yakalanan 6 deniziğnesi (Syngnathus acus Linnaeus, 1758; Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus, 1758; Syngnathus tenurostris Rathke, 1837; Syngnathus variegatus Palas, 1811; Nerophis ophidion Linnaeus, 1758; Syngnathus abaster Risso,1926 ve bir denizatı (Hippocampus hippocampus (L.,1758 türüne ait toplam 130 bireyde 105 mide içeriği incelenmiştir. Analizler sonunda mide içeriklerinde 13 av grubu tespit edilmiştir. Deniziğnesi türlerinin besin içeriğinde bulunuş frekans değeri (% F bakımından en baskın av grupları; S. acus’da % 90.9 Euterpina acutifrons, S. typhle’de % 93.3 tanımlanamamış doku parçaları, S. tenurostris’de % 87 Pseudocalanus elongatus, S. variegatus’da % 91.7 tanımlanamamış doku parçaları, N. ophidion’da % 90 Euterpina acutifrons, S. abaster’de ise % 100 Pseudocalanus elongatus, Euterpina acutifrons, Cirriped cypris, ve Cirriped nauiplius’dur. H. hippocampus ise % 25 ile Onceae sp. en baskın av grubudur. Sonuç olarak, deniziğnesi ve denizatı türlerinin esasen bentik ve planktonik krustase gruplarıyla beslendikleri görülmekle birlikte S. tenuirostris, S. abaster ve S. variegatus için besin kompozisyonu kıyılarımızdan ilk kez belirlenmiştir

  19. Composição e dinâmica da avifauna da usina eólica da praia da Pedra do Sal, Delta do Parnaíba, Piauí, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Guzzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O impacto dos parques eólicos sobre as aves é um dos temas menos estudados no Brasil, o que contrasta com a importância dessa nova fonte de energia renovável. O presente estudo buscou caracterizar a composição e dinâmica ecológica das espécies de aves residentes e migratórias presentes na área da Usina Eólica da Pedra do Sal, em Parnaíba, Estado do Piauí. O estudo foi desenvolvido por meio de trinta e três amostragens distribuídas em dois ciclos sazonais completos (setembro de 2011 a agosto de 2013, através do método do ponto de escuta, dispostos na base de cada um dos aerogeradores. Foram registrados 6.843 contatos de aves pertencentes a 67 espécies distribuídas em 22 famílias e 13 ordens, e a espécie com maior número de contatos foi a batuíra-de-coleira (Charadrius collaris. As categorias tróficas predominantes foram as das aves insetívoras, representadas por 18 espécies, seguidas pelas aves que se alimentam de invertebrados aquáticos (17 espécies. A maioria das aves registradas é de ambiente aquático. Durante o desenvolvimento desse estudo não foram registradas colisões entre as aves e os aerogeradores.

  20. Sayısal Koruma Nedir?

    OpenAIRE

    Akbaytürk, Tuba

    2008-01-01

    The very first definition of preservation which comes to minds is ensuring the survival of information in valid forms for as long as it is wanted. The digital preservation, on the other hand focuses more on continued access to digital information. Three main strategies recommended in digital preservation are “Technology Preservation”, “Technology Emulation”, and “Information Migration”. Moreover, Digital Archeology techniques aiming the recovery of information are considered in this category....

  1. Motivos da prática de dança de salão nas aulas de educação física escolar Reasons for the practice of ballroom dance in the curricular physical activity in schools

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    Rodrigo Massami Shibukawai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de corte transversal analisou os motivos da prática da dança de salão nas aulas de Educação Física escolar de escolas particulares, relacionando-os com o gênero, seu tempo de prática e participação em eventos de dança de salão. Obteve-se uma amostra de 279 alunos com idade de 15,5 ± 1,0 anos, matriculados nas aulas de dança de salão como Educação Física escolar. Aplicou-se o questionário de motivação para as atividades desportivas - QMAD, adaptado de SERPA e FRIAS (1990 e SERPA (1991. Analisou-se os dados através da estatística descritiva e inferencial, com nível de significância de 95%. Foram encontradas associações significativas entre os motivos e gêneros (r = 0,285; - 0,172; tempo de prática (r = 0,174 e frequência em eventos (r = 0,122; - 0,156. A dança de salão oferece em sua prática uma ferramenta de inúmeras possibilidades, onde cada um de seus praticantes procura preencher as suas próprias necessidades. De acordo com os resultados levantados percebe-se que os alunos estão motivados com a prática de dança de salão na escola havendo diferenças entre o gênero, o tempo de prática e a frequência nos eventos. Diante disto sugere-se a criação de propostas metodológicas condizentes com os principais motivos dos alunos nas aulas de dança de salão dentro do ambiente da Educação Física escolar.The transversal study analyzed the reasons for the practice of ballroom dance in the curricular physical activity in private schools, relating them to the gender, its practice time and participation in ballroom dance events. The study was composed of 279 students at the age of 15.5 ± 1.0, enrolled in ballroom dance as part of regular physical education. The Sport Motivation Questionnaire - SMQ, adapted from SERPA and FRIAS (1990, SERPA (1992 was used. The descriptive and inferential statistics were used with a 95% significance level. Significant associations were found between reasons and the

  2. Normalização da estatura e excesso de adiposidade corporal em crianças com a forma perdedora de sal da deficiência da 21-hidroxilase

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    Carolina T Mendes-dos-Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar crescimento e composição corporal de portadores da forma clássica perdedora de sal da hiperplasia adrenal congênita por deficiência da 21-hidroxilase, comparando-os com crianças saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 21 pacientes (oito meninos e 13 meninas, entre 2,1 e 10,2 anos, e 67 controles pré-púberes (36 meninos e 31 meninas, entre 1,2 e 11,7 anos. Avaliou-se peso, estatura, perímetro braquial, dobras cutâneas, composição corporal por bioimpedância e idade óssea. Foram obtidas dos prontuários dos pacientes as seguintes informações: estatura dos pais, valores de 17-OH progesterona e Δ4-androstenediona, dose de hidrocortisona prescrita, dados de peso e estatura ao nascimento, no início do tratamento e aos 2 anos de idade. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes apresentaram menor escore z de peso e de altura na primeira consulta em relação à situação de nascimento, com posterior recuperação após o início do tratamento, sem apresentar avanço da idade óssea. A média do escore z da altura dos controles (0,28±0,86 foi maior que a dos casos (-0,61±0,99, p < 0,001. Essa diferença desaparece quando se ajusta a altura dos pacientes para a idade óssea (0,33±1,68, p = 0,912. Os pacientes apresentaram maiores índices de massa corporal (p < 0,001, massa gorda (p < 0,001 e índice de massa gorda (p < 0,001 do que os controles. Não houve diferença entre as dobras cutâneas dos 2 grupos (p = 0,157. CONCLUSÕES: Os pacientes apresentaram recuperação do crescimento com média de estatura semelhante à da população geral, porém com maior adiposidade corporal, que parece ser visceral, já que não houve diferença entre as dobras cutâneas.

  3. EFEITOS DO pH, SAL E DESNATURANTES NA HIDRÓLISE IN VITRO DA GLOBULINA PRINCIPAL DE GRÃO-DE-BICO (Cicer arietinum L., var. IAC-Marrocos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. NEVES

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    As leguminosas caracterizam-se por apresentar alto teor protéico que na sua grande totalidade são globulinas de reserva,e cujas características moleculares influenciam algumas de suas propriedades com destaque para sua hidrólise frente às enzimas digestivas. As frações 7 e 11S, apesar de certa homologia estrutural, surgem como determinantes das propriedades nutritivas e funcionais das globulinas. Nesse trabalho a globulina principal de grão-de-bico (tipo legumina, 11S foi isolada e purificada, verificando-se o efeito da exposição a diferentes fatores na hidrólise in vitro com as enzimas tripsina e quimotripsina. Comparada à caseína, a globulina principal na forma nativa, e na presença de NaCl 0,3 M, mostrou-se menos susceptível à hidrólise pelas enzimas. A exposição a pHs ácidos extremos revela a retirada desse efeito protetor observado com o sal. As maiores alterações ocorreram pela exposição ao pH 1,0, temperatura de 121°C/15 min e presença de NaCl, no entanto ainda inferiores aos obtidos com a caseína e para ambas enzimas. O tratamento alcalino apesar de aumentar a susceptibilidade às enzimas mostrou valores de hidrólise inferiores à caseína. A exposição a diferentes concentrações dos desnaturantes uréia e hidrocloreto de guanidínio revelou que apenas o segundo teve pequeno efeito sobre a hidrólise pelas enzimas e, mesmo assim, em concentração tão alta como 8M. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Grão-de-bico; Cicer arietinum L; globulina principal; hidrólise in vitro.

  4. Preservation of the Digital Culture: Archiving the World Wide Web Sayısal (Dijital Kültürün Korunması: Web Arşivleme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Aldemir

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Information growth in the web medium has required the necessity of archiving these information to transmit them to future generations. Web archiving is a versatile application which covers technical, legal and organizational dimensions. Any stage within the life cycle of digital information is critically important for the information in web environment. All over the world, many countries have started web archiving efforts through the leadership of their national libraries and attempted to carry these initiatives on a legal bases. In the light of these developments, this paper examines the necessity and major techniques in web archiving and it also discuss national and international web archiving projects. Web ortamında yaşanan bilgi artışı, beraberinde bu bilgilerin gelecek nesillere aktarılması amacıyla arşivlenmesi gereğini gündeme getirmiştir. Web'in arşivlenmesi teknik, yasal ve örgütsel boyutları olan çok yönlü bir uygulamadır. Sayısal ortamda üretilmiş bilginin yaşam döngüsündeki her bir aşama, web ortamında yer alan bilgiler için hayati önem taşımaktadır. Dünyada bir çok ülke milli kütüphaneleri öncülüğünde web arşivleme çalışmalarını başlatmış ve bu girişimlerinin yasal bir platforma taşınması için gerekli adımlar atılmıştır. Bu gelişmeler ışığında çalışmamızda, web'in neden arşivlenmesi gerektiğine değinilmiş, web arşivlemede kullanılan belli başlı yaklaşımlar ele alınmış, ulusal ve uluslararası ölçekli web arşivleme çalışmalarına yer verilmiştir.

  5. Citoquímica de inclusões intranucleares associadas ao vírus do mosaico amarelo do salsão Cytochemical studies of the intranuclear inclusions associated with the celery yellow mosaic virus (CYMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa D. da Cruz

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos citoquímicos, ao nível do microscópio óptico, foram efetuados para determinar a natureza química de inclusões intranucleares, de aspecto fibroso, induzidas pelo vírus do mosaico amarelo do salsão na maioria de suas hospedeiras. Os testes citoquímicos foram conduzidos em material foliar fresco ou fixado (aldeído glutárico, Carnoy 3:1 ou Bouin, tendo sido feitas as seguintes reações: hematoxilina férrica (testemunha; Sudan IV e Azul do Nilo (lipídios; iodo-iodeto (amido; Feulgen, Azur B e verde-de-metila-pironina (ácidos nucleicos; ninidrina-Schiff e "Fast Green", este último em soluções ácida e alcalina (proteínas. Os testes com verde-de-metila-pironina, Azur B e ninidrina-Schiff foram combinados com digestão enzimática pela ribonuclease ou pepsina. Os dados obtidos sugerem que, dentro da sensibilidade dos testes realizados, a inclusão contenha proteína, mas não tenha amido, lipídios ou ácidos nucleicos. Isso permite supor, portanto, que essas inclusões não sejam formadas de partículas de vírus.Cytochemical studies at optical microscopic level were made to determine the chemical nature of intranuclear inclusions with fibrous aspect which were induced by the celery yellow mosaic virus (CYMV in most of its hosts. The cytochemical tests were carried on fresh as well on fixed foliar material, fixation being in glutaric aldeid, Carnoy 3:1 or Bouin. The following reactions were tried: ferric haematoxylin (control; Sudan IV and Nile blue (for lipids; iodine ioduret (for starch; Feulgen, azur B and methyl green-pyronin (for nucleic acids; ninhydrin-Schiff and fast-green, the latter in acid and in alcaline solution (for protein. The tests with methyl green-pyronin, azur B and ninhydrin-Schiff were combined with enzimatic digestion with RNase or pepsin. The results suggest that, within the sensibility of the tests, the inclusion contains protein but does not contain starch, lipids or nucleic acids. This permit to

  6. O mercado de trabalho brasileiro é segmentado? Alterações no perfil da informalidade e nos diferenciais de salários nas décadas de 1980 e 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Zaitune Curi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo examinamos o comportamento do mercado de trabalho formal e informal no Brasil nas últimas duas décadas, utilizando dados longitudinais da Pesquisa Mensal de Emprego para 6 regiões metropolitanas no Brasil. Os resultados mostram que a redução da formalidade no Brasil decorreu, principalmente, do aumento das transições do setor formal para o informal e devido à redução da taxa de saída do desemprego para o setor formal, que ocorreu principalmente entre os mais escolarizados vivendo na região metropolitana de São Paulo e que estavam desempregados há mais de três meses. Além disto, os resultados mostram que a rotatividade entre o setor informal e formal é bastante elevada e que a probabilidade de saída do desemprego ou do setor informal diminui com o tempo de permanência na situação inicial. O diferencial de salários entre o setor formal e o informal, após o controle pelas características não-observáveis dos trabalhadores, era de apenas 10% na década de 1980 e declinou para cerca de 5% na década de 1990. Isto indica que a segmentação no mercado de trabalho brasileiro é muito baixa, o que o aproxima de um mercado competitivo.In this paper we examine the determinants of the mobility of Brazilian workers from the formal sector to informality, self-employment and unemployment, using longitudinal data from Monthly household surveys for 6 metropolitan regions. The results show that the reduction in formality was due to an increase in the transitions from the formal to the informal sector and to a decline in the exits from unemployment to the formal sector. Moreover, sector turn-over in Brazil is quite high and the transitions from unemployment and from the informal sector are time dependent. Finally, the wage differentials between workers in the formal and in the informal sector, after controlling for workers fixed effects was 10% in the 1980s and declined to about 5% in the 1990s, showing that the Brazilian

  7. Infiltração de sal de alumínio em fibras de sisal para obtenção de fibras de alumina Infiltration of aluminum salt into sisal to produce alumina fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Andrade Jr.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O sisal é um recurso estratégico para a região Nordeste e, particularmente, para o estado do Rio Grande do Norte, por ser uma cultura renovável e adaptada às condições do semi-árido. Em virtude das condições adversas de clima e solo, o sisal é, em algumas regiões, o único produto agrícola rentável passível de plantio. Agregar valor aos produtos manufaturados a partir do sisal contribui não só para o desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico da região, como também para a geração de renda para a população dos municípios potiguares produtores de sisal. Da planta extraem-se fibras ligninocelulósicas utilizadas na produção artesanal de cordas e industrial de mantas e tapetes. Uma outra alternativa é o aproveitamento da estrutura da fibra para a produção de fibras de alumina (Al2O3 pela biomodelagem. Este processo consiste na reprodução da estruturas natural do material de partida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as condições de infiltração da fibra de sisal com sal de alumínio para posterior conversão da estrutura em fibras de alumina. Inicialmente, as fibras de sisal foram pré-tratadas com hidróxido de sódio, infiltradas com uma solução saturada de sal de alumínio (Al2Cl6 e sinterizadas entre 1400 °C e 1650 °C. A caracterização das fibras de alumina foi feita por difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram a conversão completa apenas da superfície da fibra de sisal em alfa-Al2O3, resultando em baixa resistência ao manuseio. Novos métodos de infiltração são propostos com o objetivo de reproduzir-se a estrutura interna da fibra de sisal, resultando em fibras materiais com melhor resistência mecânica.Sisal is a renewable agricultural resource adapted to the hostile climatic and soil conditions particularly encountered in the semi-arid areas of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, located in Northeastern Brazil. Consequently, sisal has played a

  8. Salário mínimo, benefício previdenciário e as famílias de baixa renda Minimum wage, social security benefits and low-income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Salvadori Dedecca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem foco nas famílias com rendimento per capita de até ¼ do salário mínimo. São analisadas as condições de inserção no mercado de trabalho e a influência dos benefícios previdenciários para o padrão de renda auferido. A preocupação, portanto, volta-se para a importância dos benefícios da previdência, no sentido de atenuar a fragilidade de renda destas famílias e as conseqüências da desvinculação do valor do seu piso do salário mínimo para este padrão de rendimentos. Analisando-se as características dos componentes das famílias de baixa renda, observa-se que, diante das transformações estruturais no processo de produção e do cenário conjuntural da economia brasileira, aqueles com idade ativa não apresentam os pré-requisitos necessários para se inserirem de forma digna no mundo do trabalho. Dessa forma, o estudo da composição da renda das famílias mais pobres mostra que a renda dos inativos - aposentados e pensionistas - é fundamental para retirar tais famílias do limite da linha de pobreza. O perfil dos componentes das famílias será analisado a partir dos microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD/IBGE - para 2004, segundo idade, nível de escolaridade, cor ou raça e inserção no mercado de trabalho propriamente dita: tipo de atividade exercida e posição na ocupação. A comparação do perfil dos componentes das famílias mais carentes com o do total das famílias mostrará que as rendas de aposentadoria e pensão tornam-se fundamentais não apenas para diminuição da desigualdade, mas, fundamentalmente, para redução da pobreza.This article discusses families with per capita income of up to ¼ of the minimum monthly wage in Brazil. The conditions of participation in the labor market and the influence of social security benefits on the pattern of income earned are analyzed. The concern, therefore, is with the importance of social security benefits in attenuating

  9. Pašnāvības ziņu rāmējums latviešu, krievu un britu ziņu portālos: salīdzinošā analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlovska, Alīna

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „Pašnāvības ziņu rāmējums latviešu, krievu un britu ziņu portālos: salīdzinošā analīze” pētāmā problēma ir pašnāvības ziņu mediācija atbilstoši ētikas principiem. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt portālu publikāciju rāmējumus un vēstījumos paustās attieksmes pret dzīves brīvprātīgu pārtraukšanu, salīdzinot dažādās mediju vidēs konstatētos rezultātus. Darba teorētiskajā daļā apskatītas interneta un jaunāko tehnoloģiju īpatnības, sensibilo tematu komunikācijas īpatnības un nāves medi...

  10. Eiropas Savienības uzņēmējdarbības vide start-up uzņēmumu attīstīšanai (salīdzinošā analīze ar ASV)

    OpenAIRE

    Kapenieks, Kristaps

    2014-01-01

    Maģistra darbā „Eiropas Savienības uzņēmējdarbības vide start-up uzņēmumu attīstīšanai (salīdzinošā analīze ar ASV)” tiek pētīts, kā uzņēmējdarbības vide ietekmē start-up uzņēmējdarbības aktivitāti un kur uzņēmējdarbības vide ir piemērotāka start-up uzņēmējdarbībai – Eiropas Savienībā vai ASV. Lai iegūtu atbildi uz šiem jautājumiem, maģistra darbā tiek pētīts, kas ir start-up uzņēmums un kā to ietekmē ārējā uzņēmējdarbības vide, salīdzināti vides faktoru dati par četrām Eiropas Savienības da...

  11. Ingesta de sal yodada en hogares y estado nutricional de yodo en mujeres en edad fértil en Perú, 2008 Iodized salt intake in households and iodine nutritional status in women of childbearing age in Peru, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Higa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar el estado nutricional de yodo en mujeres en edad fértil y evaluar la ingesta de sal adecuadamente yodada en sus hogares en el Perú. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal realizado con un muestreo probabilístico multietápico por conglomerados que incluyó 1573 hogares y 2048 mujeres en edad fértil, distribuidas en cinco dominios (Lima, resto de costa, sierra rural, sierra urbana y selva. Se evaluó el uso de sal yodada en hogares y el yodo urinario en mujeres en edad fértil. Resultados. El 97,5% (IC95%: 96,7 - 98,5% de hogares peruanos consumen sal yodada, siendo menor en sierra rural (95% y mayor en Lima metropolitana (100%. La mediana de yoduria nacional fue de 266 μg/L, siendo menores en la selva (206 μg/L y mayores en el resto de costa (302 μg/L, estos valores se encuentran por encima del lνmite recomendado por la Organizaciσn Mundial de la Salud en todos los dominios (mediana mayor a 200 μg/L, valor que asegura un control de desσrdenes por deficiencia de yodo (DDI. Conclusiones. En control de los DDI por el consumo de sal yodado es bueno, se debe continuar con la vigilancia de la presencia de yodo en la sal, particularmente en las αreas con menor acceso.Objective. To estimate the iodine nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to evaluate the intake of salt adequately iodized in their households in Peru. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study performed with a multistage, probabilistic, cluster sampling that included 1573 households and 2048 women in childbearing age, distributed in five domains (Lima, rest of the coast, rural highlands and jungle area. The use of iodized salt was evaluated in the households and the urinary iodine was evaluated in the childbearing age women. Results. 97.5% (95%CI. 96.7-98.5% of peruvian households have iodized salt consumption, being it lower in the rural highland (95% and higher in Lima (100%. The national mean of urinary iodine was 266 μg/L, being it

  12. Produção leiteira, composição do leite e perfil bioquímico sanguíneo de vacas lactantes sob suplementação com sal aniônico Milk yield, milk composition and biochemical blood profile of lactating cows supplemented with anionic salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Treptow Marques

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de sal aniônico na dieta sobre as características físicas e a composição química do leite, o perfil bioquímico sanguíneo, a produção de leite, o peso e a condição corporal de vacas em lactação. Foram utilizadas 20 vacas da raça Jersey distribuídas em duas dietas, uma sem adição de sal aniônico e outra com adição de 0,25 kg/dia de cloreto de amônio. O delineamento empregado foi o completamente casualizado. As vacas sob suplementação com sal aniônico apresentaram menor pH urinário e aumento das concentrações sanguíneas de ureia, cálcio e magnésio. Com a dieta aniônica, o leite precipitou com menores concentrações de etanol, apresentou menor densidade, porcentagens de lactose, proteína e imunoglobulina, porém maior teor de cálcio iônico. O fornecimento de dieta aniônica durante a lactação resultou em acidose metabólica, o que alterou o perfil bioquímico sanguíneo e as características físico-químicas do leite.The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of anionic salt in the diet on the physical characteristics and chemical composition of milk, biochemical blood profile, milk yield, body weight and condition. It was used 20 Jersey cows, distributed into two diets, a diet with no addition of anionic salt and one diet with addition of 0.25 kg/day of ammonium chloride. It was used a completely randomized design. Cows supplemented with anionic salt presented lower urinary pH and increase of blood contents of urea, calcium and magnesium. With the anionic diet, milk precipitated with lower ethanol concentration and it presented lower density, percentages of lactose, protein and immunoglobulin, but higher ionic calcium content. Supply of anionic diet during lactation resulted in metabolic acidosis, which altered the blood biochemical profile and milk physical-chemical characteristics.

  13. Relación costo-utilidad de la disminución del consumo de sal y su efecto en la incidencia de enfermedades cardiovasculares en Argentina The cost-utility ratio of reducing salt intake and its impact on the incidence of cardiovascular disease in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ferrante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la relación costo-utilidad de una intervención dirigida a reducir el consumo de sal en la dieta de personas mayores de 35 años en Argentina. MÉTODOS: La intervención consistió en reducir entre 5% y 25% el contenido de sal en los alimentos. Se utilizó el modelo de simulación del impacto de las políticas sobre la enfermedad coronaria para predecir la evolución de la incidencia, la prevalencia, la mortalidad y los costos en la población de la enfermedad coronaria y cerebrovascular en personas de 35 a 84 años. Se modeló el efecto y los costos de una disminución de 3 g de sal en la dieta, mediante su reducción en alimentos procesados y en la añadida por los consumidores, por un período de 10 años. Se estimó el cambio en la ocurrencia de eventos en este período y la ganancia en años de vida ajustados por la calidad (AVAC en un escenario de efecto alto y otro de efecto bajo. RESULTADOS: La intervención generó un ahorro neto de US$ 3 765 millones y una ganancia de 656 657 AVAC en el escenario de efecto alto y de US$ 2 080 millones y 401 659 AVAC en el escenario de efecto bajo. Se obtendrían reducciones en la incidencia de enfermedad coronaria (24,1%, infarto agudo de miocardio (21,6% y accidente cerebrovascular (20,5%, y en la mortalidad por enfermedad coronaria (19,9% y por todas las causas (6,4%. Se observaron beneficios para todos los grupos de edad y sexo. CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de esta estrategia de reducción del consumo de sal produciría un efecto sanitario muy positivo, tanto en AVAC ganados como en recursos económicos ahorrados.OBJECTIVE: Estimate the cost-utility ratio of an intervention to reduce dietary salt intake in people over the age of 35 in Argentina. METHODS: The intervention consisted of reducing salt content in food by 5% to 25%. A simulation model was used to measure the impact of policies on heart disease in order to predict incidence, prevalence, mortality, and cost trends for

  14. L'amélioration de la qualité des huîtres à échelle professionnelle: intégration de l'eau salée souterraine traitée comme milieu d'élevage

    OpenAIRE

    Haure, Joel; Durin, Olivier; Palvadeau, Hubert; Papin, Mathias; Nourry, Max; Penisson, Christian; Martin, Jean-louis

    2003-01-01

    Les travaux menés au LCPL depuis plusieurs année sur l'engraissement contrôlé de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas ont permis, à l'échelle expérimentale de définir les différents paramètres d 'élevage: température : 14°C ration alimentaire : 2.10(9) cell/ind/j de la diatomée Skeletonema costatum - indice AFNOR initial sans incidence - débit d 'eau : 3 l/ind/h - eau de mer ou eau salée souterraine. Dans ces conditions et après 30 jours d 'engraissement, le poids total des huîtres a progressé d...

  15. Īstermiņa hidroloģisko prognožu salīdzinošā analīze 2013. un 2014.gadu hidroloģiskajās fāzēs: Irbes, Abavas, Bērzes, Gaujas, Ogres un Dubnas upju basenu piemēros

    OpenAIRE

    Zubaničs, Andrejs

    2015-01-01

    Maģistra darba tēma ir „Īstermiņa hidroloģisko prognožu salīdzinošā analīze 2013. un 2014. gadu hidroloģiskajās fāzēs: Irbes, Abavas, Bērzes, Gaujas, Ogres un Dubnas upju baseinu piemēros”. Darba mērķis ir novērtēt, kura skaitliskā meteoroloģiskā modeļa HIRLAM vai ECMWF laika apstākļu prognozes ļauj modelēt precīzākās īstermiņa hidroloģiskās prognozes sešiem pētītajiem Latvijas upju baseiniem. Literatūras analīzē aplūkota hidroloģiskā modelēšana, modeļu veidi un to pielietojums hidroloģisk...

  16. 15.SFPS "Ieņēmumi no līgumiem ar klientiem"un 16.SFPS "Noma" prasības un to salīdzinājums ar iepriekšējiem SFPS/SGS un LR likumdošanu

    OpenAIRE

    Dābola, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darba temats 15. SFPS “Ieņēmumi no līgumiem ar klientiem” un 16. SFPS “Noma” prasības un to salīdzinājums ar iepriekšējiem SFPS/SGS un LR likumdošanu. Maģistra darba mērķis - balstoties uz 15. SFPS “Ieņēmumi no līgumiem ar klientiem” un 16. SFPS “Noma” standartu prasību izpēti un analīzi, novērtēt Latvijas likumdošanas atbilstību minēto standartu prasībām un sniegt priekšlikumus konkrētu jautājumu risināšanai Latvijas kontekstā. Maģistra darbā izpētīti LR normatīvie regulējumi un sta...

  17. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project FL1415: APALACHICOLA RIVER (MOUTH) TO SAUL CREEK, FL.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  18. Berkeley Lab's Saul Perlmutter wins Nobel Prize in Physics | Berkeley Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    astrophysics, dark energy, physics Connect twitter instagram LinkedIn facebook youtube This form needs + Materials Sciences twitter instagram LinkedIn facebook youtube A U.S. Department of Energy National twitter instagram LinkedIn facebook youtube

  19. Mass exodus of Latvian politicians promises shake-up in system / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2008-01-01

    Vt. samas: Party members drop New Era en masse. Rahulolematusest praeguse valitsuskoalitsiooniga on mitmed Läti poliitikud hüljanud erakonnad, loomaks uut poliitilist jõudu, mis oleks vasakpoolsem võrreldes siiani domineerinud poliitikaga

  20. Tommy Wilhelm: The Untraditional Hero of Saul Bellow’s Seize the Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Shahid Abdullah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many critics have judged Tommy Wilhelm in terms of his weaknesses only and have considered him a complete failure, far from being a hero. But many of them have failed to see the bright side of Tommy’s character. He possesses rare human qualities completely alien to the citizens of a morally corrupt society. The article aims to  prove that in spite of possessing various negative and unheroic qualities, Tommy, by defying social structure and network, asserts his non-conformity which, along with his humanity, love and philanthropy, aversion for power and material success and most importantly, his power of overcoming humiliation, secures him the position of a hero although an untraditional one. The narrative structure also plays a significant role behind his being a hero. Keywords: Materialism, Untraditional hero, Humanity, Non-conformity

  1. Unmasking the powers behind the party / Aigars Stokenbergs ; interv. Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stokenbergs, Aigars

    2007-01-01

    Endine Läti regionaalminister Aigars Stokenbergs parteist ja valitsusest lahkumisest, valitsuse ebastabiilsusest, võimalikust uuest parteist ning nn. oligarh Andris Skele rollist Lätis. Aigars Stokenbergs'i CV

  2. Kalvitis suspends anti-corruption chief over alleged misuse of funds / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Läti peaminister Aigars Kalvitis algatas uurimise korruptsioonitõrjebüroo direktori Aleksejs Loskutovsi suhtes. Riigikontroll avastas rikkumisi büroo raamatupidamises. Süüdistust on nimetatud ka poliitiliseks rünnakuks

  3. Autoralli MM-sarja ootab ees vaheaasta / Ivo Dobkevitš ; fotod Karli Saul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dobkevitsch, Ivo, 1973-

    2009-01-01

    Tehasetiimide majandusraskustest ja vähesest huvist autoralli MM-sarja vastu 2009. aastal ning FIA poolt kehtestatavatest tehnilistest muudatustest 2010. aastal. Samas: Urmo Aava hooaega vahele jätta ei kavatse

  4. Latvian politics : In search of a future / Artis Pabriks ; interv. Talis Saule Archdeacon, Gary Peach

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pabriks, Artis

    2007-01-01

    Läti välisministri kohalt ja Läti Rahvaparteist lahkunud Artis Pabriks oma arvamusest Loskutovi juhtumi kohta, parteist lahkumisest, loodavast valitsusvälisest organisatsioonist ja vajalikest muutustest Lätis. Artis Pabriks'i CV

  5. Cinética e equilíbrio de adsorção dos oxiânions Cr (VI, Mo (VI e Se (VI pelo sal de amônio quaternário de quitosana Kinetics and equilibrium of adsorption of oxyanions Cr (VI, Mo (VI and Se (VI by quaternary ammonium chitosan salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane A. Spinelli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O sal quaternário de quitosana foi sintetizado com cloreto de glicidil trimetil amônio. A modificação química foi caracterizada por espectrometria no IV, RMN de 13C e ¹H, e mmol/g de grupos quaternários presentes na matriz polimérica por condutimetria. A remoção de Cr (VI, Mo (VI e Se (VI, em meio aquoso, foi investigada em processo de batelada. A adsorção mostrou ser dependente do pH para o Cr (VI e Se (VI, com um pH ótimo de adsorção, entre 4,0 a 6,0. Para o Mo (VI a adsorção manteve-se quase constante no intervalo de pH entre 4,0 e 11,5. O modelo de isoterma de Langmuir descreveu melhor os dados de equilíbrio na faixa de concentração investigada. No presente estudo, um grama do sal quaternário de quitosana reticulado com glutaraldeído adsorveu 68,3 mg de Cr, 63,4 mg de Mo e 90,0 mg de Se. A velocidade de adsorção, no processo, segue a equação cinética de pseudo segunda-ordem, sendo que o equilíbrio para os três íons foi alcançado próximo aos 200 minutos. A análise dispersiva de raios-X para o Cr (VI mostrou que o principal mecanismo de adsorção é a troca iônica entre os íons Cl- da superfície do polímero pelos oxiânions. O trocador aniônico apresentou a seguinte ordem de seletividade: Cr (VI > Mo (VI > Se (VI.Quaternary chitosan salt was synthesized in the presence of glycidyl trimetyl ammonium chloride. The polymer was characterized by spectroscopic techniques: infrared, 13C and ¹H NMR, while the amount of quaternary ammonium groups was obtained by condutimetry. The removal of Cr (VI, Mo (VI and Se (VI from aqueous solutions was carried out in batch adsorption processes. The process seemed to be pH dependent for Cr (VI and Se (VI with an optimum pH ranging from 4.0 to 6.0; while for Mo (VI the adsorption remained almost constant within the range between 4.0 and 11.5. The Langmuir isotherm model provided the best fit of the equilibrium data over the whole concentration investigated. In the experiment

  6. Jogando com as feminilidades: um estudo etnográfico em um time de futsal feminino de Porto Alegre Jugando con las feminidades: um estudio etnográfico en un equipo de fútbol de salón femenino de Porto Alegre Laying with femininity: ethnographic study on an indoor soccer team from Porto Alegre

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    Raquel da Silveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo aborda o associativismo esportivo de mulheres. Trata-se de uma investigação etnográfica desenvolvida no contexto de um time de futsal feminino, onde procuramos saber como e porque mulheres se associam para praticar um esporte socialmente considerado masculino, e como essa prática se insere nas suas vidas. Após um ano de observação participante (diários de campo e realização de entrevistas (17, identificamos que a prática do futsal extrapola o jogo propriamente dito, sendo fortemente vinculada a questões de gênero e sexualidade presentes dentro e fora da quadra. Na relação com o esporte que elas escolheram praticar, esses temas se entrelaçavam no cotidiano das jogadoras, de forma heterogênea: se, por um lado, identificamos uma transgressão em relação aos padrões dominantes, por outro, também visualizamos a reprodução desses mesmos valores.Este estudio aborda el asociativismo deportivo de mujeres. Se trata de una investigación etnográfica desarrollada en el contexto de un equipo de fútbol de salón femenino, donde buscamos saber cómo y por qué mujeres se asocian para prácticar un deporte socialmente considerado masculino, y como esa práctica se inserta en sus vidas. Después de un año de observación participante (diarios de campo y realización de entrevistas (17, identificamos que la práctica de fútbol de salón extrapola el juego propiamente dicho, siendo vinculada a las cuestiones de género y sexualidad presentes dentro y afuera de la cancha. En la relación con el deporte que ellas eligieron prácticar, eses temas se entrelazaban en el cotidiano de las jugadoras de forma heterogénea: si por un lado, identificamos una transgresión en relación a los padrones dominantes, por otro, también visualizamos la reproducción de esos mismos valores.This study approaches the sporting associativism of women. It is an ethnographic investigation developed in the context of a female indoor soccer team, in

