Sample records for grief perinatal grief

  1. Autonomy and social norms in a three factor grief model predicting perinatal grief in India. (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Lee, Jerry W


    Perinatal grief following stillbirth is a significant social and mental health burden. We examined associations among the following latent variables: autonomy, social norms, self-despair, strained coping, and acute grief-among poor, rural women in India who experienced stillbirth. A structural equation model was built and tested using quantitative data from 347 women of reproductive age in Chhattisgarh. Maternal acceptance of traditional social norms worsens self-despair and strained coping, and increases the autonomy granted to women. Greater autonomy increases acute grief. Greater despair and acute grief increase strained coping. Social and cultural factors were found to predict perinatal grief in India.

  2. Social and cultural factors associated with perinatal grief in Chhattisgarh, India. (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Montgomery, Susanne; Lee, Jerry W; Anderson, Barbara A


    Stillbirth is a globally significant public health problem with many medical causes. There are also indirect causal pathways including social and cultural factors which are particularly salient in India's traditional society. The purpose of this study was to explore women's perceptions of stillbirth and to determine how issues of gender and power, social support, coping efforts, and religious beliefs influence perinatal grief outcomes among poor women in rural Chhattisgarh, India. Structured interviews were done face-to-face in 21 randomly selected villages among women of reproductive age (N=355) who had experienced stillbirth (n=178) and compared to those who had not (n=177), in the Christian Hospital, Mungeli catchment area. Perinatal grief was significantly higher among women with a history of stillbirth. Greater perinatal grief was associated with lack of support, maternal agreement with social norms, and younger maternal age. These predictors must be understood in light of an additional finding-distorted sex ratios, which reflect gender discrimination in the context of Indian society. The findings of this study will allow the development of a culturally appropriate health education program which should be designed to increase social support and address social norms, thereby reducing psychological distress to prevent complicated perinatal grief. Perinatal grief is a significant social burden which impacts the health women.

  3. Cultural processes in psychotherapy for perinatal loss: Breaking the cultural taboo against perinatal grief. (United States)

    Markin, Rayna D; Zilcha-Mano, Sigal


    This paper argues that there is a cultural taboo against the public recognition and expression of perinatal grief that hinders parents' ability to mourn and their psychological adjustment following a loss. It is proposed that this cultural taboo is recreated within the therapy relationship, as feelings of grief over a perinatal loss are minimized or avoided by the therapist and parent or patient. Importantly, it is suggested that if these cultural dynamics are recognized within the therapy relationship, then psychotherapy has the immense opportunity to break the taboo by validating the parent's loss as real and helping the parent to mourn within an empathic and affect-regulating relationship. Specifically, it is suggested that therapists break the cultural taboo against perinatal grief and help parents to mourn through: acknowledging and not pathologizing perinatal grief reactions, considering intrapsychic and cultural factors that impact a parent's response to loss, exploring cultural reenactments within the therapy relationship, empathizing with the parent's experience of loss and of having to grieve within a society that does not recognize perinatal loss, coregulating the parent's feelings of grief and loss, and helping patients to create personally meaningful mourning rituals. Lastly, the impact of within and between cultural differences and therapist attitudes on the therapy process is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Perinatal grief following a termination of pregnancy for foetal abnormality: the impact of coping strategies. (United States)

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline


    Pregnancy termination for foetal abnormality (TFA) can have significant psychological repercussions, but little is known about the coping strategies involved in dealing with TFA. This study examined the relationships between women's coping strategies and perinatal grief. A total of 166 women completed a survey online. Coping and perinatal grief were measured using the Brief COPE and Short Perinatal Grief Scales. Data were analysed through multiple regression analyses. Despite using mostly adaptive coping strategies, women's levels of grief were high and varied according to obstetric and termination variables. Grief was predicted by behavioural disengagement, venting, planning, religion, self-blame, being recently bereaved, being childless at the time of TFA, not having had children/being pregnant since TFA and uncertainty about the decision to terminate the pregnancy. Acceptance and positive reframing negatively predicted grief. Identifying women vulnerable to poor psychological adjustment and promoting coping strategies associated with lower levels of grief may be beneficial. This could be addressed through information provision and interventions such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Perinatal grief in Latino parents. (United States)

    Whitaker, Claudia; Kavanaugh, Karen; Klima, Carrie


    Extensive research exists that describes the meaning of perinatal loss to some parents, but the experience of loss from the perspective of Latino parents is not clearly understood. Additionally, current perinatal bereavement practices used often to facilitate memory making for parents (such as viewing or holding the baby, taking photographs, or collecting mementos) are based on research done primarily with non-Latino families. Are these common practices appropriate for this population? Because there is a paucity of research on this topic, this article describes what has been written over the past 30 years on the topic of grief and perinatal loss in Latino culture.

  6. Posttraumatic growth following pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality: the predictive role of coping strategies and perinatal grief. (United States)

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline


    Research about termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) suggests that it is a traumatic event with potential negative psychological consequences. However, evidence also indicates that following traumatic events individuals may experience growth. Although TFA's negative psychological outcomes are well documented, little is known of the potential for growth following this event. Therefore, the study's objectives were to measure posttraumatic growth (PTG) post-TFA, examine the relationship between PTG, perinatal grief and coping, and determine the predictors of PTG. An online, retrospective survey was conducted with 161 women. Eligible participants were women over 18 who had undergone TFA. Participants were recruited from a support organisation. They completed the Brief COPE, Short Perinatal Grief Scale and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Data were analysed using regression analyses. Moderate levels of PTG were observed for "relating to others," "personal strengths" and "appreciation of life." "Positive reframing" was a significant predictor of PTG. Despite using mainly "adaptive" coping strategies, women's grief levels were high. "Adaptive" coping strategies such as, "positive reframing" are relevant to TFA. They may act as protective factors against distress and as foundations for growth, implicating that interventions such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, which aim to reframe women's experience, may be beneficial.

