WorldWideScience

Sample records for grimmi saule sals

  1. Canada as an Immigrant Nation: Implications for Educators Excerpts from an Interview with John Ralston Saul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Ralston Saul, one of Canada's pre-eminent thinkers. In the interview, Mr. Saul shares his provocative and compelling thoughts on the state of Canada's public education systems.

  2. The road to virtual: the Sauls Memorial Virtual Library journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Stacie; Harkness, Amy; Cohen, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    The Sauls Memorial Virtual Library closed its physical space in 2012. This article outlines the reasons for this change and how the library staff and hospital leadership planned and executed the enormous undertaking. Outcomes of the change and lessons learned from the process are discussed.

  3. A Complicated Personality in "Seize the Day" by Saul Bellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalay, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Saul Bellow, a distinctive prominent writer in American literature, is frequently concerned with the themes of Jewish culture, and alienation. In Bellow's novel "Seize the Day," Tommy Adler "the maladroit, suffering middle-aged hero of the book, is the pathetic heir in post-war fiction to the failure of the American Dream"…

  4. Saul Hertz, MD, and the birth of radionuclide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Frederic H; Grant, Frederick D; Thrall, James H

    2017-12-01

    The year, 2016, marked the 75th anniversary of Dr. Saul Hertz first using radioiodine to treat a patient with thyroid disease. In November of 1936, a luncheon was held of the faculty of Harvard Medical School where Karl Compton, PhD, president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was invited to give a presentation entitled "What Physics Can Do for Biology and Medicine." Saul Hertz who attended the luncheon spontaneously asked the very pertinent question that perhaps changed the course of treatment of thyroid disease, "Could iodine be made radioactive artificially?" We review the events leading up to the asking of this question, the preclinical investigations by Dr. Hertz and his colleague Arthur Roberts prior to the treatment of the first patient and what occurred in the years following this landmark event. This commentary seeks to set the record straight to the sequence of events leading to the first radioiodine therapy, so that those involved can be recognized with due credit.

  5. A Complicated Personality in Seize The Day By Saul Bellow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Kalay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Saul Bellow, a distinctive prominent writer in American literature, is frequently concerned with the themes of Jewish culture, and alienation. In Bellow’s novel Seize the Day, Tommy Adler “the maladroit, suffering middle-aged hero of the book, is the pathetic heir in post-war fiction to the failure of the American Dream” (Richmond 15. Tommy abandons his family and endeavors to emulate his father. However, his father’s perfectionism and preference for avoidance of his son lead to the protagonist’s physical and psychological alienation. Furthermore, the resemblance of their lifestyles and attitudes indicates that their consciousness, sub-conscious, and psychologies follow the same routine. This study will therefore argue the novel’s psychoanalytic characteristics. Keywords: Mind Structure, Personality, Psychoanalysis, Saul Bellow, Seize the Day, Tommy Adler, Wilhelm Adler

  6. Review: John S. Saul, Liberation Lite: The Roots of Recolonization in Southern Africa (2011 Buchbesprechung: John S. Saul, Liberation Lite: The Roots of Recolonization in Southern Africa (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Melber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: John S. Saul, Liberation Lite: The Roots of Recolonization in Southern Africa, Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 2011, ISBN 978-1-59221-835-6, 133 pagesBesprechung der Monographie: John S. Saul, Liberation Lite: The Roots of Recolonization in Southern Africa, Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 2011, ISBN 978-1-59221-835-6, 133 Seiten

  7. Salões de maio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Monteiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto traz uma visão geral sobre a documentação pertencente ao Arquivo Quirino da Silva, guardado no Centro Cultural São Paulo, principalmente sobre a parte que se refere aos "Salões de Maio", destacando fontes primárias e secundárias que poderão servir a futuras pesquisas na área de história da arte brasileira.

  8. Phylogeny and genomics of SAUL, an enigmatic bacterial lineage frequently associated with marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-García, Carmen; Slaby, Beate M; Waite, David W; Bayer, Kristina; Hentschel, Ute; Taylor, Michael W

    2018-02-01

    Many marine sponges contain dense and diverse communities of associated microorganisms. Members of the 'sponge-associated unclassified lineage' (SAUL) are frequently recorded from sponges, yet little is known about these bacteria. Here we investigated the distribution and phylogenetic status of SAUL. A meta-analysis of the available literature revealed the widespread distribution of this clade and its association with taxonomically varied sponge hosts. Phylogenetic analyses, conducted using both 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny and concatenated marker protein sequences, revealed that SAUL is a sister clade of the candidate phylum 'Latescibacteria'. Furthermore, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of two draft genomes assembled from sponge metagenomes, revealing novel insights into the physiology of this symbiont. Metabolic reconstruction suggested that SAUL members are aerobic bacteria with facultative anaerobic metabolism, with the capacity to degrade multiple sponge- and algae-derived carbohydrates. We described for the first time in a sponge symbiont the putative genomic capacity to transport phosphate into the cell and to produce and store polyphosphate granules, presumably constituting a phosphate reservoir for the sponge host in deprivation periods. Our findings suggest that the lifestyle of SAUL is symbiotic with the host sponge, and identify symbiont factors which may facilitate the establishment and maintenance of this relationship. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Multiculturalità ottomana e scrittori italiani da Saul Israel a Miro Silvera e Daniel Fishman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dall’ex Impero Ottomano, società multiculturale per eccellenza, della quale facevano parte fra l’altro Grecia e Bulgaria, Siria, Egitto, Libia e Israele, provengono molti ebrei scrittori in lingua italiana. Esaminiamo tre di essi: Saul Israel, scienziato nato a Selanik (Salonicco) e autore di un

  10. Berkeley Lab's Saul Perlmutter wins E.O. Lawrence Award; scientist's work on supernovae reveals accelerating Universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Saul Perlmutter, from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Physics Division and leader of the Supernova Cosmology Project based there, has won the DOE's 2002 E.O. Lawrence Award in the physics category (2 pages).

  11. La sal en el queso: diversas interacciones.

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Sabastián Ramírez-Navas; Jessica Aguirre-Londoño; Víctor Alexander Aristizabal-Ferreira; Sandra Castro-Narváez

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el efecto de la sal sobre algunas propiedades físicas del queso, su interacción con los componentes del queso, y el efecto del contenido de sodio sobre la salud de los consumidores. La sal es un ingrediente importante, ya que determina en gran parte la calidad del producto y la aceptación del consumidor. El salado del queso tiene in uencia en la calidad debido a sus efectos sobre la composición, el crecimiento microbiano y la actividad enzimática. Ejer...

  12. La sal en el queso: diversas interacciones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sabastián Ramírez-Navas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el efecto de la sal sobre algunas propiedades físicas del queso, su interacción con los componentes del queso, y el efecto del contenido de sodio sobre la salud de los consumidores. La sal es un ingrediente importante, ya que determina en gran parte la calidad del producto y la aceptación del consumidor. El salado del queso tiene in uencia en la calidad debido a sus efectos sobre la composición, el crecimiento microbiano y la actividad enzimática. Ejerce una in uencia signi cativa sobre la reología y textura, así como en la maduración, principalmente a través de sus efectos sobre la actividad del agua. Los niveles de sal en queso van desde aproximadamente 0,6% p/p hasta aproximadamente 7% p/p. Debido a que el consumo de queso está aumentando en todo el mundo, se debe dar importancia a la reducción de la sal sin afectar su consumo. Entre las estrategias que se han planteado con tal n está la sustitución parcial de la sal por otros compuestos. Pero el inconveniente de la sustitución del NaCl es su efecto sobre las propiedades sensoriales, la composición química, la proteólisis y la textura del queso. Otra interesante alternativa para el reemplazo del NaCl, es el uso de la tecnología de membranas para obtener permeado rico en sales provenientes del lactosuero; la adición de estas sales en la elaboración quesera, produce quesos bajos en sodio, con buena textura.

  13. Numerical stability of the Saul'yev finite difference algorithms for electrochemical kinetic simulations: Matrix stability analysis for an example problem involving mixed boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieniasz, Leslaw K.; Østerby, Ole; Britz, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    The stepwise numerical stability of the Saul'yev finite difference discretization of an example diffusional initial boundary value problem from electrochemical kinetics has been investigated using the matrix method of stability analysis. Special attention has been paid to the effect...... of unconditional stability of the Saul'yev algorithms, reported in the literature, the left-right variant of the Saul'yev algorithm becomes unstable for large values of the dimensionless diffusion parameter λ = δt/h2, under mixed boundary conditions. This limitation is not, however, severe for most practical...

  14. Cinematic narratives of Sonderkommando: Son of saul or narrating the victim, perpetrator, trauma and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković Nevena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to map out - by analysing the film Son of Saul, but also by its comparison with two other films dealing with the topic, Himmelkommando and The Grey Zone, the narrative mechanism that satisfies the complex ethical and aesthetical demands imposed by the theme of Sonderkommando as the particular episode of the Holocaust. The key element of the narrative structure is the construction of the Levi’s “dead and drowned” witness who “resurrected” through the narrative intervention becomes the only reliable and credible narrator of the historical trauma. The prerequisite for his emergence is the narration and representation of the death which makes but also solves the traumatised - understood as multiple, fragmented, opposed - identities of the members of the special squad. Their entangled identity involves the simultaneous presence of a victim, perpetrator, witness and the authentic narrator of the trauma of the death camp. The death of the perpetrator is the condition sina qua non for the emergence of the figure of the victim-witness narrator but also for making of narrative which overcomes the initial trauma of the Holocaust. The detailed analysis of the film Son of Saul confirms and identifies these narratives as the modernist narration of the post-traumatic film.

  15. Berkeley Lab's Saul Perlmutter wins E.O. Lawrence Award scientist's work on supernovae reveals accelerating universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Saul Perlmutter, a member of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Physics Division and leader of the international Supernova Cosmology Project based there, has won the Department of Energy's 2002 E.O. Lawrence Award in the physics category" (1/2 page).

  16. Modeling and Analysis of Asynchronous Systems Using SAL and Hybrid SAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashish; Dutertre, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We present formal models and results of formal analysis of two different asynchronous systems. We first examine a mid-value select module that merges the signals coming from three different sensors that are each asynchronously sampling the same input signal. We then consider the phase locking protocol proposed by Daly, Hopkins, and McKenna. This protocol is designed to keep a set of non-faulty (asynchronous) clocks phase locked even in the presence of Byzantine-faulty clocks on the network. All models and verifications have been developed using the SAL model checking tools and the Hybrid SAL abstractor.

  17. User Guide: How to Use and Operate Virtual Reality Equipment in the Systems Assessment and Usability Laboratory (SAUL) for Conducting Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Assessment and Usability Laboratory (SAUL) for Conducting Demonstrations by Michael N Geuss and Joseph A Campanelli Human Research and...Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to...axis arrow is pointing directly away from SAUL entrance, and the X-axis arrow is pointing toward the wall to the right as you enter the lab doors

  18. A lecture by Saul Perlmutter, winner of the 2011 Nobel prize in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CNRS National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Pierre et Marie Curie University and the Laboratory of Nuclear and High-energy Physics (LPNHE) are happy to invite you to a talk by Nobel laureate Saul Perlmutter.   Perlmutter shared the 2011 Nobel prize in physics "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae." He will give a public talk in Paris on 17 December at 5pm: "Supernovae, Dark Energy, and the Accelerating Universe" Amphithéâtre Farabeuf des Cordeliers 21, rue de l’école de Médecine 75006 Paris Free entrance (places are limited) and live translation available.

  19. Growth of Azospirillum irakense KBC1 on the Aryl β-Glucoside Salicin Requires either salA or salB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Denis; Desair, Jos; Keijers, Veerle; Bekri, My Ali; Proost, Paul; Henrissat, Bernard; Vanderleyden, Jos

    1999-01-01

    The rhizosphere nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum irakense KBC1 is able to grow on pectin and β-glucosides such as cellobiose, arbutin, and salicin. Two adjacent genes, salA and salB, conferring β-glucosidase activity to Escherichia coli, have been identified in a cosmid library of A. irakense DNA. The SalA and SalB enzymes preferentially hydrolyzed aryl β-glucosides. A Δ(salA-salB) A. irakense mutant was not able to grow on salicin but could still utilize arbutin, cellobiose, and glucose for growth. This mutant could be complemented by either salA or salB, suggesting functional redundancy of these genes in salicin utilization. In contrast to this functional homology, the SalA and SalB proteins, members of family 3 of the glycosyl hydrolases, show a low degree of amino acid similarity. Unlike SalA, the SalB protein exhibits an atypical truncated C-terminal region. We propose that SalA and SalB are representatives of the AB and AB′ subfamilies, respectively, in glycosyl hydrolase family 3. This is the first genetic implication of this β-glucosidase family in the utilization of β-glucosides for microbial growth. PMID:10321999

  20. Intracellular trapping of cycloSal-pronucleotides by enzymatic cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, H J; Tonn, V; Meier, C

    2007-01-01

    A new synthesis for cycloSal-pronucleotides bearing enzymatically cleavable triggers is presented. This trigger is introduced to trap the pronucleotide inside cells. The general concept and hydrolysis data in different media are discussed.

  1. Asynchronous Mid-Value Select in Hybrid SAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following SAL model is an abstraction of a module that implements a fault-tolerant mid-value select on asynchronously produced inputs. This is part of a larger...

  2. The Phenomenology of Trauma. Sound and Haptic Sensuality in Son of Saul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincze Teréz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The winner of many prestigious prizes (Oscar for the best foreign language film, Grand Prize of the Cannes Film Festival, and the Golden Globe among them, the Hungarian film, Son of Saul – according to most critics – represents the Holocaust trauma in a completely new and intriguing way. The filmmakers have invented a special form in order to tackle the heroic task of showing the unwatchable, representing the unthinkable. In this essay I analyse the representational strategy of the film from a phenomenological point of view, and position it in the theoretical framework of haptic sensuality formulated by Vivian Sobchack and Laura U. Marks, among others. I mainly focus on the use of sound, in particular the role of sound design in the creation of haptic space. With the help of the analysis of the representation and artistic invocation of the different bodily senses in the film, I demonstrate how traditional artistic formal elements (characteristic of highly artistic, even experimental productions are combined with high impact effects often present in popular film forms. I argue that the successful combination of these two factors makes the film an example of artistic immersive cinema.1

  3. Saul Bellow’s Response to Nietzsche’s Ideas on Nihilism in The Victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Farshid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to expound Saul Bellow’s response to Nietzsche’s ideas on nihilism. The latter contends that the life-denying morality of Christianity has ultimately resulted in modern nihilism to solve which he propounds “active nihilism”. While “passive nihilism”, he argues, has darkened human life, the active one can save modern human, because it enables them to go beyond infertile moral judgments. In his second novel The Victim (1947 which portrays human anxieties in the modern era, Bellow comparatively asks his readers to confront nihilism, instead of ignoring it, and then make efforts to prevail over it, nevertheless the path he suggests differs from the one offered by Nietzsche. He depicts modern human’s predicament in The Victim by posing its central character in a disheartening situation, but concurrently shows his perturbed endeavors to discern a way to surmount that situation. Eventually he realizes that to divest himself out of that quandary, he must overcome his fear of death to salute life, and also to acknowledge the bond of human beings that creates in them a sense of responsibility toward each other. It is here that Bellow parts with Nietzsche who holds that elevation is only gained by the egotistic Overman.

  4. The Impact of Materialism on the Familial Ties in Post-War American Society: A Study of Saul Bellow's Seize the Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sabbar Abdulbaqi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Saul Bellow (1915 –2005 is an American novelist and the winner of Nobel and Pulitzer Prizes for literature (1976. He is known for his critique of Post-II World War American society. The research discusses Saul Bellow's Seize the Day (1956 in regard of materialism and its impact on the familial ties not only in terms of monetary considerations but also the maltreatment of family members among themselves. It reviews the materialistic relationship between the father and son on the one hand and the husband and wife on the other hand. The study aims to recognize to what extent materialism represents a dispersed element for the family unit.

  5. The Impact of Materialism on the Familial Ties in Post-War American Society: A Study of Saul Bellow's Seize the Day

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Sabbar Abdulbaqi

    2017-01-01

    Saul Bellow (1915 –2005) is an American novelist and the winner of Nobel and Pulitzer Prizes for literature (1976). He is known for his critique of Post-II World War American society. The research discusses Saul Bellow's Seize the Day (1956) in regard of materialism and its impact on the familial ties not only in terms of monetary considerations but also the maltreatment of family members among themselves. It reviews the materialistic relationship between the father and son on the one hand an...

  6. Preclinical safety evaluation of intravenously administered SAL200 containing the recombinant phage endolysin SAL-1 as a pharmaceutical ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Soo Youn; Jung, Gi Mo; Yoon, Seong Jun; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Koh, Woo Suk; Moon, Kyoung Sik; Kang, Sang Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Phage endolysins have received increasing attention as potent antibacterial agents. However, although safety evaluation is a prerequisite for the drug development process, a good laboratory practice (GLP)-compliant safety evaluation has not been reported for phage endolysins. A safety evaluation of intravenously administered SAL200 (containing phage endolysin SAL-1) was conducted according to GLP standards. No animals died in any of the safety evaluation studies. In general toxicity studies, intravenously administered SAL200 showed no sign of toxicity in rodent single- and repeated-dose toxicity studies. In the dog repeated-dose toxicity test, there were no abnormal findings, with the exception of transient abnormal clinical signs that were observed in some dogs when daily injection of SAL200 was continued for more than 1 week. In safety pharmacology studies, there were also no signs of toxicity in the central nervous and respiratory system function tests. In the cardiovascular function test, there were no abnormal findings in all tested dogs after the first and second administrations, but transient abnormalities were observed after the third and fourth administrations (2 or 3 weeks after the initial administration). All abnormal findings observed in these safety evaluation studies were slight to mild, were apparent only transiently after injection, and resolved quickly. The safety evaluation results for SAL200 support the implementation of an exploratory phase I clinical trial and underscore the potential of SAL200 as a new drug. We have designed an appropriate phase I clinical trial based on the results of this study.

  7. Development of Solar Powered Feeding Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks in low Solar Density Conditions / Bezvadu Sensoru Tīklu Elektroapgādes Sistēmas Izstrāde, Kas Izmanto Saules Paneļus Un Darbojas Pazeminātas Saules Radiācijas Apstākļos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratjevs, K.; Zabasta, A.; Selmanovs-Pless, V.

    2015-08-01

    In the recent years, there has been significant research focus on the safety and reliability of data harvesting and optimal energy consuming by wireless sensor network nodes. If external electrical power fails, the node needs to be able to send notifications to the utility demanding the use of backup energy strategies. The authors of the research offer an approach that can help to use PV panels as an alternative power source for WSN nodes in particular irradiation conditions. Survey and testing of the main types of PV panels offered on the market in conditions closed to real ones, in which WSN nodes are maintained, have been implemented. Based on the test results, maximum power control module parameters can be calculated in order to achieve the best effectiveness of the power control system for a selected type of PV panel or panel group. The novelty of the research is an approach that includes an original test bed design for PV testing, PV testing method and selection of design and MPP control module parameters, which ensure maximum effectiveness of WSN node power feeding. Pēdējos gados vairāki pētījumi ir veltīti problēmām, kas ir saistītas ar enerģijas patēriņa mazināšanu un efektīvu izmantošanu bezvadu sensoru tīklu mezglos. Kad sensors mezgls ir izsmēlis enerģijas krājumu, tas vairs nefunkcionē un atslēdzas no kopēja tīkla, kas var būtiski ietekmēt visa tīkla veiktspēju. Šī pētījuma mērķis ir izveidot barošanas vadības moduli, lai nodrošinātu stabilu elektroapgādes spriegumu autonomi strādājošiem radio signāla atkārtotājiem, sensoriem vai vārtejām, kas darbojas bezvadu sensoru tīklos. Pētījuma ietvaros izstrādāta metode saules paneļu kvalitatīvai salīdzināšanai starp tehnoloģijām vai savā starpā, izvērtējot to atbilstību mērķa pielietojumam. Izstrādātā metode sniedz iespēju veikt kontrolētus testus pie variējošiem, simulētiem gaismas apstākļiem, ļauj prognozēt enerģijas resursus

  8. Hinduism’s Four Stages of Life in Saul Bellow’s Henderson the Rain King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manimangai Mani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The oldest of Hindu’s philosophical writings, the Rig Veda, which came to being about 4500 BC underlined that, the cause of all misery that befalls  mankind  is his/her desire; or more promptly said, his/her attachment to the desire. In Hinduism, this physical plane is just a stage with life itself is nothing more than a play. The stage is set in such a way to enable the souls which took the human form to evolve and to find the enlightenment and ultimately to become one with the creator. All the material elements including the complex relationship found in this plane is nothing but a mere illusion. This study aims to explore elements of Hindu philosophy in Saul Bellow’s novel, Henderson the Rain King (1976. Eugene Henderson, the main character in this novel is portrayed as drowning in the materialistic world. Being constantly mugged by a desirable voice within him whispering, I want, I want, it is not an irony if he generated a sense of uselessness and emptiness. This study shows how Henderson’s decision to go to Africa to find the meaning of life coincides with the Hindu philosophy of the four stages of life; Brahmacharya (celibacy, Grahasthya (householdership, Vanaprastha (detachment in attachment and Sanyas (seclusion.  Henderson comes to realization in his third stage and proceeds to the fourth stage. Henderson is taught to eradicate fear and to break the cycle of desire. Towards the end, Henderson realises that the voice was actually referring to, “He wants, She wants and They want”. The voice was actually echoing the desires of mankind.

  9. The C-2 derivatives of salvinorin A, ethoxymethyl ether Sal B and β-tetrahydropyran Sal B, have anti-cocaine properties with minimal side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Amy W M; Bosch, Peter J; Culverhouse, Aimee; Crowley, Rachel Saylor; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Kivell, Bronwyn M

    2017-08-01

    Kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr) agonists have pre-clinical anti-cocaine and analgesic effects. However, side effects including sedation, dysphoria, aversion, anxiety and depression limit their therapeutic development. The unique structure of salvinorin A has been used to develop longer acting KOPr agonists. We evaluate two novel C-2 analogues of salvinorin A, ethoxymethyl ether Sal B (EOM Sal B) and β-tetrahydropyran Sal B (β-THP Sal B) alongside U50,488 for their ability to modulate cocaine-induced behaviours and side effects, pre-clinically. Anti-cocaine properties of EOM Sal B were evaluated using the reinstatement model of drug seeking in self-administering rats. EOM Sal B and β-THP Sal B were evaluated for effects on cocaine-induced hyperactivity, spontaneous locomotor activity and sucrose self-administration. EOM Sal B and β-THP Sal B were evaluated for aversive, anxiogenic and depressive-like effects using conditioned place aversion (CPA), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim tests (FSTs), respectively. EOM Sal B (0.1, 0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) dose dependently attenuated drug seeking, and EOM Sal B (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and β-THP Sal B (1 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated cocaine-induced hyperactivity. No effects on locomotor activity, open arm times (EPM) or swimming behaviours (FST) were seen with EOM (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or β-THP Sal B (1 or 2 mg/kg, i.p.). However, β-THP Sal B decreased time spent in the drug-paired chamber. EOM Sal B is more potent than Sal A and β-THP Sal B in reducing drug-seeking behaviour with fewer side effects. EOM Sal B showed no effects on sucrose self-administration (0.1 mg/kg), locomotor, depressive-like, aversive-like or anxiolytic effects.

  10. Isolasi dan karakterisasi mutan sal4 di ragi (Saccharomyces cereviceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Tri Puspaningsih

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, genetics manipulation in yeast Saccharomyces cereviceae have much been done. It because yeast can be used as a host cell alternative in the forign protein expression, therefore information about fidelity from yeast should be studied. Preliminary study showed that sal4 gene has assumed to has a role in translation fidelity control and/or termination factor. To study the gene function, mutation in yeast BSC483/1a has been done by Ethylmethane sulphonate. Mutants wished are mutated at sal4 locus and have characteristic of both allosuppressor and omnipotent suppressor. Phenotype of alosuppresor mutants were indicated by white colour consistency in YPD and Y8 medium, temperature sensitivity, paremomcyn sensitivity and growth rate. Quantitatively, effectiveness as omnipotent suppressor has been done by using gene fuion between PGK and β-galaktosidase. The result showed that BSC483/1a strain could be mutated by Ethylmethane sulphonate 1% and produced eight allosuppressor mutants. Two of them (Number 8 and 10 have characteristic of temperature sensitivity, and the two others (Number 1 and 13 were mutated at sal4 gene locus. Characterize of sal4 mutants (1 and 13 didn't show temperature sensitive and have growth rate re;atively more slowly than the wild type. Mutant (number 13 could suppress nonsense mutation (realthrough at termination codon UAG with β-galaktosidase activity as amount 2.70 unit/ml.

  11. El consumo de sal ¿Riesgo o necesidad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén García Núñez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión acerca del consumo de sal y sus usos en las diferentes etapas de la historia de la humanidad. Se abordan elementos relacionados con su presencia en el organismo, las funciones fisiológicas esenciales para el mantenimiento homeostático en la vida, así como las complicaciones cuando sus niveles son inferiores a los límites fisiológicos, o superiores a estos. Se analizaron diferentes estudios y sus contradicciones sobre los daños que ocasiona a la salud el consumo de sal. Se precisan los grupos poblacionales sal sensibles (SS y sal resistentes (SR, pautados por estudios realizados, así como las posibles causas de sus variaciones. Se emiten conclusiones en cuanto a riesgo y beneficio del consumo de sal. Se recomienda intervenir en un equilibrado consumo, tanto para los individuos como para las poblaciones. Salt Intake: ¿Risk or Need? A literary review on salt intake and its uses throughout the different stages in the history of mankind was conducted. It addresses issues related to salt concentrations in the human body, its physiological functions that are essential for homeostatic control, as well as the complications when salt levels are below or over the physiological limits. Different studies were analyzed including the contradictions they all present on the damage that salt intake can cause to human health. Population groups are defined as salt sensitive (SS and salt resistant (SR according to study that was conducted as well as to the possible causes for their variations. Conclusions are drawn on the risks and benefits of salt intake. Intervention is recommended for balanced consumption, both for individuals and for populations.

  12. Solution of the two-dimensional transient heat conduction equation using the finite element method and the Saul'ev ADE method for time derivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haner, A.; Fremd, R.; Schmidt, F.

    1979-12-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is used for the solution of the twodimensional transient heat conduction equation. The time derivation is approximated by use of Saul'ev ADE method, which is modified for the FEM. This method will be improved in such way that the use of any triangular element is possible. The realisation of the method is based on a modified version of the program DIFGEN which solves the neutron diffusion equation. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 MKO [de

  13. Hipertensión arterial sistémica y sensibilidad a la sal

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Castellanos,Francisco E

    2006-01-01

    Individuos con hipertensión arterial tienen mayor riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares y muerte. En 50% de los casos de hipertensión ésta es sensible a sal, lo cual se vuelve más prevalente con la edad. La sensibilidad a sal se ha relacionado con hipertrofia ventricular izquierda, proteinuria y ausencia de la caída nocturna de la presión arterial. La sensibilidad a sal implica una alteración en la natriuresis de presión. Se ha propuesto que el desarrollo de sensibilidad a sal ocurre en 3 fases....

  14. Exploration of Shorea robusta (Sal seeds, kernels and its oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Kumar C.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of Shorea robusta seed with wing, seed without wing, and kernel were investigated in the present work. The physico-chemical composition of sal oil was also analyzed. The physico-mechanical properties and proximate composition of seed with wing, seed without wing, and kernel at three moisture contents of 9.50% (w.b, 9.54% (w.b, and 12.14% (w.b, respectively, were studied. The results show that the moisture content of the kernel was highest as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The sphericity of the kernel was closer to that of a sphere as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The hardness of the seed with wing (32.32, N/mm and seed without wing (42.49, N/mm was lower than the kernels (72.14, N/mm. The proximate composition such as moisture, protein, carbohydrates, oil, crude fiber, and ash content were also determined. The kernel (30.20%, w/w contains higher oil percentage as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The scientific data from this work are important for designing of equipment and processes for post-harvest value addition of sal seeds.

  15. Erigeron mancus (Asteraceae) density as a baseline to detect future climate change in La Sal Mountain habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Barb Smith

    2010-01-01

    The La Sal Daisy, Erigeron mancus Rydb., is endemic to timberline and alpine habitats of the La Sal Mountains in Utah, an insular, laccolithic mountain range on the Colorado Plateau in southeastern Utah. It occurs in alpine herbaceous communities from timberline to the crestline of the La Sals. Our primary goal in this study was to measure basic population biology...

  16. Erigeron mancus elevational density gradient as a baseline to detect future climate change in LaSal Mountain habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Barb Smith

    2010-01-01

    The LaSal daisy, Erigeron mancus, is endemic to timberline and alpine habitats of the LaSal Mountains in Utah (Nesom 2006)(Fig. 1), an insular, laccolithic mountain range on the Colorado Plateau in southeastern Utah (Blakey and Ranney 2008). Erigeron mancus occurs in alpine herbaceous communities from timberline to the crestline of the Middle Group of the LaSals (Smith...

  17. Estrategias mundiales en la reducción de sal/sodio en el pan

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Valverde Guillén; Jennifer Picado Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Proporcionar información sobre las acciones mundiales en la reducción de sal/sodio en el pan para generar datos útiles en la implementación de estrategias que busquen la disminución del consumo de sal/sodio a partir de productos panificados. Método: Se realizó una búsqueda de información en las bases de datos de Binass, PubMed, Scielo e instituciones gubernamentales. Las palabras claves fueron: contenido de sodio en el pan, menos sodio en pan, acciones para reducir sal en el pan, co...

  18. O Debate do Salário Mínimo no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Eloisa Vilmar da Silva Lemos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Num contexto de estabilidade econômica, o salário mínimo pode voltar a desempenhar o seu papel original de tentar garantir ao trabalhador um salário que é o mínimo para a sua sobrevivência. Para a análise do papel do salario mínimo no mercado de trabalho brasileiro, uma resenha da literatura especifica existente parece ser um bom ponto de partida.

  19. [mSalUV: a new mobile messaging system for diabetes control in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Mendoza, Néstor Iván; Castro Enriquez, Pedro Pablo; Demeneghi Marini, Verónica Patricia; Fernández Luque, Luis; Morales Romero, Jaime; Sainz Vazquez, Luis; Ortiz León, María Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Design and develop a mobile messaging system called mSalUV, which reminds patients with type 2 diabetes about taking their medication and attending appointments and promotes healthy lifestyles, and explore patient opinion regarding use of the system. The study had three stages: 1) design and development of mSalUV; 2) design and development of text messages; and 3) exploration of patient opinion regarding use of mSalUV. The mSalUV system was created and around 40 text messages were designed. A total of 1 850 messages were sent during the 45 day intervention. Patients thought that mSalUV helped them to treat their disease and that it was easy to use, they were inclined to continue using the system in the future, and people close to them (family members and support networks) supported them using it. Furthermore, they perceived the system as "someone that cared about them." The results suggest that a system such as mSalUV would be well accepted by its potential users; in this case, people with type 2 diabetes. This presents a very interesting scenario that will enable taking advantage of new technologies for health. Further research is needed to evaluate the system's efficiency and effectiveness.

  20. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J Tett

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  1. Imagens apesar de tudo: problemas e polêmicas em torno da representação, de Shoah a O filho de Saul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo pretende investigar as polêmicas e os problemas em torno da representação do Holocausto (Shoah, a partir de três ensaios de Georges Didi-Huberman, Images malgré tout (2003, "Cascas" (2013 e Sortir du noir (2015. Tais textos se endereçam ao “inimaginável” e ao “irrepresentável”, filosófico e estético, e o refutam, por meio da análise de quatro fotografias, capturadas por membros do Sonderkommando em Auschwitz-Birkenau em agosto de 1944. Em cotejo com o cinema, de Shoah a O filho de Saul, passando por Noite e neblina e Kapo, atualizamos a querela das imagens, cada vez mais atual e longe de ser encerrada.

  2. King Saul's mysterious malady

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-20

    Jan 20, 2012 ... frame of mind so that the body could stimulate its own healing mechanisms. • Originally cultivated in Assyria and found in Israel, laurel or sweet bay (Laurus nobilis) seed was used as an antidote for seizures (possibly epileptic). The leaves and fruit were believed to have narcotic properties (Jacob 1993:40).

  3. Striving for Diversity, Accessibility and Quality: Evaluating SiSAL Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Mynard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After establishing a journal, it is important to evaluate its progress to ensure that the principles that underpin its existence continue to be a priority. In this article, the author reports on measures that were used to evaluate Studies in Self-Access Learning (SiSAL Journal. The research was designed to investigate the three principles that the journal values: diversity, accessibility and quality. The results identified some successful factors such as accessibility and favourable perceptions of SiSAL Journal’s quality. However, the results also identified areas that could be improved to further increase diversity and to encourage submissions from more authors based in different locations.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of the phage endolysin-based candidate drug SAL200 in monkeys and its appropriate intravenous dosing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Soo Youn; Jung, Gi Mo; Yoon, Seong Jun; Youm, So Young; Han, Hyoung-Yun; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Kang, Sang Hyeon

    2016-10-01

    SAL200 is a new phage endolysin-based candidate drug for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. An intravenous administration study was conducted in monkeys to obtain pharmacokinetic information on SAL200 and to assess the safety of a short SAL200 dosing period (<1 week). Maximum serum drug concentrations and systemic SAL200 exposure were proportional to the dose and comparable in male and female monkeys. SAL200 was well tolerated, and no adverse events or laboratory abnormalities were detected after injection of a single dose of up to 80 mg/kg per day, or injection of multiple doses of up to 40 mg/kg per day. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Economic contribution of participatory agroforestry program to poverty alleviation: a case from Sal forests, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, K.K.; Hoogstra, M.A.; Ullah, M.O.; Sato, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the Forest Department of Bangladesh, a Participatory Agroforestry Program (PAP) was initiated at a denuded Sal forests area to protect the forest resources and to alleviate poverty amongst the local poor population. We explored whether the PAP reduced poverty and what factors might be responsible

  6. The Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) in the Agency's safeguards measurement system activity in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliano, G.; Cappis, J.; Deron, S.; Parus, J.L.

    1991-05-01

    The IAEA applies Safeguards at the request of a Member State to whole or part of its nuclear materials. The verification of nuclear material accountability still constitutes the fundamental method of control, although sealing and surveillance procedures play an important complementary and increasing role in Safeguards. A small fraction of samples must still be analyzed at independent analytical laboratories using conventional Destructive Analytical (DA) methods of highest accuracy in order to verify that small potential biases in the declarations of the State are not masking protracted diversions of significant quantities of fissile materials. The Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) is operated by the Agency's Laboratories at Seibersdorf to provide to the Department of Safeguards and its inspectors such off-site Analytical Services, in collaboration with the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) of the Agency. In the last years SAL and the Safeguards DA Services have become more directly involved in the qualification and utilization of on-site analytical instrumentation such as K-edge X-Ray absorptiometers and quadrupole mass spectrometers. The nature and the origin of the samples analyzed, the measurements usually requested by the IAEA inspectors, the methods and the analytical techniques available at SAL and at the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) with the performances achieved during the past years are described and discussed in several documents. This report gives an evaluation compared with 1989 of the volume and the quality of the analyses reported in 1990 by SAL and by the NWAL in reply to requests of IAEA Safeguards inspectors. The reports summarizes also on-site DA developments and support provided by SAL to the Division of Safeguards Operation and special training courses to the IAEA Safeguards inspectors. 55 refs, 7 figs, 15 tabs

  7. Between Memory and Oblivion of the Shoah. The Problem of Aesthetic Neutralization of the Past in Saul Friedländer's Historical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawicki, Maciej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In his writings, Saul Friedländer described the problem of individual memory of the Shoah as one of the main limits of discourse. The critical point of his reflection on memory can be found in the issue of social redemptive thinking, which constituted a defence reaction against catastrophe. This phenomenon was particularly distinct in the public form of memory, which, on the one hand, demanded simplicity and clear interpretation, since its role was to neutralise incoherence, eliminate the pain, and raise hope among the contemporaries; on the other hand, the deep individual memory of the survivors – which knows no rules – did not accept the forms of public memory, even though it could defy them. According to Friedländer, the expansion of public memory and the decline of individual memory suggest that "the memory of the Shoah will probably not escape complete ritualization."1He also argued that art cannot oppose the process of coming to terms with the horror, because it needs to express the individual memory of the past in certain empty forms. What became equally problematic was the fact that the categories of art after the Holocaust have been taken over by cultural industry and politics, which instrumentally used the issue of memory for other purposes. Referring to Friedländer's reflections on the present impasse related to the neutralising mechanisms of memory, I shall consider the issue of the limits and possibilities of creating an aesthetic link between the past and the present.

  8. A giant polyaluminum species S-Al32 and two aluminum polyoxocations involving coordination by sulfate ions S-Al32 and S-K-Al13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong; Wang, Hui; Tong, Honggeer; Sun, Shaofan

    2011-01-17

    The giant polyaluminum species [Al32O8(OH)60(H2O)28(SO4)2](16+) (S-Al32) and [Al13O4(OH)25(H2O)10(SO4)](4+) (S-K-Al13) [S means that sulfate ions take part in coordination of the aluminum polycation; K represents the Keggin structure] were obtained in the structures of [Al32O8(OH)60(H2O)28(SO4)2][SO4]7[Cl]2·30H2O and [Al13O4(OH)25(H2O)10(SO4)]4[SO4]8·20H2O, respectively. They are the first two aluminum polyoxocations coordinated by sulfate ions. The "core-shell" structure of S-Al32 is similar to that of Al30, but the units are linked by two [Al(OH)2(H2O)3(SO4)](-) groups with replacement of four η(1)-H2O molecules. The structure of S-K-Al13 is similar to the well-known structure of ε-K-Al13, but the units are linked by two (SO4(2-))0.5 with replacement of a H3O(+) ion. It was shown that strong interaction exists between the polyoxocations and counterions. On the basis of their structural features and preparation conditions, a formation and evolution mechanism (from ε-K-Al13 to S-K-Al13 and S-Al32) has been proposed. A local basification degree symmetrical equalization principle was extracted based on a comparison of the calculated results of the local basification degree for each central Al(3+) ion included in a polycation. They can be used to explain how the two aluminum species are formed and evolved and why the sulfate ions can coordinate to them and to predict where the OH-bridging positions will be upon further hydrolysis.

  9. Protection against tauopathy by the drug candidates NAP (davunetide) and D-SAL: biochemical, cellular and behavioral aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryaev, Natalia; Pikman, Regina; Giladi, Eliezer; Gozes, Illana

    2011-01-01

    Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is essential for brain formation and partial deficiency in ADNP results in cognitive deficits coupled with tauopathy and neuronal cell death. Our previous results indicated that a peptide snippet from ADNP, NAPVSIPQ (NAP, generic name, davunetide) can restore in part ADNP deficiencies. NAP interacts with tubulin and this interaction is displaced by the NAP related peptide that is derived from activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF), SALLRSIPA (SAL) and its all D-amino acid peptide derivative (D-SAL, also known as AL-309). Both NAP and D-SAL were shown to protect neurons against amyloid beta toxicity however the mechanism of protection is still under investigation. In addition, NAP protects against tau hyperphosphorylation associated with ADNP deficiency, in vivo. To investigate whether the mechanism of in vitro neuroprotection relates to the in vivo protection against tauopathy and to draw potential additional parallelism between NAP and D-SAL, we asked if: 1]NAP and D-SAL protect against amyloid beta related tau hyperphosphorylation in vitro; and 2] D-SAL protects against haploinsufficiency in ADNP, inhibiting tauopathy in vivo. Assessment of NAP and D-SAL neuroprotection in primary cortical neuro-glial cultures treated with amyloid beta showed that both peptides reduced toxin-related neuronal damage and protected against tau hyperphosphorylation. In vivo, chronic D-SAL administration protected against tau hyperphosphorylation associated with ADNP deficiency (ADNP+/- mice), showing for the first time protection against deficits in odor discrimination and in social recognition. These studies associate neuroprotection in vivo and in vitro and provide a broad base for future drug development based on NAP and D-SAL against multiple neurodegenerative conditions.

  10. Presencia de lesiones cariosas en escolares que consumen y no consumen sal fluorada en dos poblados de Tarma

    OpenAIRE

    Mansilla Rojas, Yhanderee Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar y comparar la presencia de lesiones cariosas mediante el uso del índice de CPOD (dientes cariados, perdidos/extraídos y obturados) en escolares de 12 años pertenecientes a dos poblados de Tarma, de los cuales uno consume sal fluorada y el otro no. Material y método: Se trabajó con dos muestras: 78 sujetos para la población consumidora de sal fluorada y 104 para la población consumidora de sal no fluorada. Para realizar el e...

  11. Marx e a crítica à forma salário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Prado

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo desse artigo é descrever, a partir da leitura de “O Capital”, a crítica de Marx a forma salário. Tal categoria é fundamental para encobrir e mistificar as relações entre capital e trabalho. A partir de uma feroz crítica a Economia Política, Marx afirma que fetiche da forma salário cumpre a função de ocultar a apropriação da mais-valia pelo capitalista. Por conseguinte, trata-se de uma forma fundamental para a manutenção das relações capitalistas de produção.

  12. NAP and D-SAL: neuroprotection against the β amyloid peptide (1–42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piltzer Inbar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction NAP (Asn-Ala-Pro-Val-Ser-Ile-Pro-Gln, single amino acid letter code, NAPVSIPQ, an eight amino acid neuroprotective peptide derived from activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP, exhibits some structural similarity to activity-dependent neurotropic factor-9 (ADNF-9; Ser-Alal-Leu-Leu-Arg-Ser-Ile-Pro-Ala, SALLRSIPA. Both peptides are also active in the all D-amino acid conformation, termed D-NAP and D-SAL. Original results utilizing affinity chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry identified tubulin, the subunit protein of microtubules, as the major NAP-associating protein in brain. The NAP-tubulin association was found to be diminished in the presence of ADNF-9, D-NAP, and D-SAL, suggesting a common target of neuroprotection. The β amyloid peptide interacts with microtubules, and previous studies have demonstrated protection against β amyloid (25–35 toxicity by NAP and ADNF-9. NAP also inhibits β amyloid (25–35 and 1–40 aggregation. Methods Cerebral cortical cultures derived from newborn rats were used in neuronal survival assays to test the activity of both NAP and D-SAL against the major Alzheimer's disease toxic peptide β amyloid (1–42. Results NAP and D-SAL protected cerebral cortical neurons against the major Alzheimer's disease toxic peptide β amyloid (1–42. Maximal protection of both peptides was observed at concentrations of 10-15 to 10-10 mol/l. Conclusion These findings, together with those of previous in vivo studies conducted in relevant Alzheimer's disease models, pave the path to drug development. Bioavailability studies indicated that NAP penetrates cells and crosses the blood-brain barrier after nasal or systemic administration. Phase II clinical trials of NAP are currently in progress by Allon Therapeutics Inc.

  13. Reparation and validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9951

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubek, N.; Jammet, G.; Zoigner, A.

    1991-02-01

    To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing about 2mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 98%) and 37mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 19%) have been prepared by the IAEA-SAL and verified by three analytical laboratories: NMCC-SAL, OEFZS, IAEA-SAL; they will be used to spike samples of concentrated spent fuel solutions with a high burnup and a low 235 U enrichment. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBL-112A and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing about 3.2 mg/ml of Pu and 64.3 mg/ml of 18.7% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution are dried to give Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of a fifth batch of LSD-spike which is intended to be used as a common spike by the plant operator, the national and the IAEA inspectorates. 7 refs, 6 tabs

  14. D-SAL and NAP: Two Peptides Sharing a SIP Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozes, Illana; Sragovich, Shlomo; Schirer, Yulie; Idan-Feldman, Anat

    2016-06-01

    NAPVSIPQ (NAP) and all D-amino acid SALLRSIPA (D-SAL) are neuroprotective peptides derived from activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) and activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF), respectively. Both proteins were shown to protect against cognitive impairment, using different animal models and to increase neuronal survival following exposure to neurotoxins. NAP was extensively tested and found to increase microtubule stability, protect axonal transport, and inhibit apoptosis. Here, we aimed to further evaluate and correlate effects at the behavioral level, in a rat model of diabetes. Diabetes is primarily a metabolic disorder which presents secondary neurological manifestations. Diabetes induces peripheral nervous system damage which is translated into impaired sensory perception and is termed diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes-related central nervous system damage causes cognitive decline. The behavioral study aimed to evaluate the effect of NAP and D-SAL on peripheral neuropathy and cognitive decline. Peripheral neuropathy was tested by measuring the response to a thermal stimulus, and cognitive ability was measured by a social memory test and a spatial memory test using long- and short-term dependent tasks and a reference memory task. Results indicated an immediate sensory neuropathy in the diabetic model, which was prevented by both peptides and a later neuropathic phase, prevented only by NAP treatment. Cognitive tests revealed impaired performance in both social and spatial memory tests in the diabetes model. Each of the peptides improved different aspects of cognitive behavior, with NAP being more potent than D-SAL. Mechanistically, both NAP and SAL contain a SIP (SxIP) domain that has been shown to interact with microtubule end-binding proteins (EBs). Specifically, we have previously shown a direct interaction of NAP with EB1 and EB3; we have further shown an interaction of the NAP-derived 4 amino acid SKIP peptide with EB3, stimulating axonal

  15. [The primary evaluation of Sal-Ammoniac extract on the therapy action in mice bearing Lewis lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-Fen; Du, Gang-Jun; Lin, Hai-Hong; Song, Zi-Hui; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Shuo

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the therapy action of Sal-Ammoniac extract on Lewis lung cancer and its toxicity to immunity. The proliferation and cell cycle of Lewis lung cancer cells were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry respectively. The antitumor effect of Sal-Ammoniac extract was observed by tumor injected subcutaneously in mice and its toxicity to immunity was examined by clearance rate of charcoal particles and delayed type hypersensitivity. Sal-Ammoniac extract could inhibit the proliferation of Lewis lung cancer cells with S cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Sal-Ammoniac extract solution injected in tumor for eight days had 46.7% inhibition on Lewis lung cancer, if taken orally had only 15.7% inhibition on Lewis lung cancer in mice. Sal-Ammoniac extract solution injected subcutaneously or taken orally had no effect on the clearance rate of charcoal particles and delayed type hypersensitivity in mice. The antitumor action of Sal-Ammoniac extract has relation to its recipe and has no influence on immunity.

  16. A recombinant Sal k 1 isoform as an alternative to the polymorphic allergen from Salsola kali pollen for allergy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Salvador; Boissy, Patrice; Monsalve, Rafael I; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Fernández, Javier; Colás, Carlos; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Barderas, Rodrigo; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Amaranthaceae pollen allergy has increased due to the desertification occurring in many countries. In some regions of Spain, Salsola kali is the main cause of pollinosis, at almost the same level as olive and grass pollen. Sal k 1 - the sensitization marker of S. kali pollinosis - is used in clinical diagnosis, but is purified at a low yield from pollen. We aimed to produce a recombinant (r)Sal k 1 able to span the structural and immunological properties of the natural isoforms from pollen, and validate its potential use for diagnosis. Specific cDNA was amplified by PCR, cloned into the pET41b vector and used to transform BL21 (DE3) Escherichia coli cells. Immunoblotting, ELISA, basophil activation and skin-prick tests were used to validate the recombinant protein against Sal k 1 isolated from pollen. Sera and blood cells from S. kali pollen-sensitized patients and specific monoclonal and polyclonal antisera were used. rSal k 1 was produced in bacteria with a yield of 7.5 mg/l of cell culture. The protein was purified to homogeneity and structural and immunologically validated against the natural form. rSal k 1 exhibited a higher IgE cross-reactivity with plant-derived food extracts such as peanut, almond or tomato than with pollen sources such as Platanus acerifolia and Oleaceae members. rSal k 1 expressed in bacteria retains intact structural and immunological properties in comparison to the pollen-derived allergen. It spans the immunological properties of most of the isoforms found in pollen, and it might substitute natural Sal k 1 in clinical diagnosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Changements climatiques et infiltrations d'eau salée le long du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La Méditerranée orientale est très exposée aux infiltrations d'eau salée dans les aquifères (qui contiennent de l'eau douce) se trouvant sur son littoral. La dégradation des aquifères pourrait entraîner de graves conséquences socioéconomiques pour les personnes qui vivent en ces lieux. Le projet consistera à étudier ...

  18. Sal die ‘ewolusie’ vanaf biologie na lewenswetenskappe ‘uitsterwing’ van die vakgebied voorkom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna G. Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word die wysiging van die skoolvak van ‘biologie’ na ‘lewenswetenskappe’ bespreek, asook die gepaardgaande en verwagte implikasies van die verandering. Die vraag word gestel of die beoogde wysiging wel noemenswaardig is en of dit enigsins ‘n verskil aan die dalende belangstelling in die lewenswetenskappe op tersiêre vlak sal maak. Die wysigings in die nuwe kurrikula verhoog die relevansie van die vakinhoud vir leerders en vir die gemeenskap, maar sekere kwessies kry nie aandag nie. Voorstelle word gemaak om die kurrikulum te wysig en onderrigmetodes aan te pas om die nodige vaardighede by leerders te vestig.

  19. Variante CA-135 Cabezón de la Sal-Comillas

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Uslé, Sara

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN: El proyecto que se presenta es una variante de carretera autonómica, realizada en el término municipal de Comillas, que permite solucionar los problemas de paso y acceso reconduciendo el tráfico fuera del núcleo urbano. La variante se unirá mediante dos glorietas a las actuales carreteras CA-135, que cumple funciones de acceso desde Cabezón de la Sal a Comillas y la CA-131, que canaliza tráficos costeros que presentan puntas muy acusadas durante los fines de semana y en época esti...

  20. Consumo e digestibilidade de nutrientes em ovinos alimentados com sal forrageiro de faveleira (Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus)

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA,Fernanda Melo de; OLIVEIRA,Gabriel Jorge Carneiro de; OLIVEIRA,Marcos Lemos Andrade de; JAEGER,Soraya Maria Palma Luz; ALMEIDA,Luiz Henrique Silva; NERY,Igor Bomfim Quadros; LEITE,Laudi Cunha

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes em ovinos alimentados com sal forrageiro de faveleira (Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus) com níveis crescentes de cloreto de sódio na sua composição. Foram utilizados 25 carneiros, sem padrão racial definido, não castrados, alocados em baias individuais, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. As dietas que continham 1, 3, 5 e 7% d...

  1. Mobility Analysis of the Population of Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer

    OpenAIRE

    F. Ghaiti

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present the 2006 survey study origin destination and price that we carried out during 2006 fall in the area in the Moroccan region of Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer. The survey concerns the people-s characteristics, their displacements behavior and the price that they will be able to pay for a tramway ticket. The main objective is to study a set of relative features to the households and to their displacement's habits and to their choices among public and privet transport modes. A ...

  2. Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta forests of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAM KEERTI VERMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soni KK, Pyasi A, Verma RK. 2011. Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta forests of central India. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 136-144. The present study aim on isolation and identification of fungi associated with decomposition of litter of sal forest in central India. Season wise successional changes in litter mycoflora were determined for four main seasons of the year namely, March-May, June-August, September-November and December-February. Fungi like Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Rhizopus stolonifer were associated with litter decomposition throughout the year, while Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. oxysporum, Curvularia indica, and C. lunata were recorded in three seasons. Some fungi including ectomycorrhiza forming occur only in the rainy season (June-August these are Astraeus hygrometricus, Boletus fallax, Calvatia elata, Colletotrichum dematium, Corticium rolfsii, Mycena roseus, Periconia minutissima, Russula emetica, Scleroderma bovista, S. geaster, S. verrucosum, Scopulariopsis alba and four sterile fungi. Fungi like Alternaria citri, Gleocladium virens, Helicosporium phragmitis and Pithomyces cortarum were rarely recorded only in one season.

  3. Tsunami vulnerability and damage assessment in the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Atillah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, a companion paper to Renou et al. (2011, focuses on the application of a GIS-based method to assess building vulnerability and damage in the event of a tsunami affecting the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco. This approach, designed within the framework of the European SCHEMA project (www.schemaproject.org is based on the combination of hazard results from numerical modelling of the worst case tsunami scenario (inundation depth based on the historical Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and the Portugal earthquake of 1969, together with vulnerability building types derived from Earth Observation data, field surveys and GIS data. The risk is then evaluated for this highly concentrated population area characterized by the implementation of a vast project of residential and touristic buildings within the flat area of the Bouregreg Valley separating the cities of Rabat and Salé. A GIS tool is used to derive building damage maps by crossing layers of inundation levels and building vulnerability. The inferred damage maps serve as a base for elaborating evacuation plans with appropriate rescue and relief processes and to prepare and consider appropriate measures to prevent the induced tsunami risk.

  4. An Experiment to Study Sporadic Atom Layers in the Earth's Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (SAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael C.

    1999-01-01

    The Sudden Atom Layer (SAL) Rocket was successfully launched in February 1998. All instruments worked well except those supplied by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. (A dummy weight was launched for the neutral mass spectrometer and the ion version died shortly after lift-off.) A paper has already been published in GRL concerning the dust layer detected by an on board instrument and compared to ground-based observations made at the Arecibo Observatory by Cornell graduate student S. Collins (lidar) and Q. Zhou (radar). Collins presented a comparison of the sodium lidar data and onboard observations with a theoretical model by Plane and Cox at the Fan AGU Meeting. In addition Gelinas and Kelley presented a review paper dealing with the entire SAL instrument complement at the same meeting. An unexpected new explanation for the outer scale of E region plasma irregularities has come out of the data set. We anticipate at least a total of four papers will be published within a year of launch.

  5. Fodder salt fed to small ruminants Sal forrageiro para pequenos ruminantes

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    Gabriel Jorge Carneiro de Oliveira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The price of the products used for animal supplementation and the existence of a rich native flora of eudicotyledon forage, drove the idea for develop a technique feed supplementation aiming improve livestock yield levels in the semiarid zone. The fodder salt technique has been developed by the Tropical Zootechnical Rsearch Group at the Centro de Ciências Agrárias Ambientais e Biológicas da Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia (CCAAB/UFRB. Defined as a mixture of mineral salt and ground eudocotyledon forage hay, among them, some xerophitas species, the"fodder salt" consisting to a low cost technique with high applicability potential for ruminant production in semiarid environment. The salt controls consumption, for it facilitates the offer of eudicotyledon hay. When added to the mixture, it becomes salty, and the animals ingest it slowly and repeatedly. This behavior results in a reduction of feed intake, in less fighting among animals, and allows a better even distribution of feed for all of them. The researches on "fodder salt" have presented satisfactory responses of animal performance, and without doubt, this technique facilitates feed management and increases herd yield.O custo dos insumos utilizados na suplementação alimentar e a riqueza do semiárido em forrageiras eudicotiledoneas de bom valor nutritivo despertaram a idéia de desenvolver tecnologias adaptadas às condições tropicais semiáridas. O sal forrageiro é uma tecnologia que está sendo desenvolvida pelo grupo de pesquisa em Zootecnia Tropical (CNPq, do Centro de Ciências Agrárias Ambientais e Biológicas da Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia (CCAAB/UFRB. Definido como uma mistura de sal mineral com feno moído de forrageiras eudicotiledôneas, dentre elas algumas espécies vegetais xerófilas, o sal forrageiro consiste em uma tecnologia de baixo custo, com grande potencial de aplicação no sistema de produção de ruminantes. Nesta técnica, o sal

  6. Lucernas romanas de Alcácer do Sal. Entre a prática e o sagrado.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Estudo de lucernas romanas provenientes de Alcácer do Sal (Salacia), importante para a compreensão dos padrões e volumes de importação e consumo destas peças, em contexto funcional, ritual ou funerário. Analisam-se comparativamente dois contextos arqueológicos, que não representam a totalidade de cerâmicas de iluminação recolhidas em Alcácer do Sal, mas dão a conhecer materiais até agora ocultos em reservas de museus. Abstract: This study of Roman lamps from Alcácer do Sal (Salacia) is import...

  7. EFFECTS OF LAND-USE CHANGE ON THE PROPERTIES OF TOP SOIL OF DECIDUOUS SAL FOREST IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kashem

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of land use change on the physico-chemical properties of top soil in the deciduous Sal forest of Bangladesh. Relatively less disturbed Sal (Shorea robusta Roxb. Ex Gaertn. forest stands and the nearby stands those were converted into Acacia (Acacia auriculiformis Benth. plantation and pineapple (Ananus comosus (L. Merr. cultivation were selected to examine the effects of land use change on soil properties. For each land use type, soil samples were collected from 4 locations, 50m distant from each other, as replicates. Soil samples were collected at 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm depths. Soil moisture content, conductivity, pH organic C, total N and total P were determined as soil properties. Leaf litter of Sal, Acacia and pineapple was incubation for 90 and 180 days in independent identical soil in order to examine the effects of plant species through leaf litter on the soil chemical nutrient (N and P status. Data showed that soil moisture content, conductivity and pH were significantly affected by land use but not by depth. However, soil organic C was affected by both land-use type (P< 0.02 and soil depth (P< 0.003, although no significant interactions appeared between these two factors. Soil total N and P did not differ between land use types but by depth and, N and P contents decreased with the increase of depth. Rates of nutrients (N and P released from Sal, Acacia and pineapple did not differ significantly among them during incubation. Results of the present study reveal that properties of the top soil of the Madhupur Sal forest are different in their responses to the varying land uses. The findings of this study are thus relevant for the sustainable management of the deciduous Sal forest ecosystems.

  8. Fatores associados à adição de sal à refeição pronta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel da Silva Assunção de Castro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar se existem diferenças na adição de sal à refeição pronta entre homens e mulheres. Foram incluídos 47.557 indivíduos de 18 a 64 anos, participantes do sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico, das 26 capitais e Distrito Federal, em 2006. As diferenças entre homens e mulheres foram analisadas pelo teste do qui-quadrado e as magnitudes da associação estimadas pelo Odds Ratio obtido por meio da regressão logística múltipla. A prevalência da adição de sal à refeição pronta foi 8,3%, sendo maior entre homens (9,8% vs 6,9%, p < 0,01. Após ajustes, a adição de sal à refeição pronta foi maior em indivíduos com a autoavaliação de saúde regular e ruim, relato de doença cardiovascular e que residiam na região Norte do Brasil. Indivíduos hipertensos relataram adicionar menos sal à refeição pronta. A escolaridade não foi associada à adição de sal. Homens adicionam mais sal à refeição pronta do que mulheres. Políticas públicas de saúde voltadas para a redução da ingestão de sal pela população devem levar em consideração a diferença de gênero no uso discricionário de sal e nos fatores que favorecem essas diferenças.

  9. Conocimientos, actitudes y aceptación de la sal fluorada en una población peruana

    OpenAIRE

    Picasso Pozo, Miguel Ángel; Huillca Castillo, Nancy; Gallardo Schultz, Adriana; Ávalos Márquez, Juan Carlos; Pita Nakamoto, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo. Determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y aceptación de la sal fluorada de los padres de familia atendidos en la Casa del Adulto Mayor y la Casa de la Mujer de la Municipalidad de Chorrillos. Lima – Perú. Materiales y métodos. La muestra estuvo conformada por 130 padres de familia. Se realizó una entrevista estructurada y se presentaron los datos mediante tablas de distribución de frecuencias. Resultados. Respecto al conocimiento sobre la sal fluorada, solo el 16,2% conocía...

  10. Genil Central: de sal??n barroco perif??rico a distribuidor central contempor??neo. Concurso de ideas para la rehabilitaci??n del Paseo del Sal??n

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas-Navarro, Juan L.; Cabrera-Manzano, David; G??mez-Ord????ez, Jos?? Luis; Bravo-Rodr??guez, Bel??n; Lomas-Casanova, Marta; Osuna-P??rez, Fernando; Garc??a-Trivi??o, Francisco; Aguilera, David

    2013-01-01

    Esta publicaci??n presenta la propuesta para el ???Concurso de ideas para la rehabilitaci??n del Paseo del Sal??n??? elaborado desde el Laboratorio de Urbanismo de la Universidad de Granada en Febrero de 2012, con el que se gan?? un premio.