  7. Biodiversity and phylogenetic analysis of culturable bacteria indigenous to Khewra salt mine of Pakistan and their industrial importance Biodiversidade e análise filogenética de bactérias cultiváveis indígenas da mina de sal Khewra, Paquistão e sua importância industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Akhtar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Culturable bacterial biodiversity and industrial importance of the isolates indigenous to Khewra salt mine, Pakistan was assessed. PCR Amplification of 16S rDNA of isolates was carried out by using universal primers FD1 and rP1and products were sequenced commercially. These gene sequences were compared with other gene sequences in the GenBank databases to find the closely related sequences. The alignment of these sequences with sequences available from GenBank database was carried out to construct a phylogenetic tree for these bacteria. These genes were deposited to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained. Most of the isolates belonged to different species of genus Bacillus, sharing 92-99% 16S rDNA identity with the respective type strain. Other isolates had close similarities with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus arlettae and Staphylococcus gallinarum with 97%, 98% and 99% 16S rDNA similarity respectively. The abilities of isolates to produce industrial enzymes (amylase, carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, cellulase and protease were checked. All isolates were tested against starch, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, xylane, cellulose, and casein degradation in plate assays. BPT-5, 11,18,19 and 25 indicated the production of copious amounts of carbohydrates and protein degrading enzymes. Based on this study it can be concluded that Khewra salt mine is populated with diverse bacterial groups, which are potential source of industrial enzymes for commercial applications.Avaliou-se a biodiversidade e a importância industrial de bactérias indígenas da mina de sal Khewra, Paquistão. Efetuou-se a amplificação do 16S rDNA dos isolados por PCR empregando-se os iniciadores universais FD1 e rP1, e os produtos foram seqüenciados comercialmente. Essas seqüências de genes foram comparadas com outras seqüências disponíveis no GenBank a fim de encontrar seqüências relacionadas, construindo-se uma árvore filogenética para essas bactérias. Os genes

  8. Préférence et sensibilité aux aliments apportant les goûts gras, sucré, salé et amer et état pondéral [Preference and sensitivity to food providing fatty, sweet, salty and bitter tastes, and weight status

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    Ouassila ALLAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Résumé Introduction. Le goût est une modalité sensorielle chimique qui permet d'apprécier les saveurs d'une substance ingérée. Il joue un rôle essentiel dans la sélection des aliments. Objectif. Déterminer le niveau de sensibilité gustative aux goûts gras, sucré, salé et amer, à travers les préférences alimentaires et étudier le lien possible avec l’état pondéral. Matériel et méthodes. L’étude a porté sur 210 jeunes adultes (F/H, 157/53 âgés de 18 à 30 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques concernent le poids et la taille. Le questionnaire utilisé a permis l'évaluation des préférences alimentaires en relation avec différentes saveurs. Le niveau de sensibilité est estimé à partir des scores moyens de préférence attribués à chaque groupe d’aliments apportant le goût étudié. L’analyse statistique est réalisée avec le logiciel StatView. Résultats. Notre population compte 45,7% de sujets en surpoids dont 20% d’obèses. Le pourcentage du surpoids est plus élevé chez les femmes que chez les hommes (p=0,04. Une relation significative est trouvée entre la préférence au gras rajouté et l’état pondéral des adultes (p=0,0003. Aucune différence significative n’est trouvée entre le niveau de préférence ou de sensibilité pour les aliments sucrés, salés ou amers et l’état pondéral des adultes. Conclusion. Les adultes en surpoids présentent le niveau de préférence le plus faible et sont les moins sensibles par rapport au gras rajouté, ce qui peut influencer l’état pondéral par une consommation excessive d’aliments riches en gras. [ Abstract Introduction. Taste is a chemical sensory modality allowing to appreciate the flavors of an ingested substance. It plays an essential role in food choice. Objective. To define the level of taste sensitivity to fatty, sweet, salty and bitter tastes through food preferences and to study the possible link with weight status. Material and

  9. Circulação estacionária e estratificação de sal em canais estuarinos: simulação com modelos analíticos Stationary circulation and salt stratification in estuarine channels: simulation with analitic models

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    Marcos Eduardo Cordeiro Bernardes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A circulação estacionária e a estratificação de sal na região sul do Sistema Estuarino-lagunar de Cananéia-Iguape e no Canal de Bertioga são descritas. Os modelos de Fisher el al. (1972, Prandle (1985 e Miranda (1998 foram escolhidos para a simulação dos perfis verticais do componente longitudinal da velocidade e da salinidade. Os dados experimentais utilizados na calibração desses modelos foram amostrados em 41 estações fixas de um ou dois ciclos de maré semidiurna. Os modelos reproduziram com boa fidelidade condições experimentais bem misturadas e parcialmente misturadas. O gradiente longitudinal de densidade e a descarga de água doce foram as principais forçantes da circulação estacionária e estratificação de sal, em detrimento da influência secundária da tensão de cisalhamento do vento. De acordo com o diagrama Estratificação-circulaçâo de Hansen & Rattray (1966, a região sul do sistema estuarino de Cananéia apresentou condições bem misturadas (Tipo 1a e parcialmente misturadas (Tipo 2b antes e depois do rompimento da barragem do Valo Grande, respectivamente. No Canal de Bertioga foram observadas condições parcialmente misturadas (Tipo 2b nas imediações do Rio Itapanhaú e bem misturadas (Tipo lb no restante do canal. Os coeficientes teóricos de viscosidade turbulenta foram similares aos calculados experimentalmente por Mesquita et al. (1992.The stationary circulation and salinity stratification in the southern region of Cananéia-Iguape Estuarine-lagoon System and Bertioga Channel are described. The models of Fisher el al. (1972, Prandle (1985 and Miranda (1998 were selected for the simulation of vertical profiles of the longitudinal component of velocity and salinity. The experimental data set used for the calibration of these models were sampled in 41 anchored stations, for one or two semidiurnal tidal cycles. For well mixed and partially mixed conditions, theoretical results and experimental data

  10. Qualidade protéica de pão de sal contendo farinha de linhaça (Linum usitatissimum L.
    Protein quality of “french” bread containing flaxseed flour

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    J. T. S. BORGES

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As proteínas são moléculas essenciais aos organismos animais, devendo, portanto, estar presentes na alimentação em quantidades adequadas. Além do aspecto quantitativo deve-se considerar o aspecto qualitativo, isto é, seu valor nutricional, que dependerá da composição, digestibilidade, biodisponibilidade de aminoácidos essenciais, ausência de toxicidade e de fatores antinutricionais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a digestibilidade in vivo e a qualidade nutricional de proteínas de pães de sal obtidos com farinhas mistas de trigo e linhaça integral nas proporções de 90:10 e 85:15. Os melhores resultados para ganho de peso, coefi ciente de efi cácia alimentar, coefi ciente de efi cácia protéica e razão protéica líquida foram obtidos quando maior teor de farinha de trigo foi substituído pela farinha integral de linhaça na formulação dos pães. A lisina foi o primeiro aminoácido limitante em todos os produtos elaborados. A substituição parcial da farinha de trigo pela farinha de linhaça não melhorou a qualidade protéica dos pães estudados.

  11. Persistent hypertension and progressive renal injury induced by salt overload after short term nitric oxide inhibition Hipertensão persistente e lesão renal progressiva induzidas por sobrecarga de sal após inibição temporária do óxido nítrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Mattar

    2007-01-01

    em sal (HS promove albuminúria e dano renal graves, reversíveis ao interromperem-se os tratamentos. OBJETIVO: Investigamos se tais alterações recrudescem ao reinstituir-se a HS e se são prevenidas pelo micofenolato mofetil (MMF, um agente antilinfócito, ou losartan, um bloqueador do receptor AT-1. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Ratos Münich-Wistar machos adultos receberam NAME e HS. Um grupo controle (C recebeu apenas HS. Após 20 dias, os ratos que receberam HS e NAME exibiam hipertensão e albuminúria graves. Após recuperação de 30 dias, a hipertensão atenuou-se e a albuminúria praticamente desapareceu. Formaram-se então os grupos: HS, recebendo HS; NS, recebendo dieta normal em sal (NS; HS-MMF, recebendo HS e MMF; HS-LOS, recebendo HS e losartan; HS-HDZ, recebendo HS e hidralazina. Após sessenta dias os ratos NS tinham albuminúria e dano/inflamação renal apenas discretos. Já os ratos HS desenvolveram hipertensão e glomerulosclerose acentuadas, expansão intersticial e infiltração renal por macrófagos e células positivas para angiotensina II. Losartan baixou a pressão arterial e preveniu albuminúria e lesão renal. MMF proporcionou proteção semelhante sem alteração pressórica, sugerindo a ação de mecanismos não hemodinâmicos, hipótese reforçada pelo achado de que a HDZ baixou a pressão arterial sem prevenir a nefropatia. RESULTADOS: Esses resultados indicam que o tratamento com HS e NAME predispõe ao desenvolvimento de hipertensão e lesão renal induzidos por excesso de sal, caracterizando um novo modelo de nefropatia crônica. CONCLUSÃO: A resposta ao MMF ou losartan, mas não à hidralazina, sugere o predomínio de fatores inflamatórios.

  12. SAL and PVS Model of TTEthernet Synchronization Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Timed-Triggered Ethernet (or TTEthernet)is a communication infrastructure that enables the use of Ethernet in real-time, distributed systems. TTEthernet is...

  13. Salt zone cementing; Cimentacao em zonas de sal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Fernando Jose Parente Neiva; Miranda, Cristiane Richard de; Martins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1994-07-01

    This work introduces new concepts in the proposal of NaCl concentrations i cement slurry and operational parameters for cementing halite salt zones. Experiments carried out in the laboratory and in the Surface Hydraulic Simulator using real halite coring allowed the determination of halite dissolution rates in relation to flow, contact time, and initial Na Cl concentration in the cement slurries. An experimental procedure was developed to measure the adherence strength of hardened cement on halite formations. A Computer Simulator was developed with the adjustment of a model representing the physical phenomenon of mass transfer to the experimental results obtained, which enable us to calculate the Na Cl concentration profile on cement slurry after its positioning in the well's annular region, as well as the total mass of dissolved salt. Employment of the methodology developed in this work shall reduce risk of collapsed casing as well as the cost of the slurry. (author)

  14. Salt zone cementing; Cimentacao em zonas de sal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Fernando Jose Parente Neiva; Miranda, Cristiane Richard de; Martins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1994-07-01

    This work introduces new concepts in the proposal of NaCl concentrations i cement slurry and operational parameters for cementing halite salt zones. Experiments carried out in the laboratory and in the Surface Hydraulic Simulator using real halite coring allowed the determination of halite dissolution rates in relation to flow, contact time, and initial Na Cl concentration in the cement slurries. An experimental procedure was developed to measure the adherence strength of hardened cement on halite formations. A Computer Simulator was developed with the adjustment of a model representing the physical phenomenon of mass transfer to the experimental results obtained, which enable us to calculate the Na Cl concentration profile on cement slurry after its positioning in the well's annular region, as well as the total mass of dissolved salt. Employment of the methodology developed in this work shall reduce risk of collapsed casing as well as the cost of the slurry. (author)

  15. RASYONEL KARAR ALAN EKONOMİK BİRİMİN RİSK ALTINDA VERDİĞİ KARARLARA DAVRANIŞSAL YAKLAŞIM: KAHNEMAN-TVERSKY BEKLENTİ TEORİSİ PERSPEKTİFİNDEN ELEŞTİREL BİR BAKIŞ

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    Fatih ŞENTÜRK

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetEkonomi literatüründe neo-klasik döneme kadar ekonomi ve psikoloji bilimleri arasındaki bağ göz ardıedilerek, insanın salt rasyonel kararlar alan bir varlık olduğu ifade edilmiştir. Ancak son otuz yıllık dönemdeinsanların, ekonomik kararlar alırken psikolojiye ilişkin çeşitli faktörlerden de etkilendiğini savunan“Davranışsal Yaklaşım”, farklı bir bakış ortaya koymuştur. Bu yaklaşımın öncüleri, D. Kahneman ve A.Tversky belirsizlik ortamında karar alan bireylerin davranışlarını incelemiş ve insanların, riskten kaçınmaeğilimlerinin kazanma isteklerine galip geldiğini ve her zaman rasyonel davranışlar sergileyemedikleriniileri sürmüşlerdir. Yapmış oldukları birçok deneysel çalışma ile kayıpların verdiği acının, kazançların verdiğitatminden iki kat daha fazla olduğunu tespit etmişlerdir. Bu makalede insan psikolojisinin ekonomiktercihlere etkilerine değinilmiş ve özellikle risk altında karar verme konusunda bireyin irrasyonel davranışlargösterdiği çeşitli örnekler ışığında açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır.AbstractIgnoring the connection between the economics and psychological sciences until the neo-classical termin economics literature, it has been stated that human is a creature taking only rational decisions. However,in the last thirty years, a different approach named “Behavioural Approach” that argues that people are influenced also by various factors related with psychology while taking decisions with economy has occured.The pioneers of this approach, D. Kahneman and A. Tversky examined the behaviours of the individualswho make decision in an uncertainty environment and put forward that people’s tendency of avoidingrisks defeats their willing to win and that they cannot always behave rationally. With many experimentalstudies they carried out, they determined that the sadness caused by the losses are two times more than thesatisfaction given by

  16. La capacidad de trabajo funcional de las practicantes de Gimnasia Aerobia de Salón en correspondencia con las edades de 18 a 50 años de las escuelas comunitarias del municipio de Pinar del Río

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Mojena Rodríguez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Con nuestro trabajo pretendemos brindar un valioso aporte para resolver una de las principales problemáticas que afrontan hoy en día los docentes que imparten  el  programa  de  gimnasia  aerobia  de  salón  ya  que  la  idea  es establecer rangos que nos permita evaluar de B, R y M la capacidad física de resistencia cardiovascular, contribuyendo a que este su principal objetivo se desarrolle sobre bases mas científicas , mediante la aplicación del test de Cooper a practicantes entrenados en las edades comprendidas entre 18 y 50 años  del  sexo  femenino, teniendo  en  cuenta  como  principal  medidor  el consumo máximo de oxigeno para evaluar dicha prueba, que la aplicaremos en tres momentos con dos meses de tiempo de aplicación entre una medición y otra que nos brindara en que por ciento debe mejorar su rendimiento o incrementar la mejoría en esta capacidad entre cada prueba que seria el principal aporte de nuestra investigación premisa la resistencia se puede definir como la capacidad psíquica y física que posee un deportista para resistir la fatiga (Weineck 1992, entendiéndose como fatiga la disminución transitoria de la capacidad de rendimiento. Es la capacidad de realizar un esfuerzo de mayor o menor intensidad, durante el mayor tiempo posible. La capacidad de oposición a la fatiga. Es la lucha para la mejora de la capacidad de absorción de O, ya que cuando se incrementa la intensidad de los esfuerzos, mayor es la necesidad de un aporte de oxígeno. Desde el punto de vista bioquímico,  la resistencia se determina por la relación entre la cantidad de las reservas energéticas dispuestas para su utilización y la velocidad de consumo de la energía durante la práctica deportiva (Menshikov y Volkov 1990. La resistencia tiene como sustrato morfo-funcional  al aparato cardiocirculatorio y respiratorio.  El aparato cardiovascular controla la cantidad de sangre que el corazón bombea y la circulaci

  17. Efeitos da suplementação de potássio via sal de cozinha sobre a pressão arterial e a resistência à insulina em pacientes obesos hipertensos em uso de diuréticos Effects of potassium supplementation by salt on arterial blood pressure and insulin resistance in hypertensive obese patients on diuretic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Gouveia Pereira

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de potássio, por intermédio do sal de cozinha contendo cloreto de potássio, associada à dieta hipocalórica e à atividade física aeróbica, sobre a pressão arterial e índices de resistência à insulina em pacientes hipertensos com obesidade abdominal. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo duplo-cego, randomizado, em 22 pacientes hipertensos com excesso de peso (índice de massa corporal >27kg/m² e controle insatisfatório da pressão arterial durante o uso de diuréticos pressão arterial sistólica >140 e 90 e OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of oral potassium supplementation, associated with a hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercises, on plasma potassium levels, blood pressure and insulin resistance, in centrally obese, not well controlled hypertensive patients on diuretic therapy; waist to hip ratio >0.85 in women, and >0.95 in men; systolic blood pressure >140mmHg and 90mmHg and <105mmHg. METHODS: This was a prospective double-blind randomized study including 22 patients divided in 2 groups: sodium chloride n=10, and potassium chloride n=12. For 12 weeks, each group received cooking salt containing, either 100% sodium chloride, or 50% sodium chloride and 50% potassium chloride. All patients were submitted to a hypocaloric diet and advised to increase their physical activity; a 40-minute walk three times a week. Before and after the study period, all patients were submitted to determinations of body mass index, body composition, waist circumference, sodium and potassium urinary excretions, sodium and potassium serum levels, 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, oral glucose tolerance test with serum insulin measurements at fasting and 120 minutes after glucose load, and serum lipid profile. RESULTS: In both groups, no changes were observed in serum sodium and potassium levels, in blood glucose and insulin levels, insulin resistance indexes and serum

  18. Bilişsel - Duyuşsal Odaklı Bir Programın ilköğretim Öğrencilerinin Fiziksel Engelli Yaşıtlarına Yönelik Sosyal Kabul Düzeylerine Etkisinin İncelenmesi

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    Canan Aktaş

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmanın amacı bilişsel ve duyuşsal odaklı etkinlikleri içeren bir programın ilköğretim öğrencilerinin fiziksel engelli yaşıtlarına yönelik sosyal kabul düzeyleri üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Araştırmaya deney ve kontrol gruplarında 20'şer öğrenci olmak üzere toplam 40 öğrenci (6., 7'., ve 8. sınıf katılmıştır. Deney grubunu II kız 9 erkek, kontrol grubunu ise 9 kız, 11 erkek öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Öğrencilerin fiziksel engelli yaşıtlarına yönelik sosyal kabul düzeyleri program öncesi ve sonrasında Sosyal Kabul Ölçeği ile değerlendirilmiştir. Deney grubundaki öğrencilere haftada iki gün 90 dakika süreli 7 oturumdan oluşan bir program uygulanmıştır. Programda, öğrencilere fiziksel engelli bireyler hakkında bilgi verme, film gösterme, grup tartışması, görme engelli bir bireyle doğrudan etkileşimde bulunma ve engel durumunu canlandırma etkinliklerine yer verilmiştir. Analiz sonuçları, uygulanan programın deney grubundaki öğrencilerin fiziksel engelli yaşıtlarına yönelik sosyal kabul düzeylerini geliştirmede etkili olduğunu göstermiştir. Araştırmada elde edilen bu bulgu, engelli Öğrencilerin normal okul ortamlarında başarılı bir biçimde kaynaştırılmaları açısından benzer programların gerekliliğine işaret etmektedir. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of an intervention program, incorporated cognitive and affective activities on social acceptance level of physically disabled children by their nonhandicapped peers, at 6"' to Slh grade. A total of 40 students. 20 for experimental (II female and 9 male and 20 for control group (9 female and 11 male participated in the study. The Social Acceptance Scale was administered to both groups before and after the program. The program, applied lo the experimental group, was held two times a week for ninety minutes per day for seven weeks. Provision of information about

  19. Mediji un populisms: ASV mediju dienaskārtība un ziņu atspoguļojums kā veicinošs faktors Donalda Trampa priekšvēlēšanu kampaņas atbalstam. 2011. un 2015. gada ziņu raidījumu salīdzinošā analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksejeva, Santa

    2017-01-01

    Maģistra darba tēmas ir “Mediji un populisms: ASV mediju dienaskārtība un ziņu atspoguļojums kā veicinošs faktors Donalda Trampa priekšvēlēšanu kampaņas atbalstam. 2011. un 2015. gada ziņu raidījumu salīdzinošā analīze”. Pētījuma mērķis ir izpētīt mediju un populisma saikni un apstiprināt hipotēzi, ka mediju veidotā dienaskārtība un ziņu atspoguļojums par brīvo tirdzniecību, Pieejmās Aprūpes likumu un imigrāciju ASV televīzijas kanālos CNN, MSNBC un FOX News 2015. gadā ir veicinājis sabiedrīb...

  20. Saul bellow's henderson, the rain king — a coming to terms with his self and with the world around Saul bellow's henderson, the rain king — a coming to terms with his self and with the world around

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrian Vieira B. de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As the plot focuses on Henderson, our starting point wil be a presentation of his most important characteristics, so we can better understand the developing of the action. Henderson, at the age of fifty-five, is not a happy man. Although he has a nice wife and kids, plenty of money and time to enjoy life and its pleasures, he thinks he has made a mess of his life. Physically, he describes himself as "six feet four inches tall. Two hundred and thirty pounds - An enormous head, rugged, with hair like Persian lamb's fur. Suspicious eyes, usually narrowed. Blustering ways. A great nose" (p.8. His appearance is, to say the least, remarkable. And he made it still more remarkable by the kind of clothes he liked to wear. He is a person who requires " large and real emotions" (p. 25 and that is why he was happy when he was in the war; /the civilian life bored him. Although he is always quarreling and many times "behaved like a bum", he wants to belong, to be accepted. On p. 256, when he's telling about one of his experiences with king Dahfu, what kind of words came instinctively from his mouth? "and certain words crept into my roars, like "God", "Help", "Lord Have Mercy"... plus snatches from the Messiah (he was despised and rejected, a man of sorrows, etcetera". He feels there is a similarity between the Messiah and himself. Another aspect of his contradictory personality is the combination of sensitivity and a taste for hard manual work. The same hands that have"thrown down boars and pinned them and gelded them" (p. 32 also played the violin. As the plot focuses on Henderson, our starting point wil be a presentation of his most important characteristics, so we can better understand the developing of the action. Henderson, at the age of fifty-five, is not a happy man. Although he has a nice wife and kids, plenty of money and time to enjoy life and its pleasures, he thinks he has made a mess of his life. Physically, he describes himself as "six feet four inches tall. Two hundred and thirty pounds - An enormous head, rugged, with hair like Persian lamb's fur. Suspicious eyes, usually narrowed. Blustering ways. A great nose" (p.8. His appearance is, to say the least, remarkable. And he made it still more remarkable by the kind of clothes he liked to wear. He is a person who requires " large and real emotions" (p. 25 and that is why he was happy when he was in the war; /the civilian life bored him. Although he is always quarreling and many times "behaved like a bum", he wants to belong, to be accepted. On p. 256, when he's telling about one of his experiences with king Dahfu, what kind of words came instinctively from his mouth? "and certain words crept into my roars, like "God", "Help", "Lord Have Mercy"... plus snatches from the Messiah (he was despised and rejected, a man of sorrows, etcetera". He feels there is a similarity between the Messiah and himself. Another aspect of his contradictory personality is the combination of sensitivity and a taste for hard manual work. The same hands that have"thrown down boars and pinned them and gelded them" (p. 32 also played the violin.

  1. Samsun İli Salıpazarı İlçesi Arıcılığının ve Arıcı-Birlik İlişkilerinin İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Emir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırma, Samsun ili Salıpazarı ilçesindeki arıcıların sosyo-ekonomik ve üretim yapısı ile arıcı-birlik ilişkilerini ortaya koymayı amaçlamıştır. Araştırma verileri sistematik örnekleme metoduyla seçilmiş 30 arıcıdan 2014-2015 üretim yılı esas alınarak anket yoluyla ve alan çalışmasındaki gözlemlerle elde edilmiştir. Arıcıların sosyo-ekonomik yapısı, klasik ekonomik analizle ortaya konulmuştur. Verilerin analizinde tanımlayıcı istatistikler kullanılmıştır.  Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; arıcılar, arıcılığı ek gelir amaçlı, kısa mesafeli göçer veya sabit arıcılık olarak yapmaktadırlar. Ortalama 52 yaşında olan arıcılar, 15 yıllık arıcılık deneyimine sahip olup, 8 yıl örgün eğitim görmüşlerdir. İlçede arıcıların ortalama 90 kolonisi olup, koloni başına bal veriminin 15 kg olduğu saptanmıştır. Son yıllarda azalan verimin en önemli nedeni olarak yöre şartlarına uyum sağlamayan arı ırkları gösterilmiştir. Arıcıların %93’ü Varroa destructor ile mücadele ettiğini belirtmiştir. İlçede süzme çiçek balı 25-50 TL kg-1 satılırken; kestane balı 55-90 TL kg-1 arasında pazarlanmaktadır. Arıcıların %80’i birlik faaliyetlerini yararlı bulmaktadır. İlçe gençleri meslek yüksekokullarında açılacak arıcılık bölümlerinde eğitilerek arıcılığa özendirilmeli ve arıcı ortalama yaşı düşürülerek yeni neslin arıcılık mesleğini sahiplenmesi sağlanmalıdır. Varroa destructor mücadelesi için entegre ilaçlama yapılmalıdır. Birliklerin düzenleneceği eğitimlerde, pazarlama, ana arı yetiştiriciliği, arı hastalıkları ve tedavi yöntemleri konularına yer verilmesi ve bu eğitimlerin uygulamalı olması ilçe ve ülke arıcılığında var olan yanlış uygulamaların azaltılmasına katkı sağlayabilecektir.

  2. Väitöskirja henkilöstöomistuksesta Virossa / Klaus E Meyer, Saul Estrin, Derek C Jones

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meyer, Klaus E

    2002-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School'i, London Business School'i ja Hamilton College'i professorite kommentaarid Panu Kalmi väitekirjale On the (In)stability of employee ownership: Estonian evidence and lessons for transition economies

  3. The Treatment of Cancer by a Radioactive Drug: Tritium-Labelled Tetra-Sodium 2-Methyl-1:4-Naphthaquinol Diphosphate; Traitement du Cancer par un Remede Radioactif: Le Diphosphate Tetrasodique de Methyl-2 Naphtoquinone-1,4 Tritie; 041b 0435 0447 0435 043d 0414 ; Tratamiento del Cancer con la Sal Tetrasodica del Acido 2-Metil-1,4-Naftoquinon Difosforico Marcada con Tritio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrian, D. H.; Marshall, Barbara; Mitchell, J. S.; Simon-Reuss, I. [Department of Radiotherapeutics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1962-02-15

    The action of tetra-sodium 2-methyl-1: 4-naphthaquinoI diphosphate (''Synkavit''-Roche Products) as a radiosensitizer will be reviewed together with earlier methods of labelling this and similar molecules. The synthesis of this compound labelled with tritium has been accomplished so as to yield a radiochemically pure drug of specific activity 28 c/mmole (1 atom of tritium/molecule). It will be shown that this compound enters the living cell very rapidly both in-vivo and in-vitro and that cultures of malignant cells incorporate the label to a much greater extent than cultures of normal cells under identical conditions. Preliminary investigations on the use of this drug on patients with advanced, and often otherwise, refractory, malignant conditions will be described; uptake by the bone marrow is less than by the tumour, sometimes by a factor of 5. (author) [French] Les auteurs examinent l'action du diphosphate tetrasodique de methyl-2- naphtoquinone-1,4 ('Synkavit'-Produits Roche) comme radiosensibilisateur, ainsi que les methodes plus anciennes de marquage de ces molecules et de molecules analogues. On a fait la synthese de ce compose marque au tritium, de facon a obtenir un produit pharmaceutique radiochimiquement pur, dont l'activite specifique est de 28 curies par millimole (1 atome de tritium par molecule). Les auteurs demontrent que ce compose penetre tres rapidement dans la cellule vivante, tant in vivo qu'in vitro, et que les cultures de cellules malignes fixent l'indicateur dans une mesure beaucoup plus large que ne le feront les cellules normales dans les memes conditions. Les auteurs exposent les resultats de recherches preliminaires sur l'emploi de ce remede pour soigner des malades atteints de tumeurs malignes avancees et souvent refractaires a tout autre traitement. L'absorption par la moelle osseuse est inferieure, parfois de 5 fois, a l'absorption par la tumeur. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen la accion radiosensibilizadora de la sal

  4. Mutations in FUS cause FALS and SALS in French and French Canadian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzil, V V; Valdmanis, P N; Dion, P A; Daoud, H; Kabashi, E; Noreau, A; Gauthier, J; Hince, P; Desjarlais, A; Bouchard, J-P; Lacomblez, L; Salachas, F; Pradat, P-F; Camu, W; Meininger, V; Dupré, N; Rouleau, G A

    2009-10-13

    The identification of mutations in the TARDBP and more recently the identification of mutations in the FUS gene as the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is providing the field with new insight about the mechanisms involved in this severe neurodegenerative disease. To extend these recent genetic reports, we screened the entire gene in a cohort of 200 patients with ALS. An additional 285 patients with sporadic ALS were screened for variants in exon 15 for which mutations were previously reported. In total, 3 different mutations were identified in 4 different patients, including 1 3-bp deletion in exon 3 of a patient with sporadic ALS and 2 missense mutations in exon 15 of 1 patient with familial ALS and 2 patients with sporadic ALS. Our study identified sporadic patients with mutations in the FUS gene. The accumulation and description of different genes and mutations helps to develop a more comprehensive picture of the genetic events underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  5. Estudio preliminar de tres modelos de destiladores solares para producir sal y agua potable (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S. Nandwani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed three solar stills of areas 0.5-1.0 m2 to produce salt and potable water, using local technology and local materials. We have studied the thermal efficiency of these stills as a function of solar intensity, covers, geometrical configuration, quantity of water, salt concentration and artificial cooling of the cover. Some of the important results are: still with glass cover destill more water than still with plastic cover, thermal efficiency vary between 10-30%, amount of water which can be evaporated and condense is 2-4 l/day/m2, exist 25-60% of loss of water in the still and finally artificial cooling of the cover can be accelerate the process of condensation, etc. Finally we have mentioned the chemical analysis of destilled and normal tap water.

  6. 'Wat jy ook op die aarde mag bind, sal in die hemel gebonde wees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    19 Jul 2010 ... lig.' Sy 'juk' verskil van die sware laste wat die skrifgeleerdes op mense gelaai het deur hulle te hiet en te gebied, te bind en te verbied. Sy juk is lig en sag, want Hy maak mense los; Hy vergewe en verwelkom mense, al verdien hulle dit nie. Hy bevestig hierdie 'losmaak' as Hy in die volgende hoofstuk ...

  7. The Relation between Cognitive and Metacognitive Processing: Building Bridges between the SRL, MDL, and SAL Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coertjens, Liesje

    2018-01-01

    Aim: The main aim of this commentary was to connect the insights from the contributions of the special issue on the intersection between depth and the regulation of strategy use. The seven contributions in this special issue stem from three perspectives: self-regulated learning (SRL), model of domain learning (MDL), or the student approaches to…

  8. Bleeding, thrombosis, and anticoagulation in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN: analysis from the German SAL-MPN-registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kaifie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN, such as polycythemia vera (PV, essential thrombocythemia (ET, and primary myelofibrosis (PMF, are at increased risk for thrombosis/thromboembolism and major bleeding. Due to the morbidity and mortality of these events, antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant agents are commonly employed as primary and/or secondary prophylaxis. On the other hand, disease-related bleeding complications (i.e., from esophageal varices are common in patients with MPN. This analysis was performed to define the frequency of such events, identify risk factors, and assess antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy in a cohort of patients with MPN. Methods The MPN registry of the Study Alliance Leukemia is a non-interventional prospective study including adult patients with an MPN according to WHO criteria (2008. For statistical analysis, descriptive methods and tests for significant differences as well as contingency tables were used to identify the odds of potential risk factors for vascular events. Results MPN subgroups significantly differed in sex distribution, age at diagnosis, blood counts, LDH levels, JAK2V617F positivity, and spleen size (length. While most thromboembolic events occurred around the time of MPN diagnosis, one third of these events occurred after that date. Splanchnic vein thrombosis was most frequent in post-PV-MF and MPN-U patients. The chance of developing a thromboembolic event was significantly elevated if patients suffered from post-PV-MF (OR 3.43; 95 % CI = 1.39–8.48 and splenomegaly (OR 1.76; 95 % CI = 1.15–2.71. Significant odds for major bleeding were previous thromboembolic events (OR = 2.71; 95 % CI = 1.36–5.40, splenomegaly (OR = 2.22; 95 % CI 1.01–4.89, and the administration of heparin (OR = 5.64; 95 % CI = 1.84–17.34. Major bleeding episodes were significantly less frequent in ET patients compared to other MPN subgroups. Conclusions Together, this report on an unselected “real-world” cohort of German MPN patients reveals important data on the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of thromboembolic and major bleeding complications of MPN.

  9. CLARA-SAL: a global 28 yr timeseries of Earth's black-sky surface albedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riihelä

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel 28 yr dataset of Earth's black-sky surface albedo, derived from AVHRR instruments. The dataset is created using algorithms to separately derive the surface albedo for different land use areas globally. Snow, sea ice, open water and vegetation are all treated independently. The product features corrections for the atmospheric effect in satellite-observed surface radiances, a BRDF correction for the anisotropic reflectance properties of natural surfaces, and a novel topography correction of geolocation and radiometric accuracy of surface reflectance observations over mountainous areas. The dataset is based on a homogenized AVHRR radiance timeseries. The product is validated against quality-controlled in situ observations of clear-sky surface albedo at various BSRN sites around the world. Snow and ice albedo retrieval validation is given particular attention using BSRN sites over Antarctica, Greenland Climate Network stations on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS, as well as sea ice albedo data from the SHEBA and Tara expeditions. The product quality is found to be comparable to other previous long-term surface albedo datasets from AVHRR.

  10. A entrada de sal num espaço insular: Ilha da Madeira (1750-1832

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the input of salt, from 1750 to 1832, in an insular space: the island of Madeira. The perception of this supply trade will be based, primarily, in a documental source of the municipality of Funchal (where is the only port of Madeira with conection with the exterior: the books of Registo dos Navios entrados no Funchal e despachos da Casa da Saúde. Through a quantitative approach, the topics of analysis are: conjunctural movements of importation; position of Madeira as a scale for salt in the Atlantic; areas of origin; duration of trips; types of ships carriers of salt.

  11. Impacto da alfabetização de adultos sobre salário e emprego

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Maúna Soares de Baldini; Ponczek, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2010-01-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos evidência sobre os efeitos da alfabetização de adultos na renda e probabilidade de empregos dos indivíduos. Os dados longitudinais disponibilizados pela Pesquisa Mensal de Emprego (PME) permitem controlar os efeitos fixos não-observáveis dos indivíduos gerando uma estimação mais robusta e consistente dos efeitos analisados. De modo geral, os resultados deste trabalho indicam retorno de 9,3% em rendimentos para indivíduos que se alfabetizam. Mostramos...

  12. Dlo-Dlo Sal 3 PSA (:60) (Water/Sewage 3)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    An important public health announcement with tips to insure your bottled water is safe. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  13. Dlo-Dlo Sal 1 PSA (:60) (Water/Sewage 1)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    An important public health announcement about drinking water safety and steps to make sure your water is safe. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  14. Dlo-Dlo Sal 2 PSA (:60) (Water/Sewage 2)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    An important public health announcement about drinking water safety and tips to clean water using a clean clothe filter. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  15. Climate driven changes in Engelmann spruce stands at timberline in the La Sal Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Steven Overby; Barb Smith

    2012-01-01

    Due to global warming spruce-fir forest and associated vegetation may experience elevational displacement and altered species composition at the timberline-treeline ecotone. These forests and their component species are predicted to migrate upslope and thus landscape features such as timberline and treeline may move upslope as well. Prior to this study, baseline data...

