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Sample records for grifola frondosa maitake

  1. PENGGUNAAN BEBERAPA MEDIUM SEMISINTETIK UNTUK PRODUKSI MISELIUM JAMUR MAITAKE (Grifola frondosa (Dickson: Fr. S. F. Gray ISOLAT CIANJUR DAN EKSTRAK KASARNYA

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    Maria Mardhitama Maharani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the use of some semisynthetic medium for the production of fungal mycelium Maitake (Grifola frondosa (dickson: Fr. SF Gray isolates Cianjur and crude extract was performed with an incubation period of 30 days. This study aimed to determine the ability of green bean, cowpea and maize as an alternative material of semisynthetic medium for manufacturing G. frondosa’s mycelium and and to know the production of G. frondosa’s mycelium and the highest crude extract. This study was experimental study with a completely randomized design consisted of 4 treatments : Yeast Potato Dextrose Broth (PDYB medium, Green bean Yeast Dextrose Broth (GbDYB medium, Cowpea Yeast Dextrose Broth (CpDYB medium and Corn Yeast Dextrose Broth (CDYB medium. The highest average dry weight of mycelium (1,584 g/100ml was GbDYB medium. The lowest average dry weight of the mycelium (g/100ml 0.244 was PDYB medium. The weight of the crude extract of mycelium in each treatment was lower than the dry weight. The highest weight of the crude extract was obtained from the GbDYB medium treatment (1,22 g and the lowest was obtained from PDYB medium (0,113 g. Anova test results of different treatment was very significant, meaning that the use of extract of green bean, cowpea and maize greatly affected the growth of G.frondosa’s mycelium. The LSD test between treatment of PDYB medium and CDYB medium was not significant, meaning that the increase of mycelium’s growth  on PDYB medium had no different with the CDYB medium.

  2. ENZIME ACTIVITY OF HIGHER BASIDIOMYCETES MUSHROOM GRIFOLA FRONDOSA

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    А. Бухало

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was a revelation and evaluation of spectrum and activity of hydrolytic enzymes of higher basidiomycetes  Grifola frondosa in a surface and submerged culture. 8 strains of  Gf. frondosa,  mushrooms from culture collection of mushrooms at the M.G. Kholodny Institute of  Вotany National  Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine were object of investigation. Researches were conducted by standard microbiological, biochemical and biotechnological methods. All strains  on agar mediums were shown the  following enzymes: amylase, caseinase, polygalacturonase, pectattranselyminase, glucosidase, urease,  xylanase, lipase  and endoglucanase. The demonstration of oxidizing enzymes of laccase and tyrosinase  depended on a culture and did not depend on composition of medium. The estimation of presence and level of activity of hydrolytic enzymes at submerged cultivation indicate primary influence of components of complex nourishing medium on enzyme activity of Gr. frondosa. Strains biochemical features show up in the case of  oxidizing enzymes on agar mediums and for endo-1,4-β-glucanase on liquid mediums with glucose and molasses.

  3. The mechanisms underlying the hypolipidaemic effects of Grifola frondosa in the liver of rats

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    Yinrun Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the hypolipidaemic effects of Grifola frondosa and its regulation mechanism involved in lipid metabolism in liver of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The body weights and serum lipid levels of control rats, of hyperlipidaemic rats and of hyperlipidaemic rats treated with oral Grifola frondosa were determined. mRNA expression and concentration of key lipid metabolism enzymes were investigated. Serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were markedly decreased in hyperlipidaemic rats treated with Grifola frondosa compared with untreated hyperlipidaemic rats. mRNA expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR, acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT2, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, fatty acid synthase (FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1 were significantly down-regulated, while expression of cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 was significantly up-regulated in the livers of treated rats compared with untreated hyperlipidaemic rats. The concentrations of these enzymes also paralleled the observed changes in mRNA expression. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS were used to identify twenty proteins differentially expressed in livers of rats treated with Grifola frondosa compared with untreated hyperlipidemic rats. Of these twenty proteins, seven proteins were down-regulated and thirteen proteins were up-regulated. These findings indicate that the hypolipidaemic effects of Grifola frondosa reflected its modulation of key enzymes involved in cholesterol and triacylglycerol biosynthesis, absorption and catabolic pathways. Grifola frondosa may exert anti-atherosclerotic effects by inhibiting LDL oxidation through down-regulation and up-regulating proteins expression in the liver of rats. Therefore, Grifola frondosa may produce both hypolipidaemic

  4. Biological potential of extracts of the wild edible Basidiomycete mushroom Grifola frondosa

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    Klaus, A.; Kozarski, M.; Vunduk, N.; Todorovic, N.; Jakovlejevic, D.; Zizak, Z.; Pavlovic, V.; Levic, S.; Niksic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    Partially purified polysaccharides (FP) and hot alkali extract (FNa) obtained from fruiting bodies of the wild basidiomycete Grifola frondosa were examined for their antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. The structural properties of FP and FNa samples were investigated by FT-IR and high

  5. Structural characterization and antiviral activity of a novel heteropolysaccharide isolated from Grifola frondosa against enterovirus 71.

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    Zhao, Chao; Gao, Luying; Wang, Chunyang; Liu, Bin; Jin, Yu; Xing, Zheng

    2016-06-25

    A novel heteropolysaccharide from Grifola frondosa mycelia was extracted and purified using DEAE Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) spectroscopy were used to decipher the structure of the purified G. frondosa polysaccharide (GFP1). Chemical and spectral analysis revealed that GFP1, with an average molecular weight of 40.5kDa, possessed a 1,6-β-d-glucan backbone with a single 1,3-α-d-fucopyranosyl side-branching unit. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease. GFP1 was tested for its anti-EV71 activity in cultured cells, which showed that EV71 viral replication was blocked and viral VP1 protein expression and genomic RNA synthesis were suppressed. Moreover, GFP1 exhibited apoptotic and other activities by suppressing the EV71-induced caspase-3 cleavage and IκBα down regulation. Our results demonstrate that the novel G. frondosa polysaccharide has antiviral activity, which could be valuable as a potentially new anti-EV71 therapeutic compound. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Chemical structure of a partially 3-O-methylated mannofucogalactan from edible mushroom Grifola frondosa.

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    Oliveira, Gracy Kelly Faria; Silva, Estefania Viano da; Ruthes, Andrea Caroline; Lião, Luciano Morais; Iacomini, Marcello; Carbonero, Elaine R

    2018-05-01

    An unusual heteropolysaccharide was isolated from the fruiting bodies of the medicinal mushroom Grifola frondosa, via successive cold aqueous extraction, followed by fractionation through freeze-thawing, precipitation with Fehling solution and dialysis using a membrane with a size exclusion cut-off of 500 kDa. Its chemical structure was determined based on total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis and NMR studies. The mannofucogalactan had a molar mass of 15.9 × 10 3  g mol -1 , which was determinate by HPSEC-MALLS. This heteropolymer showed to have a main chain of (1 → 6)-linked α-d-Galp partially substituted at O-2 by 3-O-α-d-mannopyranosyl-α-l-fucopyranosyl groups and in a minor proportion with α-l-Fucp single-unit side chains. Moreover, the presence of 3-O-Me-Galp units could also be observed in the main chain of the G. frondosa mannofucogalactan. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Zeolites as possible biofortifiers in Maitake cultivation

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    Vunduk Jovana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of Ni, Cu and Mg in Grifola frondosa (also known as Maitake mushroom fruit body produced on zeolite Minazel Plus (MG-supplemented substrate were measured with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Two different concentrations of MG were added to the substrate for mushroom cultivation. Levels of selected metals were measured in cultivated dry carpophores. The content of Ni increased in fruit bodies produced on supplemented substrate, while in case of Cu, a pronounced decrease was observed. When two different concentrations of MG were implemented, the Mg level showed both positive and negative trend, depending on the applied concentration of zeolite. MG in a concentration of 1% showed the strongest influence on the observed elements in the cultivated fruiting body of Maitake mushroom. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46010

  8. Purification and Characterization of a Trehalose Synthase from the Basidiomycete Grifola frondosa

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    Saito, Koki; Kase, Toshiya; Takahashi, Eiichi; Takahashi, Eisaku; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    1998-01-01

    A trehalose synthase (TSase) that catalyzes the synthesis of trehalose from d-glucose and α-d-glucose 1-phosphate (α-d-glucose 1-P) was detected in a basidiomycete, Grifola frondosa. TSase was purified 106-fold to homogeneity with 36% recovery by ammonium sulfate precipitation and several steps of column chromatography. The native enzyme appears to be a dimer since it has apparent molecular masses of 120 kDa, as determined by gel filtration column chromatography, and 60 kDa, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Although TSase catalyzed the phosphorolysis of trehalose to d-glucose and α-d-glucose 1-P, in addition to the synthesis of trehalose from the two substrates, the TSase equilibrium strongly favors trehalose synthesis. The optimum temperatures for phosphorolysis and synthesis of trehalose were 32.5 to 35°C and 35 to 37.5°C, respectively. The optimum pHs for these reactions were 6.5 and 6.5 to 6.8, respectively. The substrate specificity of TSase was very strict: among eight disaccharides examined, only trehalose was phosphorolyzed, and only α-d-glucose 1-P served as a donor substrate with d-glucose as the acceptor in trehalose synthesis. Two efficient enzymatic systems for the synthesis of trehalose from sucrose were identified. In system I, the α-d-glucose 1-P liberated by 1.05 U of sucrose phosphorylase was linked with d-glucose by 1.05 U of TSase, generating trehalose at the initial synthesis rate of 18 mmol/h in a final yield of 90 mol% under optimum conditions (300 mM each sucrose and glucose, 20 mM inorganic phosphate, 37.5°C, and pH 6.5). In system II, we added 1.05 U of glucose isomerase and 20 mM MgSO4 to the reaction mixture of system I to convert fructose, a by-product of the sucrose phosphorylase reaction, into glucose. This system generated trehalose at the synthesis rate of 4.5 mmol/h in the same final yield. PMID:9797287

  9. Functional polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa aqueous extract inhibit atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

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    Park, Hyeon Soo; Hwang, Yong Hyeon; Kim, Mun Ki; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Ho Jeong; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Yumnam, Silvia; Kim, Eun Hee; Heo, Jeong Doo; Lee, Sang Joon; Won, Chung Kil; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-01-01

    Grifola frondosa (GF), distributed widely in far east Asia including Korea, is popularly used as traditional medicines and health supplementary foods, especially for enhancing the immune functions of the body. To extend the application of GF polysaccharides (GFP) for atopic dermatitis (AD), we investigated the effects of GFP on the 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced AD-like skin lesion in NC/Nga mice. GFP treatment significantly reduced the dorsa skin dermatitis score and combination treatment with GFP, and dexamethasone has a synergistic effect in AD-like skin lesion by reduced Serum IgE, mast cells infiltration, and cytokines expression. These results indicate that GFP suppressed the AD-like skin lesions by controlling the Th-1/Th-2-type cytokines in NC/Nga mice. These findings strongly suggest that GFP can be useful for AD patients as a novel therapeutic agent and might be used for corticosteroids replacement or supplement agent.