  11. Stakeholder perceptions of decision-making process on marine biodiversity conservation on sal island (Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Sal Island (Cape Verde there is a growing involvement, will and investment in the creation of tourism synergies. However, much of the economic potential of the island can be found submerged in the sea: it is its intrinsic 'biodiversity'. Due to this fact, and in order to balance environmental safety and human pressure, it has been developed a strategy addressing both diving and fishing purposes. That strategy includes the deployment of several artificial reefs (ARs around the island. In order to allocate demand for diving and fishing purposes, we have developed a socio-economic research approach addressing the theme of biodiversity and reefs (both natural and artificial and collected expectations from AR users by means of an inquiry method. It is hypothesized a project where some management measures are proposed aiming marine biodiversity conservation. Using the methodology named as analytic hierarchy process (AHP it was scrutinized stakeholders' perception on the best practice for marine biodiversity conservation in the Sal Island. The results showed that to submerge obsolete structures in rocky or mixed areas have a high potential, but does not gathers consensuality. As an overall conclusion, it seems that limitation of activities is the preferred management option to consider in the future.Na Ilha do Sal (Cabo Verde existe um crescente envolvimento, vontade e investimento na criação de sinergias turísticas. Contudo, muito do potencial económico da ilha está submerso - a biodiversidade marinha. Devido a este facto, e tendo em vista promover a sustentabilidade ambiental associada ao eco-turismo, vem sendo desenvolvida uma estratégia direccionada, quer ao mergulho, quer à pesca. Esta estratégia inclui a implantação de vários recifes artificiais (RA na Baía de Santa Maria. De modo a alocar a procura para propósitos como o mergulho e a pesca, desenvolvemos um plano de pesquisa socio-económica relativo ao tema da biodiversidade

  12. Investigation of the Hosgri Fault, offshore Southern California, Point Sal to Point Conception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, C.M.; Swanson, O.E.; Schell, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    A high-resolution seismic reflection survey of the inner continental shelf between Point Sal and Point Conception has revealed faults that displace post-Wisconsin strata (less than 17,000-20,000 years). These faults are the Hosgri fault, the Offshore Lompoc fault, and smaller unnamed faults. Faults trending offshore from the adjacent shoreline such as the Pezzoni, Lions Head, Honda, and Pacifico faults, do not show post-Wisconsin activity. The Hosgri fault trends directly toward the coastline between Purisima Point and Point Arguello where it appears to merge with folds and smaller faults in the western Transverse Ranges. This trend of offshore structures toward the Point Arguello-Point Conception area is consistent with a hypothesis that the regional structural fabric of the southern California Coast Ranges and its adjacent offshore area merge with the Transverse Ranges.

  13. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p=0.004 to 34.6% (p=0.05 in the APAP and 46.3% (p<0.001 to 29.9% (p=0.02 in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage.

  14. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis de; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; Silveira-Lemos, Denise da; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with "LbSapSal" is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after "LbSapSal" immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the "LbSapSal" vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection.

  15. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Aparecida Resende

    Full Text Available Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum. A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract in dogs at baseline (T0, during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd and after early (T90 and late (T885 times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with "LbSapSal" is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β, even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after "LbSapSal" immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9% and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the "LbSapSal" vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection.

  16. Landscape and Astronomy in Megalithic Portugal: the Carregal do Sal Nucleus and Star Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Central Portugal, delimited by the Douro river to the north and the Mondego to the south, is the second densest region of megalithic monuments in the country. The Neolithic archaeological record indicates seasonal transhumance between higher pastures in the summer and lower grounds in the winter. The monuments are found in lower ground and it has been suggested that they were built during the winter occupation of their surroundings. The astronomical orientation of their entrances lends further support to this hypothesis. A recent survey of the orientation of the chambers and corridors of these dolmens, conducted by the author, found good agreement with prior surveys, but also demonstrated that other interpretations are possible. This paper presents an update on the survey, including extra sites surveyed in the spring of 2011, as well as the GIS confirmation of all horizon altitudes that couldn’t be empirically measured. The megalithic nucleus of Carregal do Sal, on the Mondego valley, is then looked at in more detail. It is found that there is a preference for the orientation of dolmens towards Star Mountain Range in-line with the topographic arguments of landscape archaeology. In addition, it was found that the topography also marks the rise of particular red stars, Betelgeuse and Aldebaran, during the period of megalithic building, at the onset of spring marking the transition from low ground to the high pastures. This hypothesis finds further support from toponymic folktales that explain the origin of the name of the mountain range.

  17. Tsunami hazard assessment in the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Renou

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the three-year SCHEMA European project (www.schemaproject.org, we present a generic methodology developed to produce tsunami building vulnerability and impact maps. We apply this methodology to the Moroccan coast. This study focuses on the Bouregreg Valley which is at the junction between Rabat (administrative capital, and Salé. Both present large populations and new infrastructure development. Using a combination of numerical modelling, field surveys, Earth Observation and GIS data, the risk has been evaluated for this vulnerable area.

    Two tsunami scenarios were studied to estimate a realistic range of hazards on this coast: a worst-case scenario based on the historical Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and a moderate scenario based on the Horseshoe earthquake of 28 February 1969. For each scenario, numerical models allowed the production of tsunami hazard maps (maximum inundation extent and maximum inundation depths. Moreover, the modelling results of these two scenarios were compared with the historical data available.

    A companion paper to this article (Atillah et al., 2011 presents the following steps of the methodology, namely the elaboration of building damage maps by crossing layers of building vulnerability and the so-inferred inundation depths.

  18. SalHUD--A Graphical Interface to Public Health Data in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Zuazaga, Humberto G; Arce-Corretjer, Roberto; Solá-Sloan, Juan M; Conde, José G

    2015-12-22

    This paper describes SalHUD, a prototype web-based application for visualizing health data from Puerto Rico. Our initial focus was to provide interactive maps displaying years of potential life lost (YPLL). The public-use mortality file for year 2008 was downloaded from the Puerto Rico Institute of Statistics website. Data was processed with R, Python and EpiInfo to calculate years of potential life lost for the leading causes of death on each of the 78 municipalities in the island. Death records were classified according to ICD-10 codes. YPLL for each municipality was integrated into AtlasPR, a D3 Javascript map library. Additional Javascript, HTML and CSS programing was required to display maps as a web-based interface. YPLL for all municipalities are displayed on a map of Puerto Rico for each of the ten leading causes of death and for all causes combined, so users may dynamically explore the impact of premature mortality. This work is the first step in providing the general public in Puerto Rico with user-friendly, interactive, visual access to public health data that is usually published in numerical, text-based media.

  19. Preparation and provisional validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9931

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, G.; Zoigner, A.; Doubek, N.; Grabmueller, G.; Bagliano, G.

    1990-05-01

    To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing about 2 mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 98%) and 40 mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 19%) have been prepared and verified by SAL to be used to spike samples of concentrated spent fuel solutions with a high burn-up and a low 235 U enrichment. The advantages of such a Large Size Dried (LSD) Spike have been pointed out elsewhere and proof of the usefulness in the field reported. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBS-960 and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing 1.8 mg/ml of Pu and 37.3 mg/ml of 19.4% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution are dried to give Large Size Dried Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of a Large Size Dried Spike which is intended to be used as a common spike by the plant operator, the national and the IAEA inspectorates. 6 refs, 7 tabs

  20. Preparation and provisional validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9934

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, G.; Zoigner, A.; Doubek, N.; Aigner, H.; Deron, S.; Bagliano, G.

    1990-05-01

    To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing about 2 mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 98%) and 40 mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 19%) have been prepared and verified by SAL to be used to spike samples of concentrated spent fuel solutions with a high burn-up and a low 235 U enrichment. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBS-960 and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing 3.2 mg/ml of Pu and 64.3 mg/ml of 18.8% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution are dried to give Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of a third batch of LSD-Spike which is intended to be used as a common spike by the plant operator, the national and the IAEA inspectorates. 6 refs, 6 tabs

  1. O Manifesto dos artistas no Salão Moderno de 1942 no RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Úrsula Rosa Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O movimento Modernista teve diferenciadas manifestações no Brasil entre os anos das décadas de 1920 e 1940. O presente texto apresenta o contexto do Rio Grande do Sul nos anos 1940 e como foi organizado o 1º. Salão Moderno de Artes Plásticas. O estudo teve como fonte principal de pesquisa o jornal Diário de Notícias, teve como metodologia a história das idéias, e foi desenvolvido junto à pesquisa de doutorado. Além disso, o texto considera as abordagens históricas sobre a arte no Rio Grande do Sul dos pesquisadores Maria Lúcia Kern, Carlos Scarinci e Ângelo Guido. ABSTRACT: The Modernista movement had different manifestations in Brazil between the years of 1920 and 1940. This paper presents the Rio Grande do Sul context in the 1940s and as was organized the 1st Modern Hall of Plastic Arts. The study had as its main source of research the newspaper Diario de Noticias, was to approach the history of ideas, and was developed by the doctoral research. In addition, the text considers the historical approaches to art in Rio Grande do Sul researchers Maria Lucia Kern, Carlos Scarinci and Angelo Guido. KEYWORDS: modernism; art; modern Art

  2. Contato corporal entre adolescentes através da dança de salão na escola

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,Nilza Coqueiro Pires de; Caramaschi,Sandro

    2011-01-01

    A finalidade deste estudo foi identificar a reação e percepção dos adolescentes em relação ao contato corporal bem como as expressões emocionais através da dança de salão. Participaram 42 adolescentes do ensino fundamental estadual do interior do Estado de São Paulo. A coleta de dados foi realizada em grupo através de uma filmagem da aula de dança de salão e aplicação de um questionário referente à vivência. Verificou-se que as experiências de dança propiciam uma maior proximidade corporal e ...

  3. Effect of co-fractionation technique in the preparation of palm oil and sal fat based cocoa butter equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Ali, A R

    1996-01-01

    Two types of palm oil and sal fat based cocoa butter equivalents, namely fCBE (produced by using co-fractionation method) and mCBE (produced by using conventional method) were prepared. Results showed that the fCBE had triglyceride composition and solidification characteristics closer to the Malaysian cocoa butter than the mCBE produced at the same yield percentage. Increasing acetone washing time had little effect on the fCBE if compared to the effect of increasing palm olein to sal fat blend ratio. Co-fractionation technique increase the compatibility between CBE component triglycerides. Thus, more palm oil can be incorporated in the preparation and the process can be carried out at not low temperature as compared to the conventional method.

  4. O salário na obra de Frederick Winslow Taylor Frederick Winslow Taylor's oeuvre: an analysis of wages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paulo Gomes da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa e explica a perspectiva de Frederick Winslow Taylor sobre o salário, tal como enunciada em suas duas grandes obras: Shop management (1903 e Principles of scientific management (1911. A primeira parte consubstancia-se na apresentação de aspectos econômicos relevantes que caracterizaram o tempo em que ele viveu e o quanto influenciaram suas obras. Na segunda parte, é efetuada uma análise da forma como o salário é apresentado nas duas obras de F. W. Taylor. O artigo termina com um comentário sobre as obras supracitadas no que se refere à perspectiva taylorista do salário.This paper analyses and explains Frederick Winslow Taylor's perspective on wages, as it is presented in his main literary works: Shop management (1903 and Principles of scientific management (1911. The first part presents the main economic aspects that characterized his lifetime, which undoubtedly influenced his literary works. The second part analyses F. W. Taylor's two main books in which the author's perspective about wages is discussed. The paper concludes with a critical view of F. W. Taylor's view on wages.

  5. Novel acyloxy derivatives of branched mono- and polyol esters of sal fat: multiviscosity grade lubricant base stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakar, Kotte; Sai Manoj, Gorantla N V T; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Karuna, Mallampalli S L

    2014-12-10

    Sal fat, a nontraditional seed oil, was chemically modified to obtain base stocks with a wide range of specifications that can replace mineral oil base stocks. Sal fatty acids were enriched to 72.6% unsaturation using urea adduct method and reacted with branched mono alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol (2-EtH), and polyols namely neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) to obtain corresponding esters. The esters were hydroxylated and then acylated using propionic, butyric, and hexanoic anhydrides to obtain corresponding acylated derivatives. The acylated TMP esters exhibited very high viscosities (427.35-471.93 cSt at 40 °C) similar to those of BS 150 mineral oil base stock range, ISO VG 460, while the acylated NPG esters (268.81-318.84 cSt at 40 °C) and 2-EtH esters viscosities (20.94-24.44 cSt at 40 °C) exhibited viscosities in the range of ISO VG 320 and 22 respectively with good viscosity indices. Acylated NPG esters were found suitable for high temperature and acylated 2-ethylhexyl esters for low viscosity grade industrial applications. It was observed that the thermo-oxidative stabilities of all acylated products were found better compared to other vegetable oil based base stocks. Overall, all the sal fat based lubricant base stocks are promising candidates with a wide range of properties, which can replace most of the mineral oil base stocks with appropriate formulations.

  6. Dança de salão e lazer na sociedade contemporânea: um estudo sobre academias de Belo Horizonte

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Tonial

    2011-01-01

    A presente pesquisa se ateve à dança de salão enquanto atividade de lazer na sociedade contemporânea belorizontina. Através da teoria do jogo (em especial de Huizinga) e do lazer (principalmente os conceitos de Gomes) procurou-se questionar, do ponto de vista teórico, a dança de salão, o objetivo foi então entender melhor o que é dança de salão. A pesquisa de campo se constituiu por formulários e entrevistas semi-estruturadas com pessoas que vivenciam a dança de salão em academias de Belo Hor...

  7. Rutas de circulación e intercambio de sal en la provincia de Tunja, segunda mitad del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Ofelia Acuña Rodriguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A través de este texto se pretende dar a conocer cómo las rutas de circulación de sal en la Provincia de Tunja contribuyeron a configurar un gran espacio económico, que integró a las provincias de Santa Fe, Pamplona y Tunja en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, durante el siglo XVI. Se partió de una reflexión historiográfica relacionada con la circulación y el comercio de la sal, los medios de transporte y las rutas usadas por los indígenas y los españoles; a partir de las cuales se consolidó un espacio económico mediado por la producción y distribución de la sal, que convirtió a la provincia de Tunja en un eje articulador de relaciones entre los sitios productores de sal en la provincia de Santa Fe y los consumidores de las provincias de Tunja y Pamplona. Esta articulación regional facilitó tanto la circulación de productos de distintos pisos térmicos, como la integración de un amplio territorio colonial. Esto debido a que la localización de Tunja como lugar de paso y conexión entre las Provincias de Santafé, Pamplona y los Llanos de San Juan, hizo de esta ciudad y sus términos un atractivo para el asentamiento hispano, a la vez que generó, durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVI, la posibilidad para que se organizaran en toda la Provincia de Tunja, sitios de aposento, venta y reventa de productos importados de España y productos de la tierra, para el sustento y abastecimiento de las necesidades básicas, y de esta forma sacar provecho de las producciones locales como la sal, el hayo, el algodón, las mantas y otros productos.

  8. Reducing salt intake to prevent hypertension and cardiovascular disease Reducción del consumo de sal para prevenir la hipertensión y las enfermedades cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng J. He

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that dietary salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure (BP and that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of ≈ 9 - 12 g/day in most countries to the recommended level of 9 g/day is highly prevalent. Sources of salt in the diet vary hugely among countries; in developed countries, 75% of salt comes from processed foods, whereas in developing countries such as parts of Brazil, 70% comes from salt added during cooking or at the table. To reduce population salt intake, the food industry needs to implement a gradual and sustained reduction in the amount of salt added to foods in developed countries. In developing countries, a public health campaign plays a more important role in encouraging consumers to use less salt coupled with widespread replacement of salt with substitutes that are low in sodium and high in potassium. Numerous countries in the Americas have started salt reduction programs. The challenge now is to engage other countries. A reduction in population salt intake will result in a major improvement in public health along with major health-related cost savings.Hay datos probatorios irrefutables de que la ingesta de sal alimentaria es la principal causa de hipertensión y de que una reducción del consumo de sal, del nivel actual de aproximadamente 9 a 12 g/d en la mayor parte de los países al nivel recomendado de menos de 5 g/d, disminuye la presión arterial. Una reducción adicional hasta 3 a 4 g/d tiene un mayor efecto y es necesario seguir teniendo en cuenta la posibilidad de metas de consumo de sal inferiores en la población. Los estudios de cohortes y los ensayos clínicos han demostrado que el menor consumo de sal se asocia con una reducción del riesgo de padecer enfermedades cardiovasculares. La reducción de sal es una de las medidas más rentables para mejorar la salud pública a escala mundial. En la Región de las Américas, hay una alta prevalencia de un consumo de

  9. Consumo elevado de sal autorreferido em adultos: dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Moura de Oliveira

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS:descrever a prevalência de consumo elevado de sódio autorreferido em adultos e comparar resultados das capitais brasileiras e Distrito Federal, coletados pela Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS e pelo Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel, ambos de 2013.MÉTODOS:estudo descritivo utilizando dados da PNS e Vigitel, estimando prevalências e intervalos de confiança (IC95%.RESULTADOS:segundo a PNS, 14,2% (IC95%:13,6%-14,7% dos adultos referiram consumo elevado de sal, com prevalência maior em homens (16,1%; IC95%:15,3-16,9, indivíduos de 18-29 anos de idade (17,7%; IC95%:16,2-19,2, com Ensino Superior completo (17,3%; IC95%:15,6-19,0, residentes na área urbana (14,8%; IC95%:13,6-14,7 e na macrorregião Sul (18,2%; IC95%:16,8-19,7; no total das capitais, não houve diferenças entre PNS (15,0%; IC95%:14,2-15,8 e Vigitel (16,0%; IC95%:15,3-16,6, porém observaram-se diferenças significativas para Rio Branco e Aracaju.CONCLUSÃO:encontrou-se prevalências elevadas, semelhantes em ambos estudos, reforçando a importância do Vigitel para monitoramento.

  10. Simulating SAL formation and aerosol size distribution during SAMUM-I

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit Ali

    2015-04-01

    To understand the formation mechanisms of Saharan Air Layer (SAL), we combine model simulations and dust observations collected during the first stage of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM-I), which sampled dust events that extended from Morocco to Portugal, and investigated the spatial distribution and the microphysical, optical, chemical, and radiative properties of Saharan mineral dust. We employed the Weather Research Forecast model coupled with the Chemistry/Aerosol module (WRF-Chem) to reproduce the meteorological environment and spatial and size distributions of dust. The experimental domain covers northwest Africa including the southern Sahara, Morocco and part of the Atlantic Ocean with 5 km horizontal grid spacing and 51 vertical layers. The experiments were run from 20 May to 9 June 2006, covering the period of most intensive dust outbreaks. Comparisons of model results with available airborne and ground-based observations show that WRF-Chem reproduces observed meteorological fields as well as aerosol spatial distribution across the entire region and along the airplane\\'s tracks. We evaluated several aerosol uplift processes and found that orographic lifting, aerosol transport through the land/sea interface with steep gradients of meteorological characteristics, and interaction of sea breezes with the continental outflow are key mechanisms that form a surface-detached aerosol plume over the ocean. Comparisons of simulated dust size distributions with airplane and ground-based observations are generally good, but suggest that more detailed treatment of microphysics in the model is required to capture the full-scale effect of large aerosol particles.

  11. Jihâd dalam Pandangan Muhammad ‘Abd al-Salâm Faraj

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    Abdul Muis Naharong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jihâd is one of the Islamic teachings which has been extensively discussed since the last few decades due to the increasing acts of violence perpetrated by some Muslims. This article tries to join this discussion by presenting Muh ammad ‘Abd al-Salâm Faraj’s concept of jihâd and his ideas of Islamic state and Caliphate by referring to his al-Farîd ah al-Ghâ’ibah (the Neglected Duty. We argue that Faraj’s basic perception of the Egyptian politics and society at the time shaped his whole concept of state and Caliphate. We hence contend that his proposal of jihâd is born out of his disappointment of the Egyptian government and even society as far as applying Islamic law is concerned. He uncompromisingly believed that the government and society are hypocrite and apostate for distancing themselves from the divine law of God. This belief prompted four members of Jihâd Organization to which Faraj belongs, to assassinate President Sadat in October 1981. By jihad, Faraj means fighting and confrontation against enemies even through bloodshed. And by enemies he means anyone who is not willing to apply God’s law on earth. The most controversial idea that Faraj has tried to pose is that jihâd is considered to the sixth pillar of Islam, which has to be carried out by each and every member of Muslim ummah.

  12. Domates Salçalarının Mikroflorası ve Depolama Sürecinde Miktarlarındaki Değişiklikler

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    Fikri Başoğlu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available - Ticari sterilize edilen domates salçasının muhafazası esnasında sterilliği azalmaktadır. 12 aylık muhafaza süresinde sterillik %100’den %15 ve 8’e hatta daha aza düşebilir. - Pastörizasyonda tatbik edilen sıcaklık derecesi (89-93 oC laktik asit bakterileri ile maya ve küflerin yaşamasına imkan vermemektedir. - Domates salçasının kalıntı mikroflorasını umumiyetle spor yapan bakteriler (B. subtilis, B. mesentericus, B. cereus ..... temsil etmektedir. - Domates salçasının kuru maddesi %28-30 veya %38-40 olması B. subtilis ve B. mesentericus’un ölmesine tesir etmemektedir. - Salçanın 10-15 oC ta muhafaza edilmesi termofil mikroorganizmaların çoğalmasına engel olmaktadır. - Salçanın pH’sı yükseltilirse sporlar çabuk gelişmektedir. - Hermetikli kapatmadaki hatalarda laktik asit bakterileri ve mayalar salçayı bozmaktadırlar. - Salçada bulunan bazı sporlu ve sporsuz mikroorganizmaların termal ölüm müddetlerine ortamın pH’sı, organik asitler ve spor konsantrasyonu etki etmektedir.

  13. Toxicidade aguda ao sal comum e larvicultura intensiva do jundiá Rhamdia quelen em água salobra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.E.H.P. Fabregat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A tolerância de peixes de água doce à salinidade e os níveis adequados de náuplios de Artemia na alimentação durante a larvicultura são de extrema importância para a padronização dos manejos em ambientes de criação intensiva. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi estimar a salinidade letal (SL50 para larvas de jundiá Rhamdia quelen e determinar o efeito da salinidade e da concentração de presas vivas na larvicultura intensiva. No primeiro ensaio, larvas ao final do período lecitotrófico (1,1±0,8mg foram submetidas às salinidades de 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 e 20g de sal/L por um período de 96h. No segundo experimento, as larvas de jundiá, no início da alimentação exógena (1,2±0,3mg, foram submetidas a três salinidades (água doce 0, 2 e 4g de sal/L e três concentrações de presas vivas (início: 300, 500, 700 náuplios de Artemia/larvas/dia, sendo esse montante aumentado a cada cinco dias. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x3, por um período de 15 dias. No experimento 1, as larvas de jundiá submetidas às salinidades de 10, 15 e 20g de sal/L morreram após 12, duas e uma hora de exposição, respectivamente. As SL50 de 72 e 96h foram estimadas em 9,93 e 4,95g de sal/L, respectivamente. No final do teste de toxicidade, não houve diferença na sobrevivência entre as salinidades de 0, 2 e 4g de sal/L. No experimento 2, não foi observado efeito da interação entre salinidade e concentração de presas para o peso e o comprimento. Quanto maior a quantidade de presas, maior o crescimento das larvas. A sobrevivência apresentou interação entre os fatores. O aumento da salinidade proporcionou uma diminuição da sobrevivência, independentemente da concentração de presas. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a SL50 diminuiu com o aumento do tempo de exposição à água salinizada e que a larvicultura da espécie pode ser realizada em salinidades de até 2g de sal/L, com

  14. ELABORAÇÃO DE PÃO DE SAL UTILIZANDO FARINHA MISTA DE TRIGO E LINHAÇA

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    T. M. OLIVEIRA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A linhaça (Linum usitatissimum L. é uma semente que possui compostos fisiologicamente ativos, sendo fonte de fibras, ômega-3 e lignanas. Seu consumo vem sendo associado à prevenção de algumas doenças e a benefícios nutricionais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi testar a viabilidade de utilização de uma farinha mista, composta de trigo e linhaça na produção de pão de sal através da avaliação das características físico-químicas, sensoriais e tecnológicas do pão. Testes preliminares de farinografia, extensografia e panificação experimental foram realizados para determinaçãoda melhor formulação, que foi utilizada para produção do pão em uma panificadora comercial. Esse pão foi avaliado quanto a características físico-químicas, sensoriais e de textura. A adição de farinha de linhaça ao pão de sal na proporção de 10% mostrou ser viável tecnicamente, com uma excelente aceitação pelos consumidores, sabor agradável e características físico-químicas similares ao pão de sal tradicional, representando uma opção mais nutritiva e saborosa para a alimentação diária de vários consumidores.

  15. Yoduria y concentración de yodo en sal de consumo en escolares peruanos del nivel primario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tarqui-Mamani

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la yoduria y concentración de yodo sal de consumo en escolares peruanos del nivel primario. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal. Se incluyó 8023 escolares del nivel primario, que participaron voluntariamente. Se realizó un muestreo probabilístico, multietápico y estratificado, la selección se realizó por muestreo sistemático. La determinación de yoduria se realizó por espectrofotometría (método de Sandell-Kolthoff y la evaluación de yodo en sal se realizó por volumetría. El procesamiento de datos se realizó mediante análisis para muestras complejas con factor de ponderación. Se calculó medianas, percentiles e intervalos de confianza, se usó la prueba de U Mann Whitney y Kruskall Wallis cuando correspondía. Resultados. A nivel nacional, la mediana de yoduria en los escolares fue 258,53 ug/L, siendo mayor en los varones (265,90 ug/L que en las mujeres (250,77 ug/L. La mediana de yoduria en el área urbana fue mayor (289,89 ug/L que en el área rural (199,67 ug/L, mientras que en los colegios privados fue 315,48 ug/L y en los públicos fue 241,56 ug/L (p<0,001. La mediana de yodo en sal fue 28,69 mg/kg. El 23,1% de las muestras de sal, tuvieron menos de 15 mg/kg de yodo. Conclusiones. La mediana de yoduria en los escolares del nivel primario presenta niveles superiores a las necesarias, según lo recomendado por la OMS, con diferencias entre la zona urbana y rural, y colegios públicos y privados.

  16. OPTIMIZACIÓN DE LA LOGÍSTICA DE OPERACIONES DE UNA PLANTA DE MOLIENDA DE SAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Araya Pasten

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un modelo de simulación mediante el uso del software Awesim para optimizar el sistema de producción y transporte de sal de una empresa minera del norte de Chile, con la finalidad de incrementar la productividad mediante la reducción de los tiempos de detención de la planta de producción, compatibilizando los ciclos de llenado de las tolvas de almacenamiento con los ciclos de transporte de los camiones.

  17. OPTIMIZACIÓN DE LA LOGÍSTICA DE OPERACIONES DE UNA PLANTA DE MOLIENDA DE SAL

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Zúñiga Arriaza

    2001-01-01

    El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un modelo de simulación mediante el uso del software Awesim para optimizar el sistema de producción y transporte de sal de una empresa minera del norte de Chile, con la finalidad de incrementar la productividad mediante la reducción de los tiempos de detención de la planta de producción, compatibilizando los ciclos de llenado de las tolvas de almace...

  18. OPTIMIZACIÓN DE LA LOGÍSTICA DE OPERACIONES DE UNA PLANTA DE MOLIENDA DE SAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Zúñiga Arriaza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un modelo de simulación mediante el uso del software Awesim para optimizar el sistema de producción y transporte de sal de una empresa minera del norte de Chile, con la finalidad de incrementar la productividad mediante la reducción de los tiempos de detención de la planta de producción, compatibilizando los ciclos de llenado de las tolvas de almacenamiento con los ciclos de transporte de los camiones.

  19. Modulation de la perception du goût salé par reformulation de matrices alimentaires

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Danguin, Thierry; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    La consommation excessive de sel participe au développement des maladies cardiovasculaires. C’est pourquoi les autorités sanitaires ont émis des recommandations visant à diminuer la teneur en sel des aliments. Toutefois, la réduction du taux de sel dans les aliments entraîne une forte diminution de leur appréciation et de leur acceptabilité par les consommateurs. Pour tenter de remédier à cette difficulté, des études visant à compenser la diminution de la perception de la saveur salée...

  20. Global transcriptional and phenotypic analyses of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain Xuzhou21 and its pO157_Sal cured mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongqing; Chen, Chen; Xiong, Yanwen; Xu, Xuefang; Lan, Ruiting; Wang, Haiyin; Yao, Xinyue; Bai, Xiangning; Liu, Xuetong; Meng, Qiong; Zhang, Xiaoai; Sun, Hui; Zhao, Ailan; Bai, Xuemei; Cheng, Yuli; Chen, Qiang; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important food-borne pathogen that can cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans. pO157_Sal, a novel conjugative plasmid is present in a Chinese O157:H7 outbreak strain Xuzhou21. Here we investigated the phenotypic and transcriptional differences between the wild type strain Xuzhou21 and the pO157_Sal cured mutant strain Xuzhou21m. RNA-Seq analysis found that all 52 ORFs encoded on pO157_Sal were transcribed. One hundred and sixty eight chromosomal and pO157 genes were differentially expressed (≥2 fold difference) between Xuzhou21 and Xuzhou21m. Sixty-seven and 101 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated respectively by pO157_Sal including genes related to stress response, adaption and virulence. The plasmid-cured mutant Xuzhou21m grew slower than wild type Xuzhou21 and pO157_Sal plasmid complemented strain Xuzhou21c in M9 medium under the condition of high NaCl or presence of sodium deoxycholate (NaDC), corroborating with the RNA-Seq data. Seven differentially expressed genes are associated with NaDC resistance, including the adenine-specific DNA-methyltransferase gene (dam), multidrug efflux system subunit gene mdtA, hyperosmotically inducible periplasmic protein gene osmY and oxidation-reduction related genes while two differentially expressed genes (osmY and pspD) are likely to be related to resistance to osmotic pressure. A number of differentially expressed genes were virulence associated including four genes encoding T3SS effectors from the chromosome and ehxD from pO157. Through complementation of Xuzhou21m with a plasmid construct carrying the pO157_Sal hha homolog we further showed that the pO157_Sal hha represses the expression of T3SS effectors. These findings demonstrated that the plasmid pO157_Sal affects the transcription of the chromosomal and pO157 plasmid genes and contributes to the enhanced ability to resist stress. We conclude that pO157_Sal plays an important role in regulating global

  1. Global transcriptional and phenotypic analyses of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain Xuzhou21 and its pO157_Sal cured mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqing Zhao

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important food-borne pathogen that can cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans. pO157_Sal, a novel conjugative plasmid is present in a Chinese O157:H7 outbreak strain Xuzhou21. Here we investigated the phenotypic and transcriptional differences between the wild type strain Xuzhou21 and the pO157_Sal cured mutant strain Xuzhou21m. RNA-Seq analysis found that all 52 ORFs encoded on pO157_Sal were transcribed. One hundred and sixty eight chromosomal and pO157 genes were differentially expressed (≥2 fold difference between Xuzhou21 and Xuzhou21m. Sixty-seven and 101 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated respectively by pO157_Sal including genes related to stress response, adaption and virulence. The plasmid-cured mutant Xuzhou21m grew slower than wild type Xuzhou21 and pO157_Sal plasmid complemented strain Xuzhou21c in M9 medium under the condition of high NaCl or presence of sodium deoxycholate (NaDC, corroborating with the RNA-Seq data. Seven differentially expressed genes are associated with NaDC resistance, including the adenine-specific DNA-methyltransferase gene (dam, multidrug efflux system subunit gene mdtA, hyperosmotically inducible periplasmic protein gene osmY and oxidation-reduction related genes while two differentially expressed genes (osmY and pspD are likely to be related to resistance to osmotic pressure. A number of differentially expressed genes were virulence associated including four genes encoding T3SS effectors from the chromosome and ehxD from pO157. Through complementation of Xuzhou21m with a plasmid construct carrying the pO157_Sal hha homolog we further showed that the pO157_Sal hha represses the expression of T3SS effectors. These findings demonstrated that the plasmid pO157_Sal affects the transcription of the chromosomal and pO157 plasmid genes and contributes to the enhanced ability to resist stress. We conclude that pO157_Sal plays an important role in

  2. Empleo de factores de conversión en cálculos estequiométricos. Valoración ácido-base de una sal doble.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Se valora una sal doble constituida por carbonato, hidrogenocarbonato y agua de hidratación. Se debe encontrar la masa molar de la sal y su composición en términos de moléculas de cada especie en la sal, utilizando la valoración con fenolftaleína seguida por la valoracón con naranja de metilo. La particularidad del ejercicio es que el factor de conversión contiene las incógnitas (número de moléculas de hidrogenocarbonato y de agua de la sal analizada).

  3. Memory, Art and Mourning: the Case of the 'Salón del Nunca Más' of Granada (Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Rubiano Pinilla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This document examines the work produced in the 'Salón del Nunca Más', located in Granada (Antioquia on the subject of collective memory. In this rural town, the 'Salón' has articulated different practices that, along with the construction of memory, have allowed survivors of violence and family members of killed and disappeared individuals to symbolize loss by means of public rituals. On the other hand, the article explores the visual settings that lay down the event, not only the exposure of violent events but the practices of the local community: what happens in the 'Salón', the journalistic covering (written press, the documental photography (Jesús Abad Colorado and the artistic work (Erika Diettes. For this purpose, archival material, a historical interdisciplinary approach, psychoanalysis and image and communication theories, as well as interviews is referenced through this article.

  4. Auditoria del proceso de producción de sal en la provincia de Guayas, con el objetivo de sugerir estándares de control

    OpenAIRE

    Pinos Ullauri, Nathalia; Fernandez Ronquillo, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo es una auditoria al proceso de producción de la sal en la provincia del Guayas, proceso que se comparará con un modelo mejorado obtenido a base de consultas con otras industrias en el mundo, para poder así sugerir mejoras y nuevos estándares de control. El Capítulo I presenta una serie de generalidades de la sal, de los principales productores en el mundo, el consumo a nivel mundial, las normativas de calidad para consumo humano, las formas de cultivo y la extracción, etc. ...

  5. Avaliação dos efeitos da adição de sal e da densidade no transporte de tambaqui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Levy de Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram testar a eficiência do sal como redutor de estresse e verificar a melhor densidade de transporte de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomun em caixas de plástico adaptadas. No primeiro experimento foram testadas diferentes concentrações de sal de cozinha (NaCl na água; no segundo, o transporte foi realizado por três horas em caixas de plástico de 200 L estocadas com diferentes densidades de peixe, com 8 g de sal/L de água. O cortisol plasmático dos peixes sofreu aumento significativo após o transporte no tratamento sem sal e com 2 g de sal/L de água, retornando para níveis normais após 96 horas. A glicose plasmática dos peixes sofreu aumento após o transporte em todas as concentrações de sal testadas, com exceção da com 8 g/L de água, retornando para níveis normais em 24 horas. Nos peixes transportados no segundo experimento, com 8 g de sal/L de água, não foi verificada mudança significativa no cortisol plasmático, mas a glicose aumentou significativamente em todas as densidades após o transporte, retornando para níveis normais em 24 horas. Houve mortalidade de 11% em uma das repetições da densidade de 200 kg/m³ de água. Para o transporte com 8 g de sal/L de água, a densidade máxima deve ser de 150 kg/m³ de água. Nesta densidade os parâmetros físico-químicos de qualidade de água se mantêm com características adequadas, as respostas ao estresse são mínimas e não há mortalidade.

  6. S-15: Belirli Açısal Hızlardaki İzokinetik Kuvvet Eğitimin Diğer Açısal Hızlardaki Kas Kuvveti Üzerine Etkisinin İncelenmesi: Pilot Çalışma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Kocahan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available GİRİŞ: İzokinetik egzersizler, kas kuvvetini arttıran en iyi egzersizlerdir. Literatürde değişik açısal hızlarda yapılan kuvvetlendirme çalışmaları mevcuttur. Ancak genellikle eğitim verilen açısal hızlar test protokolünde de kullanılmaktadır. Bu durum kas kuvvetinin eğitildiği açısal hızda kuvvetlendiği biligisini vermekle birlikte kasın diğer açısal hızlardaki kuvveti hakkında yeterli bilgi vermemektedir.AMAÇ: Bu nedenle çalışmamız sağlıklı sedanter bireylerde belirli açısal hızlarda verilen izokinetik eğitimin sadece eğitiminin yapıldığı açısal hızlarda mı yoksa test edilen diğer açısal hızlarda da etkili olup olmadığını belirlemektir.GEREÇ-YÖNTEM: Çalışma, ortalama yaşları 27,11±3,48 olan 9 sağlıklı birey (3 erkek ve 6 kadın olmak üzere toplam 18 alt ekstremitenin izokinetik kuvvet ölçümü ve eğitimi ile gerçekleştirildi.Kişilerin demografik verileri Tablo 1’de gösterildi. Haftada 2 gün toplam 6 hafta izokinetik eğitim verilen bireyler çalışmanın başında ve sonunda değerlendirildi. Değerlendirme protokolü 60°/sn açısal hızda 1 set 5 tekrar, 120°/sn açısal hızda 1 set 10 tekrar, 180°/sn açısal hızda 1 set 10 tekrar, 240°/sn açısal hızda 1 set 15 tekrar, 300°/sn açısal hızda 1 set 15 tekrar olacak şekilde ayarlandı. İzokinetik eğitim protokolü ise 60°/sn açısal hızda 3 set 10 tekrar ve 180°/sn açısal hızda 3 set 15 tekrar konsantrik-konsantrik olacak şekilde uygulandı. BULGULAR: Eğitim öncesi ve eğitim sonrası ortalama peak tork değerlerinin 60°/sn,120°/sn ve 180°/sn açısal hızlarda anlamlı ölçüde arttığı(p0,05 (Tablo 2. SONUÇ: Çalışmamız sonunda 60°/sn ve 180°/sn açısal hızlardaki diz fleksiyon ve ekstansiyon peak tork değerlerindeki anlamlı artışın sebebinin bu açısal hızlarda verilen izokinetik eğitimi olduğunu düşünmekteyiz. Buna ek olarak 120°/sn açısal h

  7. TV REKLAMLARINDAN KAÇINMA: DAVRANIŞSAL VE MEKANİK KAÇINMAYA ETKİ EDEN FAKTÖRLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşen AKYÜZ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available TV ADVERTISING AVOIDANCE: THE FACTORS INFLUINCING BEHAVIOURAL AND MECHANISTIC AVOIDANCEAbstract: TV advertising avoidance, presents a main issue for advertisers and marketers. Creation of TV ads involves great effort, imaginative strategy formulation and high expenditures. The expectations of the companies and advertisers from the medium are intrinsically high. The current study examines the influence of both the general attitude towards advertising and the belief factors (product information, good for economy, hedonic/pleasure and materialism on behavioral (e.g .making phone calls and mechanical avoidance (e.g. zapping by conducting surveys with the university students. Structural Equation Model is employed to investigate the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. It is believed that, the findings would make a significant contribution towards a development of the theory and create bases for a further research on this topic. Keywords: Ad Avoidance, Behavioral Avoidance, Mechanical Avoidance, Beliefs, Attitude Toward Advertising.  TV REKLAMLARINDAN KAÇINMA: DAVRANIŞSAL VE MEKANİK KAÇINMAYA ETKİ EDEN FAKTÖRLER Özet: Reklamdan kaçınma davranışı, reklamcılar ve pazarlamacılar için oldukça önemli bir gündem oluşturmaktadır. Televizyon reklamlarının yaratılması yoğun çaba, yaratıcı strateji ve yüksek harcamaları kapsar. Firmaların ve reklamcıların bu iletişim aracından beklentileri ise doğal olarak yüksek olacaktır. Bu çalışma, hem inanç faktörlerinin (bilgilendirme, ekonomik fayda, zevk/hoşnutluk, materyalizm; hem de reklama yönelik genel tutumun, davranışsal ve mekanik kaçınma üzerindeki etkilerini üniversite öğrencileri ile yapılan bir anket çalışması ile incelemektedir. Bağımlı ve bağımsız değişkenler arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemek için Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli kullanılmıştır. Bulguların hem konuyla ilgili gelecekte yapılacak araştırmalarda hem de

  8. Estudo comparativo de desempenho: Salário Mínimo Nacional X Dólar e Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Almeida Aguiar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa descrita neste trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o desempenho do SM (Salário Mínimo Nacional nos períodos de 1994 a 2014 em comparação  com as moedas norte americana e europeia, o dólar e o euro, respctivamente, pois são moedas de referência mundial. A fundamentação teórica desse estudo foi baseada em pesquisas bibliográficas e artigos.  Este trabalho verificou que a inflação reduziu com a chegada do plano real, pois o país sofria com a hiperinflação. Observou-se que comparado com o dólar e o euro o SM foi valorizado.

  9. Progression des marais salés à l'ouest du Mont-Saint-Michel entre 1984 et 1994

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    Virginie BOUCHARD

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Les aménagements réalisés par l'homme en baie du Mont-Saint-Michel depuis des siècles ont accéléré le processus naturel de sédimentation au voisinage du Mont. Une carte du marais salé (ou herbu le plus menaçant pour l'insularité du Mont a été réalisée en 1984, juste avant la destruction de la digue de la Roche-Torin, opération qui devait limiter la progression de cet herbu. Une nouvelle analyse cartographique indique aujourd'hui que sa croissance vers le large se poursuit.

  10. Temperature and pressure effects on the spin state of ferric ions in the [Fe(sal2-trien)][Ni(dmit)2] spin crossover complex

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Temperature and pressure effects on the spin state of ferric ions in the [Fe(sal2-trien)][Ni(dmit)2] spin crossover complex correspondance: Corresponding author. Tel.: +33561333190; fax: +33561553003. (Bousseksou, Azzedine) (Bousseksou, Azzedine) Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination--> , CNRS UPR8241--> , Toulouse--> - FRANCE (Szilagyi, P.A. Petra A.) Eotvos Lorand University--> ...

  11. Pharmacokinetics and Tolerance of the Phage Endolysin-Based Candidate Drug SAL200 after a Single Intravenous Administration among Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Soo Youn; Jang, In Jin; Yoon, Seonghae; Jang, Kyungho; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Cho, Joo Youn; Seong, Moon-Woo; Jung, Gi Mo; Yoon, Seong Jun; Kang, Sang Hyeon

    2017-06-01

    This study was a phase 1, single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dosing, and dose-escalating study of intravenous SAL200. It is a new candidate drug for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant staphylococcal infections based on a recombinant form of the phage endolysin SAL-1. The study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerance among healthy male volunteers after the intravenous infusion of single ascending doses of SAL200 (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg of body weight). SAL200 was well tolerated, and no serious adverse events (AEs) were observed in this clinical study. Most AEs were mild, self-limiting, and transient. The AEs reported in more than three participants were fatigue, rigors, headache, and myalgia. No clinically significant values with respect to the findings of clinical chemistry, hematology, and coagulation analyses, urinalysis, vital signs, and physical examinations were observed, and no notable trends in our electrocardiogram (ECG) results for any tested dose were noticed. A greater-than-dose-proportional increase with regard to systemic exposure and the maximum serum concentration was observed when the SAL200 dose was increased from 0.1 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg. This investigation constitutes the first-in-human phase 1 study of an intravenously administered, phage endolysin-based drug. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01855048 and at the Clinical Research Information Service [https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/] under identifier KCT0000968.). Copyright © 2017 Jun et al.

  12. XX salón de artistas nacionales vs. salón nacional 1969: botín de guerra entre sociedad colombiana de artes plásticas y museo de arte moderno

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    María Mercedes Herrera Buitrago

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda la enconada disputa entre los dos grupos que compitieron por el manejo del Salón Nacional de Artistas en 1969 —elMuseo de Arte Moderno y la Sociedad Colombiana de Artes Plásticas—, que se dio en medio de una desbandada de ataques e improperios que radicalizaron las posiciones y desencadenaron un doble rompimiento: la salida de Marta Traba de la dirección tácita del Museo de Arte Moderno, seguida de su abandono del país, y la extracción temeraria de dicho museo del campus universitario. Para rastrear esta querella se consultó la documentación del Archivo Central Histórico de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, al igual que los principales periódicos de la época, con el propósito de comprender cómo estos altercados y escándalos se configuraron en rasgos propios de la constitución del campo artístico colombiano, donde antes que a partir de posturas intelectuales frente al arte, se compite desde intereses de grupo, mientras se enarbolaba la defensa de los “verdaderos” valores de la plástica nacional

  13. Aboveground tree biomass in a recovering tropical sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.) forest of Eastern Ghats, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Soumit K.; Misra, Malaya K. [Ecology and Floristic Laboratory, Department of Botany, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, Orissa (India)

    2006-06-15

    Aboveground biomass of individual tree species by component and total biomass per unit area for four different stages of a recovering tropical dry deciduous forest stands, dominated by sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.) of the Eastern Ghats, India were investigated during 2001-2002. Different periods of recovering (2, 4, 6, and 10-year) forest stands (84{sup o}13'E, 20{sup o}29'N) were selected in the Kandhamal district of Orissa, India and sample trees of all species were harvested. Tree species diversity was 23, 23, 21 and 22 in 2, 4, 6, and 10-year recovering stands, respectively. Species-wise Ixora pavetta showed the highest biomass in 2 and 4-year stands while Shorea robusta in 6 and 10-year stands. Component-wise, in all species, bole-wood contribution ranged between 22.6% and 60.9%. Aboveground tree biomass, in all the stands, was dominated by Shorea robusta, which ranged between 12.68 and 231.91Mgha{sup -1}. Total aboveground tree biomass was 30.12, 49.21, 107.54 and 261.08Mgha{sup -1} in 2, 4, 6 and 10-year stands, respectively. (author)

  14. Assessment of trace metal levels in catfish (Cathorops spixii) from Sal River estuary, Aracaju, state of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Edison; Passos, Elisangela de Andrade; Aragão, Kennedy Alexandre Sousa; Santos, Danielle Barros; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges

    2010-12-01

    The concentrations of cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, and lead were determined in the catfish (Cathorops spixii) from the Sal River estuary, Brazil, to evaluate the potential role of domestic and industrial effluents released without treatment on the quality of the estuarine environment with consequences to fish resources. Muscle, liver, and kidney samples were analyzed for trace metal composition by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentration (microg/g wet weight) of trace metals in the tissues of C. spixii were as follows: cadmium = 1.65, 2.81, and 0.71 microg/g; copper = 29.07, 4.38, and 3.40 microg/g; zinc = 229, 312, and 15.57 microg/g; nickel = 1.22, 1.04, and 117 microg/g; and lead = 7.09, 10.77, and 11.18 microg/g. The results show that metal accumulation in organs indicates the difference between them. The results showed high concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, lead, and cadmium in the Cathorops spixii compared with the maximum values registered from fish in studies reported in other coastal regions of Brazil.

  15. Las expediciones a salinas: caravanas en la pampa colonial. El abastecimiento de sal a Buenos Aires (Siglos XVII y XVIII

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    Gabriel Darío Taruselli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El abastecimiento de sal en cantidades sufi cientes fue una de las principales preocupaciones del Cabildo de Buenos Aires. Fue este un producto de importancia vital no sólo por su aplicación en las comidas cotidianas, sino también por su aplicación en la conservación de las carnes y los cueros. Las características de su uso y su obtención, aumentaron su valor, no sólo comercial sino también estratégico. El hallazgo de yacimientos locales permitió a los habitantes de Buenos Aires abastecerse mediante la práctica de expediciones periódicas que fueron promovidas por las autoridades capitulares, lo que les permitió ejercer un mayor control sobre dicha producción. Como la actividad requería una importante capacidad de transporte y de mano de obra, era una práctica aprovechada por muchos para emplearse en ella y para obtener benefi cios con el comercio que se generaba en la oportunidad. Esto convertía a las expediciones a salinas, organizadas por las autoridades de la ciudad, en grandes caravanas que se internaban en pleno territorio indí-gena, involucrando un amplio conjunto de actores sociales tanto de la ciudad como de la campaña y el mundo indígena

  16. Efeito do enriquecimento de biscoitos tipo água e sal, com extrato de levedura (Saccharomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santucci Marjorie Carelli Costa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram a caracterização química de um autolisado (AT de levedura (Saccharomyces sp. , subproduto da fermentação alcoólica e de seus derivados, fração solúvel (Ex e insolúvel (FI. O autolisado integral (AT e o extrato (Ex, depois de desidratados por atomização (spray dryer foram utilizados como enriquecedores do gosto e do aroma de biscoitos salgados do tipo água e sal. A adição ao biscoito de 5% de Ex elevou o escore de aminoácidos essenciais (EAE de 38% para 60% e o índice de utilização líquida da proteína (NPR de 1,0 para 2,0 (100%. Houve ainda uma melhora significativa na aceitabilidade e na preferência dos biscoitos enriquecidos, pelos consumidores.

  17. Avances en la reducción del consumo de sal y sodio en Costa Rica Advances in reducing salt and sodium intake in Costa Rica

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    Adriana Blanco-Metzler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se describen los avances logrados en Costa Rica -así como los desafíos y limitaciones- en la reducción del consumo de sal. El establecimiento del Plan Nacional para la Reducción del Consumo de Sal/sodio en la Población de Costa Rica 2011 - 2021 se complementó con programas y proyectos multisectoriales específicos dirigidos a: 1 conocer la ingesta de sodio y el contenido de sal o sodio en los alimentos de mayor consumo; identificar los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos del consumidor respecto a la sal/sodio, su relación con la salud y el etiquetado nutricio-nal; evaluar la relación costo-efectividad de las medidas dirigidas a reducir la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial; 2 implementar estrategias para disminuir el contenido de sal/sodio en los alimentos procesados y los preparados en casa; 3 promover cambios de conducta en la población para reducir el consumo de sal en la alimentación; y 4 monitorear y evaluar las acciones dirigidas a reducir el consumo de sal o sodio en la población. Para alcanzar las metas propuestas se debe lograr una exitosa coordinación interinstitucional con los actores estratégicos, negociar compromisos con la industria alimentaria y los servicios de alimentación, y mejorar la regulación de los nutrientes críticos asociados con las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, en los alimentos. Se espera que a partir de los avances logrados durante la ejecución del Plan Nacional, Costa Rica logre alcanzar la meta internacional de reducción del consumo de sal.This article describes the progress-as well as the challenges and limitations-in reducing salt intake in Costa Rica. The National Plan to Reduce Public Consumption of Salt/Sodium in Costa Rica 2011 - 2021 was complemented with multisectoral programs and projects specifically designed to: 1 determine sodium intake and the salt/sodium content of the most widely consumed foods; identify the consumer knowledge, attitudes

  18. Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Stocks of an Undisturbed Regenerating Sal (Shorea Robusta Gaertn. F. Forest Of Goalpara District, Assam, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajit Rabha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the above ground biomass and carbon stocks of an undisturbed Sal forest of Goalpara district, Assam, Northeast India. The average AGB and C were recorded 239.45 ± 12.8 Mg ha-1 and 119.73 ± 6.4 Mg ha-1. Density distribution curve indicates the high carbon sequestration potential of the stand in near future which further helps in climate change mitigation. Currently, conservation measures are well imposed in combine effort of local community and government. Legal involvement of local community in conservation exercises along with the forest department might be very effective in management of Sal forests.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i4.11743   International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 147-155 

  19. Pré-sal e Petrobras além dos discursos e mitos: disputas, riscos e desafios

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    ILDO L. SAUER

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente trabalho examina os desafios e possibilidades do pré-sal e o papel da Petrobras, no sentido de conciliar as expectativas geradas quanto ao seu potencial de transformação social no Brasil. Para tanto, parte do exame dos processos que a apropriação social da energia cumpriu nas revoluções sociais da Humanidade. Em seguida, examina as condições e os processos que conduziram à hegemonia do petróleo em face das demais alternativas energéticas e analisa as consequências vinculadas a este desdobramento. No campo geopolítico e econômico são revisadas as contradições e interesses antagônicos em torno da disputa pelo controle do acesso aos recursos petrolíferos e pela apropriação da renda petroleira. Dentro do contexto geopolítico e estratégico, o trabalho foca nos desafios e oportunidades associados à descoberta dos recursos do pré-sal brasileiro e no papel da Petrobras, concluindo pela necessidade de um exame crítico sobre a atual estratégia nacional no que diz respeito à identificação, caracterização e quantificação das reservas petrolíferas e à definição do ritmo de produção e exportação, em coordenação com a OPEP e demais países exportadores, o que implica na revisão do regime regulatório vigente, com o objetivo de garantir a geração de recursos para serem investidos de acordo com um plano nacional de desenvolvimento econômico e social. Nem o modelo de concessão nem o de partilha de produção se ajustam para garantir a hegemonia do interesse público, configurando-se a contratação direta da Petrobras, autorizada pela lei vigente, como a mais adequada por permitir a flexibilidade semelhante à dos contratos de serviços, onde prevalece o comando do Estado sobre a produção e exportação do petróleo. Em ensaio específico, são sumarizados os resultados de cenários econômico-financeiros que podem ser esperados com a produção de petróleo em reservas localizadas na área do

  20. Solving the AI Planning Plus Scheduling Problem Using Model Checking via Automatic Translation from the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL) to the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a translator from a new planning language named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL) to the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL) model checker. This translator has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats (SAVH) project sponsored by the Exploration Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for the vehicles and operations centers of Project Constellation.

  1. Concentraciones de yodo en orina y en sal de consumo en mujeres entre 12 a 49 años del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tarqui-Mamani

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar las concentraciones de yodo en orina y sal de consumo en mujeres entre 12 a 49 años en Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional y transversal. Durante el 2012 y 2013, se incluyó mujeres entre 12 a 49 años residentes en los hogares peruanos seleccionadas mediante un muestreo probabilístico, estratificado y multietápico. La determinación de yodo en orina se realizó por espectrofotometría basada en la reacción de Sandell-Kolthoff. La evaluación cualitativa de yodo en sal se realizó por yoditest y la cuantitativa por volumetría. El procesamiento se realizó mediante muestras complejas con ponderaciones. Se obtuvo medianas, rango intercuartílico y percentiles. Resultados. La mediana de yoduria en las participantes fue 250,4 ug/L; los departamentos con medianas de yoduria elevadas fueron: Moquegua (389,3 ug/L; Tacna (320,5 ug/L; Madre de Dios (319,8 ug/L, y Ucayali (306,0 ug/L; mientras que Puno (192,9 ug/L; Piura (188,1 ug/L y Tumbes (180,5 ug/L tuvieron medianas dentro de lo recomendado por la OMS. La mediana de yoduria en gestantes fue 274,6 ug/L (RIQ: 283 ug/L. El 82,5% de las muestras de sal tuvieron yodo ≥30 ppm y 1,9% tuvo valores de 0 ppm. Conclusiones. La mediana de yoduria en las mujeres peruanas está por encima de lo recomendado por la OMS y la mayoría de las muestras de sal tuvieron concentraciones adecuadas de yodo según la OMS

  2. An effective parameter optimization technique for vibration flow field characterization of PP melts via LS-SVM combined with SALS in an electromagnetism dynamic extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Guangming

    2018-03-01

    A method for predicting the optimal vibration field parameters by least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) is presented in this paper. One convenient and commonly used technique for characterizing the the vibration flow field of polymer melts films is small angle light scattering (SALS) in a visualized slit die of the electromagnetism dynamic extruder. The optimal value of vibration vibration frequency, vibration amplitude, and the maximum light intensity projection area can be obtained by using LS-SVM for prediction. For illustrating this method and show its validity, the flowing material is used with polypropylene (PP) and fifteen samples are tested at the rotation speed of screw at 36rpm. This paper first describes the apparatus of SALS to perform the experiments, then gives the theoretical basis of this new method, and detail the experimental results for parameter prediction of vibration flow field. It is demonstrated that it is possible to use the method of SALS and obtain detailed information on optimal parameter of vibration flow field of PP melts by LS-SVM.

  3. Arquitectura y espacio urbano. SAL 2013 Bogotá: 28 años y 15 convocatorias de Seminarios de Arquitectura Latinoamericana

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    Ana Esteban Maluenda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante el mes de septiembre de 2013 se ha celebrado en Bogotá el XV Seminario de Arquitectura Latinoamericana (SAL bajo el tema “Arquitectura y espacio urbano: memorias del futuro”. Los SAL surgieron de forma espontánea hace casi treinta años (1985 ante la necesidad que sintieron los arquitectos latinoamericanos por organizarse como un movimiento de profesionales interesados en el entendimiento de un horizonte cultural común a todos ellos e independiente, aunque no ajeno, a la producción arquitectónica internacional. Desde entonces hasta ahora, y de forma ininterrumpida, han ido revisando muy distintos temas de interés, desde la búsqueda de una identidad propiamente latinoamericana, que marcó los primeros encuentros, hasta la visión de futuro que está caracterizando los más recientes. Este texto es una crónica del útimo SAL, a la que antecede una revisión de la historia de dichos encuentros, cuya trayectoria, exitosa en participantes, prolija en discusiones y prolongada en el tiempo, los ha convertido en una de las referencias fundamentales para los estudiosos e interesados en el devenir de la arquitectura contemporánea latinoamericana.

  4. Determinantes da satisfação e atributos da qualidade em serviços de salão de beleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Duarte Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um modelo de representação dos determinantes da satisfação dos clientes de serviços em salões de beleza e dos atributos de qualidade percebidos por eles. Para isso, foram aplicadas duas pesquisas junto a usuários de salões de beleza com a finalidade de: (i determinar as relações entre os determinantes da satisfação dos clientes; e (ii identificar e hierarquizar atributos de qualidade percebidos, de acordo com sua importância para os clientes do serviço em questão. A confirmação de expectativas e a qualidade percebida aparecem como os principais determinantes da satisfação dos clientes. Competência técnica, limpeza do ambiente e dos utensílios, cumprimento de horários e localização conveniente aparecem como os principais atributos de qualidade percebidos. Os resultados desta pesquisa podem ser usados pelos gerentes de salões de beleza para aprimorar a qualidade do serviço e a satisfação dos clientes, estabelecendo um diferencial competitivo para sua empresa.

  5. Substrate specificity of the Bacillus subtilis BY-kinase PtkA is controlled by alternative activators: TkmA and SalA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderahmane Derouiche

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases are known to regulate different aspects of bacterial physiology, by phosphorylating cellular protein substrates. Physiological cues that trigger BY-kinases activity are largely unexplored. In Proteobacteria, BY-kinases contain a cytosol-exposed catalytic domain and a transmembrane activator domain in a single polypeptide chain. In Firmicutes, the BY-kinase catalytic domain and the transmembrane activator domain exist as separate polypeptides. We have previously speculated that this architecture might enable the Firmicutes BY-kinases to interact with alternative activators, and thus account for the observed ability of these kinases to phosphorylate several distinct classes of protein substrates. Here we present experimental evidence that supports this hypothesis. We focus on the model Firmicute-type BY-kinase PtkA from Bacillus subtilis, known to phosphorylate several different protein substrates. We demonstrate that the transcriptional regulator SalA, hitherto known as a substrate of PtkA, can also act as a PtkA activator. In doing so, SalA competes with the canonical PtkA activator, TkmA. Our results suggest that the respective interactions of SalA and TkmA with PtkA favor phosphorylation of different protein substrates in vivo and in vitro. This observation may contribute to explaining how specificity is established in the seemingly promiscuous interactions of BY-kinases with their cellular substrates.

  6. Apmierinātības ar dzīvi saistība ar sociālo salīdzināšanu.

    OpenAIRE

    Tamsone, Liliāna

    2011-01-01

    Šajā bakalaura darbā tika izvirzīti trīs pētījuma jautājumi: 1)Kāda saistība pastāv starp apmierinātību ar dzīvi un sociālās salīdzināšanas līmeni? 2)Kāda saistība pastāv starp apmierinātību ar dzīvi un augšupejošo salīdzināšanu? 3)Kāda saistība pastāv starp apmierinātību ar dzīvi un lejupejošo salīdzināšanu? Pētījumā piedalījās 58 respondenti – 12 vīrieši un 46 sievietes vecumā no 25 līdz 45 gadiem. Respondentu vidējais vecums ir M = 31,67, SD = 5,11. Pētījuma instrumentārijs iekļauj divas m...

  7. Pré-Sal: Petróleo e políticas públicas no Brasil (2007-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Martinez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a relação entre políticas sociais e economia no Brasil a partir da exploração do Pré-sal até os dias de hoje. O anúncio das reservas de petróleo na camada de Pré-sal resultou em rápidas alterações nas perspectivas econômicas, sociais e legais do país nas primeiras duas décadas do século XXI. A nova escala da produção petrolífera nacional seria a base para uma agenda de desenvolvimento econômico e social nos governos dos presidentes Lula e Dilma. Em seus respectivos governos ambos promoveram reformulações no marco regulatório do petróleo. A legislação foi alterada no tocante aos modelos de contrato, a distribuição dos royalties e o controle das reservas, assegurando ao Governo Federal maior soberania na extração, refino e distribuição do petróleo. As modificações legislativas e políticas visavam à destinação de parte dos lucros do Pré-sal para investimentos em infraestrutura e para políticas setoriais de desenvolvimento humano no Brasil.