  16. f Mo fingerl ortality ings in ch asses n varyi hanges ssment ing sal s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    bioma lead. (Bhup. 410805622606 ccess under the ournal of E reochro and inf oxicity. - Allah Kaf of Lagos, P.M. 10 November, 2 d protection nce of salinit nce and rela nst O. niloti t chemical. C ls of 2, 12, 1 by Probit. Mo. 35 ppt within there was a s imilarly, the significance o confer pr ence on t icochemical ls and pest.

  17. VT Generalized Land Cover Land Use for Champlain Basin - SAL 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Circa 1992 land use - land cover (LULC) for the Lake Champlain Basin. This layer was created by performing a retrospective change detection on the...

  18. Sand and clay mineralogy of sal forest soils of the Doon Siwalik ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Forest Soil & Land Reclamation Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248 006, India. .... also helps in characterizing the soil mineralogical make-up in relation to the growth and develop- ment of the species essential for sustainable forest management. ...... and Weed S B (Madison: Soil Science Society of America).

  19. Preparation and validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9924

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliano, G.; Cappis, J.; Doubek, N.; Jammet, G.; Raab, W.; Zoigner, A.

    1989-12-01

    To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing 2 to 4 mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 97%) and 40 to 200 mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 18%) can be advantageously used to spike a concentrated spent fuel solution with a high burn up and with a low 235 U enrichment. This will simplify the conditioning of the sample by 1) reduced time of preparation (from more than one day used for the conventional technique to 2-3 hours); 2) reduced burden for the operator with a clear easiness for the inspector to witness the entire procedure (accurate dilution of the spent fuel sample before spiking being no longer necessary). Furthermore this type of spike could be used as a common spike for the operator and the inspector. The source materials are available in sufficient quantity and are enough cheaper than the commonly used 233 U and 242 Pu or 244 Pu tracer that the costs of the overall Operator-Inspector procedures will be reduced. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBS-960 and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing 1.7 mg/ml of Pu and 68 mg/ml of 17.5% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution must be dried to give Large Size Dried Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of the Large Size Dried Spike. Proof of usefulness in the field will be done at a later date in parallel with analysis by the conventional technique. Refs and tabs

  20. 75 FR 62364 - Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service... conducted: (1) Consideration of Proposal Forms, (2) Development of Proposal Review Process, (3) Development...

  1. Distribution of organic matter and plant nutrients in a sal (shorea robusta) coppice plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, O.N.; Sharma, D.C.; Srivastava, P.B.L.

    The biomass and nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) of leaves, twigs, branches, stems and bark were determined for sample trees in a stand in the New Forest, Dehra Dun, coppiced 21 years previously. It was estimated that the removal of stems, branches and bark by harvesting at this age would remove 82-91% of the total nutrients (kg/ha) in the stand.

  2. Sand and clay mineralogy of sal forest soils of the Doon Siwalik ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Forest Soil & Land Reclamation Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248 006, India. ∗ e-mail: ... understanding the distribution of forest types and ... Material and methods. 2.1 Study area .... Finally, for the qualitative and quan-.

  3. 78 FR 2947 - Manti-La Sal National Forest, Utah; Maverick Point Forest Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... resistance to insects, disease, drought, and wildfire by altering stand density, species composition, and age..., and density); Restoration of fire occurrence to historic intervals, intensity, and severity; and... will be closed by construction of a solid plug of rock and/or cement, or if utilized by bats, by...

  4. Die een wat sal kom: 'Messiaanse tekste' in die Ou Testament en ander Joodse geskrifte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonso Groenewald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The one who is to come: �Messianic texts� in the Old Testament and other Jewish writingsAccording to the New-Testament authors, the life of Jesus, as Christ, should be seen in light of the Old-Testament texts. It seems that all the messianic texts in the Old Testament had been fulfilled in Jesus. The Messiah, who had been expected for a long time, was born in Bethlehem. This interpretation by the New-Testament authors has caused the church and Christians throughout the centuries to read the Old Testament as a prophecy, which is fulfilled in Jesus Christ. This interpretation has caused impatience with Jews, who did not accept Jesus of Nazareth as the Messiah. This article addresses the question: How did ancient Israel understand the concept �messiah�? It seems that the term is much more complex than a single meaning would allow the reader to believe. This article thus focuses on the theological functioning of the term within the Hebrew Bible as well as in other Jewish writings.

  5. Mirá con lo que me salís

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNÁN JOAQUÍN FONSECA JIMÉNEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quiero ofrecer un avance de la tarea de exploración de mis fantasías inconscientes, y, más ampliamente, del ámbito pulsional, una de cuyas pulsiones es la deseante, a la par de la soñante, y que tiene como representante para la conciencia del yo empírico las fantasías. Los fundamentos presentados son psicoanalíticos, pero no es mi propósito dar cuenta del Psicoanálisis freudiano o lacaniano, sino poner al servicio de mi indagación algunos de los conceptos que le conciernen. Conocer en sentido estricto el Psicoanálisis es una labor ardua, y por ahora sólo me interesa en la medida en que me ayude a comprender mis procesos psíquicos relacionados con la pulsión fantaseadora, y los cuales abarcan e incluyen una problemática del sujeto: mi problemática. Se trata de la pregunta que plantea el Psicoanálisis, de acuerdo con A. Triandafillidis: "¿qué es una historia singular con respecto al deseo?" (citado por Kaufman, 1996, p. 127. Otra perspectiva conceptual tiene que ver con la escritura como método de indagación y una de sus formas, la escritura autoetnográfica o evocativa.

  6. Simulating SAL formation and aerosol size distribution during SAMUM-I

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit Ali; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Weinzierl,  Bernadett; Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Osipov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    -Chem) to reproduce the meteorological environment and spatial and size distributions of dust. The experimental domain covers northwest Africa including the southern Sahara, Morocco and part of the Atlantic Ocean with 5 km horizontal grid spacing and 51 vertical

  7. Ph Sal henoty lmonel ypic an lla sero p d mole otypes produc ecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    recognized since the beginning of the dairy industry. Many diseases are ..... serovars in retail meats of market place in Shaanxi, China. Int. J. Food Microbiol. ... from indigenous vegetables and poultry in Malaysia. Lett. Appl. Microbiol.

  8. La televisión dentro del salón de clases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Inestrosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta reflexión se exploran tres posibilidades de uso de los contenidos televisivos que el docente de educación primaria y media puede aprovechar en su tarea de facilitador de los aprendizajes de sus alumnos. La idea es que el profesor pueda tomar en cuenta a la televisión comercial como un apoyo importante de su labor docente, pues a partir de los contenidos de esta podrá ir estructurando una serie de prácticas educativas interesantes y de consideración como el desarrollo y práctica de la expresión del niño.

  9. Evaluation of Giga-bit Ethernet instrumentation for SalSA electronics readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varner, Gary S.; Murakami, Laine; Ridley, David; Zhu Chaopin; Gorham, Peter

    2005-01-01

    An instrumentation prototype for acquiring high-speed transient data from an array of high bandwidth antennas is presented. Multi-kilometer cable runs complicate acquisition of such large bandwidth radio signals from an extensive antenna array. Solutions using analog fiber optic links are being explored though are very expensive. We propose an inexpensive solution that allows for individual operation of each antenna element, operating at potentially high local self-trigger rates. Digitized data packets are transmitted to the surface via commercially available Giga-bit Ethernet hardware. Events are then reconstructed on a computer farm by sorting the received packets using standard networking gear, eliminating the need for custom, very high speed trigger hardware. Such a system is completely scalable and leverages the enormous capital investment made by the telecommunications industry. Test results from a demonstration prototype are presented

  10. VT Generalized Land Cover Land Use for Champlain Basin - SAL 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Circa 2001 land use / land cover (LULC) for the Lake Champlain Basin. The goal in creating this layer was to generate an "improved" version of...

  11. Engineering aspects of the salt diapirs; Aspectos de engenharia do diapirismo de sal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Ricardo Garske [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    From the viewpoint of drilling and well bore integrity, salt presents new significant challenges of geomechanical nature. Saline rocks have a characteristic feature of deforming slowly over time, phenomenon known as creep. Salt bodies affect present geomechanical environment by change of the local stress state. This is due mainly by the fact that salt is not able to withstand deviatoric stresses. In particular, changes in stresses can happen in the vicinity of salt bodies which are of enough magnitude to affect the fracture gradient and well bore stability, the salt-sediment interface region being the one which concentrates the majority of drilling difficulties. During the drilling of an evaporitic section in an oil well, the accumulated strain over a time period can be enough to restrain the passing of the drilling column and even stuck it in an irretrievable way. After the well has been cased, the salt creep can manifest undesirably causing, in some situations, constraints to passing tools along the casing or even causing its rupture by collapse. In order to address this issue, this work seeks to assess how saline structures affect the present geomechanics environment through changes in the local state of stresses, in addition to the consequences to well bore drilling arising from this modified stress state inside and close to the salt. A historic summary is also presented concerning operational problems in well bore drilling in regions influenced by salt movement. (author)

  12. Kuidas Helena Bonham Carter ahviks muutus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Taas on ekraanile jõudnud "Ahvide planeet" ("Planet of the Apes") : režissöör Tim Burton : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001. Kuidas tehti näitlejatele ahvide grimmi. Lähemalt Helena Bonham Carteri grimmist

  13. Laevahüpoteegi arengust Eesti õiguskorras : [bakalaureusetöö] / Kristiina Saul ; Õigusinstituut ; juhendaja: Priidu Pärna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saul, Kristiina

    2002-01-01

    Laevahüpoteegi võrdlus enne 1940. a. kehtinud regulatsiooniga, laevahüpoteegi ja hüpoteegi võrdlev analüüs, laevahüpoteegi õigusliku regulatsiooni rahvusvaheline võrdlus (Eesti, Skandinaavia, Saksamaa)

  14. Estudo comparativo do consumo de oxigênio e limiar anaeróbio em um teste de esforço progressivo entre atletas profissionais de futebol e futsal Estudio comparativo del consumo de oxígeno y límite anaeróbico en un test de esfuerzo progresivo entre atletas profesionales de fútbol y fútbol de salón Comparative study of the oxygen consumption and anaerobic threshold in a progressive exertion test in professional soccer and indoor soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal Junior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de oxigênio (VO2 tem sido de grande valia na avaliação funcional de atletas. A ergoespirometria é um procedimento não invasivo, utilizado para avaliar o desempenho físico ou a capacidade funcional de um indivíduo, conciliando a análise de gases espirados e variáveis respiratórias. No esporte, esse método de avaliação é de fundamental importância, pois traz significativa contribuição na verificação de índices de aptidão cardiorrespiratória, como é o caso do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2 máx. e o limiar anaeróbio (LA. O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar uma comparação do consumo de oxigênio e limiar anaeróbio entre atletas profissionais de futebol e futsal em um teste progressivo. Participaram voluntariamente 31 indivíduos do sexo masculino, sendo: 19 atletas profissionais de futebol e 12 atletas profissionais de futsal. Os atletas foram submetidos a um protocolo de avaliação cardiorrespiratória progressiva pelo método ergoespirométrico e os resultados foram analisados quanto a sua diferença estatística através do teste t de Student (p 0,05; entretanto, houve diferença estatística entre os dois grupos em relação ao limiar anaeróbio (LA (p El consumo de oxígeno (VO2 ha sido de gran valía en la evaluación funcional de atletas. La ergoespirometría es un procedimiento no invasivo, utilizado para evaluar el desempeño físico o la capacidad funcional de un individuo, conciliando el análisis de gases expirados y las variables respiratorias. En el deporte, ese método de evaluación es de fundamental importancia, pues contribuye significativamente en la verificación de índices de aptitud cardiorrespiratoria, como es el caso del consumo máximo de oxígeno (VO2 máx. y el límite anaeróbico (LA. El presente estudio ha tenido como objetivo realizar una comparación del consumo de oxígeno y límite anaeróbico entre atletas profesionales de fútbol y fútbol de salón en un test

  15. 78 FR 3029 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Amended Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... (represented by Kenneth Senser as the Executor the Estate of Saul Senser) will pay the United States $243,250... claim, the Estate of Saul Senser, together with Kenneth Senser in his capacity as Executor of the Estate...

  16. 76 FR 2413 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Lawrence County, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Dakota, to Keith Sauls for the appraised fair market value of $183. DATES: Comments regarding the... proposes to sell this land to Keith Sauls for the appraised fair market value of $183. The public land is...

  17. Temel Söz Varlığı Bağlamında Türkçe Ve Almancada En Sık Kullanılan Elli Eylemin Söz-Eylem Kuramı Çerçevesinde Dil-Yapısal Ve Kültürel Açıdan Karşılaştırılması Basic Vocabulury In Context Comparison Of Perspective Lingua-Structure And Culture Most Frequently Used Fifty Actions In Turkish And German In The Frame Of Statement-Action Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik KANATLI

    2013-09-01

    ğudur. Anılan kabullerden hareketle bu çalışmada Türkçe ve Almancada en sık kullanılan ilk elli eylem (fiil söz-eylem kuramına göre sınıflandırılarak dil-yapısal ve kültürel açıdan karşılaştırılacaktır. Sıklığa ve söz-eylem kuramına dayalı karşılaştırmadan hem Türkçe konuşucusuna Yabancı dil olarak Almanca öğretiminde hem de Almanca konuşucusuna yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretiminde olası katkılar sağlayacak çıkarımlarda bulunmak, bu çalışmanın temel amacını oluşturmaktadır. Karşılaştırmada Tschirner (2008 ve Özkan (2012 verileri temel alınacaktır. En sık kullanılan ilk elli eylemde iki dil (Türkçe-Almanca arasındaki örtüşmeler ve örtüşmezlikler yorumlanıp gerekçelendirilecektir.Çalışmanın temel savı, ana dilin ve yabancı dilin en sık kullanılan elli eylemini saptamanın ve karşılaştırmanın, özellikle temel söz varlığını aşamalı olarak eylem odaklı dilbilgisi (Valanzgrammatik aracılığıyla öğretmede etkili olacağıdır. Çalışmanın bir başka vurgusu, ilk elli eylem sıralamasının dil konuşucularının genel kültürel önceliğini yansıttığıdır. Çalışmadaki bulguların ve çıkarımların ana dil eğitimine, yabancı dil eğitimine ve yabancı dil olarak Türkçe eğitimine katkı sunması beklenebilir. Çalışmanın bulguları, dil eğitiminde sözcük öğretiminin kültürel önceliklere göre aşamalandırılmasına dayanak oluşturabilir. Bu bakımdan, bu çalışmanın alan yazınında kimi gereksinimlerin giderilmesine önemli katkılar sunacağı savlanabilir.

  18. Effect of ionising radiation and sal of cadmium on the changes of concentrations glucose and cholesterol in serum of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, I.; Danova, D.; Kalenicova, Z.; Striskova, K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated changes of concentrations glucose and cholesterol in the serum of broiler chickens exposed to single of whole-body dose of 3 Gy gamma rays and concentration of cadmium 6 mg · kg -1 live weight. Samples of our experiment was analyse on the 7, 14 and 21 day after irradiation. (authors)

  19. The sub salt and Brazilian agribusiness effects; O pre-sal e os seus efeitos no agronegocio brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria Betania Gama; Monteiro, Luciano Fernandes [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Producao], E-mail: betaniagama@uaep.ufcg.edu.br; Silva, Mozaniel Gomes; Mota, Jeane Karla de Mendonca [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Silva, Itamar Ferreira da [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Desenho Industrial

    2010-07-01

    This article objectified to analyze the influence of the appearance of great reserves of oil in the layer daily pay-salt and its consequences in the Brazilian agribusiness, raising the possibility of occurrence of the 'dutch illness' and the impacts in the production of ethanol, that before the daily pay-salt, were one of the great products of Brazil. In case that the expectation is confirmed, Brazil could be between the six countries that possess the biggest reserves of the world. The results point with respect to a little steady scene, case the country if it becomes a great exporter of crude oil. One of the great problems for the agribusiness will be related with the fall of the exportations of the agricultural and industrialized products, when the country will start to import more, in view of the cambial valuation, for the fortified currency. It will be able to have an impact of the displacement of the workmanship's agriculture for the sector of services, and the valuation of the wages, reducing the edge of profit of the agricultural producers. This movement will tend to increase the unemployment tax of the country throughout the time. It is defined one public politics for fuel sector. It is considered that one public politics for the fuel sector is defined to prevent experiences as of the Brazilian Program of Alcohol, that extinct had to the international quotations of oil. (author)

  20. PENERAPAN METODE STUDENT ACTIVE LEARNING (SAL MELALUI MULTI MEDIA POWER POINT UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEAKTIFAN, KETERAMPILAN BERDISKUSI, DAN HASIL BELAJAR MATEMATIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustinah Rustinah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is find math learning scenarios format with active student learning method of learning mathematics by using multimedia power point to determine how much influence can enhance the activity, discuss the skills and student learning outcomes. Subjects examined or samples studied were students who study at grade students geometry IX.2 SMP Negeri 3 Batanghari, East Lampung. This study occurred during the three months using three cycles. The variables measured in the study include the involvement of the student in the learning process, skills in using media power point and student learning outcomes. Conclusions of this research is that it can increase the creativity of teachers using a variety of learning resources and selection methods that can encourage the creation of a learning process student active learning with contextual approach through multimedia. Can enhance the activity, and fun atusiasme students during the learning process, improve students' skills in solving problems and improve learning outcomes, especially the material geometry.

  1. Salt mechanical behavior numeric simulation in oil wells; Simulacao numerica do comportamento mecanico do sal em pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravina, Carlos Cabral

    1997-10-01

    Drilling incidents such as stuck pipe and collapsed casing string take place when when some type of salt formations are drilled because of the high pronounced plastic behavior of the salt and the creep behavior as a function of this type of rock. The creep behavior becomes faster and more severe if temperature an/or pressure acting on the salt go up. The deeper the salt is found, the earlier and more intense the troubles caused by salt creep will be evidence. (author)

  2. Relación entre la ingesta de sal y la presión arterial en pacientes hipertensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Navas Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La hipertensión arterial resistente o refractaria al tratamiento supone un serio problema de salud pública y aunque, no están claros los mecanismos por los que se produce esta resistencia, se sospecha que el consumo de sodio puede jugar un papel importante en el mantenimiento de la misma. Objetivo: Determinar si los pacientes con hipertensión resistente toman sodio oculto en los alimentos ingeridos en su dieta; así como relacionar este consumo con sus hábitos dietéticos. Pacientes y Métodos: Se estudiaron 32 pacientes con una media de edad de 74,25±6,38 años, (65,6% hombres y 34,4% mujeres. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal mediante entrevista estructurada sobre consumo de alimentos. Se estudió: edad, género, estado civil, presión arterial, responsable de la elaboración de las comidas, índice de masa corporal (IMC, consumo de sodio oculto en la dieta y percepción de los pacientes sobre su consumo de sodio. Resultados: Se encontró una ingesta media real de 3693,56±2330,97 mg de sodio. En el 59,4% de los casos las comidas las elaboraba otra persona diferente al paciente, siendo mayor el consumo de sodio en estos pacientes (3.709,44±529,37 frente a 3.677,69±649,27 mg. Respecto a la percepción sobre la cantidad de sodio ingerida, el 9,4% decían no tomar nada, el 56,3% poco, el 21,9% lo normal y el 12,5% bastante. Los que decían no tomar nada de sodio y lo normal, el mayor aporte lo hacían durante la cena; y los que decían tomar poco sodio y bastante, era en el almuerzo. Se encontró correlación significativa entre ingesta de sodio total e IMC (r=0,411, p & lt0,05. No se encontró relación entre consumo de sodio y hipertensión arterial. Conclusiones: Al menos en la muestra estudiada, no existe relación entre ingesta de sodio y presión arterial; existe una relación directa entre consumo de sodio y la persona que cocina. Por otro lado, la percepción que tienen estos pacientes respecto a su consumo de sodio es adecuada.

  3. Un passeig pel Saló dels Passos Perduts: l’evolució del debat territorial a Catalunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Rodon

    2017-05-01

    les diferents demandes plurinacionals i de descentralització territorial. Aquest article pretén oferir una perspectiva en el temps de com la ciutadania i els partits han modulat la seva posició en l’aspecte territorial i nacional a Catalunya. A través de l’anàlisi de dades d’enquesta i de les propostes que han ofert els partits en els seus programes electorals, es pretén il·lustrar quina ha estat la magnitud del canvi i en quina direcció ha anat. Amb tot, l’article finalitza dibuixant els escenaris que s’obren de cara al futur del model territorial de l’Estat espanyol i els punts de coincidència i desacord més profund entre els diferents actors.

  4. Characterization and crystal structure of a 17-membered macrocyclic Schiff base compound MeO-sal-pn-bn

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khalaji, A.D.; Ghoran, S.H.; Rohlíček, Jan; Dušek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2015), s. 259-265 ISSN 0022-4766 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : macrocyclic * Schiff base * spectroscopy * powder diffraction * orthorhombic Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.536, year: 2015

  5. Bagātīgo interneta lietojumprogrammu izstrādes platformu salīdzinājums

    OpenAIRE

    Degiļeviča, Karīna

    2012-01-01

    Maģistra darbā ir aprakstītas populārākas bagātīgo interneta lietojumprogrammu tehnoloģijas, tādas kā Ajax, JavaFX, Silverlight, Adobe Flex un HTML5. Autore detalizētāk apskatīja Adobe Flex un JavaFX tehnoloģijas, to iespējas un izstrādes ietvarus. Balstoties uz iegūto informāciju, autore izveidoja praktisko darbu, kur, izmantojot Adobe Flex un JavaFX platformas, realizētas divas tīmekļa lietojumprogrammatūras. Maģistrā darba ietvaros ir aprakstītas tehnoloģiju priekšrocības un trūkumi, ka ar...

  6. Eesti Akadeemiline Farmaatsia Selts ja Gedeon Richter alustasid koostööd / Heikki Sal-Saller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sal-Saller, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Eesti Akadeemiline Farmaatsia Selts ja Gedeon Richter Eesti sõlmisid koostöölepingu fondi loomiseks, millest eraldatakse stipendiume farmatseutilise tehnoloogia erialal kaitstud õppeaasta parima uurimistöö teostanud üliõpilastele

  7. Sal die Era van Aquarius met ’n “skrikkelsprong” in die millennium tot sy reg kom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Smits

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Waar ons nou die einde van die 2de millennium AD nader, het dit duidelik geword dat daar heelwat verwarring heers oor hoe en waarom ons kalender opgestel is soos dit is. Die lengte van ’n jaar en van die astronomiese eeu word beide gedefinieer aan die hand van die posisie van ’n bepaalde punt aan die hemel, wat bekend staan as die Eerste punt van Aries. Deurdat hierdie punt met betrekking tot die sterre-agtergrond beweeg, skep dit probleme om sterrekundige gebeurtenisse, wat die seisoene bepaal, aan ’n vaste datum in ons kalender te koppel. Die Katolieke Kerk se wens om Paasfees op ’n datum te vier wat deur spesifieke astronomiese gebeurtenis se bepaal word, het in die 16de eeu gelei tot die implementering van die kalender wat nou internasionaal in gebruik is.

  8. Un nuevo caso de resistencia a un bismuto oleo-soluble: curación por una sal insoluble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Petouraud

    1934-07-01

    Full Text Available Acabamos de observar, simple coincidencia o efecto de la casualidad, un nuevo caso de bismuto resistencia que recuerda al que uno de nosotros encontró recientemente con el Profesor Nicolas. S. Joseph, 24 años, es visto por primera vez el 6 de mayo de 1933, en la consulta del servicio hospitalario de Dermato-Syphiligraphie de Antiquille (ficha Nv 5886, Dr. Gaté, para accidentes secundarios típicos; roséola discreta, sifilides papulosas y córneas de las regiones palmares, ganglios supraepitrccleanos y oervicales, reacción de Wassermann muy positiva en la sangre.

  9. FRONTERAS DE SAL: EL CINE EN "EL BESO DE LA MUJER ARAÑA" DE MANUEL PUIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Lema Mosca

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisar-se-á a novela de Manuel Puig, O beijo da mulher aranha, verificando as relações estabelecidas entre o que seja propriamente literário e as influências do cinema para o escritor argentino, a fim de se comprovar que confluem em um ponto comum, em um novo tipo de escrita. As relações entre os dois códigos, o literário e o cinematográfico, colaboram para a criação de uma escrita andrógena que dá, à obra de Puig, um caráter único e universal.

  10. Tartu Ülikooli Õigusteaduskonna kogu viimase koosseisu saatusest / Artur Taska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taska, Artur, 1912-1994

    1989-01-01

    Sisaldab andmeid Ants Piibu, D. Grimmi, I. Tjutrjumovi, Artur-Tõeleid Kliimanni, Ernst Eini, Nikolai Maimi, Mart Nurga, Jüri Uluotsa, Elmar Ilusa, H. Kadari, L. Leesmenti, Juhan Vaabeli, Richard, Räägo, Otto Liivi, Hans Ronimoisi, T. Grünthali, Veera Poska-Grünthali, Artur Mägi, F. Malmi, G. Rooksi, Valmar Adamsi, Paul Vihalema, Rein Eliaseri, A. Rammuli, H. Randalu, Edgar Talviku, A. Perandi ja Väino Langi kohta

  11. Characterizing Axial Stiffness of Individual Batter Piles with Emphasis on Elevated, Laterally Loaded, Clustered Pile Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    using the appropriate stiffness based on the direction of the calculated pile load. 1...load cases. CPGA utilizes the stiffness method (Saul 1968) of three-dimensional pile group analysis for user-specified static loadings. The pile...CPGA analysis and coordinate systems (global and pile) As discussed in Chapter 1, the CPGA software utilizes the stiffness method (Saul 1968) of

  12. ANÁLISE MORFOLÓGICA E MICROBIOLÓGICA DO PERICÁRDIO BOVINO CONSERVADO EM AÇÚCAR, GLICERINA, MEL E SAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Fernando Bariani Júnior

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Histological and microbiological comparative analysis of bovine pericardium preserved for 30 and 60 days in glycerin (98%, supersaturated sugar solution (300%, supersaturated solution of salt (150% and unprocessed honey were performed aiming to establish alternative ways of preservation of biological membranes. Samples of pericardium from five cattle were collected in fridge and maintained for up to 60 days in containers with the above mentioned solutions of conservation. For morphological analysis of the constituents of bovine pericardium were performed routine histological techniques associated to two microbiological culture techniques: streaking on the surface of the plate and pour-plate. The supersaturated solution of sugar (300% was the medium of preservation with results closer to the obtained with glycerin (98%, but was unable to prevent microorganisms growth. The unprocessed honey and supersaturated solution of salt (150% had suitable antiseptic characteristics, but failed to effectively conserve the pericardium, with a greater structural disorganization of the connective tissue, indicating advanced process of autolysis after 60 days of storage. It was concluded that glycerin (98% appeared as the most efficient solution when compared to the others evaluated in this study.

  13. Purificação de bromelina dos resíduos de abacaxi (Ananas comosus L. Merril por sistemas bifásicos aquosos PEG/Sal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Freitas Coelho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the dimension of worldwide production of pineapple and to high amount of generated waste from its cultivation and processing, several research have been developed to recovery the enzymes presents on pineapple, such as bromelain. Bromelain is the general name given to the group of endopeptidases found in pineapple as well as all proteases derived from members of the family Bromeliaceae, which belongs to the pineapple. Because of that play important physiological roles, these enzymes offers a wide range of proven therapeutic applications. This work aims the purification of bromelain from pineapple waste through PEG/Salt aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS using (NH42SO4, CaCl2 and potassium phosphate. The results showed that in CaCl2 experiments have no ATPS formation in the range of its constituents. However, the PEG/phosphate systems and PEG/(NH42SO4 systems showed excellent results, recovering with bromelain purification factor of 7.4 and 10.7 times, respectively, and yields above 80%.

  14. Pre-salt new regulatory mark and the economic order: constitutionality analysis; Novo marco regulatorio do pre-sal e a ordem economica: analise de constitucionalidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Marcela Brasil Pedrosa; Araujo, Mayara de Carvalho; Xavier, Yanko Marcius; Guimaraes, Patricia Borba Vilar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The discovery of vast reserves of hydrocarbons in the pre-salt layer that extends from Espirito Santo to Santa Catarina, added with the economic and strategic value of oil and natural gas, has brought discussion about the reasonableness of the regulatory model adopted so far. Would be prudent to explore these resources through the concession model? From detailed analysis of the doctrinal and bills that aim to inaugurate the new regulatory bills, we sought to answer this question, based majorly on the principles of economic activity applied in our constitutional system. Motivated by the analysis of these constitutional principles proposed, the State is seen as a regulating agent of the economic activities, fulfilling its role to supervise, encourage and plan the direction of national economic system. The sharing model gives greater state involvement and is able to convert the wealth of pre-salt in citizenship, but only if well implemented. Thus, based on constitutional principles and the notion of development as freedom, the conclusion of this paperwork is for the constitutionality of the new regulatory bills. (author)

  15. Una momia en el salón. Los museos anatómicos domésticos del doctor Velasco (1854-1874

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Gómez, Luis Ángel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine the two anatomical museums organized by Dr. Pedro González Velasco in his own homes in nineteenth-century Madrid. We analyze the circumstances that made possible the formation of the centers, which were related to the study and teaching of anatomy and to some Velasco’s political projects of regeneration and modernization of Spanish Medicine. We explore its collections (of anatomy, teratology, zoology, ethnography and “curiosities” and we try to show how Velasco used his museums with both teaching and sociopolitical objectives. Finally, it is clear that without the formation of these little museums it would not have been possible for Velasco the construction of his great Anthropological Museum, in 1875, which now houses the National Museum of Anthropology.El artículo estudia los museos anatómicos organizados por el doctor Pedro González Velasco en dos de sus domicilios particulares en el Madrid decimonónico. Se revisan las circunstancias que hacen posible su creación, vinculadas tanto con el estudio y la docencia de la anatomía como con los proyectos políticos de regeneración y modernización de la Medicina española que trata de poner en marcha su propietario. Se comentan sus singulares colecciones (de anatomía, teratología, zoología, etnografía y curiosidades diversas y se analiza la proyección docente y sociopolítica de ambos centros, sin cuya existencia no hubiera sido posible que Velasco construyera poco después su gran Museo Antropológico, sede del actual Museo Nacional de Antropología en Madrid.

  16. Papel da ouabaína endógena sobre o sistema cardiovascular do modelo de hipertensão arterial DOCA-SAL.

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Ferreira Wenceslau

    2012-01-01

    Tem sido demonstrado que na hipertensão arterial ocorre aumento de ouabaína plasmática, um inibidor da Na+K+-ATPase. Em 1998, Ferrari et al. desenvolveram uma molécula denominada de rostafuroxina, a qual é capaz de antagonizar os efeitos da ouabaína por deslocar a ligação desse glicosídeo com a Na+K+-ATPase. Dentro desse contexto, parece razoável sugerir que um anti-hipertensivo capaz de antagonizar os efeitos da ouabaína possa representar uma nova ferramenta farmacológica para o tratamento d...

  17. Gemi mühendisliği problemlerinin sayısal çözümü için belirsizlik ve hata analizi

    OpenAIRE

    Gökçe, Metin; Kınacı, Ömer Kemal

    2018-01-01

    Referansçalışmalar nümerik metotların doğrulanmasını sağlayan en temel ve yaygınçalışmalardır. S175, Kriso Container Ship (KCS), Duisburg Test Case (DTC) veHamburg Test Case (HTC) gibi referans çalışmaların geometrileri ve deney ölçümdeğerleri literatürde mevcuttur. Bu referans çalışmalardan elde edilen değerleryapılansimülasyonların hata ve belirsizliklerini hesaplama imkanı vermekte vebu sayede simülasyonların gerçeği ne ölçüde yansıttığı; eğer yansıtmıyorsa bununnedenleri hakkında önemli b...

  18. Entre a propriedade e o salário. Memórias dos trabalhos agrícolas em Alpiarça (anos 50/80)

    OpenAIRE

    Dulce Freire

    2006-01-01

    Até aos anos 60 do século XX, Portugal foi um país essencialmente agrícola e rural. O rápido êxodo rural facilitou o abandono ou a transformação da agricultura. Apresenta-se aqui uma reflexão sobre os actuais processos de rememoração das práticas agrícolas numa vila do Ribatejo (Portugal) e sobre a amnésia social verificada relativamente ao passado agrícola, que decorre das transformações ocorridas e dos valores sociais e culturais associados à reconstrução da identidade da vila de Alp...

  19. Ensaio clínico com um nôvo sal: etilclordifene no tratamento da amebíase intestinal crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Huggins

    1969-04-01

    Full Text Available O autor relata seus resultados iniciais obtidos com nova substância amebicida - Etilclordifene, em 22 pacientes tratados no Instituto de Medicina Tropical da F.M.U.F.Pe. A dose empregada em adultos foi de 600 mg por dia, durante cinco dias e 300 mg por dia, durante cinco dias para crianças. Obteve cura parasitológica em 95,4% dos casos (21 pacientes e excelente tolerância. Conclui ser o nóvel medicamento bastante ativo na amebíase intestinal crônica e certamente deverá ocupar posição privilegiada entre os demais produtos amebicidas ora em voga.

  20. Literatura médica: Urosalina, sal hepática efervescente, agradable, de solubilidad completa y rápida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facultad de Medicina Revista

    1934-07-01

    Full Text Available Importantisimas y numerosas son las indicaciones de la medicación alcalina en el dominio de las enfermedades, y siempre resulta difícil y laboriosa la dosificación y la preparación de este género de productos farmacéuticos, sin contar, además, con el mal gusto habitual de los compuestos, rechazado por el paladar del enfermo y que a la larga fatiga a quien prolonga su uso haciendo un gran esfuerzo de voluntad. Por todo ello los LABORATORIOS URIBE ANGEL, en su preocupación incesante de servir al distinguido Cuerpo Médico y a los enfermos de la nutrición, tras múltiples estudios de sus técnicos, han creado la UROSALINA, que a sus condiciones de una sabia combinación de alcalinos, reúne las ventajas de su solubilidad extrema y de su sabor aceptable por loss enfermos más exigentes.

  1. La transición de una comunidad agrícola a turística: Ixtapan de la Sal, México.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Cruz Jiménez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Ao longo deste trabalho abordamos três formas sob as quais tem vindo a desenvolver o turismo no Estado do México, dois deles promovidos pela política de turismo a nível federal e estadual, portanto, são levantadas as políticas "de cima" e "de fora e o terceiro surgiu nas comunidades rurais próprios. a primeira abordagem é orientada por modelos macroeconômicos e critérios destinados a criar condições para incentivar o investimento privado. a segunda é para a política de desenvolvimento social que tem sido como principal confia o desenvolvimento do turismo cultural como uma estratégia econômica. E o terceiro refere-se a uma forma de turismo que vem das próprias comunidades de economia do trabalho.