  10. Antitumour Activity of Grifola frondosa Exopolysaccharides Produced by Submerged Fermentation Using Sugar Cane and Soy Molasses as Carbon Sources

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    Ashok Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Grifola frondosa is an edible Basidiomycete and produces exopolysaccharides (EPS known for their antitumour activity. The objectives of this study are to produce exopolysaccharides in submerged fermentation using alternative carbon sources (sugar cane and soy molasses, and to evaluate their anti-proliferative activity against tumour cells. Exopolysaccharides were extracted by ethanol and tested against mice tumour cells, then characterized by gas chromatography. Carbon sources represent the major cost of the bioprocess, so a search for new alternatives such as agro-industrial residues is important to establish the viability on an industrial scale. Moreover, the data about the kinetics of the EPS production allow studying the optimization of the process.

  11. Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic studies with agaricoglycerides, extracted from Grifola frondosa, in animal models of pain and inflammation.

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    Han, Chuncho; Cui, Bo

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of agaricoglycerides of the fermented mushroom of Grifola frondosa (AGF). The effects of AGF on interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) levels, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels were determined by ELISA. The antinociceptive effects of AGF were also analyzed in acetic acid-induced pain model and formalin-induced inflammatory pain model, respectively. At the same time, the pharmacokinetic assay of AGF was also made. AGF at the dose level of 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited LPS-induced upregulation of NF-κB activation and the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, ICAM-1, and COX-2. Moreover, AGF at the dose level of 500 mg/kg suppressed the acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions (p inflammation and in some models of pain and thus may be used as an alternative medicine for inflammatory pain.

  12. Antitumor activity of orally administered maitake α-glucan by stimulating antitumor immune response in murine tumor.

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    Yuki Masuda

    Full Text Available Maitake α-glucan, YM-2A, isolated from Grifola frondosa, has been characterized as a highly α-1,6-branched α-1,4 glucan. YM-2A has been shown to possess an anti-virus effect in mice; however, it does not directly inhibit growth of the virus in vitro, indicating that the anti-virus effect of YM-2A might be associated with modulation of the host immune system. In this study, we found that oral administration of YM-2A could inhibit tumor growth and improve survival rate in two distinct mouse models of colon-26 carcinoma and B16 melanoma. Orally administered YM-2A enhanced antitumor immune response by increasing INF-γ-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the spleen and INF-γ-expressing CD8+ cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes. In vitro study showed that YM-2A directly activated splenic CD11b+ myeloid cells, peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, but did not affect splenic CD11b- lymphocytes or colon-26 tumor cells. YM-2A is more slowly digested by pancreatic α-amylase than are amylopectin and rabbit liver glycogen, and orally administered YM-2A enhanced the expression of MHC class II and CD86 on dendritic cells and the expression of MHC class II on macrophages in Peyer's patches. Furthermore, in vitro stimulation of YM-2A increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Peyer's patch CD11c+ cells. These results suggest that orally administered YM-2A can activate dendritic cells and macrophages in Peyer's patches, inducing systemic antitumor T-cell response. Thus, YM-2A might be a candidate for an oral therapeutic agent in cancer immunotherapy.

  13. Erectogenic and Aphrodisiac Effects of Butea frondosa Koenig ex Roxb. in Rats: Involvement of Enzyme Inhibition

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    Sumanta Kumar Goswami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Butea frondosa Koenig ex Roxb. (BF is traditionally used to manage male sexual disorders including erectile dysfunction (ED. Methanol extract of BF (bark inhibited Rho-kinase 2 (ROCK-II enzyme activity in vitro with an IC50 of 20.29±1.83 μg/mL. The relaxant effect of methanol extract of BF (MEBF was studied on phenylephrine precontracted corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM isolated from young rats. The effect of MEBF treatment on sexual behaviour of both young (5 month and aged (24 month rats was also studied in addition to the influence on smooth muscle, collagen (collagen-I and -III level in penis, and sperm characteristics of young and aged rats. MEBF relaxed CCSM up to 21.77±2.57% and increased sexual behavior of young and aged rats. This increase in sexual function could be attributed to ROCK-II inhibition and increase in ratio of smooth muscle to collagen level in rat penile tissue. Increased sperm production and decreased defective sperms in young and aged rats corroborate the usefulness of Butea frondosa in male infertility in addition to ED.

  14. Novel Use of PIT Tags in Sea Cucumbers: Promising Results with the Commercial Species Cucumaria frondosa.

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    Bruno L Gianasi

    Full Text Available The lack of a reliable and innocuous mark-recapture method has limited studies that would provide essential information for the management of commercial sea cucumbers. Tagging sea cucumbers is notoriously difficult because of their plastic nature and autolysis capacities. The markers that have so far been tested, mainly on or through the body wall, were either lost rapidly or had major drawbacks (e.g. suitable only for batch identification, requiring complex analysis, causing infections, necrosis, behavioural changes and mortality. The present study explored the efficacy of passive integrated transponder (PIT tags for individually marking sea cucumbers by assessing retention rates and long-term side effects of tags inserted in previously unstudied tissues/organs. Individuals of the species Cucumaria frondosa were tagged in the body wall, aquapharyngeal bulb and at the base of the oral tentacles. They were monitored closely for evidence of stress, infection, change in feeding and spawning behaviour and tag retention rate. Implanting the tag in an oral tentacle to reach the hydrovascular system of the aquapharyngeal bulb achieved the best retention rates in full-size individuals: from a maximum of 92% after 30 days to 68% at the end of the experimental period (300 days. Efficacy was lower in smaller individuals (84% after 30 d and 42% after 300 d. Following a slight increase in cloacal movements for 15 h post tagging, no side effect was noted in sea cucumbers tagged in the aquapharyngeal bulb via the tentacles. Feeding and spawning behaviours were not affected and no signs of infections or abnormal cell development in the vicinity of the tags were observed. This study indicates that marking sea cucumbers with 8.2 mm long PIT tags implanted via the oral tentacle is an effective technique, yielding relatively high retention rates over long periods without any detectable physiological or behavioural effects.

  15. In Vivo Anti-Cancer Mechanism of Low-Molecular-Weight Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate (LFCS from Sea Cucumber Cucumaria frondosa

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    Xiaoxiao Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The low-molecular-weight fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (LFCS was prepared from native fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS, which was extracted and isolated from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa, and the anti-cancer mechanism of LFCS on mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC was investigated. The results showed that LFCS remarkably inhibited LLC growth and metastasis in a dose-dependent manner. LFCS induced cell cycle arrest by increasing p53/p21 expression and apoptosis through activation of caspase-3 activity in LLC cells. Meanwhile, LFCS suppressed the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, increased the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 and downregulated the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs level. Furthermore, LFCS significantly suppressed the activation of ERK1/2/p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway, which played a prime role in expression of MMPs. All of these data indicate LFCS may be used as anti-cancer drug candidates and deserve further study.

  16. Structure of Sphingolipids From Sea Cucumber Cucumaria frondosa and Structure-Specific Cytotoxicity Against Human HepG2 Cells.

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    Jia, Zicai; Song, Yu; Tao, Suyuan; Cong, Peixu; Wang, Xiaoxu; Xue, Changhu; Xu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between structure and activity, three glucocerebroside series (CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3), ceramides (CF-Cer) and long-chain bases (CF-LCB) of sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (C. frondosa) were isolated and evaluated in HepG2 cells. The molecular species of CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3 and CF-Cer were identified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with heated electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (RPLC-HESI-HRMS), and determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence: For the three glucocerebroside series, fatty acids (FA) were mainly saturated (18:0 and 22:0), monounsaturated (22:1, 23:1 and 24:1) and 2-hydroxyl FA (2-HFA) (23:1 h and 24:1 h), the structure of long-chain bases (LCB) were dihydroxy (d17:1, d18:1 and d18:2) and trihydroxy (t16:0 and t17:0), and the glycosylation was glucose; For CF-Cer, FA were primarily saturated (17:0) and monounsaturated (16:1 and 19:1), the structure of LCB were dihydroxy (d17:1 and d18:1), and trihydroxy (t16:0). The results of cell experiment indicated that all of three glucocerebroside series, CF-Cer and CF-LCB exhibited an inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Moreover, CFC-3 was most effective in three glucocerebrosides to HepG-2 cell viability. The inhibition effect of CF-LCB was the strongest, and the inhibition effect of CF-Cer was much stronger than glucocerebrosides.

  17. Protective effects of new medicinal mushroom, Grifola gargal singer (higher Basidiomycetes), on induced DNA damage in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Postemsky, Pablo Daniel; Palermo, Ana Maria; Curvetto, Néstor Raúl

    2011-01-01

    Grifola gargal is an edible mushroom with attributed antioxidant properties. Different sources of G. gargal materials, i.e., fruit bodies and mycelia grown in liquid or solid media, were used to study its potential protective capacity when somatic mutation and recombination is induced in Drosophila melanogaster using DMBA (7-12-dimethyl-benz(α)anthracene) as promutagen. Heterozygote larvae (white/white+) were grown in media with different concentrations of DMBA. Grifola gargal fruit bodies (GgFB) or mycelia from liquid culture (GgLC) or from solid culture (GgWG), i.e., biotransformed wheat kernel flour, were added to the culture media in combined treatments with DMBA. Water, DMBA solvent, or wheat flour (WF) plus DMBA solvent were used as negative controls. Larval mortality increased from 9% to 11% in negative controls to 31% to 36% in DMBA treatments. The addition of GgFB, GgLC, or GgWG materials produced a protective effect on 25 μmol/vial DMBA-induced mortality. Mutations observed in SMART, as light spots per 100 eyes (LS/100 eyes), increased with increasing doses of DMBA; this was also true when considering the mutation incidence expressed as percentage of eyes exhibiting light spots (% eyes with LS). Interestingly, mycelia from GgFB, GgLC, or GgWG, in the presence of 25 μmol/vial DMBA, showed lower values in SMART of both the total LS/100 eyes and the percentage of eyes with LS. Thus, Grifola gargal materials were not only nontoxic, but in combination with 25 μmol/vial DMBA lowered the mortality induced by the promutagen and showed antimutagenic effects. Protective effects of G. gargal against DMBA are discussed in terms of the onset of desmutagenic and/or bioantimutagenic mechanisms of detoxification in the host organism, probably due to some bioactive compounds known to occur in higher mushrooms.