  8. Mitmetasandiline hinnang: vaade 360 kraadi / Kaspar Saul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saul, Kaspar

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade Kaspar Sauli 2008. aastal Tallinna Ülikoolis kaitstud magistritööst "Ajateenijatele antud hinnangute ja militaarsoorituse seos Eesti kaitseväes jalaväe väljaõppekeskuse Pärnu üksik-jalaväepataljon näitel", milles analüüsitakse ajateenijatele antud hinnangute seoseid nende militaarsooritusega ning hinnanguankeedi kui mõõdiku usaldusväärsust. Tabel

  9. Baltics support Kosovo independence / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2008-01-01

    Balti riigid teatasid päev pärast Kosovo iseseisvuse väljakuulutamist, et toetavad riigi iseseisvust. Eriarvamusi pretsedendi suhtes on venelaste esindajate hulgas ning Euroopa riikide vahel. Baltimaade liidrite põhjendused

  10. EVALUACIÓN DE LA ACTIVIDAD CITOTÓXICA Y ANTIMICROBIANA DEL COMPUESTO [Ag(phen2]salH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Moyano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se evaluó la actividadantimicrobiana y citotóxica de un nuevocomplejo de plata(I con el ión salicilatoy 1,10-fenantrolina. La caracterizaciónde este compuesto se realizó por espectroscopiade resonancia magnética nuclearde protón y carbono-13 (RMN 1Hy 13C, espectroscopia de absorción en laregión de infrarrojo (IR, análisis térmico(TG/DSC y análisis elemental (CHN.Los resultados obtenidos a través de estosmétodos sugieren la formación del compuestocon fórmula empírica [Ag(phen2]salH. Cuando fue comparada la actividadantimicrobiana y citotóxica de este complejocon otros compuestos de plata(I ycobre(II de actividad conocida, se observóque el ligante 1,10-fenantrolina incrementaestas propiedades. El compuestoen estudio, presenta la mayor inhibicióndel crecimiento bacteriano, los microorganismosGram positivos fueron los mássusceptibles. La actividad citotóxica fueevaluada en un panel de cinco líneas celularestumorales humanas: MDA-MB231,PC-3, HT-29, HEp-2 y A549. A las concentracionesevaluadas, el compuestoprodujo una respuesta citotóxica dosisdependienteen todas las líneas celularestumorales, particularmente para laslíneas tumorales HT-29, MDA-MB231 yA549. Todo esto, sugiere su gran potencialpara usos quimioterapéuticos.

  11. Large-scale carbonate platform development of Cay Sal Bank, Bahamas, and implications for associated reef geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkis, Sam; Kerr, Jeremy; Dempsey, Alexandra; Calhoun, Andrew; Metsamaa, Liisa; Riegl, Bernhard; Kourafalou, Villy; Bruckner, Andrew; Renaud, Philip

    2014-10-01

    The Bahama Archipelago consists of an arcuate chain of carbonate platforms. Average water depths on the platform-tops, such as the Great Bahama Bank (GBB), are typically 10 m or less, with coral reef-rimmed margins, thick sediment accumulations, and the frequent occurrence of islands. There are, however, exceptions. For example, Cay Sal Bank (CSB), a little studied detached Bahamian carbonate platform with depths ranging from 30 to 7 m, is only slightly deeper than the GBB, but devoid of islands, lacks platform-margin coral reefs and holds little sediment on the platform-top; the platform is incipiently drowned. CSB is interesting as it is conspicuously larger (6000 sq. km) than other incipiently drowned platforms in the region, such as Serranilla Bank (1100 sq. km) and the Cat Island platform (1500 sq. km). Field and remote sensing data are assembled to provide insight into the sedimentology and geomorphology of the CSB. The influence of ocean climate, regional hydrodynamics, and Holocene flooding history are investigated to understand why platform-margin coral reef growth on CSB has been unable to keep pace with Holocene sea-level rise. A decade of regional sea-surface temperature data for the Bahamas report CSB to be situated in the same ocean climate regime as GBB. Temperature cannot explain the platform's different morphologies. The Florida Current has been evoked as a possible reason for the immature development of platform-top processes on the CSB, but numeric modeling suggests its influence to be restricted to the deep flanks of the bank. Further, sediment distribution on CSB, including infill patterns of karst depressions, suggest trade winds (easterlies) to drive platform-top hydrodynamics. By assembling a satellite-derived bathymetry map, it can be shown that CSB flooded earlier and at relatively higher rates of Holocene sea-level rise than its neighboring platforms. Flooding history is identified as the most feasible explanation for the atypical

  12. Surto de intoxicação por sal em ovinos no estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D. Duarte

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata um surto de intoxicação por sal em ovinos no Brasil, em uma propriedade no estado do Pará. De um total de 545 ovinos, oito animais adoeceram (1,46% e quatro destes morreram (50%. A avaliação das instalações e do manejo indicaram como fatores predisponentes a ingestão excessiva de mistura mineral e a restrição hídrica. Os principais sinais clínicos foram decúbito, diminuição ou ausência da sensibilidade cutânea, ausência dos reflexos de ameaça, palpebral e auricular, midríase, nistagmo, opistótono, espasticidade de membros, sonolência e estupor. Havia ainda, timpanismo, diarreia, taquipneia, taquicardia, desidratação e poliúria. A evolução do quadro clínico nos animais que morreram variou de duas horas e meia a 48 horas. As médias das concentrações séricas de sódio e de potássio de 31 ovinos do mesmo lote afetado pela intoxicação, em amostras colhidas durante o surto, revelaram hipernatremia (190mEq/l e hipercalemia (8,2mEq/l. À necropsia, observou-se em um animal, achatamento das circunvoluções cerebrais. Microscopicamente, neste animal, evidenciou-se vacuolização moderada do neurópilo, particularmente nas lâminas intermediárias do córtex cerebral, com aumento dos espaços perineural e perivascular. Nessas áreas foram observados ainda, acentuada tumefação e edema dos astrócitos e necrose neuronal aguda. A dosagem de sódio no encéfalo de um ovino, revelou-se elevada com valor de 3.513ppm. O diagnóstico foi realizado com base na epidemiologia, nos sinais clínicos, nas lesões macro e microscópicas e nas dosagens de sódio no soro e no encéfalo dos ovinos.

  13. Uso de sal durante o transporte de juvenis (1kg de pirarucu (Arapaima gigas Use of salt during the transportation of pirarucu juveniles (1kg (Arapaima gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franmir Rodrigues Brandão

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O pirarucu é um peixe nativo da bacia Amazônica cuja criaçãovem sendo estudada em algumas partes do Brasil. O objetivo desse trabalho foi testar o sal de cozinha como mitigador de estresse durante o transporte de juvenis de pirarucu (1 kg. Para isso, os peixes foram transportados em dois diferentes sistemas: caixas sem adição de oxigênio (transporte aberto e sacos plásticos com injeção de oxigênio e lacrado (transporte fechado. Nos dois sistemas os peixes foram transportados em três diferentes tratamentos: controle e duas concentrações de sal na água (3 e 6 g.L-1. Após o transporte os peixes foram colocados em viveiros para avaliação da recuperação. Foram analisados parâmetros do metabolismo energético (cortisol, glicose e lactato e de hematologia (hematócrito. O sal de cozinha não foi eficiente em mitigar as respostas de estresse no transporte em nenhum dos dois sistemas de transporte estudados.Pirarucu is a native fish of the Amazon basin, widely used in culture systems in some parts of Brazil. The objective of this work was to test table salt as a stress mitigator during transportation of pirarucu juveniles (1kg. Fish were transported by two different systems: boxes without addition of oxygen (open system and closed oxygen filled plastic bags (closed system. To both systems fish were transported at three different treatments: control and two table salt concentration (3 and 6 gL-1. After transportation, fish were stocked in ponds to monitor recovery. Metabolic (cortisol, glucose and lactate and hematological (hematocrit parameters were analyzed. The table salt was not efficient in mitigating stress response during the both tested transport system.

  14. Influencia del consumo de sal y de analgésicos efervescentes con sodio en pacientes con hipertensión y riesgo vascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Pérez SR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La ingesta del sodio que contienen los alimentos y algunos medicamentos puede producir una elevación de los valores de presión arterial de los individuos. La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda de forma global no superar la ingesta diaria de 2 g de sodio en los adultos sanos (5 g de sal común. Para grupos de riesgo se establecen límites más estrictos (0,5-1,5 g de sodio diarios. En España se estima que cada persona consume al día 11 g de sal por término medio. Diversos estudios, realizados en distintas poblaciones, han podido objetivar una correlación directa entre la ingesta de sodio en la dieta y la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial. Otros estudios corroboran el efecto de la reducción del consumo de sal en la dieta sobre la disminución de los valores de presión arterial y de la morbilidad y mortalidad cardiovascular. Muchos medicamentos contienen una elevada cantidad de sodio por tener excipientes efervescentes (1 g de paracetamol efervescente puede llegar a aportar más de 0,5 g de sodio, de forma que, si su posología es cada 6-8 horas, pueden superar los límites diarios de sodio recomendados, incluso para un adulto sano. En este artículo se revisa la evidencia disponible sobre el efecto beneficioso de una dieta hiposódica para el control de la hipertensión, las consideraciones sobre el uso de analgésicos y AINE en los pacientes con enfermedad cardiovascular y se insiste en la advertencia de evitar, siempre que sea posible, el uso de medicamentos efervescentes, especialmente en los mayores de 50 años.

  15. Estudo microbiológico do sal (Cloreto de sódio de origem marinha Microbiological study of marine salt (sodium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niber da Paz Moreira da Silva

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 19 amostras de SAL (NaCl, tipo grosso, oriundas de diferentes salinas, para verificação da flora microbiana e presença de bactérias nocivas em Microbiologia Alimentar. O material apresentou grande contaminação por microrganismos saprófitas, bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias, Gram positivas e negativas, proteolíticas, pigmentadas, esporuladas, leveduras e fungos. A alta incidência das bactérias halofílicas "vermelhas", responsáveis pela deterioração de carnes, pescados e outros produtos salgados foi estudada. A freqüência, em 15 amostras de SAL, de bactérias esporuladas termorresistentes foi calculada em 33%, possuindo um SAL germe termofílico. Para anaeróbios a positividade foi de 80%, havendo esporulação em 40% das culturas isoladas. Os índices para leveduras e fungos foram de 73% e 93%, respectivamente.19 samples of marine salt (NaCl, granular type, from different salines, were analized to verify the microbial flora and the presence of "food-poisoning" bacteria. The material presented a great contamination by saprofit microorganisms, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria Gram positives and negatives, proteolitics, pigmented, sporulated, yeast and fungi. The high incidence of "red halophilic bacteria", responsible for meat deterioration, fish and other salted products, was studied. The frequence, in 15 samples of salt, of sporulated heat-resistant bacteria was estimated at 33% containing one salt termophilic germ. For anaerobic microorganisms the positiveness reached 80%, sporulation processed in 40% of the isolated cultures. The index for yeast and fungi was 73% and 93%, respectively.

  16. Effectiveness of sal deoiled seed cake as an inducer for protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1 for its application in kitchen wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vandana; Bhattacharya, Amrik; Gupta, Anshu

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of sal (Shorea robusta) deoiled cake--a forest-based industrial by-product--as a cheaper media supplement for augmented protease production from Aeromonas sp. S1 and application of protease in the treatment of kitchen wastewater. Under optimized conditions, protease production could successfully be enhanced to 5.13-fold (527.5 U mL(-1)) on using sal deoiled seed cake extract (SDOCE), as medium additive, compared to an initial production of 102.7 U mL(-1) in its absence. The culture parameters for optimum production of protease were determined to be incubation time (48 h), pH (7.0), SDOCE concentration (3 % (v/v)), inoculum size (0.3-0.6 % (v/v)), and agitation rate (100 rpm). The enzyme was found to have an optimum pH and temperature of 8.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The protease preparation was tested for treatment of organic-laden kitchen wastewater. After 96 h of wastewater treatment under static condition, enzyme preparation was able to reduce 74 % biological oxygen demand, 37 % total suspended solids, and 41 % oil and grease. The higher and improved level of protease obtained using sal deoiled seed cake-based media hence offers a new approach for value addition to this underutilized biomass through industrial enzyme production. The protease produced using this biomass could also be used as pretreatment tool for remediation of organic-rich food wastewater.

  17. Poder judiciário fluminense e capixaba diante do comércio internacional e do pré-sal: novos desafios

    OpenAIRE

    Saraiva, Wellington Beckman

    2012-01-01

    As transformações recentes das relações sociais e econômicas incrementados pelo dinamismo do comércio internacional, sua crescente complexidade e as recémdescobertas reservas petrolíferas na camada pré-sal, aliadas ao fenômeno da globalização, contribuem para o processo de internacionalização do Direito. Esse cenário tem demandado, ainda, novos instrumentos de solução dos conflitos e de controle social, exigindo dos magistrados brasileiros maior expertise no julgamento das d...

  18. La comunidad sefardita de Salónica después de las guerras balcánicas (1912-1913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Morcillo Rosillo

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta comunicación no pretende ir más allá de una primera aproximación al colectivo de judíos españoles de Salónica tras finalizar las guerras balcánicas. Un período justificado en sí mismo por cuanto coincide con el hundimiento del Imperio otomano y el resurgimiento de la nueva Grecia, lo que dificultará las relaciones de convivencia entre israelitas y griegos.

  19. Análise comparativa entre as propriedades do gesso obtido de rejeito da produção de sal e gesso comerciais

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Juliana Elionara Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    Os impactos ambientais, ocasionados pela geração de resíduos sólidos, são uma preocupação bastante citada na atualidade. Alguns desses resíduos, provenientes das mais variadas atividades humanas, podem ser totalmente reaproveitados, diminuindo o efeito desses impactos, geralmente ocasionado pela má disposição, no meio ambiente. Durante o processo de produção do sal, os primeiros cristais formados são descartados como resíduo industrial. Este é constituído basicamente por gipsita, um sulfato d...

  20. Los orígenes de la producción de sal: evidencias, funciones y valor en el Neolítico europeo

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    A partir de un recorrido sobre los conocimientos actuales a escala europea, el autor trata sobre los orígenes de la producción de la sal durante el Neolítico y el Calcolítico, dedicando una especial atención a los diferentes tipos de evidencias (vertederos cerámicos, estructuras, carbones, útiles mineros ... ), a las técnicas de fabricación y a los sistemas de control de la producción. Una vez analizada la manera cómo estas producciones se sitúan en determinados contextos sociales, se llega a...

  1. Validación del método Potenciométrico por Ión Selectivo para la determinación de Flúor en sal, agua y orina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Aguilar R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Validar el método potenciómetro por ión selectivo en la determinación de fluoruro. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron 3 tipos de muestras (sal, agua, y orina, trabajándose con 3 analistas para el agua y sal, y 2 para la orina. La validación se realizó en 2 días, realizándose 10 ensayos por día. Se calculó la precisión (en condiciones de repetibilidad y reproducibilidad y exactitud del método (en términos de recuperación del analito adicionado a la muestra. Resultados: Se obtuvo una desviación estándar relativa (RSD de 2.68%, 3.29% y 2.52% en sal, agua y orina, respectivamente, y se logró recuperar 98.20%, 99.42% y 98.11 % del analito en las mismas muestras de sal, agua y orina, respectivamente. Conclusión: El método potenciómetro, por ión selectivo, realizado en condiciones óptimas y apropiadas, puede aplicarse para la determinación de flúor en muestras de sal, agua y orina.

  2. Preparation and characterization of Tb3+ and Tb(sal)3.nH2O doped PC:PMMA blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Y.; Singh, A.K.; Prakash, Rajiv; Rai, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Tb doped polycarbonate:poly(methyl methacrylate) (Tb-PC:PMMA) blend was prepared with varying proportions of PC and PMMA. Thermal and spectroscopic properties of the doped polymer have been investigated employing Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) absorption and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) techniques. PC:PMMA blend (with 10 wt% PC and 90 wt% PMMA) shows better miscibility. Optical properties of the dopant Tb 3+ ions have been investigated using UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excited by 355 nm radiation. It is seen that luminescence intensity of Tb 3+ ion depends on PC:PMMA ratio and on Tb 3+ ion concentration. Concentration quenching is seen for TbCl 3 .6H 2 O concentration larger than 4 wt%. Addition of salicylic acid to the polymer blend increases the luminescence from Tb 3+ ions. Luminescence decay curve analysis affirms the non-radiative energy transfer from salicylic acid to Tb 3+ ions, which is identified as the reason behind this enhancement. - Highlights: → Blend formation is confirmed at PC/90PMMA, using FTIR and DSC techniques. → Absorption and bandgap studies of blend and parent components were studied. → Optical properties of Tb and Tb(sal) 3 .nH 2 O complex have been studied in PC/PMMA blend. → Luminescence decay curves confirm non-radiative energy transfer from Sal to Tb 3+ ions.

  3. EL PUERTO DE TORREVIEJA: GESTACIÓN Y DESARROLLO DE UN LARGO PROYECTO PARA LA COMERCIALIZACIÓN DE LA SAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Canales Martínez

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El proyecto de construcción de un puerto en la rada de Torrevieja ha constituido, desde mediados del siglo XIX, una de las aspiraciones económicas más importantes de los habitantes del Bajo Segura. Desde los primeros planteamientos se vio en esta dota- ción la solución a los problemas de infraestructura para el embarque de la importante producción de sal de las lagunas cercanas a la localidad. Además, la comarca aspiraba a contar con un centro de conexión marítimo internacional para dar salida a las distintas cosechas agrícolas de su espacio de huerta. Estos dos factores fueron determinantes para mantener vivo el proyecto del puerto, a pesar de las constantes demoras y aplazamientos de su ejecución. No sería hasta bien entrado el siglo XX cuando se vieron cumplidas estas pretensiones debido al empuje que mantuvo el comercio de la sal.

  4. O discurso sob outros discursos: Salústio e a disputa entre grupos políticos no final da República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vieira Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Salústio se empenha na caracterização moral da nobilitas, ao menos daquela cujos vícios teriam conduzido à exacerbação das desigualdades e finalmente à guerra civil. Entretanto, o pareamento entre César e Catão, mediante os respectivos discursos, estando o último a censurar o comportamento da pars mesma de que ele próprio é defensor, bem como o retrato de Mário, cujas qualidades iniciais teriam degenerado no vício da ambitio, apontam para um plano de construção da Conjuração de Catilina e da Guerra de Jugurta que, se pode ser acusado de parcialidade política, parece ter como pretensão uma espécie de “neutralidade” filosófica, que buscaria evidenciar os vícios de uns e outros, e assim compor, no espaço das letras, um quadro complexo: o retrato, para Salústio, de seu ideal político irrealizado. Procurarei mostrar como o discurso próprio desse ideal, presente nos prefácios àquelas monografias, se deixa entrever também na reconstrução retórica dos discursos daquelas personagens.

  5. Motivos da prática de dança de salão nas aulas de educação física escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Shibukawai,Rodrigo Massami; Guimarães,Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo; Machado,Zênite; Soares,Amanda

    2011-01-01

    O estudo de corte transversal analisou os motivos da prática da dança de salão nas aulas de Educação Física escolar de escolas particulares, relacionando-os com o gênero, seu tempo de prática e participação em eventos de dança de salão. Obteve-se uma amostra de 279 alunos com idade de 15,5 ± 1,0 anos, matriculados nas aulas de dança de salão como Educação Física escolar. Aplicou-se o questionário de motivação para as atividades desportivas - QMAD, adaptado de SERPA e FRIAS (1990) e SERPA (199...

  6. Efecto de la adición de sal y bicarbonato sódico sobre el porcentaje de grasa abdominal y minerales en el tejido óseo de los pollos

    OpenAIRE

    Brenes, Agustín; Díez, M. V.; Rubio, L.; Yuste, P

    1988-01-01

    Se han llevado a cabo dos experimentos utilizando pollos, con el objeto de observar el efecto de la adición de sal y bicarbonato sódico en la ración, sobre la acumulación de grasa abdominal. En el experimento 1, pollos con un día de edad fueron alimentados con dietas de maíz-soja, sin sal y con distintas concentraciones de sal (0.2, 0.4 y 0.8%) añadidas al agua de bebida. En el experimento 2 se utilizaron también pollos de un día de edad repartidos en cuatro tratamientos, que consumían dietas...

  7. Adana, Gaziantep, Hatay, Kahramanmaraş bölgesi halk oyunlarının yapısal özellikleri ve karşılaştırmalı analizi

    OpenAIRE

    SÜMBÜL, Muzaffer

    2004-01-01

    Bölgesel halk oyunlarının yapısal özellikleri: Adana,Gaziantep-Hatay- Kahramanmaraş halk oyunlarının karşılaştırmalı analizi adlı bu çalışmamızda, yerel oyunlar çok yönlü olarak incelenmiştir. Bu analiz gerçekleştirilirken Halk oyunlarının yapısal özellikleri adlı model rehber olarak berıimsenmiştir. Halk oyunlarının yapısal özellikleri, düşünsel boyu...

  8. Conocimientos, percepciones y comportamientos relacionados con el consumo de sal, la salud y el etiquetado nutricional en Argentina, Costa Rica y Ecuador Knowledge, perceptions, and behavior related to salt consumption, health, and nutritional labeling in Argentina, Costa Rica, and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Sánchez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar los conocimientos, percepciones y comportamientos relacionados con el consumo de la sal y el sodio alimentarios y su relación con la salud y el etiquetado nutricional de los alimentos, en tres países de la Región. MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo-exploratorio basado en entrevistas semiestructuradas, según las categorías del modelo de creencias en salud. Se realizaron 34 entrevistas y 6 grupos focales con líderes comunales (71 informantes en total en áreas rurales y urbanas de Argentina, Costa Rica y Ecuador. RESULTADOS: El consumo de sal varía en las áreas rurales y urbanas de los tres países. Para la mayoría de los entrevistados, los alimentos no se podrían consumir sin sal y solo las personas que consumen una cantidad excesiva de sal tendrían riesgos para la salud. Se desconoce que los alimentos procesados contienen sal y sodio. Aunque no medían la cantidad de sal agregada a las comidas, los participantes consideraban que consumían poca sal y no percibían su salud en riesgo. La mayoría de los informantes no revisaba la información nutricional y los que lo hacían manifestaron no comprenderla. CONCLUSIONES: Existe un conocimiento popular en relación con la sal, no así con el término "sodio". Se consume más sal y sodio de lo informado y no hay perspectivas de reducción. Aunque se sabe que el consumo excesivo de sal representa un riesgo para la salud, no se perciben en riesgo. El reemplazo de la palabra sodio por sal facilitaría la elección de los alimentos.OBJECTIVE: To identify the knowledge, perceptions, and behavior related to the consumption of salt and sodium in food and its relationship to health and the nutritional labeling of food in three countries of the Region. METHODS: Qualitative-exploratory study based on semi-structured interviews, according to the categories of the Health Belief Model. Thirty-four interviews and six focus groups were conducted with community leaders (71 total

  9. A influência da dança de salão na percepção corporal The ballroomdance influence in body perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Costa Fonseca

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A dança de salão é uma forma de expressão dos sentimentos através dos movimentos. Os casais devem perceber as suas possibilidades de ação motora e o espaço disponível para interagir com o outro organizando seu corpo em um padrão espacial. Esses fatores combinados com o resgate das emoções despertadas pela dança tornam a prática potencializadora de alterações positivas na relação mente-corpo modificando a percepção corporal, tanto no seu aspecto proprioceptivo (esquema corporal, como emocional (imagem corporal. O objetivo desse estudo foi discutir a dança de salão e sua contribuição na percepção corporal dos seus praticantes. Para isso foi realizada de uma pesquisa bibliográfica de caráter descritivo e abordagem qualitativa. Sendo assim, concluímos que além da técnica na dança é necessário, também, saber utilizar os recursos como uma ferramenta e não como uma "prisão". A beleza da dança de salão é resultado do equilíbrio entre a técnica e emoções do dançarino.Ballroomdance is a feeling expression through the movements. Couples should realize their potential motor action and space available to interact appropriately one with the others leading to a correct organization of their bodies in space. Dancing with a partner, exploring perceptual diversity together, bringing the emotions aroused in a musical rhythm, makes this practice responsible for positive changes in the relationship between mind and body, modifying the body perception, both in proprioceptive (body schema, as in emotional (body image aspects. The aim of this study was to discuss the dance and its contribution to the body perception of its practitioners. The study included a descriptive review of the literature with a qualitative approach consideration. However, more than learning the dance technique is necessary to know how to use these resources as a tool and not as a "prison." The beauty of ballroomdance achieves a balance between

  10. Suplementação com zinco pode recuperar apetite para refeições de sal Zinc supplementation may recover taste for salt meals

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    Dioclécio Campos Jr

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do zinco em crianças de 8 meses a 5 anos de idade com falta de apetite para refeições de sal. POPULAÇÃO E MÉTODOS: Estudo duplo-cego com placebo. Dois grupos de crianças apresentando recusa a alimentos de sal foram acompanhados durante 6 meses. As crianças do primeiro grupo receberam 1 mg/kg/dia de zinco sob forma de quelato, durante três meses, enquanto as do segundo grupo receberam uma solução placebo durante o mesmo período. Os dois grupos eram semelhantes quanto a idade, sexo, peso, duração do aleitamento materno, idade de desmame e exames hetamatológicos e bioquímicos. A resposta das crianças ao tratamento foi informada em questionário preenchido regularmente pelas mães. RESULTADOS: 17/20 (85% das crianças que receberam zinco e 10/20 (50% das que receberam placebo recuperaram o apetite para refeições de sal. A diferença foi estatisticamente significativa para p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of zinc on the appetite for salt foods in children aged 8 months to 5 years. METHOD: Double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Two groups of 20 children refusing to eat salt foods were followed during six months. The children in the first group received zinc chelate 1 mg/kg daily for three months. The second group received a placebo solution. The two groups were similar in terms of age, sex, weight, duration of breastfeeding, age at weaning, biochemical and hematological data. The response of children to treatment was informed by their mothers. RESULTS: 17/20 (85% of the children receiving zinc chelate and 10/20 (50% of the children receiving placebo improved their appetite for salt foods. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05, chi-square test. CONCLUSION: Zinc supplementation may improve the acceptance of salt foods by children.

  11. Compassar e urdir: a construção de um intercâmbio através dos dois primeiros SAL

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    Gisela Barcellos de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda a constituição de encontros culturais cuja concretização ocorre em momentos precisos e depende do engajamento direto dos agentes envolvidos. Enfoca-se, em específico, o processo de construção de um intercâmbio que ocorreu de forma programática ao longo de dez anos e marcou profundamente a cultura arquitetônica latino-americana, nos anos 80-90: os Seminários de Arquitetura Latino-americana (SAL. As tentativas de explicação para o surgimento dos SAL enfatizam, frequentemente, a existência de múltiplas origens. Se, por um lado, a afirmação dessas procedências diversas busca ressaltar a devida contribuição de cada um dentre os países envolvidos, por outro, essa incide, também, no risco de fazer parecer que o surgimento dos seminários seja obra de uma conjuntura fortuita, fruto do somatório de uma série de experiências isoladas e de coincidências. O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar que, a essas contribuições e origens diversas, soma-se, também, a atuação direta de um grupo de críticos engajados na construção desses seminários. Ou seja, busca-se, ao longo deste texto, explicitar a existência de um trabalho operativo, empenhado por alguns dos personagens à frente dos dois primeiros seminários, que visou dotar de sentido e coerência as supracitadas experiências, inicialmente desconexas. Para tanto, o presente artigo coloca em foco - para além das múltiplas origens - a atuação de personagens em específico, bem como as estratégias e os dispositivos diversos que, combinados, promoveram a conversão de interesses múltiplos em uma pauta de reflexão comum. O recorte temporal aqui abordado abrange desde os primeiros ensaios de intercâmbios até o II SAL, momento em que o trabalho operativo de construção de uma pauta comum parece completado.

  12. Etkin Piyasalar Hipotezi ve Davranışsal Finans Çatışması(A Conflict Beetween The Efficient Market Hypothesis and Behavioral Finance

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    İhsan Kulali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Etkin piyasalar hipotezi (EPH, çoğu finansal iktisatçı tarafından yaygın şekilde kabul görmektedir. Modeli savunanlar sermaye piyasalarının, hisse senedi fiyatlarının ilgili elde edilebilir tüm bilgileri yansıtması nedeniyle, etkin olduğuna inanmaktadır. Yeni bir bilgi ortaya çıktığı zaman, haberler anında yayılmakta ve hisse senedi fiyatlarına gecikmeksizin yansımaktadır. Bu görüşe göre hisse senetlerinin gelecek fiyatlarının tahmini için teknik ve temel analize ihtiyaç bulunmamaktadır çünkü hiçbir yatırımcının piyasayı yenmesi ve aşırı kar elde etmesi mümkün değildir. Model, bütün yatırımcıların rasyonel ve faydalarını maksimize etmeye çalışan kişiler olduğunu varsaymaktadır. Yirminci yüzyılın başlarında davranışsal finans gündeme gelmiştir. Birçok finansal iktisatçı hisse senedi fiyatlarının en azında belirli ölçülerde tahmin edilebilir olduğuna inanmaktadır. Pek çok piyasa anomalisi ise psikolojik ve davranışsal faktörler ile açıklanmaktadır. Davranışsal finans yatırımcıları rasyonel değil normal olarak kabul etmektedir. Buna göre piyasa balonları ve krizler bilişsel ön yargılardan kaynaklanmaktadır.

  13. Intervenciones para reducir el consumo de sal a través del etiquetado Interventions to reduce salt consumption through labeling

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    Javier Sanz-Valero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el grado en que el etiquetado de productos alimentarios informa acerca del consumo de sal. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis crítico y sistemático de 9 estudios -seleccionados de un total de 133- recogidos mediante revisión de la literatura científica sobre las intervenciones realizadas en población humana orientadas a reducir el consumo de sal a través de mensajes en el etiquetado. Toda la información se obtuvo mediante consulta directa y vía Internet a la literatura científica recogida en varias bases de datos. RESULTADOS: De los 133 artículos recuperados, una vez aplicados los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se seleccionaron para la revisión 9 trabajos: en todos ellos se planteaba a la población en estudio su conocimiento acerca de la interpretación de la etiqueta sobre el contenido de sal de los alimentos. CONCLUSIONES: Los consumidores de alimentos entienden y valoran más a los logotipos que a la composición nutricional que figura en la etiqueta. Se justificaría entonces el uso de logotipos alternativos que facilitaran esta información y que además fueran normalizados. Esta situación se ve reforzada porque la inclusión de símbolos fácilmente entendibles favorece la correcta elección por parte de los consumidores.OBJECTIVE: Determine the extent to which labeling of food products informs about salt consumption. METHODS: A critical and systematic analysis was conducted of 9 studies selected out of a total of 133 studies. The studies were collected by reviewing the scientific literature on interventions conducted in the human population aimed towards reducing salt consumption through label messaging. All of the information was obtained by direct consultation and by Internet from the scientific literature collected in several databases. RESULTS: Out of the 133 articles recovered, after the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 9 studies were selected for review. All of them took into

  14. Microcrustáceos y Vibrio cholerae O1 viable no cultivable (VNC: resultados en la Cuenca del Río Salí, Tucumán, Argentina Microcrustaceans and viable but nonculturable (VNC Vibrio cholerae O1: results in the Salí River basin, Tucumán, Argentina

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    Cecilia Locascio de Mitrovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae reside habitualmente en aguas marinas y continentales. Según las condiciones ambientales y los recursos le sean “favorables” o “desfavorables”, se generan estados viables cultivables (VC o viables no cultivables (VNC respectivamente y, bajo esta última forma sobrevive. Para abordar la problemática del cólera en la Cuenca del Río Salí (Tucumán, Argentina, se realizaron muestreos durante los años 2003-2005 donde se consideraron aspectos fisicos, químicos, biológicos y sanitarios. Para evaluar los probables reservorios del patógeno, se analizó el zooplancton del Río Salí (Canal Norte y Banda Río Salí y Río Lules. La mayor representatividad taxonómica la registraron los copépodos, especialmente Eucyclops neumani (Pesta, 1927, junto a Acanthocyclops robustus (Sars, 1863, Metacyclops sp., Paracyclops chiltoni y Notodiaptomus incompositus (Brian, 1925, además de algunos rotíferos y cladóceros como (Lecane sp., y (Brachionus sp., Moina sp. y Leydigia sp.. La frecuencia de ocurrencia fue baja y no superó el 25%. El Canal Norte fue ambiente más propicio por la riqueza específica, abundancia y constancia de la comunidad. Las variables fisicas y químicas asociadas al zooplancton coincidirían con los valores que por nuestros registros y los antecedentes, se conocen para el desarrollo del patógeno. En el período estival hubo coincidencia entre la presencia de la forma VNC de V. cholerae O1 (inmunofluorescencia con anticuerpos anti O1 y el desarrollo del zooplancton. Se observaron formas VNC sobre apéndices o estructuras de copépodos ciclopoideos y cladóceros quidóridos, reflejando probablemente afinidad con sustratos quitinosos.Vibrio cholerae habitually lives in marine and continental waters. According to "favourable" or "unfavourable" resources and environmental conditions, viable (VC or viable non-culturable (VNC states will be generated, surviving only the latter form. To address the problem of

  15. DAVRANIŞSAL KURUMSAL FİNANS EKSENİNDE KURUMSAL FİNANSAL KARARLAR: BİR LİTERATÜR DEĞERLENDİRMESİ

    OpenAIRE

    BULUT, Esra; ER, Bünyamin

    2018-01-01

    Kurumsal finansta geleneksel bakış açısı, yöneticileri rasyonel ve beklenen faydayı artırmaya çalışan bireylerolarak değerlendirmektedir. Bu anlamda yöneticilerin kararlarında önyargısız davrandıkları varsayılmaktadır.Günümüzde ise bu yaklaşım önemli eleştirilere uğramış ve bazı bilişsel önyargıların kurumsal finansalkararlar üzerinde etkili olabileceği düşüncesi yapılan çalışmalardan elde edilen ampirik bulgularladesteklenmiştir Bu eksende ortaya çıkan davranışsal kurumsal finans, yönetici i...

  16. Economia do petróleo e desenvolvimento: estudo exploratório sobre as perspectivas do pré-sal brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Breno Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    A pesquisa analisa as possibilidades abertas pela exploração de petróleo na camada pré-sal, avaliando de que maneira a expansão do setor petrolífero poderá acelerar o crescimento econômico brasileiro e contribuir para novas estratégias de desenvolvimento. A hipótese inicial é que o Brasil enfrenta uma restrição estrutural de balanço de pagamentos, que poderá ser amenizada pela diminuição das importações de petróleo e derivados e pelo aumento do valor exportado no setor. Para avaliá-la são res...

  17. A influência da dança de salão na percepção corporal

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca,Cristiane Costa; Vecchi,Rodrigo Luiz; Gama,Eliane Florencio

    2012-01-01

    A dança de salão é uma forma de expressão dos sentimentos através dos movimentos. Os casais devem perceber as suas possibilidades de ação motora e o espaço disponível para interagir com o outro organizando seu corpo em um padrão espacial. Esses fatores combinados com o resgate das emoções despertadas pela dança tornam a prática potencializadora de alterações positivas na relação mente-corpo modificando a percepção corporal, tanto no seu aspecto proprioceptivo (esquema corporal), como emociona...

  18. É possível determinar a maturidade fisiológica das sementes de milho (Zea mays) utilizando o sal de tetrazólio?

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Felipe Nicoleti Torrezan

    2016-01-01

    Nessa pesquisa foi avaliada a utilização do sal de tetrazólio para determinar a maturidade fisiológica das sementes de milho. As sementes utilizadas foram dos híbridos Pioneer 4285 e Dow 2B587, semeadas em 03/10/2014 e 05/12/2014 respectivamente, e colhidas a partir dos 40 dias após o florescimento (DAF), com intervalos de 4 dias até os 68 DAF. As sementes colhidas foram avaliadas quanto à viabilidade e ao vigor (testes de germinação, de emergência da plântula, de condutividade elétrica, de e...

  19. Bioécologie des Coléoptères (Arthropodes- Insectes) du marais salé de l’embouchure de la Tafna (Tlemcen)

    OpenAIRE

    BOUKLI HACENE, Samira

    2012-01-01

    Le marais salé de l‘embouchure de la Tafna présente plusieurs originalités liées, d‘une part à sa situation naturelle en tant que zone éponge de la zone d‘estuaire du bassin versant de la Tafna et d‘autre part à son état perturbé engendré par une action anthropique intense (mise en place de l‘usine d‘aquaculture et agriculture). L‘hydrologie de surface a révélé des niveaux de submersion différents, ainsi le marais est soumis à des inondations fréquentes déterminant une unité de...

  20. El piano de la música de salón. Un estudio de caso en Guadalajara de Buga, 1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victoria Casas Figueroa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza, a partir de las partituras empastadas y obras manuscritas, entre otro tipo de fuentes, la música de salón y la interpretación del piano en Guadalajara de Buga (Valle del Cauca entre 1897 y 1930. En particular el papel jugado por las mujeres pianistas, los compositores y directores locales. La autora estudia también la composición musical y tendencias registradas, los distintos esquemas rítmicos del vals y el pasillo manifiestos en la escritura de la música para piano. Identifica que para ciertos aires tales como el vals, el pasillo, entre otros, existen diferentes formas de ejecución del instrumento, uso del teclado, y que la armonía del repertorio está dada por el ambiente tonal. El piano se muestra como un factor diferenciador respecto de la colectividad.

    1. Use of coccidiostat in mineral salt and study on ovine eimeriosis Uso de coccidiostático no sal mineral e estudo da eimeriose ovina

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Alberto Luiz Freire de Andrade Júnior

      2012-03-01

      Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a serious obstacle to sheep production, which is becoming a limiting factor, especially with regard to lamb production. However, there are few studies on this parasite in the State of Rio Grande do Norte. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of decoquinate, added to mineral salt, for controlling Eimeria infection in lambs, and to identify which species are infecting sheep in the eastern region of the state. This study was carried out from August 2009 to January 2010, and used 76 animals. These were divided into two treatment groups: one with common mineral salt, and the other with mineral salt enriched with 6% micronized decoquinate. Fecal samples and body weight measurements were taken every 14 days for parasitological diagnosis, weight gain follow-up and quantitative analysis. The study showed that there was a significant difference in OPG only at the 7th collection, but no significant difference in weight gain. The Eimeria species found were E. ahsata. E. crandallis. E. granulosa. E. intrincata. E. ovina. E. faurei. E. ovinoidalis. E. pallida and E. parva. It was concluded that addition of decoquinate to mineral salt gave rise to lower oocyst elimination, thus favoring eimeriosis control in sheep.A coccidiose constitui-se num sério obstáculo à ovinocultura, a qual vem se tornando um fator limitante para a exploração, especialmente para a produção de cordeiros precoces. Porém, poucos são os estudos com esse parasito no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ação do decoquinato, adicionado ao sal mineral, no controle da infecção causada por parasitas do gênero Eimeria em cordeiros, e identificar quais as espécies infectam ovinos na região leste Potiguar. O trabalho foi desenvolvido entre agosto de 2009 e janeiro de 2010, e foram usados 76 animais, distribuídos em dois tratamentos, um com sal mineral comum e o outro com sal mineral enriquecido com decoquinato a 6

    2. Salários e tecnologia num modelo de crescimento com restrição externa Wages and technology in a growth model with external constraints

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      Marcus Dutra

      2006-04-01

      Full Text Available O modelo proposto formaliza uma preocupação que se encontra cada vez com mais freqüência na literatura, a saber, a de que trabalhadores que não têm acesso a condições adequadas de capacitação, saúde e motivação tendem a aprender menos, reduzindo a velocidade de inovação em produtos e processos na firma. Na medida em que a competitividade internacional repousa crescentemente na inovação e/ou na imitação rápida de tecnologia, um nível baixo de desenvolvimento humano implicará oportunidades de crescimento perdidas. Assim, o modelo assume que, até certo valor crítico do salário real, aumentos de salário real produzem aumentos de competitividade e da taxa de crescimento com equilíbrio externo, tornando compatíveis o crescimento econômico e a distribuição da renda, inclusive num contexto de abertura e de intensa concorrência internacional.The model formalizes a topic that the economic literature addresses with increasing frequency, namely that workers who have no access to adequate levels of education, health and motivation tend to learn more slowly and this in turn reduces the rate of innovation in products and processes in the firm. To the extent that international competitiveness increasingly relies on innovation and imitation of technology, a low level of human development will render lost opportunities for growth. Thus, the model assumes that - up to a certain critical level of the real wage - increases in real wages lead to a higher rate of growth consistent with balance-of-payments equilibrium, which makes compatible growth and income distribution even in contexts of external openness and intense international competition.

    3. O diferencial de salários formal-informal no Brasil: segmentação ou viés de seleção?

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      Naércio Aquino Menezes Filho

      2004-06-01

      Full Text Available Neste artigo são investigados os determinantes do diferencial de salários entre os mercados de trabalho formal e informal no Brasil. Utiliza-se um método econométrico de cross-section repetidas (pseudo-paineis, no qual o agrupamento dos dados por geração, tempo e escolaridade permite controlar o fenômeno estudado por características observáveis e não observáveis dos indivíduos. Há fortes evidências de viés de auto-seleção, indicando que os salários mais altos no setor formal decorrem dos melhores atributos individuais não observáveis dos empregados neste setor e não de características intrínsecas a este setor, como seria de se esperar pela hipótese de segmentação.The paper examines the determinants of the wage differential between workers in the formal and informal sectors of the Brazilian labor market. An econometric method of repeated cross-sections (pseudo-panel is used, that allows the researcher to control for observed and unobserved characteristics of the individuals in the sample. We present strong evidence of self-selection bias, meaning that the wage differentials are the consequence of better individual non-observable characteristics of the workers in the formal sector and not to the characteristics of this sector.

    4. Análisis físico-químico de la sal sódica de la prostaciclina obtenida en Cuba

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      José A González Lavaut

      1999-12-01

      Full Text Available Se realizó el análisis físico-químico de la sal sódica de la prostaciclina por espectroscopia infrarroja, resonancia magnética nuclear protónica y de carbono-13. Como corroboración de la estructura de la molécula estudida se realizó también el estudio espectroscópico al producto de su hidrólisis, la 6-ceto protaglandina F1a mediante la espectroscopia infrarroja, resonancia magnética nuclear protónica y de carbono-13 con ayuda de las técnicas COSY, así como el reporte de la composición elemental. Se realizó un estudio de la transformación hidrolítica de la sal sódica de la prostaciclina en 6-ceto prostaglandina F1a con el empleo de la detección por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, lo cual corroboró que éste es el producto único que se forma en dicho proceso.The physical and chemical analysis of prostacyclin sodium salt was made by infrared spectroscopy, proton-emission and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance. To corroborate the structure of the studied molecule, the product of its hydrolysis, 6-ketoprostaglandin F1a , was also studied by infrared spectroscopy, and proton-emission and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance assisted by COSY techniques. The report of the elemental composition was made, too. A study of the hydrolytic transformation of prostacyclin sodium salt into 6-keto-prostaglandin was carried out by high resolution liquid chromatography, which confirmed that this is the only product obtained in such a process.

    5. Consumo de sal fortificada con yodo en niños de 12 a 35 meses de edad y mujeres en edad fértil en el Perú

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      Marianella Miranda C

      2004-04-01

      Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia del consumo de sal fortificada con yodo en niños de 12 a 35 meses de edad y mujeres en edad fértil. Material y Métodos: La información fue obtenida de la Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Alimentos en Mujeres en Edad Fértil y Niños entre 12 y 35 meses del año 2003. La muestra estuvo constituida por 2907 niños y 2909 mujeres. La determinación de la presencia de yodo en sal se realizó a través de un método cualitativo normado para su uso en el Perú. Resultados: El porcentaje de niños y mujeres con consumo de sal yodada adecuadamente fue 92,9% y 92,8%, respectivamente; las menores prevalencias se encontraron en la selva y en el departamento de Loreto. Conclusiones: Se encontró un alto porcentaje de niños y mujeres en edad fértil con consumo de sal yodada adecuada, resultado de la estrategia nacional desarrollada para el control de los desórdenes por deficiencia de yodo en nuestro país.

    6. Need for coordinated programs to improve global health by optimizing salt and iodine intake Necesidad de programas coordinados para mejorar la salud a escala mundial mediante la optimización de la ingesta de sal y yodo

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Norm R. C. Campbell

      2012-10-01

      Full Text Available High dietary salt is a major cause of increased blood pressure, the leading risk for death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO has recommended that salt intake be less than 5 g/day, a goal that only a small proportion of people achieve. Iodine deficiency can cause cognitive and motor impairment and, if severe, hypothyroidism with serious mental and growth retardation. More than 2 billion people worldwide are at risk of iodine deficiency. Preventing iodine deficiency by using salt fortified with iodine is a major global public health success. Programs to reduce dietary salt are technically compatible with programs to prevent iodine deficiency through salt fortification. However, for populations to fully benefit from optimum intake of salt and iodine, the programs must be integrated. This review summarizes the scientific basis for salt reduction and iodine fortification programs, the compatibility of the programs, and the steps that need to be taken by the WHO, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations to ensure that populations fully benefit from optimal intake of salt and iodine. Specifically, expert groups must be convened to help countries implement integrated programs and context-specific case studies of successfully integrated programs; lessons learned need to be compiled and disseminated. Integrated surveillance programs will be more efficient and will enhance current efforts to optimize intake of iodine and salt. For populations to fully benefit, governments need to place a high priority on integrating these two important public health programs.El alto contenido de sal en la dieta es una causa principal de incremento de la presión arterial, el principal factor de riesgo de muerte a escala mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS ha recomendado que el consumo de sal sea inferior a 5 g/d, una meta que solo logran una pequeña proporción de personas. La falta de yodo puede causar deficiencia cognoscitiva y

    7. Geo-diversity and geo-materials in the region of Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer: Characterization and Rationalization of Utilization

      Science.gov (United States)

      Belhaj, Siham; Bahi, Lahcen; Akhssas, Ahmed

      2016-04-01

      The Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer (RSZZ) is distinguished by a rich geology is varied. Outcrops are found in both the Paleozoic basement, especially along the major wadis in the area and a fairly extensive coverage postpaléozoïque and locally very thick. It offers a wide variety of petrographic facies some of which the construction of geomaterials value (GMC), very solicited by the construction sector and public works (BTP). Among the most important GMC furniture and beds of RSZZ: - The sands. They are a fundamental component for the preparation of mortar and hydraulic concrete. They also enter into the composition of adobe and are used for the foundation of shoes. -The Clays. They are mainly used by ceramists (industrial units manufacturing tiles). The red clay of Triassic age are most represented in the Region in deposits whose thickness can reach several tens of meters. -The Calcarenite. : It is the most used local stone in building the cities of Rabat and Salé, where she is well known as the Stone of Salé. The same stone is used in the manufacture of lime through calcination. Geologically, it is a calcareous sandstone, of Pliocene-Quaternary age that is in the form of a dune system that runs parallel to the Atlantic coast. -The Limestones: These massive limestones and more or less metamorphosed dolomitized Devonian. These limestone outcrop along major wadis of the region (Akrech, Ykem, ...) as layers sometimes quite thick and more or less tectonized. According to localities, these limestones show a wide range of colors (white, gray, black pink) and a wide variety of structures (colorful, beaded, veined, textured) - The quartzites. They correspond to Ordovician bars that appear quite often emerged in relation to other surrounding formations because of their high resistance to erosion. The rock is generally brownish gray and shows a very high hardness related to its siliceous. Local and temporary holdings allow blocks extraction for various public works

    8. Fueros y sal: controversias fiscales entre la provincia de Álava y la corona durante el periodo Borbónico

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      María Rosario PORRES MARIJUÁN

      2009-11-01

      Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir del reinado de Felipe II, la política fiscal de la Corona en relación a la sal entró en contradicción con algunos de los usos, costumbres y privilegios detentados por las provincias vascas en esa materia. Álava, como consumidora y productora con sus salinas de Añana mantuvo algunas controversias durante el primer período borbónico. Sus autoridades se enfrentaron a la Corona por cuestiones relacionadas con la sal en esta etapa que coincide con una fase evolutiva en la administración aduanera del Distrito de Cantabria. Una fase de reforma que tiene en 1740 la fecha clave, pues es entonces cuando se implanta la administración directa de la Corona sobre las rentas. Su objetivo era doble: la obtención de ingresos más elevados y más regulares, al mismo tiempo que hacer más efectiva la maquinaria aduanera en su fin de perseguir y eliminar las actividades fraudulentas. Álava tuvo que resignarse a la pérdida de ciertos privilegios relacionados con el consumo de la sal, pero nunca llegó a renunciar a los referidos al precio y su exención ante los continuos sobreprecios impuestos por la Corona con fines diversos. Las autoridades alavesas se aferraban a la figura del contrafuero en la medida en la que los fines destinatarios del «crecimiento» solían ser dos materias que los alaveses asumían a través de su propia hacienda: los servicios militares y el reparo de los caminos.ABSTRACT: From Philip ll’s reign onwards, the taxation policy of the Crown in relation to salt came into conflict with some of the uses, customs and privileges retained by the Basque provinces in this field. Alava, as both consumer and producer, with its Añana saltworks, sustained some controversy during the first Bourbon period. Its authorities opposed the Crown on questions related to salt iln this period, which coincided with a developmental phase in the customs administration of the district of Cantabria. The key date of this reform phase was

    9. Salón social del club natación Metropole Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, España

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      López Díaz, Luis

      1978-02-01

      Full Text Available This hall is the first stage of an ambitious programme of reforms and extensions to the Metropole Swimming Club which, apart from increasing and diversifying the number of the sports installations, includes others of an eminently social nature. The numerous conditioning factors which limited the construction of the hall from the beginning, both regarding the surface —rectangular and extremely elongated, messuring 13 x 13 m, and height— about 3 m, and regarding its situation within the whole, lead to the arrangement of three articulated atmospheres within a single space, covered with thin reinforced concrete warped membranes, as the only solution capable, on the one hand, of reducing the coldness and stiffness of the structure imposed, and on the other, of satisfactorily answering the design bases which prefixed multifunctionality, transparency and representativity of the building. A final premiss which called for the integration of the work in a surrounding gardaned environment was solved by the complete glazing of the frontages and the light tones of the finishing materials.

      Este salón es la primera fase de un ambicioso programa de reformas y ampliaciones para el Club Natación Metropole que, además de aumentar y diversificar el número de las instalaciones deportivas, incluye otras de carácter eminentemente social. Los numerosos condicionantes que desde un principio limitaron la construcción del salón, tanto en cuanto a superficie —rectángulo sumamente alargado de 13 x 33 m— y altura —unos 3 m—, como a su situación dentro del conjunto, condujeron a la organización de tres ambientes articulados dentro de un espacio único, cubiertos con sendas membranas delgadas de hormigón armado, de formas alabeadas, como única solución capaz, por una parte, de reducir la frialdad y rigidez de la conformación impuesta, y por otra, de responder satisfactoriamente a las bases de diseño que prefijaban la multifuncionalidad

    10. ¿Políticas públicas o acciones de gobierno turísticas en Ixtapan de la Sal? El caso del Cocdetur

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      Graciela Cruz Jiménez

      2008-01-01

      Full Text Available Los cambios en la forma de gobierno en México han impulsado, al menos en teoría, a las políticas públicas como un mecanismo para propiciar la participación de los distintos sectores de la sociedad en su diseño, implementación y evaluación, contrario a las tradicionales acciones de gobierno, asumidas en solitario por la autoridad pública. El Consejo Consultivo de Ixtapan de la Sal (Cocdetur se erigió como un órgano de consulta tendiente a incorporar los principios de las políticas públicas a la conducción de la actividad turística. Este artículo pretende determinar si se cumplieron estos propósitos o se mantuvo el esquema tradicional. Con base en ello, las condiciones sustentables o no que propicia una u otra en la comunidad receptora.

    11. Sal de iodônio aumenta a resistência coesiva de uma resina adesiva experimental na presença de solvente

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      Fernanda B. Leal

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o efeito da concentração de solvente na resistência coesiva de um adesivo experimental contendo um derivado do difeniliodônio. Uma blenda monomérica baseada em Bis-GMA, TEGDMA e HEMA foi utilizada como resina adesiva modelo. Foram avaliados dois sistemas de fotoiniciação: um sistema bináriocanforquinona (CQ e etil 4-dimetilamino benzoato (EDAB] e um sistema ternário [CQ, EDAB e hexafluorfosfato de difeniliodônio (DPI]. Nestas resinas foram adicionadas diferentes concentrações de etanol, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40% e teste de resistência coesiva foi utilizado para investigar o efeito deste solvente sobre as propriedades do material. A presença de solvente reduziu a resistência coesiva do polímero, independentemente do sistema de fotoiniciação utilizado. Além disso, o uso do sal de iodônio no sistema de fotoiniciação aumentou a resistência coesiva quando comparado com o sistema binário, e independentemente da concentração de solvente, a resistência coesiva dos polímeros contendo difeniliodônio foi superior à do sistema binário de fotoiniciação.

    12. Análisis del papel del turismo residencial en la cabecera municipal de Ixtapan de la Sal, Estado de México

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      Esteban Arias

      2007-01-01

      Full Text Available El presente artículo es resultado de un trabajo de tesis para la obtención del título de licenciatura. El propósito del estudio fue analizar los efectos que genera el turismo residencial en Ixtapan de la Sal a fin de conocer de manera puntual la incidencia en el desarrollo turístico de este destino. El método aplicado en este trabajo, fue el clínico y se empleó con la finalidad de conocer la situación actual del turismo residencial. Así también, con el método deductivo emanado de la revisión teórica de la propuesta de Daniel Hiernaux en su obra Segundas Residencias fue posible lograr confrontar su teoría con los datos recogidos en campo. A partir de la década de los cuarenta, el turismo en México ha presentado distintas modalidades: el turismo de sol y playa; el turismo religioso o el ecoturismo; particularmente, el turismo residencial es una tendencia de reciente auge, práctica aún cuestionada como modalidad turística por no hacer uso de los servicios de alojamiento hotelero como lo hace el turismo convencional, pero que tiene repercusiones importantes en las comunidades anfitrionas, como es el caso de estudio.

    13. Late Holocene Changes in Vegetation of the Mrągowo Lakeland (NE Poland as Registered in the Pollen Record from Lake Salęt

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      Szal Marta

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available Pollen analysis of sediments from the upper part of bottom deposits from Lake Salęt allowed reconstruction of main stages of the Late Holocene vegetation transformation in the Mrągowo Lake District (from ca. 3600 cal. years BC and to correlate some of these changes with immigration and economic activity of local human groups. Significant spreading of secondary semi-natural birch forest, development of horn beam forest and increasing importance of anthropogenic open communities were the most characteristic features of vegetation evolution. A definite break down of elm took place between 2900 and 2500 cal. years BC, slightly after increased contribution of birch in wood lands. Disappearance of hazel around 1200 cal. years BC, accompanied by expansion of horn beam has been observed and should be linked with activity of the Ząbie-Szestno type culture and the Lusatian culture tribes during the Bronze Age, but not with a climate change. Considerable intensification of settlement processes recorded in the younger part of the Subatlantic chronozone was one of the important reasons that were responsible for quick changes in forest structure. Strong and continued deforestation started as early as the end of the 10th century AD and was substantially intensified in the first half of the 13th century.

    14. Consumo de sal fortificada con yodo en niños de 12 a 35 meses de edad y ujeres en edad fértil en el Perú

      OpenAIRE

      Miranda C, Marianella; Dirección Ejecutiva de Vigilancia Alimentaria Nutricional. Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú.; Calderón A, María del Pilar; Dirección Ejecutiva de Vigilancia Alimentaria Nutricional. Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú.; Riega D, Vanessa; Dirección Ejecutiva de Vigilancia Alimentaria Nutricional. Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú.; Barboza Del C, Juan; Rojas D, Carlos; Dirección Ejecutiva de Vigilancia Alimentaria Nutricional. Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú.

      2004-01-01

      Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia del consumo de sal fortificada con yodo en niños de 12 a 35 meses de edad y mujeres en edad fértil. Material y Métodos: La información fue obtenida de la Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Alimentos en Mujeres en Edad Fértil y Niños entre 12 y 35 meses del año 2003. La muestra estuvo constituida por 2907 niños y 2909 mujeres. La determinación de la presencia de yodo en sal se realizó a través de un método cualitativo normado para su uso en el Perú. Resultados:...

    15. Validación del método potenciométrico por ión selectivo para la determinación de flúor en sal, agua y orina

      OpenAIRE

      Aguilar R, Patricia; Ingeniería Química, MsC. Tecnología de Alimentos y Agroindustria, División de Química, Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud

      2000-01-01

      Objetivo: Validar el método potenciómetro por ión selectivo en la determinación de fluoruro. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron 3 tipos de muestras (sal, agua, y orina), trabajándose con 3 analistas para el agua y sal, y 2 para la orina. La validación se realizó en 2 días, realizándose 10 ensayos por día. Se calculó la precisión (en condiciones de repetibilidad y reproducibilidad) y exactitud del método (en términos de recuperación del analito adicionado a la muestra). Resultados: Se obtuvo ...

    16. El sueño premonitorio de Moisés Almosnino sobre Yosef Nasí en el Tratado de los sueños (Salónica 1564

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      Romeu Ferré, Pilar

      2004-06-01

      Full Text Available Moshe Almosnino and Yosef Nasi did not only share a common political and social context, namely Salónica, Constantinople in the 16th century. They also devoted their time and effort to help the Sephardic people of the Diaspora to which they both belonged. One can say that their work got rewarded as the premonitory dream was fulfilled.Dos personajes famosos, Moisés Almosnino y Yosef Nasí, coincidieron en un espacio geográfico y temporal común (Salónica-Constantinopla a mediados del siglo XVI. Ambos trabajaron desde allí denodadamente en favor del pueblo sefardí en la diáspora. La realización del sueño premonitorio vendría a colmar las expectativas de ambos.

    17. Desempenho reprodutivo e metabólitos sanguíneos de ovelhas Ile de France sob suplementação com sal orgânico ou sal comum durante a estação de monta Reproductive performance and blood metabolites from Ile de France ewes fed organic or common salt in the breeding season

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Luiz Antero de Oliveira Peixoto

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho reprodutivo de ovelhas sob suplementação com sal orgânico ou sal comum durante a estação de monta e sua associação com os constituintes metabólicos do sangue. O experimento foi conduzido no período de novembro de 2005 a maio de 2006 utilizando-se 40 ovelhas da raça Ile de France. Durante a estação de monta, as ovelhas permaneceram em duas áreas de campo nativo, cada uma com 15 hectares, e foram distribuídas em dois grupos, conforme o tipo de suplementação: recebendo apenas mistura mineral (sal+fosfato ou suplementação diária de sal orgânico. Foram analisados os indicadores bioquímicos do perfil nutricional por meio da quantificação de albumina, ureia, glicose, colesterol e triglicerídeos do soro sanguíneo. As ovelhas sob suplementação com mineral orgânico tiveram teor de nitrogênio ureico sérico superior ao daquelas que receberam mineral na forma tradicional (39,00 vs 35,69 mg/dL, respectivamente. Os demais componentes bioquímicos avaliados não apresentaram diferença entre as formas de suplementação. Os níveis séricos de albumina, ureia, glicose e colesterol apresentaram variação entre os períodos avaliados durante a estação de monta. Os níveis séricos de albumina e nitrogênio ureico não influenciam a taxa de parição das ovelhas. A suplementação com mineral orgânico não melhora os índices reprodutivos do rebanho ovino na estação de monta das ovelhas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of ewes supplemented with organic or common mineral salt in the breeding season, and the effect on metabolic constituents of the blood. The experiment was carried out from November 2005 to May 2006 using 40 Ile de France breed ewes. During the breeding season, sheep grazed on two native pasture areas of 15 ha each and were distributed in two groups, depending on the supplementation: submitted to treatments: receiving only mineral mix (salt

    18. Diseño de un sistema de mobiliario para el salón principal de las viviendas de interés social a partir de principios de diseño sostenible

      OpenAIRE

      Gómez Martínez, Álvaro Andrés; Herrera Jaramillo, Jully Andrea

      2010-01-01

      El proyecto presenta una solución de un sistema mobiliario para el salón principal de las Viviendas de Interés Social teniendo en cuenta principios de diseño sostenible, dando respuesta a la problemática social que tienen los usuarios de las VIS al adquirir mobiliario a bajo costo y adicionalmente para un espacio reducido.

    19. Daniel de Ávila Gallego: "Diálogo del colorado (Salónica, 1601). Interpretación académica de la escarlatina" [Reseña bibliográfica

      OpenAIRE

      Arrizabalaga, Jon

      2015-01-01

      Reseña bibliográfica de: Daniel de Ávila Gallego. Diálogo del colorado (Salónica, 1601). Interpretación académica de la escarlatina. Edición, introducción y notas de Pilar Romeu Ferré. [Colección Fuente Clara. Estudios de Cultura Sefardí]. Barcelona: Tirocinio; 2014, 303 p. ISBN 978-84-940083-6-8.

    20. Investigación: La historia de la sal en México, las salinas de Cuyutlán y el caso de la cooperativa de salineros de Colima

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      Oriana Zaret Gaytán Gómez

      2015-11-01

      Full Text Available En México, y en muchos lugares del mundo, existen productores artesanales que extraen sal de maneras casi tan autóctonas como lo hicieron nuestros antepasado prehispánicos. En este trabajo se pretende exponer el caso de una cooperativa ubicada en la región de Cuyutlán, en el Estado de Colima, que, si bien ya ha implementado algunas innovaciones, aún sigue utilizando el trabajo intensivo para poder llevar a cabo la extracción de la sal. Conoceremos un poco de la historia de la cooperativa, de los conflictos que enfrentó durante su constitución y a lo largo de toda su existencia. Asimismo, se abordará el tema de la cultura regional que ha emergido alrededor de ella. Antes de exponer dicha situación, se presentará un panorama general de lo que ha sido la historia de la sal en México antes y después de la llegada de los españoles, durante el México independiente y la Revolución, hasta llegar a la situación actual; ello con el fin de contextualizar la investigación y poner en antecedentes al lector de la importancia de este mineral en la historia de nuestro país. Para finalizar el trabajo, se expondrá la realidad presente y pasada de las salinas de la Costa de Colima para con ello exponer la pertinencia de estudiar a mayor profundidad el fenómeno de explotación de la sal a través de dicha sociedad, la cual el 1º de enero de 2015 cumplió 90 años de existencia.