  7. Death and Grief (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Death and Grief KidsHealth / For Teens / Death and Grief What's in this article? What Is ... the reaction we have in response to a death or loss. Grief can affect our body, mind, ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Ferreira Paris


    Full Text Available Objetivo : realizar la adaptación transcultural y validación de pruebas de la Perinatal Grief Scale para el portugués Brasil y Canadá francés. Metodo : estudio metodológico, con aplicación de Escala de Duelo Perinatal desde el conjunto de procedimientos de adaptación transcultural. La populación fue compuesta por todas las mujeres que tuvieron óbito fetal en el año de 2013 vecinas en el municipio de Maringá-Brasil y participantes del Centre d’Études et de Recherche en Intervention Familiale en la Université du Québec en Outaouais - Canadá. Resultados : la escala en las versiones en portugués y francés demostró para ser confiable en las dos poblaciones. Coeficiente alfa de Cronbach de la escala aplicada en Brasil fue de 0,93 y aplicada en Canadá fue 0.94. Versión portuguesa, cuatro elementos no correlacionan con la escala total. Conclusión : la Perinatal Grief Scale puede utilizarse para identificar el estado de duelo en mujeres que tenían la muerte fetal, en su versión de cada país.

  9. Treatment of complicated grief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Rosner


    Full Text Available Following the death of a loved one, a small group of grievers develop an abnormal grieving style, termed complicated or prolonged grief. In the effort to establish complicated grief as a disorder in DSM and ICD, several attempts have been made over the past two decades to establish symptom criteria for this form of grieving. Complicated grief is different from depression and PTSD yet often comorbid with other psychological disorders. Meta-analyses of grief interventions show small to medium effect sizes, with only few studies yielding large effect sizes. In this article, an integrative cognitive behavioral treatment manual for complicated grief disorder (CG-CBT of 25 individual sessions is described. Three treatment phases, each entailing several treatment strategies, allow patients to stabilize, explore, and confront the most painful aspects of the loss, and finally to integrate and transform their grief. Core aspects are cognitive restructuring and confrontation. Special attention is given to practical exercises. This article includes the case report of a woman whose daughter committed suicide.

  10. Factors associated with the grief after stillbirth: a comparative study between Brazilian and Canadian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Ferreira Paris

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To verify the association between complicated grief and sociodemographic, reproductive, mental, marital satisfaction, and professional support characteristics in women after stillbirth. METHOD Cross-sectional study with 26 women who had stillbirth in 2013, living in the city of Maringá, Brazil, and eight women who attended the Centre d'Études et de Rechercheen Intervention Familiale at the University of Quebec en Outaouais, in Canada. The instrument was administered as an interview to a small number of mothers of infants up to three months (n=50, who did not participate in the validation study. RESULTS By applying the short version of the Perinatal Grief Scale, the prevalence of complicated grief in Brazilian women was found to be higher (35% in relation to Canadian women (12%.Characteristics of the Brazilian women associated with the grief period included the presence of previous pregnancy with live birth, absence of previous perinatal loss, postpartum depression, and lack of marital satisfaction. For the Canadians it was observed that 80% of the women presenting no grief made use of the professional support group. In both populations the occurrence of complicated grief presented a higher prevalence in women with duration of pregnancy higher than 28 weeks. CONCLUSION The women that must be further investigated during the grief period are those living in Brazil, making no use of a professional support group, presenting little to no marital satisfaction, having no religion, and of a low educational level.

  11. The presence of grief: Research-based art and arts-based research on grief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra; Køster, Allan; Brinkmann, Svend


    The authors involved in the creation of this text are collaborators on a research project called The Culture of Grief that explores the current conditions and implications of grief. The present text represents an attempt to reach a level of understanding of grief that is not easily obtained through...... conventional methods. The group of authors participated as members of the audience in an avant-garde theatrical performance about grief, created by a group called CoreAct, and we as researchers decided to study the development of the play and its performance, and to report our impressions in fragments...

  12. Building metaphors and extending models of grief. (United States)

    VandeCreek, L


    Persons in grief turn to metaphors as they seek to understand and express their experience. Metaphors illustrated in this article include "grief is a whirlwind," "grief is the Great Depression all over again" and "grief is gray, cloudy and rainy weather." Hospice personnel can enhance their bereavement efforts by identifying and cultivating the expression of personal metaphors from patients and families. Two metaphors have gained wide cultural acceptance and lie behind contemporary scientific explorations of grief. These are "grief is recovery from illness" (Bowlby and Parkes) and "death is the last stage of growth and grief is the adjustment reaction to this growth" (Kubler-Ross). These models have developed linear perspectives of grief but have neglected to study the fluctuating intensity of symptoms. Adopting Worden's four-part typology of grief, the author illustrates how the pie graph can be used to display this important aspect of the grief experience, thus enhancing these models.