  18. Decontamination Trials for the Bed-Log Cultivation of Mushroom in Fukushima

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    Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Hirano, Yurika; Yoshida, Hirohisa [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Ogawa, Hideki [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Ito, Hirohisa; Kumata, Atsushi [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Murayama, Kazunari [Macoho Co. Ltd., Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan); Suzuki, Kin-ichi [Abukuma Cooperative for Best Use of Broad-leaved Trees (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive nuclear dispersed in environment from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNP) Accident-contaminated forests in Fukushima Prefecture, especially in Abukuma mountainous region located 10 to 20 Km west from FNP. Broad-leaved trees such as Quercus serrata, chestnut tree, oak, chinquapin tree, Japanese beech are widely planting in Abukuma area. Many prefectures in Japan depends on supply of bed-log from Fukushima prefecture, especially Abukuma area. North part of Abukuma mountain area has highly contaminated by radioactive nuclear, however, the contamination level in the south part of Abkuma area was about ten times lower than the north part. The outside (bark, leaves and twigs) of broad-leaved trees was highly contaminated above 10,000 Bq/kg in Iidate and Kawamata villages located the north part of Abkuma ears, 35 to 40 km from FNP. On the other hand, the contamination level of the outside of broad-leaved trees in the south part of Abukuma ears was 100-500 Bq/kg and the contamination of the inside tree was lower than 10 Bq/kg. For the bed-log cultivation of mushrooms using broad-leaved trees, two methods were used in Japan. The mushrooms incubated broad-leaved trees (90 cm of length and 15 cm of diameter) were setting in the lack on the ground in forest from winter to autumn. This method was mainly used for the cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes). The second method was used for Maitake (Grifola frondosa) cultivation. The mushroom incubated broad-leaved trees (20 cm of length and 20 cm of diameter) were setting in the ground holes and covered by soil (2 cm) and litters. The maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms harvesting October 2013 at Iidate, the evaluation area, contained 120 Bq/kg, even though the soil on the broad-leaved trees contained more than 20,000 Bq/kg. The outside contamination of broad-leaved trees supplied from the south part of Abkuma ears were washed by the wet blasting. 80 % of radiocesium on the bark was efficiently

  19. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

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    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  20. The effect of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and related enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grifola frondosa is an edible medicinal polypore mushroom and its exopolysaccharide (EPS) has demonstrated immunomodulatory effects in many previous studies. After adding the Gastrodia tuber components in culture medium of G. frondosa, both EPS and biomass production were significantly increased. As a result, we ...

  1. Fucoidan from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa exhibits anti-hyperglycemic effects in insulin resistant mice via activating the PI3K/PKB pathway and GLUT4.

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    Wang, Yiming; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhao, Yanlei; Hu, Shiwei; Shi, Di; Xue, Changhu

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the anti-hyperglycemic properties and mechanisms of fucoidan, isolated from Cucumaria frondosa (Cf-FUC), in insulin resistant mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed regular diet or high-fat/high-sucrose diet for 19 weeks. Model animals were dietary administrated either rosiglitazone (RSG, 1 mg/kg·bw), fucoidan (Cf-FUC, 80 mg/kg·bw) or their combinations. Results showed that Cf-FUC significantly reduced fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and enhanced glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance in insulin-resistant mice. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that Cf-FUC increased the mRNA expressions of insulin receptors (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Western blot assays demonstrated that Cf-FUC showed no effect on total protein expression but nevertheless enhanced the phosphorylation of proteins listed above and increased translocation of GLUT4 to the cell membrane. Furthermore, Cf-FUC enhanced the effects of RSG. These results indicated that Cf-FUC exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic effects via activating PI3K/PKB pathway and GLUT4 in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental analysis on the effect of addition of Rhizoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of addition of Rhizoma gastrodiae on mycelia and exopolysaccharide production by submerged culture of Grifola frondosa was investigated. About 7% (v/v) of R. gastrodiae extract was added to the basal medium used for its biomass and exopolysaccharide productions. The biomass and exopolysaccharide ...

  3. [Antiviral properties of basidiomycetes metabolites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtonomova, A V; Krasnopolskaya, L M

    2014-01-01

    The data on the antiviral action of the Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa, Agaricus brasiliensis and other basidiomycetes metabolites are summurized. The metabolites of these species of basidiomycetes exhibit a direct antiviral effect on herpes simplex virus types I and II, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, influenza virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and others. Moreover, metabolites of basidiomycetes increased antiviral immunity.

  4. Cytotoxic Effect on Human Myeloma Cells and Leukemic Cells by the Agaricus blazei Murill Based Mushroom Extract, Andosan™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon-Magnus Tangen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murill is an edible mushroom of the Basidiomycetes family, which has been found to contain a number of compounds with antitumor properties, such as proteoglycans and ergosterol. In the present investigation, we show that the commercial mushroom product Andosan, which contains 82.4% Agaricus blazei Murill, together with medicinal mushrooms Hericium erinaceus (14.7% and Grifola frondosa (2.9%, has a cytotoxic effect on primary myeloma cells, other myeloma cell lines, and leukemia cell lines in vitro. Although the exact content and hence the mechanisms of action of the Andosan extract are unknown, we have found in this investigation indications of cell cycle arrest when myeloma cell lines are cultivated with Andosan. This may be one of the possible explanations for the cytotoxic effects of Andosan.

  5. Cultivation of three medicinal mushroom species on olive oil press cakes containing substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej GREGORI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil press cakes (OOPC represent a waste that has a negative impact on environment. OOPC have little or no use and because of that solutions for their alternative use are sought after. In our experiments we investigated substrate mixtures composed of different proportions of OOPC, wheat bran, crushed corn seeds and beech sawdust for cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes and Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies. The increasing amount of OOPC in fruiting bodies cultivation substrates resulted in decreasing production of fruiting bodies. Results show, that although OOPC in small portion can be successfully used as a medicinal mushroom fruiting bodies cultivating substrate, their use is rational only, if no other substrate composing materials can be found or when OOPC usage solves the problem of its deposition.

  6. Sequencing Lys-N Proteolytic Peptides by ESI and MALDI Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Mathieu; Cantel, Sonia; Verdié, Pascal; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we explored the MS/MS behavior of various synthetic peptides that possess a lysine residue at the N-terminal position. These peptides were designed to mimic peptides produced upon proteolysis by the Lys-N enzyme, a metalloendopeptidase issued from a Japanese fungus Grifola frondosa that was recently investigated in proteomic studies as an alternative to trypsin digestion, as a specific cleavage at the amide X-Lys chain is obtained that provides N-terminal lysine peptide fragments. In contrast to tryptic peptides exhibiting a lysine or arginine residue solely at the C-terminal position, and are thus devoid of such basic amino acids within the sequence, these Lys-N proteolytic peptides can contain the highly basic arginine residue anywhere within the peptide chain. The fragmentation patterns of such sequences with the ESI-QqTOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometers commonly used in proteomic bottom-up experiments were investigated.

  7. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of culinary-medicinal mushrooms and their toxicity assessment using differentiating Neuro-2a and embryonic fibroblast BALB/3T3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2013-10-11

    Mushrooms are not only regarded as gourmet cuisine but also as therapeutic agent to promote cognition health. However, little toxicological information is available regarding their safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen selected ethno-pharmacologically important mushrooms for stimulatory effects on neurite outgrowth and to test for any cytotoxicity. The stimulatory effect of mushrooms on neurite outgrowth was assessed in differentiating mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. Neurite length was measured using Image-Pro Insight processor system. Neuritogenesis activity was further validated by fluorescence immunocytochemical staining of neurofilaments. In vitro cytotoxicity was investigated by using mouse embryonic fibroblast (BALB/3T3) and N2a cells for any embryo- and neuro-toxic effects; respectively. Aqueous extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Pleurotus giganteus and Grifola frondosa; as well as an ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris significantly (p effects following 24 h exposure of N2a and 3T3 cells to mushroom extracts. Our results indicate that G. lucidum, L. rhinocerotis, P. giganteus, G. frondosa and C. militaris may be developed as safe and healthy dietary supplements for brain and cognitive health.

  8. Aphrodisiac activity of Butea frondosa Koen. ex Roxb. extract in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, S; Sridhar, Y; Sam, S Kishore Gnana; Saravanan, M; Leonard, J Thomas; Anbalagan, N; Sridhar, S K

    2004-02-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac activity of Butea frondonsa Koen. ex Roxb (Papillionaceae) bark extract was investigated. The extract (400 mg/kg body wt./day) was administered orally by gavage for 28 days. Mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), mounting frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF) and post-ejaculatory interval (PEI) were the parameters observed before and during the sexual behavior study at day 0, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28. The extract reduced significantly ML, IL, EL and PEI (p male rats.