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of scales ELI, SAL, MODIFIED LARSEN, KLOCKHOFF and NIOSH rating for professional hearing loss, Popayán Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Teresa Palacios-Pérez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of five available scales to the qualification of the Tonal Audiometry for the detection of occupationally induced hearing loss. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The study population was 92 adult workers. Participants underwent the application of the different formats of registration of the results and qualification of the tonal audiometry. Participants received a hearing evaluation by clinical audiometry. Sixty four cases met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the final analysis.Once the tonal audiometry was complete, evaluation of occupationally induced hearing loss was done by using the ELI, salt, modified LARSEN, KLOCKHOFF and NIOSH classification scales. Results were compared to FREQUENCIAL analysis. Results: The LARSEN scale was noted to detect more cases of occupationally induced hearing loss. The LARSEN modified, represented detection in 54.69% of cases for right ear and 56.25% of cases for left ear. On the other hand, noted the direct relationship of hearing loss with regard to the age. No direct correlation to time of noise exposure was found.. Conclusions: The rating scale that presented greater sensitivity was the LARSEN modified. It was represented by 93.1% and a specificity of 100%.

  3. Do porto ao pré-sal: sustentabilidade urbana na baixada santista / Port to pre-salt: urban sustainability in santista baixada

    OpenAIRE

    Borelli, Elizabeth Borelli

    2014-01-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/rdc.2014.13445Trabalho enviado em 26 setembro de 2014. Aceito em 09 de outubro de 2014.Resumo: Este artigo se propõe a investigar aspectos sociais, econômicos e ambientais importantes para a compreensão da nova realidade da Região Metropolitana da Baixada Santista, tendo por objetivo propor uma reflexão inicial em termos da problemática da sustentabilidade urbana. Essa preocupação se justifica pela nova configuração do mercado regional que se vislumbra, com a...

  4. TÜKETİCİLERİN PERAKENDECİ TERCİHLERİNDE ETKİLİ OLAN DAVRANIŞSAL FAKTÖRLER VE SÜPERMARKET UYGULAMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÜSEYİN S. KURTULDU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, face to face surveys have been conducted with a group of 325 consumers who shop from supermarkets, in order to determine the degree 39 of importance of behavioral factors that play a role on consumers’ retail preferences and to find out about the degree of relationship between these factors and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of consumers. The above mentioned sample size has been determined in the % 1 importance level of Trabzon city population. While questions regarding consumer profile have been tested with Frequency Distribution; analyses involving comparions have been done using Kendall’s Tau Correlation. In addition Factor Analysis and a connected Reliability Analysis have been done.

  5. Influence quaternary ammonium salt in the organophilization of an bentonite; Influencia de um sal quaternario de amonio na organofilizacao de uma argila bentonitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, S.V.; Alves, G.P.; Wanderley, A.S.D.; Araujo, E.M., E-mail: saraveruscadeoliveira@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Depto de Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    Clays are natural materials, earthy, fine-grained particles with diameters generally less than 2μm, and formed by chemically hydrated silicates of aluminum, iron and magnesium. The clays have a range of applications, both in pottery and in other technology areas. This work aimed to study the influence of a quaternary ammonium salt to increase the basal distance of a bentonite clay powder obtained thereby promoting to a new structural profile characteristic with organoclay. The bentonite clay was treated with salt Praepragem WB. The following methods were used: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results indicated the intercalation of ammonium ions of the salt studied within the layers of silicate and expansion of basal spacing d{sub 001}, ie the clay in the study showed 2θ angle shifts to smaller angles, indicating that the clay was organophilization. (author)

  6. Discursos latinoamericanistas en los debates arquitectónicos de la década de 1980. Los seminarios de Arquitectura Latinoamericana (SAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Zambrano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora los discursos que se generaron en los Seminarios de Arquitectura Latinoamericana entre 1985 y 1993, a partir de la reconstrucción de sus debates sobre las nociones de identidad y modernidad y regionalismo, y de su plasmación por algunos de sus participantes en diversas conferencias y publicaciones de arquitectura de aquel periodo. Se trató en cierto modo de una reacción a la crisis económica prácticamente general a partir de la década de los 80 y al subsiguiente desinterés por la producción arquitectónica de América Latina por los principales historiadores y críticos foráneos. Todo ello en contraste con el reconocimiento internacional de obras y autores de las décadas de 1940 y 1950 y el optimismo y conciencia de progreso de esos mismos años.

  7. Consumo de alimentos ricos en azúcar-sal en niños de Las Arenas (Getxo, Bizkaia) por grupos de edad

    OpenAIRE

    Zamacona, Naiara; Rocandio Pablo, Ana María; Municio, Marian; Ansotegui Alday, Laura; Martínez de la Pera, Concepción; Arroyo Izaga, Marta

    2011-01-01

    [ES] El aumento del consumo de grasas y carbohidratos, así como dulces, refrescos, productos industriales y snacks, junto con la disminución de la ingesta de alimentos saludables, y el sedentarismo en los niños, infl uyen en su salud. Hay que prestar especial atención a alimentos que forman parte del estilo de vida actual: “snack”, dulces, bollería o picoteo entre comidas por sus importantes repercusiones. [EUS] Haurrek gantza eta karbohidratoak gero eta gehiago kontsumitzeak, goxoki, fres...

  8. Angiostrongilose abdominal: profilaxia pela destruição das larvas infectantes em alimentos tratados com sal, vinagre ou hipoclorito de sódio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Maria Zaniní

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A infecção acidental humana pelo Angiostrongylus costaricensis ocorre com elevada prevalência em certas áreas do Brasil meridional, eventualmente se manifestando como doença abdominal severa. Profilaxia é importante, pois não hã tratamento medicamentoso. Um dos modos de transmissão é a ingestão de frutas e vegetais contaminados com a mucosidade de moluscos infectados, os hospedeiros intermediários deste parasita. Larvas de terceiro estágio obtidas do ciclo mantido em laboratório foram incubadas a 5°C por 12 horas, em vinagre, solução saturada de cloreto de sódio e hipocloríto de sódio a 1,5%. A viabilidade das lamas tratadas foi testada através da inoculação em camundongos albinos. Os percentuais de larvas que estabeleceram infecção foram: 0% com hipocloríto de sódio, 1,8% com salmora e 2,4% com vinagre. Em conclusão, todas as substâncias - de baixo custo e disponíveis nas áreas endêmicas - reduziram à população de lamas viáveis e podem ser úteis na descontaminação de alimentos para profilaxia da angiostrongilose abdominal.There is a high prevalence of accidental human infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis in some areas in southern Brazil and sometimes it presents as severe intestinal disease. Prophylaxis is important since there is no medical treatment for the disease. The ingestion of fruits and vegetables contaminated with the mucous secretion of infected molluscs (the intermediate hosts is one of the proposed modes of transmission. Third stage lamae were incubated at 5°C for 12 hours, in solutions of saturated sodium chloride, vinegar and sodium hypochlorite 1.5%. The larvae had their viability tested through inoculation into albino mice. The percentage of larvae that established infection were 0% in the group treated with sodium hypochloride, 1.8% with NaCl and 2.4% with vinegar. In conclusion, all substances tested reduced the population of viable larvae and may be useful in food decontamination, as a prophylactic measure for abdominal angiostrongylosis.

  9. Develando la acción pedagógica en un salón de clase de Educación Inicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Salas, Ana Lupita

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo resume el proceso investigativo y los hallazgos de un estudio que se llevó a cabo en una aula de educación inicial. La investigación responde a la necesidad de interpretar la realidad educativa en el contexto del aula con el propósito de promover la reflexión crítica sobre la teoría y la práctica pedagógica que asumimos y llevamos a cabo las y los educadores del nivel inicial, tomar conciencia de lo que hacemos y promover procesos de transformación de la práctica educativa.

  10. Terres socialisées au Portugal en 1975: les circonscriptions de Montemor-O-Novo et d'Alcacer do Sal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard DOMENECH

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available La réforme agraire dans deux circonscriptions de 1'Alentejo portugais (deux tiers d'expropriations recouvre une grande diversité dans la socialisation des terres: formes d'organisation en domaines de l'État et coopératives, modes d'occupation du sol.

  11. Entre a propriedade e o salário. Memórias dos trabalhos agrícolas em Alpiarça (anos 50/80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Freire

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Até aos anos 60 do século XX, Portugal foi um país essencialmente agrícola e rural. O rápido êxodo rural facilitou o abandono ou a transformação da agricultura. Apresenta-se aqui uma reflexão sobre os actuais processos de rememoração das práticas agrícolas numa vila do Ribatejo (Portugal e sobre a amnésia social verificada relativamente ao passado agrícola, que decorre das transformações ocorridas e dos valores sociais e culturais associados à reconstrução da identidade da vila de Alpiarça.

  12. Práticas de Gestão de Recursos Humanos nas PME: um estudo multi-caso no concelho de Alcácer do Sal

    OpenAIRE

    Felisardo, Alexandra Sofia dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada para cumprimento dos requisitos necessários à obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Empresariais - Ramo gestão de PME Num contexto cada vez mais competitivo, a gestão de recursos de recursos humanos assume um papel cada vez mais importante na criação de vantagem competitiva sustentável, uma vez que os trabalhadores são a base de qualquer empresa. No entanto, nem todas as empresas, principalmente as pequenas e médias empresas (PME), compreendem a sua importância,...

  13. Characterization of sodium bentonites: effect of treatment with ammonium salt- free organic surfactant; Caracterizacao de bentonitas sodicas: efeito do tratamento com surfactante organico livre de sal de amonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, R. Y.; Barbosa, R. V.; Kloss, J.R., E-mail: julianaweber@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dartamento de Quimica e Biologia

    2015-07-15

    Bentonite, which the main clay mineral is montmorillonite, are commercially attractive because of its abundance in nature. The clays can be modified by ion exchange reactions of ions contained in the interlayer region with cationic surfactants that include ammonium or phosphonium salts. The clays origin and the type of surfactants (modifiers) are the main factors in the alteration of physical and chemical properties of these materials. This study aims to characterize and compare the results of natural bentonite commercially available and the effect of treatments with quaternary ammonium salt and an organic compound free of ammonium salt. The FTIR and XRD results indicate the process of organophilization of clays after treatment with the surfactants. These treatments have altered the average particle size, suggesting the formation of agglomerates, which was showed in the SEM images. The results of surface area and particle size data indicated the presence of larger particles. Although the two surfactants have shown similarities in the investigated properties, the organoclays free of ammonium salt are more promising in terms of its use as well as for their preparation and solubility. (author)

  14. PDC bit selection to drill the Brazilian pre-salt heterogeneous carbonates; Selecao de broca PDC para a perfuracao dos carbonatos heterogeneos do pre-sal brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Araken Dumont Ramos; Tocantins, Joao Pedro Tourinho [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The well drilling operation to access the oil reserves of the Brazilian pre-salt find their highest challenge in the rock reservoir, which is formed from organic limestone and other sediments, and it can have different heterogeneous features that are hostile to drilling. Those features such as the silica nodules increase the rock formation strength and abrasiveness that together with the PDC bit vibrations generated during the rock cutting reduce the life of the cutting structure to a few meters. Because of these conditions, the development of more stable bits, with very low lateral and torsional vibration levels and with more strength PDC, has been one oil industry challenges to drill the pre-salt limestone with silica. This paper aims to present a dynamic comparative analysis between three PDC bits, called BR1, BR2 and BR3, of different generations, selected to drill a well design in a limestone heterogeneous and homogeneous (without silica nodules). This analysis was performed with dynamic three dimensional finite elements software, which considers the interaction between the bit cutter structure and the rock to be drilled, used to design bits, reamers and BHA (Bottom Hole Assembly). (author)

  15. Käärideta Financial Timesi kallal / Madis Võõras

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Võõras, Madis

    2010-01-01

    24.-25. aprillil 2010 ilmus ajalehe Financial Times nädalalõpulisas artikkel riskikapitali investeerijast Saul Kleinist. Viimane on investeerinud ka edukasse tarkvarafirmasse Erply, mida juhib Kristjan Hiiemaa

  16. Eesti CRM-lahenduste kasv edestab kasvu maailmas kordades / Martin Goroshko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goroshko, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Kliendihaldus- ehk CRM-lahendused, mis aitavad ettevõtetel kliendisuhteid juhtida ja äriprotsesse efektiivsemaks muuta, on saamas populaarseks nii mujal maailmas kui ka Eestis. Diagramm: CRM-i pakkuvate firmade turuosad. Kommenteerib Indrek Saul

  17. Laulja Elina Bieza esines "Päikesejänku" festivalil / Helju Keskpalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keskpalu, Helju

    2002-01-01

    Läti televisiooni kutsel osales nende korraldatud laste rahvusvahelisel popmuusika festivalil "Saules zakis 2002" (Päikesejänku 2002) Eesti esindajana stuudio Joy laulja Elina Bieza koos tantsutrupi Richard tantsijatega

  18. Pihlaka 15 magusat aastat / Urmas Vaino

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaino, Urmas, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Rakvere kondiitritööstuse AS-i Pihlaka juht Arvo Saul ettevõtte arengust ja tegevusest 15 tegevusaasta jooksul. Diagramm: Tordimeister jätkab edukalt. Vt. samas: Mustikarull, Gurmee ja Paradiisi tort kohvikust

  19. AIR PRESSURE and Other Data from TIDE STATIONS From North American Coastline-North and Others from 1972-01-01 to 1974-06-30 (NODC Accession 7601613)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This entry contains tidal information for Chesapeake Bay. Data was submitted by Saul Berkman, NOS Tides Branch, Oceanographic Division. These data are in NODC...

  20. Genetic pathways to Neurodegeneration Models and mechanisms ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paige Rudich

    Models and mechanisms of repeat expansion disorders: a worm's eye view ..... retardation 1 gene FMR1 gives rise to a spectrum of neurological disorders (Saul and Tarleton ... autism. Shorter repeat expansion lengths from 55-200 cause the.

  1. Populism in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-20

    Justicialist Party). In the first round of voting in April 2003, he finished a close second to former president Carlos Saul Menem . Shortly before the...scheduled runoff, however, Menem —trailing 15 Kirchner by a wide margin in opinion polls—withdrew his candidacy, and Kirchner became president-elect by default...A week later, Kirchner was sworn in as the president.16 Since the second presidential term of Carlos Saul Menem (July 8, 1995 – December 9, 1999

  2. Didier Combeau, Des Américains et des armes à feux. Violence et démocratie aux Etats-Unis. Saul Cornell, A Well-Regulated Militia : The Founding Fathers and the Origins of Gun Control in America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Pacoud

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Deux ouvrages différents dans leur approche mais également passionnants permettent de saisir l’évolution du débat sur les armes à feu aux États-Unis. Des Américains et des armes à feux. Violence et démocratie aux Etats Unis de Didier Combeau rend compte de la relation complexe que les Américains entretiennent avec les armes à feu depuis la fondation de la nation et de la polémique contemporaine sur la question du droit aux armes. A Well-Regulated Militia : The Founding Fathers and the Origins...

  3. Om te staak of nie te staak nie? Die sieninge van 'n aantal swart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    sig, is eerstens om ondersoek in te stel na 'n groep swart opvoeders se sieninge oor opvoeders se reg om te staak. Tweedens sal na die redes wat hierdie opvoeders aanvoer waarom hulle al aan stakings deel- geneem het of sal deelneem, gelet word. Derdens sal die redes waarom sommige opvoeders nie sal staak nie, ...

  4. Avaliação de ICP OES com configuração axial ou radial para determinação de iodo em sal de cozinha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers with axial and radial views for determination of iodine in table salt was evaluated. Interference and memory effects in nitric acid and water-soluble tertiary amines (CFA-C media were studied. Based on a factorial experiment, one optimum instrument operational condition for axial configuration, and two optima conditions for radial configuration was established. The ICP OES with axial view was 5-fold more sensitive than the radial view. Both matrix matching and standard addition methods were used for iodine quantification and for most samples, both strategies of calibration led to similar results. Recoveries ranged from 104 to 114%.

  5. Albert Camus’nün Veba Adlı Romanında işlenen Esaret Duygusunun Algısal Açıdan Analizi

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Muzaffer; DEMİRAL, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    The Plague a novel by Albert Camus A sense of the state of being captured are reflected from different angles In the opus very different ways appear in a state of bondage and with a sense of where you are there are visible and invisible forms of bondage First the physical and physiological slavery and then the psychic and spiritual slavery Finally a time of heroes becomes routine status Even that cycle appears to be in danger of being a prisoner In general examining the whole o...

  6. Evaluación de parámetros físico químicos en tres marcas de sal de consumo nacional en el Ecuador continental

    OpenAIRE

    Obando Rodríguez, Miriam del Rocío

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient for the functions of the human organism. The lacking of this is actually recognized as the principal cause of disability that can be prevented. According to World Health Organization (WHO) among the most frequent disorders for the lacking of Iodine are: Hypothyroidism, goiter, cretinism and serious problems in pregnancy. The problem that this study focuses is the acknowledgement of the consumer about the characteristics of the salt; therefore, there is ...

  7. Drilling challenges in a high inclination exploratory well through thick layers of salt; Desafios da perfuracao de um poco exploratorio de alta inclinacao na area do pre-sal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Ivan; Pimentel, Jose; Amaro, Renato [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hargreaves, Adriana [Halliburton, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyses a proposed high inclination deep water well in the deep pre-salt area of the Santos Basin, to see its technical viability in terms of torque and drag analysis and also hydraulics. The geometry of the well and BHAs for the build-up and high inclination phases are proposed and he results in terms of drag and torque analysis are presented for the 14 3/4{sup '}' hole (10 3/4{sup '}' casing) and 9{sup '}' hole ( 7{sup '}' liner). A commercially available simulator was used for the purpose and the proposed well is the shown to be a viable alternative for the development of the area. (author)

  8. Characterization of the rock salt for the design of underground storage in saline domes; Caracterizacion de la roca sal-gema para el diseno de almacenamientos en domos salinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Meyenberg, Lucia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    The saline domes are natural geological formations, that have been formed in the underground, through the passage of millions of years. In Europe, they are used for hydrocarbon storage; for instance France is planning to increase, in a short term, its crude storing capacity in domes of 5 to 10 millions cubic meters (60 million of barrel), holding capacity. Additionally, studies are being conducted on the stability of this type of domes, for the storage of nuclear wastes during 100 thousand or 1 million years. [Espanol] Los domos salinos son formaciones geologicas estructurales naturales, que se han constituido en el subsuelo, en el transcurso de millones de anos. En Europa, se aprovechan para almacenar hidrocarburo; por ejemplo, Francia planea aumentar, a corto plazo, su capacidad de almacenamiento de crudo en domos de 5 a 10 millones de metros cubicos (60 millones de barriles). Ademas, se realizan estudios de estabilidad en este tipo de domos, para almacenar desechos nucleares durante 100 mil o 1 millon de anos.

  9. Determinação do coeficiente de atividade na diluição infinita em sistemas etanol-água-sal por microextração em fase sólida-gc-fid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Milli Elias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method using the headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME technique was used to evaluate the infinite dilute activity coefficient (γ1∞ in an alcohol/water/salt system. The studied systems were ethanol and water with NaCl and NH4Cl at salt concentrations of 5, 10, 15, and 30% m/v and temperatures of 303.15 and 313.15 K. The method was used to investigate the salt effect on vapor/liquid equilibrium in an ethanol/water system, yielding satisfactory results. The study focused on the rich side in ethanol. The data were compared with the literature infinite dilution data determined by other methods such as differential ebulliometry (EBUL, differential static cell equilibrium (STAT, and gas-liquid chromatography with no gas phase correction (GC. In this study, NaCl showed better separation rates than NH4Cl.

  10. SILAR yöntemi ile üretilen CuO filmlerin yapısal, morfolojik ve optik özelliklerine ikili katkılamanın (Zn, Li etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Aydın

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada katkısız CuO ve farklı konsantrasyonlarda Li-katkılı Li-ZnCuO filmler cam altlıklar üzerine SILAR yöntemi ile başarılı bir şekilde büyütüldü. Üretilen bu filmler metalurjik mikroskop (MM, X-ışını kırınımı (XRD ve UV-Vis. spektroskopi ile karakterize edildi. MM sonuçları, CuO filmlerin morfolojisi üzerine Li-Zn ikili katkılama konsantrasyonunun önemli bir etkiye sahip olduğunu gösterdi. XRD verileri filmlerin nanoboyutta kristalize olduklarını ve kristallenme kalitesinin katkı konsantrasyonuna bağlı olarak değiştiğini açığa çıkardı. Uv-Vis. analiz sonuçları, filmlerin hem optik bant aralığı değerlerinde hem de geçirgenliklerinde katkı konsantrasyonuna bağlı olarak önemli farklılıkların oluştuğunu ortaya koydu.

  11. Musulmaņu minoritātes integrācija Eiropas Savienībā. Nīderlandes, Francijas un Grieķijas salīdzinājums

    OpenAIRE

    Heidemane, Madara

    2012-01-01

    Darba mērķis ir noskaidrot, kādu integrācijas politiku popularizē Eiropas Savienība. Problēmjautājums ir, vai ES dalībvalstis, konkrēti Francija, Grieķija un Nīderlande, īsteno ES izvirzīto musulmaņu imigrantu integrācijas politiku. Darba hipotēze ir: Grieķijas integrācijas politika ir atbilstīgāka ES nostādnēm, jo tā par imigrācijas valsti kļuva vēlāk nekā Francija un Nīderlande; attiecīgie tiesību akti radīti pēc ES un tās dalībvalstu piemēra. Darbā tiek skatīta integrācija, tās elementi, I...

  12. AB-Türkiye’de Gıda Mevzuatı ve Tokat İli Gıda Sanayi İşletmelerinin Yapısal Analizi

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, Hüseyin; ESENGÜN, Kemal

    2008-01-01

    In this study; conformity of food industry operations located in Tokat city and it is districts were investigated in terms of European community food protucts technical regulations. Eighty two food industry operations out of six sectors were selected using basic random sampling method. The complete counting was applied to the less numbered industry operations. The questionnaire method was used to gather the data from food industry operations. The values obtained from industrial operations wer...

  13. Kulgeb ja komistab / Tõnis Mägi ; interv. Villu Tamme, Ivo Linna, Villu Kangur, Hannaliisa Uusma, Anne Veski, Mikk Targo, Chalice (Jarek Kasar), Vaiko Eplik, Jaan Ahelik, Silvi Vrait, Riho Sibul, Ramo Teder, Hendrik Sal-Saller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Tõnis, 1948-

    2008-01-01

    Tõnis Mägi 60 - juubeliintervjuu kolleegidele (üles kirjutas Siim Nestor). Tõnis Mäe uue heliplaadi "Kiik ja kirik" esitluskontserdid toimuvad 2. dets. Jõhvi kontserdimajas, 5. dets. Pärnu kontserdimajas, 6. dets. Estonia kontserdisaalis ja 7. dets. Vanemuise kontserdimajas

  14. Extension spatiale de la salinisation des ressources en eau et modèle conceptuel des sources salées dans la plaine des Triffa (Maroc nord-oriental)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughriba, Mimoun; Melloul, Abderrahmane; Zarhloule, Yassine; Ouardi, Abdelillah

    2006-09-01

    The succession of drought years and excessive abstraction in the plain of Triffa caused deterioration in water quality and endangers future exploitation of groundwater resources. A combination of geophysical surveys, including electrical resistivity and hydrochemical data has been used to identify the geographical extension of salinization and identify its origin. Electrical conductivity measurements are used to show the history of salinization in space and time. In this paper, a first conceptual model of the brackish springs has been established. To cite this article: M. Boughriba et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  15. Characterization of the rock salt for the design of underground storage in saline domes; Caracterizacion de la roca sal-gema para el diseno de almacenamientos en domos salinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Meyenberg, Lucia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    The saline domes are natural geological formations, that have been formed in the underground, through the passage of millions of years. In Europe, they are used for hydrocarbon storage; for instance France is planning to increase, in a short term, its crude storing capacity in domes of 5 to 10 millions cubic meters (60 million of barrel), holding capacity. Additionally, studies are being conducted on the stability of this type of domes, for the storage of nuclear wastes during 100 thousand or 1 million years. [Espanol] Los domos salinos son formaciones geologicas estructurales naturales, que se han constituido en el subsuelo, en el transcurso de millones de anos. En Europa, se aprovechan para almacenar hidrocarburo; por ejemplo, Francia planea aumentar, a corto plazo, su capacidad de almacenamiento de crudo en domos de 5 a 10 millones de metros cubicos (60 millones de barriles). Ademas, se realizan estudios de estabilidad en este tipo de domos, para almacenar desechos nucleares durante 100 mil o 1 millon de anos.

  16. Experimental formation of Pb, Sn, Ge and Sb sulfides, selenides and chlorides in the presence of sal ammoniac: A contribution to the understanding of the mineral formation processes in coal wastes self-ignition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laufek, F.; Veselovský, F.; Drábek, M.; Kříbek, B.; Klementová, Mariana

    176-177, May (2017), s. 1-7 ISSN 0166-5162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : coal wastes * metalloids * mineral formation * self-burning processes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 4.783, year: 2016

  17. Desgaste corrosivo-cavitativo-erosivo de um aço-carbono em meio aquoso com frações de sal (NaCl), CO2 e particulados sólidos (SiO2)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fernando Nunes da

    2012-01-01

    Um lote de oitenta e quatro corpos-de-prova (CP) de aço AISI 1018 foi investigado em laboratório sob solicitações corrosivas, cavitativo-corrosivas (CO2) e erosivocorrosivas (SiO2+CO2) em meio aquoso salino e a duas temperaturas. Foram realizados ensaios de microdureza Vickers a três níveis de subsuperfície (HV0,05, HV0,10, HV0,20). Um fluxo agitado colidiu contra os CPs, em todas as condições de ensaio, sem e com agitação mecânica e borbulhamento de gás, sem e com contamina...

  18. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of mini-basins and salt provinces of Espirito Santo Basin-Brazil; Analise da evolucao tectono sedimentar de mini-bacias e provincias de sal da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias; Fernandes, Flavio Luis [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mohriak, Webster [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Espirito Santo Basin integrates the group of basins along the eastern Brazilian continental margin. It is located between 18 deg and 21 deg S, encompassing an area of approximately 220,000 km{sup 2}, onshore and offshore the Espirito Santo State. Its geological limit with the Campos Basin to the south is defined by a Precambrian basement high (Vitoria Arch), and its northern limit with the Mucuri Basin is defined by a geopolitical limit. The study of salt tectonics processes in the Espirito Santo Basin allowed the deformational analysis and interpretation of the chronological evolution of the mini-basins developed between salt diapirs. We observe an intrinsic relationship between halokinesis and creation of subsidence troughs that may be important for trapping hydrocarbon reservoirs, and consequently form oil and gas accumulations in this portion of the basin. This geodynamics evolution of these structures is marked by a strong linkage between salt movement and coeval sedimentation in the interdomal basins, forming structures and stratigraphic traps that may constitute important aspects for the petroleum geology. (author)

  19. Coastal Development of Daugavgrîva Island, Located Near the Gulf of Riga / Rîgas Lîèa Piekrastes Krasta Attîstîba Daugavgrîvas Salâ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bçrtiòa Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural as well as anthropogenic processes impact greatly sensitive coastal areas all over the world. The spectrum of natural processes involved can be classified as meteorological, geological, marine, and lithodynamic. The Baltic Sea with its Gulf of Riga is an area in which combined sea erosion and accumulation processes, as well as alluvial processes, play significant roles in the coastal development. Major anthropogenic processes include impacts from ports and coastal protection structures, such as Riga Port hydraulic structures, fairway channels and coastal defence items. During summer also additional pressure of recreational activities has increased the effect on the coastal beach. Levelling data, historical cartographical material and beach sedimentary material granulometric analysis were used to describe natural and anthropogenic effects on development of the coastal beach of Daugavgrîva Island.

  20. Influence of organophilic ammonium-free nano clay incorporation on the mechanical properties and biodegradability of the Ecoflex; Influencia da adicao de nanoargila organofilica livre de sal de amonio nas propriedades mecanicas e na biodegradacao do Ecoflex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Reinaldo Y.; Barbosa, Ronilson V. [Empresa IOTO International - Divisao Masterbatches, Campo Magro, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: juliana.kloss@gmail.com; Richart, Fabio S.; Kloss, Juliana R. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Quimica - UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The disposable of polymeric materials, petroleum derived, represents a growing global environmental problem, causing environmental pollution to assume alarming proportions. In this context, the interest in the use and production of biodegradable materials that have character and policy has raged in various sectors of society. Besides biodegradation, is also significant investment in research and development in the nanotechnology area. Given these factors, the objective of this work was the incorporation of organophilic nanoclay ammonium-free salt (Novaclay) in the Ecoflex, mechanical properties evaluation and influences this material of the biodegradation, according to ASTM G 160. The products were characterized before and after biodegradation by analysis: visual, weight loss, differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical testing and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the pure Ecoflex and Ecoflex/Novaclay nanocomposite were partially biodegraded in the method used and showed morphological and mechanical properties changes. (author)

  1. Effects of Classroom Assessment Practices in a Foreign Language Reading Course (Efectos de las Prácticas de Evaluación en el Salón de Clase de un Curso de Lectura en Lengua Extranjera (LE))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Sergio Alonso Lopera

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the various types of information that alternative assessment and traditional assessment practices provided in an English foreign language (FL) reading course for graduate students at a public university in Medellín, Colombia. This study followed the principles of qualitative research, and a case study was used as a research…

  2. Academic locus of control and motivational persistence: structural equation modeling [Akademik kontrol odağı ve motivasyonel kararlılık: yapısal eşitlik modellemesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan SARIÇAM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the examination of the relationship between academic locus of control and motivational persistence. For the first time to my knowledge, the relations between academic locus of control and motivational persistence were investigated. The participants of the study consisted of adolescents who have attended from different public high schools. Overall, 413 students contributed to this study. Academic Locus of Control Scale and The Motivational Persistence Scale were used for data collection. In the research, whether there is a casual relationship between academic locus of control and motivational persistence in adolescents was tested through path analysis in the context of structural equation model. According to the results, there is a causative relationship between academic locus of control and motivational persistence in adolescents. The findings were discussed in relation to previous research.

  3. Evaluation of thermal properties of nanocomposites based on Ecobras matrix and vermiculite modified with alkyl phosphonium salt; Avaliacao das propriedades termicas dos nanocompositos de Ecobras e vermiculita modificada com sal alquil fosfonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcelo F.L. de; Leite, Marcia C.A.M., E-mail: marceloilha@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Braga, Fernanda C.F.; Oliveira, Marcia G. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of biodegradable polymers for producing nanocomposites with mineral fillers fetch the production of new materials with low cost and reduced environmental impact, combined with improvements in the mechanical and thermal properties. Nanocomposites based on Ecobras and vermiculite (VMT) modified with hexadecyl tributyl phosphonium bromide (Ph-VMT) were prepared by melt intercalation. The intercalation of Ph-VMT in Ecobras was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal properties of Ecobras and their compositions were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of VMT and Ph- VMT in Ecobras increases the crystallization temperature (Tc) and crystalline melting (Tm), as observed by DSC analysis. The result of the thermogravimetric analysis showed that the addition of Ph-VMT in Ecobras improved thermal stability of the nanocomposite. (author)

  4. Work, wage and consumption: valuing and displaying among manufacturing workers Valor e expressão do trabalho, do salário e do consumo entre mulheres operárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Margarida Marques

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available When a former female manual worker decides to put on gel nails soon after losing the job that had prevented her from making up her hands (as someone in my fieldwork has recently done, it could be tempting to see a shift from a constrained worker identity to an unbound consumer identity materializing there. In the following pages, however, this episode and its local (and labour context are taken as starting points to attempt a further exploration and a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between work and consumption. On theoretical and empirical grounds, it is argued that, instead of conceiving work and consumption as separate and indeed opposite realms, a close link between them - with work providing a relevant context to the working person as a consumer, and consumption providing subjects a relevant arena where to perform the value of their work - should be acknowledged and scrutinized.Perante uma ex-operária que decide aplicar unhas de gel pouco depois de perder o emprego (cujas circunstâncias materiais lhe limitavam o arranjo das mãos, algumas influentes teorias da contemporaneidade encontrariam o exemplo acabado da transição de uma identidade operária, constrangida pelo trabalho, para uma identidade pós-trabalho, construída nas livres escolhas de consumo. Neste texto, porém, esse episódio e os respectivos contextos local e laboral são tomados como ponto de partida para uma exploração mais aprofundada das complexas relações entre trabalho e consumo. É criticada a ideia de separação, ou até oposição, entre ambos os campos de prática, propondo-se, pelo contrário, o reconhecimento e a discussão das suas estreitas ligações - designadamente, a presença do trabalho como contexto relevante para o trabalhador enquanto consumidor e a importância do consumo como lugar de expressão do valor do trabalho.

  5. Méningiome intracrânien multiple: expérience du service de neurochirurgie CHU Avicenne Rabat - Salé, à propos de 4 cas et revue de la literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoubairou, Ben Ousmanou; Karekezi, Claire; Moussé, Nabil; Doleagbenou, Agbéko Komlan; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; El Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Les méningiomes intracrâniennes multiples sont définies comme la présence d'au moins deux méningiomes sur des sites intracrâniens différents et ceci en absence de neurofibromatose. C'est une tumeur rare dont la prévalence varie entre 1-10%. Le but de notre travail était de décrire les caractéristiques cliniques, radiologiques, histologiques d'une série de 4 patients porteurs de méningiome multiple et en déduire les facteurs de risques de survenue de cette pathologie. Préciser la qualité d'exérèse chirurgicale de la lésion selon la classification de Simpson. Rapporter les suites postopératoires ainsi que le suivie à long termes des patients afin de préciser leur qualité de vie. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective portant sur 4 cas de Méningiomes intracrâniens multiples sur 174 patients opérés pour méningiome au CHU Avicenne entre Janvier 2000 à Décembre 2013. En s'aidant des données cliniques, imageries, chirurgicales, histologiques mentionnée dans le dossier médical de chaque patient. Notre série est constitué de 4 patients (3 femmes pour 1 homme), d'un âge allant de 42-50 ans (moyenne d’âge= 45,5 ans). Nous avons identifié 21 méningiomes (17 en sus tentoriel et 4 en sous tentoriel), aucun cas de décès ni d'infection postopératoire dans notre échantillon. Le pronostic reste bon malgré le nombre de lésion nécessitant parfois plusieurs interventions chirurgicales. PMID:25419331

  6. Le commerce transnational « informel », vecteur d’une nouvelle hiérarchie de lieux. L’exemple de la périphérie urbaine de Salé (Maroc)

    OpenAIRE

    Bennafla, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Cet article examine les implications spatiales du commerce transnational dans les pays intermédiaires tel le Maroc. Si l’accentuation des réformes néo-libérales entraîne l’ouverture de grandes surfaces, de magasins franchisés ou de malls, elle ne signe pas la fin du commerce « informel », tout aussi globalisé. La nouvelle hiérarchisation de lieux sous l’effet du commerce transnational est peu abordée dans la littérature sur le commerce informel marocain. L’exemple d’une centralité marchande i...