  13. Grief and mourning gone awry: pathway and course of complicated grief. (United States)

    Shear, M Katherine


    Complicated grief is a recently recognized condition that occurs in about 7% of bereaved people. People with this condition are caught up in rumination about the circumstances of the death, worry about its consequences, or excessive avoidance of reminders of the loss. Unable to comprehend the finality and consequences of the loss, they resort to excessive avoidance of reminders of the loss as they are tossed helplessly on waves of intense emotion. People with complicated grief need help, and clinicians need to know how to recognize the symptoms and how to provide help. This paper provides a framework to help clinicans understand bereavement, grief, and mourning. Evidence-based diagnostic criteria are provided to help clinicians recognize complicated grief, and differentiate it from depression as well as anxiety disorder. We provide an overview of risk factors and basic assumptions and principles that can guide treatment.

  14. Bereaved parents’ online grief communities: de-tabooing practices or relationbuilding grief-ghettos?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Hård af Segerstad, Ylva

    their loss as well as their ability to establish and continue their role as parents. However, with new practices on children’s graves, the growing use of memory tattoos and especially the use of online media as platform for various communities for bereaved parents, this seem to be changing and strengthen...... both the interpersonal communication and social interactions about and with the deceased child. This study presents results from case studies of both open and closed online grief communities for bereaved parents in Denmark and Sweden (Refslund Christensen & Sandvik 2013, Hård af Segerstad & Kasperowski...... media, casting online communities for bereaved parents as grief-ghettos? Studying bereaved parents’ grief work in dynamic communities online enhances our understanding of contemporary and contributes to a nuancing of theoretical understanding of parental grief. References Christensen, D. R., & Sandvik...

  15. Potential Use of Ayahuasca in Grief Therapy. (United States)

    González, Débora; Carvalho, María; Cantillo, Jordi; Aixalá, Marc; Farré, Magí


    The death of a loved one is ultimately a universal experience. However, conventional interventions employed for people suffering with uncomplicated grief have gathered little empirical support. The present study aimed to explore the potential effects of ayahuasca on grief. We compared 30 people who had taken ayahuasca with 30 people who had attended peer-support groups, measuring level of grief and experiential avoidance. We also examined themes in participant responses to an open-ended question regarding their experiences with ayahuasca. The ayahuasca group presented a lower level of grief in the Present Feelings Scale of Texas Revised Inventory of Grief, showing benefits in some psychological and interpersonal dimensions. Qualitative responses described experiences of emotional release, biographical memories, and experiences of contact with the deceased. Additionally, some benefits were identified regarding the ayahuasca experiences. These results provide preliminary data about the potential of ayahuasca as a therapeutic tool in treatments for grief.

  16. Bereaved parents’ online grief communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Hård af Segerstad, Ylva; Kasperowski, Dick


    This article presents results from case studies of online grief communities for bereaved parents in Denmark and Sweden (Christensen & Sandvik 2013, 2015a; Hård af Segerstad & Kasperowski, 2015), analyzing how development of practices and norms for grieving and mourning online are related...... to the conditions for participation in the online forums, and to dominant ideas of grief in society as such. Rooted in contemporary research on grief and mourning, we discuss practices of tabooization, de-tabooization or even re-tabooization in the different online forums and how norms and traditions are performed...

  17. Financial Perils in Higher Education--Good Grief! (United States)

    Shaw, Kenneth A.; Britton, Thomas C.

    The premise that institutions pass through a grief process in adjusting to declining resources and radical changes, is proposed. In addition, strategies that administrators can use to respond to institutional grief are suggested. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's paradigm of five grief stages/reactions to serious loss are described: denial, anger,…

  18. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope (United States)

    Wood, Frances B.


    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  19. Neuropsychological correlates of complicated grief in older spousally bereaved adults. (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Arizmendi, Brian J


    Across many research domains, evidence for complicated grief as a distinct psychopathology continues to grow. Previous research from neuropsychology has shown an increased attentional bias to emotionally relevant stimuli in those suffering from complicated grief. This study furthers our understanding of the characteristics that distinguish complicated grief. We expand on previous research by (a) testing older adults, (b) excluding those with comorbid major depressive disorder, (c) using participant-chosen grief-related stimuli, and (d) using a married, nonbereaved control group. We recruited 76 older adults in 3 groups: spousally bereaved with complicated grief, spousally bereaved with noncomplicated grief, and nonbereaved controls. Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, Digit Span Backwards, and the emotional counting Stroop was examined. Results indicate longer reaction time across 3 blocks of grief-related words in the complicated grief group but no difference across 3 blocks of the neutral words. The 3 groups performed comparably on the other neurocognitive tasks, indicating no cognitive differences in working memory or set shifting between groups. Furthermore, these effects of complicated grief generalize to older adults and appear independent of major depression. Complicated grief has cognitive interference as a neuropsychological component highlighting it as distinct from noncomplicated grief.