  9. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of culinary-medicinal mushrooms and their toxicity assessment using differentiating Neuro-2a and embryonic fibroblast BALB/3T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mushrooms are not only regarded as gourmet cuisine but also as therapeutic agent to promote cognition health. However, little toxicological information is available regarding their safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen selected ethno-pharmacologically important mushrooms for stimulatory effects on neurite outgrowth and to test for any cytotoxicity. Methods The stimulatory effect of mushrooms on neurite outgrowth was assessed in differentiating mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. Neurite length was measured using Image-Pro Insight processor system. Neuritogenesis activity was further validated by fluorescence immunocytochemical staining of neurofilaments. In vitro cytotoxicity was investigated by using mouse embryonic fibroblast (BALB/3T3) and N2a cells for any embryo- and neuro-toxic effects; respectively. Results Aqueous extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Pleurotus giganteus and Grifola frondosa; as well as an ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris significantly (p < 0.05) promoted the neurite outgrowth in N2a cells by 38.4 ± 4.2%, 38.1 ± 2.6%, 33.4 ± 4.6%, 33.7 ± 1.5%, and 35.8 ± 3.4%; respectively. The IC50 values obtained from tetrazolium (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays showed no toxic effects following 24 h exposure of N2a and 3T3 cells to mushroom extracts. Conclusion Our results indicate that G. lucidum, L. rhinocerotis, P. giganteus, G. frondosa and C. militaris may be developed as safe and healthy dietary supplements for brain and cognitive health. PMID:24119256

  10. ENDOGENOUS CYTOKININS IN MEDICINAL BASIDIOMYCETES MYCELIAL BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the cytokinins production by medicinal basidial mushrooms. Cytokinins were for the first time identified and quantified in mycelial biomass of six species (Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes versicolor, Fomitopsis officinalis, Pleurotus nebrodensis, Grifola frondosa, Sparassis crispa using HPLC. Trans- and cis-zeatin, zeatin riboside, zeatin-O-glucoside, isopentenyladenosine, isopentenyladenine were found but only one species (G. lucidum, strain 1900 contained all these substances. The greatest total cytokinin quantity was detected in F. officinalis, strain 5004. S. crispa, strain 314, and F. officinalis, strain 5004, mycelial biomass was revealed to have the highest level of cytokinin riboside forms (zeatin riboside and isopentenyladenosine. The possible connection between medicinal properties of investigated basidiomycetes and of cytokinins is discussed. S. crispa, strain 314, and F. officinalis, strain 5004, are regarded as promising species for developing biotechnological techniques to produce biologically active drugs from their mycelial biomass. As one of the potential technological approaches there is proposed fungal material drying.

  11. Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  12. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

  13. Therapeutic potential of culinary-medicinal mushrooms for the management of neurodegenerative diseases: diversity, metabolite, and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have long been used not only as food but also for the treatment of various ailments. Although at its infancy, accumulated evidence suggested that culinary-medicinal mushrooms may play an important role in the prevention of many age-associated neurological dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, efforts have been devoted to a search for more mushroom species that may improve memory and cognition functions. Such mushrooms include Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Sarcodon spp., Antrodia camphorata, Pleurotus giganteus, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Grifola frondosa, and many more. Here, we review over 20 different brain-improving culinary-medicinal mushrooms and at least 80 different bioactive secondary metabolites isolated from them. The mushrooms (either extracts from basidiocarps/mycelia or isolated compounds) reduced beta amyloid-induced neurotoxicity and had anti-acetylcholinesterase, neurite outgrowth stimulation, nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis, neuroprotective, antioxidant, and anti-(neuro)inflammatory effects. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the bioactive effects of mushrooms are also discussed. Mushrooms can be considered as useful therapeutic agents in the management and/or treatment of neurodegeneration diseases. However, this review focuses on in vitro evidence and clinical trials with humans are needed.

  14. Polysaccharide production by submerged and solid-state cultures from several medicinal higher Basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Sandra; Sanchez, Oscar Julian; Levin, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharides produced by microorganisms represent an industrially unexploited market. An important number of polysaccharides have been isolated from fungi, especially mushrooms, with many interesting biological functions, such as antitumor, hypoglycemic, and immunostimulating activities. In the search of new sources of fungal polysaccharides, the main goal of this research was to test the ability of several species of basidiomycetes, among them various edible mushrooms, to produce both extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPSs). Among 10 species screened for production of EPSs in submerged cultures with glucose, soy oil, and yeast extract, the best results were obtained with Ganoderma lucidum (0.79 g/L EPS) and Pleurotus ostreatus (0.75 g/L EPS). Agitation strongly improved EPS production in most of the studied strains. Eight of 10 species assayed successfully developed basidiomes during synthetic "bag-log" cultivation on a substrate consisting of oak sawdust and corn bran. This work describes for the first time the environmental factors required for fruiting of 4 species under such conditions: Schizophyllum commune, Ganoderma applanatum, Trametes versicolor, and T. trogii. IPSs were extracted from the carpophores. The IPS content of the carpophores varied from 1.4% (G. applanatum) up to 5.5% and 6% in G. lucidum and Grifola frondosa, respectively.

  15. EVALUATION OF ENDOGLUCANASE, EXOGLUCANASE, LACCASE, AND LIGNIN PEROXIDASE ACTIVITIES ON TEN WHITE-ROT FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Montoya B

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a way of tracking the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in ten species of white rot fungi: Lentinula edodes, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes trogii, Coriolus versicolor, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus ostreatus and Auricularia delicata. These species were first screened on solid culture media containing carboxymethyl cellulose, crystalline cellulose, ABTS (2,2´-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate and azure B, which showed the production of endoglucanase, exoglucanase, laccase and lignin peroxidase (LiP enzymes. Cellulolytic activities were detected after five days of incubation with congo red indicator, forming a clear-white halo in areas where cellulose was degraded. For ligninases, the tracking consisted of the monitoring in the formation of green halos due to ABTS oxidation for laccase, and decolorization halos on azure B for LiP during 14 days of incubation. From this qualitative screening, four strains were selected (G. lucidum, L. edodes, C. versicolor and T. trogii as the best producers of cellulolytic and ligninolytic enzymes. These four species were inoculated on a substrate of sawdust oak, yielding 51,8% of lignin degraded by L. edodes and 22% of cellulose degraded by C. versicolor.

  16. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikineswary Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  17. Screening of Lignocellulose-Degrading Superior Mushroom Strains and Determination of Their CMCase and Laccase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase. The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P<0.01 higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels.

  18. Concentrations of 137Cs and 40K in mushrooms consumed in Japan and radiation dose as a result of their dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    Mushrooms are known to accumulate radiocesium. To estimate the intake of radiocesium through the eating of mushrooms, about 30 samples belonging to 4 commonly consumed species (Lentinula edodes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Grifola frondosa, and Tricholoma matsutake), were analyzed for 137 Cs and 40 K. The concentration ranges were 0.060-29 Bq kg -1 (wet wt) for 137 Cs and 38-300 Bq kg -1 (wet wt) for 40 K. The geometric mean concentration for 137 Cs was 0.56 Bq kg -1 (wet wt), and the mean concentration for 40 K was 92 Bq kg -1 (wet wt). The 137 Cs concentrations in L. edodes cultivated in mushroom beds (sawdust-rice bran media) were lower than those cultivated on bed logs (natural wood with bark). The annual intake of 137 Cs per person through mushrooms was calculated, by using the current analytical results and food consumption data in Japan, to be 3.1 Bq for 137 Cs, which is about 28% of the total dietary intake of this nuclide. The effective dose equivalent of 137 Cs through mushrooms was estimated to be 4.0 x 10 -8 Sv, which is about the half the value obtained in our previous study. The decrease of the 137 Cs intake through mushrooms is probably related to changes in cultivation methods in recent years, from the use of bed logs to mushroom beds. (author)

  19. Hydrophilic modification of polystyrene with hydrophobin for time-resolved immunofluorometric assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zefang; Huang, Yujian; Li, Shan; Xu, Haijin; Linder, Markus B; Qiao, Mingqiang

    2010-11-15

    Herein we reported that a hydrophobin film was used as a solid support on the polystyrene surface for immobilizing antibodies in the time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TR-IFMA). Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipative monitoring (QCM-D), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle (WCA) measurements, as well as atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to characterize the hydrophilic modification of polystyrene surface with Class I hydrophobin isolated from Grifola frondosa (HGFI). The performance of HGFI-modified polystyrene was evaluated by TR-IFMA of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). QCM-D revealed that HGFI formed an intact monolayer on the polystyrene at pH 5. XPS and WCA measurements showed that self-assembling HGFI could render polystyrene surface hydrophilic for three months. AFM indicated that an end-on antibody monolayer was adsorbed on the HGFI film rather than multilayers on the polystyrene in a side-on orientation. Furthermore, a linear calibration curve (from 5 to 600 ng/mL) of CEA showed HGFI-modified polystyrene had higher detection sensitivity than unmodified ones in TR-IFMA. This present method for modifying polystyrene is simple without severe chemical treatment and may have wide applicability to functionalize other supports for immobilizing biomolecules. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. EVALUACIÓN DE ACTIVIDADES ENDOGLUCANASA, EXOGLUCANASA, LACASA Y LIGNINA PEROXIDASA EN DIEZ HONGOS DE PUDRICIÓN BLANCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA MONTOYA B.

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una vía de rastreo de producción de enzimas lignocelulolíticas en diez especies de hongos de pudrición blanca: Lentinula edodes, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes trogii, Coriolus versicolor, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus ostreatus y Auricularia delicata. Estas especies primero fueron rastreadas sobre medios de cultivo sólido que contienen carboximetil celulosa, celulosa cristalina, ABTS (2,2´-azino-bis(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfonato y azure B, los cuales evidenciaron la producción de las enzimas endoglucanasa, exoglucanasa, lacasa y lignina peroxidasa (LiP. Las actividades celulolíticas fueron detectadas a los cinco días de incubación con el indicador rojo congo, formándose un halo claro-blanco en las zonas donde se degrada la celulosa. Para las ligninasas, este rastreo consistió en el seguimiento a la formación de halos verdes por oxidación del ABTS para lacasa y halos de decoloración sobre el azure B para la LiP durante 14 días de incubación. De este rastreo cualitativo, se seleccionaron cuatro cepas (G. lucidum, L. edodes, C. versicolor y T. Trogii, como las mejores productoras de enzimas celulolíticas y ligninolíticas. Estas cuatro especies fueron inoculadas sobre un sustrato de aserrín de roble, obteniéndose 51,8% de lignina degradada por L. edodes y 22% de celulosa degrada por C. versicolor.