    1. Diferenciais de salários por gênero na indústria avícola da região Sul do Brasil: uma análise com micro dados

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      Paulo de Andrade Jacinto

      2005-09-01

      Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa os diferenciais de salários por gênero na indústria avícola da Região Sul do Brasil, tendo como base as informações da Relação Anual de Informações Sociais (RAIS de 1998. Para tanto, a decomposição de Oaxaca (1973 é empregada para mensurar as diferenças de salários entre trabalhadores homogêneos quanto à educação e ocupação. Os resultados do trabalho mostram que a discriminação que ocorre no mercado de trabalho como um todo também está presente nessa indústria, ou seja, encontraram-se evidências da existência de diferenciais de salários favoráveis aos homens.This paper examines the wage differentials by gender in the poultry industry from South Region of Brazil. The Relação Anual de Informações Sociais - RAIS of 1998 was used. To measure the difference between the homogeneous workers as education and occupation it was used the Oaxaca's method (1973. The results showed that the same discrimination found in the labor markets is present into the poultry industry.

    2. Análise epidemiológica de lesões no futebol de salão durante o XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Seleções Sub 20 Análisis epidemiológico de las lesiones en el fútbol de salón durante el XV Campeonato Brasileño de Selecciones Sub 20 Epidemiologic analysis of injuries occurred during the 15th Brazilian Indoor Soccer (Futsal Sub20 Team Selection Championship

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      Rodrigo Nogueira Ribeiro

      2006-02-01

      Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Vários autores têm investigado a incidência de lesões no futebol. Entretanto, poucos trabalhos têm analisado as lesões no Futebol de Salão. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a incidência, circunstâncias e características das lesões registradas no Futebol de Salão durante o XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol de Salão Sub 20. MÉTODOS: Fisioterapeutas ou médicos de todas as seleções participantes do XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol de Salão Sub 20 responderam a um questionário para investigar a ocorrência de lesões durante as partidas. A taxa de resposta foi de 100%. RESULTADOS: Um total de 32 lesões foi registrado durante as 23 partidas, com incidência de 1,39 lesão por partida ou 208,6 lesões por 1.000 horas/jogo. Aproximadamente 1 a 3 lesões por partida resultaram em afastamento de jogadores em partidas ou treinamentos. As lesões de contato eram predominantes em 65,62% (21 das 32 lesões e a maioria dessas lesões não resultou no afastamento dos jogadores. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo observou que a incidência das lesões durante o XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol de Salão Sub 20 foi semelhante à registrada em torneios de Futebol de Salão, mas superior aos achados em torneios de futebol, caracterizando a especificidade do esporte. Entretanto, circunstâncias e características são similares entre eles devido à semelhança de demanda do esporte.INTRODUCCIÓN: Varios autores han estado investigando la incidencia de lesiones en el fútbol. Sin embargo, pocos trabajos han estado analizando las lesiones en el fútbol de salón. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de analizar la incidencia, y las circunstancias, y características de las lesiones registradas en el fútbol de salón durante el XV Campeonato Brasileño de Fútbol de salón Sub 20. MÉTODOS: Médicos y/o fisioterapeutas del todos los participantes del XV Campeonato Brasileño de Fútbol de salón Sub 20 contestaron una encuesta

    3. Salça Üretim Aşamalarına Göre Bakteri ve Maya Florasındaki Değişim ve Bozulmadaki Etkileri Üzerinde Araştırmalar

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      Vildan Uylaşer

      2015-02-01

      Full Text Available Bu çalışma salça üretim sanayiinde büyük bir sorun oluşturan ve bu nedenle ekonomik kayıplara yol açan mikrobiyolojik bozulmalara ışık tutması, bu bozulmaların etkileri olan mikroorganizmaların hangileri olduğu ve üretimin hangi aşamasında ne yoğunlukta bulunduklarının belirlenmesi amacıyla yapılmıştır. Bunun için iki farklı firmadan, salça üretiminin tüm aşamalarını kapsayacak şekilde örnekler alınarak hem mikrobiyolojik, kimyasal ve fiziksel analizler, hem de bakteri ve maya izolasyonları yapılmıştır. Analizler sonucu elde edilen bulgulara göre salça üretimi sırasında rastlanılan bakterilerin Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Listeria, Corynebacterium, Kurthia ve Streptococcus cinslerinin; mayaların ise Aureobasidium, Candida, Endomycopsis, Hansenula, Kloeckera, Saccharomyces, Torulopsis ve Trichrosporon cinslerinin temsilcileri oldukları belirlenmiştir. Bu mikroorganizmaların salça üretimi sırasında sayıca en fazla bulundukları aşamaların ise hammadde, yıkama sonrası, palper çıkışı ve 1. evaporasyon sonrası (1. efekt olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca salça üretiminin 6 değişik aşamasından 2 üretim sezonunda 14 farklı zamanda alınan örneklerde kuru madde, briks, pH, asit tuz ve invert şeker analizleri yapılmış ve değişimleri izlenmiştir.

    4. Uranium and lanthanides in surficial sediments of Laguna Ojo de Liebre and evaporation ponds of Exportadora de Sal, Guerrero Negro, México.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Grajeda-Muñoz, M. M.; Choumiline, E.; Zaposhnikov, D.

      2007-05-01

      To assess uranium and lanthanides behavior in hypersaline environments, surficial sediment samples were taken from Laguna Ojo de Liebre as well as from the evaporation ponds of Exportadora de Sal (the largest natural salt producing facility in the continent). A total of 63 surficial sediment samples from the laguna and 30 samples from the ponds were analyzed by inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for uranium (sediments, deposits and solution) and instrumental neutron activation analysis for REEs in sediments and deposits. Results show that the behavior is all but similar between light and heavy REEs with the exception of Eu which shows a very different pattern of surficial distribution in Laguna Ojo de Liebre with a maximum concentrations in the sediments near the head of the lagoon. Data normalized with North American Shale Composite (NASC) show 3 distinct signature patterns on the surficial sediments, all of them enriched regarding the values of NASC. As for U total content in sediments and solid deposits it shows a higher concentration towards the head of the lagoon (3 mg/kg), from where the water is pumped to the sequence of evaporation ponds, with the lowest values being close to 1 mg/kg near the mouth of the lagoon. The interesting phenomenon begins in the evaporation ponds, where uranium is almost constant in sediments and deposits (0.15-1.5 mg/kg) but behaves conservately in the brine solution, increasing proportionally with salt content (U, 5-20 mg/kg; salt content, 40-250 g/kg). Non lithogenic U was calculated with Sc as reference. Most of the measured U was non lithogenic in the sediments of the lagoon and ponds. The distribution coefficient k= U(non-lith)/U(dis) shows a maximum value at ponds I and II (salt content 40-80 g/kg) decreasing with increasing salinity.

    5. Intervenção Aplicada a um Salão de Beleza para Adequação dos Aspectos Financeiros

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      Bruna Fernanda Dias

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available O relato técnico tem como objetivo apresentar os resultados de intervenções aplicadas nos aspectos financeiros de um salão de beleza, após a realização de uma consultoria na pequena empresa no mês de março em 2016. Foram identificadas dificuldades para apuração do lucro obtido pela organização, resistência para utilização de sistema de informação para controles dos processos e na percepção e formação do preço de venda. Foram realizadas a contabilização das receitas; cálculo da margem de contribuição e do resultado do estabelecimento. A partir do conhecimento do resultado, foi definida uma meta de pró-labore à proprietária, deixando de destinar todo lucro da organização para gastos pessoais. Identificou-se também os valores que podem ser destinados a novos investimentos e futuras necessidades de capital de giro em função da previsão de mudança para uma nova sede. Foi reforçado junto à empresária a importância da utilização de software, tanto para controle efetivo das receitas e despesas, como também para melhoria do do atendimento.

    6. Eliminación de sal inorgánica residual producida en la fermentación farmacéutica por nanofiltración y ósmosis inversa: experimento y modelo matemático

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      Jesús Mora Molina

      2007-05-01

      Full Text Available El problema del agua residual con altos contenidos de sal es una importante preocupación de las autoridades medioambientalistas. Los metódos de tratamientos de aguas residuales existentes, tanto municipales como industriales, son incapaces de retener eficientemente los compuestos inorgánicos. En este trabajo se presentan nuevos resultados con membranas de ósmosis inversa (OI y nanofiltración (NF preparadas por las compañías Filmtec y Millipore. Los objetivos principales de esta investigación fueron estos: 1. Encontrar un sistema con alta eficiencia para separar la sal del agua residual generada en el proceso fermentativo farmacéutico y obtener una concentración según lo establecido por la legislación ambiental (concentración de sal: 2500 mg/l, y concentración de los sólidos totales: 1200 mgO2/l; además, que a la planta de tratamiento biológico o directamente al medio ambiente. 2.Determinar la retención de sal demanda química de oxígeno y el flujo del filtrado con sistemas de NF y OI. Asimismo, con base en los datos experimentales, poder describir soluciones similares a las basadas en el modelo de ósmosis a aguas residuales. La temperatura experimental, la presión y el flujo de recirculación fueron mantenidos constantes, en la NF 30°C, 30 bar y 200 l/h, en la OI 30-40°C, 40-50 bar y 300 l/h. En los experimentos de la NF y la OI el factor de concentración fue de Cff = Vaguaori(m3 /Vretenido (m3 = 2,67. Se midieron y se calcularon el flujo del filtrado, la conductividad eléctrica del filtrado, la demanda química de oxígeno y los sólidos totales. En el sistema de OI se obtuvieron los siguientes resultados: contenido de sólidos totales en el agua original 2,06%, en el filtrado, 0,048%; demanda química de oxígeno en el agua original 8750 mg O2/l, en el filtrado 289 mgO2/l. Los resultados demostraron claramente que las membranas de NF investigadas no fueron lo suficientemente eficientes en la retención de sal del agua

    7. Susceptibilidade da mucosa gástrica à ação lesiva de um sal biliar em ratos chagásicos crônicos

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Luiz Ernesto de Almeida Troncon

      1987-12-01

      Full Text Available Ratos inoculados previamente com a cepa Y do Trypanosoma cruzi (n = 15 e ratos-controles de mesma idade e sexo (n = 15 foram submetidos a estudo que consistiu no exame da mucosa gástrica após a exposição in vivo da mesma à solução acidificada de um sal biliar, o taurocolato de sódio (TC. Em 10 animais de cada grupo procedeu-se também à contagem dos neurônios do plexo mientérico do estômago e ao exame histopatológico dos corpos neuronais, feito em microscopia óptica convencional. Escores indicativos da gravidade das lesões produzidas pelo TC foram significativamente maiores (P < 0,002 nos ratos chagásicos que nos controles. A área erosada da mucosa gástrica, em % da área total da região glandular do estômago, foi significativamente maior (P0,10 entre os ratos chagásicos (1683,6 ± 449,7 n = 10 e os controles (1732,8 ± 401,1 n = 10. Não houve diferença qualitativa ao exame histopatológico dos corpos neuronais. Estes resultados indicam que, na doença de Chagas experimental crônica, a mucosa gástrica é mais sensível à ação lesiva do TC, o que sugere redução da citoproteção natural do estômago. Esta anormalidade não deve decorrer de alterações da inervação intrínseca que impliquem redução do número de neurônios intramurais do estômago, mas pode ser o resultado de alterações qualitativas não detectáveis à microscopia óptica.

    8. AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE E COMPOSIÇÃO DE TEMPEROS ALHO E SAL INDUSTRIALIZADOS, COMERCIALIZADOS NA CIDADE DE JUIZ DE FORA

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      WALTER DE CARVALHO

      2009-07-01

      Full Text Available

      Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer um perfil de composição físicoquímica, microscópica e sensorial de temperos do tipo alho e sal industrializados. Foram analisadas trinta amostras, coletadas ao acaso no varejo do município de Juiz de Fora - MG. Os resultados demonstraram ausência de padronização quanto à qualidade microbiológica, aspectos sensoriais e rotulagem Observou-se excessiva concentração de cloreto de sódio nas amostras, com valores percentuais variando entre 69 e 93,22 e média aritmética de 83,74. O teor de umidade variou de 5,76 a 25,54, com média aritmética de 12,08 (valores percentuais Com relação às amostras, 4,17% delas encontraram-se em desacordo com a legislação vigente no que diz respeito à contagem de bolores e leveduras. A microscopia não se mostrou eficiente para verificar a composição deste produto, impossibilitando a detecção de possíveis adulterações com cebola. Preparou-se um tempero-padrão com base nos valores médios de composição, o qual foi submetido às mesmas análises, apresentando composição de 83,78% de cloreto de sódio e 10,63% de umidade. Constatou -se a necessidade de fixação de especificações para teores máximos de cloreto de sódio e umidade, padronização da rotulagem e adoção de boas práticas de fabricação como forma de garantir um produto de melhor qualidade ao consumidor.

    9. AÇÃO ANTILISTERIAL DO EXTRATO BRUTO DE Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens EM DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE PROTEÍNA, pH E SAL

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      M. A. PEREIRA

      2008-09-01

      Full Text Available

      O elevado índice de morbidade em função da contaminação dos alimentos tem aumentado a necessidade de metodologias alternativas para conservação dos mesmos. Nesse sentido, essa pesquisa teve por objetivo: (1 otimizar a ação antilisterial do extrato bruto produzido por Bacillus amyloliquefaciens em diferentes concentrações proteicas, pH e sal; (2 avaliar a ação do extrato bruto otimizado em ostras artificialmente contaminadas com Listeria monocytogenes. A ação do extrato bruto em diferentes concentrações de proteína (0,0; 5,0; 40; 80 µg/mL sobre o inóculo de 106 UFC.mL-1 de Listeria monocytogenes foi verificada em caldo TSB-YE previamente ajustado para pH 4,0 e 8,0 e concentrações de NaCl de 0; 2,5 e 4,5 % p/v. Os ensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 25ºC em estufa DBO. Para determinar a recuperação microbiana, realizaram-se contagens de Listeria monocytogenes a cada 4 h, por até 50 h. Dos tratamentos testados, a combinação de 80 g/mL de proteína do extrato bruto, pH 4,0 e 4,5 % de NaCl mostrou melhor performance quanto a atividade antimicrobiana, chegando a uma redução de até 5 ciclos logarítmicos de Listeria monocytogenes. Quando testada a ação do tratamento conjunto de 80 g/mL de extrato bruto, pH 4,0 e 4,5 % de NaCl sobre carne de ostra, obteve-se uma redução no número de Listeria monocytogenes de aproximadamente 3 ciclos logarítmicos, (3,0x106 para 1,5x103 UFC.mL-1, após 24 h de incubação a 25ºC. Esses resultados indicam a possível utilização do antimicrobiano produzido por Bacillus amyloliquefaciens como conservador de alimentos.

    10. A promissora província petrolífera do pré-sal The promising oil province of the pre-salt

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Alessandra Aloise de Seabra

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available O desafio nacional a partir da descoberta da promissora provincia petrolífera do pré-sal é estabelecer parâmetros que norteiem um desenvolvimento sustentável, com respeito ao meio ambiente e às populações locais. Em geral, os problemas dos países abundantes em petróleo decorrem da dificuldade no gerenciamento das rendas da produção. Nesse contexto, o presente artigo considera a aplicação dos royalties na zona costeira do país necessária e legítima. A partir de uma metodologia argumentativa, analisou-se a concentração da atividade petrolífera na costa, a natureza jurídica dos royalties, bem como a estrutura legislativa da divisão do recurso, a fim de contribuir com o debate sobre o rearranjo institucional dessa matéria. Conclui-se que a divisão igualitária dos recursos petrolíferos só é legítima após a retirada da parcela referente à mitigação dos impactos. Antes disso, tal divisão violaria os Princípios da Igualdade e do Poluidor-Pagador.The national challenge since the discovery of the promising oil province of the pre-salt is to establish parameters to guide sustainable development, with respect to the environment and local populations. In general, the problems of oil-abundant countries arise from the difficulty in managing incomes from the oil production. In this context, this study considers the application of royalties in the brazilian coastal zone necessary and legitimate. Through an argumentative approach, the concentration of oil activity on the coast, the legal nature of royalties, and the legislative framework regarding the division of the resource were analyzed in order to contribute to the debate about the institutional rearrangement of the matter. It could be concluded that the equal division of oil resources is legitimate only after removal of the portion relating to mitigation of impacts. Otherwise, such partition would violate the principles of equality and polluter payer.

    11. Determinantes da satisfação e atributos da qualidade em serviços de salão de beleza Determinants of satisfaction and quality attributes in beauty salon services

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      José Luis Duarte Ribeiro

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um modelo de representação dos determinantes da satisfação dos clientes de serviços em salões de beleza e dos atributos de qualidade percebidos por eles. Para isso, foram aplicadas duas pesquisas junto a usuários de salões de beleza com a finalidade de: (i determinar as relações entre os determinantes da satisfação dos clientes; e (ii identificar e hierarquizar atributos de qualidade percebidos, de acordo com sua importância para os clientes do serviço em questão. A confirmação de expectativas e a qualidade percebida aparecem como os principais determinantes da satisfação dos clientes. Competência técnica, limpeza do ambiente e dos utensílios, cumprimento de horários e localização conveniente aparecem como os principais atributos de qualidade percebidos. Os resultados desta pesquisa podem ser usados pelos gerentes de salões de beleza para aprimorar a qualidade do serviço e a satisfação dos clientes, estabelecendo um diferencial competitivo para sua empresa.This paper presents a model to represent customer satisfaction determinants and perceived quality attributes in the hairdressing and beauty service segment. Two surveys were applied to beauty salon users with the purpose of: (i determine the relationships among customer satisfaction determinants, and (ii identify and rank attributes of perceived quality, according to their importance for customers of this segment. Confirmation of expectations and perceived quality appear as the main determinants of customer satisfaction. Technical competence, cleanliness of environment and tools, compliance to appointments, and convenient locations appear as the main attributes of perceived quality. These results can be used by managers of beauty salons to improve service quality and customer satisfaction, establishing a competitive advantage for their companies.

    12. Evaluación del desarrollo de Salíx humboldtiana, Erythrina edulis y Trichantera gigantea asociados al cultivo de mora sin espina (Rubus glaucus Benth)

      OpenAIRE

      Guapacha, Cristiam Camilo; Mesa, Jhon Jairo; Patiño, Andrés Alfonso

      2015-01-01

      En el Municipio de Quinchía, Departamento de Risaralda (Colombia), se evaluó el desarrollo de los tutores vivos Salíx humboldtiana, Erythrina edulis y Trichantera gigantea asociados al cultivo de mora sin espina (Rubus glaucus Benth), también la incidencia de Peronospora sparsa y Oidium sp en plantas de mora asociadas a estos sistemas agroforestales. Se utilizo un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones cada uno. Los resultados indican que Erythrina edulis es el tutor con mejor adapta...

    13. Características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros suplementados com sal forrageiro de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      L.G.A. Cirne

      2013-02-01

      Full Text Available O presente experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a porcentagem de inclusão da espécie forrageira Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq na confecção do sal forrageiro de gliricídia, por meio de características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros. Foram utilizados 30 cordeiros mestiços da raça Santa Inês, não castrados, com aproximadamente 180 dias de idade, peso vivo médio de 25kg, confinados, num delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, em que os tratamentos foram constituídos de zero (100% de NaCl, 93, 95, 97 e 99% de inclusão de feno de gliricídia (7, 5, 3 e 1% de NaCl na formulação do sal forrageiro, respectivamente. A suplementação com sal forrageiro de gliricídia não afetou (P>0,05 o peso vivo ao abate em jejum (28,39kg, peso de carcaça quente (9,76kg, rendimento de carcaça quente (34,12%, o peso de carcaça fria (9,42kg, o rendimento de carcaça fria (32,95%, as perdas de peso por resfriamento (3,40%, assim como o peso de vísceras brancas (2,19kg e o peso de vísceras vermelhas (1,29kg. Porcentagem de inclusão de até 99% de gliricídia na confecção de sal forrageiro não altera (P>0,05 as características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros.

    14. Diseño de un plan de marketing para el salón de recepciones mesón de la recolecta ubicado en el sector sur centro del distrito metropolitano de Quito.

      OpenAIRE

      Toaquiza Regalado, Marcela Alexandra

      2013-01-01

      El plan de marketing dentro del proceso de planificación es la principal herramienta de gestión para definir claramente los campos de responsabilidad y control de la acción comercial. El Salón de Recepciones Mesón de la Recoleta se encarga de realizar eventos sociales, hasta el momento ha venido trabajando por libre iniciativa sin establecer misión, visión, objetivos y metas, este lugar se ha manejado bajo la dirección de María Dolores Cevallos quien pertenece a la Congregación de las Herm...

    15. Geometric microliths as chronological and cultural markers in the Sado shell middens? Reflections from Amoreiras (Alcácer do Sal, Portugal

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      Diana Nukushina

      2015-02-01

      Full Text Available The production of geometric microliths from bladelets has been identified as one of the main strategies of lithic production during the Late Mesolithic in southwestern Portugal. The Sado shell middens generally possess an abundance of these tools, similarly to sites found in other regions. However, systematic lithic studies are still scarce. In this work, we discuss the value of the geometric microliths as chronological and cultural markers, through the analysis of lithic remains from Amoreiras shell midden (Alcácer do Sal. First, a formal characterization of this assemblage is performed. Second, a diachronic and cultural perspective of these materials in the Sado shell middens is provided. Finally, a comparison with other Late Mesolithic and the Early Neolithic assemblages from southwestern Iberia is presented. A set of lithic remains from Amoreiras, which was recovered in the 1950s and 1960s, was subject to a techno-typological analysis, following the assumptions of the ‘chaîne opératoire’. Also, a statistical analysis, including variance analysis, was performed. This work shows that the geometric microliths from Amoreiras clearly represent one of the main purposes for the debitage at this site, which presents an outstanding typological and size uniformity. The characteristics found by this study suggest the existence of a well-standardized production of geometric microliths. This production scheme would be more economic in terms of raw material requirements and production time-effort. The material and chronometrical data from Amoreiras contradicts the cultural uniformity perspective for this specific site and for the Sado shell middens in general. Moreover, in light of the presented data, a strict chrono-cultural significance of the segment dominance is difficult to sustain. Despite the standardized production and the importance given to geometric microliths, the data provided by the forms and their variations is still insufficient for

    16. Jūras kraukļu Phalacrocorax carbo kolonijas ietekme uz augsnes bruņērcēm (Acari: Oribatida) Rušona ezera Bērzu salā

      OpenAIRE

      Atmata, Līga

      2014-01-01

      Pētījuma mērķis ir noskaidrot jūras kraukļu ligzdošanas vietas ietekmi uz augsnes bruņērcēm Rušona ezera Bērzu salā. Lai noskaidrotu ietekmi, salā ierīkotas trīs paralēlas transektas, kuras šķērso jūras kraukļu aktīvo koloniju, pamestās kolonijas vietu un neietekmēto vietu, tādējādi ļaujot novērtēt jūras kraukļu ietekmi atkarībā no ligzdošanas intensitātes. Jūras kraukļi rada negatīvu ietekmi uz lielāko daļu augsnes bruņērču taksonomisko sastāvu un blīvumu augsnē, ligzdošanas vietās izmain...

    17. Tradicionālo tūrisma aģentūru un interneta ceļojumu rezervēšanas sistēmu salīdzinājums.

      OpenAIRE

      Šica, Anete

      2014-01-01

      Darba nosaukums ir „Tradicionālo tūrisma aģentūru un interneta ceļojumu rezervēšanas sistēmu salīdzinājums”. Darba mērķis ir apkopot un salīdzināt informāciju par tūrisma produktu iegādes veidiem, izstrādājot ieteikumus tradicionālo ceļojumu aģentūru tālākai pastāvēšanai tehnoloģiju laikmetā. Darbs sastāv no ievada, trīs nodaļām ar apakšnodaļām, secinājumiem, priekšlikumiem, izmantotās literatūras saraksta un pielikumiem. Darba galvenie literatūras avoti ir: populārzinātniskie raksti, z...

    18. Glikoalkaloīdu satura salīdzinājums bioloģiskajos un konvencionālajos laukos audzētos kartupeļos

      OpenAIRE

      Zapaņonoka, Valērija

      2011-01-01

      Glikoalkaloīdi ir sekundārie augu metabolīti, kuri var būt kaitīgi cilvēkam. Darba mērķis bija salīdzināt glikoalkaloīdu (α-solanīna un α-hakonīna) saturu 20 dažādās Latvijā audzētās 2010. gada ražas kartupeļu šķirnēs, kuri tika izaudzēti bioloģiskajos un konvencionālajos laukos. Glikoalkaloīdu daudzumu kartupeļos (Solanum tuberosum) noteicām ar šķidruma hromatogrāfijas (ŠH) – masspektrometrijas (MS) metodi. Salīdzinot α-solanīna un α-hakonīna daudzumus kartupeļos, tika secināts, ka glikoa...

    19. Parliament divided over border treaty / Talis Saule Archdeacon

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Archdeacon, Talis Saule

      2007-01-01

      Läti seim võttis kümme tundi kestnud debattide järel esimesel lugemisel vastu seaduse, mis volitab valitsust allkirjastama piirilepingut Venemaaga, selgitavat deklaratsiooni lisamata. Poliitikute erinevatest vaadetest piirilepingu suhtes

    20. Freak weather throws Balts into confusion / Talis Saule Archdeacon

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      Archdeacon, Talis Saule

      2007-01-01

      Erakordselt soe talv Baltimaades võib kahjustada suusakeskuste ja põllumajandusettevõtete majandustulemusi. Baltimaade võimalused EL-i uue kasvuhoonegaaside vähendamist nõudva keskkonnastrateegia täitmiseks

    1. Alleged assassin "jumped of bridge" / Talis Saule Archdeacon

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Archdeacon, Talis Saule

      2007-01-01

      Uued asjaolud ei lisa selgust julgeolekuteenistuse töötaja Edgars Gulbise sattumisse Daugava jõkke 26. septembril uurimisvanglasse konvoeerimise ajal. Kahtlustatakse, et politsei kasutas tema suhtes vägivalda

    2. PACE president criticizes Baltics minority rights / Talis Saule Archdeacon

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Archdeacon, Talis Saule

      2007-01-01

      Euroopa Nõukogu Parlamentaarse Assamblee president Rene van der Linden külastas Baltimaid ning kritiseeris vähemusrahvuste olukorda Eestis ja Lätis, tuues eeskujuks Leedut. Kriitikale vastavad Läti ja Eesti välisministrid

    3. Controversial 2008 budget passed by Cabinet / Talis Saule Archdeacon

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Archdeacon, Talis Saule

      2007-01-01

      Läti valitsus kiitis erakorralisel kohtumisel heaks 2008. aasta eelarve kava ja saatis selle parlamendile. Eelarvega rahulolematust on väljendanud ka koalitsioon ja rahvuspartei Isamaa ja Vabaduse Eest

    4. Engineering international relations / Maris Riekstins ; interv. Talis Saule Archdeacon

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Riekstins, Maris

      2008-01-01

      Läti annab peatselt Läänemeremaade Nõukogu eesistuja teatepulga üle Taanile. Läti välisminister Maris Riekstins Läänemeremaade Nõukogu teemadest ning suhetest Venemaaga. Maris Riekstins'i CV

    5. Competition and corporate governance in transition / Saul Estrin

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Estrin, Saul

      2002-01-01

      Üleminekumajanduse analüüs: institutsionaalsete muutuste mõju ettevõtluse arengule (algtingimused; erastamise viisid; institutsionaalne ja seadusandlik võrgustik; erasektori ja riigi vahekord; tootmise konkurentsivõime). Tabelid

    6. Gulbis investigation reveals fake CV / Talis Saule Archdeacon

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Archdeacon, Talis Saule

      2007-01-01

      Endise julgestustöötaja Edgars Gulbise suhtes on alustatud mitu kriminaalprotsessi: tollitöötaja auto süütamise, kelmuse, võltsitud haridust tõendava dokumendi kasutamise ning teadliku valevandumise eest. President Zatlers kritiseeris julgestusteenistust ning põhiseaduse kaitse bürood

    7. Puitmaja klaster : intervjuu Argo Sauliga / Argo Saul ; intervjueerinud Kalle Komissarov

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Saul, Argo

      2010-01-01

      Eesti Puitmajaliidu juhatuse esimehe ning Nordic Houses osaniku ja juhatuse esimehe Argo Sauliga arhitektide ja tüüpmaja tootjate võimalikust koostööst Eesti puitmaja klastris, millega Eesti Arhitektide Liit on liitunud. Nordic Houses on norra arhitektide projektide järgi tootnud ja tarninud üle 700 puhkemaja Norrasse

    8. Presidents bid farewell to Vike-Freiberga / Talis Saule Archdeacon

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Archdeacon, Talis Saule

      2007-01-01

      Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Leedu president Valdas Adamkus jätsid 3. juulil 2007 Riias hüvasti ametist lahkuva Läti presidendi Vaira Vike-Freibergaga. Baltimaade liidrid arutasid koostöö küsimusi

    9. Presidents forgive Polish no-show / Talis Saule Archdeacon

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Archdeacon, Talis Saule

      2007-01-01

      30. oktoobril 2007 Riias kohtunud Läti president Valdis Zatlers, Leedu president Valdas Adamkus ja Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves olid optimistlikud kolme riigi ja Poola koostöö osas tuumaelektrijaama projektis

    10. Union considers drastic action over wages / Talis Saule Archdeacon

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Archdeacon, Talis Saule

      2007-01-01

      Läti ühinenud ametiühingud teatasid piketikavatsusest parlamendihoone ees 11. oktoobril, mil valitsus arutab järgmise aasta eelarvet. Ametiühingud nõuavad kõrgemat palka meditsiinitöötajatele ja õpetajatele

    11. Young PM candidate harsh criticism / Talis Saule Archdeacon

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Archdeacon, Talis Saule

      2007-01-01

      Läti Rahvaerakonna peaministrikandidaati Edgars Zalansit süüdistatakse kogemuste puudumises. Edgars Zalans ei kavatse osaleda tuntud teleajakirjaniku Janis Dombursi saates "Mis toimub Lätis?". Teised kandidaadid peaministri kohale

    12. President attacks Seglins on comments / Talis Saule Archdeacon

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Archdeacon, Talis Saule

      2008-01-01

      Läti president kritiseeris Läti siseministrit Mareks Seglinsit, kui viimane kasutas inglaste iseloomustamiseks ebatsensuurset väljendit, saades teada, et Läti Vabadussamba rüvetajateks olid briti kodanikud

    13. Political battle drifts into pensioners' realm / Talis Saule Archdeacon

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Archdeacon, Talis Saule

      2008-01-01

      Läti endised ministrid lõid poliitilise organisatsiooni, mis korraldab referendumi Läti madala vanaduspensioni tõstmise toetuseks. Samas valmistub ka valitsus pensionite tõstmiseks. Lisa: Faktid pensioni ja pensionäride kohta Lätis

    14. Determinação do melhor nível de sal comum para codornas japonesas em postura Determination of the best level of salt for Japanese laying quails

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Alice Eiko Murakami

      2006-12-01

      Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar o melhor nível de sal comum para codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica em postura. Foram utilizadas 336 codornas com 13 semanas de idade, alojadas em gaiolas de 118 cm²/codorna durante 84 dias (quatro ciclos de 21 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos (0; 0,15; 0,20; 0,25; 0,30; 0,35 e 0,45% de sal comum e seis repetições de oito aves por parcela. A cada 21 dias, foram avaliados os parâmetros de desempenho (postura, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar e qualidade dos ovos (peso médio do ovo, massa de ovo, porcentagem e espessura da casca e Unidade Haugh. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos às análises de variância e de regressão e as médias comparadas pelo teste Dunnett a 5% de significância. A equação de regressão ajustada não foi significativa para os parâmetros avaliados em função dos níveis de sal na dieta. Entretanto, pela comparação entre as médias, observou-se que, nos tratamentos com a adição de sal, as aves apresentaram melhor desempenho produtivo e qualidade externa dos ovos, sendo que o nível de 0,15% de sal (equivalente a 0,10% de Na e 0,12% de Cl foi suficiente para obtenção destes resultados.The aim of this experiment was to determine the best level of salt for Japanese laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Three hundred and thirty-six quails with 13 weeks of age were housed in cages with 118 cm²/quail for 84 days (four cycles of 21 days each. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with seven treatments (0, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, and 0.45% of salt with six replicates of eight quails per pen. Every 21 days, the productive performance (% of production, feed intake and feed gain ratio [kg/kg and kg/dozen] and egg quality (average egg weight, egg mass, eggshell percentage and thickness and Unit Haugh were evaluated. Data were submitted to analyses of

    15. Papel do sal iodado na oxidação lipídica em hambúrgueres bovino e suíno (misto ou de frango The role of iodide salts on beef and chicken patties lipid oxidation

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      E.A.F.S. TORRES

      1998-04-01

      Full Text Available No Brasil, a adição de iodo ao sal, com o objetivo de erradicar o bócio, é obrigatório por lei. A adição de sal em produtos cárneos é um problema para a qualidade dos mesmos; tem sido associada à oxidação lipídica e à descoloração de carnes com a presença de metais atuando como catalisadores. Hambúrgueres elaborados com dianteiro bovino e gordura suína ou recortes de frangos, adicionados de gelo, sal, cebola, alho e pimenta in natura foram usados no experimento. Após moldados, os mesmos foram congelados, embalados e estocados. O experimento foi conduzido em triplicata e as amostras retiradas em duplicatas no tempos de 0 a 90 dias. O método de TBA de destilação foi utilizado para acompanhar a oxidação lipídica. Foram determinadas a composição centesimal e os teores de cloreto. Os hambúrgueres misto(carne suína e bovina apresentaram teor de lipídios de 73,31% e por um outro lado, a oxidação lipídica foi mais 54,40% mas ativa nas amostras de frango. A presença de sal iodado (menor que 14,41% parece não ter afetado a oxidação lipídica em ambas as carnes, contrariando a expectativa de que um sal halogênico deveria atuar como um oxidante.In Brazil it’s a legal practice to add iodide to salt. Lipid oxidation is a problem to the quality of meat products. NaCl added to this products acts as a catalyst in lipid oxidation. It has been associated to increasing of TBARS index and also to meat discoloration because of metals contamination. We studied the lipid stability in patties prepared with salt with or without iodide, and mixed with meat from chicken or beef. Ground meat was mixed and ice, salt, onion, garlic and white powder pepper were added, shaped, packaged and stored in freezer. Lipid oxidation was monitored by TBARS (distillation method, in frozen samples and iodide was quantitatively measured throughout 90 days of experiment. The content of lipids in beef samples was 73,31% higher than for chickens one. On

    16. Biocontrol potential of salinity tolerant mutants of Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum Potencial de biocontrole de mutantes sal-tolerantes de Trichoderma harzianum contra Fusarium oxysporum

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      Hassan Abdel-Latif A. Mohamed

      2006-06-01

      Full Text Available Exposing a wild-type culture of Trichoderma harzianum to gamma irradiation induced two stable salt-tolerant mutants (Th50M6 and Th50M11. Under saline conditions, both mutants greatly surpassed their wild type strain in growth rate, sporulation and biological proficiency against Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of tomato wilt disease. Tolerant T. harzianum mutants detained a capability to grow and convinced sporulation in growth media containing up to 69 mM NaCl. In comparison with their parent strain, characterization of both mutants confirmed that they have reinforced contents of proline and hydroxyproline, relatively higher sodium content compared to potassium, calcium or magnesium contents, higher level of total phenols. Electrophoretic analysis of total soluble proteins in the salt tolerance mutant Th50M6 showed different bands accumulated in response to 69 mM NaCl. Data also showed that mutants produce certain active metabolites, such as chitinases, cellulases, beta-galactosidases, as well as, some antibiotics i.e., trichodermin, gliotoxin and gliovirin. Trichoderma mutants significantly reduced wilt disease incidence and improved yield and mineral contents of tomato plants under both saline and non-saline soil conditions, as well as, under infested and natural conditions. T. harzianum mutants were also more efficient in dropping the F. oxysporum growth in rhizosphere compared to the wild type strain. Population density of both mutants in rhizosphere far exceeded that of T. harzianum wild type strain.A exposição de uma cepa selvagem de Trichoderma harzianum à irradiação gama induziu dois mutantes tolerantes a sal (Th50M6 e Th50M11. Em condições salinas, os dois mutantes foram muito superiores à cepa selvagem em relação à velocidade de multiplicação, esporulação e eficiência contra Fusarium oxysporum, o agente causador da doença wilt do tomate. Os mutantes tolerantes foram capazes de multiplicação e esporulação em

    17. Motivos da prática de dança de salão nas aulas de educação física escolar Reasons for the practice of ballroom dance in the curricular physical activity in schools

      OpenAIRE

      Rodrigo Massami Shibukawai; Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães; Zênite Machado; Amanda Soares

      2011-01-01

      O estudo de corte transversal analisou os motivos da prática da dança de salão nas aulas de Educação Física escolar de escolas particulares, relacionando-os com o gênero, seu tempo de prática e participação em eventos de dança de salão. Obteve-se uma amostra de 279 alunos com idade de 15,5 ± 1,0 anos, matriculados nas aulas de dança de salão como Educação Física escolar. Aplicou-se o questionário de motivação para as atividades desportivas - QMAD, adaptado de SERPA e FRIAS (1990) e SERPA (199...

    18. Analysis of action plans and coping plans for reducing salt consumption among women with hypertension Análisis de los planes de acción y planes para hacer frente a los obstáculos a la reducción de la ingesta de sal en las mujeres hipertensas Análise dos planos de ação e planos de enfrentamento de obstáculos para a redução do consumo de sal entre mulheres com hipertensão arterial sistêmica

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rúbia de Freitas Agondi

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available This cross-sectional study, based in implementation intention theory, describes action plans developed by women with hypertension (n=49 to add no more than 4g of salt per day to food and to reduce consumption of salty foods, as well as describing the barriers perceived and the coping strategies adopted for putting the action plans into practice. The plans were categorized according to similarities and were submitted to frequency analysis. The majority of the action and coping plans had to do with the effectuation of the behavior involving adding up to 4g of salt per day per person to food. The action strategies were aimed at quantifying the salt added, and the main obstacles were related to the reduced palatability of the food made with less salt. The coping plans have to do with preparing foods separately and to using natural seasonings instead of salt. This data can help the nurse to design activities for clinical education, with a view to reducing salt consumption among patients who prepare their own food.Este estudio transversal, basado en la teoría Implementation Intentions, describe los planes de acción desarrollados por las mujeres hipertensas (n=49 para añadir hasta 4g de sal/día a los alimentos y comer menos alimentos salados, así como las barreras percibidas y estrategias de afrontamiento para llevar a cabo los planes de acción. Los planes fueron agrupados como la similitud y la sometieron a un análisis de frecuencia. La mayor parte de los planes se refiere a la eficacia de la conducta de añadir a los alimentos 4g/sal/día/persona. Los planos de acción estaban dirigidos a la cuantificación de la sal y los principales obstáculos estaban relacionados con disminución de la palatabilidad de los alimentos bajos en sal. Estrategias de afrontamiento fueron dirigidos a preparar la comida por separado y en uso de especias naturales. Estos datos pueden ayudar a la enfermera en la dirección de las actividades clínicas y educativas

    19. Contato corporal entre adolescentes através da dança de salão na escola Body contact between adolescents through ballroom dancing at school

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      Nilza Coqueiro Pires de Sousa

      2011-12-01

      Full Text Available A finalidade deste estudo foi identificar a reação e percepção dos adolescentes em relação ao contato corporal bem como as expressões emocionais através da dança de salão. Participaram 42 adolescentes do ensino fundamental estadual do interior do Estado de São Paulo. A coleta de dados foi realizada em grupo através de uma filmagem da aula de dança de salão e aplicação de um questionário referente à vivência. Verificou-se que as experiências de dança propiciam uma maior proximidade corporal e demonstração de afetividade, pois parte dos participantes relatou bem estar, enquanto outros disseram sentir-se envergonhados ao dançar com parceiro do sexo oposto. Conclui-se que é preciso oportunizar mais atividades dançantes na escola relacionadas ao desenvolvimento biopsicossocial, pois a dança de salão pode auxiliar a interação promovendo o contato corporal e dessa forma pode ser um facilitador no processo das relações interpessoais entre osThe objective of this study was to identify the reaction and perception of adolescents in relation to body contact as well as emotional expressions through ballroom dancing. Forty-two adolescents from a public elementary school in the state of São Paulo participated in the study. Data gathering was conducted in groups by filming the ballroom dance class and applying a questionnaire about the experience. The dance experience was observed to provide greater body proximity and demonstration of affection, since part of the participants reported well-being, while others reported being embarrassed by dancing with a partner from the opposite sex. It was concluded that more dance activities related to biopsychosocial development need to be offered at school since ballroom dancing can help in interaction promoting body contact and thus facilitate in the process of interpersonal relations between adolescents.

    20. La solución constructiva de la bóveda encamonada del salón de plenos del palacio del Senado en Madrid (España

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      Bustamante, R.

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available The constructive type of the timber vault that covers the Plenary Hall of the Palace of the Senate of Spain belonging to the first quarter of the 19th century is analyzed, being composed of the following elements: a rectangular soffit or timber slab with the voids filled up with plaster armed with fibers of esparto, which is hung by means of claspers from a few longitudinal straps of the wooden trusses of the original cover; a half vault formed by double table “camones” supported by a continuous wooden perimeter. By the inner face the soffit and the half vault are provided by plaster and separated by a semicircular perimetric molding in the North and South sides. The papers presents a historical investigation of the changes since the former Augustinian church to the Lounge of Spanish Parliament and Lounge of Plenary sessions, an analysis of the constructive type to which the vault belongs, a geometric characterization and a description of the principal elements.

      Se analiza el tipo constructivo de la bóveda encamonada que cubre el Salón de Plenos del Palacio del Senado de España del primer cuarto del siglo XIX, que está compuesta por los siguientes elementos: un plafón rectangular o forjado de tablas con entrevigado de yeso armado con fibras de esparto, que está colgado mediante abrazaderas de unas vigas longitudinales que se apoyan sobre los tirantes de las cerchas de madera de la cubierta original. Y por una semibóveda formada por camones de dobles tablas apoyados en un encadenado perimetral. Por el intradós el plafón y la semibóveda están guarnecidos con yeso y separados entre sí por una moldura perimetral semicircular en los lados Norte y Sur. En el trabajo se presenta una investigación histórica de los cambios registrados desde la antigua iglesia agustina, hasta el Salón de Cortes y Salón de Plenos, un análisis del tipo constructivo al que pertenece la bóveda, una caracterización geométrica y una descripci

    1. Natureza e civilização: os painéis decorativos do Salão Nobre do Teatro Amazonas Nature and civilization: the decorative panels of the Teatro Amazonas foyer

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      Ana Maria Lima Daou

      2007-12-01

      Full Text Available Os painéis decorativos do salão nobre do Teatro Amazonas singularizam-se em relação ao restante da iconografia que decora o edifício, inaugurado em 1896. Na ocasião, as capitais do Pará e do Amazonas, enriquecidas pela economia gomífera, passaram por significativas transformações no tecido urbano e nas formas de sociabilidade, projetando-se nacional e internacionalmente. O artigo procura identificar paralelos entre as representações paisagísticas da natureza amazônica que decoram o salão nobre do edifício, a construção da cidade moderna e os usos sociais do Teatro Amazonas, símbolo do período e emblema da elite enriquecida que se afirmava no cenário regional e nacional. O Teatro Amazonas ocupou o centro da vida social da época, e em seu salão nobre ocorreram verdadeiros rituais de 'civilização' em que os convidados - brasileiros ou estrangeiros - tinham como cenário privilegiado a natureza amazônica representada nos painéis parietais decorativos.The decorative panels in the foyer of the Teatro Amazonas, inaugurated in 1896, stand out from the rest of the building's ornamental iconography. The rubber trade brought great wealth to the capitals of Pará and Amazonas and as these cities gained national and international fame, their urban fabric and forms of sociability underwent significant changes. The article looks for parallels between the landscape representations of Amazonian nature adorning the building's foyer, the construction of the modern city, and social uses of the Teatro Amazonas, symbol of the era and emblem of the newly rich elite, who were then taking their place on the regional and national stages. The Teatro Amazonas formed the center of the era's social life and its foyer played host to veritable rituals of 'civilization', in which Brazilian and foreign guests enjoyed the fine setting of Amazon's nature as represented in the decorative wall panels.

    2. Otimização do tempo e temperatura no processamento da gipsita oriunda dos cristalizadores da produção de sal para obter gesso de uso na construção civil

      OpenAIRE

      Gomes, Mayara Feliciano

      2012-01-01

      Durante o processo de produção do sal, os primeiros cristais formados são descartados como resíduo industrial. Esse resíduo é constituído basicamente por gipsita, composto de sulfato de cálcio di-hidratado (CaSO4.2H2O), conhecido como carago cru ou malacacheta . Após ser submetida a processo de calcinação para obtenção do gesso (CaSO4.0,5H2O) , pode ser viabilizada a sua aplicação na indústria cimenteira. Este trabalho tem como objetivo otimizar o tempo e a temperatura para ...

    3. Kinoteātru Forum Cinemas, Multikino, Cinamon komunikācija sociālajos tīklos facebook, twitter, instagram 2016 gadā: analīze un salīdzinājums

      OpenAIRE

      Krahmaļovs, Artūrs Rinats

      2017-01-01

      Bakalaura tēma “Kinoteātru Forum Cinemas, Multikino, Cinamon komunikācija sociālajos tīklos facebook, twitter, instagram 2016 gadā: analīze un salīdzinājums”. Pētījuma rezultātā tika analizētas kinoteātru publikācijas “Forum cinemas”, “Multikino” un “Cinamon” publikācijas 2016. gadā sociālajos tīklos “Facebook”, “Twitter” un “Instagram”. Visas publikācijas tika sadalītas kategorijās un analizētas pēc noteiktiem kritērijiem. Visi pētāmie materiāli bija brīvi pieejami sociālajos tīklos kinoteā...

    4. Uso do sal de bixina extraído do urucum (Bixa orellana L.) como substituinte do nitrito de sódio em produtos cárneos reestruturados

      OpenAIRE

      Pacheco, Samanta Daliana Golin

      2014-01-01

      Resumo: O nitrito de sódio é um aditivo de múltiplas funções tecnológicas na indústria cárnea. No entanto, em razão da crescente preocupação quanto à sua toxicidade, diversos estudos buscam alternativas para reduzir seu uso. O urucum (Bixa orellana L.) é um vegetal fonte de carotenoides, como bixina e norbixina, amplamente utilizado como corante alimentício. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o sal de bixina extraído do urucum como substituinte do nitrito de sódio (NaNO2) em produtos cá...

    5. Kultūras komponents Federiko Garsijas Lorkas lekciju tulkojumos. Spāņu, latviešu un franču teksta salīdzinošā analīze

      OpenAIRE

      Ločmele, Jana

      2015-01-01

      Bakalaura darbs Kultūras komponents Federiko Garsijas Lorkas lekciju tulkojumos. Spāņu, latviešu un franču teksta salīdzinošā analīze ir pētījums par kultūras komponenta tulkošanu, kuras procesuālā specifika var radīt zināmus šķēršļus tulkotājam. Teorētisko materiālu sintēze, kas balstās Monas Beikeres (Mona Baker), Lorensa Venuti (Lawrence Venuti), Pītera Ņūmarka (Peter Newmark) un citu zinātnieku darbos, tiecas izklāstīt tulkojumzinātnes kultūras pieeju rašanās priekšnosacījumus, kā arī ...

    6. O sal como solução? políticas de saúde e endemias rurais no Brasil (1940-1960 Salt as solution? health policies and endemic rural diseases in Brazil (1940-1960

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      Gilberto Hochman

      2010-08-01

      Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar e comparar as políticas acerca do uso do sal no tratamento de duas doenças graves que assolaram a Amazônia e as áreas rurais do Brasil durante o período desenvolvimentista: o bócio endêmico e a malária. Apesar de serem doenças muito diferentes - a primeira é uma doença carencial, e a segunda uma doença parasitária - a luta dos médicos e nutricionistas para tornar obrigatória a iodação do sal de cozinha consumido no país inspirou a idéia de um sal misturado com cloroquina, a ser distribuído livremente em zonas de malária, onde o uso de DDT (Dicloro-Difenil-Tricloroetano não seria eficaz. O que seria um método simples - e, portanto, eficaz - para controlar e até mesmo eliminar tais doenças, o uso do sal de cozinha como veículo para fornecer iodo e uma droga antimalárica para a população, esbarra em fatores cognitivos, econômicos, sociais e culturais. Algumas variáveis contribuem para a análise histórica desses programas de saúde: o consenso quanto à etiologia da doença, o grau de institucionalização da comunidade de especialistas e a sua organização, a importância da doença na agenda das organizações internacionais de saúde, o locus de decisão política, a existência de uma liderança científica envolvida na formulação e gestão das políticas de saúde, e os padrões de consumo das populações-alvo.The article main objective is to analyze and compare the policies surrounding the use of salt in the treatment of two major diseases that raging in rural areas and the Amazon in Brazil during the national-developmentist period: the endemic goiter and malaria. Although they are very different diseases, the first is a carential disease and the second a parasitic disease, the struggle of doctors and nutritionists for the obligatory iodisation of table salt consumed in the country inspired the proposal of a cooking salt mixed with chloroquine and its free distribution in

    7. Retención y Penetración en Estacones de Eucalyptus Saligna. Sometidos a Tratamiento con CuSO4 y Sal CCC, en Baño Caliente y frio y Vacio-Presión

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      Escobar C. Oscar

      1987-09-01

      Full Text Available Este trabajo describe y da los resultados obtenidos con el pretratamiento de estacones de Eucalyptus saligna a tres soluciones de CUS04 y su posterior tratamiento con sales CCA (OSMOSE K-33. El sulfato de cobre se aplicó por el método de baño caliente y frío, seguido por el proceso de difusión durante una semana; para los anteriores tratamientos se usó madera verde o parcialmente seca al aire; las sales CCA se aplicaron a madera seca por el método de vacío-presión. Una de las razones para llevar a cabo este refuerzo de las sales CCA, es haber encontrado postes de eucalipto severamente atacados por hongos, en especial con pudrición blanda. Los estacones fueron tratados inicialmente con soluciones de sulfato de cobre a 1 %, 2% y 3% de concentración; luego los estacones fueron tratados con una solución de sal CCA al 2.5% de concentración por vacío-presión. Se usaron 40 estacones distribuídos en 4 grupos de 10: tres (3 grupos fueron usados para el tratamiento con las soluciones de CUS04 y solución de CCA; el grupo restante fue tratado con la sal CCA únicamente, el cual fue usado como grupo testigo para fines de comparación en los ensayos de campo (cementerios.

    8. Relevance of spontaneous fabT mutations to a streptococcal toxic shock syndrome to non-streptococcal toxic shock syndrome transition in the novel-type Streptococcus pyogenes isolates that lost a salRK.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tatsuno, Ichiro; Okada, Ryo; Matsumoto, Masakado; Hata, Nanako; Matsui, Hideyuki; Zhang, Yan; Isaka, Masanori; Hasegawa, Tadao

      2016-05-01

      Streptococcus pyogenes is a causative agent of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Mutations in covR/S or rgg, negative regulators, can reportedly modulate the severity of infection in this pathogen. Recently, we showed that the regions encoding the SalR-SalK, a two-component regulatory system, were deleted in some emm 1-type isolates (named as 'novel-type'). In this study, the two novel 'STSS' isolates 10-85stss and 11-171stss were more virulent than the two novel 'non-STSS' isolates 11O-2non and 11T-3non when examined using a mouse model of invasive infection. Genome-sequencing experiments using the three strains 10-85stss , 11-171stss , and 11O-2non detected only one single nucleotide polymorphism that causes a non-synonymous mutation in fabT encoding a transcriptional regulator in strain 11O-2non . Loss of fabT reduced the high level of virulence observed in the STSS isolates to that in the non-STSS isolates, and introduction of an intact fabT compensated the lower virulence of 11O-2non , suggesting that the mutation in fabT, but not in covR/S or rgg, is involved in the differential virulence among the novel-type clinical isolates. This type of non-synonymous fabT mutation was also identified in 12 non-STSS isolates (including 11O-2non and 11T-3non ), and most of those 12 isolates showed impaired FabT function. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

    9. Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to salt consumption in sentinel countries of the Americas Actitudes, conocimientos y comportamiento de los consumidores en relación con el consumo de sal en países centinelas de la Región de las Américas

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      Rafael Moreira Claro

      2012-10-01

      Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe individual attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding salt intake, its dietary sources, and current food-labeling practices related to salt and sodium in five sentinel countries of the Americas. METHODS: A convenience sample of 1 992 adults (≥ 18 years old from Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, and Ecuador (approximately 400 from each country was obtained between September 2010 and February 2011. Data collection was conducted in shopping malls or major commercial areas using a questionnaire containing 33 questions. Descriptive estimates are presented for the total sample and stratified by country and sociodemographic characteristics of the studied population. RESULTS: Almost 90% of participants associated excess intake of salt with the occurrence of adverse health conditions, more than 60% indicated they were trying to reduce their current intake of salt, and more than 30% believed reducing dietary salt to be of high importance. Only 26% of participants claimed to know the existence of a recommended maximum value of salt or sodium intake and 47% of them stated they knew the content of salt in food items. More than 80% of participants said that they would like food labeling to indicate high, medium, and low levels of salt or sodium and would like to see a clear warning label on packages of foods high in salt. CONCLUSIONS: Additional effort is required to increase consumers' knowledge about the existence of a maximum limit for intake and to improve their capacity to accurately monitor and reduce their personal salt consumption.OBJETIVO: Describir las actitudes, los conocimientos y el comportamiento individuales con respecto al consumo de sal, sus fuentes alimentarias, y las prácticas actuales de etiquetado de alimentos en relación con su contenido en sal y sodio en cinco países centinelas de la Región de las Américas. MÉTODOS: De septiembre del 2010 a febrero del 2011, se obtuvo una muestra de conveniencia de 1

    10. Uma nota sobre a relação entre salário mínimo e inflação no Brasil a partir de um modelo de inflação de custo e conflito distributivo

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      Ricardo de Figueiredo Summa

      Full Text Available Resumo O presente artigo busca discutir a dinâmica da inflação brasileira no período de 2000-2014 e sua relação com a política de valorização do salário mínimo, a partir de um modelo desagregado de inflação de custo. Dessa maneira, discutem-se os possíveis canais de transmissão que levariam a uma relação entre salário mínimo e inflação à luz dos dados brasileiros. Concluímos que choques no salário mínimo não produzem impacto tão significativo sobre a inflação, mas a política de valorização do salário mínimo também poderia atuar de forma indireta e influenciar a inflação. Esta última relação passa pelo efeito que a política de salário mínimo em conjunto com outras políticas institucionais e aspectos conjunturais do mercado de trabalho têm sobre a melhora de poder de barganha dos trabalhadores e do surgimento de uma inflação salarial mais resistente, a partir de 2006.