  20. The Grief Account: Dimensions of a Contemporary Bereavement Genre (United States)

    Dennis, Michael Robert


    The genre of the grief account is identified to include published narratives of surviving grief. Thematic analysis of Andrew Holleran's (2006) "Grief: A Novel," Lolly Winston's (2004) "Good Grief: A Novel," Joan Didion's (2005) "The Year of Magical Thinking," and J. Canfield and M. V. Hansen's (2003) "Chicken Soup for the Grieving Soul: Stories…

  1. Concept clarification of grief in mothers of children with an addiction. (United States)

    Zucker, Donna M; Dion, Kimberly; McKeever, Roxanna P


    To report an analysis of the concept of grief in mothers of children with an addiction. The concept of grief in this context is poorly understood and often synonymously used with concepts depression, loss and chronic sorrow. In the US, the core concept grief has been recently revised by both NANDA and the DSM-V in efforts to better understand and characterize the concept. The plethora of literature on grief worldwide often characterizes grief as a response to a death. Concept analysis. Search terms 'parental grief' and 'substance abuse' yielded 30 articles. A second review using terms 'grief' and 'substance abuse' yielded 323 articles, in PsychInfo, CINAHL, PubMed databases from 1980-2013. Limits for articles in English and for the terms 'death' and 'child' yielded 13 usable articles. The hybrid model of concept analysis, using a theoretical phase, an empirical phase and a final phase when a clarified definition of grief emerged. Definitions in the literature and defining characteristics of grief outline bio-psycho-social aspects of the concept. For one mother grief was accompanied by recurring feelings of sadness across time, while for the other mother grief was seen as coping, after having passed through a variety of stages of grief. For both, grief was seen to fall on a continuum. Grief is a universal concept and has a trajectory. Case study data have been essential in clarifying understandings of grief as experienced by mothers of addicted children and will provide direction for meaningful and tailored interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Planting hope in loss and grief: self-care applications of horticultural therapy for grief caregivers in Taiwan. (United States)

    Lin, Yeh-Jen; Lin, Chi Yun; Li, Yu-Chan


    In 2008, the Taiwan Association for Care and Counseling for Loss organized a workshop about Horticultural Therapy, conducted as a participatory action research (PAR). Nineteen grief caregivers participated. Specific goals were designed according to a survey of participant expectations and focus-group discussions. The workshop content included lectures and interactive activities. Results demonstrated that most participants displayed an increased awareness of personal loss and meaning in grief, indicating that horticulture and nature appreciation might relieve individual grief and stress. The report introduces the rationale, evolution, execution, and results of the program development.

  3. Abnormal Grief: Should We Consider a More Patient-Centered Approach? (United States)

    Moayedoddin, Babak; Markowitz, John C


    Grief, the psychological reaction to the loss of a significant other, varies complexly in its cause, experience, evolution, and prognosis. Although most bereaved individuals experience a normal grieving process, some develop complicated grief (CG) or major depressive disorder (MDD). The DSM-5, which controversially altered the nosology, recognizes grief-related major depression (GRMD) as a diagnostic subtype if a patient meets MDD criteria two weeks post bereavement. The (DSM-5) tries to distinguish between grief and MDD, but remains a symptom-based, centered approach to grief that is not patient centered. This article reviews grief in its normal and abnormal dimensions. Using an illustrative clinical case in which interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) was employed, we discuss the need for a more patient-centered approach to treating abnormal grief, considering the patient's personal history, perceptions, experiences of bereavement, and interpersonal environment. Clinical studies need to better identify subgroups of individuals susceptible to abnormal grief and to evaluate their response to early interventions.

  4. The Grief Resolution Process in Divorce. (United States)

    Crosby, John F.; And Others


    Compares grief in divorce to the Kubler-Ross model of grief resolution in bereavement in 17 persons who wrote essays about their divorce. The results suggested a conceptual model based on three chronological stages with linear progression through the stages, characterized by circularity within each stage. (JAC)

  5. Attitudes of palliative care clinical staff toward prolonged grief disorder diagnosis and grief interventions. (United States)

    Davis, Esther L; Deane, Frank P; Barclay, Gregory D; Bourne, Joan; Connolly, Vivienne


    The provision of psychological support to caregivers is an important part of the role of the clinical staff working in palliative care. Staff knowledge and attitudes may determine their openness to referring caregivers to a psychological intervention. We recently developed a self-help intervention for grief and psychological distress among caregivers and were interested in exploring the extent to which staff knowledge and attitudes might affect future implementation. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine the acceptability of self-help psychological intervention for caregivers among palliative care clinical staff; (2) examine potential attitudinal barriers toward prolonged grief disorder (PGD) as a diagnosis and interventions for grief; and (3) bolster staff confidence in skills and knowledge in identifying and managing caregiver psychological distress. An anonymous survey was distributed among clinical staff at two inpatient units and two community health services that assessed the acceptability of self-help interventions for caregivers, attitudes about PGD diagnosis and grief intervention, and staff confidence in skills and knowledge in assessing caregiver psychological distress. Overall, clinical staff were positively oriented toward self-help for caregivers and intervention for grief. They were also basically confident in their skills and knowledge. While it was positive PGD attitudes that were associated with acceptability of self-help for caregivers, it was both positive and negative PGD attitudes that were associated more specifically with a willingness to refer caregivers to such an intervention. Our findings are useful in highlighting the issues to be considered in the implementation of a self-help intervention within the healthcare service. Clinical staff seemed positively oriented toward engaging with a psychological intervention for caregivers and likely to act as key allies in implementation.

  6. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised: Are we measuring complicated grief or posttraumatic stress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja; Lasgaard, Mathias Kamp; Shevlin, Mark


      The Inventory of Complicated Grief Revised (ICG-R) assesses symptoms of complicated grief in bereaved individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the factorial structure of Complicated Grief (CG) and investigate the relationship between CG and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder through the asse......  The Inventory of Complicated Grief Revised (ICG-R) assesses symptoms of complicated grief in bereaved individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the factorial structure of Complicated Grief (CG) and investigate the relationship between CG and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder through...... and the three factors of PTSD, as defined by the DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994), were allowed to correlate provided the best fit. The results therefore indicate high levels of conceptual overlap among the dimensions of CG and PTSD....