  7. De ‘condimento vital’ a ‘veneno’: sobre el consumo de sal idóneo en la dieta desde la Antigüedad clásica a nuestros días

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Maldonado, Sandra Inés

    2016-01-01

    In 1572, the first monograph on the ‘white gold’ of the Early Modern Period was published in Europe. It constitutes a true essay on diet and health – both physical and mental- in which a moderate use of salt is put forth following geometrical proportions. Thus, basing on this original commentary written in Latin by the Spanish humanist Bernardino Gómez Miedes, texts from different historical periods which make reference to the use and consumption of salt will be examined. The readers will fin...

  8. Emprego do sal di-sódico de edta como padrão no preparo de soluções Use of EDTA disodium salt as standard for preparation of solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Pereira da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrated sodium salt of EDTA, Na2H2Y·2H2O, cannot be used as a primary standard for titrations due to uncertainties in the water content. An alkalimetric titration of the homogenized solid in the presence of a small excess of BaCl2·2H2O allows one to titrate quantitatively the released two hydrogen cations with end-point indication by phenolphthalein or potentiometry. This leads one to calculate the average molar mass of the reagent and its water content, allowing to use it to prepare EDTA standard solutions. One titrated sample led to the formula Na2H2Y·1.876 H2O, and 370.01 g.mol-1 for the average molar mass.

  9. Salinomycin sensitizes antimitotic drugs-treated cancer cells by increasing apoptosis via the prevention of G2 arrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju-Hwa; Yoo, Hye-In; Kang, Han Sung; Ro, Jungsil [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sungpil, E-mail: yoons@ncc.re.kr [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sal sensitizes antimitotic drugs-treated cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sal sensitizes them by prevention of G2 arrest and reduced cyclin D1 levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sal also sensitizes them by increasing DNA damage and reducing p21 level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A low concentration of Sal effectively sensitized the cancer cells to antimitotic drugs. -- Abstract: Here, we investigated whether Sal could sensitize cancer cells to antimitotic drugs. We demonstrated that Sal sensitized paclitaxcel (PAC)-, docetaxcel (DOC)-, vinblastin (VIN)-, or colchicine (COL)-treated cancer cell lines, suggesting that Sal has the ability to sensitize the cells to any form of microtubule-targeting drugs. Sensitization to the antimitotic drugs could be achieved with very low concentrations of Sal, suggesting that there is a possibility to minimize Sal toxicity associated with human cancer patient treatments. Sensitization by Sal increased apoptosis, which was observed by C-PARP production. Sal sensitized the cancer cells to antimitotic drugs by preventing G2 arrest, suggesting that Sal contributes to the induction of mitotic catastrophe. Sal generally reduced cyclin D1 levels in PAC-, DOC-, and VIN-treated cells. In addition, Sal treatment increased pH2AX levels and reduced p21 levels in antimitotic drugs-treated cells. These observations suggest that the mechanisms underlying Sal sensitization to DNA-damaging compounds, radiation, and microtubule-targeting drugs are similar. Our data demonstrated that Sal sensitizes cancer cells to antimitotic drugs by increasing apoptosis through the prevention of G2 arrest via conserved Sal-sensitization mechanisms. These results may contribute to the development of Sal-based chemotherapy for cancer patients treated with antimitotic drugs.

  10. Salinomycin sensitizes antimitotic drugs-treated cancer cells by increasing apoptosis via the prevention of G2 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju-Hwa; Yoo, Hye-In; Kang, Han Sung; Ro, Jungsil; Yoon, Sungpil

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sal sensitizes antimitotic drugs-treated cancer cells. ► Sal sensitizes them by prevention of G2 arrest and reduced cyclin D1 levels. ► Sal also sensitizes them by increasing DNA damage and reducing p21 level. ► A low concentration of Sal effectively sensitized the cancer cells to antimitotic drugs. -- Abstract: Here, we investigated whether Sal could sensitize cancer cells to antimitotic drugs. We demonstrated that Sal sensitized paclitaxcel (PAC)-, docetaxcel (DOC)-, vinblastin (VIN)-, or colchicine (COL)-treated cancer cell lines, suggesting that Sal has the ability to sensitize the cells to any form of microtubule-targeting drugs. Sensitization to the antimitotic drugs could be achieved with very low concentrations of Sal, suggesting that there is a possibility to minimize Sal toxicity associated with human cancer patient treatments. Sensitization by Sal increased apoptosis, which was observed by C-PARP production. Sal sensitized the cancer cells to antimitotic drugs by preventing G2 arrest, suggesting that Sal contributes to the induction of mitotic catastrophe. Sal generally reduced cyclin D1 levels in PAC-, DOC-, and VIN-treated cells. In addition, Sal treatment increased pH2AX levels and reduced p21 levels in antimitotic drugs-treated cells. These observations suggest that the mechanisms underlying Sal sensitization to DNA-damaging compounds, radiation, and microtubule-targeting drugs are similar. Our data demonstrated that Sal sensitizes cancer cells to antimitotic drugs by increasing apoptosis through the prevention of G2 arrest via conserved Sal-sensitization mechanisms. These results may contribute to the development of Sal-based chemotherapy for cancer patients treated with antimitotic drugs.

  11. Crowne Plaza Renovation Retrofit Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) and its franchise partner B.F. Saul Company Hospitality Group (B.F. Saul Co.) partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  12. AKSIE: BEESVLEISPRODUKSIE TOT DIE JAAR 2OO3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comminuted meats"' . Komponente van die lyfde kwart sal verbruikers- waarde kry. o verpakking en aanbieding sal meer gesofistikeerd moet wees om doeltreffende rakleeftyd en higiene te verseker en die verbruiker meer geleentheid tot ondersoek ...

  13. Critical difference applied to exercise-induced salivary testosterone and cortisol using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): distinguishing biological from statistical change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Young, John D; Baker, Julien S; Grace, Fergal M

    2014-12-01

    Due to its noninvasive, convenient, and practical nature, salivary testosterone (sal-T) and cortisol (sal-C) are frequently used in a clinical and applied setting. However, few studies report biological and analytical error and even fewer report the 'critical difference' which is the change required before a true biological difference can be claimed. It was hypothesized that (a) exercise would result in a statistically significant change in sal-C and sal-T and (b) the exercise-induced change would be within the critical difference for both salivary hormones. In study 1, we calculated the critical difference of sal-T and sal-C of 18 healthy adult males aged 23.2 ± 3.0 years every 60 min in a seated position over a 12-h period (08:00-20:00 hours [study 1]). As proof-of-concept, sal-C and sal-T was also obtained pre and at 5 and 60 min post a maximal exercise protocols in a separate group of 17 healthy males (aged 20.1 ± 2.8 years [study 2]). The critical difference of sal-T calculated as 90 %. For sal-C, the critical difference was 148 % (study 1). Maximal exercise was associated with a statistically significant (p < 0.05) changes in sal-T and sal-C. However, these changes were all within the critical difference range. Results from this investigation indicate that a large magnitude of change for sal-C and sal-T is required before a biologically significant mean change can be claimed. Studies utilizing sal-T and sal-C should appreciate the critical difference of these measures and assess the biological significance of any statistical changes.

  14. Development of lipid-shell and polymer core nanoparticles with water-soluble salidroside for anti-cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dai-Long; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bei; Ren, Ke; He, Zhi-Yao; He, Li-Li; Lei, Yi; Fan, Chun-Mei; Song, Xiang-Rong

    2014-02-25

    Salidroside (Sal) is a potent antitumor drug with high water-solubility. The clinic application of Sal in cancer therapy has been significantly restricted by poor oral absorption and low tumor cell uptake. To solve this problem, lipid-shell and polymer-core nanoparticles (Sal-LPNPs) loaded with Sal were developed by a double emulsification method. The processing parameters including the polymer types, organic phase, PVA types and amount were systemically investigated. The obtained optimal Sal-LPNPs, composed of PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock copolymers and lipids, had high entrapment efficiency (65%), submicron size (150 nm) and negatively charged surface (-23 mV). DSC analysis demonstrated the successful encapsulation of Sal into LPNPs. The core-shell structure of Sal-LPNPs was verified by TEM. Sal released slowly from the LPNPs without apparent burst release. MTT assay revealed that 4T1 and PANC-1 cancer cell lines were sensitive to Sal treatment. Sal-LPNPs had significantly higher antitumor activities than free Sal in 4T1 and PANC-1 cells. The data indicate that LPNPs are a promising Sal vehicle for anti-cancer therapy and worthy of further investigation.

  15. Development of Lipid-Shell and Polymer Core Nanoparticles with Water-Soluble Salidroside for Anti-Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-Long Fang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Salidroside (Sal is a potent antitumor drug with high water-solubility. The clinic application of Sal in cancer therapy has been significantly restricted by poor oral absorption and low tumor cell uptake. To solve this problem, lipid-shell and polymer-core nanoparticles (Sal-LPNPs loaded with Sal were developed by a double emulsification method. The processing parameters including the polymer types, organic phase, PVA types and amount were systemically investigated. The obtained optimal Sal-LPNPs, composed of PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock copolymers and lipids, had high entrapment efficiency (65%, submicron size (150 nm and negatively charged surface (−23 mV. DSC analysis demonstrated the successful encapsulation of Sal into LPNPs. The core-shell structure of Sal-LPNPs was verified by TEM. Sal released slowly from the LPNPs without apparent burst release. MTT assay revealed that 4T1 and PANC-1 cancer cell lines were sensitive to Sal treatment. Sal-LPNPs had significantly higher antitumor activities than free Sal in 4T1 and PANC-1 cells. The data indicate that LPNPs are a promising Sal vehicle for anti-cancer therapy and worthy of further investigation.

  16. Magritte Meets Kripkenstein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hříbek, Tomáš

    1997-01-01

    Roč. 45, 3-4 (1997), s. 240-258 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : René Magritte * Michel Foucault * Saul Kripke Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  17. What's Pragmatic about Community Organizing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, educational researchers and scholars have turned new attention to the theory and practice of community organizing as a method for addressing education injustices. While there are diverse traditions of community organizing work, by far the most influential model in US contexts is that of Saul Alinsky, whose "Rules for Radicals"…

  18. Layò ÒGÚNLO LÁ Abstract Singing has become

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    love people have for singing is so great that we can relate it to the Yorùbá saying: “etí were ni .... Page 5 .... Singing and dancing to meet King Saul with tumbrels, with song .... heaven… Mr. Driver, limit your speed/2times. Life has no duplicate.

  19. An Analysis of the Distinction between Deep and Shallow Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    Standards Yorktown Heighta, NY 10500 Gaithersburg, MD 20896 Dr. Saul Amarel Dept. of Computer Science Dr. Harold Bamford CDR Robert Carter Rutgero...Michigan Marina Del Ray, CA 00232 320 Packard Read Ann Arbor, MI 48103 Mr. Colin Sheppard Dr. Diana We.r-e AXC2 Block I Mr. Prasad Tadepalli Department of

  20. Mitmevärvilised mõtisklused / Aita Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Aita, 1954-

    2000-01-01

    Sisu : Doris Lessing. Kuldne märkmeraamat; Rein Raud. Pisiasjad, mis omavad tähtsust; Italo Calvino. Palomar; Saul Bellow. Vihmakuningas Henderson; Danielle Steel. Rantsho; Margareta Strömstedt. Astrid Lindgren; Nicholas Davies. William - tulevane kuningas; Guntars Godinsh. Öö päike

  1. Nagid: A re-examination in the light of the royal ideology in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    This article argues that nagid indicates divinely sanctioned leader of. Israel in 1 ... In the Saul tradition (1 Sm 9:1-10:16; 11:1-11) nagid signifies the leadership of ..... his subjects, a reticence that is characteristic of core Egyptian ideology, in.

  2. Showrunner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Bo Brendstrup

    2018-01-01

    Redegørelse for begrebet "showrunner", der er en betegnelse for ledende manuskriptforfattere- og producenter i amerikansk tv-serieproduktion. Kendte eksempler er Jenji Kohan (Weeds, Orange is the New Black), Vince Gilligan (Breaking Bad, Better Call Saul), Shonda Rhimes (Grey’s Anatomy, Scandal) og...

  3. Supernova Cosmology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    , i.e. with the cosmology hidden. Looking Beyond Lambda with the Union Supernova Compilation by Rubin et Matrix Description Covariance Matrix with Systematics Description Full Table of All SNe Description Beyond Lambda Figures Updated 11-18-11 Contact: drubin at physics dot fsu dot edu, saul at lbl dot gov

  4. Two Adolescents at Risk for Schizophrenia: A Family Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichert, Louise C.

    1979-01-01

    Studies complex factors contributing to the development of adolescent psychoses in two stepbrothers. Neurodevelopmental difficulties make them vulnerable to their parents' fears and conflicts. This affects the quality of their total life experience and the kind of parent-child relationships leading to their psychoses. A discussion by Saul L. Brown…

  5. Teachers' Study Guide: The American Jewish Writer. The Image of the Jew in Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersand, Joseph; Zara, Louis

    This guide was prepared to give an historical as well as a contemporary perspective on American Jewish authors and their writings. An introductory section presents information on such authors as Saul Bellow, Bernard Malamud, and Philip Roth; on the unique problems which Jewish writers have encountered in America; and on the breadth of current…

  6. Sodio y medicamentos

    OpenAIRE

    Satué de Velasco, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Leyendo el Volumen 2 número 4 de la revista, he visto la interesantísima revisión sobre la sal en analgésicos efervescentes del doctor Martínez1. Quisiera felicitar al autor, ya que incide en muchos puntos fundamentales: impacto de la sal en la hipertensión arterial (HTA), el factor sal-sensible/sal-resistente, estrategia de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) acerca del consumo de sal, contenido de sodio de los distintos analgésicos efervescentes, la importancia de evitar su consumo en...

  7. 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-pyranoside confers neuroprotection in cell and animal models of ischemic stroke through calpain1/PKA/CREB-mediated induction of neuronal glucose transporter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Shu; Cheng, Qiong; Li, Lu; Liu, Mei; Yang, Yumin; Ding, Fei, E-mail: dingfei@ntu.edu.cn

    2014-06-15

    Salidroside is proven to be a neuroprotective agent of natural origin, and its analog, 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-pyranoside (named SalA-4 g), has been synthesized in our lab. In this study, we showed that SalA-4 g promoted neuronal survival and inhibited neuronal apoptosis in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and in rats subjected to ischemia by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), respectively, and that SalA-4 g was more neuroprotective than salidroside. We further found that SalA-4 g elevated glucose uptake in OGD-injured primary hippocampal neurons and increased the expression and recruitment of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) in ischemic brain. Signaling analysis revealed that SalA-4 g triggered the phosphorylation of CREB, and increased the expression of PKA RII in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to OGD injury, while inhibition of PKA/CREB by H-89 alleviated the elevation in glucose uptake and GLUT3 expression, and blocked the protective effects of SalA-4 g. Moreover, SalA-4 g was noted to inhibit intracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx and calpain1 activation in OGD-injured primary hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that SalA-4 g neuroprotection might be mediated by increased glucose uptake and elevated GLUT3 expression through calpain1/PKA/CREB pathway. - Highlights: • A salidroside (Sal) analog (SalA-4 g) is prepared to be more neuroprotective than Sal. • SalA-4 g protected hippocampal neurons from oxygen and glucose deprivation insult. • SalA-4 g reduced ischemic injury after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. • Neuroprotection of SalA-4 g was mediated by GLUT3 level via calpain/PKA/CREB pathway.

  8. 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-pyranoside confers neuroprotection in cell and animal models of ischemic stroke through calpain1/PKA/CREB-mediated induction of neuronal glucose transporter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Shu; Cheng, Qiong; Li, Lu; Liu, Mei; Yang, Yumin; Ding, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Salidroside is proven to be a neuroprotective agent of natural origin, and its analog, 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-pyranoside (named SalA-4 g), has been synthesized in our lab. In this study, we showed that SalA-4 g promoted neuronal survival and inhibited neuronal apoptosis in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and in rats subjected to ischemia by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), respectively, and that SalA-4 g was more neuroprotective than salidroside. We further found that SalA-4 g elevated glucose uptake in OGD-injured primary hippocampal neurons and increased the expression and recruitment of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) in ischemic brain. Signaling analysis revealed that SalA-4 g triggered the phosphorylation of CREB, and increased the expression of PKA RII in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to OGD injury, while inhibition of PKA/CREB by H-89 alleviated the elevation in glucose uptake and GLUT3 expression, and blocked the protective effects of SalA-4 g. Moreover, SalA-4 g was noted to inhibit intracellular Ca 2+ influx and calpain1 activation in OGD-injured primary hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that SalA-4 g neuroprotection might be mediated by increased glucose uptake and elevated GLUT3 expression through calpain1/PKA/CREB pathway. - Highlights: • A salidroside (Sal) analog (SalA-4 g) is prepared to be more neuroprotective than Sal. • SalA-4 g protected hippocampal neurons from oxygen and glucose deprivation insult. • SalA-4 g reduced ischemic injury after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. • Neuroprotection of SalA-4 g was mediated by GLUT3 level via calpain/PKA/CREB pathway

  9. Comparative Genomics and Transcriptional Analysis of Prophages Identified in the Genomes of Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Lactobacillus casei†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Marco; Canchaya, Carlos; Bernini, Valentina; Altermann, Eric; Barrangou, Rodolphe; McGrath, Stephen; Claesson, Marcus J.; Li, Yin; Leahy, Sinead; Walker, Carey D.; Zink, Ralf; Neviani, Erasmo; Steele, Jim; Broadbent, Jeff; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; O'Toole, Paul W.; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2006-01-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC 118, and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 contain one (LgaI), four (Sal1, Sal2, Sal3, Sal4), and one (Lca1) distinguishable prophage sequences, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that LgaI, Lca1, Sal1, and Sal2 prophages belong to the group of Sfi11-like pac site and cos site Siphoviridae, respectively. Phylogenetic investigation of these newly described prophage sequences revealed that they have not followed an evolutionary development similar to that of their bacterial hosts and that they show a high degree of diversity, even within a species. The attachment sites were determined for all these prophage elements; LgaI as well as Sal1 integrates in tRNA genes, while prophage Sal2 integrates in a predicted arginino-succinate lyase-encoding gene. In contrast, Lca1 and the Sal3 and Sal4 prophage remnants are integrated in noncoding regions in the L. casei ATCC 334 and L. salivarius UCC 118 genomes. Northern analysis showed that large parts of the prophage genomes are transcriptionally silent and that transcription is limited to genome segments located near the attachment site. Finally, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis followed by Southern blot hybridization with specific prophage probes indicates that these prophage sequences are narrowly distributed within lactobacilli. PMID:16672450

  10. Low Amount of Salinomycin Greatly Increases Akt Activation, but Reduces Activated p70S6K Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungpil Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study identified a novel salinomycin (Sal-sensitization mechanism in cancer cells. We analyzed the signal proteins Akt, Jnk, p38, Jak, and Erk1/2 in cancer cell lines that had arrested growth following low amounts of Sal treatment. We also tested the signal molecules PI3K, PDK1, GSK3β, p70S6K, mTOR, and PTEN to analyze the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The results showed that Sal sensitization positively correlates with large reductions in p70S6K activation. Interestingly, Akt was the only signal protein to be significantly activated by Sal treatment. The Akt activation appeared to require the PI3K pathway as its activation was abolished by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. The Akt activation by Sal was conserved in the other cell lines analyzed, which originated from other organs. Both Akt activation and C-PARP production were proportionally increased with increased doses of Sal. In addition, the increased levels of pAkt were not reduced over the time course of the experiment. Co-treatment with Akt inhibitors sensitized the Sal-treated cancer cells. The results thereby suggest that Akt activation is increased in cells that survive Sal treatment and resist the cytotoxic effect of Sal. Taken together; these results indicate that Akt activation may promote the resistance of cancer cells to Sal.

  11. pH and electric conductivity study of H{sub 2}O/MEG/salt systems on monoethyleneglycol (MEG) reclamation units in gas processing; Estudo de pH e condutividade eletrica em sistemas H{sub 2}O/MEG/sal, em unidades de recuperacao de monoetilenoglicol (MEG), no processamento de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senna, Camila; Carrijo, Darley; Nascimento, Jailton; Grava, Wilson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Lemos, Alessandro A.; Andrade, Wander V.; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Amorim, Josinira Antunes de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The monoethylene glycol (MEG) is injected in natural gas production wells in order to combine with the free water, altering the thermodynamic conditions for the formation of hydrates. The presence of MEG in aqueous solutions containing salts provokes the decrease of the solubility of the same ones. Information of properties as the pH and the conductivity are important for the control of the process. Before this, the present work has as objective determines the behavior of the aqueous solutions with MEG and NaCl in pH and conductivity terms, in different temperatures, with views to the stage of recovery of MEG and the salt precipitation beginning. The experimental methodology consisted of the elaboration of synthetic solutions of the mixtures in study, covering every MEG concentration range and temperature between 5 and 90 deg C. The conductivity results for the system H{sub 2}O+MEG showed that the conductivity decreases with the concentration of MEG and it increases with the temperature. A conductivity increase was observed for diluted concentrations of MEG, due to the most pronounced effect of protonation of MEG. For pH measures, it was necessary to develop a calibration procedure due to the fact that this property varies with the solvent media. The pH values decrease as it increases the concentration of MEG, reaching a value practically constant around 40%. (author)

  12. "Don't Tell My Father": Important Lessons Learned through EFL Classroom Small Talk ("No le digan a mi padre": lecciones importantes aprendidas a través de la comunión fática en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala González, Gabriela; de Cervantes Orozco, Miguel Adrián Leonel; González Cabrera, Víctor Daniel; Romero Mayora, Faviola; Mugford Fowler, Gerrard Edwin

    2011-01-01

    All too often phatic communion is neglected in the English as a foreign language classroom or relegated to the level of formulaic language which merits little or no attention. In this article we argue that phatic communion plays an important role in establishing, developing and maintaining interpersonal relationships between teacher and learners…

  13. DAVRANIŞSAL VE DEMOGRAFIK DEĞİŞKENLERİN SEYAHAT ACENTASI MÜŞTERİLERİNİN BÖLÜMLENDİRİLMESİNDEKİ ETKİLİLİKLERİ ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA

    OpenAIRE

    KAVAK, Bahtışen; AKS, Emre Ozan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to test the proposition that behavioral variables are more effective in segmenting markets than are demographic variables. For this purpose, a survey is designed to assess the extent to which these variables significantly classify the selection critera of travel agencies’ customers. Respondents, therefore, were asked for their importance level attributed to the selection criteria toward the travel agencies. The results obtained from the discriminant analysi...

  14. Reel Efektif Döviz Kurunun Durağanlığının Yapısal Kırılmalı Panel Birim Kök Testleri Kullanılarak Sınanması = Analyzing the Stationarity of Reel Effective Exchange Rates Using Panel Unit Root Tests with Structural Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda YERDELEN TATOĞLU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, many studies have analyzed the stationarity of reel exchange rates which gives important knowledge about economic stability of countries. The panel unit root tests which include both pooled and individual unit root tests are used frequently to analyze the stationarity of real exchange rates. Generally, structural breaks issue have taken place in macroeconomic time series for some years. If unit root tests are used without taking account these structural breaks, stationarity hypothesis can be rejected mistakenly. In this study, panel unit root tests with and without structural breaks were used to analyze the validity of Purchasing Power Parity hypothesis in 25 OECD countries. According to the results, while in panel unit root tests with no break, PPP theory is valid for only 10 countries; it is valid for all countries in panel unit root tests with structural breaks.

  15. The impacts of mega discoveries of oil and natural gas in the pre-salt Santos Basin: Brazil 2000 - 2030 - 2050; Os impactos das mega descobertas de oleo e gas natural no pre-sal da Bacia de Santos: Brasil 2000 - 2030 - 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahia, Raymundo Ruy; Reis, Lucio Eduardo Solano [Universidade da Amazonia (GEPEE/UNAMA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Nucleo de Socio-economia. Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Economicas Energeticas], e-mail: ruybahia@uol.com.br, e-mail: lereis2000@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a follow-up of four papers presented at the V CBPE 2006 e XI CBE 2006 updating the investment needs to expand the electric energy (EE) Offer. Such analysis revealed an hydro matrix over cost investments of 293 bi US$ (10bi US$/year) as compared to the hydro thermo matrix. Such data proof the unviability to supply the Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions demand with Amazonian hydroelectricity. Furthermore, evaluations about the impacts of the huge underestimate volumes of proved reserves of oil and NG of 20 Gboe from the Projects Tupi, Carioca and Parati and Jupiter discoveries are limited to a small geographic area of 15,000 sqkm (122 x 122 km) that is only 9 percent of the Pre-Salt total area of 160,000 sqkm supporting the hypothesis of 160 Gboe for the ultimate ROR for both Campos and Pre-Salt Basins plus all others exploratory fronts offshore and onshore. In this probable case the mid-points of oil and NG will migrate to the 2070 year. Under these circumstances either scenarios will support the oil and NG self-sufficiencies for those regions Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions, up to the 2050 year and probably extended to the 2070 year. The estimated volume of the potential proved reserve NG Jupiter Project is also underestimate but large enough (7,0 Gboe = 1,100 billion of cubic meter= Gmc) to supply 80 percent (80 GW) of the total 101 GW expansion offer of EE up to the 2030 year. Finally there is not a single good reason to justify the supply the EE demand of the Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions with the unviable Amazonian hydroelectricity. (author)

  16. Influencia de la adición en la dieta de los cerdos de extractos derivados de plantas y de la reducción del contenido en sal de los chorizos sobre la vida útil y la prevalencia de Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Panea Doblado, Begoña; Albertí Lasalle, Pere; Ripoll García, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Aragón es una región con niveles de prevalencia de salmonelosis muy por encima de la media europea (Vico y Mainar-Jaime, 2009). Los extractos derivados de plantas (EDP) poseen propiedades antimicrobianas y actúan sobre el control de la infección por Salmonella spp. en condiciones normales de explotación. Sin embargo, los cambios en la dieta pueden producir cambios en la calidad de la carne y de los productos derivados de ella. Los consumidores consideran que los atributos de ca...

  17. Ham Petrol Fiyat Artışlarının Enflasyonist Etkisi: Seçilmiş OECD Ülkeleri İçin Yapısal Kırılmalı Dinamik Panel Veri Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MERCAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada; petrol ithalatçısı olan OECD üyesi seçilmiş 15 ülke için, 1960-2011 döneminde ham petrol ithal fiyatlarının enflasyon üzerindeki etkileri incelenmiştir. Analizde, herhangi bir ülkede meydana gelen bir makroekonomik şokun diğer ülkeleri de etkileyeceği varsayımını yani yatay kesit bağımlılığını dikkate alan panel birim kök ve eşbütünleşme testleri uygulanmış, seriler arasında eşbütünleşme ilişkisinin varlığı tespit edilmiştir. Uzun Dönem Eşbütünleşme Katsayıları Tahmin sonuçlarına göre ham petrol ithal fiyat artışları ve ekonomik büyümenin enflasyonu arttırdığı, ekonomik büyümenin enflasyonist etkisinin, ham petrol ithal fiyatlarının etkisinden daha fazla olduğu bulgusuna ulaşılmıştır.

  18. Sanal Marka Topluluklarında Topluluk Üyelerinin Marka ile Özdeşleşme Düzeylerinin Öncülleri ve Sonuçları: Yapısal Bir Model Önerisi(Antecedents and Consequences of Brand Identification in Virtual Brand Communities: A Structural Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keti VENTURA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the firms’ usage of virtual brand communities are increasing in order to develop and strengthen customer-brand relationships. The present study aims to analyze the effects of social presence and social identity level gained by the members of virtual brand communities on brand identification, brand community commitment and brand-related behaviors. Accordingly, a survey methodology is embraced and a structural model is developed within Altay ‘’19on4 Licensed Products Stores’’ virtual brand community. This community is chosen since the members of this community are constantly in touch with each other, engaging jointly in group activities with shared values and ideals. The structural model reveal that social presence and social identity dimensions are not perceived at the same level and have different impacts on brand identification, brand community commitment and brand-related behaviors. It is emphasized that an improvement should be needed for that virtual brand community and its activities.

  19. Sanal Marka Topluluklarında Topluluk Üyelerinin Marka ile Özdeşleşme Düzeylerinin Öncülleri ve Sonuçları: Yapısal Bir Model Önerisi(Antecedents and Consequences of Brand Identification in Virtual Brand Communities: A Structural Model)

    OpenAIRE

    Keti VENTURA

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the firms’ usage of virtual brand communities are increasing in order to develop and strengthen customer-brand relationships. The present study aims to analyze the effects of social presence and social identity level gained by the members of virtual brand communities on brand identification, brand community commitment and brand-related behaviors. Accordingly, a survey methodology is embraced and a structural model is developed within Altay ‘’19on4 Licensed Products Stores’’ virtual ...

  20. Kamusal Karar Alma Süreçlerinde Sosyal Tercih Duyarlılığı ve Sürece İlişkin Yapısal Çözümlemeler(The Sensitivity of Social Preferences in Public Decisions Making Process and The Structural Analyses Connected with The Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Niyazi ÖZKER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the study, we aim to bring up the social preferences location that have an important influence on the components of process consisting of social-economics together with the dynamics which should be considered by decision makers as the balanced component between the central government characteristics and the social preferences in public decision making process. Also, the dynamics’ negative effects as under approaches management of central governments’ politic strategies on the socially choices by taking shape publically point of view have been aimed to analyze connected with participation process. Hence, it is appear that the decisions’phenomenon directed towards to analyzes appear in very important the structural models in order to ensure the desired reality participation in decision making and also, the provided participation sensitive that lay the gramework for overtaking some paradox related to decision making process must be required to take into consideration and and check over as the primary point especially in the countries that have the structural politics matters.

  1. Paz na sala de aula é uma condição para o sucesso escolar: que revela a literatura? Paz en el salón de clase como condición para el suceso escolar: ¿qué revela la literatura? Peace in the classroom as a condition for school success: what does the literature reveal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Beatriz Lopes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir o tema indisciplina como contribuição visando a uma proposta de educação para a paz, por meio da investigação seletiva da literatura. A contemporaneidade requer a superação do autoritarismo, da opressão e da submissão nas escolas. Para construir processos educacionais autônomos e solidários, dialógicos, emancipatórios e cooperativos, de acordo com Freinet, Freire e outros grandes educadores, este trabalho oferece algumas sugestões para a escola: (i equipes de intervenção para resolução de problemas, buscando a autogestão escolar, por meio do desenvolvimento de projetos educativos; (ii currículos significativos, haja vista que concorrem para despertar nos alunos o desejo de aprender, e (iii o diálogo como meio de pactuar modos de convivência social, com respeito ao amplo leque de diversidades, concebido como riqueza cultural.El objetivo del presente trabajo es discutir el tema de la indisciplina en la escuela con vistas a una propuesta educativa a favor de la paz, con fundamento en una revisión selectiva de la literatura. Los tiempos contemporáneos requieren la superación del autoritarismo, opresión y sumisión en las escuelas. Con vistas a la construcción de procesos educativos dirigidos al desarrollo de la autonomía y de la solidaridad, con fundamento en el diálogo, la emancipación y cooperación, según Freinet, Freire y otros grandes educadores, este trabajo propone algunas sugestiones a las escuelas: (i la constitución de equipos de intervención para la resolución de problemas, mirando a la auto-gestión escolar; (ii planificación de currículos significativos para estimular el deseo de aprender; (iii el uso del diálogo para establecer en conjunto normas de la vida social, respectando a las diversidades interhumanas como riqueza cultural.This paper aims to discuss the issue of indiscipline as a contribution for an educational proposal in favour of peace, based on the selective review of the literature. Contemporary times require overcoming authoritarianism, oppression and submission in schools. Considering the construction of educational processes directed toward the development of autonomy and solidarity, on the basis of dialogue, emancipation and cooperation, according to Freinet, Freire and other great educators, this work presents some suggestions for schools: (i constitution of teams for intervention on the basis of problem-solving, by means of educational project development, aiming school self-management; (ii planning of significant curricula for stimulating the desire to learn; (iii the use of dialogue for co-establishing social life rules, based on the respect to diversities as cultural wealth.

  2. Tüketicilerin Coğrafi İşaretli Ürün Algısı ve Daha Fazla Fiyat Ödeme İsteği: Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi Yaklaşımı(Consumers' Perception of Product with Geographical Indication and Willingness to Pay More: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Tamer TOKLU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bir fikri ve sınai mülkiyet hakkı olarak coğrafi işaret, belirli bir nitelik, ün veya diğer özellikleriyle kökeninin bulunduğu bir yöre, alan, bölge veya ülke ile özdeşleşmiş bir ürünü gösteren işaretlerdir. Bu çalışmanın amacı tüketicilerin coğrafi işaretli ürünlere olan algılarını ve bu ürünlere daha fazla ödeme eğilimlerini ölçmektir. Bu amaç için oluşturulan modelin verileri kolayda örnekleme yöntemiyle, tüketicilerle yüz yüze yapılan anket çalışmasından elde edilmiştir. Elde edilen veriler En Küçük Kısmi Kareler (PLS yöntemi ile analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre; kültür ve gelenek, kalite ve güvenilirlik coğrafi işaretli ürün algısını etkilerken, coğrafi işaretli ürün algısı da daha fazla fiyat ödeme eğilimini etkilemektedir. Diğer taraftan, ekonomik desteğin coğrafi işaretli ürün algısını etkilemediği bulunmuştur. Bu çalışmanın sonuçları rekabet avantajı elde etmek isteyen yerel üreticiler için etkili bir pazarlama stratejisine karar vermeleri açısından değerli ve önemli bilgiler sunmaktadır. As an intellectual property right, geographical indications are signs showing an exclusive quality, celebrity or other attributes specified with a territory, area, region or country of its origin. This study aims to evaluate consumers' perceptions toward products with geographical indication and their willingness to pay a premium price for these types of products. The data of the model proposed for this aim were collected by convenience sampling method with face to face questionnaire. PLS (Partial Least Squares Method was used to analyze the data. The main findings of the study are as follows, 'culture and tradition' and 'quality and safety' affect the consumers' perceptions towards geographical indication. This perception also affects the willingness to pay more for products with geographical indication. On the other hand, 'economic support' does not affect the consumers' perceptions with geographical indication. The results of this study provide valuable and important information to producers to determine effective marketing strategies to obtain a competitive advantage.