  1. Comparative characterization of physicochemical properties and bioactivities of polysaccharides from selected medicinal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun-Han; Lai, Min-Nan; Lin, Ching-Chuan; Ng, Lean-Teik

    2016-05-01

    Mushroom polysaccharides have been known to possess various pharmacological activities. However, information on their chemical and biological differences between mushrooms remains limited. In this study, we aimed to examine the differences in physicochemical characteristics of polysaccharides prepared from Antrodia cinnamomea (AC-P), Coriolus versicolor (CV-P), Grifola frondosa (GF-P), Ganoderma lucidum (GL-P), and Phellinus linteus (PL-P), followed by evaluating their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Results showed that under similar conditions of preparation, the monosaccharide composition of polysaccharides varied between different mushrooms, and glucose was the predominant monosaccharide, followed by galactose and mannose. AC-P and GF-P contained the highest amount of (1,3;1,6)-β-D-glucans. The degree of branching of (1,3;1,6)-β-D-glucans in all polysaccharides ranged from 0.21 to 0.26, with the exception of GF-P (0.38). The molecular weights of different polysaccharides showed diverse distributions; AC-P, CV-P, and GF-P contained two major macromolecular populations (200 kDa) and possessed triple-helix conformation, whereas GL-P (10.2 kDa) and PL-P (15.5 kDa) only had a low molecular weight population without triple-helix structure. These polysaccharides showed different inhibitory potency on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.

  2. Folate composition of ten types of mushrooms determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    White button, crimini, shiitake, maitake, enoki, oyster, chanterelle, morel, portabella, and uv-treated portabella mushrooms were sampled from U.S. retail outlets and major producers. Folate (5-methyltetrahydrofolate [5MTHF], 10-formyl folate [10FF], 5-formyltetrahydrofolate [5FTHF]) was analyzed u...

  3. Primer registro de Dondice parguerensis (Mollusca: Favorinidae para Venezuela First record of Dondice parguerensis (Mollusca: Favorinidae in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joany Mariño

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Venezuela el aeolidaceo Dondice parguerensis Brandon y Cutress, 1985, parásito de los cnidarios Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892 y Cassiopea frondosa (Pallas, 1774, hasta ahora sólo conocido de Puerto Rico, Panamá y Bermudas.The presence of the aeolidacean Dondice parguerensis Brandon and Cutress, 1985, parasite of the cnidaria Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892 and Cassiopea frondosa (Pallas, 1774 is recorded for the first time in Venezuela. It was previously recorded in Puerto Rico, Panama and Bermuda.

  4. Pro- and antioxidative properties of medicinal mushroom extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, W.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Hot water extracts of 2 groups of medicinal mushrooms have been tested from the genera Agaricus, Antrodia, Auricularia, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Hericium, Grifola, Ganoderma, Lentinus, Phellinus, and Trametes for ROS-generating activity in human cells and for DPPH-TEAC antioxidant activity. Group 1

  5. Stereoselective total synthesis of sphingolipids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A novel sphingosine, 1,2-diacetyl D-erythro-sphinganine having a characteristic almond flavour was isolated from the edible mushroom Grifola gargal. We have synthesized this sphinganine along with the three other sphingolipids, such as 1,2-diacetyl L-threo-sphinganine, D-erythro-sphinganine triacetate.

  6. Effects of organic nitrogen and carbon sources on mycelial growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grifola umbellate is a famous and expensive Chinese herb medicine and the main medicinal component is polysaccharide mainly produced by its mycelia. Effects of organic nitrogen and carbon resources on mycelial growth and polysaccharides production of a medicinal mushroom, G. umbellate were studied in the ...

  7. Effects of organic nitrogen and carbon sources on mycelial growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Key words: Grifola umbellate, Chinese medicinal herb. polysaccharides, submerged culture, organic nitrogen source .... Values are means ± SD of triple determinations. fuged at 4000 rpm for 30 min. Then washed mycelia pellets repea- tedly with distilled water and dried at 60°C until a constant weight.

  8. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The essential oil of B. frondosa was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with HP-5MS column. The active constituents were purified from the oil by bioactivity-guided fractionation. Contact (impregnated filter paper method) ...

  9. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    into natural insecticides or fumigants, for control of insects in stored grains. Keywords: Bidens frondosa, Liposcelis bostrychophila, Contact toxicity, Essential oil, Boolice, Stored grains, Natural insecticides, Fumigants. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,.

  10. El género Morphnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann V. F. C.

    1943-08-01

    Full Text Available Nombres comunes: Aguila churuquera, Aguila miquera, Aguila copetona, Gavilán miquero,  Aguila-gavilán, Gavilán. real.  DISTRIBUCION: Desde Honduras, por Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, las Guayanas, el Brasil, el Oriente del Ecuador y del Perú, hasta el Paraguay. En Colombia se encuentra en las selvas frondosas de las regiones cálidas: Llanos Orientales, Choco, Valle del Magdalena (parte selvosa , sur de la Guajira, Caquetá y Amazonia.

  11. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Horst, Ronald L; Koszewski, Nicholas J; Simon, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2) as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4) (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D(4) was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3)H] itamin D(3) as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4) was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4) in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4) content was more than twice that of D(2) (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4), but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4) precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4) coeluted with D(3) in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2) and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2) in mushrooms and using D(3) as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3) and D(4).

  12. Ucla, escuela elemental

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    Neutra, Richard J.

    1962-03-01

    Full Text Available La Escuela Elemental de Preparación de la Universidad de California, en Los Angeles, está dedicada a la educación e investigación y preparación del profesorado de la infancia. Se ha construido en un paraje maravilloso, de frondosa vegetación, frente a un terreno bastante quebrado, circunstancia que presta mayor encanto al conjunto, construido con gran pericia y adaptación al paisaje a base de una dominante horizontalidad, con materiales sencillos (ladrillos, hierro y madera y gran comunicación con la naturaleza mediante grandes cristaleras correderas que ensanchan las clases y las suplementan hacia el jardín de acuerdo con las nuevas normas y prácticas docentes.

  13. La Planta del Oro

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    Cantalá. Julio

    1941-06-01

    Full Text Available Una planta de talle esbelto, adornada con apéndices casi capilares como la cola de un caballo, salpica las veredas de estas frondosas montañas de Catskills en donde la nieve recién derretida se convierte en jugo que fortalece la vegetación primaveral. Esta planta casi inclusera que en inglés se llama "horse tail"o cola de caballo, la botánica la califica como de la familia de las gnetaceas y pertenece a la especie "Ephedra vulgaris". Efectivamente, muy vulgar es la planta. Por todos los sitios crece y ni siquiera las cabras hambrientas que saltan por estos matorrales, orientan su olfato hacia el arbusto.

  14. Host Suitability of 32 Common Weeds to Meloidogyne hapla in Organic Soils of Southwestern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélair, G.; Benoit, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-two weeds commonly found in the organic soils of southwestern Quebec were evaluated for host suitability to a local isolate of the northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Galls were observed on the roots of 21 species. Sixteen of the 21 had a reproduction factor (Pf/Pi = final number of M. hapla eggs and juveniles per initial number of M. hapla juveniles per pot) higher than carrot (Pf/Pi = 0.37), the major host crop in this agricultural area. Tomato cv. Rutgers was also included as a susceptible host and had the highest Pf/Pi value of 13.7. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. vulgata, Erysimum cheiranthoides, Eupatorium maculatum, Matricaria matricarioides, Polygonum scabrum, Thalictrum pubescens, Veronica agrestis, and Sium suave are new host records for M. hapla. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. wulgata, D. carota, M. matricarioides, Pasticana sativa, P. scabrum, S. suave, and Thlaspi arvense sustained moderate to high galling by M. hapla and supported high M. hapla production (12.4 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 2.9). Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Gnaphalium uliginosum, Stellaria media, and Veronica agrestis sustained moderate galling and supported moderate M. hapla reproduction (2.8 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 0.5). Chenopodium album, C. glaucum, E. cheiranthoides, P. convolvulus, Portulaca oleracea, and Rorippa islandica supported low reproduction (0.25 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 0.02) and sustained low galling. Galling was observed on Senecio vulgaris but no eggs or juveniles; thus, S. vulgaris may be useful as a trap plant. Eupatorium maculatum, and T. pubescens harbored no distinct galling but supported low to moderate M. hapla reproduction, respectively. Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Echinochloa crusgalli, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera parviflora, Panicum capillare, Setaria glauca, S. viridis, and Solidago canadensis were nonhosts. Our results demonstrate the importance of adequate weed control in an integrated program

  15. AVANCES EN LA EVALUACION DE LA ACTIVIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE DE DIEZ ESPECIES DE LA FAMILIA STERCULIACEAE

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    Victor Sotero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo, se presentan los resultados de evaluación de la actividad antioxidante de diez especies de la familia Sterculiaceae, y que comprende en algunos casos a la corteza, raíz y hojas. La determinación de la actividad antioxidante se realizó mediante secuestro de radicales libres del DPPH a 250000 μg/ml y 3000 μg/ml. Los resultados indican que las mejores actividades en cortezas fueron T. obovatum con y T. subincanum, alcanzando 37,34 y 22,9% de inhibición, en hojas: H. swietenoides con 17,5% de inhibición, en raíces T. subincanum y T. obovatum con 68,3% y 13,81% de inhibición. Se pude deducir que en términos generales los compuestos fenólicos participan activamente en la actividad antioxidante. En cuanto a la concentración de polifenoles en cortezas, las mejores concentraciones la presentan H. swietenoides (43,72%, T. obovatum (37,88 μg/g, T.subincanum (19,89 μg/g y T. speciosum (19,78 μg/g. En cuanto a la concentración de polifenoles en hojas se observa que H. swietenoides, S. frondosa, T.subincanum y T. speciosum, presentan concentraciones  entre 14,08 y 66-05 μg/g. La concentración de polifenoles en hojas para T.subincanum,  S. frondosa, S. apeibophylia y T.obovatum, varió entre 10,80 a 59,92 μg/g.

  16. AVANCES EN LA EVALUACION DE LA ACTIVIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE DE DIEZ ESPECIES DE LA FAMILIA STERCULIACEAE

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    Victor Sotero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo, se presentan los resultados de evaluación de la actividad antioxidante de diez especies de la familia Sterculiaceae, y que comprende en algunos casos a la corteza, raíz y hojas. La determinación de la actividad antioxidante se realizó mediante secuestro de radicales libres del DPPH a 250000 μg/ml  y 3000 μg/ml. Los resultados indican que las mejores actividades en cortezas fueron T. obovatum con y T. subincanum, alcanzando 37,34 y 22,9% de inhibición, en hojas: H. swietenoides con 17,5%  de inhibición, en raíces  T. subincanum y T. obovatum con 68,3% y 13,81% de inhibición. Se pude deducir que en términos generales los compuestos fenólicos participan activamente en la actividad antioxidante. En cuanto a la concentración de polifenoles en cortezas, las mejores concentraciones la presentan H. swietenoides (43,72%,  T. obovatum (37,88 μg/g, T.subincanum (19,89 μg/g y T. speciosum (19,78 μg/g. En cuanto a la concentración de polifenoles en hojas se observa que H. swietenoides, S. frondosa, T.subincanum y T. speciosum, presentan concentraciones  entre 14,08 y 66-05 μg/g. La concentración de polifenoles en hojas para  T.subincanum,  S. frondosa, S. apeibophylia y T.obovatum, varió entre 10,80 a 59,92 μg/g.