  7. Culinary Grief Therapy: Cooking for One Series. (United States)

    Nickrand, Heather L; Brock, Cara M


    Although loss of loved ones is a universal experience, individuals who experience this loss grieve in different ways. Complicated grief involves the development of trauma symptoms, such as flashbacks, anxiety, and fear associated with daily activities after a death that disrupts the healthy grieving process. Daily activities such as eating, meal planning, grocery shopping, managing finances, and household maintenance can become painful and isolating for those experiencing complicated grief. Cognitive behavioral therapy is used to address irrational beliefs, feelings of depression or anger, and avoidance or numbing behaviors with a goal of leading the individual to adapting to a life, which no longer includes the lost loved one. As part of the bereavement counseling program in a hospice, a need was identified in individuals who had lost loved ones and were having difficulty with adjusting to meal planning, grocery shopping, and cooking for one. To address this need for grief counseling centered on meal planning, grocery shopping, meal preparations, and eating meals alone, "Culinary Grief Therapy: Cooking for One Series" was developed with a local Culinary Arts Program. Partnering with a local community college culinary arts program, the Cooking for One Series provides an interactive venue for cognitive behavioral therapy centered on meal planning and meal times. Along with demonstrations and hands-on experiences, participants are engaged in bereavement counseling with hospice staff. Initial reactions to Culinary Grief Therapy have been positive. Many attendees have participated in multiple workshops, and the number of participants grows for each offering. Culinary Grief Therapy is a novel approach to the needs of those experiencing the loss of a loved one and may reduce or prevent complicated grief associated with meal planning, grocery shopping, and cooking for one.

  8. Integrating Buddhist Psychology into Grief Counseling (United States)

    Wada, Kaori; Park, Jeeseon


    The field of grief counseling has yet to see an integration of Buddhist psychology. Drawing on Buddhist psychology literature and Western models of grief, this article explores possible integrations of two approaches. To lay the foundation for this discussion, the authors introduced a brief overview of the history of Buddhism as well as a Buddhist…

  9. Tweeting Prayers and Communicating Grief over Michael Jackson Online (United States)

    Sanderson, Jimmy; Cheong, Pauline Hope


    Death and bereavement are human experiences that new media helps facilitate alongside creating new social grief practices that occur online. This study investigated how people's postings and tweets facilitated the communication of grief after pop music icon Michael Jackson died. Drawing on past grief research, religion, and new media studies, a…

  10. The impact of bereaved parents' perceived grief similarity on relationship satisfaction. (United States)

    Buyukcan-Tetik, Asuman; Finkenauer, Catrin; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang


    The present research focused on bereaved parents' perceived grief similarity, and aimed to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal effects of the perceptions that the partner has less, equal, or more grief intensity than oneself on relationship satisfaction. Participants of our longitudinal study were 229 heterosexual bereaved Dutch couples who completed questionnaires 6, 13, and 20 months after the loss of their child. Average age of participants was 40.7 (SD = 9.5). Across 3 study waves, participants' perceived grief similarity and relationship satisfaction were assessed. To control for their effects, own grief level, child's gender, expectedness of loss, parent's age, parent's gender, and time were also included in the analyses. Consistent with the hypotheses, cross-sectional results revealed that bereaved parents who perceived dissimilar levels of grief (less or more grief) had lower relationship satisfaction than bereaved parents who perceived similar levels of grief. This effect remained significant controlling for the effects of possible confounding variables and actual similarity in grief between partners. We also found that perceived grief similarity at the first study wave was related to the highest level of relationship satisfaction at the second study wave. Moreover, results showed that perceived grief similarity was associated with a higher level in partner's relationship satisfaction. Results are discussed considering the comparison and similarity in grief across bereaved partners after child loss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The use of pathological grief outcomes in bereavement studies on African Americans. (United States)

    Granek, Leeat; Peleg-Sagy, Tal


    Pathological bereavement outcomes (i.e., complicated grief, traumatic grief, prolonged grief disorder) are a robust and growing research area in the psychological and medical sciences. Although grief is considered to be a universal phenomenon, it is well documented that grieving processes and outcomes are culturally and contextually bound. The objectives of this study were: (a) to examine representations of African Americans in the grief and mourning literature and to assess the extent to which this research utilizes pathological grief outcomes; and (b) to examine the characteristics of pathological grief constructs in the literature to assess their relevance for African American populations. We conducted comprehensive searches of three scientific databases including PsycNET, Medline, and CINAHL, which contain the majority of grief and mourning literature published between January 1998 and February 2014. We found 59 studies addressing grief and mourning in African Americans. Thirteen of these studies used pathological grief outcomes. Pathological grief outcomes that were constructed and validated on White populations were frequently used as outcome variables with African American participants. We discuss the implications for the grief and mourning field and argue that the failure to use culturally sensitive outcome measures in research studies is a form of epistemological violence that may have negative research and clinical implications for African Americans and other ethnic minorities.