  3. Sterilization by Gamma-Radiation of the Sodium Salt of p-Amino-Salicylic Acid; Sterilisation par irradiation gamma du sel sodique de l' acide p-amino salicylique; Sterilizatsiya gamma-oblucheniem natrievoj soli paraaminosalitsilovoj kisloty; Esterilizacion porirradiacion gamma dela sal sodica del acido p-aminosalicilico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellion, B.; Denti, E.; Massagli, A. [Sorin, Centro Ricerche Nucleari, Saluggia (Italy)

    1963-11-15

    Sodium p-amino-salicylate cannot be sterilized thermally. During manufacture or packing for medical purposes it must therefore be handled under sterilized conditions, with all the difficulties which this involves. The paper quotes experimental data to show that, using gamma irradiation, the product may be sterilized without damage and without the formation of substances harmful from the medical standpoint. (author) [French] Le p-amino salicylate de sodium ne peut Etre sterilise par la chaleur. Pour l'emploi de ce produit comme medicament on est donc oblige de l e manipuler tant pour la fabrication que pour l'emballage, dans des locaux steriles, avec toutes les difficultes qui s'ensuivent. Dans ce travail, les auteurs ont pu demontrer experimentalement la possibilite de steriliser le produit par irradiation gamma, sans endommager le produit et sans formation de substances nocives pour l'emploi medical. (author) [Spanish] El pamino salicilato de sodio no puede esterilizarse por vfa termica y, por lo tanto, para emplearlo como medicamento es preciso prepararlo y empaquetarlo en locales esterilizados, con las dificultades consiguientes; Los autores han demostrado experimentalmente que es posible esterilizar este compuesto por exposicion a los rayos gamma, sin alterarlo y sin que se formen substancias nocivas desde el punto de vista medico. (author) [Russian] Natrievaya sol' paraaminosalitsilovoj kisloty ne mozhet byt' sterilizovana pri pomoshchi nagreva, i dlya togo, chtoby ispol'zovat' ehtot produkt v kachestve medikamenta, nuzhno obrabatyvat' ego kak v protsesse proizvodstva, tak i pri upakovke v steril'nykh pomeshcheniyakh so vsemi vytekayushchimi otsyuda trudnostyami. V dannoj rabote avtory smogli ehksperimental'nym putem dokazat' vozmozhnost' sterilizatsii ehtogo produkta gamma-oblucheniem bez ushcherba dlya ehtogo produkta i bez obrazovaniya vrednykh veshchestv, chto pozvolyaet ego v meditsine. (author)

  4. Bir tür olarak bilim kurgu sineması ve Türk sinemasına yansımaları: Türk sinemasında bilim kurgu türü yapısal özellikleri çözümleme örneği

    OpenAIRE

    Zengin, İbrahim

    2006-01-01

    In the first part, science-fiction comes into consideration as a concept, and with the help of some literature work, which are source of cinema, and in the second part some examples of world-cinema are examined. In the third part, the most evident example of turkish science fiction cinema "G.O.R.A." which is placed at the same category of world science-fiction cinema, is analyzed, and some inventions are presented, which are related wiht the special language and technics of the cinema. It is ...

  5. Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico (Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora Pablo, Irasema; Lengeling, M. Martha; Rubio Zenil, Buenaventura; Crawford, Troy; Goodwin, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews.…

  6. LISREL ve AMOS Programları Kullanılarak Gerçekleştirilen Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli (YEM Analizlerine İlişkin Sonuçların Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa İLHAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the analysis results obtained through LISREL and AMOS for the models of path analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA and structural regression, which are within structural equation model and differ in levels of fit. Therefore, population and sample were not needed in the study. The study was conducted on three different data sets that reflected the models through a data file. The data set used in the path analysis was determined to reflect a low fit model, while the one used in CFA was determined to reflect an acceptable fit model. However, the data set used in the structural model reflected a good fit. In this way, it was believed that it would be possible to find an answer to the question of whether the differences in the fit indexes obtained through LISREL and AMOS were affected by the fit level of the model analyzed. The analysis results indicated that the fit indexes obtained through LISREL and AMOS were substantially similar in the data set that reflected a good fit. The differences in the fit indexes obtained through these two software packages were found to be larger in the model that reflected a low fit between the model and the data set. It was also found that this difference was remarkable, particularly in χ2/sd, NNFI and RFI indexes. These results indicate that the differences in the fit indexes reported by LISREL and AMOS are affected by the fit level of the model

  7. Échinodermes, peintes d’après nature par les soins de Kuhl, van Hasselt et Sal. Müller, membres de la Commission pour l’exploration physique des possessions d’outre-mer des Pays-Bas, publiées d’après les cartons du Musée Royal d’histoire naturelle à Leide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herklots, J.A.

    1869-01-01

    La publication des planches qui composent le présent recueil me fournit l’occasion de faire connaître quelques uns des fruits de la libéralité, avec laquelle feu notre auguste Roi GUILLAUME I a daigné subvenir aux sciences, tout en faisant faire l’exploration de nos possessions d’outre-mer. Des

  8. Polymerization reactivity of sulfomethylated alkali lignin modified with horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongjie; Wu, Xiaolei; Qiu, Xueqing; Chang, Yaqi; Lou, Hongming

    2014-03-01

    Alkali lignin (AL) was employed as raw materials in the present study. Sulfomethylation was conducted to improve the solubility of AL, while sulfomethylated alkali lignin (SAL) was further polymerized by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). HRP modification caused a significant increase in molecular weight of SAL which was over 20 times. It was also found to increase the amount of sulfonic and carboxyl groups while decrease the amount of phenolic and methoxyl groups in SAL. The adsorption quantity of self-assembled SAL film was improved after HRP modification. Sulfonation and HRP modification were mutually promoted. The polymerization reactivity of SAL in HRP modification was increased with its sulfonation degree. Meanwhile, HRP modification facilitated SAL's radical-sulfonation reaction. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Synthetic Aperture Imaging Polarimeter: Postprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    mechanical design of the SAlP prototype revol .... es around the concept of a modular array. The modular aspect allows for the array to be built in...imagery of source . The top row images are of the actual fringe pattern incident on the SAlP prototype array. These pictures were taken through the...processed images associated with each of the inputs. The results demonstrated that the SAlP prototype array works in conjunction with the algorithm

  10. Study of Wide Swath Synthetic Aperture Ladar Imaging Techology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Keshu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Combining synthetic-aperture imaging and coherent-light detection technology, the weak signal identification capacity of Synthetic Aperture Ladar (SAL reaches the photo level, and the image resolution exceeds the diffraction limit of the telescope to obtain high-resolution images irrespective to ranges. This paper introduces SAL, including the development path, technology characteristics, and the restriction of imaging swath. On the basis of this, we propose to integrate the SAL technology for extending its swath. By analyzing the scanning-operation mode and the signal model, the paper explicitly proposes that the former mode will be the developmental trend of the SAL technology. This paper also introduces the flight demonstrations of the SAL and the imaging results of remote targets, showing the potential of the SAL in long-range, high-resolution, and scanning-imaging applications. The technology and the theory of the scanning mode of SAL compensates for the defects related to the swath and operation efficiency of the current SAL. It provides scientific foundation for the SAL system applied in wide swath, high resolution earth observation, and the ISAL system applied in space-targets imaging.

  11. Neuroprotective Effects of Salidroside in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease: Involvement of the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The degenerative loss through apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta plays a primary role in the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Our in vitro experiments suggested that salidroside (Sal could protect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine-induced cell apoptosis in part by regulating the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway. The current study aims to increase our understanding of the protective mechanisms of Sal in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropypridine- (MPTP- induced PD mouse model. We found that pretreatment with Sal could protect against MPTP-induced increase of the time of turning downwards and climbing down to the floor. Sal also prevented MPTP-induced decrease of locomotion frequency and the increase of the immobile time. Sal provided a protection of in MPTP-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in SNpc and the level of DA, DOPAC, and HVA in the striatum. Furthermore, Sal could increase the phosphorylation level of Akt and GSK3β, upregulate the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and inhibit the activation of caspase-3, caspase-6, and caspase-9. These results show that Sal prevents the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway signaling pathway may have mediated the protection of Sal against MPTP, suggesting that Sal may be a potential candidate in neuroprotective treatment for PD.

  12. Emulsinio linimento su arbatmedžio eteriniu aliejumi gamybos technologija ir vertininmas

    OpenAIRE

    Rimkuvienė, Dovilė

    2017-01-01

    Dovilė Rimkuvienė. Master's thesis,, To produce and assessment on a emulsion of liniment with tea tree essential oil. Research supervisor doc. dr. Saulė Velžienė. Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Pharmaceutical Technology and Social Pharmacy Department. - Kaunas. Aim of research- to produce liniment of emulsion with tea tree essential oil, selecting the optimum technology and evaluate it. Task of research: 1. Based on the accumulated scientific literature and practical exper...

  13. Anaerobic Degradation of Marine Algae, Seagrass and Tropical Climbing Vines to Produce a Renewable Energy Source and the Analysis of Their Anaerobic Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    specific mechanisms and enzymes as a result of their complex structure. For these reasons there have been searches for other biomasses that may...Te’o, V., Saul, D., Morgan, H. 1999. Molecular diversity of thermophilic cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria. Microbiology Ecology, 28:99-110...lyase genes from deep-sea strains of Vibrio and Agarivorans and characterization of a new Vibrio enzyme . Marine Biotechnology, 12:526-533. Ugwu, C

  14. Nalmefene and alcohol dependence: a new approach or the same old unacceptable marketing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braillon A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alain Braillon,1,* Bernard Granger,2,*1Alcohol Treatment Unit, University Hospital, Amiens, France; 2Psychiatry, Tarnier Hospital (AP-HP, Paris, France*Both authors contributed equally to this work“A great deal of intelligence can be invested in ignorance when the need for illusion is deep”. Saul BellowPaille and Martini’s review on nalmefene for alcohol dependence deserves some comment.1 Read the original article  

  15. Lugejate valik : Peep Vain on parim / Marko Liibak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liibak, Marko

    2007-01-01

    Aripaev.ee ja ajaleht Äripäev korraldasid lugejate seas küsitluse, mille käigus valiti Eesti parimaks koolitajaks Vain & Partnerite omanik ning koolituskonsultant Peep Vain. Teisele kohale tuli koolitaja, juhtimiskonsultant ja nõustaja ning Tallinn Ülikooli kliinilise psühholoogia professor Mare Pork. Järgnesid Ülo Vihma, Indrek Saul, Tiit Valm, Mihkel Pärjamäe ning Alexander Kotchubei

  16. TACOM Leadership Skills for the 21st Century (An Employee Perspective)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    successful. Robert Thorndike and Saul Stein were writing about this theory in 1937. In their journal article they describe the concept of “social...intelligence” as the ability to get along with other people. ( Thorndike & Stein, 1937) These original views on intelligence continue to be validated...Birmingham: Learning Center Incorporated. Thorndike , R., & Stein, S. (1937). An Evaluation of the Attempts to Measure Social Intelligence

  17. King Saul’s mysterious malady

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian P. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the ‘illness’ of King Saul (as narrated in the Old Testament. The ‘anti-Saul narrative’ states that ‘God’s spirit had left Saul’ and ‘an evil one had taken its place’ (1 Sm 16:14; also cf. e.g. of his behaviour in 1 Sm 19:24; 1 Sm 18:28−29. The latter years of Saul’s reign were marred by his pre-occupation with David’s growing popularity. He eventually became mentally unstable and suspected everyone of plotting against him. Saul’s battle against the Ammonites, as well as his last battle against the Philistines at Mount Gilboa, was fraught with difficulty. It is postulated that Saul experienced epileptic-like fits and assumedly suffered from some kind of ‘depression’ as a result of post-traumatic stress disorder (cf. 1 Sm 18:9; 1 Sm 18:28, 29; 1 Sm 19:24. This was possibly exacerbated by the enemy herem principle. Talmudic and other perspectives were also provided in the article where possible.

  18. Intra-cerebellar microinjection of histamine enhances memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance learning in mice via H2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianlorenço, A C L; Canto-de-Souza, A; Mattioli, R

    2013-12-17

    Studies have demonstrated the relationship between the histaminergic system and the cerebellum, and we intend to investigate the role of the cerebellar histaminergic system on memory consolidation. This study investigated the effect of intra-cerebellar microinjection of histamine on memory retention of inhibitory avoidance in mice, and the role of H1 and H2 receptors in it. The cerebellar vermis of male mice were implanted with guide cannulae, and after three days of recovery, the inhibitory avoidance test was performed. Immediately after a training session, animals received a microinjection of histaminergic drugs: in the experiment 1, saline (SAL) or histamine (HA 0.54, 1.36, 2.72 or 4.07 nmol); experiment 2, SAL or 1.36 nmol HA 5 min after a pretreatment with 0.16 nmol chlorpheniramine (CPA) or SAL; and experiment 3, SAL or 1.36 nmol HA 5 min after a pretreatment with 2.85 nmol ranitidine (RA) or SAL. Twenty-four hours later, a retention test was performed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's tests. In experiment 1, animals microinjected with 1.36 nmol HA showed a higher latency to cross to the dark compartment compared to controls and to 2.72 and 4.07 nmol HA groups. In experiment 2, the combined infusions revealed difference between control (SAL+SAL) and SAL+HA and CPA+HA; while in the experiment 3 the analysis indicated differences in retention latency between mice injected with SAL+SAL and SAL+HA. The groups that received the H2 antagonist RA did not show difference compared to control. These results indicate that 1.36 nmol HA enhances memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance learning in mice and that the pretreatment with H2 antagonist RA was able to prevent this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of lipase from community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 in hydrolyzing triglycerides into growth-inhibitory free fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadieux, Brigitte; Vijayakumaran, Vithooshan; Bernards, Mark A; McGavin, Martin J; Heinrichs, David E

    2014-12-01

    Part of the human host innate immune response involves the secretion of bactericidal lipids on the skin and delivery of triglycerides into abscesses to control invading pathogens. Two Staphylococcus aureus lipases, named SAL1 and SAL2, were identified in the community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain USA300, which, presumably, are produced and function to degrade triglycerides to release free fatty acids. We show that the SAL2 lipase is one of the most abundant proteins secreted by USA300 and is proteolytically processed from the 72-kDa proSAL2 to the 44-kDa mature SAL2 by the metalloprotease aureolysin. We show that spent culture supernatants had lipase activity on both short- and long-chain fatty acid substrates and that deletion of gehB, encoding SAL2, resulted in the complete loss of these activities. With the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we show that SAL2 hydrolyzed trilinolein to linoleic acid, a fatty acid with known antistaphylococcal properties. When added to cultures of USA300, trilinolein and, to a lesser extent, triolein inhibited growth in a SAL2-dependent manner. This effect was shown to be due to the enzymatic activity of SAL2 on these triglycerides, since the catalytically inactive SAL2 Ser412Ala mutant was incapable of hydrolyzing the triglycerides or yielding delayed growth in their presence. Overall, these results reveal that SAL2 hydrolyzes triglycerides of both short- and long-chain fatty acids and that the released free fatty acids have the potential to cause significant delays in growth, depending on the chemical nature of the free fatty acid. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Salinomycin inhibits metastatic colorectal cancer growth and interferes with Wnt/β-catenin signaling in CD133+ human colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, Johannes; Eissele, Jana; Volz, Claudia; Schmitt, Steffen; Ritter, Alina; Ying, Shen; Schmidt, Thomas; Heger, Ulrike; Schneider, Martin; Ulrich, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    The polyether antibiotic Salinomycin (Sal) is regarded as an inhibitor of cancer stem cells. Its effectiveness on human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in vitro has been demonstrated before. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model to investigate the effectiveness of Sal in vivo. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of Sal on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human CD133 + CRC cells. The two murine CRC cell lines MC38 and CT26 were used to analyze the impact of Sal on tumor cell proliferation, viability, migration, cell cycle progression and cell death in vitro. For in vivo studies, CT26 cells were injected into syngeneic BALB/c mice to initiate (i) subcutaneous, (ii) orthotopic, or (iii) metastatic CRC growth. Sal was administered daily, 5-Fluoruracil served as a control. For mechanistic studies, the CD133 + and CD133 - subpopulations of human CRC cells were separated by flow cytometry and separately exposed to increasing concentrations of Sal. The impact on Wnt/β-catenin signaling was determined by Western blotting and quantitative PCR. Sal markedly impaired tumor cell viability, proliferation and migration, and induced necrotic cell death in vitro. CRC growth in vivo was likewise inhibited upon Sal treatment. Interference with Wnt signaling and reduced expression of the Wnt target genes Fibronectin and Lgr5 indicates a novel molecular mechanism, mediating anti-tumoral effects of Sal in CRC. Sal effectively impairs CRC growth in vivo. Furthermore, Sal acts as an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Thus, Salinomycin represents a promising candidate for clinical CRC treatment. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2879-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  1. Oxidative DNA damage and mammary cell proliferation by alcohol-derived salsolinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Mariko; Midorikawa, Kaoru; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2013-10-21

    Drinking alcohol is a risk factor for breast cancer. Salsolinol (SAL) is endogenously formed by a condensation reaction of dopamine with acetaldehyde, a major ethanol metabolite, and SAL is detected in blood and urine after alcohol intake. We investigated the possibility that SAL can participate in tumor initiation and promotion by causing DNA damage and cell proliferation, leading to alcohol-associated mammary carcinogenesis. SAL caused oxidative DNA damage including 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), in the presence of transition metal ions, such as Cu(II) and Fe(III)EDTA. Inhibitory effects of scavengers on SAL-induced DNA damage and the electron spin resonance study indicated the involvement of H₂O₂, which is generated via the SAL radical. Experiments on scavengers and site specificity of DNA damage suggested ·OH generation via a Fenton reaction and copper-peroxide complexes in the presence of Fe(III)EDTA and Cu(II), respectively. SAL significantly increased 8-oxodG formation in normal mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells. In addition, SAL induced cell proliferation in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative MCF-10A cells, and the proliferation was inhibited by an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor AG1478, suggesting that reactive oxygen species may participate in the proliferation of MCF-10A cells via EGFR activation. Furthermore, SAL induced proliferation in estrogen-sensitive breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and a surface plasmon resonance sensor revealed that SAL significantly increased the binding activity of ERα to the estrogen response element but not ERβ. In conclusion, SAL-induced DNA damage and cell proliferation may play a role in tumor initiation and promotion of multistage mammary carcinogenesis in relation to drinking alcohol.

  2. Antigenic profile of human recombinant PrP: generation and chracterization of a versatile polyclonal antiserum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachsamanoglou, M.; Paspaltzis, I.; Petrakis, S.; Verghese-Nikolakaki, S.; Panagiotidis, C.H.; Voitlander, T.; Budka, H.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Sklaviadis, T.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the quality of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (Sal1) that was raised against mature human recombinant prion protein (rhuPrP). Epitope mapping demonstrated that the Sal1 antiserum recognized six to eight linear antigenic sites, depending on the animal species. The versatility of the

  3. Future Time Orientation and Learning Conceptions: Effects on Metacognitive Strategies, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Study Effort and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Braojos, Calixto

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, research on the constructive learning process has been conducted mainly from two perspectives: student approaches to learning (SAL) and self-regulated learning (SRL). The SAL perspective has highlighted the role of learning conceptions with respect to other topics involved in constructive learning processes, whereas…

  4. Y chromosomal and sex effects on the behavioral stress response in the defensive burying test in wild house mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; Korte, SM; Van Baal, GCM; De Ruiter, AJH; Van Oortmerssen, GA

    1999-01-01

    Genetically selected short attack latency (SAL) and long attack latency (LAL) male wild house mice behave differently in the defensive burying test. When challenged, SAL males respond actively with more time spent on defensive burying, whereas LAL males are more passive with more time remaining

  5. Is Apartheid ook op ekonomiese grond geregverdig?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van Deventer

    1956-03-01

    Full Text Available Die mening word vandag dikwels uitgespreek (ook deur Nasionaliste dat apartheid nie op ekonomiese gronde geregverdig kan word nie; of anders gestel, dat apartheid van die blankes te groot offers sal verg; of nog sterker gestel, dat die blankes op ekonomiese gebied nie sonder die naturel sal kan klaarkom nie.

  6. Die Gereformeerde Ekumeniese Sinode en Sending 1984

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opvatting. Indien 'n mens al die kerke wat aan die Gereformeerde. Ekumeniese Sinode (GES) behoort een vir een sendingmatig sal be- studeer, sal daar waarskynlik 'n sterk differensiasie tussen sommige kerke aan die lig kom. Die GES kan dus nie verantwoordelik gehou word vir individuele kerke se sendingopvatting nie.

  7. Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Motor Dysfuntion in Spinal Cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) treatment on the motor function of spinal cord injury (SCI) rat. Methods: SCI rats were modelled by contusion, and then received 10 mg/kg Sal B, or methylprednisolone, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally daily for 4 weeks, two hours after the ...

  8. Characterization of the nest site preferences of Saltmarsh and Nelson's Sparrows, and hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltmarsh Sparrows (hereafter SALS) are named on the National Audubon Society’s current WatchList as a species of global conservation concern (National Audubon Society 2007). Anthropogenic climate change is perhaps the largest threat to SALS populations because sea level ri...

  9. Pentateugtradisies in die boek Hosea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    om te bepaal of die verwysing na 'n gebeure te doen het met die verre verlede of met die .... Hosea 2:1-2 JHWH se trou aan sy beloftes. ... dat huile na Egipte sal terugkeer. Die presiese bedoeiing van die woorde 'huile sal terugkeer na Egipte' is omstre- de. Kommentatore soos Rudolph meen dat dit verstaan moet word as ...

  10. Tegn. Red.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    gawe uit meer as twee maal soveel lemmas sal bestaan. Selfs tien duisend lem- mas sal geensins 'n volledige versameling "etimologiseerbare" Afrikaanse lemmas verteenwoordig nie, en dit is goed dat EWA geensins makrostruktu- rele volledigheid op die agenda het nie. Nogtans, hoewel daar in hierdie stadium niks oor ...

  11. Die belangrikste kenmerk van die diereproduksie- bedrywe oor die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    digdhede teen 1980 uit 'n kudde van 30 rnilj.skape ge- produseer moet word. Tweedens sal die faktore ... die Republiek van Suid-Mrika teen 1980 in totaal 28 milj. sal wees. Indien die produsente dit as 'n ..... Appendix Table 4 in Digestive Physiology and nutrition of ruminants Vol. 3 Ed. and Publ. D.C. Church, Oregon State ...

  12. Sodio y medicamentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satué E.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leyendo el Volumen 2 número 4 de la revista, he visto la interesantísima revisión sobre la sal en analgésicos efervescentes del doctor Martínez1. Quisiera felicitar al autor, ya que incide en muchos puntos fundamentales: impacto de la sal en la hipertensión arterial (HTA, el factor sal-sensible/sal-resistente, estrategia de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS acerca del consumo de sal, contenido de sodio de los distintos analgésicos efervescentes, la importancia de evitar su consumo en las personas con problemas cardiovasculares (CV, renales, etc., lo cual muestra la necesidad de que los farmacéuticos nos impliquemos en la influencia que los medicamentos con alto contenido en sodio pueden tener en nuestros pacientes.

  13. Development of Smart Active Layer Sensor (I) : Theory and Concept Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dong Jin; Lee, Young Sup; Kwon, Jae Hwa; Lee, Sang Il

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the first part of the study on the development of a smart active layer (SAL) sensor, which consists of two parts. In this first part, the theory and concept of the SAL sensor is investigated, which is designed for the detection of elastic waves caused by internal cracks and damages in structures. For the development SAL sensor, (i) the basic theory of elastic waves was studied, (ii) the feasible study of the SAL as an elastic waves detection sensor using the finite element analysis (FEA) with respect to a piezoceramic disc was performed. (iii) the comparison of performances between some piezoceramic sensors and a commercial acoustic emission (AE) sensor was accomplished to ensure the applicability by the experimental means, such as a pencil lead break test. Also, the conceptional study for the SAL sensor, which can be utilized for the effective detection and locating of defects by the arrangement of regularly distributed sensors, was discussed

  14. Antibacterial activity of Pd(II) complexes with salicylaldehyde-amino acids Schiff bases ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rîmbu, Cristina; Danac, Ramona; Pui, Aurel

    2014-01-01

    Palladium(II) complexes with Schiff bases ligands derived from salicylaldehyde and amino acids (Ala, Gly, Met, Ser, Val) have been synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform (FT)-IR, UV-Vis and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) spectrometry confirms the formation of palladium(II) complexes in 1/2 (M/L) molar ratio. All the Pd(II) complexes 1, [Pd(SalAla)2]Cl2; 2, [Pd(SalGly)2]Cl2; 3, [Pd(SalMet)2]Cl2; 4, [Pd(SalSer)2]Cl2; 5, [Pd(SalVal)2]Cl2; have shown antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli.

  15. Avaliação do nível de atividade física de estudantes de graduação das áreas saúde/biológica Evaluación del nivel de actividad física de estudiantes de graduación de las áreas salúd/biológica Evaluation of the physical activity level of undergraduation students of health/biology fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber dos Santos Ferreira da Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTAÇÃO: A prática regular de atividades físicas constitui importante fator na promoção da saúde e qualidade de vida da população. Para avaliar o nível de atividade física (NAF de uma população, vários instrumentos são utilizados, entre eles o IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o NAF dos alunos de graduação em Educação Física em relação ao gênero e ao tempo de graduação, assim como comparar o NAF de estudantes de diferentes cursos das áreas saúde/biológica. MÉTODOS: Duzentos e oitenta indivíduos, sendo 194 estudantes de Educação Física (100 homens e 94 mulheres e 86 estudantes (17 homens e 69 mulheres de áreas saúde/biológica (Farmácia e Bioquímica, Odontologia e Ciências Biológicas. O instrumento utilizado para medida do nível de atividade física foi o Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (IPAQ, em sua versão curta. RESULTADOS: No grupo de estudantes de Educação Física, encontrou-se incidência de 92% classificados como Muito Ativos ou Ativos; no entanto, não se observou diferença significativa (p > 0,05 entre os grupos masculino e feminino. Em relação aos outros cursos analisados, constatou-se que a amostra feminina é menos ativa fisicamente que a masculina (p 0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Homens possuem maior nível de atividade física que as mulheres; os universitários avaliados não possuem padrões semelhantes nos diferentes cursos; e o nível de atividade física mantém-se constante durante o curso de Educação Física.FUNDAMENTOS: La práctica regular de actividades físicas constituye un importante factor en la promoción de la salud y calidad de vida de la población. Para evaluar el nivel de actividad física (NAF de una población, varios instrumentos son utilizados, entre ellos el IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire. OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el NAF de los alumnos de graduación en Educación Física respecto al género y al tiempo de conclusión de los estudios, como también comparar el NAF de estudiantes de diferentes cursos de las áreas salud y biológicas. MÉTODOS: Doscientos ochenta individuos, de los cuales 194 son estudiantes de Educación Física (100 hombres y 94 mujeres y 86 estudiantes (17 hombres y 69 mujeres de áreas de salud y biológicas (Farmacia y Bioquímica, Odontología y Ciencias Biológicas. El instrumento utilizado para medida del nivel de actividad física fue el Cuestionario Internacional de Actividad Física (IPAQ, en su versión corta. RESULTADOS: En el grupo de estudiantes de Educación Física, se encontró una incidencia de 92% clasificados como Muy Activos o Activos, a pesar de eso, no se observó diferencia significativa (p > 0,05 entre los grupos masculino y femenino. En relación a los otros cursos analizados, se constató que la muestra femenina es menos activa físicamente que la masculina (p 0,05. CONCLUSIONES: Hombres poseen un mayor nivel de actividad física que las mujeres; los universitarios evaluados no poseen padrones semejantes en los diferentes cursos; y el nivel de actividad física es constante durante el curso de Educación Física.BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity practice is considered an important factor in the population's health and quality of life promotion. In order to evaluate a population's physical activity level (PAL, many instruments are used, among them the IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the PAL of Physical Education (PE undergraduate students concerning gender and study year as well as to compare the PAL of these students with others from different health/biology courses. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty subjects; being 194 PE students (100 men and 94 women and 86 students (17 men and 69 women of other courses (Pharmacy; Biochemistry, Dentistry and Biology. The instrument used to measure the PAL was the IPAQ in its short version. RESULTS: Among the PE students, it was found that 92% of them were classified as active or very active; however, there was no significant difference (p > 0,05 between male and female groups. Concerning the other courses, it was observed that the female sample is less physically active than the male one (p 0,05. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, male students have a higher level of physical activity than female ones; the undergraduate students did not show similar patterns of PAL and this level remains constant during the PE course.

  16. Türk Bankacılık Sektöründe Hizmet Kalitesinin Müşteri Tatmini ve Tekrar Satın Alma Niyeti Üzerine Etkisi: Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli ile Bir İnceleme = The Impact of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction and Repurchase Intention in the Turkish Banking Sector: an Analysis Using Structural Equation Modeling

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    Ömür DEMİRER

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is two-fold: firstly, to assess customers’ expectations and perceptions towards the quality of services provided by private banks in Turkey and, secondly, to investigate the relationships between service quality, satisfaction, and repurchase intention for bank customers through a structural equation model. Data were collected by face to face interviews with 500 customers of a private bank listed in world’s most valuable 100 banking brands using the SERVQUAL method. Results revealed that customers’ perceptions of service quality fell short of their expectations, with the responsiveness dimension having the largest gap and the tangibles dimension having the smallest gap. Moreover, although the service quality did not have a direct effect on customer repurchase intention, it did have an indirect influence on customer repurchase intention via customer satisfaction. Results confirmed the mediator effect of customer satisfaction.

  17. Mağaza Sadakat Programlarının Algılanması, Güven, İlişkiyi Sürdürme İsteği ve Mağaza Sadakati Arasındaki İlişkilerin Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli ile İncelenmesi = Analyzing the Relationships Among Perceptions on Store Loyalty Programs, Trust, Customer Commitment to the Relationship and Store Loyalty Through Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ela Erten; Tülay Yeniçeri

    2008-01-01

    Especially in the retail industry, where there is intense competition, companies have started to initiate customer loyalty programs. By the help of these programs companies expect to develop long - term relationships with their customers and collect useful information about them as well. The purpose of this research is to analyze a supermarket customer loyalty program to investigate the relationship between customer loyalty programs and the actual customer loyalty to a company’s products and ...

  18. Yabancı Doğrudan Yatırımların İstihdam Üzerindeki Etkisi: Türkiye, Çin ve Hindistan Örneğinde Çoklu Yapısal Kırılmalı Eşbütünleşme Analizi(Foreign Direct Investments’ Effect on the Employment: Cointegration Analysis with Multiple Structural Breaks in Turkey, China and India Sample

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    İsmet GÖÇER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study effects of foreign direct investment on employment, analyzed with multiple structural breaks unit root test of Carrion-i-Silvestre et al. (2009, multiple structural breaks cointegration test of Maki (2012 and dynamic ordinary least squares method for Turkey, China and India by using 1980-2011 period data. According to the empirical findings; series are non-stationary in level and there is a cointegration relationship between series. As a result of the long run analysis; 10% increase of foreign direct investment leads to a decreases on the employment in Turkey by 0.3%while decreases in China and India respectively by 0.3% and 0.2%.

  19. İçsel ve Dışsal İş Doyum Düzeyleri ile Genel İş Doyum Düzeyi Arasındaki İlişkinin Belirlenmesi: Turist Rehberleri Üzerinde Bir Araştırma = Determination of the Relationship between the Levels of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Job Satisfaction with Level of General Job Satisfaction: An Investigation on Tour Guides

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    Özlem KÖROĞLU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An investigation conducted on tour guides using the questionnaire technique will be presented. This study aims to determine the relationship between the levels of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction with level of general job satisfaction. The collected data were analyzed by using factor analysis, reliability analysis, arithmetic means, correlation and regression analysis. At the end of the study a high levels of intrinsic satisfaction and a mid-level extrinsic and general job satisfaction of the respondents were found. The most affecting variable of the general job satisfaction was intrinsic satisfaction and it is found that the tour guides enjoyed the most satisfaction from company policies, responsibility and social service.

  20. Inovação tecnológica na produção brasileira de sal marinho e as alterações sócioterritoriais dela decorrentes: uma análise sob a ótica da Teoria do Empreendedorismo de Schumpeter / Technological innovation in the production of sea salt in Brazil and changes her socio-territorial arising out: an analysis under the perspective of Schumpeter’s Entrepreneurship Theory

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    Marco Túlio Mendonça Diniz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The salt work activity has been practiced extensively throughout the Brazilian coast from Para State to the Rio de Janeiro State, today the mechanized salt industry from the Northern Rio Grande do Norte’s coast produce about 94% of the Brazilian sea salt. The entrepreneurship action of the businessmen who invested in the Rio Grande do Norte’s salt works was primarily responsible for the creation of the current productive structure and internal trade of sea salt, in which the Rio Grande do Norte produces most of this important input to industry and agriculture of the country. The corporate entrepreneurship of the Rio Grande do Norte’s salt works was analyzed from the perspective of Schumpeter’s theory, since they could be identified the five key points of this theory in the development of the Rio Grande do Norte’s salt industry. Taking advantage of the best natural conditions for the installation activity, entrepreneurs have created an environment that can artificially boost, mechanically, the productivity of has industry. Changes in the production structure also caused changes in the spatial structure of areas dedicated to the production of sea salt.

  1. Mağaza Sadakat Programlarının Algılanması, Güven, İlişkiyi Sürdürme İsteği ve Mağaza Sadakati Arasındaki İlişkilerin Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli ile İncelenmesi = Analyzing the Relationships Among Perceptions on Store Loyalty Programs, Trust, Customer Commitment to the Relationship and Store Loyalty Through Structural Equation Modeling

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    Ela Erten

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Especially in the retail industry, where there is intense competition, companies have started to initiate customer loyalty programs. By the help of these programs companies expect to develop long - term relationships with their customers and collect useful information about them as well. The purpose of this research is to analyze a supermarket customer loyalty program to investigate the relationship between customer loyalty programs and the actual customer loyalty to a company’s products and services. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM was used in order to test our research hypotheses. As a result of the Structural Equation Modeling, it is found that the trust, which is an important factor in relationship marketing, has also impact on the continuation of the relationship. The other consequence of the research is that the store loyalty is affected by perception of the loyalty programs and the willingness to continue the relationship with the store.

  2. Consumo, desempenho e parâmetros econômicos de novilhos Nelore e F1 Brangus x Nelore terminados em pastagens, suplementados com mistura mineral e sal nitrogenado com uréia ou amiréia Feed intake, performance and profitability of Nellore and crossbred (Brangus x Nellore steers finished in pastures, supplemented with mineralized salt and nitrogenous salt with urea or starea

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    L.C.V. Ítavo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação protéica (40% PB com amiréia ou uréia sobre o consumo de suplemento, desempenho e características econômicas de novilhos terminados em pastagens. Foram utilizados 120 novilhos com 19 meses de idade e 358kg, sendo 60 Nelore e 60 F1 Brangus x Nelore, divididos em três tratamentos com 20 animais, alojados em piquetes de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu de 10 hectares cada, totalizando 120 hectares, sendo dois piquetes por grupo genético e tratamento, pastejados alternadamente a cada pesagem (42 dias. Os tratamentos consistiram em mistura mineral com amiréia-150S (AM, mistura mineral com uréia+milho+enxofre (UR e mistura mineral (MM. As médias de consumo de suplemento dos animais F1 foram de 206,1; 145,9 e 73,1g/dia, e as dos animais Nelore, 236,0; 205,1 e 94,3g/dia para os tratamentos AM, UR e MM, respectivamente. Para os novilhos Nelore, houve efeito (PThe effects of protein supplementation of finishing grazing steers by feeding nitrogenous salts (40% CP, urea or starea or mineralized salt only on supplement intake, growing performance and profitability were evaluated. One hundred and twenty steers (60 Nellore and 60 Brangus x Nellore, 19-month old, 358kg BW were divided in 12 equal groups which were allotted to one of 12 Brachiaria brizantha pastures (10-ha each performing two pastures for each breeding group and nutritional treatment. Groups were allowed to graze each pasture for 42 days when they were randomly moved into a new one. Nutritional treatments were as follow: MS - mineralized salt only; ST -mineralized salt plus starea - 150S; and UR - mineralized salt plus urea, corn and sulphur. UR supplement was prepared mixing the same ingredient contents of ST. Crossbred steers consumed 206.1; 145.9 and 73.1g/day whereas Nellore steers consumed 236.0; 205.11 and 94.29g/day of ST, UR and MS; respectively. For Nellore steers, UR increased slaughter weight (518.8kg compared to ST and MS (491.9 and 485.2kg, respectively. Protein supplementation also increased slaughter weight for crossbred steers (P<0.05 in comparison to animals fed mineralized salt as sole supplementation (515.9 and 520.2kg for the UR and ST, respectively. Protein supplementation enhances growing performance of crossbred steers during periods of forage abundance. Urea supplementation yields a higher profitability in grazing systems for cattle finishing.