  17. Experimental analysis of bonding in steel bars glued into chestnut and tali timber

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    Otero Chans, D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the results of an extensive experiment designed to determine the effect of geometric and mechanical parameters on the axial strength of the bonds formed when threaded steel bars are glued into sawn hardwood timber. The studies conducted to date on glued wood joints have focused primarily on softwood glued laminated timber or glulam. In the present study, specimens made from two hardwood species with very different physical and mechanical properties were used to evaluate the effect of wood characteristics on the axial strength of such bonds. Several geometries were tested by loading a total of 190 specimens to failure. The ultimate load values found for the specimens were compared to the design values proposed in the final draft version of Eurocode 5 (prEN 1995-1-1(2001.

    En el presente artículo se resumen los resultados de una amplia campaña experimental encaminada a evaluar la influencia de los distintos parámetros geométricos y mecánicos en la capacidad resistente de uniones realizadas con barras roscadas de acero encoladas en madera aserrada de frondosa. Los estudios existentes en el campo de las uniones encoladas en madera se han centrado fundamentalmente en el análisis de uniones realizadas en madera laminada de especies coníferas. Con objeto de evaluar la influencia de las características de la madera en la capacidad resistente de la unión se ensayaron probetas realizadas con dos especies de madera frondosa de características físicas y mecánicas muy diferentes. Se utilizaron diversas configuraciones geométricas. Un total de 190 probetas han sido ensayadas hasta rotura. Los valores de carga de rotura alcanzados por las probetas se han comparado además con los valores de cálculo propuestos por el Eurocódigo 5, en su versión de borrador final prEN 1995-1-1(2001.

  18. KEBERADAAN FUNGI MIKORIZA ARBUSKULA DI KAWASAN TAILING TAMBANG EMAS TIMIKA SEBAGAI UPAYA REHABILITASI LAHAN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN (The Presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Tailings of Mining Gold Timika as An Attempt of Environmentally Friendly

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    Suharno Suharno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Fungi mikoriza arbuskula (FMA berperan penting dalam menunjang rehabilitasi lahan terdegradasi, termasuk lahan tailing. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keberadaan FMA lokal di lahan tailing tambang emas Timika – Papua, Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan adalah survei dengan mengisolasi FMA dari rhizosfer beberapa jenis tumbuhan dominan di kawasan daerah pengendapan pasir sisa tambang. Pengecatan akar untuk melihat infeksi oleh FMA dilakukan dengan trypane blue, sedangkan perhitungan persen infeksinya dilakukan dengan metode slide. Keberadaan spora FMA dilakukan dengan metode wet sieving. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat FMA di lahan tailing di kawasan pengendapan Modified Ajkwa Deposition Area (ModADA. Persentase infeksi tertinggi (>50% diketahui pada jenis tumbuhan Ficus adenosperma (86,7%, Brachiaria sp (73,3%, Amomum sp (66,7%, Bidens pilosa (63,3%, dan Musaenda frondosa (56,7%, sedangkan beberapa jenis lain mempunyai persen infeksi yang lebih rendah. Jumlah spora pada rhizosfer tumbuhan Brachiaria sp., F. adenosperma, dan Amomum sp., merupakan yang tertinggi dibanding dengan tumbuhan lain yakni 17, 13, dan 11 spora per 10 g tanah.  ABSTRACT Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF has an important role in supporting the rehabilitation of degraded land such as tailings. The purpose of this research was to reveal the existence of indigenous AMF in tailing area of gold mine in Timika – Papua, Indonesia. The method was a survey by isolating some types of AMF from rhizosphere of dominant plant in the deposit area of mine sand residue. To define the AMF infected roots was conducted painting roots using trypane blue, where as the calculation of percent infection was carried out using slide methods. The presence of spores of AMF was done by wet sieving method. The results showed that AMF was found in tailings deposition on the Modified Ajkwa Deposition Area (ModADA. The highest percentage infections (>50% was found under

  19. Effects of white rot fungi on the composition and in vitro digestibility of crop by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M.N.M.; Pearce, G.R.

    Eleven species of white rot fungi were inoculated on to samples of barley straw, pea straw, sugar cane bagasse and sunflower hulls and incubated at room temperature (14-25 degrees C) for 21 days. In barley straw, Peniophora gigantea caused the greatest depression in lignin content of the dry matter and the greatest increase in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) (10 units). Sporotrichum priunosum caused the greatest depression in cellulose content and the greatest depression in IVDMD (13 units). In pea straw, Ganoderma lucidum caused the greatest depression in lignin content and the greatest increase in IVDMD (8 units); Peniophora gigantea caused the greatest depression in cellulose content but Sporotrichum pruinosum caused the greatest depression in IVDMD (2 units). In bagasse, Peniophora gigantea caused the greatest depression in lignin content and the greatest increase in IVDMD (7 units). Grifola berkleyi caused the greatest depression in cellulose content and the greatest depression in IVDMD (12 units). In sunflower hulls, Stereum frustulatum caused the greatest depression in lignin content but Peniophora cremea caused the greatest increase in IVDMD (7 units). Peniophora gigantea caused the greatest depression in cellulose content and the greatest depression in IVDMD (3 units). It was concluded that fungi needed to be selected specifically for particular by-products and that some control over the conditions of incubation may need to be exercised in order to achieve more substantial increases in digestibility.

  20. Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Wild Edible Mushrooms from Native Nothofagus spp. Forest, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Carolina V; Barroetaveña, Carolina; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-09-08

    This study addresses issues regarding chemical and bioactive properties of nine wild edible mushrooms from native Nothofagus forest from Patagonia, Argentina. Macronutrients, sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were determined. Protein was found in high levels and varied between 3.35 g/100 g dw in Cyttaria hariotii and 22.29 g/100 g dw in Lepista nuda. All of them presented mannitol and trehalose as main sugars. Mannitol was significantly higher in Ramaria patagonica, although absent in Fistulina endoxantha, whereas trehalose predominated in Aleurodiscus vitellinus, Hydropus dusenii, Cortinarius magellanicus, C. hariotii, Grifola gargal and L. nuda, ranging from 1.15 to 10.26 g/100 g dw; it was absent in R. patagonica. The major fatty acid found was linoleic acid, followed by oleic acid and palmitic acid. All species presented oxalic and fumaric acids, while some also had malic, quinic and citric acids. Tocopherols composition was variable. Cortinarius magellanicus presented significantly higher contents of both α-tocopherol and β-tocopherol. R. patagonica presented the best results in all the antioxidant activity assays (EC50 values ≤ 1 mg/mL) and the highest content of phenolic compounds presenting gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acids. This study constitutes the first report on chemical composition and nutritional value of most of these edible mushroom species. Furthermore, it provides important information necessary to characterize and define the use of these species as gastronomic delicacies, functional foods and sources of bioactive compounds.

  1. El paisaje vegetal de la Sierra de Juan Robre y Jana (Oriente de Asturias

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    Ruiz Fernández, Jesús

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at studying the vegetal formations found in a middle altitude ridge on Eastern Asturias. The characteristics and current distribution of these formations result from a combination of factors such as the climate, the relief, the soil and the systematic human action. Particularly relevant are the beech forests, the evergreen holm oak and the willow groves. Mixed forests of atlantic deciduous leaves species are properly represented, as well as chestnuts and oak groves. However, the most extended vegetal formations are heathers, gorses, ferns and pastures, as a consequence of traditional agricultural practices.

    Se estudian las formaciones vegetales existentes en una sierra de altitud media del oriente asturiano. Las características y la distribución actual de dichas formaciones son el resultado de la combinación de factores como el clima, el relieve, los suelos y la secular intervención humana. Por su elevado interés destacan formaciones como los hayedos, los encinares y las saucedas arbustivas. Los bosques mixtos de frondosas planocaducifolias también están bien representados, al igual que los castañedos y los robledales. No obstante las formaciones que más superficie ocupan son los brezales, los helechales, los aulagares y los pastizales, fruto de las prácticas desarrolladas al amparo del sistema de explotación agrario tradicional.

  2. Tesoros moriscos y picaresca

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    Manuel Barrios Aguilera

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available No es exclusiva de tiempos de los moriscos la fiebre de búsqueda de tesoros ocultos, pues, a lo largo de los siglos de la historia, anidó en las mentes de las gentes de las clases populares, las menos favorecidas de la fortuna, la esperanza de algún fiallazgo, más o menos fabuloso, que viniera a cambiar el signo menesteroso de sus vidas. El fin de algún pueblo y su sustitución violenta por otro ha sido en todo tiempo jugoso caldo de cultivo para dar alas a estas imaginaciones, que algunas veces ha abonado algún ejemplo. No es casual, pues, que en la Península Ibérica, tan hollada por toda clase de pueblos y civilizaciones, el fenómeno revista una especial dimensión; y mucho menos, que sean los «moros», en todos sus sucesivos estatus, los que hayan disparado las más frondosas especulaciones, habida cuenta de su peripecia histórica, tan densamente dramática, tan dada a crear fantasías desbordadas, que cierta literatura romántica, y luego, y acaso siempre, la erudición localista han alimentado y aun prolongado hasta nuestros días.