  12. Effectiveness of Psychotherapy-Based Interventions for Complicated Grief: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Enez


    Full Text Available Grief is a normal, dynamic and multidimensional process, which relates to the individuality and uniqueness of reactions to loss. However, complicated grief is a syndrome where normal grief is unusually prolonged because of complications in the natural healing process. Approximately one third of grieving individuals develop complicated grief symptoms. The individuals suffering from complicated grief tend to report clinical complaints that refer to anxiety, depression, psychical symptoms and life-threatening behaviours. The aims of this study were: to identify which psychother-apy-based interventions were designed for the treatment of complicated grief; and to make an infer-ence about the effect of these interventions. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(4.000: 441-463

  13. Grief Processing and Deliberate Grief Avoidance: A Prospective Comparison of Bereaved Spouses and Parents in the United States and the People's Republic of China (United States)

    Bonanno, George A.; Papa, Anthony; Lalande, Kathleen; Zhang, Nanping; Noll, Jennie G.


    In this study, the authors measured grief processing and deliberate grief avoidance and examined their relationship to adjustment at 4 and 18 months of bereavement for 2 types of losses (spouse, child) in 2 cultures (People's Republic of China, United States). Three hypotheses were compared: the traditional grief work assumption, a conditional…

  14. The Child in Grief: Implications for Teaching. (United States)

    Hare, Jan; And Others

    The purpose of this paper is to increase teachers' understanding of children's conceptualizations of death to enable them to respond to the symptoms of grief in both early and middle childhood. John Bowlby's theoretical framework of childhood mourning is elaborated, and research on teachers' facilitation of children's grief is briefly noted. The…

  15. Designing personal grief rituals: An analysis of symbolic objects and actions. (United States)

    Sas, Corina; Coman, Alina


    Personal grief rituals are beneficial in dealing with complicated grief, but challenging to design, as they require symbolic objects and actions meeting clients' emotional needs. The authors reported interviews with 10 therapists with expertise in both grief therapy and grief rituals. Findings indicate three types of rituals supporting honoring, letting go, and self transformation, with the latter being particularly complex. Outcomes also point to a taxonomy of ritual objects for framing and remembering ritual experience, and for capturing and processing grief. Besides symbolic possessions, the authors identified other types of ritual objects including transformational and future-oriented ones. Symbolic actions include creative craft of ritual objects, respectful handling, disposal, and symbolic play. They conclude with theoretical implications of these findings, and a reflection on their value for tailored, creative co-design of grief rituals. In particular, several implications for designing grief rituals were identified that include accounting for the client's need, selecting (or creating) the most appropriate objects and actions from the identified types, integrating principles of both grief and art/drama therapy, exploring clients' affinity for the ancient elements as medium of disposal in letting go rituals, and the value of technology for recording and reflecting on ritual experience.

  16. Do Grief Self-Help Books Convey Contemporary Perspectives on Grieving? (United States)

    Dennis, Michael Robert


    Grief therapy and psychology literatures of the modern Western world conceptualized bereavement and grief as processes to be "worked through" so that other relationships could be pursued. In the last decade or so, however, grief theorists have endorsed the value of attaining new meaning(s) and continuing bonds with our lost loved ones instead of…

  17. Effectiveness of a grief intervention for caregivers of people with dementia


    MacCourt, Penny; McLennan, Marianne; Somers, Sandie; Krawczyk, Marian


    In this article, we report on the structure and effectiveness of a grief management coaching intervention with caregivers of individuals with dementia. The intervention was informed by Marwit and Meuser’s Caregiver Grief Model and considered levels of grief, sense of empowerment, coping, and resilience using five methods of delivery. Results indicate that the intervention had significant positive effects on caregivers’ levels of grief and increased their levels of empowerment, coping, and res...

  18. Do grief self-help books convey contemporary perspectives on grieving? (United States)

    Dennis, Michael Robert


    Grief therapy and psychology literatures of the modern Western world conceptualized bereavement and grief as processes to be "worked through" so that other relationships could be pursued. In the last decade or so, however, grief theorists have endorsed the value of attaining new meaning(s) and continuing bonds with our lost loved ones instead of "moving on from," "letting go of" or "achieving closure from" them. This article tracks the evolution of thought pertaining to this shift and examines its relevance to grief self-help books that may offer Americans guidance in the ways of grieving.

  19. Memorial video tribute and the enfranchised grief of a gay widower


    Pentaris, Panagiotis


    Doka (2008) introduced the term ‘disenfranchised grief ’ to refer to the form of grief that lacks social recognition. This paper argues that disenfranchised grief can find recognition and support via online communities, and it introduces this as enfranchised grief. Media and communication technologies have been widely used to communicate death and dying, while a vast number of the population, globally, has access to the information. Numerous deaths of celebrities have been covered by the news...

  20. Effectiveness of a Grief Intervention for Caregivers of People With Dementia. (United States)

    MacCourt, Penny; McLennan, Marianne; Somers, Sandie; Krawczyk, Marian


    In this article, we report on the structure and effectiveness of a grief management coaching intervention with caregivers of individuals with dementia. The intervention was informed by Marwit and Meuser's Caregiver Grief Model and considered levels of grief, sense of empowerment, coping, and resilience using five methods of delivery. Results indicate that the intervention had significant positive effects on caregivers' levels of grief and increased their levels of empowerment, coping, and resilience. The intervention was found to be effective across caregivers' characteristics as well as across five delivery modalities. Through description of this intervention, as well as outcome, this research contributes to the body of knowledge about caregivers' disenfranchised grief and ways to effectively address it.