  3. İşin Anlamlılığını Belirleyen Sosyal-Yapısal Özelliklerin Güçlendirmeye Olan Etkileri ve Sonuçları Üzerine bir Araştırma = A Study on the Effects of the Social-Structural Characteristics Determining the Meaningfulness of Work on Empowerment and the Results of these Effects

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    Hasan GÜL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the social-structural characteristics that organizations must have in order that employees could feel themselves empowered. For this purpose, the possible effects of social-structural characteristics on the meaningfulness level of the work performed were studied. In addition, an analysis was conducted to determine whether the level of work meaningfulness might lead to affective commitment as well. The subjects of the study were 222 administrative personnel of 13 state universities. In conclusion, it was determined that the structural characteristics providing the work with meaningfulness were role ambiguity, access to resourses, and access to information. In addition, it was determined that the employees who find their work meaningful have affective commitment to their organizations.

  4. Microsatellite loci for dreissenid mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) and relatives: markers for assessing exotic and native populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldheim, Kevin A; Brown, Joshua E; Murphy, Douglas J; Stepien, Carol A

    2011-07-01

    We developed and tested 14 new polymorphic microsatellite loci for dreissenid mussels, including the two species that have invaded many freshwater habitats in Eurasia and North America, where they cause serious industrial fouling damage and ecological alterations. These new loci will aid our understanding of their genetic patterns in invasive populations as well as throughout their native Ponto-Caspian distributions. Eight new loci for the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha polymorpha and six for the quagga mussel D. rostriformis bugensis were compared with new results from six previously published loci to generate a robust molecular toolkit for dreissenid mussels and their relatives. Taxa tested include D. p. polymorpha, D. r. bugensis, D. r. grimmi, D. presbensis, the 'living fossil'Congeria kusceri, and the dark false mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeata (the latter also is invasive). Overall, most of the 24 zebra mussel (N = 583) and 13 quagga mussel (N = 269) population samples conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations for the new loci following sequential Bonferroni correction. The 11 loci (eight new, three previously published) evaluated for D. p. polymorpha averaged 35.1 alleles and 0.72 mean observed heterozygosity per locus, and 25.3 and 0.75 for the nine loci (six new, three previously published) developed for D. r. bugensis. All but three of these loci successfully amplified the other species of Dreissena, and all but one also amplified Congeria and Mytilopsis. All species and populations tested were significantly divergent using the microsatellite data, with neighbour-joining trees reflecting their evolutionary relationships; our results reveal broad utility for resolving their biogeographic, evolutionary, population and ecological patterns. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Salinomycin nanoparticles interfere with tumor cell growth and the tumor microenvironment in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, Zahra; Faghihi, Homa; Montazeri, Hamed

    2018-05-02

    Recently, salinomycin (SAL) has been reported to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in various tumors. The aim of this study was to deliver SAL to orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer by the aid of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). The NPs were physico-chemically characterized and evaluated for cytotoxicity on luciferase-transduced AsPC-1 cells in vitro as well as implanted orthotopically into the pancreas of nude mice. SAL (3.5 mg/kg every other day) blocked tumor growth by 52% compared to the control group after 3 weeks of therapy. Western blotting of tumor protein extracts indicated that SAL treatment leads to up-regulation of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGFβR) expressions in AsPC-1 orthotopic tumor. Noteworthy, immunofluorescence staining of adjacent tumor sections showed that treatment with SAL NPs cause significant apoptosis in the tumor cells rather than the stroma. Further investigations also revealed that TGFβR2 over-expression was induced in stroma cells after treatment with SAL NPs. These results highlight SAL-loaded PLGA NPs as a promising system for pancreatic cancer treatment, while the mechanistic questions need to be subsequently tested.

  6. Combined fluticasone propionate and salmeterol reduces RSV infection more effectively than either of them alone in allergen-sensitized mice

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    Ledford Dennis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection is the major cause of bronchiolitis in infants and is a risk factor for the development of asthma. Allergic asthmatics are more susceptible to RSV infection and viral exacerbation. Methods Since the effectiveness of corticosteroids in treating RSV infection has been controversial, we tested fluticasone propionate (FP and salmeterol (Sal alone versus FP plus Sal (FPS on RSV-induced airway inflammation. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA and infected with RSV. Following infection they were treated with FP, Sal, or FPS intranasally and airway hyperreactivity (AHR, inflammation and RSV titers were examined. Results The group treated with FPS showed significantly lower AHR compared to the group treated with FP or Sal alone. The group treated with FP alone showed slightly decreased (non-significant AHR compared to controls. Treatment with FPS resulted in significant decreases in the percentage of eosinophils and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in lung pathology compared to FP or Sal. FP alone decreased eosinophils but not neutrophils or lymphocytes, while Sal alone decreased eosinophils and neutrophils but not lymphocytes. FPS treatment of mice infected with RSV in the absence of allergen sensitization resulted in a 50% decrease of RSV titer in the lung and a reduction in neutrophils compared to FP or Sal. Conclusion Together, these results indicate that fluticasone in combination with salmeterol is a more effective treatment for decreasing airway hyperreactivity and inflammation than either of them alone in allergen-sensitized, RSV-infected mice.

  7. Comparison of cardioprotective effects using salvianolic acid B and benazepril for the treatment of chronic myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haibo; Shi, Mengqiong; Yang, Xianzhe; Zeng, Xiaowei; Wu, Limao; Li, Lianda

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cardioprotective effects of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) and the angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril, in rats with chronic myocardial infarction (MI) that resulted from a coronary artery ligation for 4 weeks. The rats were divided into four groups: those undergoing a sham operation; a MI group; a MI+SalB group (100 mg/kg by a gavage, once a day for 4 weeks); a MI+benazepril group (10 mg/kg by a gavage, once a day for 4 weeks). The following parameters were measured: echocardiographic, hemodynamic and hemorheological changes, angiogenesis, infarct size and cardiac remodeling and the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF). Rats treated with SalB or benazepril manifested the following: (1) marked improvements in echocardiographic, hemodynamic and hemorheological parameters; (2) significant reduction of infarct size; (3) significantly attenuated heart, kidney and lung hypertrophies, left ventricular (LV) dilatation and fibrosis. The unique effects of SalB were angiogenesis and augmented VEGF expression in the border and remote noninfarcted left ventricular area. These results suggest that both SalB and benazepril exerted beneficial cardioprotective effects in our experimental system, but that the modality of Sal B was different from that of benazepril. The additional beneficial effects of Sal B relative to benazpril, augmenting VEGF expression and promoting angiogenesis, may result in improved myocardial microcirculation.

  8. Sensitization of Cancer Cells through Reduction of Total Akt and Downregulation of Salinomycin-Induced pAkt, pGSk3β, pTSC2, and p4EBP1 by Cotreatment with MK-2206

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    Ae-Ran Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MK-2206 is an inhibitor of Akt activation. It has been investigated as an anticancer drug in clinical trials assessing the potential of pAkt targeting therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify conditions that increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to MK-2206. We found that the treatment of cancer cells with a high concentration of salinomycin (Sal reduced total Akt protein levels but increased activated Akt levels. When cancer cells were cotreated with MK-2206 and Sal, both pAkt and total Akt levels were reduced. Using microscopic observation, an assessment of cleaved PARP, FACS analysis of pre-G1 region, and Hoechst staining, we found that Sal increased apoptosis of MK-2206-treated cancer cells. These results suggest that cotreatment with MK-2206 and Sal sensitizes cancer cells via reduction of both pAkt and total Akt. Furthermore, cotreatment of cancer cells with Sal and MK-2206 reduced pp70S6K, pmTOR, and pPDK1 levels. In addition, Sal-induced activation of GSK3β, TSC2, and 4EBP1 was abolished by MK-2206 cotreatment. These results suggest that cotreatment using MK-2206 and Sal could be used as a therapeutic method to sensitize cancer cells through targeting of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Our findings may contribute to the development of MK-2206-based sensitization therapies for cancer patients.

  9. Potentiation activity of multiple antibacterial agents by Salvianolate from the Chinese medicine Danshen against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Qing-Qing Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salvianolate (SAL is a prescribed medicine from the Chinese herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. It has been widely used in treatment of coronary and other diseases with significant effects. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of SAL against infectious pathogens were assayed and its combined effects on 10 clinical isolates of SCCmec III type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA with ten antibiotics were evaluated. Susceptibility to each agent alone was tested using a broth microdilution method, and the chequerboard and time-kill experiments were used for the combined activities. The results showed MIC was 128–256 mg/L for SAL used alone against MRSA. Significant synergies were observed for SAL/Ampicillin (Fosfomycin, Erythromycin, Piperacillin-tazobactam or Clindamycin combination against over half of the isolates, with their MICs reduced by times of dilution (TOD to 4–32 (FICIs 0.375–0.5, respectively. SAL/AMP combination showed the best combined effect of synergy on bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, while SAL/AMK combination reversed the resistance of MRSA to AMK. The results demonstrated that SAL enhanced widely the in vitro anti-MRSA efficacy of the ten antibacterial agents, which had potential for combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA and warrants further investigations.

  10. Potentiation activity of multiple antibacterial agents by Salvianolate from the Chinese medicine Danshen against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Qing; Han, Jun; Zuo, Guo-Ying; Wang, Gen-Chun; Tang, Hua-Shu

    2016-05-01

    Salvianolate (SAL) is a prescribed medicine from the Chinese herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge). It has been widely used in treatment of coronary and other diseases with significant effects. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of SAL against infectious pathogens were assayed and its combined effects on 10 clinical isolates of SCCmec III type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with ten antibiotics were evaluated. Susceptibility to each agent alone was tested using a broth microdilution method, and the chequerboard and time-kill experiments were used for the combined activities. The results showed MIC was 128-256 mg/L for SAL used alone against MRSA. Significant synergies were observed for SAL/Ampicillin (Fosfomycin, Erythromycin, Piperacillin-tazobactam or Clindamycin) combination against over half of the isolates, with their MICs reduced by times of dilution (TOD) to 4-32 (FICIs 0.375-0.5), respectively. SAL/AMP combination showed the best combined effect of synergy on bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, while SAL/AMK combination reversed the resistance of MRSA to AMK. The results demonstrated that SAL enhanced widely the in vitro anti-MRSA efficacy of the ten antibacterial agents, which had potential for combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA and warrants further investigations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Suppressing Receptor-Interacting Protein 140: a New Sight for Salidroside to Treat Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Ma, Zhanqiang; Zhu, Lingpeng; Jiang, Wenjiao; Wei, Tingting; Zhou, Rui; Luo, Fen; Zhang, Kai; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Chunhua; Yan, Tianhua

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to detect the effect of salidroside (Sal) on cerebral ischemia and explore its potential mechanism. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed to investigate the effects of Sal on cerebral ischemia. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham group, vehicle group, clopidogrel (7.5 mg/kg) group, Sal (20 mg/kg) group, and Sal (40 mg/kg) group. SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury to verify the protective effect of Sal in vitro. We also built the stable receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140)-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells. The results showed that Sal significantly reduces brain infarct size and cerebral edema. Sal could effectively decrease the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum of the MCAO rats and supernatant of I/R-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Immunohistochemical and Western blot results demonstrated that Sal inhibited RIP140-mediated inflammation and apoptosis in the MCAO rats and SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, we further confirmed that RIP140/NF-κB signaling plays a crucial role by evaluating the protein expression in RIP140-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells. Our findings suggested that Sal could be used as an effective neuroprotective agent for cerebral ischemia due to its significant effect on preventing neuronal cell injury after cerebral ischemia both in vivo and in vitro by the inhibitions of RIP140-mediated inflammation and apoptosis.

  12. The evolving genetic risk for sporadic ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Summer B; Downie, Jonathan M; Tsetsou, Spyridoula; Feusier, Julie E; Figueroa, Karla P; Bromberg, Mark B; Jorde, Lynn B; Pulst, Stefan M

    2017-07-18

    To estimate the genetic risk conferred by known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated genes to the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS (SALS) using variant allele frequencies combined with predicted variant pathogenicity. Whole exome sequencing and repeat expansion PCR of C9orf72 and ATXN2 were performed on 87 patients of European ancestry with SALS seen at the University of Utah. DNA variants that change the protein coding sequence of 31 ALS-associated genes were annotated to determine which were rare and deleterious as predicted by MetaSVM. The percentage of patients with SALS with a rare and deleterious variant or repeat expansion in an ALS-associated gene was calculated. An odds ratio analysis was performed comparing the burden of ALS-associated genes in patients with SALS vs 324 normal controls. Nineteen rare nonsynonymous variants in an ALS-associated gene, 2 of which were found in 2 different individuals, were identified in 21 patients with SALS. Further, 5 deleterious C9orf72 and 2 ATXN2 repeat expansions were identified. A total of 17.2% of patients with SALS had a rare and deleterious variant or repeat expansion in an ALS-associated gene. The genetic burden of ALS-associated genes in patients with SALS as predicted by MetaSVM was significantly higher than in normal controls. Previous analyses have identified SALS-predisposing variants only in terms of their rarity in normal control populations. By incorporating variant pathogenicity as well as variant frequency, we demonstrated that the genetic risk contributed by these genes for SALS is substantially lower than previous estimates. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Salvianolic acid B accelerated ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux by targeting PPAR-γ and LXRα

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Jianmei [Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Province Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, 324# Jing 5 Road, Jinan 255021 (China); Department of Endocrinology, The First Hospital of Zibo, 4# E Mei Shan Dong Road, Zibo 255200 (China); Li, Bo, E-mail: libosubmit@163.com [Department of Cardiology, Central Hospital of Zibo, 54# Gong Qing Tuan Xi Road, Zibo, Shandong Province (China); Jing, Qingping [Department of Endocrinology, The First Hospital of Zibo, 4# E Mei Shan Dong Road, Zibo 255200 (China); Guan, Qingbo, E-mail: guanqingbosubmit@163.com [Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Province Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, 324# Jing 5 Road, Jinan 255021 (China)

    2015-07-03

    Objectives: Cholesterol efflux has been thought to be the main and basic mechanism by which free cholesterol is transferred from extra hepatic cells to the liver or intestine for excretion. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic diseases. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of Sal B on the cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages. Methods: After PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells were exposed to 50 mg/L of oxLDL and [{sup 3}H] cholesterol (1.0 μCi/mL) for another 24 h, the effect of Sal B on cholesterol efflux was evaluated in the presence of apoA-1, HDL{sub 2} or HDL{sub 3}. The expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ), and liver X receptor-alpha (LXRα) was detected both at protein and mRNA levels in THP-1 cells after the stimulation of Sal B. Meanwhile, specific inhibition of PPAR-γ and LXRα were performed to investigate the mechanism. Results: The results showed that Sal B significantly accelerated apoA-I- and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, Sal B treatment also enhanced the expression of ABCA1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Then the data demonstrated that Sal B increased the expression of PPAR-γ and LXRα. And the application of specific agonists and inhibitors of further confirmed that Sal exert the function through PPAR-γ and LXRα. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that Sal B promotes cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages through ABCA1/PPAR-γ/LXRα pathway. - Highlights: • Sal B promotes the expression of ABCA1. • Sal B promotes cholesterol efflux in macrophages. • Sal B promotes the expression of ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux through PPAR-γ/LXRα signaling pathway.

  14. Magneto and spectral behaviour of lanthanide(III) perchlorate complexes of n-isonicotinamidoanisalaldimine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.K.; Agarwal, Himanshu; Sarin, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    A new series of lanthanide(III) perchlorate complexes of N-isonicotinamidoanisalaldimine (INH-SAL) with the general composition (Ln(INH-SAL) 4 )(ClO) 4 ) 3 (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb or Dy) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, conductance, molecular weight, infrared and electronic spectral data. INH-SAL acts as a bidentate (N, O) chelating agents. The tentative coordination number eight has been assigned. Thermal behaviour of some representative chelates has also been investigated. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Salvianolic acid A preconditioning confers protection against concanavalin A-induced liver injury through SIRT1-mediated repression of p66shc in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Hu, Yan; Zhai, Xiaohan; Lin, Musen [Department of Pharmacology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Chen, Zhao; Tian, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Feng [Department of General Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China); Gao, Dongyan; Ma, Xiaochi [Department of Pharmacology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Lv, Li, E-mail: lv_li@126.com [Department of Pharmacology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Yao, Jihong, E-mail: Yaojihong65@hotmail.com [Department of Pharmacology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Salvianolic acid A (SalA) is a phenolic carboxylic acid derivative extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza. It has many biological and pharmaceutical activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SalA on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute hepatic injury in Kunming mice and to explore the role of SIRT1 in such an effect. The results showed that in vivo pretreatment with SalA significantly reduced ConA-induced elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and decreased levels of the hepatotoxic cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Moreover, the SalA pretreatment ameliorated the increases in NF-κB and in cleaved caspase-3 caused by ConA exposure. Whereas, the pretreatment completely reversed expression of the B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL). More importantly, the SalA pretreatment significantly increased the expression of SIRT1, a NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylase, which was known to attenuate acute hypoxia damage and metabolic liver diseases. In our study, the increase in SIRT1 was closely associated with down-regulation of the p66 isoform (p66shc) of growth factor adapter Shc at both protein and mRNA levels. In HepG2 cell culture, SalA pretreatment increased SIRT1 expression in a time and dose-dependent manner and such an increase was abrogated by siRNA knockdown of SIRT1. Additionally, inhibition of SIRT1 significantly reversed the decreased expression of p66shc, and attenuated SalA-induced p66shc down-regulation. Collectively, the present study indicated that SalA may be a potent activator of SIRT and that SalA can alleviate ConA-induced hepatitis through SIRT1-mediated repression of the p66shc pathway. - Highlights: • We report for the first time that SalA protects against ConA-induced hepatitis. • We find that SalA is a potential activator of SIRT1. • SalA's protection against hepatitis involves SIRT1-mediated repression of p

  16. Specified assurance level sampling procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, O.

    1980-11-01

    In the nuclear industry design specifications for certain quality characteristics require that the final product be inspected by a sampling plan which can demonstrate product conformance to stated assurance levels. The Specified Assurance Level (SAL) Sampling Procedure has been developed to permit the direct selection of attribute sampling plans which can meet commonly used assurance levels. The SAL procedure contains sampling plans which yield the minimum sample size at stated assurance levels. The SAL procedure also provides sampling plans with acceptance numbers ranging from 0 to 10, thus, making available to the user a wide choice of plans all designed to comply with a stated assurance level

  17. A history of semi-active laser dome and window materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Roger M.

    2014-05-01

    Semi-Active Laser (SAL) guidance systems were developed starting in the mid-1960's and today form an important class of precision guided weapons. The laser wavelengths generally fall in the short wave infrared region of the spectrum. Relative to passive, image based, infrared seekers the optical demands placed on the domes or windows of SAL seekers is very modest, allowing the use of low cost, easily manufactured materials, such as polycarbonate. This paper will examine the transition of SAL window and dome science and technology from the laboratory to battlefield, with special emphasis on the story of polycarbonate domes.

  18. I-III klasių mokinių kūrybingumo ugdymas taikant mokymo(si) bendradarbiaujant metodą

    OpenAIRE

    Gudžiūnienė, Nijolė; Ramaneckienė, Irena; Ptašinskienė, Irena

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important goals of teachers of primary forms is to develop pupils' communication competence and their creative skills. Co-operation method is especially useful striving for the segoals. The experiment has lasted for three years, and 26 pupils from Šiauliai town Saule primary school took part in it. During the study the effect of co-operation method on pupils' cognitive skills and communication competence was established and its influence on pupils' ability to create fairy-tale...

  19. An appropriate level for reactor regulatory research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Kouts, H.J.C.

    1986-01-01

    In this brief paper the appropriate role for NRC's research program is set down, based on the experience of the last decade; and the broad outlines of an appropriate research program for the next decade are discussed. The two authors bring to this topic direct personal experience: they are two of only three former directors of NRC's research program in its history (the other was the last Saul Levine). The discussion considers only reactor safety research, although NRC's research program covers several other areas as well. Safeguards, environmental and health studies, waste management, and transportation are not covered

  20. Branching time, indeterminism and tense logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical and philosophical background of the introduction of the notion of branching time in philosophical logic as it is revealed in the hitherto unpublished mail-correspondence between Saul Kripke and A.N. Prior in the late 1950s. The paper reveals that the idea...... relativity. The correspondence underpins the point that Prior’s later development of branching time may be understood as a crucial part of his attempt at the formulating a conceptual framework integrating basic human notions of time and free choice....

  1. In Celebration of Past, Present and Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Per Frederik Vilhelm; Jakobsen, David; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2018-01-01

    of determinism led him to a reconstruction of the famous Diodorean Master Argument which had for centuries been regarded as a strong argument in favour of determinism. In his further analysis of the problem, he made extensive use of tense-logic and the idea of branching time suggested to him by Saul Kripke....... However, in Past, Present and Future Prior also stresses that time as such should not simply be understood in terms of branching time diagrams. Such diagrams should be seen not as direct representations of time but rather as figures helpful for understanding a deeper tense-logical structure....

  2. Something important is missing from PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides some views on priorities and directions for the future or risk management. There are some problems with the priorities and directions that now seem dominant. Norm Rasmussen of MIT and the late Saul Levine, who was then with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) (the NRC's predecessor), and their colleagues deserve much credit for the invention of the art of Probabilistic Risk Assessment. Certainly the elements of risk analysis were well known and used, at least implicitly, in much of engineering and technology. But, WASH-1400, The Reactor Safety Study issued in 1975, put these elements together in a comprehensive and courageously rational way

  3. The contribution of formal genetic studies to the characterization of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malacrida, A.R.; Gasperi, G.; Baruffi, L.; Milani, R.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-eight functional loci and four morphological gene markers have been assigned to five of the six linkage groups of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The linkage group labelling system, proposed by Saul and Roessler, has been adopted. Map distances, obtained for twenty markers, showed the marked loci to be distributed over wide map intervals in all five autosomal linkage groups. The available information appears adequate for determining the position of chromosomal characteristics peculiar to each chromosome. (author). 14 refs, 2 tabs

  4. Effective Client Management: Maximizing The Influence of External Sponsors Over Affiliated Armed Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    David and his men with sanctuary— thinking them to be allies against Saul.9 However, David was deceiving Achish about his attacks against Israel, and...main objectives with this strategy. First, it was hedging its bets —any faction that gained political power would have some type of relationship with... think -16291. 397 Garrison, “Disaggregating the ‘Axis of Resistance,’” 67; Ali, “ISW Blog.” 398 Mansour, “From Militia to State Force.” 399 Jean

  5. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Williams Pond Dam (CT 00551), Thames River Basin, Lebanon, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    GRA&I UnTucea B WILLIAMS POND DAM ~~1Z~ CT 00551 _ Distribution/ Availabilit Y Codes Avail and/or Dis~tj pecialS RIVER BASIN ~lIILEBANON, COXNNECTICUT...Inspection Report. Alternatives to these recommendations r 1 would include reducing the Williams Pond water levels during expected periods of intense storm...Materials Branch Engi’neering Division FRED J. VNS. Jr., Member Chief, De ’ggn Branch Engineering Division SAUL COOPER, -r Chief, Water Control Branch

  6. Linlane ei tea, kuidas maal elatakse / Imbi Raikna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raikna, Imbi

    2004-01-01

    2004. a. märtsis ja aprillis tehtud uurimusest "Põllumajandusministeeriumi ja maaelu imago Eesti linnaelanike seas". Tabelid: Maakohtade külastamise sagedus; Maakohtade külastamise põhjused. Vt. ka: Mida maaelu tundjad arvavad linnaelanike uuringu tulemustest. Kommenteerivad Riigikogu liikmed Imre Sooäär, Jaanus Marrandi ja Mati Kepp, MTÜ Saaremaa Kodukant juht Elvi Viira, MTÜ Kodukant Viljandimaa juht Kaja Kaur, MTÜ Kodukant Tartumaa juht Lea Saul, Saarde vallavalitsuse volikogu esimees Väino Lill ja Lääne-Virumaa Uhtna küla elanik Inge Pikkoja

  7. Offshore Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This shapefile displays the distribution of substrate types from Pt. Arena to Pt. Sal in central/northern California. Originally this data consisted of seven paper...

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG ORIGI The relationship between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-11-19

    Nov 19, 2009 ... Difference between displayed and .... were read with an Agfa CR 85-X reader, and the SAL was obtained in a ..... Saunders RS, Samei E. The effect of breast compression on mass conspicuity in digital mammography. Med.

  9. Come and have an emotional workout with sensitive artificial listeners!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, Marc; Pammi, Sathish; Gunes, Hatice; Pantic, Maja; Valstar, Michel F.; Cowie, Roddy; McKeown, Gary; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; ter Maat, Mark; Eyben, Florian; Schuller, Björn; Wölmmer, Martin; Bevacqua, Elisabetta; Pelachaud, Catherine; de Sevin, Etienne

    This demonstration aims to showcase the recently completed SEMAINE system. The SEMAINE system is a publicly available, fully autonomous Sensitive Artificial Listeners (SAL) system that consists of virtual dialog partners based on audiovisual analysis and synthesis (see

  10. Potential use of reverse osmosis in managing saltwater waste collected at road-salt storage facilites [sic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of its anti-icing program comprises a large part of the Virginia Department of Transportation's (VDOT) maintenance effort. Earlier research confirmed that VDOT captures a large volume of salt-laden stormwater runoff at its 300+ sal...

  11. 75 FR 67411 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ....13A, Simple Auction Liaison (SAL), 6.14, Hybrid Agency Liaison (HAL), 6.14A, Hybrid Agency Liaison 2... provides for certain price check parameters for HAL and HAL2 classes under which the Hybrid System will not...

  12. A critical evaluation of the paradigm approach in Sepedi lemmatisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die paradigma wat vir -roba aangebied word, sal in terme van struktuur, werklike gebruik deur moedertaalsprekers, voorkoms in Sepedikorpusse, gebruikersvriendelikheid, kontekstualisering versus dekontekstualisering ten opsigte van die kruisverwysingstelsel en ruimtebenutting geëvalueer word. Die byeenbring, en ...

  13. Perch availability and ground cover: factors that may constitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-02-21

    Feb 21, 1996 ... pale chanting goshawks occupied areas where perch density (16 natural and 122 artificial/25 hal was signifi- ... sal and cooperative breeding in pale chanting goshawk families. ...... fortunes in the white-fronted bee-eater.

  14. Development of smart active layer sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Lee, Sang Il; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kwon, Jae Hwa

    2004-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a new technology that will be increasingly applied at the industrial field as a potential approach to improve cost and convenience of structural inspection. Recently, the development of smart sensor is very active for real application. This study has focused on preparation and application study of SAL sensor. In order to detect elastic wave, smart piezoelectric sensor, SAL, is fabricated by using a piezoelectric element, shielding layer and protection layer. This protection layer plays an important role in a patched network of distributed piezoelectric sensor and shielding treatment. Four types of SAL sensor are designed/prepared/tested, and these details will be discussed in the paper. In this study, SAL sensor can be feasibly applied to perform structural health monitoring and to detect damage sources which result in elastic waves.

  15. Automated Laser Seeker Performance Evaluation System (ALSPES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides complete open-loop test capability for semi-active laser (SAL) seekers/sensors operating at 1.064 microns. ALSPES provides characterizations...

  16. Cape Verde - WASH and Land Management for Investment Project Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The overall objective of this survey is to collect relevant information on water, sanitation and hygiene sectors in Praia, hinterlands of Santiago and Sal Islands....

  17. DIE SELF-SNY FENOMEEN ONDER JONGMENSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-injury has been described as the anorexia and bulimia of the new millennium. The church must ... Teen voormelde agtergrond sal hierdie artikel die volgende probleemstelling ondersoek: In ..... Hope and healing for kids who cut, p.103.

  18. Fish abundance in the Wilderness and Swartvlei lake systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-11-06

    Nov 6, 1995 ... having a detrimental impact on fish communities, and propo- sals have been ... salinity gradient exists in the Wilderness system, with ...... Osmoregulation in juvenile Rhabdosargus .... Community metabolism and phosphorous.

  19. Popmuusika / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest "Hendrik Sal-Saler & Estonian Dream Big Band", Bedouin Soundclash "Sounding A Mosaic", Waltari "Blood Sample", Ms Dynamite "Judgement Days", Fear Factory "Transgression", The Herbalizer "Take London", Bill Frisell "East West"

  20. Spousal violence and pregnancy termination among married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-25

    spousal sexual violence, and 19% had experienced spou- sal emotional violence7. ... ment of women's fundamental human rights and sexual ..... Gender Issues and National Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. ... tation.pdf , August 25, 2013. 16.

  1. Association study between XRCC1 gene polymorphisms and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migheli, Francesca; Lo Gerfo, Annalisa; Fabbrizi, Maria Rita; Carlesi, Cecilia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Corti, Stefania; Mezzina, Nicoletta; del Bo, Roberto; Comi, Giacomo P; Siciliano, Gabriele; Migliore, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible contribution of three common functional polymorphisms in the DNA repair protein X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1), namely Arg194Trp (rs1799782), Arg280His (rs25489) and Arg399Gln (rs25487), to sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS). We genotyped 206 Italian SALS patients and 203 matched controls for XRCC1 Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln polymorphisms by means of PCR/RFLP technique, searching for association between any of the studied polymorphisms and disease risk, age and site of onset. We observed a statistically significant difference in XRCC1 Gln399 allele frequencies between SALS cases and controls (0.39/0.28; p=0.001). The present study suggests that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism might contribute to SALS risk.

  2. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The New York, NY EnviroAtlas Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data were generated by the University of Vermont Spatial Analysis Laboratory (SAL) under the...

  3. Susceptibility of Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motchulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declan J. Fallon; Leellen F. Solter; Melody Keena; Michael McManus; James R. Cate; Lawrence M. Hanks

    2004-01-01

    Isolates of Steinernema feltiae SN from France, Steinernema glaseri NJ from New Jersey, Steinernema riobrave TX from Texas, Steinernema carpocapsaeSal from Indiana, S. carpocapsae All from Georgia, and Heterorhabditis marelata IN from Indiana...

  4. Pop / Tõnu Kaalep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaalep, Tõnu, 1966-2018

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Andy Bell "The Electric Blue", Vex'd "Degenerate", "Hendrik Sal-Saller & Estonian Dream Bigband", Ian Brown "The Greatest", Jon Lennon "Working Class Hero", Richard Youngs "The Naive Shaman"

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of salutaridine reductase from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Smith, Thomas J.; Jez, Joseph M.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant P. somniferum salutaridine reductase (SalR) was purified and crystallized with NADPH using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Crystals of the SalR–NADPH complex diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 1.9 Å. The opium poppy Papaver somniferum is the source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine. Salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) reduces the C-7 keto group of salutaridine to the C-7 (S)-hydroxyl group of salutaridinol in the biosynthetic pathway that leads to morphine in the opium poppy plant. P. somniferum SalR was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified using cobalt-affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Hexagonal crystals belonging to space group P6 4 22 or P6 2 22 were obtained using ammonium sulfate as precipitant and diffracted to a resolution of 1.9 Å

  6. Enhancing Effect of Bile Salts on Gastrointestinal Absorption of Insulin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glycocholate (NaGc) and sodium salicylate (NaSal), on insulin absorption via intestinal targeted delivery system. ... medication in diabetes mellitus treatment but ... emulsion, then the temperature was dropped to 4 ... using abdominal incision.

  7. Shared Authentic Leadership in Research Teams: Testing a Multiple Mediation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günter, Hannes; Gardner, William L.; Davis McCauley, Kelly; Randolph-Seng, Brandon; P. Prahbu, Veena

    2017-01-01

    Research teams face complex leadership and coordination challenges. We propose shared authentic leadership (SAL) as a timely approach to addressing these challenges. Drawing from authentic and functional leadership theories, we posit a multiple mediation model that suggests three mechanisms whereby

  8. Shared Authentic Leadership in Research Teams: Testing a Multiple Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenter, Hannes; Gardner, William L; Davis McCauley, Kelly; Randolph-Seng, Brandon; Prabhu, Veena P

    2017-12-01

    Research teams face complex leadership and coordination challenges. We propose shared authentic leadership (SAL) as a timely approach to addressing these challenges. Drawing from authentic and functional leadership theories, we posit a multiple mediation model that suggests three mechanisms whereby SAL influences team effectiveness: shared mental models (SMM), team trust, and team coordination. To test our hypotheses, we collected survey data on leadership and teamwork within 142 research teams that recently published an article in a peer-reviewed management journal. The results indicate team coordination represents the primary mediating mechanism accounting for the relationship between SAL and research team effectiveness. While teams with high trust and SMM felt more successful and were more satisfied, they were less successful in publishing in high-impact journals. We also found the four SAL dimensions (i.e., self-awareness, relational transparency, balanced processing, and internalized moral perspective) to associate differently with team effectiveness.

  9. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) measurements performed simultaneously with the rheological measurements confirms the coupling of flow to concentration fluctuations in the system under study. The scattered depolarised intensity in SALS, sensitive to orientational order ...