    11. A substituição de trabalhadores como instrumento para redução de gastos com salários: evidências para a indústria paulista

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Veronica Orellano

      2009-06-01

      Full Text Available O movimento de substituição de trabalhadores por parte das firmas - aqui tratado como churning - é um importante componente da rotatividade da mão-de-obra no Brasil, que também inclui a realocação de emprego entre firmas. A evolução do labor churning ao longo da d��cada de 1990, ao menos para os empregados formais da indústria paulista, segue uma trajetória muito semelhante para as diferentes faixas de tamanho de firmas e para os diferentes subsetores da indústria, sugerindo que mudanças no ambiente macroeconômico afetam o churning de forma similar em firmas com características diferentes. Este artigo propõe um modelo para explicar o movimento de labor churning dos empregados formais no país. O modelo admite que as firmas, ao enfrentarem choques exógenos que elevam o salário real, podem substituir empregados com o objetivo de reduzir seus gastos com salários, particularmente em momentos de baixa inflação, em que há maior rigidez dos salários reais. Um estudo econométrico é realizado a partir dos microdados da RAIS (Relação Anual de Informações Sociais, do Ministério do Trabalho para o setor industrial da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. Os resultados obtidos corroboram a hipótese do modelo. As estimações ainda sugerem que, no período pós-plano real, controlada a inflação e quando os instrumentos são válidos, o churning da mão-de-obra foi relativamente maior que no início da década de 1990.Labor churning is an important component of labor turnover in Brazil, which includes job reallocation betweenfirms. The labor churning evolution in the nineties, at least for the industrysector in São Paulo, folows a verysimilar path for different groups of firms (divided by size or by subsectors, suggesting that changes in the macroe-conomic environment affect labor churning in a very similar way for different firms. This paper proposes a model to explain the path of formal labor churning in Brazil. The model

    12. Uso do rejeito da dessalinização de água salobra para irrigação da erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia The use of the brine from desalting brackish water to irrigate saltbush (Atriplex nummularia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Everaldo R. Porto

      2001-04-01

      Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se reduzir os impactos causados pela dessalinização de água salobra proveniente do cristalino no trópico semi-árido brasileiro, a erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia foi cultivada durante um ano, nos campos da Estação Experimental da Embrapa Semi-Árido. As plantas foram irrigadas com rejeito do processo de dessalinização, com concentração salina média de 11,38 dS m-1, e cada uma recebeu 75 L de água por semana, durante 48 semanas. A salinidade média do perfil de solo, da camada de 0 a 90 cm, era de 0,64 dS m-1 antes de se iniciar a irrigação das plantas; depois da colheita das plantas, a salinidade do mesmo perfil de solo foi de 12,74 dS m-1, enquanto a produtividade da erva-sal foi de 6.537,0 kg ha-1 de matéria seca, com teor de proteína bruta de 18,40% nas folhas. A Atriplex apresentou grande potencial de extração de sais do perfil de solo, mas quando as plantas são irrigadas com rejeito de alta concentração salina, a quantidade de sais extraída desse perfil pela planta, é da ordem de 3,93% do total de sais adicionados ao solo pelas irrigações; isto implica no fato de que, para um manejo de água sustentável, há necessidade de se gerar mais informações sobre as relações de solo e água para a erva-sal, nas condições das zonas áridas do Brasil.Looking forward to reducing environmental impacts resulting from desalting brackish water in the region of the crystalline rocks in the semi-arid tropic of Brazil, saltbush (Atriplex nummularia was cultivated during one year in an experimental field of Embrapa Semi-Arid. The plants were irrigated with the brine from the desalting plant which presented a salt concentration of 11.38 dS m-1. Each plant received 75 L of water per week, during 48 weeks. The soil salinity, at the depth of 0-90 cm, of the cropped area averaged 0.64 dS m-1 before starting the irrigation process. After the plants were harvested, the soil salinity in the same profile averaged 12.74 d

    13. Desempenho de novilhos suplementados com sal mineral protéico e energético em pastagem no período da seca = Performance of Steers Supplemented in Pasture with Protein-energy Mineral Salt in dry season

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      Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

      2006-07-01

      Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado objetivando avaliar os efeitos energético e protéico em uplementos múltiplos sobre o ensaio de produção, concentração do N uréico no plasma e parâmetros econômicos de bovinos em fase de recria, manejados em pastagens, durante a época da seca. Foram utilizados 32 novilhos de corte divididos em 4 grupos de 8 animais e analisados por um delineamento de blocos ao acaso a 5% de significância. Cada grupo recebeu um tratamento com pastagem e acrescido de sal mineralizado + uréia + milho; sal mineralizado + uréia + farelo de soja; sal mineralizado + uréia + milho + farelo de soja. Não observou diferença (P>0,05 das suplementações no ganho de peso e o peso médio metabólico, o que pode ser justificado pela qualidade da pastagem aliada à disponibilidade de MS/ha e para a variável N-uréico no sangue indicou o maior teor protéico, oriundo dos 50,0% de participação do farelo de soja na composição do tratamento. A suplementação para animais em pastejo com misturas de natureza múltipla e de baixo consumo proporcionou ganhos de pesoapreciáveis, e sua aplicação depende do preço dos insumos e o da arroba de carne.The research was carried out to evaluate the protein-energy effect of multiple supplements on animal production, N urea in plasmatic quantities and economic parameter of growing beef cattle in pasture during dry season. Thirty-two castrated beef cattle steers were divided into four groups of eight animals. They were analyzedaccording to a randomized block design at 5% of significance. Each group received one treatment to pasture with addition of mineral salt + urea + corn; mineral salt + urea + soybean meal; mineral salt + urea + corn + soybean meal. There was no difference (P>0.05 betweensupplements for daily LWG and for average metabolic weight. This can be justified by forage quality combined with availability of DM/ha. As for the variable N-urea in the blood, results indicated higher protein

    14. Phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA identification of culturable non-obligate halophilic bacterial communities from a hypersaline lake, La Sal del Rey, in extreme South Texas (USA).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Phillips, Kristen; Zaidan, Frederic; Elizondo, Omar R; Lowe, Kristine L

      2012-02-02

      La Sal del Rey ("the King's Salt") is one of several naturally-occurring salt lakes in Hidalgo County, Texas and is part of the Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge. The research objective was to isolate and characterize halophilic microorganisms from La Sal del Rey. Water samples were collected from the lake and a small creek that feeds into the lake. Soil samples were collected from land adjacent to the water sample locations. Sample salinity was determined using a refractometer. Samples were diluted and cultured on a synthetic saline medium to grow halophilic bacteria. The density of halophiles was estimated by viable plate counts. A collection of isolates was selected, gram-stained, tested for catalase, and characterized using API 20E® test strips. Isolates were putatively identified by sequencing the 16S rDNA. Carbon source utilization by the microbial community from each sample site was examined using EcoPlate™ assays and the carbon utilization total activity of the community was determined. Results showed that salinity ranged from 4 parts per thousand (ppt) at the lake water source to 420 ppt in water samples taken just along the lake shore. The density of halophilic bacteria in water samples ranged from 1.2 × 102 - 5.2 × 103 colony forming units per ml (cfu ml-1) whereas the density in soil samples ranged from 4.0 × 105 - 2.5 × 106 colony forming units per gram (cfu g-1). In general, as salinity increased the density of the bacterial community decreased. Microbial communities from water and soil samples were able to utilize 12 - 31 carbon substrates. The greatest number of substrates utilized was by water-borne communities compared to soil-based communities, especially at lower salinities. The majority of bacteria isolated were gram-negative, catalase-positive, rods. Biochemical profiles constructed from API 20E® test strips showed that bacterial isolates from low-salinity water samples (4 ppt) showed the greatest phenotypic diversity

    15. Salinidade, sodicidade e propriedades microbiológicas de Argissolo cultivado com erva-sal e irrigado com rejeito salino Salinity, sodicity and microbiological properties of an Ultisol cultivated with saltbush and irrigated with saline effluents

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      Célia Maria Maganhotto de Souza Silva

      2008-10-01

      Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da irrigação com rejeito da dessalinização, oriundo de tanques de produção de tilápia-rosa, sobre as propriedades químicas e microbiológicas de solos cultivados com erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia Lindl.. Quatro áreas foram usadas, das quais duas foram irrigadas com rejeito salino e cultivadas, durante um e cinco anos, com erva-sal. As outras duas áreas foram conduzidas sem irrigação: uma cultivada com vegetação natural e outra com a halófita. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros relativos à salinidade e sodicidade do solo, e também as seguintes características: carbono da biomassa microbiana (Cmic; relação Cmic/carbono orgânico; atividade das enzimas fosfatase ácida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucosidase, protease, L-asparaginase, L-glutaminase. A adição de sais afetou as propriedades físicas e químicas dos solos irrigados com rejeito salino, com tendência à salinização e sodificação. A salinidade afetou as propriedades microbiológicas nos solos irrigados, mas o cultivo da halófita favoreceu a produção das enzimas estudadas. O cultivo da erva-sal em áreas que recebem rejeito salino pela irrigação melhora a qualidade biológica dos solos e sua fertilidade, mas não impede a salinização.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with saline effluents, from red tilapia production ponds, on chemical and microbiological properties of soils cultivated with saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lindl. Four areas were used, from which two were irrigated with saline waste and cultivated with A. nummularia, during one and five years. The other two areas were not irrigated, and one was cultivated with natural vegetation and the other with the halophyte. The parameters related to soil salinity and sodicity were evaluated, as well as the following characteristics: microbial biomass carbon (Cmic; Cmic/organic carbon; the activity of acid and alcaline phosphatase

    16. Dietary salt and water pH effects on growth and Na+ fluxes of silver catfish juveniles = Efeito do sal na dieta e do pH da água no crescimento de juvenis de jundiá

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      Carlos Eduardo Copatti

      2011-07-01

      Full Text Available This study verified the optimum dietary salt level for the growth and ion regulation of silver catfish juveniles at different water pH levels (5.5, 7.0 and 9.0. The control diet was supplemented with NaCl to yield experimental diets with 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% NaCl. Juveniles were collected at 15 and 35 days after the beginning of experiment for analyses of Na+ net fluxes. Exposure of silver catfish juveniles to alkaline or acidic water did not affect their survival. Fish fed with diets without NaCl supplementation and exposed to pH 7.0 showed significantly higher weight, length, specific growth rate and biomass per tank than those exposed to pH 5.5. Ionoregulatory disturbances of silver catfish maintained at all pH are less pronounced when fed higher dietary salt supplementation (1.0-2.0%NaCl. The increase of dietary NaCl reduced body Na+ loss and protected against the impact of acidic water on growth.Este estudo verificou o melhor nível de dieta de sal para o crescimento e regulação iônica de juvenis de jundiá em diferentes níveis de pH da água (5,5; 7,0 e 9,0. A dieta controle foi suplementada com 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0% de NaCl. Juvenis foram coletados aos 15 e 35 dias de experimento para análise dos fluxos líquidos de Na+. A exposição de juvenis de jundiá para águas ácidas ou alcalinas não afetou sua sobrevivência. Exemplares alimentados com dietas sem adição de NaCl e expostos em pH 7,0 mostraram peso, comprimento, taxade crescimento específico e biomassa/tanque significativamente maiores que aqueles expostos em pH 5,5. Distúrbios ionorregulatórios em jundiás mantidos em todos os pH são menos pronunciados quando em exemplares alimentados com dietas com maior suplmentação de sal (1,0-2,0% NaCl. O aumento de NaCl na dieta reduziu a perda de Na+corporal e protegeu contra o impacto da acidez da água no crescimento dos juvenis.

    17. Intoxicação por sal em suínos: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos e breve revisão de literatura

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      Juliana S. Brum

      2013-07-01

      Full Text Available Intoxicação por sal ocorre comumente em suínos por ingestão excessiva de cloreto de sódio ou por privação de água por um período de tempo, seguido de um livre acesso a água abundante. O objetivo deste trabalho é agregar dados de casos de intoxicação por sal, diagnosticados, compilar dados já existentes na literatura e caracterizar as principais alterações clínicas e patológicas observadas. Foram revisados cinco surtos, sendo que um deles foi minuciosamente acompanhado. Em três deles a ingestão de cloreto de sódio foi determinada. Os sinais clínicos eram basicamente convulsões, com intensos tremores musculares e desenvolvimento de opistótono. Os animais permaneciam em decúbito lateral, fazendo movimentos de pedalagem. Alguns andavam em círculos. Dosagens de sódio em fragmentos de músculo e de fígado, no soro, líquor e humor aquoso revelaram concentrações aumentadas do íon. A quantidade de eosinófilos circulantes foi baixa caracterizando grande recrutamento dessas células para o encéfalo. Em todos os surtos foi observada infiltração de eosinófilos nas leptomeninges e no espaço de Virchow-Robin do córtex cerebral. Necrose cortical laminar foi observada mais detalhadamente em um dos surtos onde os suínos estavam doentes há seis dias. A combinação dessas duas lesões caracteriza a doença. Todas as alterações observadas podem ser explicadas pela provável patogenia da doença em que as elevadas concentrações de sódio causam edema cerebral que leva ao aumento da pressão intracraniana e decréscimo da perfusão para o cérebro causando isquemia difusa e necrose neuronal, com consequente malacia.

    18. Biber Salçası Yapımında Palper Öncesi Farklı Haşlama Yöntem ve Sürelerinin Palper Verimi ve Şıra Kalitesine Etkileri

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      Taner Baysal

      2015-02-01

      Full Text Available Araştırmada son yıllarda üretimi önem kazanan kırmızı biber salçası yapımı aşamalarında palper öncesi ısıl işlem yöntemi ve ısıl işlem sürelerinin palper verimine ve pulp kalitesine etkilerinin incelenmesi amacıyla yıkanıp temizlenen kırmızı biberler su içinde (100±1 oC dakika, buharda (110±1 oC 5, 8 ve 11 dakika haşlanmışlardır. Farklı yöntemlerle ve sürelerde ısıl işlem uygulanmış örnekler elek aralığı 1 mm olan iki aşamalı palperden geçirilerek pulp elde edilmiştir. Haşlamanın pulp kalitesine ve verimine etkilerini incelemek amacıyla suda çözünür kuru madde, pH, asitlik, askorbik asit, pektin, renk ve sertlik değerleri incelenmiştir. Ayrıca palper verimi ve pulp elde edilmesi aşamasındaki kayıplar saptanmıştır. İncelenen özellikler bakımından kırmızı biberin salçaya işlenmesi sırasında yıkanıp temizlenen biberlerin palper öncesi buharda 110±1 oC de 8 dakika süre ile ısıl işlem uygulanması ile elde edilen pulpun kalitesi ve verimi açısından en iyi işleme şekli olduğu belirlenmiştir.

    19. Türkiye’de süs bitkileri sektörünün üretim ve yapısal sorunları ve öneriler

      OpenAIRE

      ONAY, Hatice Aslı

      2008-01-01

      ÖZET:

      Bu tez çalışması Türkiye’de süs bitkileri sektörünün üretim ve yapısal sorunlarını analiz ederek bunlara yapıcı ve sürdürülebilir çözümler üretmek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Bunun için öncelikle sektörün ülkemizdeki mevcut durumu ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Mevcut durumu ortaya koymak için ise sektörün üretim, ithalat ve ihracat verilerinden yararlanılmıştır. Birçok kurum ve kuruluşlardan edinilen bu veriler ışığında sekt...

    20. Détection de souches multi-résistantes d’Escherichia coli d’origine aviaire dans la région de Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer

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      N. RAHMATALLAH

      2017-05-01

      Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance surveillance is a standard measure in the sanitary policies. In order to monitor multi-resistance within APEC strains, a study was conducted on 370 broiler chickens farms from the Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer region in Morocco. The isolation of Escherichia coli was made from lesions of avian colibacillosis. Biochemical identification, serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility tests as well as phenotypic identifications on lactamases resistance were carried out on the isolates. Serogrouping showed that 66.7 % of the isolates belong to the dominant serotypes O78, O 2 and O1. Drug sensitivity tests showed extremely high levels of resistance to oxytetracyclin (100 %, amoxicillin (90.9%, trimethoprim + sulphamethoxazol (82.2 %, enrofloxacin (75.9 % and florfenicol (61.5 %. Low frequencies of resistances were noted for gentamicin (24.8 %, fosfomycin (16.1 % and colistin (2%. In parallel, tests for the determination of the phenotype of resistance to beta-lactamases and cephalosporinases on 250 strains revealed that 66.1% of the strains were classified as class A penicillinases; 14.8% were class C cephalosporinases. The ESBL class A was found in 11.1% of the tested stains and only 3.7% were classified as wild-type strains. The multi-resistance is very high since 97.4% and 55.1% of the strains were respectively resistant to three and five antibacterial drugs.

    1. Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para a análise da composição volátil do sal marinho por microextracção em fase sólida e cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa (SPME-GC-MS)

      OpenAIRE

      Silva, Isabel Mendes da

      2007-01-01

      A valorização do salgado passa pela caracterização química do sal produzido, cujas características estão associadas à envolvente ambiental das marinhas e à sua origem geográfica. As características químicas de um sal marinho ainda não são completamente conhecidas, nomeadamente as que estão relacionadas com a sua composição volátil. O objectivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver uma metodologia de microextracção em fase sólida associada à cromatografia em fase gasosa e detecçã...

    2. Inovação tecnológica na produção brasileira de sal marinho e as alterações sócioterritoriais dela decorrentes: uma análise sob a ótica da Teoria do Empreendedorismo de Schumpeter / Technological innovation in the production of sea salt in Brazil and changes her socio-territorial arising out: an analysis under the perspective of Schumpeter’s Entrepreneurship Theory

      OpenAIRE

      Marco Túlio Mendonça Diniz; Fábio Perdigão Vasconcelos; Márcia Barbosa Martins

      2015-01-01

      RESUMO A atividade salineira já foi praticada de forma extensiva em todo o litoral brasileiro desde o Pará até o Rio de Janeiro, hoje as salinas mecanizadas do litoral setentrional potiguar produzem cerca de 94% do sal marinho brasileiro. O empreendedorismo dos empresários que investiram nas salinas norte-rio-grandenses foi o principal responsável pela criação da atual estrutura produtiva e de comércio interno de sal marinho, na qual o Rio Grande do Norte produz a maior parte deste importante...

    3. Produtividade do trabalho, salários reais e desemprego na indústria de transformação do Brasil na década de 1990: teoria e evidência Labor productivity, real wages and unemployment in the Brazilian manufacturing in 90's: theory and evidence

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Cíntia Rubim de Souza Netto

      2005-12-01

      Full Text Available Este artigo investiga se os ganhos de produtividade do trabalho verificados na indústria de transformação brasileira nos anos 90 tiveram algum impacto sobre o comportamento dos salários reais. Para isso, utiliza o modelo de Ball e Moffit (2001, que incorpora a produtividade do trabalho à explicação da variação dos salários reais. A década de 1990 foi dividida em dois períodos para fins de análise: janeiro de 1990 a junho de 1994, e julho de 1994 a dezembro de 2000. Os resultados apontarão que a produtividade do trabalho foi uma variável significativa na explicação dos salários reais antes do Plano Real.This paper investigates if the gains of labor productivity verificated in the Brazilian industry in the nineties had some impact on the behavior of real wages. For this uses the Ball and Moffit's (2001 model, wich incorporates the labor productivity in a explanation of the real wages variation. The nineties were divided in two periods for analysis: January 1990 to June 1994 and July to December 2000. The results will point out that the labor productivity was a significative variable in the explanation of wages before the Real Plan.

    4. Otistik Çocuklar İçin Davranışsal Eğitim Programı (OÇİDEP Ev Uygulamasının Bir Çocukla İncelenmesi

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      Yeşim Güleç-Aslan

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available Yoğun davranışsal eğitim, otizm tanılı çocuklar üzerindeki etkileri bilimsel araştırma bulgularıyla desteklenmiş bir uygulamadır. Otistik Çocuklar için Davranışsal Eğitim Programı (OÇİDEP Türkiye’de bu tür eğitim sunmak üzere geliştirilen öncü programlar arasında yer almaktadır. Bu araştırmada OÇİDEP ev uygulamasının bir çocukla yürütülme süreci incelenmiştir. Araştırma, program uygulama sürecinin incelenmesi amacıyla yürütülen, nicel veri toplama ve analiz tekniklerini de içeren bir nitel araştırmadır. Araştırmanın katılımcısı dokuz yaşında, otizm tanılı bir erkek çocuktur. Bulgular; (a OÇİDEP ev uygulamasının planlama aşamasında belirlenen genel ilkelerde değişiklikler ya da uyarlamalar yapılarak yürütülebildiğini, (b uygulama boyunca çeşitli davranış ve öğretim sorunları yaşandığını ve bu sorunlara yönelik uygun önlemler alınarak yürütmenin sürdürüldüğünü, (c uygulama süresince OÇİDEP ekip üyelerinin bilgi ve becerilerinde artışlar olduğunu, (d OÇİDEP ev uygulaması katılımcısında program içinde ve dışında çeşitli gelişmeler görüldüğünü, (e ekip üyelerinin ve ailenin OÇİDEP’in çocukların gelişimine önemli katkılarda bulunan, ancak, belirli unsurlara dikkat edilerek uygulanması gereken bir program olduğu yönünde görüşleri olduğunu göstermiştir. Intensive Behavioral Intervention (IBI is an evidence-based practice for children with autism. Intensive Behavioral Home Intervention Program called OCIDEP is one of the first IBI-type programs in Turkey. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the implementation process of the OCIDEP home program with one nine-years- old boy with autism. During the study both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods were systematically utilized on a regular basis. Findings of the study were as follows: (a some of the guidelines did not

    5. A relação entre educação pré-primária, salários, escolaridade e proficiência escolar no Brasil

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      Andréa Zaitune Curi

      2009-12-01

      Full Text Available Neste artigo analisamos a relação entre a educação pré-primária (creche e pré-escola e os salários, a escolaridade e a proficiência escolar no Brasil, utilizando dados da PPV e do SAEB. Os resultados mostram que a pré-escola tem uma relação positiva e significante com a conclusão dos quatro ciclos escolares, com efeito marginal crescente nos três primeiros, e que a creche tem relação positiva e significante apenas com a conclusão do ensino médio e do ensino universitário. Além disso, a pré-escola está associada com um aumento de 1 ano e meio de escolaridade e de 16% na renda, independentemente da sua relação com a educação. Finalmente, os alunos que frequentaram a pré-escola têm um desempenho escolar melhor, medido por testes de proficiência, na 4ª e 8ª séries do ensino fundamental e na 3ª série do ensino médio.This paper examines the relations between daycare and pre-school, wages, education and school performance in Brazil using a survey with detailed information on education and earnings trajectories. We find that pre-school attendance has a positive relationship with primary, middle school, high school and college conclusion, even when we condition on parental education. Pre-schooling is associated with increases of 1.5 year in schooling and about 27% in wages. Pre-schooling is also associated with increases in standardized test scores in the 4th, 8th and 11th grades.

    6. Composição e dinâmica da avifauna da usina eólica da praia da Pedra do Sal, Delta do Parnaíba, Piauí, Brasil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Anderson Guzzi

      2015-06-01

      Full Text Available RESUMO O impacto dos parques eólicos sobre as aves é um dos temas menos estudados no Brasil, o que contrasta com a importância dessa nova fonte de energia renovável. O presente estudo buscou caracterizar a composição e dinâmica ecológica das espécies de aves residentes e migratórias presentes na área da Usina Eólica da Pedra do Sal, em Parnaíba, Estado do Piauí. O estudo foi desenvolvido por meio de trinta e três amostragens distribuídas em dois ciclos sazonais completos (setembro de 2011 a agosto de 2013, através do método do ponto de escuta, dispostos na base de cada um dos aerogeradores. Foram registrados 6.843 contatos de aves pertencentes a 67 espécies distribuídas em 22 famílias e 13 ordens, e a espécie com maior número de contatos foi a batuíra-de-coleira (Charadrius collaris. As categorias tróficas predominantes foram as das aves insetívoras, representadas por 18 espécies, seguidas pelas aves que se alimentam de invertebrados aquáticos (17 espécies. A maioria das aves registradas é de ambiente aquático. Durante o desenvolvimento desse estudo não foram registradas colisões entre as aves e os aerogeradores.

    7. Estimação do número de salários mínimos atribuído a cada profissão em função de seu prestígio Estimativa del número de salários minimos atribuidos a cada profesión en función de su prestigio Estimation of the number of minimum salaries attributed to professions in function of their prestige

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros Sousa

      2000-04-01

      Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi verificar a relação entre o prestígio profissional escalonado através de estimativas numéricas e o prestígio profissional escalonado através de estimativas do número de salários mínimos atribuído a cada profissão em função de seu prestígio profissional na sociedade. Os resultados mostraram: 1 ¾ a relação entre as estimativas de magnitudes e as estimativas do número de salários mínimos atribuído a cada profissão em função de seu prestígio é caracterizada por uma função de potência com um expoente menor que 1,0. 2 ¾ as ordenações dos graus de prestígio das profissões resultantes de diferentes experimentos envolvendo diferentes amostras de sujeitos são altamente concordantes (W = 0,85; p El propósito de este estudio fue verificar la relación entre el prestigio profesional escalonado a través de estimativas numéricas y el prestigio profesional escalonado a través de estimativas del número de salarios mínimos atribuidos a cada profesión en función de su prestigio profesional en la sociedad. Los resultados mostraron: 1- la relación entre las estimativas de magnitudes y las estimativas del número de salarios mínimos atribuido a cada profesión en función de su prestigio es caracterizada por una función de potencia con un exponente menor que 1,0,2 ¾ las ordenaciones de grados de prestigio de las profesiones resultantes de diferentes experimentos involucrando diferentes muestras de sujetos son altamente concordantes (W=0.85; pThe purpose of this study was to verify the relationship between professional prestige scaled through estimations and the professional prestige scaled through estimation of the number of minimum salaries attributed to professions in function of their prestige in society. Results showed: 1- the relationship between the estimation of magnitudes and the estimation of the number of minimum salaries attributed to the professions in function of their prestige

    8. Archeological Survey Along Sals Creek Ditch

      Science.gov (United States)

      1991-12-18

      Castor Valley. Just below Puxico the valley floor drops to 325 feet AMSL with a 50 toot drop in elevation between Poplar Bluff and Pocahontas , 50...reconstruction which happened to include the present project area (Guccione, Lafferty and Cummings 1988:71). 15 [I Time Cultural Caltrues & Associated

    9. Draper Clock-Synchronization Protocol in SAL

      Data.gov (United States)

      National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In 1973, Daly, Hpokins, and McKenna (from Draper Lab.) presented a fault-tolerant digital clocking system at the FTCS conference. This is probably one of the first...

    10. Sayısal Koruma Nedir?

      OpenAIRE

      Akbaytürk, Tuba

      2008-01-01

      The very first definition of preservation which comes to minds is ensuring the survival of information in valid forms for as long as it is wanted. The digital preservation, on the other hand focuses more on continued access to digital information. Three main strategies recommended in digital preservation are “Technology Preservation”, “Technology Emulation”, and “Information Migration”. Moreover, Digital Archeology techniques aiming the recovery of information are considered in this category....

    11. Motivos da prática de dança de salão nas aulas de educação física escolar Reasons for the practice of ballroom dance in the curricular physical activity in schools

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rodrigo Massami Shibukawai

      2011-03-01

      Full Text Available O estudo de corte transversal analisou os motivos da prática da dança de salão nas aulas de Educação Física escolar de escolas particulares, relacionando-os com o gênero, seu tempo de prática e participação em eventos de dança de salão. Obteve-se uma amostra de 279 alunos com idade de 15,5 ± 1,0 anos, matriculados nas aulas de dança de salão como Educação Física escolar. Aplicou-se o questionário de motivação para as atividades desportivas - QMAD, adaptado de SERPA e FRIAS (1990 e SERPA (1991. Analisou-se os dados através da estatística descritiva e inferencial, com nível de significância de 95%. Foram encontradas associações significativas entre os motivos e gêneros (r = 0,285; - 0,172; tempo de prática (r = 0,174 e frequência em eventos (r = 0,122; - 0,156. A dança de salão oferece em sua prática uma ferramenta de inúmeras possibilidades, onde cada um de seus praticantes procura preencher as suas próprias necessidades. De acordo com os resultados levantados percebe-se que os alunos estão motivados com a prática de dança de salão na escola havendo diferenças entre o gênero, o tempo de prática e a frequência nos eventos. Diante disto sugere-se a criação de propostas metodológicas condizentes com os principais motivos dos alunos nas aulas de dança de salão dentro do ambiente da Educação Física escolar.The transversal study analyzed the reasons for the practice of ballroom dance in the curricular physical activity in private schools, relating them to the gender, its practice time and participation in ballroom dance events. The study was composed of 279 students at the age of 15.5 ± 1.0, enrolled in ballroom dance as part of regular physical education. The Sport Motivation Questionnaire - SMQ, adapted from SERPA and FRIAS (1990, SERPA (1992 was used. The descriptive and inferential statistics were used with a 95% significance level. Significant associations were found between reasons and the

    12. Normalização da estatura e excesso de adiposidade corporal em crianças com a forma perdedora de sal da deficiência da 21-hidroxilase

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      Carolina T Mendes-dos-Santos

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar crescimento e composição corporal de portadores da forma clássica perdedora de sal da hiperplasia adrenal congênita por deficiência da 21-hidroxilase, comparando-os com crianças saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 21 pacientes (oito meninos e 13 meninas, entre 2,1 e 10,2 anos, e 67 controles pré-púberes (36 meninos e 31 meninas, entre 1,2 e 11,7 anos. Avaliou-se peso, estatura, perímetro braquial, dobras cutâneas, composição corporal por bioimpedância e idade óssea. Foram obtidas dos prontuários dos pacientes as seguintes informações: estatura dos pais, valores de 17-OH progesterona e Δ4-androstenediona, dose de hidrocortisona prescrita, dados de peso e estatura ao nascimento, no início do tratamento e aos 2 anos de idade. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes apresentaram menor escore z de peso e de altura na primeira consulta em relação à situação de nascimento, com posterior recuperação após o início do tratamento, sem apresentar avanço da idade óssea. A média do escore z da altura dos controles (0,28±0,86 foi maior que a dos casos (-0,61±0,99, p < 0,001. Essa diferença desaparece quando se ajusta a altura dos pacientes para a idade óssea (0,33±1,68, p = 0,912. Os pacientes apresentaram maiores índices de massa corporal (p < 0,001, massa gorda (p < 0,001 e índice de massa gorda (p < 0,001 do que os controles. Não houve diferença entre as dobras cutâneas dos 2 grupos (p = 0,157. CONCLUSÕES: Os pacientes apresentaram recuperação do crescimento com média de estatura semelhante à da população geral, porém com maior adiposidade corporal, que parece ser visceral, já que não houve diferença entre as dobras cutâneas.

    13. Preservation of the Digital Culture: Archiving the World Wide Web Sayısal (Dijital Kültürün Korunması: Web Arşivleme

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ahmet Aldemir

      2006-09-01

      Full Text Available Information growth in the web medium has required the necessity of archiving these information to transmit them to future generations. Web archiving is a versatile application which covers technical, legal and organizational dimensions. Any stage within the life cycle of digital information is critically important for the information in web environment. All over the world, many countries have started web archiving efforts through the leadership of their national libraries and attempted to carry these initiatives on a legal bases. In the light of these developments, this paper examines the necessity and major techniques in web archiving and it also discuss national and international web archiving projects. Web ortamında yaşanan bilgi artışı, beraberinde bu bilgilerin gelecek nesillere aktarılması amacıyla arşivlenmesi gereğini gündeme getirmiştir. Web'in arşivlenmesi teknik, yasal ve örgütsel boyutları olan çok yönlü bir uygulamadır. Sayısal ortamda üretilmiş bilginin yaşam döngüsündeki her bir aşama, web ortamında yer alan bilgiler için hayati önem taşımaktadır. Dünyada bir çok ülke milli kütüphaneleri öncülüğünde web arşivleme çalışmalarını başlatmış ve bu girişimlerinin yasal bir platforma taşınması için gerekli adımlar atılmıştır. Bu gelişmeler ışığında çalışmamızda, web'in neden arşivlenmesi gerektiğine değinilmiş, web arşivlemede kullanılan belli başlı yaklaşımlar ele alınmış, ulusal ve uluslararası ölçekli web arşivleme çalışmalarına yer verilmiştir.

    14. O mercado de trabalho brasileiro é segmentado? Alterações no perfil da informalidade e nos diferenciais de salários nas décadas de 1980 e 1990

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      Andréa Zaitune Curi

      2006-12-01

      Full Text Available Neste artigo examinamos o comportamento do mercado de trabalho formal e informal no Brasil nas últimas duas décadas, utilizando dados longitudinais da Pesquisa Mensal de Emprego para 6 regiões metropolitanas no Brasil. Os resultados mostram que a redução da formalidade no Brasil decorreu, principalmente, do aumento das transições do setor formal para o informal e devido à redução da taxa de saída do desemprego para o setor formal, que ocorreu principalmente entre os mais escolarizados vivendo na região metropolitana de São Paulo e que estavam desempregados há mais de três meses. Além disto, os resultados mostram que a rotatividade entre o setor informal e formal é bastante elevada e que a probabilidade de saída do desemprego ou do setor informal diminui com o tempo de permanência na situação inicial. O diferencial de salários entre o setor formal e o informal, após o controle pelas características não-observáveis dos trabalhadores, era de apenas 10% na década de 1980 e declinou para cerca de 5% na década de 1990. Isto indica que a segmentação no mercado de trabalho brasileiro é muito baixa, o que o aproxima de um mercado competitivo.In this paper we examine the determinants of the mobility of Brazilian workers from the formal sector to informality, self-employment and unemployment, using longitudinal data from Monthly household surveys for 6 metropolitan regions. The results show that the reduction in formality was due to an increase in the transitions from the formal to the informal sector and to a decline in the exits from unemployment to the formal sector. Moreover, sector turn-over in Brazil is quite high and the transitions from unemployment and from the informal sector are time dependent. Finally, the wage differentials between workers in the formal and in the informal sector, after controlling for workers fixed effects was 10% in the 1980s and declined to about 5% in the 1990s, showing that the Brazilian

    15. Citoquímica de inclusões intranucleares associadas ao vírus do mosaico amarelo do salsão Cytochemical studies of the intranuclear inclusions associated with the celery yellow mosaic virus (CYMV

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Neusa D. da Cruz

      1972-01-01

      Full Text Available Estudos citoquímicos, ao nível do microscópio óptico, foram efetuados para determinar a natureza química de inclusões intranucleares, de aspecto fibroso, induzidas pelo vírus do mosaico amarelo do salsão na maioria de suas hospedeiras. Os testes citoquímicos foram conduzidos em material foliar fresco ou fixado (aldeído glutárico, Carnoy 3:1 ou Bouin, tendo sido feitas as seguintes reações: hematoxilina férrica (testemunha; Sudan IV e Azul do Nilo (lipídios; iodo-iodeto (amido; Feulgen, Azur B e verde-de-metila-pironina (ácidos nucleicos; ninidrina-Schiff e "Fast Green", este último em soluções ácida e alcalina (proteínas. Os testes com verde-de-metila-pironina, Azur B e ninidrina-Schiff foram combinados com digestão enzimática pela ribonuclease ou pepsina. Os dados obtidos sugerem que, dentro da sensibilidade dos testes realizados, a inclusão contenha proteína, mas não tenha amido, lipídios ou ácidos nucleicos. Isso permite supor, portanto, que essas inclusões não sejam formadas de partículas de vírus.Cytochemical studies at optical microscopic level were made to determine the chemical nature of intranuclear inclusions with fibrous aspect which were induced by the celery yellow mosaic virus (CYMV in most of its hosts. The cytochemical tests were carried on fresh as well on fixed foliar material, fixation being in glutaric aldeid, Carnoy 3:1 or Bouin. The following reactions were tried: ferric haematoxylin (control; Sudan IV and Nile blue (for lipids; iodine ioduret (for starch; Feulgen, azur B and methyl green-pyronin (for nucleic acids; ninhydrin-Schiff and fast-green, the latter in acid and in alcaline solution (for protein. The tests with methyl green-pyronin, azur B and ninhydrin-Schiff were combined with enzimatic digestion with RNase or pepsin. The results suggest that, within the sensibility of the tests, the inclusion contains protein but does not contain starch, lipids or nucleic acids. This permit to

    16. EFEITOS DO pH, SAL E DESNATURANTES NA HIDRÓLISE IN VITRO DA GLOBULINA PRINCIPAL DE GRÃO-DE-BICO (Cicer arietinum L., var. IAC-Marrocos*

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      V. A. NEVES

      2009-03-01

      Full Text Available

      As leguminosas caracterizam-se por apresentar alto teor protéico que na sua grande totalidade são globulinas de reserva,e cujas características moleculares influenciam algumas de suas propriedades com destaque para sua hidrólise frente às enzimas digestivas. As frações 7 e 11S, apesar de certa homologia estrutural, surgem como determinantes das propriedades nutritivas e funcionais das globulinas. Nesse trabalho a globulina principal de grão-de-bico (tipo legumina, 11S foi isolada e purificada, verificando-se o efeito da exposição a diferentes fatores na hidrólise in vitro com as enzimas tripsina e quimotripsina. Comparada à caseína, a globulina principal na forma nativa, e na presença de NaCl 0,3 M, mostrou-se menos susceptível à hidrólise pelas enzimas. A exposição a pHs ácidos extremos revela a retirada desse efeito protetor observado com o sal. As maiores alterações ocorreram pela exposição ao pH 1,0, temperatura de 121°C/15 min e presença de NaCl, no entanto ainda inferiores aos obtidos com a caseína e para ambas enzimas. O tratamento alcalino apesar de aumentar a susceptibilidade às enzimas mostrou valores de hidrólise inferiores à caseína. A exposição a diferentes concentrações dos desnaturantes uréia e hidrocloreto de guanidínio revelou que apenas o segundo teve pequeno efeito sobre a hidrólise pelas enzimas e, mesmo assim, em concentração tão alta como 8M. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Grão-de-bico; Cicer arietinum L; globulina principal; hidrólise in vitro.

    17. Fotodegradação de compósitos de poliestireno/argila montmorilonita: efeito do tipo de argila e presença de sal Photodegradation of polystyrene/montmorillonite clay: the effect of the type of clay and presence of salt

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Camila F. de P. Oliveira

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available Compósitos de poliestireno/montmorilonita (PS/MMT contendo 2,5% em peso de argila foram preparados com dois tipos de argila modificada com sais quaternários de amônio. Também foram preparadas amostras do PS + sal quaternário de amônio, utilizando-se proporção de sal semelhante à usada na modificação da argila. Todas as amostras foram expostas à radiação UV por períodos de até 12 semanas, e em seguida foram realizados testes para avaliar as modificações em massa molar, propriedades mecânicas (tração e impacto, estrutura química (FTIR e superfície de fratura (MEV dessas amostras. Os resultados mostraram que compostos metálicos existentes na argila catalisam o processo fotodegradativo do PS e a presença isolada do sal não altera significativamente o comportamento do PS frente à radiação UV.Composites of polystyrene/montmorillonite (PS/MMT containing 2.5 wt. (% clay were prepared with two types of clays modified with quaternary ammonium salts. Were also prepared samples of PS + quaternary ammonium salt, using the same amount employed in modifying the clay. All samples were exposed to UV radiation for up to 12 weeks, and then tests were conducted to evaluate the changes in molecular weight, mechanical properties (tensile and impact, chemical structure (FTIR and fracture surface (SEM of these samples. The results showed that metal compounds existing in clay catalyzes the photodegradation process of PS and the presence of salt alone does not significantly alter the behavior of PS under UV.

    18. “Kevin Hakkında Konuşmalıyız” Filminin Bowlby’nin Çocukluk Dönemi Bağlanma Stilleri Ve Minuchin’in Yapısal Aile Sistemleri Yaklaşımı Temel Kavramları Kullanılarak Değerlendirilmesi

      OpenAIRE

      Mert, Abdullah; Soyer, Betül

      2014-01-01

      Bu çalışmanın amacı, “Kevin Hakkında Konuşmalıyız” filmini, Bowlby’nin çocukluk dönemi bağlanma stillerini ve Minuchin’in yapısal aile sistemleri yaklaşımı temel kavramlarını kullanarak değerlendirmek ve her iki yaklaşım arasında ilişkiyi, filmde ele alınan ergenin suç işleme davranışı ile göstermektir. Bu çalışma, film analizi yöntemi ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Analiz için, bağlanma stillerine, yapısal aile yaklaşımı kavramlarına ve ergenin suç işleme davranışlarına örnek gösterecek 50 sahne ...

    19. Development of a method for controlling salt and sodium use during meal preparation for food services Desenvolvimento de um método de controle de sal e sódio em unidades de alimentação e nutrição

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Cristina Barbosa Frantz

      2013-02-01

      Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study developed a method for controlling the amount of salt and sodium during food preparation, Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation for food services based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points principles. METHODS: The method was conceived and perfected during a study case in a commercial food service located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected from technical cards, recipes and measurements during food preparation. The preparations were monitored and compared with criteria about the use of salt and sodium found in the literature. Critical control points were identified and corrective measures were proposed. RESULTS: The result was a method consisting of 9 stages: (1 determination of the sodium content in the ingredients; (2 and 3 analysis of menu planning and sodium content; (4 follow-up of food preparation; (5 estimate of the amount of sodium used in the preparations; (6 and 7 selection and following of the preparations with average- and high-sodium content; (8 definition of the critical points and establishment of corrective actions for the use of salt and sodium; and (9 creation of recommendations for the use of salt and sodium. CONCLUSION: The Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation may contribute to global discussions regarding the reduction of salt and sodium intakes and collaborate for the supply of nutritionally and sensorially appropriate meals with respect to salt and sodium content. It may also help to prevent non-communicable chronic diseases.OBJETIVO: estudo desenvolveu um método de Controle de Sal e Sódio na Produção de Refeições para o processo produtivo de refeições comerciais e coletivas, com base nos princípios do sistema de Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle. MÉTODOS: O método foi elaborado teoricamente e aperfeiçoado a partir de um estudo de caso realizado em uma unidade de alimentação e nutri

    20. Ingesta de sal yodada en hogares y estado nutricional de yodo en mujeres en edad fértil en Perú, 2008 Iodized salt intake in households and iodine nutritional status in women of childbearing age in Peru, 2008

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ana María Higa

      2010-06-01

      Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar el estado nutricional de yodo en mujeres en edad fértil y evaluar la ingesta de sal adecuadamente yodada en sus hogares en el Perú. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal realizado con un muestreo probabilístico multietápico por conglomerados que incluyó 1573 hogares y 2048 mujeres en edad fértil, distribuidas en cinco dominios (Lima, resto de costa, sierra rural, sierra urbana y selva. Se evaluó el uso de sal yodada en hogares y el yodo urinario en mujeres en edad fértil. Resultados. El 97,5% (IC95%: 96,7 - 98,5% de hogares peruanos consumen sal yodada, siendo menor en sierra rural (95% y mayor en Lima metropolitana (100%. La mediana de yoduria nacional fue de 266 μg/L, siendo menores en la selva (206 μg/L y mayores en el resto de costa (302 μg/L, estos valores se encuentran por encima del lνmite recomendado por la Organizaciσn Mundial de la Salud en todos los dominios (mediana mayor a 200 μg/L, valor que asegura un control de desσrdenes por deficiencia de yodo (DDI. Conclusiones. En control de los DDI por el consumo de sal yodado es bueno, se debe continuar con la vigilancia de la presencia de yodo en la sal, particularmente en las αreas con menor acceso.Objective. To estimate the iodine nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to evaluate the intake of salt adequately iodized in their households in Peru. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study performed with a multistage, probabilistic, cluster sampling that included 1573 households and 2048 women in childbearing age, distributed in five domains (Lima, rest of the coast, rural highlands and jungle area. The use of iodized salt was evaluated in the households and the urinary iodine was evaluated in the childbearing age women. Results. 97.5% (95%CI. 96.7-98.5% of peruvian households have iodized salt consumption, being it lower in the rural highland (95% and higher in Lima (100%. The national mean of urinary iodine was 266 μg/L, being it

    1. Análise de impacto de vizinhança causado por ruído de academia de musculação em um salão de cabeleireiro

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Diani Fernanda Silva

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available A análise de impacto de vizinhança referente à produção de ruídos é extremamente importante para a concepção de um ambiente residencial e de trabalho provido de condições salubres, independente do ramo de atividade exercida no local. De acordo com a norma regulamentadora NBR 10151, responsável pela imposição dos limites de ruído produzidos por estabelecimentos comerciais e administrativos visando o conforto acústico da comunidade circunvizinha, os valores máximos permitidos, sem produzir males, são de 60 dB para o período diurno e 55 dB no período noturno. Ambientes como academias de musculação, ginástica e condicionamento físico utilizam a música como incentivo para os exercícios, no entanto, o excesso de ruído contínuo, intenso ou não, produzido pelos aparelhos de som nestes locais, causa incômodos imensuráveis para os ambientes adjacentes, como o salão de cabeleireiro analisado no presente trabalho. Dentre as perturbações destacam-se as alterações relacionados à saúde dos profissionais como problemas digestivos, dores de cabeça, falta de concentração e atenção, tontura, cansaço e estresse, ansiedade e insônia. O ruído é um “resíduo” inevitável, resultante de praticamente todas as atividades exercidas pelos indivíduos, cabe a nós apenas evitar que o mesmo importune aos que nos cercam, respeitando e possibilitando uma qualidade de vida adequada a todos.Abstract The analysis of neighborhood impact associated to noise is very important to the living and working environments independently of our activity. The legislative Brazilian norm NBR 10151 imposes limits of noise produced by business establishments. The maximum values of acoustic comfort on the surrounding community are 60 dB at daytime and 55 dB at nighttime. Environments as gym, perform music at high intensity as an incentive to practice physical exercises, however, excessive continuous noise produced by sound equipment may cause

    2. Produção leiteira, composição do leite e perfil bioquímico sanguíneo de vacas lactantes sob suplementação com sal aniônico Milk yield, milk composition and biochemical blood profile of lactating cows supplemented with anionic salt

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Lúcia Treptow Marques

      2011-05-01

      Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de sal aniônico na dieta sobre as características físicas e a composição química do leite, o perfil bioquímico sanguíneo, a produção de leite, o peso e a condição corporal de vacas em lactação. Foram utilizadas 20 vacas da raça Jersey distribuídas em duas dietas, uma sem adição de sal aniônico e outra com adição de 0,25 kg/dia de cloreto de amônio. O delineamento empregado foi o completamente casualizado. As vacas sob suplementação com sal aniônico apresentaram menor pH urinário e aumento das concentrações sanguíneas de ureia, cálcio e magnésio. Com a dieta aniônica, o leite precipitou com menores concentrações de etanol, apresentou menor densidade, porcentagens de lactose, proteína e imunoglobulina, porém maior teor de cálcio iônico. O fornecimento de dieta aniônica durante a lactação resultou em acidose metabólica, o que alterou o perfil bioquímico sanguíneo e as características físico-químicas do leite.The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of anionic salt in the diet on the physical characteristics and chemical composition of milk, biochemical blood profile, milk yield, body weight and condition. It was used 20 Jersey cows, distributed into two diets, a diet with no addition of anionic salt and one diet with addition of 0.25 kg/day of ammonium chloride. It was used a completely randomized design. Cows supplemented with anionic salt presented lower urinary pH and increase of blood contents of urea, calcium and magnesium. With the anionic diet, milk precipitated with lower ethanol concentration and it presented lower density, percentages of lactose, protein and immunoglobulin, but higher ionic calcium content. Supply of anionic diet during lactation resulted in metabolic acidosis, which altered the blood biochemical profile and milk physical-chemical characteristics.

    3. Relación costo-utilidad de la disminución del consumo de sal y su efecto en la incidencia de enfermedades cardiovasculares en Argentina The cost-utility ratio of reducing salt intake and its impact on the incidence of cardiovascular disease in Argentina

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Daniel Ferrante

      2012-10-01

      Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la relación costo-utilidad de una intervención dirigida a reducir el consumo de sal en la dieta de personas mayores de 35 años en Argentina. MÉTODOS: La intervención consistió en reducir entre 5% y 25% el contenido de sal en los alimentos. Se utilizó el modelo de simulación del impacto de las políticas sobre la enfermedad coronaria para predecir la evolución de la incidencia, la prevalencia, la mortalidad y los costos en la población de la enfermedad coronaria y cerebrovascular en personas de 35 a 84 años. Se modeló el efecto y los costos de una disminución de 3 g de sal en la dieta, mediante su reducción en alimentos procesados y en la añadida por los consumidores, por un período de 10 años. Se estimó el cambio en la ocurrencia de eventos en este período y la ganancia en años de vida ajustados por la calidad (AVAC en un escenario de efecto alto y otro de efecto bajo. RESULTADOS: La intervención generó un ahorro neto de US$ 3 765 millones y una ganancia de 656 657 AVAC en el escenario de efecto alto y de US$ 2 080 millones y 401 659 AVAC en el escenario de efecto bajo. Se obtendrían reducciones en la incidencia de enfermedad coronaria (24,1%, infarto agudo de miocardio (21,6% y accidente cerebrovascular (20,5%, y en la mortalidad por enfermedad coronaria (19,9% y por todas las causas (6,4%. Se observaron beneficios para todos los grupos de edad y sexo. CONCLUSIONES: La implementación de esta estrategia de reducción del consumo de sal produciría un efecto sanitario muy positivo, tanto en AVAC ganados como en recursos económicos ahorrados.OBJECTIVE: Estimate the cost-utility ratio of an intervention to reduce dietary salt intake in people over the age of 35 in Argentina. METHODS: The intervention consisted of reducing salt content in food by 5% to 25%. A simulation model was used to measure the impact of policies on heart disease in order to predict incidence, prevalence, mortality, and cost trends for

    4. Características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros suplementados com sal forrageiro de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq Characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs supplemented with fodder salt from Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      L.G.A. Cirne

      2013-02-01

      Full Text Available O presente experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a porcentagem de inclusão da espécie forrageira Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq na confecção do sal forrageiro de gliricídia, por meio de características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros. Foram utilizados 30 cordeiros mestiços da raça Santa Inês, não castrados, com aproximadamente 180 dias de idade, peso vivo médio de 25kg, confinados, num delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, em que os tratamentos foram constituídos de zero (100% de NaCl, 93, 95, 97 e 99% de inclusão de feno de gliricídia (7, 5, 3 e 1% de NaCl na formulação do sal forrageiro, respectivamente. A suplementação com sal forrageiro de gliricídia não afetou (P>0,05 o peso vivo ao abate em jejum (28,39kg, peso de carcaça quente (9,76kg, rendimento de carcaça quente (34,12%, o peso de carcaça fria (9,42kg, o rendimento de carcaça fria (32,95%, as perdas de peso por resfriamento (3,40%, assim como o peso de vísceras brancas (2,19kg e o peso de vísceras vermelhas (1,29kg. Porcentagem de inclusão de até 99% de gliricídia na confecção de sal forrageiro não altera (P>0,05 as características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq forage species for the confection of the fodder salt gliricidia according to the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs. Thirty confined, not castrated crossbred Santa Inês lambs, ageing approximately 180 days, with mean live body weight of 25kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and six repetitions. Treatments were zero (100% NaCl, 93, 95, 97 and 99% inclusion of gliricidia hay (7, 5, 3 and 1% NaCl in the formulation of fodder salt, respectively. The supplementation with gliricidia fodder salt did not affect (P>0.05 the

    5. Tommy Wilhelm: The Untraditional Hero of Saul Bellow’s Seize the Day

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      Md Abu Shahid Abdullah

      2015-10-01

      Full Text Available Many critics have judged Tommy Wilhelm in terms of his weaknesses only and have considered him a complete failure, far from being a hero. But many of them have failed to see the bright side of Tommy’s character. He possesses rare human qualities completely alien to the citizens of a morally corrupt society. The article aims to  prove that in spite of possessing various negative and unheroic qualities, Tommy, by defying social structure and network, asserts his non-conformity which, along with his humanity, love and philanthropy, aversion for power and material success and most importantly, his power of overcoming humiliation, secures him the position of a hero although an untraditional one. The narrative structure also plays a significant role behind his being a hero. Keywords: Materialism, Untraditional hero, Humanity, Non-conformity

    6. Unmasking the powers behind the party / Aigars Stokenbergs ; interv. Talis Saule Archdeacon

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Stokenbergs, Aigars

      2007-01-01

      Endine Läti regionaalminister Aigars Stokenbergs parteist ja valitsusest lahkumisest, valitsuse ebastabiilsusest, võimalikust uuest parteist ning nn. oligarh Andris Skele rollist Lätis. Aigars Stokenbergs'i CV

    7. Latvian politics : In search of a future / Artis Pabriks ; interv. Talis Saule Archdeacon, Gary Peach

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Pabriks, Artis

      2007-01-01

      Läti välisministri kohalt ja Läti Rahvaparteist lahkunud Artis Pabriks oma arvamusest Loskutovi juhtumi kohta, parteist lahkumisest, loodavast valitsusvälisest organisatsioonist ja vajalikest muutustest Lätis. Artis Pabriks'i CV

    8. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project FL1415: APALACHICOLA RIVER (MOUTH) TO SAUL CREEK, FL.

      Data.gov (United States)

      National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

    9. Autoralli MM-sarja ootab ees vaheaasta / Ivo Dobkevitš ; fotod Karli Saul

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Dobkevitsch, Ivo, 1973-

      2009-01-01

      Tehasetiimide majandusraskustest ja vähesest huvist autoralli MM-sarja vastu 2009. aastal ning FIA poolt kehtestatavatest tehnilistest muudatustest 2010. aastal. Samas: Urmo Aava hooaega vahele jätta ei kavatse

    10. Kalvitis suspends anti-corruption chief over alleged misuse of funds / Talis Saule Archdeacon

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Archdeacon, Talis Saule

      2007-01-01

      Läti peaminister Aigars Kalvitis algatas uurimise korruptsioonitõrjebüroo direktori Aleksejs Loskutovsi suhtes. Riigikontroll avastas rikkumisi büroo raamatupidamises. Süüdistust on nimetatud ka poliitiliseks rünnakuks

    11. Mass exodus of Latvian politicians promises shake-up in system / Talis Saule Archdeacon

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Archdeacon, Talis Saule

      2008-01-01

      Vt. samas: Party members drop New Era en masse. Rahulolematusest praeguse valitsuskoalitsiooniga on mitmed Läti poliitikud hüljanud erakonnad, loomaks uut poliitilist jõudu, mis oleks vasakpoolsem võrreldes siiani domineerinud poliitikaga

    12. Desempenho de novilhos suplementados com sal mineral protéico e energético em pastagem no período da seca - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.49 Performance of Steers Supplemented in Pasture with Protein-energy Mineral Salt in dry season - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.49

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ingrid Robles Moron

      2006-01-01

      Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado objetivando avaliar os efeitos energético e protéico em0 uplementos múltiplos sobre o ensaio de produção, concentração do N uréico no plasma e parâmetros econômicos de bovinos em fase de recria, manejados em pastagens, durante a época da seca. Foram utilizados 32 novilhos de corte divididos em 4 grupos de 8 animais e analisados por um delineamento de blocos ao acaso a 5% de significância. Cada grupo recebeu um tratamento com pastagem e acrescido de sal mineralizado + uréia + milho; sal mineralizado + uréia + farelo de soja; sal mineralizado + uréia + milho + farelo de soja. Não observou diferença (P>0,05 das suplementações no ganho de peso e o peso médio metabólico, o que pode ser justificado pela qualidade da pastagem aliada à disponibilidade de MS/ha e para a variável N-uréico no sangue indicou o maior teor protéico, oriundo dos 50,0% de participação do farelo de soja na composição do tratamento. A suplementação para animais em pastejo com misturas de natureza múltipla e de baixo consumo proporcionou ganhos de peso apreciáveis, e sua aplicação depende do preço dos insumos e o da arroba de carne.The research was carried out to evaluate the protein-energy effect of multiple supplements on animal production, N urea in plasmatic quantities and economic parameter of growing beef cattle in pasture during dry season. Thirty-two castrated beef cattle steers were divided into four groups of eight animals. They were analyzed according to a randomized block design at 5% of significance. Each group received one treatment to pasture with addition of mineral salt + urea + corn; mineral salt + urea + soybean meal; mineral salt + urea + corn + soybean meal. There was no difference (P>0.05 between supplements for daily LWG and for average metabolic weight. This can be justified by forage quality combined with availability of DM/ha. As for the variable N-urea in the blood, results indicated higher

    13. Solução hipersaturada de sal como conservante de pericárdio canino utilizado na reparação do músculo reto abdominal de ratos Wistar Supersaturated salt solution as a canine pericardium preserver used in reparation of the rat rectus abdominis muscle

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Maurício Veloso Brun

      2002-12-01

      Full Text Available Com a finalidade de testar a solução hipersaturada de sal (na proporção de 1,5g de sal comercial para 1m de água tridestilada como conservante, foram realizados implantes de pericárdio canino mantido neste meio, no mínimo por 90 dias, em lesões provocadas no músculo reto abdominal de 24 ratos Wistar. Previamente à implantação da membrana, a solução foi avaliada quanto a presença de bactérias e fungos, demonstrando resultados negativos. Durante o procedimento cirúrgico, foi removido um segmento da largura completa do músculo reto abdominal direito, de 1,5cm de comprimento. A lesão produzida foi preenchida com o implante, sendo este suturado às bordas musculares com fio de náilon monofilamentar 6-0 em padrão contínuo simples. Os animais operados foram subdivididos em seis grupos (I, II, III, IV, V, VI de igual número, sendo posteriormente sacrificados aos três, cinco, sete,10, 15 e 30 dias do pós-operatório, afim de se realizar as avaliações macroscópica e histológica da região do implante. Nos exames macroscópico e histológico pôde-se constatar neovascularização no local reparado, que gradualmente foi decrescendo. Ao exame histológico foi observado a substituição gradativa do implante por tecido conjuntivo fibroso, sem a ocorrência de eliminação do implante ou contaminação. Através destes achados é possível afirmar que a solução hipersaturada de sal estudada, é um meio adequado para a conservação de pericárdio canino.This study evaluates the supersaturated salt solution (1,5g of commercial salt for 1m of tridestilled water as a tissue preserver. Canine pericardium stored in this medium was implanted in defects made in the rectus abdominis muscle of 24 Wistar rats. Previously the implantation, analysis of the solution was performed and no bacteria or fungi were found. Surgical procedure: a 1,5cm of the right rectus abdominis muscle length was removed, and the defect was covered with the

    14. Prevalence of nits and lice in sampls of cut hair from floors of barbershop and beauty parlors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais state, Brazil Prevalência de lêndeas e piolhos em amostras de cabelo recolhidas do chão de barbearias e salões de beleza em Belo Horizonte, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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      Pedro Marcos Linardi

      1988-12-01

      Full Text Available A louse survey based on samples of cut hair collected from floors of barbershops and beauty parlors was conducted in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from October 1984 to April 1985, as an alternative way to determine the prevalence of pediculosis capitis in the population. Of 475 samples examined for nits, nymphs, or adults of Pediculus capitis, 140 were infested (29.5%. A total of 58 lice and 3.553 nits were found in 33.632.9 g of hair collected, giving a ratio of 0.10 nit/g. Almost 29% of the nits were viable and capable of being transmitted after hatching. There was significant difference among the infestation rates by socioeconomic levels, and samples from barbershops with male customers were the most infested. based upon the number of haircuts in each sample, we estimated that 5 or 6% of the population might be infested by this species.Foi realizado um estudo de piolhos em amostras de cabelo recolhidas do chão de barbearias e salões de beleza de Belo Horizonte, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de outubro de 1984 a abril de 1985, como um meio alternativo para se determinar a prevalência da pediculose do couro cabeludo junto a população. Das 475 amostras examinadas em relação a presença de lêndeas, ninfas ou adultos de Pediculus capitis, 140 estavam infestadas (29,5%. Um total de 58 piolhos e 3.553 lêndeas foi encontrado em 33.632,9 g de cabelo coletado, correspondendo a uma relação de 0,10 lêndea/grama. Quase 29% das lêndeas eram viáveis e capazes de serem transmitidas após eclosão. Houve uma diferença significativa da infestação por níveis sócio-econômico, assim como as amostras procedentes de salões masculinos foram as que se apresentaram mais infestadas. Considerando o número de cortes de cabelo por amostra, estima-se que 5 ou 6% da população poderia estar infestada por esta espécie.

    15. Ziņu vērtības un dienaskārtība Latvijas televīziju ziņās: raidījumu „Panorāma” un „LNT Ziņas” salīdzinošā analīze

      OpenAIRE

      Faušteina, Signe

      2012-01-01

      Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Ziņu vērtības un dienaskārtība Latvijas televīziju ziņās: raidījumu „Panorāma” un „LNT Ziņas” salīdzinošā analīze”. Darbam ir divas pētnieciskās problēmas: 1.Kāda ir Latvijas televīziju ziņu raidījumu „Panorāma” un „LNT Ziņas” dienaskārtība? 2.Kādi ziņu atlases kritēriji nosaka Latvijas televīziju ziņu raidījumu „Panorāma” un „LNT Ziņas” dienaskārtības veidošanos? Darbs balstīts uz dienaskārtības, ziņu atlases kritēriju teorijām, aplūkots arī ziņu jēdziens...

    16. Cis-2,6-bis(2-klorofenil-3,3-dimetilpiperidin-4-one bileşiği üzerine yapısal, spektroskopik, elektronik ve doğrusal olmayan optiksel araştırmalar

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ömer Tamer

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available Piperidin, heterosiklik moleküller arasında en iyi bilinen yapılardan biridir. Güncel çalışmalar bu tür bileşiklerin yapı-doğrusal olmayan optiksel performans ilişkisine odaklanmaktadır. Doğrusal olmayan optik malzemelerin fiber optik iletişim ve optik sinyal işlemlerinde hayati öneme sahip oldukları bilinmektedir. Bu çalışmada, bir piperidin türevi olan cis-2,6-bis(2-klorofenil-3,3-dimetilpiperidin-4-one (2C3DMPO bileşiğinin yapısal, spektroskopik, elektronik ve doğrusal olmayan optik özellikleri analiz edilmiştir. 2C3DMPO için elde edilen teorik sonuçlar deneysel değerler ile iyi bir uyum içindedirler. NMR spektrumunda, elektronegatif O atomundan dolayı, C4 atomu aşağı alanda sinyal vermiştir. HOMO ve LUMO arasındaki küçük enerji aralığı, bağ ve antibağ yörüngeleri arasındaki yoğun etkileşmeler yüksek doğrusal olmayan optik özelliklerin göstergesidir.

    17. Jogando com as feminilidades: um estudo etnográfico em um time de futsal feminino de Porto Alegre Jugando con las feminidades: um estudio etnográfico en un equipo de fútbol de salón femenino de Porto Alegre Laying with femininity: ethnographic study on an indoor soccer team from Porto Alegre

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Raquel da Silveira

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available Esse estudo aborda o associativismo esportivo de mulheres. Trata-se de uma investigação etnográfica desenvolvida no contexto de um time de futsal feminino, onde procuramos saber como e porque mulheres se associam para praticar um esporte socialmente considerado masculino, e como essa prática se insere nas suas vidas. Após um ano de observação participante (diários de campo e realização de entrevistas (17, identificamos que a prática do futsal extrapola o jogo propriamente dito, sendo fortemente vinculada a questões de gênero e sexualidade presentes dentro e fora da quadra. Na relação com o esporte que elas escolheram praticar, esses temas se entrelaçavam no cotidiano das jogadoras, de forma heterogênea: se, por um lado, identificamos uma transgressão em relação aos padrões dominantes, por outro, também visualizamos a reprodução desses mesmos valores.Este estudio aborda el asociativismo deportivo de mujeres. Se trata de una investigación etnográfica desarrollada en el contexto de un equipo de fútbol de salón femenino, donde buscamos saber cómo y por qué mujeres se asocian para prácticar un deporte socialmente considerado masculino, y como esa práctica se inserta en sus vidas. Después de un año de observación participante (diarios de campo y realización de entrevistas (17, identificamos que la práctica de fútbol de salón extrapola el juego propiamente dicho, siendo vinculada a las cuestiones de género y sexualidad presentes dentro y afuera de la cancha. En la relación con el deporte que ellas eligieron prácticar, eses temas se entrelazaban en el cotidiano de las jugadoras de forma heterogénea: si por un lado, identificamos una transgresión en relación a los padrones dominantes, por otro, también visualizamos la reproducción de esos mismos valores.This study approaches the sporting associativism of women. It is an ethnographic investigation developed in the context of a female indoor soccer team, in

    18. Biodiversity and phylogenetic analysis of culturable bacteria indigenous to Khewra salt mine of Pakistan and their industrial importance Biodiversidade e análise filogenética de bactérias cultiváveis indígenas da mina de sal Khewra, Paquistão e sua importância industrial

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nasrin Akhtar

      2008-03-01

      Full Text Available Culturable bacterial biodiversity and industrial importance of the isolates indigenous to Khewra salt mine, Pakistan was assessed. PCR Amplification of 16S rDNA of isolates was carried out by using universal primers FD1 and rP1and products were sequenced commercially. These gene sequences were compared with other gene sequences in the GenBank databases to find the closely related sequences. The alignment of these sequences with sequences available from GenBank database was carried out to construct a phylogenetic tree for these bacteria. These genes were deposited to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained. Most of the isolates belonged to different species of genus Bacillus, sharing 92-99% 16S rDNA identity with the respective type strain. Other isolates had close similarities with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus arlettae and Staphylococcus gallinarum with 97%, 98% and 99% 16S rDNA similarity respectively. The abilities of isolates to produce industrial enzymes (amylase, carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, cellulase and protease were checked. All isolates were tested against starch, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, xylane, cellulose, and casein degradation in plate assays. BPT-5, 11,18,19 and 25 indicated the production of copious amounts of carbohydrates and protein degrading enzymes. Based on this study it can be concluded that Khewra salt mine is populated with diverse bacterial groups, which are potential source of industrial enzymes for commercial applications.Avaliou-se a biodiversidade e a importância industrial de bactérias indígenas da mina de sal Khewra, Paquistão. Efetuou-se a amplificação do 16S rDNA dos isolados por PCR empregando-se os iniciadores universais FD1 e rP1, e os produtos foram seqüenciados comercialmente. Essas seqüências de genes foram comparadas com outras seqüências disponíveis no GenBank a fim de encontrar seqüências relacionadas, construindo-se uma árvore filogenética para essas bactérias. Os genes

    19. Cinética e equilíbrio de adsorção dos oxiânions Cr (VI, Mo (VI e Se (VI pelo sal de amônio quaternário de quitosana Kinetics and equilibrium of adsorption of oxyanions Cr (VI, Mo (VI and Se (VI by quaternary ammonium chitosan salt

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Viviane A. Spinelli

      2005-07-01

      Full Text Available O sal quaternário de quitosana foi sintetizado com cloreto de glicidil trimetil amônio. A modificação química foi caracterizada por espectrometria no IV, RMN de 13C e ¹H, e mmol/g de grupos quaternários presentes na matriz polimérica por condutimetria. A remoção de Cr (VI, Mo (VI e Se (VI, em meio aquoso, foi investigada em processo de batelada. A adsorção mostrou ser dependente do pH para o Cr (VI e Se (VI, com um pH ótimo de adsorção, entre 4,0 a 6,0. Para o Mo (VI a adsorção manteve-se quase constante no intervalo de pH entre 4,0 e 11,5. O modelo de isoterma de Langmuir descreveu melhor os dados de equilíbrio na faixa de concentração investigada. No presente estudo, um grama do sal quaternário de quitosana reticulado com glutaraldeído adsorveu 68,3 mg de Cr, 63,4 mg de Mo e 90,0 mg de Se. A velocidade de adsorção, no processo, segue a equação cinética de pseudo segunda-ordem, sendo que o equilíbrio para os três íons foi alcançado próximo aos 200 minutos. A análise dispersiva de raios-X para o Cr (VI mostrou que o principal mecanismo de adsorção é a troca iônica entre os íons Cl- da superfície do polímero pelos oxiânions. O trocador aniônico apresentou a seguinte ordem de seletividade: Cr (VI > Mo (VI > Se (VI.Quaternary chitosan salt was synthesized in the presence of glycidyl trimetyl ammonium chloride. The polymer was characterized by spectroscopic techniques: infrared, 13C and ¹H NMR, while the amount of quaternary ammonium groups was obtained by condutimetry. The removal of Cr (VI, Mo (VI and Se (VI from aqueous solutions was carried out in batch adsorption processes. The process seemed to be pH dependent for Cr (VI and Se (VI with an optimum pH ranging from 4.0 to 6.0; while for Mo (VI the adsorption remained almost constant within the range between 4.0 and 11.5. The Langmuir isotherm model provided the best fit of the equilibrium data over the whole concentration investigated. In the experiment

    20. Qualidade protéica de pão de sal contendo farinha de linhaça (Linum usitatissimum L.
      Protein quality of “french” bread containing flaxseed flour

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      J. T. S. BORGES

      2010-09-01

      Full Text Available

      As proteínas são moléculas essenciais aos organismos animais, devendo, portanto, estar presentes na alimentação em quantidades adequadas. Além do aspecto quantitativo deve-se considerar o aspecto qualitativo, isto é, seu valor nutricional, que dependerá da composição, digestibilidade, biodisponibilidade de aminoácidos essenciais, ausência de toxicidade e de fatores antinutricionais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a digestibilidade in vivo e a qualidade nutricional de proteínas de pães de sal obtidos com farinhas mistas de trigo e linhaça integral nas proporções de 90:10 e 85:15. Os melhores resultados para ganho de peso, coefi ciente de efi cácia alimentar, coefi ciente de efi cácia protéica e razão protéica líquida foram obtidos quando maior teor de farinha de trigo foi substituído pela farinha integral de linhaça na formulação dos pães. A lisina foi o primeiro aminoácido limitante em todos os produtos elaborados. A substituição parcial da farinha de trigo pela farinha de linhaça não melhorou a qualidade protéica dos pães estudados.