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Grief Cognitions Questionnaire for Children (GCQ-C)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Spuij (Mariken); P.J. Prinzie (Peter); P.A. Boelen (Paul A.)


    textabstractNegative thinking is seen as an important mediating factor in the development of prolonged grief disorder (PGD), a syndrome encompassing debilitating symptoms of grief. No measure of specific grief related cognitions is available yet. Based on an adult measure of negative thinking in

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Grief Cognitions Questionnaire for Children (GCQ-C)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spuij, Mariken; Prinzie, Peter; Boelen, Paul A.


    Negative thinking is seen as an important mediating factor in the development of prolonged grief disorder (PGD), a syndrome encompassing debilitating symptoms of grief. No measure of specific grief related cognitions is available yet. Based on an adult measure of negative thinking in adults we

  3. The grief process for patient, family, and physician. (United States)

    Bruce, Christine A


    In the grieving process, patient, family, and health professionals have the same needs-rest, relaxation, nourishment, a sense of security, trust, hope in the future, and humor among them. Grief, defined as a shared, universal, and natural neuropsychobiologic expression in response to loss, is distinct from mourning, a practice that varies in expression across diverse cultures. To aid in an understanding of grief and its effects, the author looks at the models for grief proposed by Kubler-Ross, Bowlby, Parkes, Worden, and Wolfelt. Addressing patients' concerns requires physicians be empathic, attentive, and respective and have willingness to take time, be present, and listen.

  4. Craving love? Enduring grief activates brain's reward center. (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Wellisch, David K; Stanton, Annette L; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D


    Complicated Grief (CG) occurs when an individual experiences prolonged, unabated grief. The neural mechanisms distinguishing CG from Noncomplicated Grief (NCG) are unclear, but hypothesized mechanisms include both pain-related activity (related to the social pain of loss) and reward-related activity (related to attachment behavior). Bereaved women (11 CG, 12 NCG) participated in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, during grief elicitation with idiographic stimuli. Analyses revealed that whereas both CG and NCG participants showed pain-related neural activity in response to reminders of the deceased, only those with CG showed reward-related activity in the nucleus accumbens (NA). This NA cluster was positively correlated with self-reported yearning, but not with time since death, participant age, or positive/negative affect. This study supports the hypothesis that attachment activates reward pathways. For those with CG, reminders of the deceased still activate neural reward activity, which may interfere with adapting to the loss in the present.

  5. Ecological grief as a mental health response to climate change-related loss (United States)

    Cunsolo, Ashlee; Ellis, Neville R.


    Climate change is increasingly understood to impact mental health through multiple pathways of risk, including intense feelings of grief as people suffer climate-related losses to valued species, ecosystems and landscapes. Despite growing research interest, ecologically driven grief, or `ecological grief', remains an underdeveloped area of inquiry. We argue that grief is a natural and legitimate response to ecological loss, and one that may become more common as climate impacts worsen. Drawing upon our own research in Northern Canada and the Australian Wheatbelt, combined with a synthesis of the literature, we offer future research directions for the study of ecological grief.

  6. Alexithymia and Grief Reactions in Bereaved Japanese Women (United States)

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Kashiwagi, Masayo; Yano, Eiji


    To examine the relationship between grief reactions and alexithymia, 54 Japanese women (33 outpatients attending a psychosomatic clinic and 21 normal healthy participants) completed the Texas Inventory of Grief (TIG), the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Each woman had experienced the death of a…

  7. Public stigma of prolonged grief disorder : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, Maarten C.

    Prolonged grief disorder (PGD), characterized by severe, persistent and disabling grief, is being considered for inclusion in the International Classification of Diseases’ 11 (ICD-11) and a related disorder, Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD), is included for further investigation in the

  8. Parental Grief Following the Death of a Child from Cancer: The Ongoing Odyssey. (United States)

    Snaman, Jennifer M; Kaye, Erica C; Torres, Carlos; Gibson, Deborah; Baker, Justin N


    The death of a child is a devastating event that results in profound grief and significant psychosocial and physical morbidities in parents. The parental grief journey is a complex phenomenon necessitating the utilization of newer models of bereavement with a focus on relationships and exploration of parents' perceived meanings of the experience. To further characterize the grief journey of parents whose child died from cancer in order to better identify parents who can benefit from additional bereavement support and design strategies to improve bereavement services for these parents. We conducted focus group sessions with 11 bereaved parents. The parents were given two prompts to describe their grief journey before and after their child's death, and their responses in a narrative form were audio-recorded. The responses were coded and studied independently by semantic content analysis. Collation and analysis of the coded responses to both prompts results in the emergence of four concepts from the parental narratives: (1) description of the grief trajectory and evolution of grief over time, (2) mechanisms of parental coping throughout the grief journey, (3) factors that exacerbate parental grief, and (4) sources of parental support throughout the grief journey. The narratives highlighted that parents whose child died of cancer experience a unique and evolving form of grief and they wish to continue their bond with the deceased child. We recommend that healthcare providers and institutions incorporate support systems into a comprehensive bereavement program for families of children who die from cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Understanding Grief and Loss (United States)

    ... the process of adapting to life after a loss. It is influenced by each person’s society, culture, and religion. Bereavement is the state of having experienced a loss. Common grief reactions Reactions to loss are called ...