  10. Uued plaadid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Ivo Linna & Rock Hotel "Kõva ketas", Hendrik Sal-Saller "1994-1996", Chemical Brothers "Surrender", Mike & The Mechanics "M6", Bomfunk Mc"s "In Stereo", Jamiroquai "Synkronized"

  11. Antidiabetic Effect of Salvianolic Acid A on Diabetic Animal Models via AMPK Activation and Mitochondrial Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifen Qiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM characterized by hyperglycemia contributes to macrovascular and microvascular complications. Salvianolic acid A (SalA is a polyphenolic compound isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about its antidiabetic effect. Our study aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effect of SalA and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic mice and high-fat diet (HFD and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats received SalA treatment. Blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, 24-h food and water intake were monitored. In vitro, glucose consumption and uptake were measured in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Mitochondrial function was detected in hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondria. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and Akt were analyzed by western blot. Results: In both type 1 and type 2 diabetic animals, SalA lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG and fed blood glucose in dose-dependent manner, as well as reduced 24-h food and water intake. In vitro, SalA caused dose-dependent increase in glucose consumption and enhanced glucose uptake. SalA significantly increased ATP production from 10 min to 12 h in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Interestingly, SalA decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, SalA improved hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, increased ATP production, and concurrently decreased MMP. In particularly, SalA activated AMPK phosphorylation through Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ/AMPK signaling pathway, independent of liver kinase 1 (LKB1/AMPK pathway. However, SalA didn't show any effect on insulin secretagogue and activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion: SalA exhibits the antidiabetic effects in diabetic animal models through

  12. Oxovanadium(IV)-catalysed oxidation of dibenzothiophene and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlaja, Adeniyi S; Chidawanyika, Wadzanai; Antunes, Edith; Fernandes, Manuel A; Nyokong, Tebello; Torto, Nelson; Tshentu, Zenixole R

    2012-12-07

    The reaction between [V(IV)OSO(4)] and the tetradentate N(2)O(2)-donor Schiff base ligand, N,N-bis(o-hydroxybenzaldehyde)phenylenediamine (sal-HBPD), obtained by the condensation of salicylaldehyde and o-phenylenediamine in a molar ratio of 2 : 1 respectively, resulted in the formation of [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)]. The molecular structure of [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)] was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and confirmed the distorted square pyramidal geometry of the complex with the N(2)O(2) binding mode of the tetradentate ligand. The formation of the polymer-supported p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)] proceeded via the nitrosation of sal-HBPD, followed by the reduction with hydrogen to form an amine group that was then linked to Merrifield beads followed by the reaction with [V(IV)OSO(4)]. XPS and EPR were used to confirm the presence of oxovanadium(IV) within the beads. The BET surface area and porosity of the heterogeneous catalyst p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)] were found to be 6.9 m(2) g(-1) and 180.8 Å respectively. Microanalysis, TG, UV-Vis and FT-IR were used for further characterization of both [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)] and p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)]. Oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) was investigated using [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)] and p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)] as catalysts. Progress for oxidation of these model compounds was monitored with a gas chromatograph fitted with a flame ionization detector. The oxidation products were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, microanalysis and NMR. Dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTO(2)) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene sulfone (4,6-DMDBTO(2)) were found to be the main products of oxidation. Oxovanadium(IV) Schiff base microspherical beads, p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)], were able to catalyse the oxidation of sulfur in dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) to a tune of 88.0% and 71.8% respectively after 3 h at 40 °C. These oxidation results show promise for potential application

  13. Determination of trace uranium by resonance fluorescence method coupled with photo-catalytic technology and dual cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiekang; Li, Guirong; Han, Qian

    2016-12-05

    In this paper, two kinds of salophens (Sal) with different solubilities, Sal1 and Sal2, have been respectively synthesized, and they all can combine with uranyl to form stable complexes: [UO2(2+)-Sal1] and [UO2(2+)-Sal2]. Among them, [UO2(2+)-Sal1] was used as ligand to extract uranium in complex samples by dual cloud point extraction (dCPE), and [UO2(2+)-Sal2] was used as catalyst for the determination of uranium by photocatalytic resonance fluorescence (RF) method. The photocatalytic characteristic of [UO2(2+)-Sal2] on the oxidized pyronine Y (PRY) by potassium bromate which leads to the decrease of RF intensity of PRY were studied. The reduced value of RF intensity of reaction system (ΔF) is in proportional to the concentration of uranium (c), and a novel photo-catalytic RF method was developed for the determination of trace uranium (VI) after dCPE. The combination of photo-catalytic RF techniques and dCPE procedure endows the presented methods with enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. Under optimal conditions, the linear calibration curves range for 0.067 to 6.57ngmL(-1), the linear regression equation was ΔF=438.0 c (ngmL(-1))+175.6 with the correlation coefficient r=0.9981. The limit of detection was 0.066ngmL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the separation and determination of uranium in real samples with the recoveries of 95.0-103.5%. The mechanisms of the indicator reaction and dCPE are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition of Tanshinone IIA, Salvianolic Acid A and Salvianolic Acid B on Areca Nut Extract-Induced Oral Submucous Fibrosis in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ping Dai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge has been reported to possess excellent antifibrotic activity. In this study, we have investigated the effect and mechanism of tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA, salvianolic acid A (Sal-A and salvianolic acid B (Sal-B, the important active compounds of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, on areca nut extract (ANE-induced oral submucous fibrosis (OSF in vitro. Through human procollagen gene promoter luciferase reporter plasmid assay, hydroxyproline assay, gelatin zymography assay, qRT-PCR, ELISA and Western blot assay, the influence of these three compounds on ANE-stimulated cell viability, collagen accumulation, procollagen gene transcription, MMP-2/-9 activity, MMP-1/-13 and TIMP-1/-2 expression, cytokine secretion and the activation of PI3K/AKT, ERK/JNK/p38 MAPK and TGF-β/Smads pathways were detected. The results showed that Tan-IIA, Sal-A and Sal-B could significantly inhibit the ANE-stimulated abnormal viability and collagen accumulation of mice oral mucosal fibroblasts (MOMFs, inhibit the transcription of procollagen gene COL1A1 and COL3A1, increase MMP-2/-9 activity, decrease TIMP-1/-2 expression and inhibit the transcription and release of CTGF, TGF-β1, IL-6 and TNF-α; Tan-IIA, Sal-A and Sal-B also inhibited the ANE-induced activation of AKT and ERK MAPK pathways in MOMFs and the activation of TGF-β/Smads pathway in HaCaT cells. In conclusion, Tan-IIA, Sal-A and Sal-B possess excellent antifibrotic activity in vitro and can possibly be used to promote the rehabilitation of OSF patients.

  15. Salvianolic acid B protects against paraquat-induced pulmonary injury by mediating Nrf2/Nox4 redox balance and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin, E-mail: iamicehe@163.com [Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Logistic University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China); Cao, Bo, E-mail: caobo19814@126.com [Logistics University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Target Organ Injury, Tianjin, 300162 (China); Zhang, Di, E-mail: zhangdibad@163.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Institute of Otorhinolaryngology, Tianjin First Center Hospital, Tianjin 300192 (China); Xiao, Na [Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Logistic University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China); Chen, Hong [Logistics University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China); Li, Guo-qiang; Peng, Shou-chun [Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Logistic University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China); Wei, Lu-qing, E-mail: luqing-wei@163.com [Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Logistic University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China)

    2016-10-15

    The present study was aimed at exploring the protective effects of Salvianolic acid B (SalB) against paraquat (PQ)-induced lung injury in mice. Lung fibrotic injuries were induced in mice by a single intragastrical administration of 300 mg/kg PQ, then the mice were administrated with 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg SalB, 100 mg/kg vitamin C (Vit C) and dexamethasone (DXM) for 14 days. PQ-triggered structure distortion, collagen overproduction, excessive inflammatory infiltration, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and oxidative stress damages in lung tissues and mortality of mice were attenuated by SalB in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SalB was noted to enhance the expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) and reduce expression of the reactive oxygen species-generating enzyme Nox4 [NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase-4]. SalB also inhibited the increasing expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and the phosphorylation of its downstream target Smad3 which were enhanced by PQ. These results suggest that SalB may exert protective effects against PQ-induced lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. Its mechanisms involve the mediation of Nrf2/Nox4 redox balance and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling. - Highlights: • Salvianolic acid B (SalB) reduced Paraquat-induced mortality and pulmonary injury in mice. • SalB has anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrogenic effects simultaneously. • Its mechanisms were targeting Nrf2-Nox4 redox balance and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling.

  16. Summer Arctic sea ice albedo in CMIP5 models

    OpenAIRE

    Koenigk, T.; Devasthale, A.; Karlsson, K.-G.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variations of summer sea ice albedo over the Arctic are analyzed using an ensemble of historical CMIP5 model simulations. The results are compared to the CLARA-SAL product that is based on long-term satellite observations. The summer sea ice albedo varies substantially among CMIP5 models, and many models show large biases compared to the CLARA-SAL product. Single summer months show an extreme spread of ice albedo among models; July values vary between 0....

  17. Size-controlled synthesis of gold bipyramids using an aqueous mixture of CTAC and salicylate anions as the soft template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyojong; Jang, Min Hoon

    2013-08-07

    One-dimensional (1D) gold (Au) bipyramids are successfully synthesized through a facile seed-mediated method using cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), Au seed nanoparticles, Ag(+) ions, and ascorbic acid. The length and optical properties of the synthesized Au bipyramids are controlled with precision by varying the amount of salicylate anions (Sal(-)) added during the synthesis. The micelles formed from CTA(+)-Sal(-) mixtures in aqueous solutions act as effective templates for the size-controlled synthesis of 1D nanocrystals.

  18. The association between perceived emotional support, maternal mood, salivary cortisol, salivary cortisone, and the ratio between the two compounds in response to acute stress in second trimester pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca-Ghaemmaghami, Pearl; La Marca, Roberto; Dainese, Sara M; Haller, Marina; Zimmermann, Roland; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the effect of social support on the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during pregnancy. Moreover, when investigating the HPA axis most studies do not consider the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), an enzyme within the salivary glands that inactivates cortisol to cortisone. This study explores the association between perceived emotional support and the maternal psychobiological stress response to a standardized naturalistic stressor by assessing maternal mood and the reactivity of salivary cortisol (SalF), salivary cortisone (SalE), and the SalE/(E+F) ratio as a marker of 11β-HSD2 activity. Repeated saliva samples and measures of maternal mood were obtained from 34 healthy second trimester pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis which served as a psychological stressor. The pregnant women additionally responded to a questionnaire of perceived emotional support and provided sociodemographic (e.g., maternal educational degree) and pregnancy-specific data (e.g., planned versus unplanned pregnancy). Perceived emotional support neither showed a significant effect on mood nor on the SalF or SalE response to stress. However, a moderately strong positive association was found between perceived emotional support and SalE/(E+F) (r=.49). Additionally, the final regression analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between educational degree, planned/unplanned pregnancy and SalE/(E+F). Findings suggest a higher metabolization of cortisol to cortisone in pregnant women with higher emotional support. In contrast, higher maternal education and unplanned pregnancy appear to be associated with decreased salivary 11β-HSD2 activity. The current study emphasizes the importance of taking the activity of 11β-HSD2 into account when examining SalF. © 2013.

  19. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Mynard

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Issues of SiSAL Journal have a good international representation and this current issue is no exception. Contributions come from Mexico, Hong Kong, Japan and Iran. Although this is a general issue of SiSAL Journal, I have identified some salient themes coming through in the articles. These are: training for autonomous learning; scaffolding self-access use; and beliefs about learning and using the L2.

  20. Eraterritooriumile tunginud telekaamera juhmistab ettevõtted / Eda-Liis Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Eda-Liis, 1979-

    2005-01-01

    Info-Auto juht Viktor Siilats, Kanal 2 peadirektor Urmas Oru ja suhtekorraldusfirma In Nomine juht Heikki Sal-Saller eraettevõtete territooriumil filmimisest ja firma esindajate suhtlemisest ajakirjandusega juhtumi põhjal, kus Silber Auto teenindusega rahulolematu klient püüdis probleemi lahendada Kanal 2 vahendusel. Lisa: Avalikkusele esineb üks inimene. Kommenteerivad Nordic Foodsi juhatuse esimees Kuldar Leis ja In Nomine juht Heikki Sal-Saller

  1. Salvianolic acid B protects against paraquat-induced pulmonary injury by mediating Nrf2/Nox4 redox balance and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bin; Cao, Bo; Zhang, Di; Xiao, Na; Chen, Hong; Li, Guo-qiang; Peng, Shou-chun; Wei, Lu-qing

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed at exploring the protective effects of Salvianolic acid B (SalB) against paraquat (PQ)-induced lung injury in mice. Lung fibrotic injuries were induced in mice by a single intragastrical administration of 300 mg/kg PQ, then the mice were administrated with 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg SalB, 100 mg/kg vitamin C (Vit C) and dexamethasone (DXM) for 14 days. PQ-triggered structure distortion, collagen overproduction, excessive inflammatory infiltration, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and oxidative stress damages in lung tissues and mortality of mice were attenuated by SalB in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SalB was noted to enhance the expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) and reduce expression of the reactive oxygen species-generating enzyme Nox4 [NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase-4]. SalB also inhibited the increasing expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and the phosphorylation of its downstream target Smad3 which were enhanced by PQ. These results suggest that SalB may exert protective effects against PQ-induced lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. Its mechanisms involve the mediation of Nrf2/Nox4 redox balance and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling. - Highlights: • Salvianolic acid B (SalB) reduced Paraquat-induced mortality and pulmonary injury in mice. • SalB has anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrogenic effects simultaneously. • Its mechanisms were targeting Nrf2-Nox4 redox balance and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling.

  2. Outcome of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis treated With non-invasive ventilation and riluzole Sobrevida en pacientes con esclerosis lateral amiotrófica esporádica tratados con ventilación no invasiva y riluzole

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Sívori; Gabriel E. Rodríguez; Daniel Pascansky; César Séenz; Roberto E. P. Sica

    2007-01-01

    Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) is a progressive degenerative motor neuron disorder lacking specific treatment. Riluzole is the only drug able to modestly slow down the course of the disease. Respiratory insufficiency is the main cause of death; non invasive ventilation (NIV) has shown to improve survival. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of NIV and riluzole on survival. Ninety seven patients with a diagnosis of sALS were assessed and followed up for 60 months. Twenty nine pat...

  3. Pharmacokinetics and physiologic effects of intramuscularly administered xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride-butorphanol tartrate alone or in combination with orally administered sodium salicylate on biomarkers of pain in Holstein calves following castration and dehorning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Sarah L; Coetzee, Johann F; Dritz, Steve S; Reinbold, James B; Gehring, Ronette; Havel, James; Kukanich, Butch

    2011-10-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of xylazine, ketamine, and butorphanol (XKB) administered IM and sodium salicylate (SAL) administered PO to calves and to compare drug effects on biomarkers of pain and distress following sham and actual castration and dehorning. 40 Holstein bull calves from 3 farms. Calves weighing 108 to 235 kg (n = 10 calves/group) received one of the following treatments prior to sham (period 1) and actual (period 2) castration and dehorning: saline (0.9% NaCl) solution IM (placebo); SAL administered PO through drinking water at concentrations from 2.5 to 5 mg/mL from 24 hours prior to period 1 to 48 hours after period 2; butorphanol (0.025 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), and ketamine (0.1 mg/kg) coadministered IM immediately prior to both periods; and a combination of SAL and XKB (SAL+XKB). Plasma drug concentrations, average daily gain (ADG), chute exit velocity, serum cortisol concentrations, and electrodermal activity were evaluated. ADG (days 0 to 13) was significantly greater in the SAL and SAL+XKB groups than in the other 2 groups. Calves receiving XKB had reduced chute exit velocity in both periods. Serum cortisol concentrations increased in all groups from period 1 to period 2. However, XKB attenuated the cortisol response for the first hour after castration and dehorning and oral SAL administration reduced the response from 1 to 6 hours. Administration of XKB decreased electrodermal activity scores in both periods. SAL administered PO through drinking water decreased cortisol concentrations and reduced the decrease in ADG associated with castration and dehorning in calves.

  4. LASE Measurements of Water Vapor, Aerosol, and Cloud Distributions in Saharan Air Layers and Tropical Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard A.; Browell, Edward V.; Kooi, Susan A.; Dunion, Jason P.; Heymsfield, Gerry; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn F.; Burton, Sharon; Fenn, Marta; hide

    2010-01-01

    LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment) on-board the NASA DC-8 measured high resolution profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and cloud distributions in 14 flights over the eastern North Atlantic during the NAMMA (NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) field experiment. These measurements were used to study African easterly waves (AEWs), tropical cyclones (TCs), and the Saharan Air Layer(s) (SAL). Interactions between the SAL and tropical air were observed during the early stages of the TC development. These LASE measurements represent the first simultaneous water vapor and aerosol lidar measurements to study the SAL and its impact on AEWs and TCs. Examples of profile measurements of aerosol scattering ratios, aerosol extinction coefficients, aerosol optical thickness, water vapor mixing ratios, RH, and temperature are presented to illustrate their characteristics in SAL, convection, and clear air regions. LASE data suggest that the SAL suppresses low-altitude convection at the convection-SAL interface region. Mid-level convection associated with the AEW and transport are likely responsible for high water vapor content observed in the southern regions of the SAL on August 20, 2008. This interaction is responsible for the transfer of about 7 x 10(exp 15) J latent heat energy within a day to the SAL. Measurements of lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratios in the range 36+/-5 to 45+/-5 are within the range of measurements from other lidar measurements of dust. LASE aerosol extinction and water vapor profiles are validated by comparison with onboard in situ aerosol measurements and GPS dropsonde water vapor soundings, respectively.

  5. DIE PLEK VAN SANG EN MUSIEK IN DIE PROTESTANTSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Sy moet hierdie opdrag uitvoer deur mid del van die Prediking d.w.s. deur middel van die Woord-vorm, maar ook deur die bediening van die sakramente, dws. deur middel van die vorm van die Daad. Maar nou wil God nie hê dat die Kerk slegs één maal die Evangelie sal predik en die mense sal doop om hulle daarna.

  6. Treatment with salvianolic acid B restores endothelial function in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wei Chih; Liu, Jian; Lau, Chi Wai; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Huang, Yu

    2017-07-15

    Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is one of the most abundant phenolic acids derived from the root of Danshen with potent anti-oxidative properties. The present study examined the vasoprotective effect of Sal B in hypertensive mice induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). Sal B (25mg/kg/day) was administered via oral gavage for 11days to Ang II (1.2mg/kg/day)-infused C57BL/6J mice (8-10weeks old). The vascular reactivity (both endothelium-dependent relaxations and contractions) in mouse arteries was examined by wire myography. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein level and localization of angiotensin AT 1 receptors and the proteins involved in ROS formation were evaluated using dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. The changes of ROS generating proteins were also assessed in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to Ang II with and without co-treatment with Sal B (0.1-10nM). Oral administration of Sal B reversed the Ang II-induced elevation of arterial systolic blood pressure in mice, augmented the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations and attenuated the exaggerated endothelium-dependent contractions in both aortas and renal arteries of Ang II-infused mice. In addition, Sal B treatment normalized the elevated levels of AT 1 receptors, NADPH oxidase subunits (NOx-2 and NOx-4) and nitrotyrosine in arteries of Ang II-infused mice or in Ang II-treated HUVECs. In summary, the present study provided additional evidence demonstrating that Sal B treatment for 11days reverses the impaired endothelial function and with a marked inhibition of AT 1 receptor-dependent vascular oxidative stress. This vasoprotective and anti-oxidative action of Sal B most likely contributes to the anti-hypertensive action of the plant-derived compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin, Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooge DM

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20% or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14% was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg, three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg. Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2, and increased body weight (Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.

  8. Development of Smart Active Layer Sensor (II): Manufacturing and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Lee, Sang Il; Kwon, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Dong Jin

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the second part of the study on the development of a smart active layer (SAL) sensor, which consists of two parts. As mentioned in the first paper, structural health monitoring (SHM) is a new technology that is being increasingly applied at the industrial field as a potential approach to improve cost and convenience of structural inspection. Recently, the development of smart sensor is very active for real application. This study has focused on preparation and application study of SAL sensor which is described with regard to the theory and concept of the SAL sensor in the first paper. In order to detect elastic wave, smart piezoelectric sensor, SAL, is fabricated by using a piezoelectric element, shielding layer and protection layer. This protection layer plays an important role in a patched network of distributed piezoelectric sensor and shielding treatment. Four types of SAL sensor are designed/prepared/tested, and these details will be discussed in the paper In this study, SAL sensor ran be feasibly applied to perform structural health monitoring and to detect damage sources which result in elastic waves

  9. Transport of salicylate in proximal tubule (S2 segment) isolated from rabbit kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, L.; Roch-Ramel, F.

    1988-01-01

    The secretory and the reabsorptive transport of salicylate was studied in the isolated and perfused rabbit proximal tubule (S 2 segment). Salicylate secretion (J sal b→l ) fulfilled the criteria for a carrier-mediated transport system: J sal b→l was saturable, was reversibly inhibited by probenecid, and occurred against a concentration gradient. The K m and V max for this secretory transport were 80 μM and 3,200 fmol·min -1 ·mm -1 , respectively. At luminal pH of 7.4 and 6.6, salicylate reabsorption (J sal l→b ) was low. J sal l→b was stimulated by increasing the bath Pco 2 or by removing basolateral HCO 3 - ; J sal l→b was inhibited by ethoxyzolamide and by SITS in the bath. The results indicate that salicylate reabsorption depends on H + secretion, consistent with reabsorption by simple nonionic diffusion. When salicylate was present in the lumen only, J sal l→b increased after inhibition of the secretory transport by adding ouabain or probenecid in the bath or by lowering the bath temperature. These results are compatible with luminal recycling of salicylate, and suggest the presence of a mediated secretory transporter located at the luminal membrane

  10. Comparison of cardioprotective effects of salvianolic acid B and benazepril on large myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hai-Bo; Yang, Xian-Zhe; Shi, Meng-Qiong; Zeng, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Li-Mao; Li, Lian-Da

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we compared cardioprotective effects of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) and the angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril, in rats with large myocardial infarction (MI). The large MI was produced by coronary artery ligation for 4 weeks in rats. The rats were divided into the following groups: sham operation; MI; MI + Sal B (100 mg/kg by a gavage, once a day for 4 weeks) and MI + benazepril (1 mg/kg by a gavage, once a day for 4 weeks). Echocardiogram, hemodynamic and hemorheological changes, angiogenesis, infarct size and cardiac remodeling, as well as messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) were measured. The following similar effects were observed in MI rats treated with Sal B and benazepril: (1) a marked improvement of echocardiographic, hemodynamic and hemorheological parameters, (2) significant reduction of infarct size, (3) significantly attenuated heart hypertrophy, left ventricular (LV) dilatation and fibrosis. The unique effects of Sal B were: angiogenesis and augmented VEGF expression in the border and remote noninfarcted LV area. These results suggest that Sal B and benazepril exerted beneficial cardioprotective effects. However, Sal B enforced some different modality than benazepril, which might improve myocardial microcirculation by augmenting VEGF expression and promoting angiogenesis besides similar effects to benazepril.

  11. Salvianolic Acid A Protects the Peripheral Nerve Function in Diabetic Rats through Regulation of the AMPK-PGC1α-Sirt3 Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Du

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salvianolic acid A (SalA is one of the main efficacious, water-soluble constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. This study investigated the protective effects of SalA on peripheral nerve in diabetic rats. Administration of SalA (0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg, ig was started from the 5th week after strepotozotocin (STZ60 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection and continued for 8 weeks. Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV were used to assess peripheral nerve function. The western blot methods were employed to test the expression levels of serine-threonine liver kinase B1 (LKB1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α, silent information regulator protein3 (sirtuin 3/Sirt3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in sciatic nerve. Results showed that SalA administration could increase PWMT and MNCV in diabetic rats; reduce the deterioration of sciatic nerve pathology; increase AMPK phosphorylation level, up-regulate PGC-1α, Sirt3 and nNOS expression, but had no influence on LKB1. These results suggest that SalA has protective effects against diabetic neuropathy. The beneficial effects of SalA on peripheral nerve function in diabetic rats might be attributed to improvements in glucose metabolism through regulation of the AMPK-PGC1α-Sirt3 axis.

  12. TÜRKİYE’DE DIŞ TİCARET VE KARBONDİOKSİT SALINIMI ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİLERİN SİMETRİK VE ASİMETRİK NEDENSELLİK TESTLERİYLE ANALİZİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal DEĞER

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dış ticaret, karbondioksit salınımını doğrudan ve dolaylı bir şekilde etkileyebilmektedir. Doğrudan etkinin karbondioksit salınımını arttırması, dolaylı etkinin azaltması sebebiyle artan dış ticaretin karbondioksit salınımı üzerindeki etkisi belirsizdir. Bu çalışma, Türkiye’de dış ticaret ile karbondioksit salınımı arasındaki ilişkiyi 1971-2011 döneminde simetrik (Toda-Yamamoto (1995, Hacker-Hatemi (2006 ve asimetrik (Hatemi-J (2012 nedensellik testleri ile incelemektedir. Nedensellik testleri sonuçlarına göre dış ticaretten karbondioksit salınımına doğru pozitif tek yönlü bir nedensellik ilişkisi tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca karbondioksit salınımından dış ticarete negatif bir geri besleme etkisinin olduğu belirlenmiştir

  13. Quality management at the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory of IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigner, H.; Doherty, P.; Donohue, D.; Kuno, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In the year 2000, SAL'S quality management system was certified for conforming with the requirements of the international standard ISO-9002: 1994. The certification incurred considerable efforts, both in manpower and capital investments. The expected benefits of a formal quality management system do not directly target the correctness and reliability of analytical results. SAL believes that it was already performing well in this respect, even before re-shaping its quality system according to the reference model. Systematic QA and QC procedures have been applied since the begin of SAL'S operations in the mid-70's. The management framework specified in ISO-9002: 1994 complements these technical measures. Besides its value of being internationally recognised and thus enhancing perhaps the credibility in the quality of SAL'S services, the quality management system in this form provides additional advantages for the customer of the services of SAL, i.e. the Department of Safeguards of the IAEA, but also for the control and management of SAL'S internal 'business' processes. The paper discusses if these expected additional benefits are indeed obtained and whether or not their value is in balance with operational and initial investment costs. (author)

  14. Transnational Militancy in the 21st Century (roundtable discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Devji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following roundtable discussion took place via email between September 2009 and January 2010. The participants were invited on the basis of each having a unique disciplinary background – history, sociology and political theory – but at the same time enough in common to debate both the analytic and normative dimensions of transnational militancy. Faisal Devji is currently Reader in Modern South Asian History at St. Antony’s College, University of Oxford. His most recent book is The Terrorist in Search of Humanity: Militant Islam and GlobalPolitics. Prof. Kevin McDonald is Marie Curie International Fellow in the Department of Sociology at Goldsmiths College, University of London. His most recent book, Our Violent World: Terrorism in Society, is being published April, 2010. Saul Newman is Reader in Political Theory, also at Goldsmiths College. Saul is known for his work on ‘postanarchist’ theory, but also recently co-authored a book with the title Politics Most Unusual: Violence, Sovereignty and Democracy in the War on Terror. The roundtable was initiated and chaired by Journal of Critical Globalisation Studies co-editor Nathan Coombs.

  15. Contexto e intertextualidad en los títulos de crédito de Watchmen. Context and intertextuality in Watchmen's opening credits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Polo Montilla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Los títulos de crédito de numerosos films se han conformado como algo más que una lista de nombres. Autores como Saul Bass o Kyle Cooper han convertido las secuencias iniciales de los films en microhistorias que avanzan o sintetizan el tono o la atmósfera del film, erigiéndose como el prólogo de la narración. El siguiente artículo analiza en profundidad la secuencia inicial de créditos de Watchmen (Zack Snyder, 2009, cuya función sintetizadora es vital para entender el contexto de una atípica película de superhéroes.Credits of many films has been formed like something more of a name's list. Authors like Saul Bass or Kyle Cooper have turned film's opening sequences into microhistories that gives us an idea or summarizes the tone and film's atmosphere, becoming a prelude of the story. This article executes a deep analysis of the opening credits of Watchmen (Zack Snyder, 2009, whose summarizes function is vital to understand the context of an inusual superhero's movie

  16. Influences of the Saharan Air Layer on the Formation and Intensification of Hurricane Isabel (2003): Analysis of AIRS data and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Braun, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past two decades, little advance has been made in prediction of tropical cyclone intensity while substantial improvements have been made in forecasting hurricane tracks. One reason is that we don't well understand the physical processes that govern tropical cyclone intensity. Recent studies have suggested that the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) may be yet another piece of the puzzle in advancing our understanding of tropical cyclone intensity change in the Atlantic basin. The SAL is an elevated mixed layer, forming as air moves across the vast Sahara Desert, in particular during boreal summer months. The SAL contains warm, dry air as well as a substantial amount of mineral dust, which can affect radiative heating and modify cloud processes. Using the retrieved temperature and humidity profiles from the AIRS suite on the NASA Aqua satellite, the SAL and its influences on the formation and intensification of Hurricane Isabel (2003) are analyzed and simulated with MM5. When the warmth and dryness of the SAL (the thermodynamic effect) is considered by relaxing the model thermodynamic state to the AIRS profiles, MM5 can well simulate the large-scale flow patterns and the activity of Hurricane Isabel in terms of the timing and location of formation and the subsequent track. Compared with the experiment without nudging the AIRS data, it is suggested that the simulated SAL effect may delay the formation and intensification of Hurricane Isabel. This case study generally confirms the argument by Dunion and Velden (2004) that the SAL can suppress Atlantic tropical cyclone activity by increasing the vertical wind shear, reducing the mean relative humidity, and stabilizing the environment at lower levels.

  17. [Toxicity of the combination of salinomycin and tiamulin in swine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, M; Büsing, S; Bollwahn, W

    1997-09-01

    The toxicity of the combination of salinomycin (sal.) and tiamulin (tia.) was investigated in dependence upon dosage and feeding method. In addition the efficacy of a safe dose for prophylactic treatment of dysentery was controlled. Following feed medications were tested for toxic effects in pigs: a) 3 mg sal. + 5 mg tia./kg BW, b) 3 mg sal. + 3 mg tia./kg BW, c) 3 mg sal. + 1 mg tia./kg BW, d) 3 mg sal./kg BW, e) 10 mg tia./kg BW, f) 30 mg tia./kg BW. The daily dose was given for 2 weeks by restricted feeding (twice a day) either as bolus or mixed in the whole ration or by feeding ad libitum. Animals were controlled for clinical symptoms and activities of creatine phosphokinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) were evaluated daily. Main clinical signs of poisoning were loss of appetite and locomotor disturbances and could be noticed for dosages of 8, 6 and 4 mg sal. + tia./kg BW. Activities of CK and ASAT were increased dose-related, the feeding method also had an influence on the degree of intoxication. Some animals showed locomotor disturbances without any corresponding changes of CK and ASAT levels. Single pigs remaining without any symptoms even at high dosage pointed to differences in individual susceptibility. Toxicity was not found to be age dependent. Feed medication with 60 ppm sal. + 20 ppm tia. (feeding ad libitum) did not result in any signs of toxicity, however, the transmission of Serpulina hyodysenteriae from infected pigs to healthy, treated control animals could not be inhibited efficiently. Therefore the simultaneous application of salinomycin and tiamulin should be avoided generally, because the risk of intoxication is high and subtherapeutical dosage has an insufficient effectiveness against Serpulina hyodysenteriae.

  18. Evidence-Based Practice in Liposuction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patrick S; Moyer, Kurtis E

    2018-01-24

    The goal of this study is to examine the existing peer reviewed literature comparing modern adjunctive techniques in liposuction including laser-assisted liposuction (LAL) and ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) to standard suction-assisted liposuction (SAL). We intend to interpret these findings into a literature-based clinical application to influence practice patterns. A literature review was conducted using a keyword search in PubMed. Keyword search items included liposuction, lipoplasty, suction assisted liposuction, ultrasound assisted liposuction, laser assisted liposuction, tumescent, liposuction comparison, liposuction review, and combinations therein. Exclusion criteria included articles with a primary focus on histologic effects of energy devices, primary animal models, primary opinion papers with no reference to available data, and industry-sponsored publications. Inclusion criteria included articles with direct comparison of liposuction modalities, randomized or blinded studies, and studies with objective outcomes. Twenty-five articles that met the inclusion criteria comparing SAL to UAL or LAL out of 9972 articles identified were obtained. The selected literature was assigned into 3 categories: evidence demonstrating an advantage of 1 modality (SAL, UAL, or LAL) over another, evidence that showed no benefit of 1 modality over another, and evidence that demonstrated risks of complications of 1 modality over another. The benefits of UAL and LAL over SAL include the following: (1) UAL over SAL in the treatment of gynecomastia, (2) LAL and UAL over SAL with decreased hemoglobin/hematocrit in high-volume lipoaspirates, and (3) LAL over SAL with skin tightening in select areas specifically the submental area. Otherwise, the literature demonstrates equivocal results among the described techniques with no clear benefit to set one apart from the other. There appears to be no demonstrable added benefit to the addition of either UAL or LAL that would urge a

  19. FUS-immunoreactive inclusions are a common feature in sporadic and non-SOD1 familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Han-Xiang; Zhai, Hong; Bigio, Eileen H; Yan, Jianhua; Fecto, Faisal; Ajroud, Kaouther; Mishra, Manjari; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Heller, Scott; Sufit, Robert; Siddique, Nailah; Mugnaini, Enrico; Siddique, Teepu

    2010-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disorder of motor neuron degeneration. Most cases of ALS are sporadic (SALS), but about 5 to 10% of ALS cases are familial (FALS). Recent studies have shown that mutations in FUS are causal in approximately 4 to 5% of FALS and some apparent SALS cases. The pathogenic mechanism of the mutant FUS-mediated ALS and potential roles of FUS in non-FUS ALS remain to be investigated. Immunostaining was performed on postmortem spinal cords from 78 ALS cases, including SALS (n = 52), ALS with dementia (ALS/dementia, n = 10), and FALS (n = 16). In addition, postmortem brains or spinal cords from 22 cases with or without frontotemporal lobar degeneration were also studied. In total, 100 cases were studied. FUS-immunoreactive inclusions were observed in spinal anterior horn neurons in all SALS and FALS cases, except for those with SOD1 mutations. The FUS-containing inclusions were also immunoreactive with antibodies to TDP43, p62, and ubiquitin. A fraction of tested FUS antibodies recognized FUS inclusions, and specific antigen retrieval protocol appeared to be important for detection of the skein-like FUS inclusions. Although mutations in FUS account for only a small fraction of FALS and SALS, our data suggest that FUS protein may be a common component of the cellular inclusions in non-SOD1 ALS and some other neurodegenerative conditions, implying a shared pathogenic pathway underlying SALS, non-SOD1 FALS, ALS/dementia, and related disorders. Our data also indicate that SOD1-linked ALS may have a pathogenic pathway distinct from SALS and other types of FALS.

  20. Reactivity of paraquat with sodium salicylate: Formation of stable complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Ferreira, Antonio Cesar Silva; Silva, Artur M.S.; Afonso, Carlos; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remiao, Fernando; Duarte, Jose Alberto; Carvalho, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Sodium salicylate (NaSAL) has been shown to be a promising antidote for the treatment of paraquat (PQ) poisonings. The modulation of the pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory pathways, as well as the anti-thrombogenic properties of NaSAL are probably essential features for the healing effects provided by this drug. Nevertheless, a possible direct chemical reactivity between PQ and NaSAL is also a putative pathway to be considered, this hypothesis being the ground of the present study. In accordance, it is shown, for the first time that PQ and NaSAL react immediately in aqueous medium and within 2-3 min in the solid state. Photographs and scanning electron photomicrographs indicated that a new chemical entity is formed when both compounds are mixed. This assumption was corroborated by the evaluation of the melting point, and through several analytical techniques, namely ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS), liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS) and infrared spectroscopy, which revealed that stable charge-transfer complexes are formed when PQ is mixed with NaSAL. LC/ESI/MS/MS allowed obtaining the stoichiometry of the charge-transfer complexes. In order to increase resolution, single value decomposition, acting as a filter, showed that the charge-transfer complexes with m/z 483, 643 and 803 correspond to the pseudo-molecular ions, respectively 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 (PQ:NaSAL). In conclusion, these results provided a new and important mechanism of action of NaSAL against the toxicity mediated by PQ