    1. El aeróbic de salón en función de los hábitos y estilos de vida saludables de las jóvenes (17-25 años de la comunidad universitaria “Hnos. Saíz” de la provincia de Pinar del Río

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Geyda López Valdés

      2009-06-01

      Full Text Available La presente investigación está encaminada a realizar un estudio sobre el aprovechamiento del tiempo libre de los jóvenes de la comunidad Universitaria “Hnos. Saiz”, de la provincia de Pinar del Río. Con la misma se propone un Sistema de actividades de Aeróbic de Salón a partir de la participación consciente de los jóvenes para la creación de hábitos y estilos de vida saludables de estos. Es por tanto, que a partir del diagnóstico realizado en la comunidad y detectados los problemas -a través de los diferentes métodos y técnicas participativas-, nos propusimos esta investigación con el fin de promover un uso útil y saludable del tiempo libre. Sin embargo, pensamos, hay una forma deportiva que podrá ser profundamente comunitaria y a la vez necesaria, y es el deporte realizado en grupo que tiene como objetivo no el lograr una meta sino en lograr una forma física mínima, una flexibilidad del cuerpo y un estado de movilidad adecuado. La Gimnasia aerobia, Bailo terapia o pequeñas actividades deportivas con música que den esa movilidad son la base del presente trabajo, un deporte para todas aquellas personas que deseen realizar ejercicios físicos, un deporte para un cuerpo sano, una mente sana, no para un objetivo deportivo.

    2. Pemikiran Teologi Ash‘Arîyah Dalam Irshâd Al-‘Aql Al-Salîm Ilâ Mazâyâ Al-Kitâb Al-Karîm Karya Abû Al-Su‘ud

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Husni Mubarok

      2016-09-01

      Full Text Available This article explores theological thought of al-Ash‘arî in Abû al-Su‘ûd’s work Irshâd al-‘Aql al-Salîm ilâ Mazâyâ al-Kitâb al-Karîm. The study finds an interesting fact that when interpreting the Quranic verses on theological matters, Abû al-Su‘ûd tended to affiliate to Ash‘arîyah. However, Abû al-Su‘ûd firmly stated that he referred most to al-Kashshâf of al-Zamakhsharî in his exegetical works. It has been widely known that al-Zamakhsharî was one of prominent proponents of Mu‘tazilah. The article emphasizes a number of theological issues discussed by Abû al-Su‘ûd in his tafsîr such as God’s free will, anthropomorphism, and God’s justice. There have been three steps to analyze theological thoughts of Ash‘arîyah mentioned in Abû al-Su‘ûd’s work, are: firstly, grouping the most Quranic verses on theological realm referred by mutakallimîn. Secondly, explaining the views of each school (madhhab of Islamic theology. Thirdly, discussing the assessments and interpretation of Abû al-Su‘ûd on theological verses and comparing them to al-Zamakhsharî’s interpretation. Based on these three steps the author will analyze the Ash‘arîyah theological pattern adhered by Abû al-Su‘ûd.

    3. Persistent hypertension and progressive renal injury induced by salt overload after short term nitric oxide inhibition Hipertensão persistente e lesão renal progressiva induzidas por sobrecarga de sal após inibição temporária do óxido nítrico

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ana Lúcia Mattar

      2007-01-01

      em sal (HS promove albuminúria e dano renal graves, reversíveis ao interromperem-se os tratamentos. OBJETIVO: Investigamos se tais alterações recrudescem ao reinstituir-se a HS e se são prevenidas pelo micofenolato mofetil (MMF, um agente antilinfócito, ou losartan, um bloqueador do receptor AT-1. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Ratos Münich-Wistar machos adultos receberam NAME e HS. Um grupo controle (C recebeu apenas HS. Após 20 dias, os ratos que receberam HS e NAME exibiam hipertensão e albuminúria graves. Após recuperação de 30 dias, a hipertensão atenuou-se e a albuminúria praticamente desapareceu. Formaram-se então os grupos: HS, recebendo HS; NS, recebendo dieta normal em sal (NS; HS-MMF, recebendo HS e MMF; HS-LOS, recebendo HS e losartan; HS-HDZ, recebendo HS e hidralazina. Após sessenta dias os ratos NS tinham albuminúria e dano/inflamação renal apenas discretos. Já os ratos HS desenvolveram hipertensão e glomerulosclerose acentuadas, expansão intersticial e infiltração renal por macrófagos e células positivas para angiotensina II. Losartan baixou a pressão arterial e preveniu albuminúria e lesão renal. MMF proporcionou proteção semelhante sem alteração pressórica, sugerindo a ação de mecanismos não hemodinâmicos, hipótese reforçada pelo achado de que a HDZ baixou a pressão arterial sem prevenir a nefropatia. RESULTADOS: Esses resultados indicam que o tratamento com HS e NAME predispõe ao desenvolvimento de hipertensão e lesão renal induzidos por excesso de sal, caracterizando um novo modelo de nefropatia crônica. CONCLUSÃO: A resposta ao MMF ou losartan, mas não à hidralazina, sugere o predomínio de fatores inflamatórios.

    4. Salt zone cementing; Cimentacao em zonas de sal

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Santos, Fernando Jose Parente Neiva; Miranda, Cristiane Richard de; Martins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

      1994-07-01

      This work introduces new concepts in the proposal of NaCl concentrations i cement slurry and operational parameters for cementing halite salt zones. Experiments carried out in the laboratory and in the Surface Hydraulic Simulator using real halite coring allowed the determination of halite dissolution rates in relation to flow, contact time, and initial Na Cl concentration in the cement slurries. An experimental procedure was developed to measure the adherence strength of hardened cement on halite formations. A Computer Simulator was developed with the adjustment of a model representing the physical phenomenon of mass transfer to the experimental results obtained, which enable us to calculate the Na Cl concentration profile on cement slurry after its positioning in the well's annular region, as well as the total mass of dissolved salt. Employment of the methodology developed in this work shall reduce risk of collapsed casing as well as the cost of the slurry. (author)

    5. SAL and PVS Model of TTEthernet Synchronization Protocol

      Data.gov (United States)

      National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Timed-Triggered Ethernet (or TTEthernet)is a communication infrastructure that enables the use of Ethernet in real-time, distributed systems. TTEthernet is...

    6. Basınç altında α -PbO2 fazındaki SnO2’nın yapısal ve dinamik özelliklerinin araştırılması

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tahsin Özer

      2017-06-01

      Full Text Available SnO2 birçok uygulamalar için çok yararlı malzeme yapan çeşitli özel ve özgün özellikleri vardır. Malzemenin elastik sabitleri mekanik, fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri ile ilişki kurduğu için çok önemlidir. SnO2’nın yapısal ve elastik sabitleri VASP yazılımı kullanılarak Yoğunluk Fonksiyonel Teorisi (DFT ile araştırılmıştır. Örgü parametreleri, atomik konumlar ve elastik sabitler 18 GPa’ya kadar değişik basınçlarda çalışıldı. Hesaplanan elastik sabitler göstermektedir ki SnO2 mekanik olarak kararlıdır. Bulk modül, Debye sıcaklığı, Poisson oranı, Young modülü, shear modülü, kristal anizotropisi gibi bazı fiziksel nicelikler hesaplanan verilerden türetilmiştir. CaCl2 tipinden α-PbO2 yapısına faz geçişi 12,13 GPa elde edildi. SnO2’nin Debye sıcaklığı elastik modüller ve ses hızlarından hesaplandı. Ortam basıncında x, y ve z yönlerinde α-PbO2’nin ortalama sıkıştırıla bilirliği 1,90 TPa-1 dır. Ayrıca, basınç kaynaklı örgü (elastik sabitleri diğer hesaplamalar ile elde edilen sonuçlarla doğrudan karşılaştırma yapmak amacıyla regresyon denklemine uyduruldu. Sonuçlar mevcut teorik ve deneysel verilerle kıyaslanmıştır.

    7. Obtenção dos tempos de equilíbrio e coeficientes de difusão de ácido e de sal para desenhar o processo de marinado de filés de Engraulis anchoita Obtainment of equilibrium times and diffusion coefficients of acid and salt to design the marinating process of Engraulis anchoita fillets

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      María Rosa Casales

      2009-12-01

      Full Text Available Foi estudada a difusão simultânea de cloreto de sódio e ácido acético em filés de anchoíta. Os resultados mostram que foram alcançadas condições de equilíbrio entre os filés e a solução de marinado, de acordo com os valores K obtidos para fechar a unidade. A solução de marinado precisou de agitação para evitar a formação de uma camada superficial diluída nos filés de pescado. Os tempos de equilíbrio para ácido e sal foram maiores para as amostras agitadas durante o marinado. O gasto de cloreto de sódio e ácido acético durante o marinado dos filés de anchoíta pode ser explicado pela lei de Fick. Os valores do coeficiente de difusão para ácido acético a 20 °C foram 3,39 × 10-6 e 3,49 × 10-6 cm²/segundos para marinado com e sem agitação, respectivamente. O valor do coeficiente de difusão de cloreto de sódio para marinado sem agitação foi de 2,39 × 10-7 cm²/segundos, contudo, para marinado com agitação, não pôde ser fixado.Simultaneous diffusion of sodium chloride and acetic acid in anchovy fillets was studied. The results show that equilibrium conditions between the fillets and the marinating solution were reached according to the K values obtained close to unity. The marinating solution was stirred to prevent the formation of a diluted surface layer on the fish fillets. The equilibrium times for acid and salt were higher for the samples stirred during marinating. The sodium chloride and acetic acid uptake during marinating of anchovy fillets can be explained by Fick's law. The values of the diffusion coefficient for acetic acid at 20 °C were 3.39 × 10-6 and 3.49 × 10-6 cm²/seconds for marinating with and without agitation, respectively. The value of the diffusion coefficient for sodium chloride for marinating without agitation was 2.39 × 10-7 cm²/seconds, while it could not be obtained for marinating with agitation.

    8. Saul bellow's henderson, the rain king — a coming to terms with his self and with the world around Saul bellow's henderson, the rain king — a coming to terms with his self and with the world around

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Myrian Vieira B. de Oliveira

      2008-04-01

      Full Text Available As the plot focuses on Henderson, our starting point wil be a presentation of his most important characteristics, so we can better understand the developing of the action. Henderson, at the age of fifty-five, is not a happy man. Although he has a nice wife and kids, plenty of money and time to enjoy life and its pleasures, he thinks he has made a mess of his life. Physically, he describes himself as "six feet four inches tall. Two hundred and thirty pounds - An enormous head, rugged, with hair like Persian lamb's fur. Suspicious eyes, usually narrowed. Blustering ways. A great nose" (p.8. His appearance is, to say the least, remarkable. And he made it still more remarkable by the kind of clothes he liked to wear. He is a person who requires " large and real emotions" (p. 25 and that is why he was happy when he was in the war; /the civilian life bored him. Although he is always quarreling and many times "behaved like a bum", he wants to belong, to be accepted. On p. 256, when he's telling about one of his experiences with king Dahfu, what kind of words came instinctively from his mouth? "and certain words crept into my roars, like "God", "Help", "Lord Have Mercy"... plus snatches from the Messiah (he was despised and rejected, a man of sorrows, etcetera". He feels there is a similarity between the Messiah and himself. Another aspect of his contradictory personality is the combination of sensitivity and a taste for hard manual work. The same hands that have"thrown down boars and pinned them and gelded them" (p. 32 also played the violin. As the plot focuses on Henderson, our starting point wil be a presentation of his most important characteristics, so we can better understand the developing of the action. Henderson, at the age of fifty-five, is not a happy man. Although he has a nice wife and kids, plenty of money and time to enjoy life and its pleasures, he thinks he has made a mess of his life. Physically, he describes himself as "six feet four inches tall. Two hundred and thirty pounds - An enormous head, rugged, with hair like Persian lamb's fur. Suspicious eyes, usually narrowed. Blustering ways. A great nose" (p.8. His appearance is, to say the least, remarkable. And he made it still more remarkable by the kind of clothes he liked to wear. He is a person who requires " large and real emotions" (p. 25 and that is why he was happy when he was in the war; /the civilian life bored him. Although he is always quarreling and many times "behaved like a bum", he wants to belong, to be accepted. On p. 256, when he's telling about one of his experiences with king Dahfu, what kind of words came instinctively from his mouth? "and certain words crept into my roars, like "God", "Help", "Lord Have Mercy"... plus snatches from the Messiah (he was despised and rejected, a man of sorrows, etcetera". He feels there is a similarity between the Messiah and himself. Another aspect of his contradictory personality is the combination of sensitivity and a taste for hard manual work. The same hands that have"thrown down boars and pinned them and gelded them" (p. 32 also played the violin.

    9. RASYONEL KARAR ALAN EKONOMİK BİRİMİN RİSK ALTINDA VERDİĞİ KARARLARA DAVRANIŞSAL YAKLAŞIM: KAHNEMAN-TVERSKY BEKLENTİ TEORİSİ PERSPEKTİFİNDEN ELEŞTİREL BİR BAKIŞ

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Fatih ŞENTÜRK

      2014-08-01

      Full Text Available ÖzetEkonomi literatüründe neo-klasik döneme kadar ekonomi ve psikoloji bilimleri arasındaki bağ göz ardıedilerek, insanın salt rasyonel kararlar alan bir varlık olduğu ifade edilmiştir. Ancak son otuz yıllık dönemdeinsanların, ekonomik kararlar alırken psikolojiye ilişkin çeşitli faktörlerden de etkilendiğini savunan“Davranışsal Yaklaşım”, farklı bir bakış ortaya koymuştur. Bu yaklaşımın öncüleri, D. Kahneman ve A.Tversky belirsizlik ortamında karar alan bireylerin davranışlarını incelemiş ve insanların, riskten kaçınmaeğilimlerinin kazanma isteklerine galip geldiğini ve her zaman rasyonel davranışlar sergileyemedikleriniileri sürmüşlerdir. Yapmış oldukları birçok deneysel çalışma ile kayıpların verdiği acının, kazançların verdiğitatminden iki kat daha fazla olduğunu tespit etmişlerdir. Bu makalede insan psikolojisinin ekonomiktercihlere etkilerine değinilmiş ve özellikle risk altında karar verme konusunda bireyin irrasyonel davranışlargösterdiği çeşitli örnekler ışığında açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır.AbstractIgnoring the connection between the economics and psychological sciences until the neo-classical termin economics literature, it has been stated that human is a creature taking only rational decisions. However,in the last thirty years, a different approach named “Behavioural Approach” that argues that people are influenced also by various factors related with psychology while taking decisions with economy has occured.The pioneers of this approach, D. Kahneman and A. Tversky examined the behaviours of the individualswho make decision in an uncertainty environment and put forward that people’s tendency of avoidingrisks defeats their willing to win and that they cannot always behave rationally. With many experimentalstudies they carried out, they determined that the sadness caused by the losses are two times more than thesatisfaction given by

    10. Bilişsel - Duyuşsal Odaklı Bir Programın ilköğretim Öğrencilerinin Fiziksel Engelli Yaşıtlarına Yönelik Sosyal Kabul Düzeylerine Etkisinin İncelenmesi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Canan Aktaş

      2002-07-01

      Full Text Available Bu araştırmanın amacı bilişsel ve duyuşsal odaklı etkinlikleri içeren bir programın ilköğretim öğrencilerinin fiziksel engelli yaşıtlarına yönelik sosyal kabul düzeyleri üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Araştırmaya deney ve kontrol gruplarında 20'şer öğrenci olmak üzere toplam 40 öğrenci (6., 7'., ve 8. sınıf katılmıştır. Deney grubunu II kız 9 erkek, kontrol grubunu ise 9 kız, 11 erkek öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Öğrencilerin fiziksel engelli yaşıtlarına yönelik sosyal kabul düzeyleri program öncesi ve sonrasında Sosyal Kabul Ölçeği ile değerlendirilmiştir. Deney grubundaki öğrencilere haftada iki gün 90 dakika süreli 7 oturumdan oluşan bir program uygulanmıştır. Programda, öğrencilere fiziksel engelli bireyler hakkında bilgi verme, film gösterme, grup tartışması, görme engelli bir bireyle doğrudan etkileşimde bulunma ve engel durumunu canlandırma etkinliklerine yer verilmiştir. Analiz sonuçları, uygulanan programın deney grubundaki öğrencilerin fiziksel engelli yaşıtlarına yönelik sosyal kabul düzeylerini geliştirmede etkili olduğunu göstermiştir. Araştırmada elde edilen bu bulgu, engelli Öğrencilerin normal okul ortamlarında başarılı bir biçimde kaynaştırılmaları açısından benzer programların gerekliliğine işaret etmektedir. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of an intervention program, incorporated cognitive and affective activities on social acceptance level of physically disabled children by their nonhandicapped peers, at 6"' to Slh grade. A total of 40 students. 20 for experimental (II female and 9 male and 20 for control group (9 female and 11 male participated in the study. The Social Acceptance Scale was administered to both groups before and after the program. The program, applied lo the experimental group, was held two times a week for ninety minutes per day for seven weeks. Provision of information about

    11. Diferencial de salários entre homens e mulheres segundo a condição de migração Diferencia de salarios entre hombres y mujeres según la condición de migración Wage differences between men and women according to condition of migration

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Natalia Nunes Ferreira Batista

      2009-06-01

      Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a diferença salarial por sexo, segundo a condição de migração da população. Por meio do cálculo do índice de dissimilaridade de Duncan e da decomposição de Oaxaca para os salários de homens e mulheres migrantes e não-migrantes, encontraram-se situações diferenciadas para a Região Sudeste e o restante do país. Os resultados mostram que a elevada diferença salarial entre sexo verificada na população migrante residente fora da Região Sudeste mantém-se devido à diferente valorização no mercado de trabalho do local de destino dos atributos masculinos vis-à-vis os femininos. Já no caso do Sudeste, a menor diferença salarial constatada entre homens e mulheres migrantes deve-se mais às características específicas das trabalhadoras do que à valorização diferenciada no mercado de trabalho.Este trabajo analiza la diferencia salarial por sexo, según la condición de migración de la población. Por medio del cálculo del índice de disimilaridad de Duncan y de la descomposición de Oaxaca para los salarios de hombres y mujeres migrantes y no-migrantes, se encontraron situaciones diferenciadas para la Región Sudeste y el resto del país. Los resultados muestran que la elevada diferencia salarial entre sexo verificada en la población migrante residente fuera de la Región Sudeste se mantiene, debido a la diferente valorización en el mercado de trabajo del lugar de destino de los atributos masculinos con respecto a los femeninos. Por otro lado, en el caso del Sudeste, la menor diferencia salarial constatada entre hombres y mujeres migrantes se debe más a las características específicas de las trabajadoras que a la valorización diferenciada en el mercado de trabajo.This article analyzes wage differences by gender, as per condition of migration of the population. By calculating Duncan's dissimilarity index and the Oaxaca decomposition for wages of male and female migrants and non-migrants, great

    12. La capacidad de trabajo funcional de las practicantes de Gimnasia Aerobia de Salón en correspondencia con las edades de 18 a 50 años de las escuelas comunitarias del municipio de Pinar del Río

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Luis Alberto Mojena Rodríguez

      2009-06-01

      Full Text Available Con nuestro trabajo pretendemos brindar un valioso aporte para resolver una de las principales problemáticas que afrontan hoy en día los docentes que imparten  el  programa  de  gimnasia  aerobia  de  salón  ya  que  la  idea  es establecer rangos que nos permita evaluar de B, R y M la capacidad física de resistencia cardiovascular, contribuyendo a que este su principal objetivo se desarrolle sobre bases mas científicas , mediante la aplicación del test de Cooper a practicantes entrenados en las edades comprendidas entre 18 y 50 años  del  sexo  femenino, teniendo  en  cuenta  como  principal  medidor  el consumo máximo de oxigeno para evaluar dicha prueba, que la aplicaremos en tres momentos con dos meses de tiempo de aplicación entre una medición y otra que nos brindara en que por ciento debe mejorar su rendimiento o incrementar la mejoría en esta capacidad entre cada prueba que seria el principal aporte de nuestra investigación premisa la resistencia se puede definir como la capacidad psíquica y física que posee un deportista para resistir la fatiga (Weineck 1992, entendiéndose como fatiga la disminución transitoria de la capacidad de rendimiento. Es la capacidad de realizar un esfuerzo de mayor o menor intensidad, durante el mayor tiempo posible. La capacidad de oposición a la fatiga. Es la lucha para la mejora de la capacidad de absorción de O, ya que cuando se incrementa la intensidad de los esfuerzos, mayor es la necesidad de un aporte de oxígeno. Desde el punto de vista bioquímico,  la resistencia se determina por la relación entre la cantidad de las reservas energéticas dispuestas para su utilización y la velocidad de consumo de la energía durante la práctica deportiva (Menshikov y Volkov 1990. La resistencia tiene como sustrato morfo-funcional  al aparato cardiocirculatorio y respiratorio.  El aparato cardiovascular controla la cantidad de sangre que el corazón bombea y la circulaci

    13. Väitöskirja henkilöstöomistuksesta Virossa / Klaus E Meyer, Saul Estrin, Derek C Jones

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Meyer, Klaus E

      2002-01-01

      Copenhagen Business School'i, London Business School'i ja Hamilton College'i professorite kommentaarid Panu Kalmi väitekirjale On the (In)stability of employee ownership: Estonian evidence and lessons for transition economies

    14. Samsun İli Salıpazarı İlçesi Arıcılığının ve Arıcı-Birlik İlişkilerinin İncelenmesi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Murat Emir

      2016-05-01

      Full Text Available Bu araştırma, Samsun ili Salıpazarı ilçesindeki arıcıların sosyo-ekonomik ve üretim yapısı ile arıcı-birlik ilişkilerini ortaya koymayı amaçlamıştır. Araştırma verileri sistematik örnekleme metoduyla seçilmiş 30 arıcıdan 2014-2015 üretim yılı esas alınarak anket yoluyla ve alan çalışmasındaki gözlemlerle elde edilmiştir. Arıcıların sosyo-ekonomik yapısı, klasik ekonomik analizle ortaya konulmuştur. Verilerin analizinde tanımlayıcı istatistikler kullanılmıştır.  Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; arıcılar, arıcılığı ek gelir amaçlı, kısa mesafeli göçer veya sabit arıcılık olarak yapmaktadırlar. Ortalama 52 yaşında olan arıcılar, 15 yıllık arıcılık deneyimine sahip olup, 8 yıl örgün eğitim görmüşlerdir. İlçede arıcıların ortalama 90 kolonisi olup, koloni başına bal veriminin 15 kg olduğu saptanmıştır. Son yıllarda azalan verimin en önemli nedeni olarak yöre şartlarına uyum sağlamayan arı ırkları gösterilmiştir. Arıcıların %93’ü Varroa destructor ile mücadele ettiğini belirtmiştir. İlçede süzme çiçek balı 25-50 TL kg-1 satılırken; kestane balı 55-90 TL kg-1 arasında pazarlanmaktadır. Arıcıların %80’i birlik faaliyetlerini yararlı bulmaktadır. İlçe gençleri meslek yüksekokullarında açılacak arıcılık bölümlerinde eğitilerek arıcılığa özendirilmeli ve arıcı ortalama yaşı düşürülerek yeni neslin arıcılık mesleğini sahiplenmesi sağlanmalıdır. Varroa destructor mücadelesi için entegre ilaçlama yapılmalıdır. Birliklerin düzenleneceği eğitimlerde, pazarlama, ana arı yetiştiriciliği, arı hastalıkları ve tedavi yöntemleri konularına yer verilmesi ve bu eğitimlerin uygulamalı olması ilçe ve ülke arıcılığında var olan yanlış uygulamaların azaltılmasına katkı sağlayabilecektir.

    15. 76 FR 2413 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Lawrence County, SD

      Science.gov (United States)

      2011-01-13

      ... Dakota, to Keith Sauls for the appraised fair market value of $183. DATES: Comments regarding the... proposes to sell this land to Keith Sauls for the appraised fair market value of $183. The public land is...

    16. Laevahüpoteegi arengust Eesti õiguskorras : [bakalaureusetöö] / Kristiina Saul ; Õigusinstituut ; juhendaja: Priidu Pärna

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Saul, Kristiina

      2002-01-01

      Laevahüpoteegi võrdlus enne 1940. a. kehtinud regulatsiooniga, laevahüpoteegi ja hüpoteegi võrdlev analüüs, laevahüpoteegi õigusliku regulatsiooni rahvusvaheline võrdlus (Eesti, Skandinaavia, Saksamaa)

    17. COMERCIO, PESCA Y SAL EN EL CAP DE CERVER (ORIHUELA EN LA BAJA EDAD MEDIA

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      José Hinojosa Montalvo

      1995-01-01

      Full Text Available The port of Cap de Cerver was used, along with that of Guardamar, as an inward and outward route for products from Orihuela’s provincial goverment. Jaime II and his successors in the throne favoured chelped it with various privileges, and its activity was oriented towards trade, fishing and exploita- tion. Wheat was the main exported item, although the yearly vessel movement was scarce. Profits at saltworks were not high either at the end for the Middle Ages. For its defence agsint attacks from pirates and corsairs, it had a tower, maintained by Orihuela, with a keeper in charge of it. A country house and some auxiliary buildings would complete the harbour area complex.

    18. Sand and clay mineralogy of sal forest soils of the Doon Siwalik ...

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      3Forest Soil & Land Reclamation Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248 006, India. .... also helps in characterizing the soil mineralogical make-up in relation to the growth and develop- ment of the species essential for sustainable forest management. ...... and Weed S B (Madison: Soil Science Society of America).

    19. Ph Sal henoty lmonel ypic an lla sero p d mole otypes produc ecular ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      SAM

      man and animals generally cause gastrointestinal infections usually less severe than enteric fever. However, they also have the ... (2011), epidemiologic classification of Salmonella is based on the host preferences. The first ..... serotypes to nalidixic and ofloxacin may account for the non- abuse of these antibiotics. Pui et al.

    20. A influência da descoberta do pré-sal na economia fluminense

      OpenAIRE

      Francisco de Assis Dourado da Silva

      2010-01-01

      Assim como o setor de petróleo é importante para a economia do estado do Rio de Janeiro, o estado é importante para o setor de petróleo nacional. As Participações Governamentais, que incluem os Royalties e a Participação Especial, são a segunda maior arrecadação do estado (12% do total), perdendo apenas para a arrecadação do ICMS (51%). Do que é arrecadado em ICMS 11% é oriundo do setor do petróleo. Com isto, 18% de toda a arrecadação do Governo do estado vem do setor de petróleo. Essa partic...

    1. Simon van der Stel en Constantia sal in my gedagtes bly. Die ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      lute dictatorship under Adolf Hitler. It is well-known that as far as loyalty to the. Weimar Republic is concerned, there was some discord among the members of the. German armed forces [D.: Reichswehr]. Based on this fact, Professor Rainer Wohlfeil has in the past done research and published his findings in the Handbuch ...

    2. f Mo fingerl ortality ings in ch asses n varyi hanges ssment ing sal s ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      sunny

      bioma lead. (Bhup. 410805622606 ccess under the ournal of E reochro and inf oxicity. - Allah Kaf of Lagos, P.M. 10 November, 2 d protection nce of salinit nce and rela nst O. niloti t chemical. C ls of 2, 12, 1 by Probit. Mo. 35 ppt within there was a s imilarly, the significance o confer pr ence on t icochemical ls and pest.

    3. Changements climatiques et infiltrations d'eau salée le long du ...

      International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

      Amélioration de la gouvernance de l'eau et de l'adaptation aux changements climatiques au Cambodge. Le lac Tonlé Sap, au Cambodge, est le plus grand lac d'eau douce en Asie du Sud-Est. Voir davantageAmélioration de la gouvernance de l'eau et de l'adaptation aux changements climatiques au Cambodge ...

    4. Caracterizacion del consumo de sal entre hipertensos segun factores sociodemograficos y clinicos

      OpenAIRE

      Perin, Milena Sia; Cornelio, Marilia Estevam; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Gallani, Maria Cecilia Bueno Jayme

      2013-01-01

      OBJECTIVE:to evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables.METHOD:sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption), 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108).RESULTS:elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consump...

    5. 'Wat jy ook op die aarde mag bind, sal in die hemel gebonde wees ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      'What you prohibit on earth will be prohibited in heaven, and what you permit on earth will be permitted in heaven' (Mt 16:19) This article has been a homiletic reflection on the well-known words in Matthew 16:19. The explication and application of these words have been theologically contextualised with respect to current ...

    6. 'Wat jy ook op die aarde mag bind, sal in die hemel gebonde wees ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Test

      19 Jul 2010 ... lig.' Sy 'juk' verskil van die sware laste wat die skrifgeleerdes op mense gelaai het deur hulle te hiet en te gebied, te bind en te verbied. Sy juk is lig en sag, want Hy maak mense los; Hy vergewe en verwelkom mense, al verdien hulle dit nie. Hy bevestig hierdie 'losmaak' as Hy in die volgende hoofstuk ...

    7. Synthetic Aperture Ladar (SAL): Fundamental Theory, Design Equations for a Satellite System, and Laboratory Demonstration

      National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

      Lucke, Robert

      2002-01-01

      .... Design equations are presented to allow quick assessment of the hardware parameters required for a notional system, most notably optical aperture sizes and the laser's power, chirp, and pulse rate capabilities...

    8. Papel de las calculadoras en el salón de clase

      OpenAIRE

      Gómez, Pedro; Waits, Bert

      2000-01-01

      En este libro se presenta una serie de artículos sobre la utilización de la tecnología portátil en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de las matemáticas. Algunos de ellos tratan sobre el uso de las calculadoras gráficas en áreas específicas de las matemáticas. Otros presentan reflexiones sobre la relación entre el currículo de matemáticas y la tecnología. Todos ellos se preocupan por el papel que estas nuevas tecnologías pueden jugar en la educación matemática del futuro. Este libro es el produ...

    9. Sand and clay mineralogy of sal forest soils of the Doon Siwalik ...

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      The peteromineralogical characterization of the soil was carried out for the 12 soil profiles exposed in the Shorea robusta dominated forests of the Siwalik forest division, Dehradun. The quartz was observed as the dominating light mineral fraction (64–80%) in all the profiles studied. Biotite, hornblende, zircon, tourmaline, ...

    10. Hacia un nuevo modelo de epilepsia: el hámster GASH:sal

      OpenAIRE

      Carballosa González, Melissa

      2008-01-01

      La epilepsia es una e las enfermedades neurológicas más frecuentes en el hombre, desconociéndose actualmente los mecanismos celulares y moleculares que transforman una parte del cerebro normal en epiléptico.El estudio de la epilepsias ha sido dependiente del estudio de diversos modelos animales. De entre todos los modelos,los de carácter genético,constituyen un grupo muy útil, y entre ellos, los que presentan epilepsias reflejas más aún, ya que pueden desencadenarse las crisis a voluntad al ...

    11. The Relation between Cognitive and Metacognitive Processing: Building Bridges between the SRL, MDL, and SAL Domains

      Science.gov (United States)

      Coertjens, Liesje

      2018-01-01

      Aim: The main aim of this commentary was to connect the insights from the contributions of the special issue on the intersection between depth and the regulation of strategy use. The seven contributions in this special issue stem from three perspectives: self-regulated learning (SRL), model of domain learning (MDL), or the student approaches to…

    12. CLARA-SAL: a global 28 yr timeseries of Earth's black-sky surface albedo

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      A. Riihelä

      2013-04-01

      Full Text Available We present a novel 28 yr dataset of Earth's black-sky surface albedo, derived from AVHRR instruments. The dataset is created using algorithms to separately derive the surface albedo for different land use areas globally. Snow, sea ice, open water and vegetation are all treated independently. The product features corrections for the atmospheric effect in satellite-observed surface radiances, a BRDF correction for the anisotropic reflectance properties of natural surfaces, and a novel topography correction of geolocation and radiometric accuracy of surface reflectance observations over mountainous areas. The dataset is based on a homogenized AVHRR radiance timeseries. The product is validated against quality-controlled in situ observations of clear-sky surface albedo at various BSRN sites around the world. Snow and ice albedo retrieval validation is given particular attention using BSRN sites over Antarctica, Greenland Climate Network stations on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS, as well as sea ice albedo data from the SHEBA and Tara expeditions. The product quality is found to be comparable to other previous long-term surface albedo datasets from AVHRR.

    13. Engineering aspects of the salt diapirs; Aspectos de engenharia do diapirismo de sal

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Borges, Ricardo Garske [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento

      2012-07-01

      From the viewpoint of drilling and well bore integrity, salt presents new significant challenges of geomechanical nature. Saline rocks have a characteristic feature of deforming slowly over time, phenomenon known as creep. Salt bodies affect present geomechanical environment by change of the local stress state. This is due mainly by the fact that salt is not able to withstand deviatoric stresses. In particular, changes in stresses can happen in the vicinity of salt bodies which are of enough magnitude to affect the fracture gradient and well bore stability, the salt-sediment interface region being the one which concentrates the majority of drilling difficulties. During the drilling of an evaporitic section in an oil well, the accumulated strain over a time period can be enough to restrain the passing of the drilling column and even stuck it in an irretrievable way. After the well has been cased, the salt creep can manifest undesirably causing, in some situations, constraints to passing tools along the casing or even causing its rupture by collapse. In order to address this issue, this work seeks to assess how saline structures affect the present geomechanics environment through changes in the local state of stresses, in addition to the consequences to well bore drilling arising from this modified stress state inside and close to the salt. A historic summary is also presented concerning operational problems in well bore drilling in regions influenced by salt movement. (author)

    14. Dlo-Dlo Sal 2 PSA (:60) (Water/Sewage 2)

      Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

      2010-02-18

      An important public health announcement about drinking water safety and tips to clean water using a clean clothe filter. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

    15. Dlo-Dlo Sal 3 PSA (:60) (Water/Sewage 3)

      Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

      2010-02-18

      An important public health announcement with tips to insure your bottled water is safe. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

    16. Dlo-Dlo Sal 1 PSA (:60) (Water/Sewage 1)

      Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

      2010-02-18

      An important public health announcement about drinking water safety and steps to make sure your water is safe. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

    17. Bleeding, thrombosis, and anticoagulation in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN: analysis from the German SAL-MPN-registry

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      A. Kaifie

      2016-03-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN, such as polycythemia vera (PV, essential thrombocythemia (ET, and primary myelofibrosis (PMF, are at increased risk for thrombosis/thromboembolism and major bleeding. Due to the morbidity and mortality of these events, antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant agents are commonly employed as primary and/or secondary prophylaxis. On the other hand, disease-related bleeding complications (i.e., from esophageal varices are common in patients with MPN. This analysis was performed to define the frequency of such events, identify risk factors, and assess antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy in a cohort of patients with MPN. Methods The MPN registry of the Study Alliance Leukemia is a non-interventional prospective study including adult patients with an MPN according to WHO criteria (2008. For statistical analysis, descriptive methods and tests for significant differences as well as contingency tables were used to identify the odds of potential risk factors for vascular events. Results MPN subgroups significantly differed in sex distribution, age at diagnosis, blood counts, LDH levels, JAK2V617F positivity, and spleen size (length. While most thromboembolic events occurred around the time of MPN diagnosis, one third of these events occurred after that date. Splanchnic vein thrombosis was most frequent in post-PV-MF and MPN-U patients. The chance of developing a thromboembolic event was significantly elevated if patients suffered from post-PV-MF (OR 3.43; 95 % CI = 1.39–8.48 and splenomegaly (OR 1.76; 95 % CI = 1.15–2.71. Significant odds for major bleeding were previous thromboembolic events (OR = 2.71; 95 % CI = 1.36–5.40, splenomegaly (OR = 2.22; 95 % CI 1.01–4.89, and the administration of heparin (OR = 5.64; 95 % CI = 1.84–17.34. Major bleeding episodes were significantly less frequent in ET patients compared to other MPN subgroups. Conclusions Together, this report on an unselected “real-world” cohort of German MPN patients reveals important data on the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of thromboembolic and major bleeding complications of MPN.

    18. Climate driven changes in Engelmann spruce stands at timberline in the La Sal Mountains

      Science.gov (United States)

      James F. Fowler; Steven Overby; Barb Smith

      2012-01-01

      Due to global warming spruce-fir forest and associated vegetation may experience elevational displacement and altered species composition at the timberline-treeline ecotone. These forests and their component species are predicted to migrate upslope and thus landscape features such as timberline and treeline may move upslope as well. Prior to this study, baseline data...

    19. Sand and clay mineralogy of sal forest soils of the Doon Siwalik ...

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      The peteromineralogical characterization of the soil was carried out for the 12 soil profiles exposed in the Shorea robusta dominated forests of the Siwalik forest division, Dehradun. The quartz was observed as the dominating light mineral fraction (64–80%) in all the profiles studied. Biotite, hornblende, zircon, tourmaline ...

    20. A influência dos sindicatos nos salários do setor sucroalcooleiro

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Márcia Azanha Ferraz Dias de Moraes

      2011-09-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the determinants of the income of the employees of the sugarcane sector, and also for the sugar and ethanol industries. Special attention is given to union's role. Earnings equations were estimated for these sectors and information on union's action were collected in a field research. In the regressions estimated, the coefficients of the following variables were significant and had the expected signs: (i gender (ii region, (iii education, (iv threshold effect of education, (v membership to labor unions. It was verified the existence and also the influence of labor unions on wage formation

    1. Sal Adelante Mujer!: Support Group for Latina First-Year College Students

      Science.gov (United States)

      Segura-Malady, Evelyn E.

      2014-01-01

      Latinas are at a disadvantage when it comes to earning a college degree, as is evidenced by the fact that they take longer to complete their degrees than Black, Asian, and white college students and have the lowest graduation rates in comparison to these respective groups (Fry, 2004; Fry, 2012; Rodriguez, Guido-Brito, Torres, & Talbot, 2000).…

    2. VT Generalized Land Cover Land Use for Champlain Basin - SAL 1992

      Data.gov (United States)

      Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Circa 1992 land use - land cover (LULC) for the Lake Champlain Basin. This layer was created by performing a retrospective change detection on the...

    3. 78 FR 2947 - Manti-La Sal National Forest, Utah; Maverick Point Forest Health Project

      Science.gov (United States)

      2013-01-15

      ... regimes, thereby reducing the risk of stand-replacing fires that could damage soils and associated... wildlife habitat. About 340 acres will be treated with a rollerchopper to diversify the age and structure... accumulating behind the wall and creating a potentially hazardous condition. Soil and water samples are being...

    4. Python valodas REST API ietvaru salīdzinājums

      OpenAIRE

      Babris, Kārlis

      2016-01-01

      Arvien populārāk kļūst veidot tīmekļa vietņu servera puses risinājumus, kuri balstās uz REST API arhitektūru. Šāds koncepts ļauj atdalīt datu apstrādes un manipulācijas procesu no to reprezentācijas, radot iespēju šīs funkcionalitātes izstrādāt neatkarīgi vai nodrošināt datus vairākām nesaistītām lietotnēm vienlaicīgi. Šajā darbā ir apskatīti vairāki specializēti Python programmēšanas valodas ietvari REST API sistēmu izstrādei. Darbā ir veikts gan teorētisks, gan empīrisks pētījums par esošaj...

    5. VT Generalized Land Cover Land Use for Champlain Basin - SAL 2001

      Data.gov (United States)

      Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Circa 2001 land use / land cover (LULC) for the Lake Champlain Basin. The goal in creating this layer was to generate an "improved" version of...

    6. Preparation and validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9924

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Bagliano, G.; Cappis, J.; Doubek, N.; Jammet, G.; Raab, W.; Zoigner, A.

      1989-12-01

      To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing 2 to 4 mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 97%) and 40 to 200 mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 18%) can be advantageously used to spike a concentrated spent fuel solution with a high burn up and with a low 235 U enrichment. This will simplify the conditioning of the sample by 1) reduced time of preparation (from more than one day used for the conventional technique to 2-3 hours); 2) reduced burden for the operator with a clear easiness for the inspector to witness the entire procedure (accurate dilution of the spent fuel sample before spiking being no longer necessary). Furthermore this type of spike could be used as a common spike for the operator and the inspector. The source materials are available in sufficient quantity and are enough cheaper than the commonly used 233 U and 242 Pu or 244 Pu tracer that the costs of the overall Operator-Inspector procedures will be reduced. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBS-960 and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing 1.7 mg/ml of Pu and 68 mg/ml of 17.5% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution must be dried to give Large Size Dried Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of the Large Size Dried Spike. Proof of usefulness in the field will be done at a later date in parallel with analysis by the conventional technique. Refs and tabs

    7. Salúd mental y psicoanálisis, una tensión irreductible...

      OpenAIRE

      Haddad, María Ivon; Ulrich, Guillermina María

      2009-01-01

      El siguiente trabajo se inscribe en el marco de la teoría psicoanalítica especialmente, las enseñanzas de Freud y de Lacan. Desarrollaremos una tensión irreductible entre el campo de la salud mental y el psicoanálisis. Nuestro propósito no es presentar una solución a dicha tensión, sino reflexionar en qué consiste y sus posibles efectos. Por un lado, articularemos la definición de salud mental que propone la OMS con la lógica del bien y la felicidad, y por el otro, el psicoanálisis con la lóg...

    8. Estudio preliminar de tres modelos de destiladores solares para producir sal y agua potable (ING

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Shyam S. Nandwani

      2016-03-01

      Full Text Available We have constructed three solar stills of areas 0.5-1.0 m2 to produce salt and potable water, using local technology and local materials. We have studied the thermal efficiency of these stills as a function of solar intensity, covers, geometrical configuration, quantity of water, salt concentration and artificial cooling of the cover. Some of the important results are: still with glass cover destill more water than still with plastic cover, thermal efficiency vary between 10-30%, amount of water which can be evaporated and condense is 2-4 l/day/m2, exist 25-60% of loss of water in the still and finally artificial cooling of the cover can be accelerate the process of condensation, etc. Finally we have mentioned the chemical analysis of destilled and normal tap water.

    9. OP U WOORD SAL EK DIE NET LAAT SAK".* Gemeente van Jesus ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Test

      Gemeente van Jesus Christus,. Toe die apostel Paulus, daar op die strand van Milete afskeid geneem het van die ouderlinge van die gemeente van Efese, het hy onder meer ook hierdie woorde uitgespreek, dat hy nou ,,gebind deur die. Gees na Jerusalem gaan". So 'n gebondenheid waarin ek die roepstem van die groot ...

    10. leserskring sal geniet. Die boek verdien dit. A. D. Pont. J. P. Jooste ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Test

      1959, Uitgewer en jaar van publikasie ... Die werk van Van der Vyver wat in Neder land gedruk is toon dat goeie vakmanne dié ... 'n Tweede punt is dat die note nie aan die voet van die bladsy staan waar dit tuishoort nie. Dit word agter in die ...

    11. Kuidas Helena Bonham Carter ahviks muutus

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      2001-01-01

      Taas on ekraanile jõudnud "Ahvide planeet" ("Planet of the Apes") : režissöör Tim Burton : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001. Kuidas tehti näitlejatele ahvide grimmi. Lähemalt Helena Bonham Carteri grimmist

    12. Estudo comparativo do consumo de oxigênio e limiar anaeróbio em um teste de esforço progressivo entre atletas profissionais de futebol e futsal Estudio comparativo del consumo de oxígeno y límite anaeróbico en un test de esfuerzo progresivo entre atletas profesionales de fútbol y fútbol de salón Comparative study of the oxygen consumption and anaerobic threshold in a progressive exertion test in professional soccer and indoor soccer athletes

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal Junior

      2006-12-01

      Full Text Available O consumo de oxigênio (VO2 tem sido de grande valia na avaliação funcional de atletas. A ergoespirometria é um procedimento não invasivo, utilizado para avaliar o desempenho físico ou a capacidade funcional de um indivíduo, conciliando a análise de gases espirados e variáveis respiratórias. No esporte, esse método de avaliação é de fundamental importância, pois traz significativa contribuição na verificação de índices de aptidão cardiorrespiratória, como é o caso do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2 máx. e o limiar anaeróbio (LA. O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar uma comparação do consumo de oxigênio e limiar anaeróbio entre atletas profissionais de futebol e futsal em um teste progressivo. Participaram voluntariamente 31 indivíduos do sexo masculino, sendo: 19 atletas profissionais de futebol e 12 atletas profissionais de futsal. Os atletas foram submetidos a um protocolo de avaliação cardiorrespiratória progressiva pelo método ergoespirométrico e os resultados foram analisados quanto a sua diferença estatística através do teste t de Student (p 0,05; entretanto, houve diferença estatística entre os dois grupos em relação ao limiar anaeróbio (LA (p El consumo de oxígeno (VO2 ha sido de gran valía en la evaluación funcional de atletas. La ergoespirometría es un procedimiento no invasivo, utilizado para evaluar el desempeño físico o la capacidad funcional de un individuo, conciliando el análisis de gases expirados y las variables respiratorias. En el deporte, ese método de evaluación es de fundamental importancia, pues contribuye significativamente en la verificación de índices de aptitud cardiorrespiratoria, como es el caso del consumo máximo de oxígeno (VO2 máx. y el límite anaeróbico (LA. El presente estudio ha tenido como objetivo realizar una comparación del consumo de oxígeno y límite anaeróbico entre atletas profesionales de fútbol y fútbol de salón en un test

    13. 76 FR 9268 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Imposition of Special Measure Against the Lebanese Canadian...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2011-02-17

      ... Investments (Holding) SAL, LCB Finance SAL, LCB Estates SAL, LCB Insurance Brokerage House SAL, Dubai- based... financial interest in a number of subsidiaries, including LCB Investments SAL, LCB Finance SAL, LCB Estates SAL, LCB Insurance Brokerage House SAL, Dubai-based Tabadul for Shares and Bonds LLC, Prime Bank...

    14. Temel Söz Varlığı Bağlamında Türkçe Ve Almancada En Sık Kullanılan Elli Eylemin Söz-Eylem Kuramı Çerçevesinde Dil-Yapısal Ve Kültürel Açıdan Karşılaştırılması Basic Vocabulury In Context Comparison Of Perspective Lingua-Structure And Culture Most Frequently Used Fifty Actions In Turkish And German In The Frame Of Statement-Action Theory

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Faik KANATLI

      2013-09-01

      ğudur. Anılan kabullerden hareketle bu çalışmada Türkçe ve Almancada en sık kullanılan ilk elli eylem (fiil söz-eylem kuramına göre sınıflandırılarak dil-yapısal ve kültürel açıdan karşılaştırılacaktır. Sıklığa ve söz-eylem kuramına dayalı karşılaştırmadan hem Türkçe konuşucusuna Yabancı dil olarak Almanca öğretiminde hem de Almanca konuşucusuna yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretiminde olası katkılar sağlayacak çıkarımlarda bulunmak, bu çalışmanın temel amacını oluşturmaktadır. Karşılaştırmada Tschirner (2008 ve Özkan (2012 verileri temel alınacaktır. En sık kullanılan ilk elli eylemde iki dil (Türkçe-Almanca arasındaki örtüşmeler ve örtüşmezlikler yorumlanıp gerekçelendirilecektir.Çalışmanın temel savı, ana dilin ve yabancı dilin en sık kullanılan elli eylemini saptamanın ve karşılaştırmanın, özellikle temel söz varlığını aşamalı olarak eylem odaklı dilbilgisi (Valanzgrammatik aracılığıyla öğretmede etkili olacağıdır. Çalışmanın bir başka vurgusu, ilk elli eylem sıralamasının dil konuşucularının genel kültürel önceliğini yansıttığıdır. Çalışmadaki bulguların ve çıkarımların ana dil eğitimine, yabancı dil eğitimine ve yabancı dil olarak Türkçe eğitimine katkı sunması beklenebilir. Çalışmanın bulguları, dil eğitiminde sözcük öğretiminin kültürel önceliklere göre aşamalandırılmasına dayanak oluşturabilir. Bu bakımdan, bu çalışmanın alan yazınında kimi gereksinimlerin giderilmesine önemli katkılar sunacağı savlanabilir.

    15. ‘Wat jy ook op die aarde mag bind, sal in die hemel gebonde wees, en wat jy ook op die aarde mag ontbind, sal in die hemel ontbonde wees’ (Matt 16:19

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Theuns F.J. Dreyer

      2011-04-01

      Full Text Available ‘What you prohibit on earth will be prohibited in heaven, and what you permit on earth will be permitted in heaven’ (Mt 16:19 This article has been a homiletic reflection on the well-known words in Matthew 16:19. The explication and application of these words have been theologically contextualised with respect to current debates amongst theologians in the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk. The original meaning of this verse relates to the rabbinical tradition of interpretation of the Torah. Matthew pictures Jesus as the new teacher (like Moses, who gave a new interpretation of the law. In rabbinical language, his teachings are ‘binding’ and ‘loosening’, or, as translated in the Good News Bible (1933, they permit and prohibit. In the history of the reformed tradition, this verse was mostly interpreted from a judicial perspective as the authority to excommunicate or to include. To a great extent and especially in certain circles, the tradition of interpretation became static because of the authority of a ‘final’ interpretation attached to the creeds of the church. However, the original meaning of this verse is the authority, and commands us continuously to interpret the meaning of the gospel in the context of the present-day situation.

    16. Desenvolvimento de Jerked Beef utilizando sal de bixina como substituinte do nitrito de sódio

      OpenAIRE

      Bolognesi, Vinícius José

      2014-01-01

      Orientadora : Profª. Drª. Sandra Mara Woranovicz Barreira Co-orientador : Prof. Dr. Carlos Eduardo Rocha Garcia Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas. Defesa: Curitiba, 11/08/2014 Inclui referências Área de concentração: Insumos, medicamentos e correlatos Resumo: O Jerked Beef (JB) é um produto cárneo salgado e desidratado, derivado do charque tradicional, diferenciando-se deste p...

    17. Crystallization, Structure Determination and Reticular Twinning in Iron(III) Salicylate: Fe[(HSal)(Sal)(H2O)2

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Horn, Jitschaq A. Van Der; Souvignier, Bernd; Lutz, Martin

      2017-01-01

      In this contribution, we present the first crystal structure of iron(III) salicylate without additional counterions. The octahedral complex contains two salicylate and two water molecules as ligands. One salicylate is mono-anionic while the other is di-anionic. Because of the centrosymmetry of the

    18. Assessment of the validity and reliability for a newly developed Stress in Academic Life Scale (SALS) for pharmacy undergraduates

      OpenAIRE

      Ali Yousif Alzaeem; Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman; Wasif Gillani

      2010-01-01

      Background & Objectives: Stress results from perception of individual to external threats. Stress in academic life affects all college students regardless of their programs. It has been well established in many studies that pharmacy students suffer a massy amount of stress but empirical evidence with regard to how much stress affects pharmacy students and how they cope with it is still needed. The present paper vows constructing a special tool to be used in gauging stress of pharmacy undergra...

    19. The sub salt and Brazilian agribusiness effects; O pre-sal e os seus efeitos no agronegocio brasileiro

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Santos, Maria Betania Gama; Monteiro, Luciano Fernandes [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Producao], E-mail: betaniagama@uaep.ufcg.edu.br; Silva, Mozaniel Gomes; Mota, Jeane Karla de Mendonca [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Silva, Itamar Ferreira da [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Desenho Industrial

      2010-07-01

      This article objectified to analyze the influence of the appearance of great reserves of oil in the layer daily pay-salt and its consequences in the Brazilian agribusiness, raising the possibility of occurrence of the 'dutch illness' and the impacts in the production of ethanol, that before the daily pay-salt, were one of the great products of Brazil. In case that the expectation is confirmed, Brazil could be between the six countries that possess the biggest reserves of the world. The results point with respect to a little steady scene, case the country if it becomes a great exporter of crude oil. One of the great problems for the agribusiness will be related with the fall of the exportations of the agricultural and industrialized products, when the country will start to import more, in view of the cambial valuation, for the fortified currency. It will be able to have an impact of the displacement of the workmanship's agriculture for the sector of services, and the valuation of the wages, reducing the edge of profit of the agricultural producers. This movement will tend to increase the unemployment tax of the country throughout the time. It is defined one public politics for fuel sector. It is considered that one public politics for the fuel sector is defined to prevent experiences as of the Brazilian Program of Alcohol, that extinct had to the international quotations of oil. (author)

    20. PENERAPAN METODE STUDENT ACTIVE LEARNING (SAL MELALUI MULTI MEDIA POWER POINT UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEAKTIFAN, KETERAMPILAN BERDISKUSI, DAN HASIL BELAJAR MATEMATIKA

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rustinah Rustinah

      2017-08-01

      Full Text Available The purpose of this study is find math learning scenarios format with active student learning method of learning mathematics by using multimedia power point to determine how much influence can enhance the activity, discuss the skills and student learning outcomes. Subjects examined or samples studied were students who study at grade students geometry IX.2 SMP Negeri 3 Batanghari, East Lampung. This study occurred during the three months using three cycles. The variables measured in the study include the involvement of the student in the learning process, skills in using media power point and student learning outcomes. Conclusions of this research is that it can increase the creativity of teachers using a variety of learning resources and selection methods that can encourage the creation of a learning process student active learning with contextual approach through multimedia. Can enhance the activity, and fun atusiasme students during the learning process, improve students' skills in solving problems and improve learning outcomes, especially the material geometry.

    1. FRONTERAS DE SAL: EL CINE EN "EL BESO DE LA MUJER ARAÑA" DE MANUEL PUIG

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Álvaro Lema Mosca

      2013-09-01

      Full Text Available Analisar-se-á a novela de Manuel Puig, O beijo da mulher aranha, verificando as relações estabelecidas entre o que seja propriamente literário e as influências do cinema para o escritor argentino, a fim de se comprovar que confluem em um ponto comum, em um novo tipo de escrita. As relações entre os dois códigos, o literário e o cinematográfico, colaboram para a criação de uma escrita andrógena que dá, à obra de Puig, um caráter único e universal.

    2. Sal y salud, el punto de vista del consumidor argentino obtenido por la técnica de grupos focales

      OpenAIRE

      Vázquez, Marisa B.; Lema, Silvia N.; Contarini, Adriana; Kenten, Charlotte

      2012-01-01

      The consumption of high levels of salt (NaCl) is associated with hypertension, and possible development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to explore consumers’ understanding of salt in their daily diet, their perceptions and knowledge about health implications and actions to reduce salt intake. Four focus groups were conducted (31 participants): one with university students, two with working adults and one older woman’s group. Some participants were not...

    3. Kuzey Anadolu fay zonunun yapısal analizi ve yaşlandırılması

      OpenAIRE

      ÇAĞLAYAN, Ayşe

      2017-01-01

      Kuzey Anadolu Fay Zonu (KAFZ) yerkabuğunun en önemli aktif faylanma bölgelerinden olup tarihsel ve aletsel dönemde büyük depremler üretmiş doğrultu atımlı fay zonudur. Anadolu levhasının oluşumunu ve levhanın B-GB’ya hareketini sağlayan kabuksal ölçekteki bu zon çok sayıda segmentlerden oluşur. 1944 ve 1943 deprem segmentleri KAFZ içerisinde yüzlerce km yanal uzanımlı ve çok sayıda faylardan oluşur. Deprem segmentlerini oluşturan faylar saç örgüsü geometrisinde olup bir kısm...

    4. Relación entre la ingesta de sal y la presión arterial en pacientes hipertensos

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Lucía Navas Santos

      2016-03-01

      Full Text Available Introducción: La hipertensión arterial resistente o refractaria al tratamiento supone un serio problema de salud pública y aunque, no están claros los mecanismos por los que se produce esta resistencia, se sospecha que el consumo de sodio puede jugar un papel importante en el mantenimiento de la misma. Objetivo: Determinar si los pacientes con hipertensión resistente toman sodio oculto en los alimentos ingeridos en su dieta; así como relacionar este consumo con sus hábitos dietéticos. Pacientes y Métodos: Se estudiaron 32 pacientes con una media de edad de 74,25±6,38 años, (65,6% hombres y 34,4% mujeres. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal mediante entrevista estructurada sobre consumo de alimentos. Se estudió: edad, género, estado civil, presión arterial, responsable de la elaboración de las comidas, índice de masa corporal (IMC, consumo de sodio oculto en la dieta y percepción de los pacientes sobre su consumo de sodio. Resultados: Se encontró una ingesta media real de 3693,56±2330,97 mg de sodio. En el 59,4% de los casos las comidas las elaboraba otra persona diferente al paciente, siendo mayor el consumo de sodio en estos pacientes (3.709,44±529,37 frente a 3.677,69±649,27 mg. Respecto a la percepción sobre la cantidad de sodio ingerida, el 9,4% decían no tomar nada, el 56,3% poco, el 21,9% lo normal y el 12,5% bastante. Los que decían no tomar nada de sodio y lo normal, el mayor aporte lo hacían durante la cena; y los que decían tomar poco sodio y bastante, era en el almuerzo. Se encontró correlación significativa entre ingesta de sodio total e IMC (r=0,411, p & lt0,05. No se encontró relación entre consumo de sodio y hipertensión arterial. Conclusiones: Al menos en la muestra estudiada, no existe relación entre ingesta de sodio y presión arterial; existe una relación directa entre consumo de sodio y la persona que cocina. Por otro lado, la percepción que tienen estos pacientes respecto a su consumo de sodio es adecuada.

    5. 76 FR 9403 - Finding That the Lebanese Canadian Bank SAL Is a Financial Institution of Primary Money...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2011-02-17

      ... (``Customs'') supervises two free trade zones operating in the country. However, high levels of corruption... Asia, Europe, and the Middle East, the Caribbean, and Lebanon, participates in this money laundering... being based in Asia, he is believed to have centralized his banking operations in Lebanon, particularly...