  3. Invasion of alien plants in fire-damaged forests at southern boundary of the taiga zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khapugin, A.A.; Vargot, E.V.; Chugunov, G.G.; Shugaev, N.I.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Biological invasions are one of the most important areas of forest research. In this study, we revealed invasibility of fire-damaged forests at the southern boundary of the taiga zone. Area of study: The Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Central Russia). Material and Methods: Altogether, 11 square plots of each 100 ×100 m were established in different types of fire-damaged forests. To test plant invasion outside the established plots, field researches were carried out by route method in fire-damaged area of the Mordovia Reserve. Main Results: Six alien species (Erigeron canadensis, E. annuus, Oenothera biennis, Lactuca serriola, Sambucus racemosa, Viola arvensis) were registered within the established plots in 2011–2014. In addition, two alien invasive plants (Solidago canadensis and Bidens frondosa) were found outside these plots. No differences were detected in invasibility of the tested forest ecosystems. Research highlights: Among the revealed alien species, Erigeron canadensis, Lactuca serriola and Solidago canadensis are the most invasive plants in forest ecosystems. The first one was observed with a high occurrence frequency and abundance in all forest types tested. The second one has not been differed by abundance, but it characterized by a high competition as well as a large biomass and a large number of seeds. Solidago canadensis penetrated to natural forest ecosystem in a short time period due to closest location of its dispersal centers near the boundary of the Mordovia Reserve. These species are the most probable invaders of the forest ecosystems. (Author)

  4. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents

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    Naveena B. Janakiram

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts.

  5. Assessment of the Threats to the Biodiversity and Habitats in "Stara Reka" Reserve (Bulgaria and Its Adjacent Subalpine and Alpine Areas

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    Svetlana V. Yocheva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the threats in the “Stara Reka” reserve and its adjacent subalpine and alpine areas is important since it makes it possible the appropriate conservation measures to be taken in order to prevent or reduce the negative effects on the biodiversity and habitats. The assessment was based on systematic studies and visits in the “Stara Reka” Reserve, located within National Park “Central Balkan” (Bulgaria, during spring, summer and autumn seasons of 2010-2011. A number of threats were recorded, where those by anthropogenic origin were predominating. Tourists have negatively influenced the wild plants such as Allium ursinum, Inula helenium and Primula frondosa by picking them up. Damages were registered on the information system and signs. Waste disposal, fires, poaching and illegal fishing were also some of the recorded threats. Many natural succession changes quite dynamically vary the habitats in the reserve, but the most dangerous for the biodiversity and degradation of habitats remain fires, erosion and introduction of alien species.

  6. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  7. The occurrence of alien species in the settlement areas of the Kampinos National Park and its vicinity (Central Poland

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    Kirpluk Izabella

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies aimed at the identification of the range and method of spread of alien plant species in settlement areas in Kampinos National Park (KNP and its immediate vicinity were carried out in years 2012-2014. Special emphasis was put on surveying the sites of invasive alien species (IAS, and diagnosing potential threats posed to the natural and semi-natural vegetation of the national park by the IAS present in rural areas. We found 53 alien vascular plant species, including 40 invasive taxa which may potentially pose a threat to the ecosystems of KNP. Species encroaching from settlement areas to semi-natural and natural communities included: Bidens frondosa, Echinocystis lobata, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Juncus tenuis, Lupinus polyphyllus, Reunoutria japonica and Solidago gigantea. Most of them were species from the highest invasiveness (IV and III classes in Poland. Similarity analysis carried out for all investigated localities with regard to all alien species, and only for invasive ones showed a clear division into separate groups: villages within the boundaries of the national park and villages outside the park.

  8. Identification of five sea cucumber species through PCR-RFLP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yingchun; Zheng, Rong; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Yuming; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qingjuan

    2014-10-01

    Sea cucumbers are traditional marine food and Chinese medicine in Asia. The rapid expansion of sea cucumber market has resulted in various problems, such as commercial fraud and mislabeling. Conventionally, sea cucumber species could be distinguished by their morphological and anatomical characteristics; however, their identification becomes difficult when they are processed. The aim of this study was to develop a new convenient method of identifying and distinguishing sea cucumber species. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene ( COI) was used to identifing five sea cucumber species ( Apostichopus japonicus, Cucumaria frondosa, Thelenota ananas, Parastichopus californicus and Actinopyga lecanora). A 692 bp fragment of COI was searched for BamHI, KpnI, PstI, XbaI and Eco31I restriction sites with DNAMAN 6.0, which were then used to PCR-RFLP analysis. These five sea cucumber species can be discriminated from mixed sea cucumbers. The developed PCR-RFLP assay will facilitate the identification of sea cucumbers, making their source tracing and quality controlling feasible.

  9. Faunistic survey of Hydromedusae (Cnidaria, Medusozoa) from the coast of Paraná State, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Renato Mitsuo; Júnior, Miodeli Nogueira; Haddad, Maria Angélica

    2014-02-26

    This study is the first faunistic inventory of hydromedusae from the inner continental shelf of Paraná State. We describe the composition of hydromedusae species, collected with bottom-trawl and Hensen nets, in campaigns carried out from 1997 to 2006. We analyzed 17,797 specimens from 578 samples, and provide descriptions, photographs, and information about the biology of the 22 species found. All species had previous records from the Brazilian coast; however, this is the first record of Bougainvillia frondosa, Ectopleura dumortieri, Cirrholovenia tetranema, Eucheilota maculata, Gossea brachymera, Solmaris corona, and Amphogona apsteini for the coast of Paraná. Most species are typical of tropical and subtropical coastal waters from the South Brazilian Bight. However, Turritopsis nutricula, Niobia dendrotentaculata, Solmaris corona, and Aglaura hemistoma are abundant in oceanic waters, and Olindias sambaquiensis and Solmaris corona are associated with colder waters (<20°C). The current number of species known for the state is 26. Additional collection effort is needed in regions not sampled in this work, such as bays and offshore waters.

  10. Differences in fungi present in induced sputum samples from asthma patients and non-atopic controls: a community based case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Woerden Hugo Cornelis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is emerging evidence for the presence of an extensive microbiota in human lungs. It is not known whether variations in the prevalence of species of microbiota in the lungs may have aetiological significance in respiratory conditions such as asthma. The aim of the study was to undertake semi-quantitative analysis of the differences in fungal species in pooled sputum samples from asthma patients and controls. Methods Induced sputum samples were collected in a case control study of asthma patients and control subjects drawn from the community in Wandsworth, London. Samples from both groups were pooled and then tested for eukaryotes. DNA was amplified using standard PCR techniques, followed by pyrosequencing and comparison of reads to databases of known sequences to determine in a semi-quantitative way the percentage of DNA from known species in each of the two pooled samples. Results A total of 136 fungal species were identified in the induced sputum samples, with 90 species more common in asthma patients and 46 species more common in control subjects. Psathyrella candolleana, Malassezia pachydermatis, Termitomyces clypeatus and Grifola sordulenta showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of asthma patients and Eremothecium sinecaudum, Systenostrema alba, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Vanderwaltozyma polyspora showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of control subjects. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of fungi that were present in the respective samples was demonstrated using the Phylogenetic (P test (P  Conclusion This study is novel in providing evidence for the widespread nature of fungi in the sputum of healthy and asthmatic individuals. Differences in the pattern of fungi present in asthma patients and controls merit further investigation. Of particular interest was the presence of Malassezia pachydermatis, which is known to be associated with atopic dermatitis.

  11. Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Wild Edible Mushrooms from Native Nothofagus spp. Forest, Argentina

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    Carolina V. Toledo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses issues regarding chemical and bioactive properties of nine wild edible mushrooms from native Nothofagus forest from Patagonia, Argentina. Macronutrients, sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were determined. Protein was found in high levels and varied between 3.35 g/100 g dw in Cyttaria hariotii and 22.29 g/100 g dw in Lepista nuda. All of them presented mannitol and trehalose as main sugars. Mannitol was significantly higher in Ramaria patagonica, although absent in Fistulina endoxantha, whereas trehalose predominated in Aleurodiscus vitellinus, Hydropus dusenii, Cortinarius magellanicus, C. hariotii, Grifola gargal and L. nuda, ranging from 1.15 to 10.26 g/100 g dw; it was absent in R. patagonica. The major fatty acid found was linoleic acid, followed by oleic acid and palmitic acid. All species presented oxalic and fumaric acids, while some also had malic, quinic and citric acids. Tocopherols composition was variable. Cortinarius magellanicus presented significantly higher contents of both α-tocopherol and β-tocopherol. R. patagonica presented the best results in all the antioxidant activity assays (EC50 values ≤ 1 mg/mL and the highest content of phenolic compounds presenting gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acids. This study constitutes the first report on chemical composition and nutritional value of most of these edible mushroom species. Furthermore, it provides important information necessary to characterize and define the use of these species as gastronomic delicacies, functional foods and sources of bioactive compounds.

  12. Formulation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of combining DNA repair and immune enhancing nutritional supplements.

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    Pero, R W; Amiri, A; Sheng, Y; Welther, M; Rich, M

    2005-04-01

    Combining nutritional supplements to achieve synergistic benefit is a common practice in the nutraceutical industry. However, establishing added health benefit from a combination of natural ingredients is often assumed, untested and without regard to the principle of metabolic competition between the active components. Here, we report on the combination of a cat's claw water extract (C-Med-100, carboxy alkyl esters = active ingredients) + medicinal mushroom extracts (Cordyceps sinensis, Grifola blazei, Grifolafrondosa, Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum, polysaccharides = active ingredients) + nicotinamide + zinc into a formulation designed to optimize different modes of immunostimulatory action, and yet that would avoid metabolic antioxidant competition yielding less than expected efficacious effects. Isobole curve analyses of these two active classes of ingredients determined by growth inhibition of HL-60 human leukemic cells in vitro confirmed they were indeed synergistic when in combination, and not metabolically competitive. Furthermore, an in vivo study showed significant health benefit for 14 subjects treated for 4 weeks with the unique C-Med-100/mushroom extract formulation in that they had reduced pain, reduced fatigue, weight loss and a reduced presence of DNA damage in peripheral blood assessed by (8-OH) guanine DNA adducts and elevation in serum protein thiols. Because this broad-based panel of clinical parameters indicating clinical efficacy has never been demonstrated before for either of the active ingredients evaluated alone in humans, these data were taken as strong evidence that the combination of C-Med-100 + mushroom extracts + nicotinamide + zinc gave additive or synergistic effects to health benefit, and thus supported no efficacious limits from metabolic competition regarding this particular formulation.