    6. Beklemeli salınım hareketli rotatif armür makinesinin kinematik ve dinamik analizi

      OpenAIRE

      Hasçelik, Barış

      2008-01-01

      Mühendislik uygulamalarında mekanizmaların tasarımı ve analiz sistemleri için hesaplama metotları artan bir ilgiye sahiptir. Geçmişte çoğunlukla yorucu olan süreç bilgisayarların yardımıyla günümüzde kolayca yapılabilmektedir. Pro/Engineer, ADAMS, DADS ve Working Model gibi genel amaçlı yazılım paketleri zor mühendislik tasarımı ve analiz problemlerini çözmek için geliştirilmişlerdir. LINCAGES, Heron'un Watt, ve Artas düzlem mekanizmaların analizi ve sentezinin yapılabildiği diğer yazılımlard...

    7. Eesti Akadeemiline Farmaatsia Selts ja Gedeon Richter alustasid koostööd / Heikki Sal-Saller

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Sal-Saller, Heikki

      2014-01-01

      Eesti Akadeemiline Farmaatsia Selts ja Gedeon Richter Eesti sõlmisid koostöölepingu fondi loomiseks, millest eraldatakse stipendiume farmatseutilise tehnoloogia erialal kaitstud õppeaasta parima uurimistöö teostanud üliõpilastele

    8. Efectos de la reducción de sal en el aspecto y el sabor del pan precocido congelado

      OpenAIRE

      Vila Martí, Anna

      2013-01-01

      Bread is one of the foods that most salt bring into population so the decrease in the industrially produced part-bakec frozen bread can help to reduce salt intake of the population. However, salt reduction in bread makes possible maintaining the flavour, taste and general appearance. The main objectives of this thesis are: a) to define the effect on the appearance and taste when reducing the salt percentage from 2.2% to 1.8% (flour basis) in industrially produced part-baked frozen baguette,...

    9. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge

      Science.gov (United States)

      Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; de Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

      2016-01-01

      Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the “LbSapSal” vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with “LbSapSal” is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after “LbSapSal” immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the “LbSapSal” vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection. PMID:27556586

    10. Characterization and crystal structure of a 17-membered macrocyclic Schiff base compound MeO-sal-pn-bn

      Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

      Khalaji, A.D.; Ghoran, S.H.; Rohlíček, Jan; Dušek, Michal

      2015-01-01

      Roč. 56, č. 2 (2015), s. 259-265 ISSN 0022-4766 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : macrocyclic * Schiff base * spectroscopy * powder diffraction * orthorhombic Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.536, year: 2015

    11. Salt mechanical behavior numeric simulation in oil wells; Simulacao numerica do comportamento mecanico do sal em pocos de petroleo

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Gravina, Carlos Cabral

      1997-10-01

      Drilling incidents such as stuck pipe and collapsed casing string take place when when some type of salt formations are drilled because of the high pronounced plastic behavior of the salt and the creep behavior as a function of this type of rock. The creep behavior becomes faster and more severe if temperature an/or pressure acting on the salt go up. The deeper the salt is found, the earlier and more intense the troubles caused by salt creep will be evidence. (author)

    12. Bagātīgo interneta lietojumprogrammu izstrādes platformu salīdzinājums

      OpenAIRE

      Degiļeviča, Karīna

      2012-01-01

      Maģistra darbā ir aprakstītas populārākas bagātīgo interneta lietojumprogrammu tehnoloģijas, tādas kā Ajax, JavaFX, Silverlight, Adobe Flex un HTML5. Autore detalizētāk apskatīja Adobe Flex un JavaFX tehnoloģijas, to iespējas un izstrādes ietvarus. Balstoties uz iegūto informāciju, autore izveidoja praktisko darbu, kur, izmantojot Adobe Flex un JavaFX platformas, realizētas divas tīmekļa lietojumprogrammatūras. Maģistrā darba ietvaros ir aprakstītas tehnoloģiju priekšrocības un trūkumi, ka ar...

    13. Un nuevo caso de resistencia a un bismuto oleo-soluble: curación por una sal insoluble

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ch. Petouraud

      1934-07-01

      Full Text Available Acabamos de observar, simple coincidencia o efecto de la casualidad, un nuevo caso de bismuto resistencia que recuerda al que uno de nosotros encontró recientemente con el Profesor Nicolas. S. Joseph, 24 años, es visto por primera vez el 6 de mayo de 1933, en la consulta del servicio hospitalario de Dermato-Syphiligraphie de Antiquille (ficha Nv 5886, Dr. Gaté, para accidentes secundarios típicos; roséola discreta, sifilides papulosas y córneas de las regiones palmares, ganglios supraepitrccleanos y oervicales, reacción de Wassermann muy positiva en la sangre.

    14. Trastorno de deficit de atención e hiperactividad en el salón de clases

      OpenAIRE

      González Acosta, Edder

      2006-01-01

      Los Capítulos I y II define el TDAH, utilizando como marcos de referencia el Manual de Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Desórdenes Mentales de la AAP, enfoques de investigadores y organizaciones. El Capítulo III y IV tratan del proceso de evaluación y tratamiento. El Capítulo V describe la metodología de la investigación. El Capítulo VI presenta los hallazgos de la investigación sobre el conocimiento y las actitudes de los maestros de escuela pública y privada con relación al TDAH. El Capít...

    15. Tartu Ülikooli Õigusteaduskonna kogu viimase koosseisu saatusest / Artur Taska

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Taska, Artur, 1912-1994

      1989-01-01

      Sisaldab andmeid Ants Piibu, D. Grimmi, I. Tjutrjumovi, Artur-Tõeleid Kliimanni, Ernst Eini, Nikolai Maimi, Mart Nurga, Jüri Uluotsa, Elmar Ilusa, H. Kadari, L. Leesmenti, Juhan Vaabeli, Richard, Räägo, Otto Liivi, Hans Ronimoisi, T. Grünthali, Veera Poska-Grünthali, Artur Mägi, F. Malmi, G. Rooksi, Valmar Adamsi, Paul Vihalema, Rein Eliaseri, A. Rammuli, H. Randalu, Edgar Talviku, A. Perandi ja Väino Langi kohta

    16. silent no more: sexual violence in conflict as a challenge to the ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      They cut off Saul's head, strip him of his armour and put it in the temple at Ashtaroth. Saul's headless body is fastened to the wall at Beth-shan to be displayed along with the bodies of his sons.20. 17 The passages on sexual violence against male victims discussed here are not intended as an oppositional alternative to the ...

    17. PDC bit selection to drill the Brazilian pre-salt heterogeneous carbonates; Selecao de broca PDC para a perfuracao dos carbonatos heterogeneos do pre-sal brasileiro

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Lima, Araken Dumont Ramos; Tocantins, Joao Pedro Tourinho [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

      2012-07-01

      The well drilling operation to access the oil reserves of the Brazilian pre-salt find their highest challenge in the rock reservoir, which is formed from organic limestone and other sediments, and it can have different heterogeneous features that are hostile to drilling. Those features such as the silica nodules increase the rock formation strength and abrasiveness that together with the PDC bit vibrations generated during the rock cutting reduce the life of the cutting structure to a few meters. Because of these conditions, the development of more stable bits, with very low lateral and torsional vibration levels and with more strength PDC, has been one oil industry challenges to drill the pre-salt limestone with silica. This paper aims to present a dynamic comparative analysis between three PDC bits, called BR1, BR2 and BR3, of different generations, selected to drill a well design in a limestone heterogeneous and homogeneous (without silica nodules). This analysis was performed with dynamic three dimensional finite elements software, which considers the interaction between the bit cutter structure and the rock to be drilled, used to design bits, reamers and BHA (Bottom Hole Assembly). (author)

    18. Pre-salt new regulatory mark and the economic order: constitutionality analysis; Novo marco regulatorio do pre-sal e a ordem economica: analise de constitucionalidade

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Pinheiro, Marcela Brasil Pedrosa; Araujo, Mayara de Carvalho; Xavier, Yanko Marcius; Guimaraes, Patricia Borba Vilar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

      2010-07-01

      The discovery of vast reserves of hydrocarbons in the pre-salt layer that extends from Espirito Santo to Santa Catarina, added with the economic and strategic value of oil and natural gas, has brought discussion about the reasonableness of the regulatory model adopted so far. Would be prudent to explore these resources through the concession model? From detailed analysis of the doctrinal and bills that aim to inaugurate the new regulatory bills, we sought to answer this question, based majorly on the principles of economic activity applied in our constitutional system. Motivated by the analysis of these constitutional principles proposed, the State is seen as a regulating agent of the economic activities, fulfilling its role to supervise, encourage and plan the direction of national economic system. The sharing model gives greater state involvement and is able to convert the wealth of pre-salt in citizenship, but only if well implemented. Thus, based on constitutional principles and the notion of development as freedom, the conclusion of this paperwork is for the constitutionality of the new regulatory bills. (author)

    19. Develando la acción pedagógica en un salón de clase de Educación Inicial

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Chaves Salas, Ana Lupita

      2002-12-01

      Full Text Available El artículo resume el proceso investigativo y los hallazgos de un estudio que se llevó a cabo en una aula de educación inicial. La investigación responde a la necesidad de interpretar la realidad educativa en el contexto del aula con el propósito de promover la reflexión crítica sobre la teoría y la práctica pedagógica que asumimos y llevamos a cabo las y los educadores del nivel inicial, tomar conciencia de lo que hacemos y promover procesos de transformación de la práctica educativa.

    20. Dikdörtgen Kesitli Kanallarda Laminer Akış ve Isı Transferinin Sayısal Olarak İncelenmesi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Oğuz TURGUT

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available In this study, hydrodynamically and thermally developing laminar flow and heat transfer in a rectangular cross-sectional duct have been numerically investigated for steady state and constant surface temperature boundary condition. Numerical solutions have been made for three different aspect ratios (α=0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 and in the Reynolds numbers range of 600 to 2000. Air (Pr0.72 is used as working fluid. A commercial CFD program ANSYS Fluent 13.0 has been employed to carry out the numerical study. Results are given in terms of Nusselt number Nu, Darcy friction factor f, hydrodynamic Lhd and thermal entrance Lth lengths as a function of Reynolds number Re. Also, velocity and temperature contours in the duct are given for different Reynolds numbers. It is seen that the general equation given for circular ducts does not give a true hydrodynamic and thermal entrance length for rectangular ducts. The present results obtained from numerical study are correlated as a function of aspect ratio and Reynolds number involving all aspect ratios and Reynolds numbers used in this study

    1. Discursos latinoamericanistas en los debates arquitectónicos de la década de 1980. Los seminarios de Arquitectura Latinoamericana (SAL

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      María Rosa Zambrano

      2015-07-01

      Full Text Available Este artículo explora los discursos que se generaron en los Seminarios de Arquitectura Latinoamericana entre 1985 y 1993, a partir de la reconstrucción de sus debates sobre las nociones de identidad y modernidad y regionalismo, y de su plasmación por algunos de sus participantes en diversas conferencias y publicaciones de arquitectura de aquel periodo. Se trató en cierto modo de una reacción a la crisis económica prácticamente general a partir de la década de los 80 y al subsiguiente desinterés por la producción arquitectónica de América Latina por los principales historiadores y críticos foráneos. Todo ello en contraste con el reconocimiento internacional de obras y autores de las décadas de 1940 y 1950 y el optimismo y conciencia de progreso de esos mismos años.

    2. TÜKETİCİLERİN PERAKENDECİ TERCİHLERİNDE ETKİLİ OLAN DAVRANIŞSAL FAKTÖRLER VE SÜPERMARKET UYGULAMASI

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      HÜSEYİN S. KURTULDU

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available In this study, face to face surveys have been conducted with a group of 325 consumers who shop from supermarkets, in order to determine the degree 39 of importance of behavioral factors that play a role on consumers’ retail preferences and to find out about the degree of relationship between these factors and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of consumers. The above mentioned sample size has been determined in the % 1 importance level of Trabzon city population. While questions regarding consumer profile have been tested with Frequency Distribution; analyses involving comparions have been done using Kendall’s Tau Correlation. In addition Factor Analysis and a connected Reliability Analysis have been done.

    3. A dança de salão como um dos conteúdos de dança na escola

      OpenAIRE

      Volp, Catia Mary [UNESP

      2010-01-01

      This paper presents the right all citizens have to dance. It focus on the official orientations which deals with dance as a legitimate content at school briefly discussing the difficulty to implement this content. Among various dance manifestations we highlight Ballroom Dance, its characteristics and benefits. We trace the historical path of Ballroom Dance in Brazil at colleges. Este trabalho trata do direito de todo cidadão à dança. Focaliza as orientações oficiais que tratam a dança como...

    4. Angiostrongilose abdominal: profilaxia pela destruição das larvas infectantes em alimentos tratados com sal, vinagre ou hipoclorito de sódio

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Graziela Maria Zaniní

      1995-12-01

      Full Text Available A infecção acidental humana pelo Angiostrongylus costaricensis ocorre com elevada prevalência em certas áreas do Brasil meridional, eventualmente se manifestando como doença abdominal severa. Profilaxia é importante, pois não hã tratamento medicamentoso. Um dos modos de transmissão é a ingestão de frutas e vegetais contaminados com a mucosidade de moluscos infectados, os hospedeiros intermediários deste parasita. Larvas de terceiro estágio obtidas do ciclo mantido em laboratório foram incubadas a 5°C por 12 horas, em vinagre, solução saturada de cloreto de sódio e hipocloríto de sódio a 1,5%. A viabilidade das lamas tratadas foi testada através da inoculação em camundongos albinos. Os percentuais de larvas que estabeleceram infecção foram: 0% com hipocloríto de sódio, 1,8% com salmora e 2,4% com vinagre. Em conclusão, todas as substâncias - de baixo custo e disponíveis nas áreas endêmicas - reduziram à população de lamas viáveis e podem ser úteis na descontaminação de alimentos para profilaxia da angiostrongilose abdominal.There is a high prevalence of accidental human infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis in some areas in southern Brazil and sometimes it presents as severe intestinal disease. Prophylaxis is important since there is no medical treatment for the disease. The ingestion of fruits and vegetables contaminated with the mucous secretion of infected molluscs (the intermediate hosts is one of the proposed modes of transmission. Third stage lamae were incubated at 5°C for 12 hours, in solutions of saturated sodium chloride, vinegar and sodium hypochlorite 1.5%. The larvae had their viability tested through inoculation into albino mice. The percentage of larvae that established infection were 0% in the group treated with sodium hypochloride, 1.8% with NaCl and 2.4% with vinegar. In conclusion, all substances tested reduced the population of viable larvae and may be useful in food decontamination, as a prophylactic measure for abdominal angiostrongylosis.

    5. Papel da ouabaína endógena sobre o sistema cardiovascular do modelo de hipertensão arterial DOCA-SAL.

      OpenAIRE

      Camilla Ferreira Wenceslau

      2012-01-01

      Tem sido demonstrado que na hipertensão arterial ocorre aumento de ouabaína plasmática, um inibidor da Na+K+-ATPase. Em 1998, Ferrari et al. desenvolveram uma molécula denominada de rostafuroxina, a qual é capaz de antagonizar os efeitos da ouabaína por deslocar a ligação desse glicosídeo com a Na+K+-ATPase. Dentro desse contexto, parece razoável sugerir que um anti-hipertensivo capaz de antagonizar os efeitos da ouabaína possa representar uma nova ferramenta farmacológica para o tratamento d...

    6. Akomodācijas novērtēšanas klīnisko metožu salīdzinājums

      OpenAIRE

      Paegle, Zane

      2011-01-01

      Bakalaura darbs ir uzrakstīts latviešu valodā uz 30 lappusēm. Tas satur 14 attēlus, vienu tabulu un 18 atsauces uz izmantoto literatūru. Atslēgas vārdi: akomodācijas amplitūda, foropters, briļļu proves rāmis Darba mērķis: noskaidrot, kā binokulāro akomodācijas amplitūdas noteikšanu ar mīnuss lēcu metodi ietekmē mērījumu attālums un mērījuma veikšanas metodika. Metode: akomodācijas amplitūda tika mērīta ar mīnuss lēcu metodi. Akomodācijas amplitūdas novērtēšanai tālumā tika izmanto...

    7. CycloSal-Phosphate Pronucleotides of Cytostatic 6-(Het)aryl-7-Deazapurine Ribonucleosides: Synthesis, Cytostatic Activity, and Inhibition of Adenosine Kinases

      Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

      Spáčilová, Pavla; Nauš, Petr; Pohl, Radek; Votruba, Ivan; Snášel, Jan; Zábranská, Helena; Pichová, Iva; Ameral, R.; Birkuš, G.; Cihlař, T.; Hocek, Michal

      2010-01-01

      Roč. 5, č. 8 (2010), s. 1386-1396 ISSN 1860-7179 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : nucleosides * pronucleotides * deazapurines * cytostatics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.306, year: 2010

    8. Substrate Specificity of the Bacillus subtilis BY-Kinase PtkA Is Controlled by Alternative Activators: TkmA and SalA

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Derouiche, Abderahmane; Shi, Lei; Kalantari, Aida

      2016-01-01

      with alternative activators, and thus account for the observed ability of these kinases to phosphorylate several distinct classes of protein substrates. Here, we present experimental evidence that supports this hypothesis. We focus on the model Firmicute-type BY-kinase PtkA from Bacillus subtilis, known...

    9. El contexto cultural y la resolución de problemas: Vistos desde el salón de clases de una comunidad Ñuu Savi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Javier García García

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available El artículo describe el desempeño de los niños Tee Savi (mixtecos del estado de Guerrero, México, al resolver problemas (contextualizados y descontextualizados en el aula de clases. La investigación es cualitativa y descriptiva (Hernández, Fernández & Baptista, 2010; plantea como objetivo caracterizar las estrategias que emergen en dicha actividad. Emplea como método de investigación al estudio de casos; para la toma de datos se recurre al uso de cuestionarios de respuestas abiertas y de entrevistas grupales video-grabadas. El estudio es relevante, dado que retoma un eje rector de la educación para las poblaciones minoritarias y excluidas en México, a saber, la práctica de la interculturalidad. Esta ha sido reconocida, aceptada y promovida por la retórica oficial (SEP2, 2011; sin embargo, los grupos étnicos siguen siendo excluidos en la toma de decisiones en cuanto a educación se refiere. La investigación que se presenta plantea algunos elementos que deben ser considerados en el momento de planear el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje; en particular, para los grupos étnicos de México. En las acciones (estrategias que desarrollan los niños Tee Savi en la resolución de problemas, se ubica al contexto cultural como un factor constituyente en el desempeño de ellos. Esto último, permite plantear que existe cierta relación entre el contexto cultural y el desempeño de los niños mixtecos en el momento de resolver problemas. Finalmente, el estudio busca fortalecer la línea de investigaciones con enfoque de Matemática Educativa dirigidas a los grupos étnicos de México; que han sido ignorados por el sistema educativo tanto al diseñar planes y programas de estudio, como en la elaboración de los materiales didácticos que promueve la Secretaría de Educación Pública.

    10. El contexto cultural y la resolución de problemas: vistos desde el salón de clases de una comunidad Ñuu Savi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Javier García García

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available El artículo describe el desempeño de los niños Tee Savi (mixtecos del estado de Guerrero, México, al resolver problemas (contextualizados y descontextualizados en el aula de clases. La investigación es cualitativa y descriptiva (Hernández, Fernández & Baptista, 2010; plantea como objetivo caracterizar las estrategias que emergen en dicha actividad. Emplea como método de investigación al estudio de casos; para la toma de datos se recurre al uso de cuestionarios de respuestas abiertas y de entrevistas grupales video-grabadas. El estudio es relevante, dado que retoma un eje rector de la educación para las poblaciones minoritarias y excluidas en México, a saber, la práctica de la interculturalidad. Esta ha sido reconocida, aceptada y promovida por la retórica oficial (SEP2, 2011; sin embargo, los grupos étnicos siguen siendo excluidos en la toma de decisiones en cuanto a educación se refiere. La investigación que se presenta plantea algunos elementos que deben ser considerados en el momento de planear el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje; en particular, para los grupos étnicos de México. En las acciones (estrategias que desarrollan los niños Tee Savi en la resolución de problemas, se ubica al contexto cultural como un factor constituyente en el desempeño de ellos. Esto último, permite plantear que existe cierta relación entre el contexto cultural y el desempeño de los niños mixtecos en el momento de resolver problemas. Finalmente, el estudio busca fortalecer la línea de investigaciones con enfoque de Matemática Educativa dirigidas a los grupos étnicos de México; que han sido ignorados por el sistema educativo tanto al diseñar planes y programas de estudio, como en la elaboración de los materiales didácticos que promueve la Secretaría de Educación Pública.

    11. Reducing salt intake to prevent hypertension and cardiovascular disease Reducción del consumo de sal para prevenir la hipertensión y las enfermedades cardiovasculares

      OpenAIRE

      Feng J. He; Norm R. C. Campbell; Graham A. MacGregor

      2012-01-01

      There is compelling evidence that dietary salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure (BP) and that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of ≈ 9 - 12 g/day in most countries to the recommended level of < 5 g/day lowers BP. A further reduction to 3 - 4 g/day has a greater effect and there needs to be ongoing consideration of lower targets for population salt intake. Cohort studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduce...

    12. ANÁLISE MORFOLÓGICA E MICROBIOLÓGICA DO PERICÁRDIO BOVINO CONSERVADO EM AÇÚCAR, GLICERINA, MEL E SAL

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Antônio Fernando Bariani Júnior

      2014-07-01

      Full Text Available Histological and microbiological comparative analysis of bovine pericardium preserved for 30 and 60 days in glycerin (98%, supersaturated sugar solution (300%, supersaturated solution of salt (150% and unprocessed honey were performed aiming to establish alternative ways of preservation of biological membranes. Samples of pericardium from five cattle were collected in fridge and maintained for up to 60 days in containers with the above mentioned solutions of conservation. For morphological analysis of the constituents of bovine pericardium were performed routine histological techniques associated to two microbiological culture techniques: streaking on the surface of the plate and pour-plate. The supersaturated solution of sugar (300% was the medium of preservation with results closer to the obtained with glycerin (98%, but was unable to prevent microorganisms growth. The unprocessed honey and supersaturated solution of salt (150% had suitable antiseptic characteristics, but failed to effectively conserve the pericardium, with a greater structural disorganization of the connective tissue, indicating advanced process of autolysis after 60 days of storage. It was concluded that glycerin (98% appeared as the most efficient solution when compared to the others evaluated in this study.

    13. Characterization of sodium bentonites: effect of treatment with ammonium salt- free organic surfactant; Caracterizacao de bentonitas sodicas: efeito do tratamento com surfactante organico livre de sal de amonio

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Morita, R. Y.; Barbosa, R. V.; Kloss, J.R., E-mail: julianaweber@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dartamento de Quimica e Biologia

      2015-07-15

      Bentonite, which the main clay mineral is montmorillonite, are commercially attractive because of its abundance in nature. The clays can be modified by ion exchange reactions of ions contained in the interlayer region with cationic surfactants that include ammonium or phosphonium salts. The clays origin and the type of surfactants (modifiers) are the main factors in the alteration of physical and chemical properties of these materials. This study aims to characterize and compare the results of natural bentonite commercially available and the effect of treatments with quaternary ammonium salt and an organic compound free of ammonium salt. The FTIR and XRD results indicate the process of organophilization of clays after treatment with the surfactants. These treatments have altered the average particle size, suggesting the formation of agglomerates, which was showed in the SEM images. The results of surface area and particle size data indicated the presence of larger particles. Although the two surfactants have shown similarities in the investigated properties, the organoclays free of ammonium salt are more promising in terms of its use as well as for their preparation and solubility. (author)

    14. Kuzey Ege ve Marmara Denizi Kıyısal Yüzey Sularında Scyphomedusae ve Ctenophora Üzerine Yerinde Gözlemler.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Süleyman Mavili

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available Skifomedüz ve ktenoforların dağılımı ve bolluğu, 1998 ve 2005 arasında yaz ve sonbahar dönemlerinde yerinde gözlemlerle incelenmiştir. Skifomedüzler (A. aurita, R. pulmo Kuzey Ege ve Marmara Denizi’nde geniş bir dağılım göstermiştir. Yazın baskın olan A. aurita sonbaharda azalmış, oysa R. pulmo bu dönemde belirgin olarak artmıştır. Ktenoforlar (M. leidyi, B. ovata Kuzey Ege’de bulunmamıştır. M. leidyi Marmara Denizi’nde 1999’da bol olarak bulunmuş, B. ovata’nın ortaya çıktığı 2000’de belirgin bir azalma göstermiştir. Her iki ktenofor da 2004 ve 2005’de çalışma bölgesinde bulunmamıştır. Bu da pek muhtemelen M. leidyi yoğunluğunda büyük bir azalmaya işaret etmektedir

    15. La transición de una comunidad agrícola a turística: Ixtapan de la Sal, México.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Graciela Cruz Jiménez

      2012-11-01

      Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Ao longo deste trabalho abordamos três formas sob as quais tem vindo a desenvolver o turismo no Estado do México, dois deles promovidos pela política de turismo a nível federal e estadual, portanto, são levantadas as políticas "de cima" e "de fora e o terceiro surgiu nas comunidades rurais próprios. a primeira abordagem é orientada por modelos macroeconômicos e critérios destinados a criar condições para incentivar o investimento privado. a segunda é para a política de desenvolvimento social que tem sido como principal confia o desenvolvimento do turismo cultural como uma estratégia econômica. E o terceiro refere-se a uma forma de turismo que vem das próprias comunidades de economia do trabalho.

    16. Sensitivity and specificity of scales ELI, SAL, MODIFIED LARSEN, KLOCKHOFF and NIOSH rating for professional hearing loss, Popayán Colombia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Aura Teresa Palacios-Pérez

      2010-09-01

      Full Text Available Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of five available scales to the qualification of the Tonal Audiometry for the detection of occupationally induced hearing loss. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The study population was 92 adult workers. Participants underwent the application of the different formats of registration of the results and qualification of the tonal audiometry. Participants received a hearing evaluation by clinical audiometry. Sixty four cases met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the final analysis.Once the tonal audiometry was complete, evaluation of occupationally induced hearing loss was done by using the ELI, salt, modified LARSEN, KLOCKHOFF and NIOSH classification scales. Results were compared to FREQUENCIAL analysis. Results: The LARSEN scale was noted to detect more cases of occupationally induced hearing loss. The LARSEN modified, represented detection in 54.69% of cases for right ear and 56.25% of cases for left ear. On the other hand, noted the direct relationship of hearing loss with regard to the age. No direct correlation to time of noise exposure was found.. Conclusions: The rating scale that presented greater sensitivity was the LARSEN modified. It was represented by 93.1% and a specificity of 100%.

    17. Kurşunsuz Sodyum Bizmut Titanat (NBT) Esaslı Seramiklerin Yapısal, Dielektrik Özellikleri ve Empedans Spektroskopi Analizleri

      OpenAIRE

      ÖZEREN, Yağız; YAVUZ, Ayşe BERKSOY; ALKOY, Sedat; ALKOY, Ebru MENŞUR

      2014-01-01

      Among lead-free based piezoelectric ceramics with perovskite structure, sodium bismuth titanate based ceramics [(Na0,5,Bi0,5)TiO3 ; (NBT)] have very important piezoelectric properties. However, the polling process of unmodified NBT ceramics is very difficult due to exhibiting high ionic conductivity and large coercive field at room temperature.Therefore, nowadays binary 0,94(Na0,5,Bi0,5)TiO3-0,06BaTiO3 and ternary (Na0,5,Bi0,5)TiO3-BaTiO3-(K0,5,Na0,5)NbO3 systems have been developed to altern...

    18. Pihlaka 15 magusat aastat / Urmas Vaino

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Vaino, Urmas, 1974-

      2004-01-01

      Rakvere kondiitritööstuse AS-i Pihlaka juht Arvo Saul ettevõtte arengust ja tegevusest 15 tegevusaasta jooksul. Diagramm: Tordimeister jätkab edukalt. Vt. samas: Mustikarull, Gurmee ja Paradiisi tort kohvikust

    19. Eesti CRM-lahenduste kasv edestab kasvu maailmas kordades / Martin Goroshko

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Goroshko, Martin

      2005-01-01

      Kliendihaldus- ehk CRM-lahendused, mis aitavad ettevõtetel kliendisuhteid juhtida ja äriprotsesse efektiivsemaks muuta, on saamas populaarseks nii mujal maailmas kui ka Eestis. Diagramm: CRM-i pakkuvate firmade turuosad. Kommenteerib Indrek Saul

    20. Käärideta Financial Timesi kallal / Madis Võõras

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Võõras, Madis

      2010-01-01

      24.-25. aprillil 2010 ilmus ajalehe Financial Times nädalalõpulisas artikkel riskikapitali investeerijast Saul Kleinist. Viimane on investeerinud ka edukasse tarkvarafirmasse Erply, mida juhib Kristjan Hiiemaa

    1. Laulja Elina Bieza esines "Päikesejänku" festivalil / Helju Keskpalu

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Keskpalu, Helju

      2002-01-01

      Läti televisiooni kutsel osales nende korraldatud laste rahvusvahelisel popmuusika festivalil "Saules zakis 2002" (Päikesejänku 2002) Eesti esindajana stuudio Joy laulja Elina Bieza koos tantsutrupi Richard tantsijatega

    2. Industrial policy: Where does innovation fit in?

      CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

      Levin, Saul

      2017-10-01

      Full Text Available This presentation focuses on the importance of the industrial sector to achieve economic growth in South Africa, and is presented by Saul Levin at the 6th CSIR Conference: Ideas that work for industrial development....

    3. Redefining the American in Asian American Studies: Transnationalism, Diaspora, and Representation

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tanfer Emin Tunc

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum in honor of Sau-ling Wong, entitled "Redefining the American in Asian American Studies: Transnationalism, Diaspora, and Representation," edited by Tanfer Emin Tunc, Elisabetta Marino, and Daniel Y. Kim

    4. AIR PRESSURE and Other Data from TIDE STATIONS From North American Coastline-North and Others from 1972-01-01 to 1974-06-30 (NODC Accession 7601613)

      Data.gov (United States)

      National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This entry contains tidal information for Chesapeake Bay. Data was submitted by Saul Berkman, NOS Tides Branch, Oceanographic Division. These data are in NODC...

    5. Synthesis, characterization, and X-ray crystal structure of the manganese(III) complex Mn(Sal.sub.2./sub.hn)(CH.sub.3./sub.OH)(N.sub.3./sub.) [Sal.sub.2./sub.hn = N,N'-bis(Salicylidene)-1,2-Hexanediamine

      Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

      Khalaji, A.D.; Hadadzade, H.; Fejfarová, Karla; Dušek, Michal

      2010-01-01

      Roč. 36, č. 8 (2010), s. 618-621 ISSN 1070-3284 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0701 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : crystal structure * Jana2006 * x-ray diffraction * Schiff bases Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.591, year: 2010

    6. Didier Combeau, Des Américains et des armes à feux. Violence et démocratie aux Etats-Unis. Saul Cornell, A Well-Regulated Militia : The Founding Fathers and the Origins of Gun Control in America.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Renaud Pacoud

      2008-07-01

      Full Text Available Deux ouvrages différents dans leur approche mais également passionnants permettent de saisir l’évolution du débat sur les armes à feu aux États-Unis. Des Américains et des armes à feux. Violence et démocratie aux Etats Unis de Didier Combeau rend compte de la relation complexe que les Américains entretiennent avec les armes à feu depuis la fondation de la nation et de la polémique contemporaine sur la question du droit aux armes. A Well-Regulated Militia : The Founding Fathers and the Origins...

    7. Om te staak of nie te staak nie? Die sieninge van 'n aantal swart ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Erna Kinsey

      sig, is eerstens om ondersoek in te stel na 'n groep swart opvoeders se sieninge oor opvoeders se reg om te staak. Tweedens sal na die redes wat hierdie opvoeders aanvoer waarom hulle al aan stakings deel- geneem het of sal deelneem, gelet word. Derdens sal die redes waarom sommige opvoeders nie sal staak nie, ...

    8. Filo Büyüklüğü ve Karma Araç Rotalama Problemleri İçin Yeni Bir Yapısal Rotalama Algoritması

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kenan KARAGÜL

      2014-09-01

      Full Text Available In this study, a new constructive routing algorithm for fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem is proposed in which residual costs rather than vehicle types are considered for route selection. The algorithm of the proposed routing approach is given and then the solution phases of a sample problem are shown by using the given algorithm. In order to highlight the performance of the routing approach, Golden’s 12 test problems (Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Fixed Cost are used. It is seen that the proposed method has better average time complexity and cost performances than Ochi’s routing approach. Therefore, the solutions of the proposed method that uses vehicle type information are better than those of the methods that use residual cost based on the vehicle type information

    9. Need for coordinated programs to improve global health by optimizing salt and iodine intake Necesidad de programas coordinados para mejorar la salud a escala mundial mediante la optimización de la ingesta de sal y yodo

      OpenAIRE

      Norm R. C. Campbell; Omar Dary; Francesco P. Cappuccio; Lynnette M. Neufeld; Kim B. Harding; Michael B. Zimmermann

      2012-01-01

      High dietary salt is a major cause of increased blood pressure, the leading risk for death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that salt intake be less than 5 g/day, a goal that only a small proportion of people achieve. Iodine deficiency can cause cognitive and motor impairment and, if severe, hypothyroidism with serious mental and growth retardation. More than 2 billion people worldwide are at risk of iodine deficiency. Preventing iodine deficiency by using salt f...

    10. Academic locus of control and motivational persistence: structural equation modeling [Akademik kontrol odağı ve motivasyonel kararlılık: yapısal eşitlik modellemesi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hakan SARIÇAM

      2015-04-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this study is the examination of the relationship between academic locus of control and motivational persistence. For the first time to my knowledge, the relations between academic locus of control and motivational persistence were investigated. The participants of the study consisted of adolescents who have attended from different public high schools. Overall, 413 students contributed to this study. Academic Locus of Control Scale and The Motivational Persistence Scale were used for data collection. In the research, whether there is a casual relationship between academic locus of control and motivational persistence in adolescents was tested through path analysis in the context of structural equation model. According to the results, there is a causative relationship between academic locus of control and motivational persistence in adolescents. The findings were discussed in relation to previous research.

    11. Classroom Management: A Persistent Challenge for Pre-Service Foreign Language Teachers (Manejo del salón de clase: un reto persistente para docentes practicantes de lenguas extranjeras)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Macías, Diego Fernando; Sánchez, Jesús Ariel

      2015-01-01

      This qualitative descriptive study aimed to ascertain the extent to which classroom management constituted a problem among pre-service foreign language teachers in a teacher education program at a public university in Colombia. The study also sought to identify classroom management challenges, the approaches to confronting them, and the…

    12. Bem-estar no Trabalho: Relações com Estilos de Liderança e Suporte para Ascensão, Promoção e Salários

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Liliane Lima Sant’anna

      2012-09-01

      Full Text Available Well-being has been pointed out as an essential phenomenon for the adequate and competitive performance of organizations. This current study tested the relationships managerial styles and organizational support for ascension, promotion, and salaries have with work well-being. This variable includes the positive effects, the negative effects and personal fulfillment at work. The study was conducted in two private organizations. A total of 157 workers answered a survey composed by using the Evaluation Scale of Managerial Styles (Melo, 2004, Organizational Support Scale (Tamayo, Pinheiro, Tróccoli, & Paz, 2000 and Work Well-being Scale (Paschoal & Tamayo, 2008, all of which have been validated in Brazil. The data was analyzed by means of bivariate correlation and standard multiple regression. The results indicate that managerial styles as well as support for ascension, promotion and salary have significant association with work well-being. The variable support presented stronger associations with well-being factors and it was also the most important predictor. The more positive the perception of support is, the greater the positive affect and worker fulfillment is and the lesser the negative affect is. Organizational actions and practices seem to be of utmost importance for work well-being, rather than specific behavior of managers.

    13. Evaluation of thermal properties of nanocomposites based on Ecobras matrix and vermiculite modified with alkyl phosphonium salt; Avaliacao das propriedades termicas dos nanocompositos de Ecobras e vermiculita modificada com sal alquil fosfonio

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Oliveira, Marcelo F.L. de; Leite, Marcia C.A.M., E-mail: marceloilha@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Braga, Fernanda C.F.; Oliveira, Marcia G. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

      2015-07-01

      The use of biodegradable polymers for producing nanocomposites with mineral fillers fetch the production of new materials with low cost and reduced environmental impact, combined with improvements in the mechanical and thermal properties. Nanocomposites based on Ecobras and vermiculite (VMT) modified with hexadecyl tributyl phosphonium bromide (Ph-VMT) were prepared by melt intercalation. The intercalation of Ph-VMT in Ecobras was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal properties of Ecobras and their compositions were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of VMT and Ph- VMT in Ecobras increases the crystallization temperature (Tc) and crystalline melting (Tm), as observed by DSC analysis. The result of the thermogravimetric analysis showed that the addition of Ph-VMT in Ecobras improved thermal stability of the nanocomposite. (author)

    14. Coastal Development of Daugavgrîva Island, Located Near the Gulf of Riga / Rîgas Lîèa Piekrastes Krasta Attîstîba Daugavgrîvas Salâ

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Bçrtiòa Laura

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available Natural as well as anthropogenic processes impact greatly sensitive coastal areas all over the world. The spectrum of natural processes involved can be classified as meteorological, geological, marine, and lithodynamic. The Baltic Sea with its Gulf of Riga is an area in which combined sea erosion and accumulation processes, as well as alluvial processes, play significant roles in the coastal development. Major anthropogenic processes include impacts from ports and coastal protection structures, such as Riga Port hydraulic structures, fairway channels and coastal defence items. During summer also additional pressure of recreational activities has increased the effect on the coastal beach. Levelling data, historical cartographical material and beach sedimentary material granulometric analysis were used to describe natural and anthropogenic effects on development of the coastal beach of Daugavgrîva Island.

    15. Emprego do sal di-sódico de edta como padrão no preparo de soluções Use of EDTA disodium salt as standard for preparation of solutions

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Paulo H. Pereira da Silva

      2007-06-01

      Full Text Available The hydrated sodium salt of EDTA, Na2H2Y·2H2O, cannot be used as a primary standard for titrations due to uncertainties in the water content. An alkalimetric titration of the homogenized solid in the presence of a small excess of BaCl2·2H2O allows one to titrate quantitatively the released two hydrogen cations with end-point indication by phenolphthalein or potentiometry. This leads one to calculate the average molar mass of the reagent and its water content, allowing to use it to prepare EDTA standard solutions. One titrated sample led to the formula Na2H2Y·1.876 H2O, and 370.01 g.mol-1 for the average molar mass.

    16. Albert Camus’nün Veba Adlı Romanında işlenen Esaret Duygusunun Algısal Açıdan Analizi

      OpenAIRE

      KAYA, Muzaffer; DEMİRAL, Serkan

      2013-01-01

      The Plague a novel by Albert Camus A sense of the state of being captured are reflected from different angles In the opus very different ways appear in a state of bondage and with a sense of where you are there are visible and invisible forms of bondage First the physical and physiological slavery and then the psychic and spiritual slavery Finally a time of heroes becomes routine status Even that cycle appears to be in danger of being a prisoner In general examining the whole o...

    17. Musulmaņu minoritātes integrācija Eiropas Savienībā. Nīderlandes, Francijas un Grieķijas salīdzinājums

      OpenAIRE

      Heidemane, Madara

      2012-01-01

      Darba mērķis ir noskaidrot, kādu integrācijas politiku popularizē Eiropas Savienība. Problēmjautājums ir, vai ES dalībvalstis, konkrēti Francija, Grieķija un Nīderlande, īsteno ES izvirzīto musulmaņu imigrantu integrācijas politiku. Darba hipotēze ir: Grieķijas integrācijas politika ir atbilstīgāka ES nostādnēm, jo tā par imigrācijas valsti kļuva vēlāk nekā Francija un Nīderlande; attiecīgie tiesību akti radīti pēc ES un tās dalībvalstu piemēra. Darbā tiek skatīta integrācija, tās elementi, I...

    18. Drilling challenges in a high inclination exploratory well through thick layers of salt; Desafios da perfuracao de um poco exploratorio de alta inclinacao na area do pre-sal

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Alves, Ivan; Pimentel, Jose; Amaro, Renato [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hargreaves, Adriana [Halliburton, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

      2008-07-01

      This paper analyses a proposed high inclination deep water well in the deep pre-salt area of the Santos Basin, to see its technical viability in terms of torque and drag analysis and also hydraulics. The geometry of the well and BHAs for the build-up and high inclination phases are proposed and he results in terms of drag and torque analysis are presented for the 14 3/4{sup '}' hole (10 3/4{sup '}' casing) and 9{sup '}' hole ( 7{sup '}' liner). A commercially available simulator was used for the purpose and the proposed well is the shown to be a viable alternative for the development of the area. (author)

    19. Reabilitação urbana quarteirão Largo do Paço Braga : salão egípcio espaço dinamizador do centro histórico : Rua do Souto Braga

      OpenAIRE

      Macedo, José Rafael Guimarães

      2013-01-01

      Mestrado Integrado em Arquitectura Exame público realizado em 20 de Fevereiro de 2014 O presente trabalho desperta a curiosidade de como o casco histórico, da cidade de Braga, se desenvolve. A evolução cronológica e morfológica de Braga é, aqui, retratada e comparada através da análise de vários mapas que demonstram algumas das transformações urbanas que surgiram ao longo dos tempos. No entanto, é no quarteirão “Largo do Paço” que centramos o nosso estudo. Numa breve análise, no quartei...

    20. Extension spatiale de la salinisation des ressources en eau et modèle conceptuel des sources salées dans la plaine des Triffa (Maroc nord-oriental)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Boughriba, Mimoun; Melloul, Abderrahmane; Zarhloule, Yassine; Ouardi, Abdelillah

      2006-09-01

      The succession of drought years and excessive abstraction in the plain of Triffa caused deterioration in water quality and endangers future exploitation of groundwater resources. A combination of geophysical surveys, including electrical resistivity and hydrochemical data has been used to identify the geographical extension of salinization and identify its origin. Electrical conductivity measurements are used to show the history of salinization in space and time. In this paper, a first conceptual model of the brackish springs has been established. To cite this article: M. Boughriba et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

    1. Retención y penetración en estacones de eucalyptus saligna. sometidos a tratamiento con cuso4 y sal ccc, en baño caliente y frio y vacio-presión

      OpenAIRE

      Escobar C., Oscar; Solano C., Ovidio

      2012-01-01

      Este trabajo describe y da los resultados obtenidos con el pretratamiento de estacones de Eucalyptus saligna a tres soluciones de CUS04 y su posterior tratamiento con sales CCA (OSMOSE K-33). El sulfato de cobre se aplicó por el método de baño caliente y frío, seguido por el proceso de difusión durante una semana; para los anteriores tratamientos se usó madera verde o parcialmente seca al aire; las sales CCA se aplicaron a madera seca por el método de vacío-presión. Una de las razones...

    2. Retención y Penetración en Estacones de Eucalyptus Saligna. Sometidos a Tratamiento con CuSO4 y Sal CCC, en Baño Caliente y frio y Vacio-Presión

      OpenAIRE

      Escobar C. Oscar; Solano C. Ovidio

      1987-01-01

      Este trabajo describe y da los resultados obtenidos con el pretratamiento de estacones de Eucalyptus saligna a tres soluciones de CUS04 y su posterior tratamiento con sales CCA (OSMOSE K-33). El sulfato de cobre se aplicó por el método de baño caliente y frío, seguido por el proceso de difusión durante una semana; para los anteriores tratamientos se usó madera verde o parcialmente seca al aire; las sales CCA se aplicaron a madera seca por el método de vacío-presión. Una de las raz...

    3. Avaliação de ICP OES com configuração axial ou radial para determinação de iodo em sal de cozinha

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Adriana A. Oliveira

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available The performance of inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers with axial and radial views for determination of iodine in table salt was evaluated. Interference and memory effects in nitric acid and water-soluble tertiary amines (CFA-C media were studied. Based on a factorial experiment, one optimum instrument operational condition for axial configuration, and two optima conditions for radial configuration was established. The ICP OES with axial view was 5-fold more sensitive than the radial view. Both matrix matching and standard addition methods were used for iodine quantification and for most samples, both strategies of calibration led to similar results. Recoveries ranged from 104 to 114%.

    4. Effects of Classroom Assessment Practices in a Foreign Language Reading Course (Efectos de las Prácticas de Evaluación en el Salón de Clase de un Curso de Lectura en Lengua Extranjera (LE))

      Science.gov (United States)

      Medina, Sergio Alonso Lopera

      2015-01-01

      This article analyzes the various types of information that alternative assessment and traditional assessment practices provided in an English foreign language (FL) reading course for graduate students at a public university in Medellín, Colombia. This study followed the principles of qualitative research, and a case study was used as a research…

    5. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of mini-basins and salt provinces of Espirito Santo Basin-Brazil; Analise da evolucao tectono sedimentar de mini-bacias e provincias de sal da Bacia do Espirito Santo

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias; Fernandes, Flavio Luis [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mohriak, Webster [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

      2008-07-01

      The Espirito Santo Basin integrates the group of basins along the eastern Brazilian continental margin. It is located between 18 deg and 21 deg S, encompassing an area of approximately 220,000 km{sup 2}, onshore and offshore the Espirito Santo State. Its geological limit with the Campos Basin to the south is defined by a Precambrian basement high (Vitoria Arch), and its northern limit with the Mucuri Basin is defined by a geopolitical limit. The study of salt tectonics processes in the Espirito Santo Basin allowed the deformational analysis and interpretation of the chronological evolution of the mini-basins developed between salt diapirs. We observe an intrinsic relationship between halokinesis and creation of subsidence troughs that may be important for trapping hydrocarbon reservoirs, and consequently form oil and gas accumulations in this portion of the basin. This geodynamics evolution of these structures is marked by a strong linkage between salt movement and coeval sedimentation in the interdomal basins, forming structures and stratigraphic traps that may constitute important aspects for the petroleum geology. (author)

    6. Gómez Correal, Diana Marcela. 2012. Dinámicas del movimiento feminista bogotano. Historias de cuarto, salón y calle. Historias de vida (1970-1991. Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia ISBN: 9789587196535

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Edwin Cruz Rodríguez

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available En esta obra la antropóloga y magister en historia de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Diana Marcela Gómez Correal, reconstruye el feminismo de la segunda ola en Bogotá, entre 1970 y 1991. Es una narración estructurada en cinco capítulos, que destaca el papel de los sujetos en la construcción de la historia, mediante las historias de vida de diez de las protagonistas en estos años, y resalta el vínculo que su praxis establece entre lo que se considera privado y lo público-político. Sus testimonios van tejiendo la historia en primera persona, incluso la autora interviene como “sujeto ubicado” (p. 35 con una perspectiva feminista. Su preocupación por las dinámicas organizativas internas se explica por la intención de llenar un vacío en la historiografía del movimiento feminista, el cual es enmarcado dentro del más amplio movimiento social de mujeres. El análisis se nutre también de la categoría de género, puesta en el contexto de la “interseccionalidad” con los patrones de opresión de raza y clase.

    7. Marmara Denizi Farklı Kıyısal Alan Yüzey Suyunda Anyonik Deterjan Kirliliği Üzerine Bir Ön Araştırma (022205) (39-44)

      OpenAIRE

      BALCIOĞLU, Esra Billur

      2014-01-01

      Bu çalışmada İstanbul ve Çanakkale Boğazları da dahil olmak üzere Marmara Denizi’ nin farklı kıyılarından alınan yüzey suyu örneklerinde deterjan kirliliği seviyeleri araştırılmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında Ocak 2013 döneminde Marmara Denizi’ nin farklı bölgelerinden seçilen 16 istasyondan yüzey suyu örnekleri alınarak 2 paralel halinde çalışılmıştır. Bulunan sonuçlara göre anyonik deterjan konsantrasyonları 20,14 – 77,44 µg/L arasında değişiklik göstermiştir. En düşük değer Anadolu Feneri istasy...

    8. De ‘condimento vital’ a ‘veneno’: sobre el consumo de sal idóneo en la dieta desde la Antigüedad clásica a nuestros días

      OpenAIRE

      Ramos Maldonado, Sandra Inés

      2016-01-01

      In 1572, the first monograph on the ‘white gold’ of the Early Modern Period was published in Europe. It constitutes a true essay on diet and health – both physical and mental- in which a moderate use of salt is put forth following geometrical proportions. Thus, basing on this original commentary written in Latin by the Spanish humanist Bernardino Gómez Miedes, texts from different historical periods which make reference to the use and consumption of salt will be examined. The readers will fin...

    9. Characterization of the rock salt for the design of underground storage in saline domes; Caracterizacion de la roca sal-gema para el diseno de almacenamientos en domos salinos

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Gonzalez Meyenberg, Lucia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

      1987-12-31

      The saline domes are natural geological formations, that have been formed in the underground, through the passage of millions of years. In Europe, they are used for hydrocarbon storage; for instance France is planning to increase, in a short term, its crude storing capacity in domes of 5 to 10 millions cubic meters (60 million of barrel), holding capacity. Additionally, studies are being conducted on the stability of this type of domes, for the storage of nuclear wastes during 100 thousand or 1 million years. [Espanol] Los domos salinos son formaciones geologicas estructurales naturales, que se han constituido en el subsuelo, en el transcurso de millones de anos. En Europa, se aprovechan para almacenar hidrocarburo; por ejemplo, Francia planea aumentar, a corto plazo, su capacidad de almacenamiento de crudo en domos de 5 a 10 millones de metros cubicos (60 millones de barriles). Ademas, se realizan estudios de estabilidad en este tipo de domos, para almacenar desechos nucleares durante 100 mil o 1 millon de anos.

    10. Kulgeb ja komistab / Tõnis Mägi ; interv. Villu Tamme, Ivo Linna, Villu Kangur, Hannaliisa Uusma, Anne Veski, Mikk Targo, Chalice (Jarek Kasar), Vaiko Eplik, Jaan Ahelik, Silvi Vrait, Riho Sibul, Ramo Teder, Hendrik Sal-Saller

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Mägi, Tõnis, 1948-

      2008-01-01

      Tõnis Mägi 60 - juubeliintervjuu kolleegidele (üles kirjutas Siim Nestor). Tõnis Mäe uue heliplaadi "Kiik ja kirik" esitluskontserdid toimuvad 2. dets. Jõhvi kontserdimajas, 5. dets. Pärnu kontserdimajas, 6. dets. Estonia kontserdisaalis ja 7. dets. Vanemuise kontserdimajas

    11. Creación y gestión de microempresas en el salón de clase: opiniones de estudiantes y profesores participantes en el Programa Emprender en la Escuela

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Susana Imaginário

      2017-02-01

      Full Text Available El Programa Empreender na Escola (Programa Emprender en la Escuela es un programa de educación que busca la promoción del desarrollo de competencias en el área del emprendimiento a través de la creación y gestión, por parte de los alumnos, de microempresas de “importación/exportación” que funcionan en alianzas comerciales, intercambiando productos entre sí que serán posteriormente comercializados en la comunidad local. Realizado en el ámbito del Programa Estratégico de la “Red de Ciudades y Centros Urbanos para la Competitividad y la Innovación del Corredor Azul”, fue implementado en 12 escuelas de 7 municipios de la región de Alentejo, en Portugal, involucrando 281 alumnos y 27 profesores de primaria y bachillerato, organizados en 18 “empresas” y 9 alianzas comerciales. Recurriendo a una muestra aleatoria de alumnos y profesores participantes, buscamos conocer su opinión sobre el desarrollo del proyecto y sobre su participación a través de un cuestionario desarrollado para tal efecto. Los resultados demostraron que el establecimiento de relaciones interpersonales es un aspecto muy importante para los participantes y que debe ser mantenido y fomentado en programas de este género. Además, debe existir también una reducción de carga burocrática para que al final del primer trimestre las microempresas ya estén en condiciones de comercializar los productos “importados” de la “empresa” aliada.

    12. Experimental formation of Pb, Sn, Ge and Sb sulfides, selenides and chlorides in the presence of sal ammoniac: A contribution to the understanding of the mineral formation processes in coal wastes self-ignition

      Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

      Laufek, F.; Veselovský, F.; Drábek, M.; Kříbek, B.; Klementová, Mariana

      176-177, May (2017), s. 1-7 ISSN 0166-5162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : coal wastes * metalloids * mineral formation * self-burning processes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 4.783, year: 2016

    13. Influence of organophilic ammonium-free nano clay incorporation on the mechanical properties and biodegradability of the Ecoflex; Influencia da adicao de nanoargila organofilica livre de sal de amonio nas propriedades mecanicas e na biodegradacao do Ecoflex

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Morita, Reinaldo Y.; Barbosa, Ronilson V. [Empresa IOTO International - Divisao Masterbatches, Campo Magro, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: juliana.kloss@gmail.com; Richart, Fabio S.; Kloss, Juliana R. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Quimica - UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

      2011-07-01

      The disposable of polymeric materials, petroleum derived, represents a growing global environmental problem, causing environmental pollution to assume alarming proportions. In this context, the interest in the use and production of biodegradable materials that have character and policy has raged in various sectors of society. Besides biodegradation, is also significant investment in research and development in the nanotechnology area. Given these factors, the objective of this work was the incorporation of organophilic nanoclay ammonium-free salt (Novaclay) in the Ecoflex, mechanical properties evaluation and influences this material of the biodegradation, according to ASTM G 160. The products were characterized before and after biodegradation by analysis: visual, weight loss, differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical testing and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the pure Ecoflex and Ecoflex/Novaclay nanocomposite were partially biodegraded in the method used and showed morphological and mechanical properties changes. (author)

    14. Méningiome intracrânien multiple: expérience du service de neurochirurgie CHU Avicenne Rabat - Salé, à propos de 4 cas et revue de la literature

      Science.gov (United States)

      Djoubairou, Ben Ousmanou; Karekezi, Claire; Moussé, Nabil; Doleagbenou, Agbéko Komlan; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; El Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

      2014-01-01

      Les méningiomes intracrâniennes multiples sont définies comme la présence d'au moins deux méningiomes sur des sites intracrâniens différents et ceci en absence de neurofibromatose. C'est une tumeur rare dont la prévalence varie entre 1-10%. Le but de notre travail était de décrire les caractéristiques cliniques, radiologiques, histologiques d'une série de 4 patients porteurs de méningiome multiple et en déduire les facteurs de risques de survenue de cette pathologie. Préciser la qualité d'exérèse chirurgicale de la lésion selon la classification de Simpson. Rapporter les suites postopératoires ainsi que le suivie à long termes des patients afin de préciser leur qualité de vie. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective portant sur 4 cas de Méningiomes intracrâniens multiples sur 174 patients opérés pour méningiome au CHU Avicenne entre Janvier 2000 à Décembre 2013. En s'aidant des données cliniques, imageries, chirurgicales, histologiques mentionnée dans le dossier médical de chaque patient. Notre série est constitué de 4 patients (3 femmes pour 1 homme), d'un âge allant de 42-50 ans (moyenne d’âge= 45,5 ans). Nous avons identifié 21 méningiomes (17 en sus tentoriel et 4 en sous tentoriel), aucun cas de décès ni d'infection postopératoire dans notre échantillon. Le pronostic reste bon malgré le nombre de lésion nécessitant parfois plusieurs interventions chirurgicales. PMID:25419331

    15. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in patients with NPM1-mutated acute myeloid leukemia: results from a prospective donor versus no-donor analysis of patients after upfront HLA typing within the SAL-AML 2003 trial.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Röllig, Christoph; Bornhäuser, Martin; Kramer, Michael; Thiede, Christian; Ho, Anthony D; Krämer, Alwin; Schäfer-Eckart, Kerstin; Wandt, Hannes; Hänel, Mathias; Einsele, Hermann; Aulitzky, Walter E; Schmitz, Norbert; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Stelljes, Matthias; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Krug, Utz; Platzbecker, Uwe; Wermke, Martin; Baldus, Claudia D; Krause, Stefan W; Stölzel, Friedrich; von Bonin, Malte; Schaich, Markus; Serve, Hubert; Schetelig, Johannes; Ehninger, Gerhard

      2015-02-10

      The presence of a mutated nucleophosmin-1 gene (NPM1(mut)) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with a favorable prognosis. To assess the predictive value with regard to allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT), we compared the clinical course of patients with NPM1(mut) AML eligible for allogeneic SCT in a donor versus no-donor analysis. Of 1,179 patients with AML (age 18 to 60 years) treated in the Study Alliance Leukemia AML 2003 trial, we identified all NPM1(mut) patients with an intermediate-risk karyotype. According to the trial protocol, patients were intended to receive an allogeneic SCT if an HLA-identical sibling donor was available. Patients with no available donor received consolidation or autologous SCT. We compared relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) depending on the availability of a suitable donor. Of 304 eligible patients, 77 patients had a sibling donor and 227 had no available matched family donor. The 3-year RFS rates in the donor and no-donor groups were 71% and 47%, respectively (P = .005); OS rates were 70% and 60%, respectively (P = .114). In patients with normal karyotype and no FLT3 internal tandem duplication (n = 148), the 3-year RFS rates in the donor and no-donor groups were 83% and 53%, respectively (P = .004); and the 3-year OS rates were 81% and 75%, respectively (P = .300). Allogeneic SCT led to a significantly prolonged RFS in patients with NPM1(mut) AML. The absence of a statistically significant difference in OS is most likely a result of the fact that NPM1(mut) patients who experienced relapse responded well to salvage treatment. Allogeneic SCT in first remission has potent antileukemic efficacy and is a valuable treatment option in patients with NPM1(mut) AML with a sibling donor. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    16. Crowne Plaza Renovation Retrofit Case Study

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      none,

      2013-03-01

      InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) and its franchise partner B.F. Saul Company Hospitality Group (B.F. Saul Co.) partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

    17. Salinomycin sensitizes antimitotic drugs-treated cancer cells by increasing apoptosis via the prevention of G2 arrest

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Kim, Ju-Hwa; Yoo, Hye-In; Kang, Han Sung; Ro, Jungsil [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sungpil, E-mail: yoons@ncc.re.kr [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

      2012-02-03

      Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sal sensitizes antimitotic drugs-treated cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sal sensitizes them by prevention of G2 arrest and reduced cyclin D1 levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sal also sensitizes them by increasing DNA damage and reducing p21 level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A low concentration of Sal effectively sensitized the cancer cells to antimitotic drugs. -- Abstract: Here, we investigated whether Sal could sensitize cancer cells to antimitotic drugs. We demonstrated that Sal sensitized paclitaxcel (PAC)-, docetaxcel (DOC)-, vinblastin (VIN)-, or colchicine (COL)-treated cancer cell lines, suggesting that Sal has the ability to sensitize the cells to any form of microtubule-targeting drugs. Sensitization to the antimitotic drugs could be achieved with very low concentrations of Sal, suggesting that there is a possibility to minimize Sal toxicity associated with human cancer patient treatments. Sensitization by Sal increased apoptosis, which was observed by C-PARP production. Sal sensitized the cancer cells to antimitotic drugs by preventing G2 arrest, suggesting that Sal contributes to the induction of mitotic catastrophe. Sal generally reduced cyclin D1 levels in PAC-, DOC-, and VIN-treated cells. In addition, Sal treatment increased pH2AX levels and reduced p21 levels in antimitotic drugs-treated cells. These observations suggest that the mechanisms underlying Sal sensitization to DNA-damaging compounds, radiation, and microtubule-targeting drugs are similar. Our data demonstrated that Sal sensitizes cancer cells to antimitotic drugs by increasing apoptosis through the prevention of G2 arrest via conserved Sal-sensitization mechanisms. These results may contribute to the development of Sal-based chemotherapy for cancer patients treated with antimitotic drugs.

    18. Magritte Meets Kripkenstein

      Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

      Hříbek, Tomáš

      1997-01-01

      Roč. 45, 3-4 (1997), s. 240-258 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : René Magritte * Michel Foucault * Saul Kripke Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

    19. Teachers' Study Guide: The American Jewish Writer. The Image of the Jew in Literature.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mersand, Joseph; Zara, Louis

      This guide was prepared to give an historical as well as a contemporary perspective on American Jewish authors and their writings. An introductory section presents information on such authors as Saul Bellow, Bernard Malamud, and Philip Roth; on the unique problems which Jewish writers have encountered in America; and on the breadth of current…

    20. Effect of Deregulation in the Telecommunications Industry on Military Base Telephone Communications.

      Science.gov (United States)

      1983-03-01

      and save? the base a substarntial amount oftravel monesy, while elimn ng .ong, unp~cductivs ~icds cf -ravel for decision makers. 1rn an exp-4rimrnta...assistance in obtaining guali--y bi rzquirin1 cran technical standards for 4 nrz-connecn, d telerhone saul pment, though the Intent of thi s prograq ~s to

    1. Öö Leonardo ja Eesti Kunstimuuseum / Helena Risthein

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Risthein, Helena, 1954-

      2002-01-01

      Hollandi kunstnikust Leonard Bramerist (1596-1674) ja tema maalist "Kristuse vahi alla võtmine" (umbes 1625), mis osteti 1988. a. EKM-ile. 1940. a. EKM-i jõudnud, L. Bramerile omistatud maalist "Saul Endori nõia juures". Maalikunstnik Paulus Lesirest

    2. IT-arendusjuhi saab rentida teenusepakkujalt / Kaido Einama

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Einama, Kaido, 1971-

      2003-01-01

      Arvutifirma Intral pakub ettevõtetele, kelle põhiline tegevusala pole seotud infotehnoloogiaga IT strateegilise juhtimise teenust - võimalust rentida firmale tipptasemel IT-juht. Vt. samas: Mida sisaldab IT strateegilise juhtimise teenus? Kommenteerivad Valior AS tegevdirektor Eduard Saul ja OÜ Ideal nõukogu esimees Urmas Isok.