  13. Pharmacokinetics in Mouse and Comparative Effects of Frondosides in Pancreatic Cancer

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    Jasem Al Shemaili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The frondosides are triterpenoid glycosides from the Atlantic sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa. Frondoside A inhibits growth, invasion, metastases and angiogenesis and induces apoptosis in diverse cancer types, including pancreatic cancer. We compared the growth inhibitory effects of three frondosides and their aglycone and related this to the pharmocokinetics and route of administration. Frondoside A potently inhibited growth of pancreatic cancer cells with an EC50 of ~1 µM. Frondoside B was less potent (EC50 ~2.5 µM. Frondoside C and the aglycone had no effect. At 100 µg/kg, frondoside A administered to CD2F1 mice as an i.v. bolus, the Cpmax was 129 nM, Cltb was 6.35 mL/min/m2, and half-life was 510 min. With i.p. administration the Cpmax was 18.3 nM, Cltb was 127 mL/min/m2 and half-life was 840 min. Oral dosing was ineffective. Frondoside A (100 µg/kg/day i.p. markedly inhibited growth cancer xenografts in nude mice. The same dose delivered by oral gavage had no effect. No evidence of acute toxicity was seen with frondoside A. Frondoside A is more potent inhibitor of cancer growth than other frondosides. The glycoside component is essential for bioactivity. Frondoside A is only effective when administered systemically. Based on the current and previous studies, frondoside A appears safe and may be valuable in the treatment of cancer.

  14. EL PAPEL DE LAS CHOPERAS DE REPOBLACIÓN EN LA DINÁMICA DEL PAISAJE DEL RÍO PISUERGA EN SUS TRAMOS MEDIO Y BAJO (S.XX-XXI

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    Alicia Vadillo González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las repoblaciones forestales con frondosas de crecimiento rápido han sido, y continúan siendo hoy, elemento y factor claves en la configuración del mosaico paisajístico de los valles interiores de la cuenca del Duero. En los tramos medio y bajo del río Pisuerga, la ubicación de las “choperas” en los sectores próximos a las márgenes fluviales - como principal alternativa productiva a la actividad agropecuaria - adquirió especial relevancia durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX, prolongándose también en los inicios del siglo XXI. El resultado es la consolidación de un continuo forestal con implicaciones socioeconómicas, ecológicas y paisajísticas distintas en el paisaje ribereño heredado de finales del siglo XIX. Con objeto de conocer el signo y la intensidad de estas dinámicas, sus efectos y los agentes implicados, se presenta un análisis de la evolución del elemento forestal y de su relación con el espacio fluvial y ribereño, desde una aproximación compleja, multidimensional y transdisciplinar. La búsqueda de información documental y bibliográfica, la elaboración de un SIG específico para el ámbito de estudio y la aplicación e interpretación de los datos obtenidos de los “Índices del paisaje”, son los principales recursos de la propuesta metodológica definida para esta investigación1.

  15. Seed dispersal into wetlands: Techniques and results for a restored tidal freshwater marsh

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    Neff, K.P.; Baldwin, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Although seed dispersal is assumed to be a major factor determining plant community development in restored wetlands, little research exists on density and species richness of seed available through dispersal in these systems. We measured composition and seed dispersal rates at a restored tidal freshwater marsh in Washington, DC, USA by collecting seed dispersing through water and wind. Seed dispersal by water was measured using two methods of seed collection: (1) stationary traps composed of coconut fiber mat along an elevation gradient bracketing the tidal range and (2) a floating surface trawl net attached to a boat. To estimate wind dispersal rates, we collected seed from stationary traps composed of coconut fiber mat positioned above marsh vegetation. We also collected a small number of samples of debris deposited along high tide lines (drift lines) and feces of Canada Goose to explore their seed content. We used the seedling emergence method to determine seed density in all samples, which involved placing the fiber mats or sample material on top of potting soil in a greenhouse misting room and enumerating emerging seedlings. Seedlings from a total of 125 plant species emerged during this study (including 82 in river trawls, 89 in stationary water traps, 21 in drift lines, 39 in wind traps, and 10 in goose feces). The most abundant taxa included Bidens frondosa, Boehmeria cylindrica, Cyperus spp., Eclipta prostrata, and Ludwigia palustris. Total seedling density was significantly greater for the stationary water traps (212 + 30.6 seeds/m2/month) than the equal-sized stationary wind traps (18 + 6.0 seeds/m(2)/month). Lower-bound estimates of total species richness based on the non-parametric Chao 2 asymptotic estimators were greater for seeds in water (106 + 1.4 for stationary water traps and 104 + 5.5 for trawl samples) than for wind (54 + 6.4). Our results indicate that water is the primary source of seeds dispersing to the site and that a species-rich pool

  16. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

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    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa, i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi

  17. Epibenthic assemblages of the Tail of the Grand Bank and Flemish Cap (northwest Atlantic) in relation to environmental parameters and trawling intensity

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    Murillo, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Alberto; Kenchington, Ellen; Mora, José

    2016-03-01

    The structure, composition and distribution of epibenthic invertebrate assemblages on the Tail of the Grand Bank of Newfoundland and Flemish Cap (northwest Atlantic) were sampled using depth-stratified trawls. Faunal analysis of 152 uniquely identified taxa produced hierarchical synoptic tables of species associations with diagnostic indicators based on species fidelity. Twelve spatially coherent epibenthic megafaunal assemblages were identified, each with relatively sharp faunal boundaries and unique species attributes. These assemblages were shown a posteriori through ANOSIM to have statistically different species compositions, and were nested within three major regional-scale faunal groups: (I) the continental shelf of the Tail of the Grand Bank, typified by the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa and the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma; (II) the upper slope of the Grand Bank and top of Flemish Cap, typified by the sponges Radiella hemisphaerica and Iophon piceum and the sea star Ceramaster granularis; and (III) the lower slope of the Grand Bank and Flemish Cap, typified by the sea urchin Phormosoma placenta, and the sea pens Anthoptilum grandiflorum and Funiculina quadrangularis. Comparisons with literature on benthic species associations from a half century ago suggest that the assemblages identified herein have persisted in the area at least for decades. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) identified a well-defined biological gradient along the first axis with very high species turn-over. Ten environmental variables (including Trawling Intensity) were significantly correlated with the ordinated data. At one extreme the continental shelf faunal group (I) was associated with shallow depth (mostly, less than 200 m), coarse sediments and cold and fresh water associated with the Labrador Current. At the other extreme the lower slope faunal group (III; stations below 500-600 m throughout the study area) was strongly associated with deep water, muddy sediments, and

  18. Comparación temporal de la composición y zonación de organismos en el intermareal rocoso del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Pacífico de Costa Rica

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    Jeffrey A Sibaja-Cordero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La zona entre mareas rocoso de las bahías Chatham y Wafer en la Isla del Coco, Costa Rica fueron muestreadas fotográficamente con cuadrículas de 25x25cm en enero y octubre de 2007. Bahía Chatham también se visitó en abril 2008. El intermareal de Chatham estaba constituido por roca basáltica y en Wafer por basalto y cantos rodados de ignimbrita. Las principales diferencias entre sitios fueron las algas con mayor cobetura (erectas-frondosas y el mayor número de bandas de organismos se dio en Chatham. No se encontró cambio temporal en la cobertura total de fauna sésil y de autótrofos. La mayor cobertura de invertebrados fue la del cirripedio Tetraclita stalactifera, siempre sobre la banda en la zona inferior de las algas. La diversidad de la fauna móvil no presentó tendencia significativa entre los meses de muestreo. Sin embargo, la identidad de las especies, cobertura o abundancia mostró un cambio temporal moderado. En octubre cuando el agua superficial del mar fue baja (23ºC, el infralitoral tuvo un incremento en la cobertura de las algas verdes. La dominancia en enero y abril fue de algas rojas (incrustantes y erectas-frondosas. Las lapas pulmonadas Siphonaria gigas y las cianobacterias del litoral medio mostraron una asociación negativa. Los caracoles de litoral alto y supralittoral presentaron un cambio temporal en su abundancia pero con diferentes patrones entre los sitios. Un incremento de variación en la composición de organismos se dio desde el supralitoral al infralitoral, posiblemente causado por el cambio en las condiciones del agua y el clima, que influyen en la zona entre mareas durante el alta y bajamar, respectivamente.Temporal comparison of the composition and zonation of rocky intertidal organisms at Cocos Island National Park, Pacific, Costa Rica. Several biological and physical factors change the rocky shore communities. The desiccation time and the tolerance of the intertidal species produce the vertical

  19. Morphometric of four species in agroforestry systems in the municipality of Porto Velho, Rondônia. = Morfometria de quatro espécies florestais em sistemas agroflorestais no munícipio de Porto Velho, Rondônia

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    Tiago Monteiro Condé

    2013-04-01

    produtiva (16,5 anos do Projeto RECA (Reflorestamento Econômico Consorciado e Adensado no município de Porto Velho, Rondônia. A implantação dos SAF´s ocorreu mediante a supressão da vegetação por meio do processo de derrubada e queima da floresta nativa. Foram coletados aleatoriamente dados morfométricos de indivíduos com DAP > 10 cm das quatro espécies florestais em 1 ha de cada propriedade rural , totalizando uma área amostral de 20 ha (20 propriedades. A amostragem foi composta por 25 indivíduos de Andiroba, 40 de Castanheira-do-Brasil, 23 de Copaíba e 46 de Mogno. A Andiroba foi bastante semelhante ao Mogno em relação à Porcentagem de Copa(PC, Índice de Abrangência (IA e Forma de Copa (FC e ambas demonstraram potencialidade para plantios adensados com fins madeireiros. A Castanheira-do-Brasil e a Copaíba obtiveram os maiores valores de FC (1,66; 1,79 e Área de Copa (92,60;57,51, respectivamente, indicando copas frondosas, características silviculturais interessantes para o extrativismo de sementes. Foi simulado o espaço vital para que às quatro espécies desenvolvessem sem competição entre copas. Concluiu-se que, ambas as espécies apresentaram potencial para plantio visando à extração de produtos madeireiros e não madeireiros em áreas florestais submetidas ao desmatamento e degradação na Amazônia.

  20. Editorial

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    José Yvan P. Leite

    2015-12-01

    comunidade que ainda publicaremos no mês de dezembro dois volumes, sendo uma do fluxo contínuo e outra  edição especial reservada aos artigos da área de tecnologia mineral provenientes do XXVI Encontro Nacional de Tratamento de Minérios e Metalurgia Extrativa. Nestas belas terras sustentáveis, entre as sombras de uma frondosa gameleira nas margens do rio Acre, convido-os a acessarem o sexto volume. À leitura! Rio Branco – Acre, 30 de novembro de 2015. Prof. José Yvan Pereira Leite