    3. Estimating Anthropometric Marker Locations from 3-D LADAR Point Clouds

      Science.gov (United States)

      2011-06-01

      Nationalities of subjects from the Netherlands database. Nationality Males Females Totals Percentage Dutch 480 544 1024 81.6% Other 84 147 231 18.4...2347291?origin=crossref. [77] Saul, L. K., K. Q. Weinberger, J. H. Ham , F. Sha, and D. D. Lee. “Spectral methods for dimensionality reduction

    4. PC and the Fast-Food Model for Teaching

      Science.gov (United States)

      Langbert, Mitchell

      2003-01-01

      The author recounts a tale about impairment of academic freedom that he experienced while teaching in the MBA program of a respected business school. The management department chair restricted the of Saul Alinsky's Rules for Radicals in a course called "Conflict and Negotiation." The political correctness movement has come full circle when it…

    5. Edu pant : hea tervis ja valikuliselt vilets mälu / Valner Valme

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Valme, Valner, 1970-

      2003-01-01

      Ilmunud ka: Den za Dnjom 17. jaanuar lk. 8-9. ENSV tippkommunistide tegevusest ENSV ajal ja Eesti Vabariigis. Vastused ajalehe küsimustele: Bruno Saul, Gustav Tõnspoeg, Jaak Allik, Väino Viilup, Rein Sillar, Indrek Toome, Rein Ristlaan

    6. Browse Author Index

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      BAKITA, Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa · Bakize, Leonard H. Balige, Johanes Sylivester · Beja, S. Karisa · Bichwa, Saul S. Buberwa, A · Budebah, Christopher B. Bulaya, Joviet · Burundi, Rosemary N. 1 - 9 of 9 Items. ISSN: 0856-552X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

    7. Ancestor worship – is it Biblical?

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      p1243322

      Thomas Aquinas. Summa Theologica, vol 3.95.4.2). This notion was historically taught during the 16th and 17th centuries by the church fathers who believed that by divine ordering Saul saw under the form of Samuel a ghost, an illusion produced by demonic devilish powers”. (Erdmann 1960:335). Thus, Luther referred to ...

    8. Improving the Metaphysical Argument against Free Will ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Galen Strawson and Saul Smilansky have offered a well-known argument that free will does not exist because the control involved is so robust that it would require influence over an infinite series of prior decisions. (Strawson 1986, 1994, 2002, Smilansky 2000, 2002) Unfortunately, while this metaphysical argument has ...

    9. On Contemporary Literature: Critiques, Reviews and Recommendations.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

      1985-01-01

      The articles in this focused issue draw attention to works of contemporary literature with classroom potential. Four articles suggest new approaches for the reading and teaching of such established writers as Robert Frost; Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.; Eudora Welty; and Saul Bellow. Two other articles examine the bestsellers "Ordinary People" and "The Color…

    10. Complement and Antibody-Mediated Enhancement of Erythrocyte Invasion by Plasmodium Falciparum

      Science.gov (United States)

      2016-04-01

      Zhang , Y., Miles, A.P., Chitsaz, F., Saul, A., Long, C.A., Miller, L.H., Stowers, A.W., 2002. In vitro studies with recombinant Plasmodium falciparum...Otsyula, N., Angov, E., Bergmann-Leitner, E., Koech, M., Khan, F., Bennett, J., Otieno, L., Cummings, J., Andagalu, B., Tosh , D., et al., 2013. Results from

    11. Mitmevärvilised mõtisklused / Aita Kivi

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Kivi, Aita, 1954-

      2000-01-01

      Sisu : Doris Lessing. Kuldne märkmeraamat; Rein Raud. Pisiasjad, mis omavad tähtsust; Italo Calvino. Palomar; Saul Bellow. Vihmakuningas Henderson; Danielle Steel. Rantsho; Margareta Strömstedt. Astrid Lindgren; Nicholas Davies. William - tulevane kuningas; Guntars Godinsh. Öö päike

    12. Sports for Life

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schachter, Ron

      2010-01-01

      When Saul Lerner became director of physical education, athletics, and health for the Bellmore-Merrick (New York) School District 14 years ago, football, soccer, basketball, and floor hockey were staples of most physical education classes on Long Island and around the rest of the country. The mindset of physical educators was to emphasize sports…

    13. Evolution of Neutron Star Magnetic Fields

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

      neutron star (see Sauls 1989 for a review). The rotation of the neutron star causes vortices in the neutron superfluid co-existing with the proton superconductor. Pin- ning and electromagnetic interaction are expected to exist between the neutron vor- tices and proton fluxoids, causing the fluxoids to be dragged out to the crust ...

    14. Design and Implementation of a Prototype Ontology Aided Knowledge Discovery Assistant (OAKDA) Application

      Science.gov (United States)

      2006-12-01

      ontology imports the countries.owl ontology, which lists the ISO 3166 country codes, available through Protégé ontology library.11 This URL for this...Pinnock, and Jeff Rafter. 2001. Beginning XML, 2nd Ed. Birmingham, UK: Wrox Press Ltd. Israel, Saul, Norma Roemer, and Loyal Durand, Jr. 1962

    15. Acquisition of Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer and Differential Scanning Calorimeter for Enhancing Science and Engineering Education and DOD-relevant research at Miami University

      Science.gov (United States)

      2014-11-07

      of novel papers TGA Student project; synthesis. Moringa Seed Extract for novel coagulant for water treatment Biopolymer...Reason for Use Dr. Justin Saul Keratin hydro_gel for novel adsorbent DSC Senior Design; synthesis. Education Dr. Jason Moringa Seed Extract for novel

    16. Branching time, indeterminism and tense logic

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Ploug, Thomas; Øhrstrøm, Peter

      2012-01-01

      This paper deals with the historical and philosophical background of the introduction of the notion of branching time in philosophical logic as it is revealed in the hitherto unpublished mail-correspondence between Saul Kripke and A.N. Prior in the late 1950s. The paper reveals that the idea...

    17. Homoerotik und Hebräische Bibel

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Hügel, K.

      2009-01-01

      I discuss all relevant texts of the Hebrew Bible concerning "homoeroticism" in detail within the framework of reader-response criticism and intertextuality: both the legal texts Leviticus 18:22 and 20:13 and the narratives of Sodom, of Gibeah, of Ham and Noah, of Saul, David and Jonathan and of

    18. AKSIE: BEESVLEISPRODUKSIE TOT DIE JAAR 2OO3

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      comminuted meats"' . Komponente van die lyfde kwart sal verbruikers- waarde kry. o verpakking en aanbieding sal meer gesofistikeerd moet wees om doeltreffende rakleeftyd en higiene te verseker en die verbruiker meer geleentheid tot ondersoek ...

    19. 'n Evaluasie van Pharos Aanleerderwoordeboek vir skole/Learner's ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      user

      mente van 'n woordeboek ontdek nie, maar 'n woordeboekkultuur sal ook gevestig word omdat leerders bewus gemaak sal word dat woordeboeke vir meer as slegs die spelling van woorde geraadpleeg kan word. Die persepsie van woordeboeke as "vervelig" sal dalk uit die weggeruim kan word en 'n woordeboekkultuur ...

    20. Aquatic photolysis of β2-agonist salbutamol: kinetics and mechanism studies.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zhou, Lei; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Ya; Ji, Yuefei; Yang, Xi

      2017-02-01

      Salbutamol (SAL) has been widely used as medicine both in treating asthma and in animal primary production; an increasing number of reports have detected SAL in natural waters. The photolysis kinetic and pathway of SAL in aquatic system were studied, as well as the effect of several natural water constituents, such as nitrate, dissolved oxygen (DO) and ferric ions. According to our research, the direct photolysis of SAL followed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Alkaline condition could promote the degradation of SAL; the increase of solution pH would simultaneously increase the fraction of the deprotonated forms of SAL (including the deprotonated and zwitterionic species), which were easier to be excited, and result in the bathochromic shift of the UV-Vis spectrum and, finally, accelerate the degradation rate of SAL. The presence of nitrate could enhance the removal rate of SAL via generation hydroxyl radical (·OH) under irradiation. In addition, the absence of oxygen in the reaction solution could decrease the photolysis. Moreover, Fe(III) was able to chelate with SAL to form an octahedral complex, which was photochemically reactive. The octahedral complex could generate ·OH to oxidize SAL itself in turn. The pathways of SAL photolysis were also investigated by means of the solid phase extraction (SPE)-LC-MS method. The major pathways of SAL photodegradation included oxidation and side-chain cleavage.

    1. Het ons kerkwees in strukture gestol?

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      kerkraad (Pont 1981; 180 art 37-39). Dit vertoon dus konsekwent die bedieningsentriese opset van die kerklike instellings. Rome sal beweer dat die biskoplike diens monargaal en mundiaal reik, terwyl Luther dit landelik en Calvyn dit tot die plaaslike gemeente sal beperk. Die pous sal beweer dat hy op sterkte van sy amp ...

    2. Development of Lipid-Shell and Polymer Core Nanoparticles with Water-Soluble Salidroside for Anti-Cancer Therapy

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Dai-Long Fang

      2014-02-01

      Full Text Available Salidroside (Sal is a potent antitumor drug with high water-solubility. The clinic application of Sal in cancer therapy has been significantly restricted by poor oral absorption and low tumor cell uptake. To solve this problem, lipid-shell and polymer-core nanoparticles (Sal-LPNPs loaded with Sal were developed by a double emulsification method. The processing parameters including the polymer types, organic phase, PVA types and amount were systemically investigated. The obtained optimal Sal-LPNPs, composed of PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock copolymers and lipids, had high entrapment efficiency (65%, submicron size (150 nm and negatively charged surface (−23 mV. DSC analysis demonstrated the successful encapsulation of Sal into LPNPs. The core-shell structure of Sal-LPNPs was verified by TEM. Sal released slowly from the LPNPs without apparent burst release. MTT assay revealed that 4T1 and PANC-1 cancer cell lines were sensitive to Sal treatment. Sal-LPNPs had significantly higher antitumor activities than free Sal in 4T1 and PANC-1 cells. The data indicate that LPNPs are a promising Sal vehicle for anti-cancer therapy and worthy of further investigation.

    3. Antinociceptive effects of intravenous administration of hydromorphone hydrochloride alone or followed by buprenorphine hydrochloride or butorphanol tartrate to healthy conscious cats.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Simon, Bradley T; Steagall, Paulo V; Monteiro, Beatriz P; Troncy, Eric; Lizarraga, Ignacio

      2016-03-01

      To evaluate antinociceptive effects of IV administration of hydromorphone alone or followed by buprenorphine or butorphanol to cats. 6 healthy adult cats. In a randomized, blinded crossover design, cats received each of 4 treatments in which 2 IV injections were given 30 minutes apart: 2 of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (Sal-Sal) or 1 each of hydromorphone HCl and saline solution (H-Sal), hydromorphone and buprenorphine HCl (H-Bupre), or hydromorphone and butorphanol tartrate (H-Butor). Skin temperature and thermal threshold were recorded before (baseline) and for 12 hours after the first injection. Percentage of maximum possible effect (%MPE) and thermal excursion (TE) were compared among treatments and measurement points. Compared with baseline values, skin temperature was higher from 0.75 to 2 hours after the first injection for H-Sal; at 0.5, 1, 3, and 4 hours for H-Bupre; from 0.5 to 3 hours for H-Butor; and from 0.5 to 1 hours for Sal-Sal. Thermal excursion was higher than at baseline from 0.25 to 2 hours for H-Sal and H-Bupre and 0.25 to 0.75 hours for H-Butor; %MPE increased from 0.25 to 2 hours for H-Sal, 0.25 to 3 hours for H-Bupre, and 0.25 to 0.75 hours for H-Butor. Results were similar for comparisons with Sal-Sal, except TE was greater for H-Sal versus Sal-Sal and TE and %MPE were greater for H-Bupre versus Sal-Sal from 0.25 to 1 hours after the first injection. Butorphanol administration decreased the duration of antinociception achieved with hydromorphone administration in cats. This opioid interaction and its impact on pain management require additional investigation.

    4. Sodio y medicamentos

      OpenAIRE

      Satué E.

      2011-01-01

      Leyendo el Volumen 2 número 4 de la revista, he visto la interesantísima revisión sobre la sal en analgésicos efervescentes del doctor Martínez1. Quisiera felicitar al autor, ya que incide en muchos puntos fundamentales: impacto de la sal en la hipertensión arterial (HTA), el factor sal-sensible/sal-resistente, estrategia de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) acerca del consumo de sal, contenido de sodio de los distintos analgésicos efervescentes, la importancia de evitar su consumo en...

    5. Mechanisms of Ionizing Radiation-Induced Cell Death in Primary Lung Cells

      Science.gov (United States)

      2013-03-05

      GAPDH) were determined using primers: forward 5’-GAA GCT CGT CAT CAA TGG AAA-3’ and reverse 5’- CCA CTT GAT GTT GGC AGG AT-3’. For quantification...complex (22; 168). In the presence of salubrinal, radiation-induced apoptosis was reduced by ~50% (50 Gy 26.5 ± 2.45, 50 Gy/ Sal 15.8 ± 2.23, pɘ.05) as...e ., .9; ·~ 20 a 8. 10 <( 0 DMSO Sal DMSO Sal Control x-ray (50 Gy) (B) Active Caspase-3 p21 /waf1 actin Sal DMSO Sal DMSO Control X-ray

    6. 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-pyranoside confers neuroprotection in cell and animal models of ischemic stroke through calpain1/PKA/CREB-mediated induction of neuronal glucose transporter 3

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Yu, Shu; Cheng, Qiong; Li, Lu; Liu, Mei; Yang, Yumin; Ding, Fei

      2014-01-01

      Salidroside is proven to be a neuroprotective agent of natural origin, and its analog, 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-pyranoside (named SalA-4 g), has been synthesized in our lab. In this study, we showed that SalA-4 g promoted neuronal survival and inhibited neuronal apoptosis in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and in rats subjected to ischemia by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), respectively, and that SalA-4 g was more neuroprotective than salidroside. We further found that SalA-4 g elevated glucose uptake in OGD-injured primary hippocampal neurons and increased the expression and recruitment of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) in ischemic brain. Signaling analysis revealed that SalA-4 g triggered the phosphorylation of CREB, and increased the expression of PKA RII in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to OGD injury, while inhibition of PKA/CREB by H-89 alleviated the elevation in glucose uptake and GLUT3 expression, and blocked the protective effects of SalA-4 g. Moreover, SalA-4 g was noted to inhibit intracellular Ca 2+ influx and calpain1 activation in OGD-injured primary hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that SalA-4 g neuroprotection might be mediated by increased glucose uptake and elevated GLUT3 expression through calpain1/PKA/CREB pathway. - Highlights: • A salidroside (Sal) analog (SalA-4 g) is prepared to be more neuroprotective than Sal. • SalA-4 g protected hippocampal neurons from oxygen and glucose deprivation insult. • SalA-4 g reduced ischemic injury after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. • Neuroprotection of SalA-4 g was mediated by GLUT3 level via calpain/PKA/CREB pathway

    7. Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe: How DOE Helped to Win (yet another) Nobel Prize

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Perlmutter, Saul

      2012-01-13

      The Department of Energy (DOE) hosted an event Friday, January 13, with 2011 Physics Nobel Laureate Saul Perlmutter. Dr. Perlmutter, a physicist at the Department’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and a professor of physics at the University of California at Berkeley, won the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae.” DOE’s Office of Science has supported Dr. Perlmutter’s research at Berkeley Lab since 1983. After the introduction from Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, Dr. Perlmutter delivered a presentation entitled "Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe: How DOE Helped to Win (yet another) Nobel Prize." [Copied with editing from DOE Media Advisory issued January 10th, found at http://energy.gov/articles/energy-department-host-event-2011-physics-nobel-laureate-saul-perlmutter

    8. Low Amount of Salinomycin Greatly Increases Akt Activation, but Reduces Activated p70S6K Levels

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sungpil Yoon

      2013-08-01

      Full Text Available The present study identified a novel salinomycin (Sal-sensitization mechanism in cancer cells. We analyzed the signal proteins Akt, Jnk, p38, Jak, and Erk1/2 in cancer cell lines that had arrested growth following low amounts of Sal treatment. We also tested the signal molecules PI3K, PDK1, GSK3β, p70S6K, mTOR, and PTEN to analyze the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The results showed that Sal sensitization positively correlates with large reductions in p70S6K activation. Interestingly, Akt was the only signal protein to be significantly activated by Sal treatment. The Akt activation appeared to require the PI3K pathway as its activation was abolished by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. The Akt activation by Sal was conserved in the other cell lines analyzed, which originated from other organs. Both Akt activation and C-PARP production were proportionally increased with increased doses of Sal. In addition, the increased levels of pAkt were not reduced over the time course of the experiment. Co-treatment with Akt inhibitors sensitized the Sal-treated cancer cells. The results thereby suggest that Akt activation is increased in cells that survive Sal treatment and resist the cytotoxic effect of Sal. Taken together; these results indicate that Akt activation may promote the resistance of cancer cells to Sal.

    9. [Catfish (Silurus asotus) lectin enhances the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sugawara, Shigeki; Sasaki, Satoko; Ogawa, Yukiko; Hosono, Masahiro; Nitta, Kazuo

      2005-03-01

      Rhamnose-binding lectins are widely found in fish eggs. However, their biologic effects on cultured cells are still unknown. Since catfish (Silurus asotus) egg lectin (SAL) bound to globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) expressed on the surface of cells, we analyzed the relationship between Gb3 expression and SAL binding in tumor cell lines using Raji, Daudi, ACHN, P388, and K562 cells. Gb3 was highly expressed on Raji cells but not on K562 cells. SAL bound abundantly to Raji cells but not to K562 cells, and SAL binding depended on the amount of Gb3 on the cell surface. SAL caused a reduction in cell size and increased annexin-V binding to and propidium iodide (PI) incorporation into Raji cells. Although this effect on Raji cells might represent damage at the late apoptosis or necrosis stage, SAL-treated Raji cells remained alive. Thus SAL enhanced PI incorporation into Raji cells without induction of cell death. We examined whether the effects of chemotherapeutic agent(s) are influenced by SAL. SAL increased the incorporation of doxorubicin (Dox) into Raji cells and consequently enhanced the cytotoxic effects of Dox. These results indicate that SAL may induce cell permeability without cytotoxity.

    10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

      Science.gov (United States)

      1988-10-28

      included the Rigasmanufak- turas Association (terrycloth and linen towels ), the Sarma Home Labor Combine (all of its products), the Saule Combine (plaids...Drukshyay and the sanitary -hygiene environment of the whole region of the Ignalinskaya AES were not in a condition to provide for normal operation of...percent. Living in temporary or unsuitable conditions which are hastily equipped and frequently do not meet sanitary norms for residential premises

    11. Freeing France: The Allies, the Resistance, and the JEDBURGHs

      Science.gov (United States)

      2008-01-01

      in the end with that. Thank you to Professor Victor Bailey for my appreciation of Mary Wollstonecraft and her work. Professor Norman Saul agreed...whose valuable time I’ve taken up swapping stories about various Maquisards and to Mary Byrd Kelly who refreshed my French while pretending it was not...New York on the Queen Mary and arrived in Glasgow, Scotland on 23 December 1943, after zigzagging across the North Atlantic evading U-Boot patrols

    12. NRL Review, 2008

      Science.gov (United States)

      2008-01-01

      Peggy Newman editorial aSSiStance Saul Oresky, Kathy Parrish, and Claire Peachey photographic production Jamie Baker, Gayle Fullerton, and James ...Excellence Award and the Delphi Best Practices Award in 2002. Lau- rie Stackpole retired as Chief Librarian in 2002 and was succeeded by James King who...direct transmission of relatively low power whistler waves over a period of ~3 to 7 days using in situ satel- lite-based antennas, and the other is

    13. Lugejate valik : Peep Vain on parim / Marko Liibak

      Index Scriptorium Estoniae

      Liibak, Marko

      2007-01-01

      Aripaev.ee ja ajaleht Äripäev korraldasid lugejate seas küsitluse, mille käigus valiti Eesti parimaks koolitajaks Vain & Partnerite omanik ning koolituskonsultant Peep Vain. Teisele kohale tuli koolitaja, juhtimiskonsultant ja nõustaja ning Tallinn Ülikooli kliinilise psühholoogia professor Mare Pork. Järgnesid Ülo Vihma, Indrek Saul, Tiit Valm, Mihkel Pärjamäe ning Alexander Kotchubei

    14. Grouping and dimensionality reduction by locally linear embedding

      OpenAIRE

      Polito, Marzia; Perona, Pietro

      2002-01-01

      Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) is an elegant nonlinear dimensionality-reduction technique recently introduced by Roweis and Saul 2]. It fails when the data is divided into separate groups. We study a variant of LLE that can simultaneously group the data and calculate local embedding of each group. An estimate for the upper bound on the intrinsic dimension of the data set is obtained automatically.

    15. Supramolecular self-assembling in mesostructured materials through charge tuning in the inorganic phase

      OpenAIRE

      Roca, Manuel; El Haskouri, Jamal; Cabrera Medina, Saúl; Beltrán Porter, Aurelio; Álamo Serrano, Jaime; Beltrán Porter, Daniel; Marcos, María Dolores; Amorós del Toro, Pedro José

      1998-01-01

      Supramolecular self-assembling of organic CTA+ micelles and inorganic [VO(H2O)PO4]n^q-2 2D-anions for the isolation of hexagonal mesostructured materials can be reached by charge tuning in the inorganic phase through the adjustment of the vanadium mean oxidation state. El Haskouri, Jamal, ; Cabrera Medina, Saul, ; Beltran Porter, Aurelio, ; Alamo Serrano, Jaime, ; Beltran Porter, Daniel, ; ...

    16. Tüketicilerin Coğrafi İşaretli Ürün Algısı ve Daha Fazla Fiyat Ödeme İsteği: Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi Yaklaşımı(Consumers' Perception of Product with Geographical Indication and Willingness to Pay More: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      İsmail Tamer TOKLU

      2016-04-01

      Full Text Available Bir fikri ve sınai mülkiyet hakkı olarak coğrafi işaret, belirli bir nitelik, ün veya diğer özellikleriyle kökeninin bulunduğu bir yöre, alan, bölge veya ülke ile özdeşleşmiş bir ürünü gösteren işaretlerdir. Bu çalışmanın amacı tüketicilerin coğrafi işaretli ürünlere olan algılarını ve bu ürünlere daha fazla ödeme eğilimlerini ölçmektir. Bu amaç için oluşturulan modelin verileri kolayda örnekleme yöntemiyle, tüketicilerle yüz yüze yapılan anket çalışmasından elde edilmiştir. Elde edilen veriler En Küçük Kısmi Kareler (PLS yöntemi ile analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre; kültür ve gelenek, kalite ve güvenilirlik coğrafi işaretli ürün algısını etkilerken, coğrafi işaretli ürün algısı da daha fazla fiyat ödeme eğilimini etkilemektedir. Diğer taraftan, ekonomik desteğin coğrafi işaretli ürün algısını etkilemediği bulunmuştur. Bu çalışmanın sonuçları rekabet avantajı elde etmek isteyen yerel üreticiler için etkili bir pazarlama stratejisine karar vermeleri açısından değerli ve önemli bilgiler sunmaktadır. As an intellectual property right, geographical indications are signs showing an exclusive quality, celebrity or other attributes specified with a territory, area, region or country of its origin. This study aims to evaluate consumers' perceptions toward products with geographical indication and their willingness to pay a premium price for these types of products. The data of the model proposed for this aim were collected by convenience sampling method with face to face questionnaire. PLS (Partial Least Squares Method was used to analyze the data. The main findings of the study are as follows, 'culture and tradition' and 'quality and safety' affect the consumers' perceptions towards geographical indication. This perception also affects the willingness to pay more for products with geographical indication. On the other hand, 'economic support' does not affect the consumers' perceptions with geographical indication. The results of this study provide valuable and important information to producers to determine effective marketing strategies to obtain a competitive advantage.

    17. The Effect of Task-Induced Involvement Load on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition / Görev Kaynaklı Katılım Yükünün Rastlantısal Kelime Öğrenmeye Etkisi

      OpenAIRE

      MERÇ, Ali; KARALIK, Tuncay

      2016-01-01

      This study aimed to investigate the effect of the task-induced involvement load framework (Laufer & Hulstijn, 2001) on incidental vocabulary gain and retention. A total of 139 first year ELT students from eight intact classes taking Academic Reading Course in the fall semester of 2015-2016 were assigned to four experimental groups randomly: fill-in with glossary, fill-in by searching, retelling with glossary and retelling by searching. Two different texts were designed for each task. ...

    18. Comparison between an anionic exchanger of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt and a commercial exchanger in the extraction of available phosphorus in soils; Comparacao entre um trocador anionico de sal de amonio quaternario de quitosana e um trocador comercial na extracao de fosforo disponivel em solos

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Goncalves Junior, Affonso Celso; Nacke, Herbert, E-mail: herbertnacke@hotmail.co [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Marechal Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias; Favere, Valfredo Tadeu de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (DQ/UFSC), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Gomes, Gilmar Divino [Faculdade de Tecnologia Internacional, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

      2010-07-01

      The present work aimed modify chemically the chitosan (QTS) surface to obtain a reticulate chitosan quaternary ammonium salt (SAQQR), and compare this anionic exchanger with an commercial ion exchanger in the extraction of available phosphorus in soils. The results showed that the two exchangers are identical, extracting similar and proportional quantities of available phosphorus in the studied soils, and the anionic exchanger of SAQQR provides a high chemical stability, not affected by the pH difference of soils. (author)

    19. Ham Petrol Fiyat Artışlarının Enflasyonist Etkisi: Seçilmiş OECD Ülkeleri İçin Yapısal Kırılmalı Dinamik Panel Veri Analizi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mehmet MERCAN

      2015-11-01

      Full Text Available Bu çalışmada; petrol ithalatçısı olan OECD üyesi seçilmiş 15 ülke için, 1960-2011 döneminde ham petrol ithal fiyatlarının enflasyon üzerindeki etkileri incelenmiştir. Analizde, herhangi bir ülkede meydana gelen bir makroekonomik şokun diğer ülkeleri de etkileyeceği varsayımını yani yatay kesit bağımlılığını dikkate alan panel birim kök ve eşbütünleşme testleri uygulanmış, seriler arasında eşbütünleşme ilişkisinin varlığı tespit edilmiştir. Uzun Dönem Eşbütünleşme Katsayıları Tahmin sonuçlarına göre ham petrol ithal fiyat artışları ve ekonomik büyümenin enflasyonu arttırdığı, ekonomik büyümenin enflasyonist etkisinin, ham petrol ithal fiyatlarının etkisinden daha fazla olduğu bulgusuna ulaşılmıştır.

    20. Aile Değerleri ve Dindarlığın Plansız Satın Alma Eğilimi Üzerine Etkilerine Yönelik Bir Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli (A Structural Equation Model on the Effects of Family Values and Religiosity toward Impulse Buying Tendency

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Aybegüm GÜNGÖRDÜ

      2016-03-01

      Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of family values and religiosity on impulse buying tendency. Our sample consists of 250 consumers. According to the frequency analysis, the sample represents the new middle class consumers who are mostly young, well educated urbanites and white collar professionals. We used reliability and validity analyses, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation analysis and structrual equation modelling. Finally, there is a negative and significant relationship between consumers’ religiosity and their impulse buying tendency. Furthermore, there is a positive and significant relationship between consumers’ religiosity and their family values.

    1. Kamusal Karar Alma Süreçlerinde Sosyal Tercih Duyarlılığı ve Sürece İlişkin Yapısal Çözümlemeler(The Sensitivity of Social Preferences in Public Decisions Making Process and The Structural Analyses Connected with The Process

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      A. Niyazi ÖZKER

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available In the study, we aim to bring up the social preferences location that have an important influence on the components of process consisting of social-economics together with the dynamics which should be considered by decision makers as the balanced component between the central government characteristics and the social preferences in public decision making process. Also, the dynamics’ negative effects as under approaches management of central governments’ politic strategies on the socially choices by taking shape publically point of view have been aimed to analyze connected with participation process. Hence, it is appear that the decisions’phenomenon directed towards to analyzes appear in very important the structural models in order to ensure the desired reality participation in decision making and also, the provided participation sensitive that lay the gramework for overtaking some paradox related to decision making process must be required to take into consideration and and check over as the primary point especially in the countries that have the structural politics matters.

    2. Sanal Marka Topluluklarında Topluluk Üyelerinin Marka ile Özdeşleşme Düzeylerinin Öncülleri ve Sonuçları: Yapısal Bir Model Önerisi(Antecedents and Consequences of Brand Identification in Virtual Brand Communities: A Structural Model

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Keti VENTURA

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available Nowadays, the firms’ usage of virtual brand communities are increasing in order to develop and strengthen customer-brand relationships. The present study aims to analyze the effects of social presence and social identity level gained by the members of virtual brand communities on brand identification, brand community commitment and brand-related behaviors. Accordingly, a survey methodology is embraced and a structural model is developed within Altay ‘’19on4 Licensed Products Stores’’ virtual brand community. This community is chosen since the members of this community are constantly in touch with each other, engaging jointly in group activities with shared values and ideals. The structural model reveal that social presence and social identity dimensions are not perceived at the same level and have different impacts on brand identification, brand community commitment and brand-related behaviors. It is emphasized that an improvement should be needed for that virtual brand community and its activities.

    3. Sanal Marka Topluluklarında Topluluk Üyelerinin Marka ile Özdeşleşme Düzeylerinin Öncülleri ve Sonuçları: Yapısal Bir Model Önerisi(Antecedents and Consequences of Brand Identification in Virtual Brand Communities: A Structural Model)

      OpenAIRE

      Keti VENTURA

      2012-01-01

      Nowadays, the firms’ usage of virtual brand communities are increasing in order to develop and strengthen customer-brand relationships. The present study aims to analyze the effects of social presence and social identity level gained by the members of virtual brand communities on brand identification, brand community commitment and brand-related behaviors. Accordingly, a survey methodology is embraced and a structural model is developed within Altay ‘’19on4 Licensed Products Stores’’ virtual ...

    4. Propriedades reológicas e efeito da adição de sal na viscosidade de exopolissacarídeos produzidos por bactérias do gênero Rhizobium Rheological properties and effect of the salt addition on the exopolysaccharides viscosity produced by bacteria of Rhizobium genus

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gabriel Aranda-Selverio

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Viscosity of some polysaccharide solutions supports that these molecules can be applied in food sectors. Four exopolysaccharides (R1, R2, R3, R4 produced by different Rhizobium strains were selected. Sugar composition and differences in the uronic acid contents suggests that chemical structure of these molecules can vary when different culture conditions and strains are analyzed. The Power Law was the rheological model used to represent the experimental data of shear stress versus shear rate. All exopolysaccharides showed non-Newtonian behavior, with pseudoplastic characteristics. R1, R2 and R4 showed a slight increase in viscosity in the presence of 0,2 M NaCl.

    5. The impacts of mega discoveries of oil and natural gas in the pre-salt Santos Basin: Brazil 2000 - 2030 - 2050; Os impactos das mega descobertas de oleo e gas natural no pre-sal da Bacia de Santos: Brasil 2000 - 2030 - 2050

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Bahia, Raymundo Ruy; Reis, Lucio Eduardo Solano [Universidade da Amazonia (GEPEE/UNAMA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Nucleo de Socio-economia. Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Economicas Energeticas], e-mail: ruybahia@uol.com.br, e-mail: lereis2000@gmail.com

      2008-07-01

      This paper is a follow-up of four papers presented at the V CBPE 2006 e XI CBE 2006 updating the investment needs to expand the electric energy (EE) Offer. Such analysis revealed an hydro matrix over cost investments of 293 bi US$ (10bi US$/year) as compared to the hydro thermo matrix. Such data proof the unviability to supply the Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions demand with Amazonian hydroelectricity. Furthermore, evaluations about the impacts of the huge underestimate volumes of proved reserves of oil and NG of 20 Gboe from the Projects Tupi, Carioca and Parati and Jupiter discoveries are limited to a small geographic area of 15,000 sqkm (122 x 122 km) that is only 9 percent of the Pre-Salt total area of 160,000 sqkm supporting the hypothesis of 160 Gboe for the ultimate ROR for both Campos and Pre-Salt Basins plus all others exploratory fronts offshore and onshore. In this probable case the mid-points of oil and NG will migrate to the 2070 year. Under these circumstances either scenarios will support the oil and NG self-sufficiencies for those regions Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions, up to the 2050 year and probably extended to the 2070 year. The estimated volume of the potential proved reserve NG Jupiter Project is also underestimate but large enough (7,0 Gboe = 1,100 billion of cubic meter= Gmc) to supply 80 percent (80 GW) of the total 101 GW expansion offer of EE up to the 2030 year. Finally there is not a single good reason to justify the supply the EE demand of the Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions with the unviable Amazonian hydroelectricity. (author)

    6. Ziepju pagatavošanas iespējas mājas apstākļos, to salīdzinājums ar aptiekās un veikalā nopērkamajām ziepēm

      OpenAIRE

      Čertova, Svetlana

      2015-01-01

      Pētījuma mērķis bija noskaidrot, cik viegli no attiecīgajām izejvielām mājas apstākļos var izgatavot ziepes. Ziepju izejvielas ir triglicerīdi jeb saliktie esteri un sārms. Tātad ziepju vārīšanas pamatā ir salikto esteru hidrolīze. Darbā ir apskatīta ziepju vēsture, ziepju sastāvs, piedevas, ziepju ietekme uz cilvēka ādu, kā arī ziepju piedāvājums Latvijā. Pielikumos ir pievienotas tabulas, kas palīdz saprast eļļas sastāvu un atvieglo ziepju izejvielu aprēķināšanu. Diemžēl mājas apstākļos nei...

    7. pH and electric conductivity study of H{sub 2}O/MEG/salt systems on monoethyleneglycol (MEG) reclamation units in gas processing; Estudo de pH e condutividade eletrica em sistemas H{sub 2}O/MEG/sal, em unidades de recuperacao de monoetilenoglicol (MEG), no processamento de gas natural

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Senna, Camila; Carrijo, Darley; Nascimento, Jailton; Grava, Wilson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Lemos, Alessandro A.; Andrade, Wander V.; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Amorim, Josinira Antunes de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

      2008-07-01

      The monoethylene glycol (MEG) is injected in natural gas production wells in order to combine with the free water, altering the thermodynamic conditions for the formation of hydrates. The presence of MEG in aqueous solutions containing salts provokes the decrease of the solubility of the same ones. Information of properties as the pH and the conductivity are important for the control of the process. Before this, the present work has as objective determines the behavior of the aqueous solutions with MEG and NaCl in pH and conductivity terms, in different temperatures, with views to the stage of recovery of MEG and the salt precipitation beginning. The experimental methodology consisted of the elaboration of synthetic solutions of the mixtures in study, covering every MEG concentration range and temperature between 5 and 90 deg C. The conductivity results for the system H{sub 2}O+MEG showed that the conductivity decreases with the concentration of MEG and it increases with the temperature. A conductivity increase was observed for diluted concentrations of MEG, due to the most pronounced effect of protonation of MEG. For pH measures, it was necessary to develop a calibration procedure due to the fact that this property varies with the solvent media. The pH values decrease as it increases the concentration of MEG, reaching a value practically constant around 40%. (author)

    8. Análise da matéria orgânica associada ao sal marinho : definição de potenciais marcadores moleculares com base na composição volátil e presença de derivados glicosilados e polissacarídeos

      OpenAIRE

      Silva, Isabel Mendes da

      2014-01-01

      Sea salt is a natural product obtained from the evaporation of seawater in saltpans due to the combined effect of wind and sunlight. Nowadays, there is a growing interest for protection and re-valorisation of saltpans intrinsically associated to the quality of sea salt that can be evaluated by its physico-chemical properties. These man-made systems can be located in different geographical areas presenting different environmental surroundings. During the crystallization process, organic compou...

    9. Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico (Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mora Pablo, Irasema; Lengeling, M. Martha; Rubio Zenil, Buenaventura; Crawford, Troy; Goodwin, Douglas

      2011-01-01

      The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews.…

    10. Avaliação do estado de hidratação e rehidratação em atletas de futebol de ambos os sexos, de acordo com a ingestão de líquidos ad libitum, água simples e água com sal

      OpenAIRE

      Pinto, Ana Patrícia

      2014-01-01

      Dissertação de mestrado em Nutrição Clínica, apresentada à Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra A hidratação desempenha um papel fundamental na prestação dos atletas. Beber adequadamente significa conhecer as reais necessidades e limitações fisiológicas do organismo em esforço. A hipertermia é uma consequência natural do exercício físico e é combatida principalmente pelo processo de sudação, o qual poderá levar à desidratação, o que prejudica gravemente a saúde do atleta pod...

    11. Paz na sala de aula é uma condição para o sucesso escolar: que revela a literatura? Paz en el salón de clase como condición para el suceso escolar: ¿qué revela la literatura? Peace in the classroom as a condition for school success: what does the literature reveal?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rosilene Beatriz Lopes

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir o tema indisciplina como contribuição visando a uma proposta de educação para a paz, por meio da investigação seletiva da literatura. A contemporaneidade requer a superação do autoritarismo, da opressão e da submissão nas escolas. Para construir processos educacionais autônomos e solidários, dialógicos, emancipatórios e cooperativos, de acordo com Freinet, Freire e outros grandes educadores, este trabalho oferece algumas sugestões para a escola: (i equipes de intervenção para resolução de problemas, buscando a autogestão escolar, por meio do desenvolvimento de projetos educativos; (ii currículos significativos, haja vista que concorrem para despertar nos alunos o desejo de aprender, e (iii o diálogo como meio de pactuar modos de convivência social, com respeito ao amplo leque de diversidades, concebido como riqueza cultural.El objetivo del presente trabajo es discutir el tema de la indisciplina en la escuela con vistas a una propuesta educativa a favor de la paz, con fundamento en una revisión selectiva de la literatura. Los tiempos contemporáneos requieren la superación del autoritarismo, opresión y sumisión en las escuelas. Con vistas a la construcción de procesos educativos dirigidos al desarrollo de la autonomía y de la solidaridad, con fundamento en el diálogo, la emancipación y cooperación, según Freinet, Freire y otros grandes educadores, este trabajo propone algunas sugestiones a las escuelas: (i la constitución de equipos de intervención para la resolución de problemas, mirando a la auto-gestión escolar; (ii planificación de currículos significativos para estimular el deseo de aprender; (iii el uso del diálogo para establecer en conjunto normas de la vida social, respectando a las diversidades interhumanas como riqueza cultural.This paper aims to discuss the issue of indiscipline as a contribution for an educational proposal in favour of peace, based on the selective review of the literature. Contemporary times require overcoming authoritarianism, oppression and submission in schools. Considering the construction of educational processes directed toward the development of autonomy and solidarity, on the basis of dialogue, emancipation and cooperation, according to Freinet, Freire and other great educators, this work presents some suggestions for schools: (i constitution of teams for intervention on the basis of problem-solving, by means of educational project development, aiming school self-management; (ii planning of significant curricula for stimulating the desire to learn; (iii the use of dialogue for co-establishing social life rules, based on the respect to diversities as cultural wealth.

    12. İndirekt kuafaj tedavisinde kullanılan kalsiyum hidroksit içeren ve kalsiyum hidroksit oluşturan materyallerden salınan ca +2 iyon miktarının in vitro ortamda değerlendirilmesi

      OpenAIRE

      2016-01-01

      Bu çalışmanın amacı, kalsiyum hidroksit içeren (Calcimol) ve kalsiyum hidroksit oluşturan materyaller( MTA, Biodentin ve TheraCal LC)’den çözünüp dentin kanallarından difüze olarak pulpal dokulara ulaşan Ca+2 iyon miktarlarını in vitro ortamda ölçmek ve bu sırada RDT modelinin güvenirliğini test etmektir .Bu amaçla indirekt kuafaj modeli in vitro ortamda simüle edilmiştir. Çalışmada çürüksüz insan 20 yaş dişleri kullanılmış, koronalden standart kaviteler hazırlanmış ve kullanılan kua...

    13. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE AND CETIRIZINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM

      OpenAIRE

      Sharma Deepak; Singh Gurmeet; Singh Mankaran; Kumar Dinesh; Rathore Mahendra Singh

      2012-01-01

      Salbutamol Sulphate (SAL) and Cetirizine HCl (CET) is used for the treatment of asthma and allergy. A simple, economical, accurate and precise method for simultaneous estimation of Salbutamol Sulphate (SAL) and Cetirizine HCl (CET) in combined dosage form has been developed. Simultaneous equation method based on measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths 276 nm and 230 nm, λmax of Salbutamol Sulphate (SAL) and Cetirizine HCl (CET) in 6.8 pH phosphate buffer. Both these drugs obeyed Beer La...

    14. Globotriaosylceramide-expressing Burkitt's lymphoma cells are committed to early apoptotic status by rhamnose-binding lectin from catfish eggs.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kawano, Tasuku; Sugawara, Shigeki; Hosono, Masahiro; Tatsuta, Takeo; Ogawa, Yukiko; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Taka, Hikari; Murayama, Kimie; Nitta, Kazuo

      2009-03-01

      Silurus asotus (catfish) egg lectin (SAL) has a strong affinity to Gal alpha-linked carbohydrate chains of not only glycoproteins but also glycosphingolipids such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). SAL uniformly bound to surfaces of Gb3-expressing (Gb3+) Burkitt's lymphoma cells, while Gb3 molecules were interspersed on the surfaces of Gb3+ cells. After a short period of treating Raji and Daudi cells with SAL, each cell size was 10 and 25% smaller than that of untreated cells, respectively. Treatment of Gb3+ cells with SAL caused an increase in binding of annexin V, however, neither caspase activation nor DNA fragmentation was observed after treatment with SAL for 22 h. Since SAL did not induce cell death in Gb3+ cells, SAL may function as an inducer of early apoptotic signal. We have revealed that SAL did not bind to D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morphorino-1-propanol (D-PDMP)-treated Raji cells, and no cell shrinkage was observed in Gb3-deficient Raji cells treated with SAL, indicating that Gb3 localized in the glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain (GEM) was involved in SAL-induced cell shrinkage through activation of voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3, and that the glycoprotein ligands on Gb3-deficient Raji cells treated with SAL were not included in this phenomenon. These results suggest that SAL leads the cells to early apoptotic status via binding to Gb3 existing in GEM, and that this binding is a prerequisite condition to induce early stage of apoptosis.

    15. Substoichiometric isotope dilution mass spectrometry of boron by the ion-pair extraction with halogenated salicyl alcohol derivatives and a quaternary ammonium salt.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Morita, Keisuke; Imura, Hisanori

      2012-01-01

      Novel salicyl alcohol derivatives (H(2)X(n)sal), 5-bromo-, 3,5-dibromo-, and 3,5-diiodosalicyl alcohol which were abbreviated to H(2)Brsal, H(2)Br(2)sal, and H(2)I(2)sal, respectively, were synthesized and used for the selective extraction of boric acid. Boric acid was extracted with each H(2)X(n)sal into chlorobenzene containing trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMACl) as an ion-pair complex, TOMA·B(X(n)sal)(2), at a different pH range. The extraction constant (K(ex)) of boric acid was determined by the equilibrium analyses including the formation of hydrogen-bonded complex of each H(2)X(n)sal with TOMACl in the organic phase. The K(ex) values obtained by salicyl alcohol (H(2)sal) and its derivatives were decreased in the order of H(2)I(2)sal ≥ H(2)Br(2)sal > H(2)Brsal > H(2)sal. The most powerful extractant, H(2)I(2)sal, was employed for the substoichiometric extraction of boric acid, which was extracted at pH 5 - 9 with a substoichiometric amount of TOMACl in the presence of an excess of H(2)I(2)sal. The present substoichiometric separation method combined with the stable isotope dilution analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) could be successfully applied to the determination of boron in a reference material of high-analysis compound fertilizer (FAMIC-A-08) without any correction as to the isotopic abundance.

    16. ZIRCONIUM (IV) COMPLEXES WITH SOME ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      DR. AMINU

      SH. S. S: Soluble SH: Soluble on heating IS: Insoluble. Table 4: solubility of the complexes. Solvent. [Zr(Sal2-en)]Cl2. [Zr(Sal2-tm)]Cl2. [Zr(Sal2-hxm)]Cl2. Water. IS. IS. IS. Methanol. SSH. SSH. SSH. Ethanol. SH. S. S. Carbon tetrachloride. IS. IS. IS. Trichloromethane. IS. IS. IS. Dichloromethane. IS. IS. IS. Dimethylformamide.

    17. Study of Wide Swath Synthetic Aperture Ladar Imaging Techology

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Zhang Keshu

      2017-02-01

      Full Text Available Combining synthetic-aperture imaging and coherent-light detection technology, the weak signal identification capacity of Synthetic Aperture Ladar (SAL reaches the photo level, and the image resolution exceeds the diffraction limit of the telescope to obtain high-resolution images irrespective to ranges. This paper introduces SAL, including the development path, technology characteristics, and the restriction of imaging swath. On the basis of this, we propose to integrate the SAL technology for extending its swath. By analyzing the scanning-operation mode and the signal model, the paper explicitly proposes that the former mode will be the developmental trend of the SAL technology. This paper also introduces the flight demonstrations of the SAL and the imaging results of remote targets, showing the potential of the SAL in long-range, high-resolution, and scanning-imaging applications. The technology and the theory of the scanning mode of SAL compensates for the defects related to the swath and operation efficiency of the current SAL. It provides scientific foundation for the SAL system applied in wide swath, high resolution earth observation, and the ISAL system applied in space-targets imaging.

    18. Salinomycin inhibits metastatic colorectal cancer growth and interferes with Wnt/β-catenin signaling in CD133+ human colorectal cancer cells

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Klose, Johannes; Eissele, Jana; Volz, Claudia; Schmitt, Steffen; Ritter, Alina; Ying, Shen; Schmidt, Thomas; Heger, Ulrike; Schneider, Martin; Ulrich, Alexis

      2016-01-01

      The polyether antibiotic Salinomycin (Sal) is regarded as an inhibitor of cancer stem cells. Its effectiveness on human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in vitro has been demonstrated before. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model to investigate the effectiveness of Sal in vivo. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of Sal on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human CD133 + CRC cells. The two murine CRC cell lines MC38 and CT26 were used to analyze the impact of Sal on tumor cell proliferation, viability, migration, cell cycle progression and cell death in vitro. For in vivo studies, CT26 cells were injected into syngeneic BALB/c mice to initiate (i) subcutaneous, (ii) orthotopic, or (iii) metastatic CRC growth. Sal was administered daily, 5-Fluoruracil served as a control. For mechanistic studies, the CD133 + and CD133 - subpopulations of human CRC cells were separated by flow cytometry and separately exposed to increasing concentrations of Sal. The impact on Wnt/β-catenin signaling was determined by Western blotting and quantitative PCR. Sal markedly impaired tumor cell viability, proliferation and migration, and induced necrotic cell death in vitro. CRC growth in vivo was likewise inhibited upon Sal treatment. Interference with Wnt signaling and reduced expression of the Wnt target genes Fibronectin and Lgr5 indicates a novel molecular mechanism, mediating anti-tumoral effects of Sal in CRC. Sal effectively impairs CRC growth in vivo. Furthermore, Sal acts as an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Thus, Salinomycin represents a promising candidate for clinical CRC treatment. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2879-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

    19. Intra-cerebellar microinjection of histamine enhances memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance learning in mice via H2 receptors.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gianlorenço, A C L; Canto-de-Souza, A; Mattioli, R

      2013-12-17

      Studies have demonstrated the relationship between the histaminergic system and the cerebellum, and we intend to investigate the role of the cerebellar histaminergic system on memory consolidation. This study investigated the effect of intra-cerebellar microinjection of histamine on memory retention of inhibitory avoidance in mice, and the role of H1 and H2 receptors in it. The cerebellar vermis of male mice were implanted with guide cannulae, and after three days of recovery, the inhibitory avoidance test was performed. Immediately after a training session, animals received a microinjection of histaminergic drugs: in the experiment 1, saline (SAL) or histamine (HA 0.54, 1.36, 2.72 or 4.07 nmol); experiment 2, SAL or 1.36 nmol HA 5 min after a pretreatment with 0.16 nmol chlorpheniramine (CPA) or SAL; and experiment 3, SAL or 1.36 nmol HA 5 min after a pretreatment with 2.85 nmol ranitidine (RA) or SAL. Twenty-four hours later, a retention test was performed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's tests. In experiment 1, animals microinjected with 1.36 nmol HA showed a higher latency to cross to the dark compartment compared to controls and to 2.72 and 4.07 nmol HA groups. In experiment 2, the combined infusions revealed difference between control (SAL+SAL) and SAL+HA and CPA+HA; while in the experiment 3 the analysis indicated differences in retention latency between mice injected with SAL+SAL and SAL+HA. The groups that received the H2 antagonist RA did not show difference compared to control. These results indicate that 1.36 nmol HA enhances memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance learning in mice and that the pretreatment with H2 antagonist RA was able to prevent this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

    20. Characterization of the nest site preferences of Saltmarsh and Nelson's Sparrows, and hybrids

      Science.gov (United States)

      Saltmarsh Sparrows (hereafter SALS) are named on the National Audubon Society’s current WatchList as a species of global conservation concern (National Audubon Society 2007). Anthropogenic climate change is perhaps the largest threat to SALS populations because sea level ri...

    1. Die Gereformeerde Ekumeniese Sinode en Sending 1984

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      opvatting. Indien 'n mens al die kerke wat aan die Gereformeerde. Ekumeniese Sinode (GES) behoort een vir een sendingmatig sal be- studeer, sal daar waarskynlik 'n sterk differensiasie tussen sommige kerke aan die lig kom. Die GES kan dus nie verantwoordelik gehou word vir individuele kerke se sendingopvatting nie.

    2. Effect of Insulin on Fever in Endotoxic Sheep | Obese | Bulletin of ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      A study was conducted to determine the effect of intravenous (i.v.) administration of insulin on fever in sheep challenged with bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Six castrated male Suffolkcross wethers were randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatment combinations i.v: Saline control (SAL+SAL); ...

    3. 'n Eie Suid-Afrikaanse wiskunde op calvinistiese grondslag?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      H. J. Shutte

      1958-03-01

      Full Text Available Bostaande vraag sal vir iemand met 'n oppervlakkige kennis van die Wiskunde na dwaasheid klink. Twee en twee bly tog vier vir Calvinis,heiden of Mohammedaan! Iemand wat op hoogte is met die moderneontwikkelinge in die Wiskunde sal egter nie so gou ’n oordeel vel nie.

    4. A new tiazofurin pronucleotide: synthesis and biological evaluation of cyclosaligenyl-tiazofurin monophosphate.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cappellacci, L; Barboni, G; Franchetti, P; Martini, C; Jayaram, H N; Grifantini, M

      2003-01-01

      Synthesis and biological activities of cyclosaligenyl-tiazofurin monophosphate (CycloSal-TRMP), a new tiazofurin pronucleotide, are reported. CycloSal-TRMP proved to be active in vitro against human myelogenous leukemia K562 cell line and as A1 adenosine receptor agonist.

    5. Pentateugtradisies in die boek Hosea

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      om te bepaal of die verwysing na 'n gebeure te doen het met die verre verlede of met die .... Hosea 2:1-2 JHWH se trou aan sy beloftes. ... dat huile na Egipte sal terugkeer. Die presiese bedoeiing van die woorde 'huile sal terugkeer na Egipte' is omstre- de. Kommentatore soos Rudolph meen dat dit verstaan moet word as ...

    6. Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Motor Dysfuntion in Spinal Cord ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Purpose: To evaluate the effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) treatment on the motor function of spinal cord injury (SCI) rat. Methods: SCI rats were modelled by contusion, and then received 10 mg/kg Sal B, or methylprednisolone, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally daily for 4 weeks, two hours after the ...

    7. Is Apartheid ook op ekonomiese grond geregverdig?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      B. van Deventer

      1956-03-01

      Full Text Available Die mening word vandag dikwels uitgespreek (ook deur Nasionaliste dat apartheid nie op ekonomiese gronde geregverdig kan word nie; of anders gestel, dat apartheid van die blankes te groot offers sal verg; of nog sterker gestel, dat die blankes op ekonomiese gebied nie sonder die naturel sal kan klaarkom nie.

    8. A Demonstration of Audiovisual Sensitive Artificial Listeners

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Schröder, Marc; Bevacqua, Elisabetta; Eyben, Florian; Gunes, Hatice; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; ter Maat, Mark; Pammi, Sathish; Pantic, Maja; Pelachaud, Catherine; Schuller, Björn; de Sevin, Etienne; Valstar, Michel; Wöllmer, Martin

      Sensitive Artificial Listeners (SAL) are virtual dialogue partners who, despite their very limited verbal understanding, intend to engage the user in a conversation by paying attention to the user's emotions and non-verbal expressions. The SAL characters have their own emotionally defined

    9. Nog steeds geslote eredienste? Deell

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      tice as it will bring the church into conflict with its own theological tradition. Die groot twiste van die toekoms sal rassetwiste wees, en die groot vraagstuk sal 'n ..... Die Hervormde Kerk sien ai geruime tyd in dat 'n noue koppeling met 'n politieke ideologie, die kerk groot skade kan berokken. Nie aimal in die kerk deel egter ...

    10. Mechanism-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of salvianolic acid A effects on plasma xanthine oxidase activity and uric acid levels in acute myocardial infarction rats.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wang, Haidong; Li, Xi; Zhang, Wenting; Liu, Yao; Wang, Shijun; Liu, Xiaoquan; He, Hua

      2017-03-01

      1. Salvianolic acid A (SalA) was found to attenuate plasma uric acid (UA) concentration and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in acute myocardial infraction (AMI) rats, which was characterized with developed mechanism-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model. 2. AMI was induced in rats by coronary artery ligation. Surviving AMI rats received a single intravenous dose of 5 mg/kg of SalA and normal saline. The plasma SalA concentrations were determined by HPLC-MS/MS method. The plasma UA concentrations were determined by HPLC method and plasma XO activity were measured spectrophotometrically. An integrated mathematical model characterized the relationship between plasma UA and SalA. 3. Pharmacokinetics was described using two-compartment model for SalA with linear metabolic process. In post-AMI rats, XO activity and UA concentrations were increased, while SalA dosing palliated this increase. These effects were well captured by using two series of transduction models, simulating the delay of inhibition on XO driven by SalA and UA elevation resulted from the multiple factors, respectively. 4. The effect was well described by the developed PK-PD model, indicating that SalA can exert cardiovascular protective effects by decreasing elevated plasma UA levels induced by AMI.

    11. Future Time Orientation and Learning Conceptions: Effects on Metacognitive Strategies, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Study Effort and Academic Achievement

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gutiérrez-Braojos, Calixto

      2015-01-01

      During the past decade, research on the constructive learning process has been conducted mainly from two perspectives: student approaches to learning (SAL) and self-regulated learning (SRL). The SAL perspective has highlighted the role of learning conceptions with respect to other topics involved in constructive learning processes, whereas…

    12. Dynamics of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) and particle ...

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      Unlike CPCHO, Sal-PCHO concentrations showed a positive trend with Chl a and significant linear correlation with bacterial abundance. (r = 0.44,p< 0.007, n = 48), indicating that Sal-PCHO as carbon source might have supported bacterioplankton abundance. The mean %TEP-C contribution to the annual average organic ...

    13. Salvianolic Acid A Inhibits PDGF-BB Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration and Proliferation While Does Not Constrain Endothelial Cell Proliferation and Nitric Oxide Biosynthesis

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Chao Huang

      2012-03-01

      Full Text Available Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs are critical events in the initiation and development of restenosis upon percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA. Polyphenols have been suggested to ameliorate post-angioplasty restenosis. Salvianolic A (SalA is one of the most abundant polyphenols extracted from salvia. In this study, we investigated the effect of salvianolic A (SalA on the migration and proliferation of VSMCs. We found a preferential interaction of SalA with cellular systems that rely on the PDGF signal, but not on the EGF and bFGF signal. SalA inhibits PDGF-BB induced VSMC proliferation and migration in the concentration range from 0.01 to 0.1 μM. The inhibition of SalA on VSMC proliferation is associated with cell cycle arrest. We also found that SalA inhibits the PDGFRβ-ERK1/2 signaling cascade activated by PDGF-BB in VSMCs. In addition, SalA does not influence the proliferation of endothelial cells, the synthesis of NO and eNOS protein expression. Our results suggest that SalA inhibits migration and proliferation of VSMCs induced by PDGF-BB via the inhibition of the PDGFRβ-ERK1/2 cascade, but that it does not constrain endothelial cell proliferation and nitric oxide biosynthesis. Thus, the present study suggests a novel adjunct pharmacological strategy to prevent angioplasty-related restenosis.

    14. Regular article

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      手塚 孝弘

      2013-04-10

      Apr 10, 2013 ... 'Sub-Arctic Cherry'. PI 647522. 'California Red Cherry'. S. habrochaites. LA1559. LA1695. LA1731. PI 199381. PI 365903. Cimbalo. PI 365904. Monte Gallinazo. PI 365905. SAL 335. PI 365907. SAL 346. PI 365934. PI 390516. W-C 1046. RAPD analysis. Total DNA was extracted from leaves of each plant ...

    15. die relevansie van taalwetenskap in spraak- en taal terapie

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Ondene van Dulm

      geslag, sal lei tot 'n ERP-resultaat wat sintaktiese anomalie aandui, en daardeur sal toon dat antesedent-toekenning van PRO alreeds plaasgevind het. In die studie is die ERPs van. Spaanssprekende subjekte opgeneem tydens die prosessering van gesproke Spaanse sinne. Spaanse naamwoorde dra geslagskenmerke ...

    16. Cardioprotective effect of Salvianolic acid B on acute myocardial infarction by promoting autophagy and neovascularization and inhibiting apoptosis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lin, Chao; Liu, Zhaoguo; Lu, Ying; Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Yayun; Ma, Zhi; Kuai, Meiyu; Sun, Xin; Sun, Shuaijun; Jing, Yi; Yu, Lizhen; Li, Yu; Zhang, Qichun; Bian, Huimin

      2016-07-01

      The aim of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats and its potential mechanisms. The AMI model was established in rats to study the effect of Sal B on AMI. Haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to evaluate the pathological change in AMI rats. Immunofluorescence and TUNEL staining were used to detect autophagy and apoptosis of myocardial cells in hearts of AMI rats, respectively. Protein expression of apoptosis-related, autophagy-related and angiogenesis-related proteins were examined by Western blot. Sal B attenuated myocardial infarction significantly compared with that of the model group. Rats administered with Sal B showed higher inhibition rate of infarction and lower infarct size than those of the model group. Moreover, Sal B decreased the serum levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde, while increased such level of superoxide dismutase significantly compared with those of the model group. Sal B inhibited the expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP, while promoted the expression of Bcl-2, LC3-II, Beclin1 and VEGF. Sal B has cardioprotective effect on AMI and Sal B may be a promising candidate for AMI treatment. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

    17. Exploring Epistemological Beliefs and Learning Approaches in Context: A Sociocultural Perspective

      Science.gov (United States)

      Phan, Huy P.

      2008-01-01

      Background: Research investigation into epistemological beliefs and students' approaches to learning (SAL) from a qualitative perspective has been limited to a few studies. In particular, very research has attempted to explore the origin of personal epistemology and its relation with SAL, taking into account the sociocultural background and …

    18. Phil@Scale : Computational methods within philosophy

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Van Wierst, Pauline; Vrijenhoek, Sanne; Schlobach, Stefan; Betti, Arianna

      2016-01-01

      In this paper we report the results of Phil@Scale, a project directed at the development of computational methods for (the history of) philosophy.1 In this project, philosophers and computer scientists together created SalVe, a tool that helps philosophers answering text-based questions. SalVe has

    19. U.S. Army Rifle and Carbine Adoption between 1865 and 1900

      Science.gov (United States)

      2007-06-15

      The Board changed the rust test by replacing the brine solution with a solution of sal- ammoniac and increasing the submersion time to 10 minutes...to the height of the chamber in a solution of sal- ammoniac for ten minutes, exposed for two days to the open air standing in a rack, and then fired

    20. Download this PDF file

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Helene Verhoef

      that are smaller than the place name areas but equal or bigger than an EA, such as the small area layer (SAL). Figure 1 indicates the difference in the size of output areas between the SPs and SALs. The ideal output geography should ensure that the majority of users can apply it for their data needs and this is currently not ...