  10. Factors Underlying the Relationship Between Parent and Child Grief. (United States)

    Cipriano, David J; Cipriano, Madeline R


    The death of a parent in a child's life is a significant risk factor for later mental and physical health problems. While much has been written about the surviving parent's functioning and its effects on their bereaved children, little work has been done to look into factors underlying this effect such as how the parent copes. The present study recruited 38 parent-child dyads from a community-based grief support center. Parent and child, independently, completed various measures of emotional functioning, including grief symptoms and coping such as social support and locus of control. The results indicated that parental coping did have an impact on children's grief symptoms. This represents a unique view of adaptation in bereaved children: Parental coping strategies can have an impact on the child, independent of the child's coping strategies. By focusing on parent coping, we have highlighted another possible pathway through which parental functioning affects children's grief.

  11. Cultural perspectives of death, grief, and bereavement. (United States)

    Clements, Paul T; Vigil, Gloria J; Manno, Martin S; Henry, Gloria C; Wilks, Jonathan; Das Sarthak; Kellywood, Rosie; Foster, Wil


    The cultural makeup of the United States continues to change rapidly, and as minority groups continue to grow, these groups' beliefs and customs must be taken into account when examining death, grief, and bereavement. This article discusses the beliefs, customs, and rituals of Latino, African American, Navajo, Jewish, and Hindu groups to raise awareness of the differences health care professionals may encounter among their grieving clients. Discussion of this small sample of minority groups in the United States is not intended to cover all of the degrees of acculturation within each group. Cultural groups are not homogeneous, and individual variation must always be considered in situations of death, grief, and bereavement. However, because the customs, rituals, and beliefs of the groups to which they belong affect individuals' experiences of death, grief, and bereavement, health care professionals need to be open to learning about them to better understand and help.

  12. Complicated grief in a two-and-a-half-year-old child. (United States)

    Mendhekar, D N; Lohia, D


    The concept of "absence of grief" in children has been embedded in psychoanalytic literature since its beginning. The clinical phenomenon of grief in a toddler is rarely described or analysed in the psychiatric literature. Early theorists felt that grieving does not occur until adolescence due to a younger child's psychological structure, including poor object-relations development. However, data on grief reaction in preschool children has mostly been under-reported or neglected, especially since most of the studies on childhood grief have been conducted on school-age children. We present a two-and-a-half-year-old girl, whose emotional and behavioural reactions to the loss of her grandfather became a focus of clinical attention. This report shows that even toddlers can mourn for their loved ones, although the expression and process of grief differ from that of older children and may occasionally draw clinical attention. Suggestions on how to investigate this phenomenon more closely and how to avoid it in socio-cultural contexts are proposed.

  13. Maintaining connections in children's grief narratives in popular film. (United States)

    Sedney, Mary Anne


    Children's grief narratives in popular films were examined for their portrayal of connection-maintaining strategies with the deceased. Comparisons were made between strategies found in actual parentally bereaved children and in child characters in films. Implications of these filmed grief narratives for models of grieving and for practice are discussed.

  14. Rhetorical Dimensions of the Post-September Eleventh Grief Process (United States)

    Schwartzman, Roy; Tibbles, David


    This essay examines Presidential rhetoric and popular culture practices in light of the stages of grief enumerated by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross. The authors find a consistent retrenchment of grief into the anger phase, where the pain of losing national invulnerability is transferred to externalized aggression. Reconciliation is suggested by means of…

  15. Maternal resolution of grief after preterm birth: implications for infant attachment security. (United States)

    Shah, Prachi E; Clements, Melissa; Poehlmann, Julie


    This study explored the association between mothers' unresolved grief regarding their infant's preterm birth and infant-mother attachment security. We hypothesized that mothers with unresolved grief would be more likely to have insecurely attached infants at 16 months and that this association would be partially mediated by maternal interaction quality. This longitudinal study focused on 74 preterm infants (age of infants. The present analysis included assessment of neonatal and socioeconomic risks at NICU discharge; maternal depression, Reaction to Preterm Birth Interview findings, and quality of parenting at a postterm age of 9 months; and infant-mother attachment at postterm age of 16 months. Associations among findings of grief resolution with the Reaction to Preterm Birth Interview, quality of parenting interactions, and attachment security were explored by using relative risk ratios and logistic and multivariate regression models. The relative risk of developing insecure attachment when mothers had unresolved grief was 1.59 (95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.44). Controlling for covariates (adjusted odds ratio: 2.94), maternal feelings of resolved grief regarding the preterm birth experience were associated with secure infant-mother attachment at 16 months. Maternal grief resolution and interaction quality were independent predictors of attachment security. Maternal grief resolution regarding the experience of preterm birth and the quality of maternal interactions have important implications for emerging attachment security for infants born prematurely.

  16. Coping with Death and Grief: A Strategy for Army Leadership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Albert


    .... The military as a whole is not psychologically prepared to deal with death and grief. Military leaders and soldiers have learned from society that it is not okay to openly express their grief, which has a profound impact on morale in the Army...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 29, 2010 ... of complicated grief as a contributing factor to impaired social functioning. This can ... includes a diagnosis of bereavement-related major depression if symptoms ..... networking, Social Sciences Citation Index, Social Sciences.

  18. End of Life: Suicide Grief (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle End of life A loved one's suicide can be emotionally devastating. Use healthy coping strategies — ... Clinic Staff When a loved one dies by suicide, overwhelming emotions can leave you reeling. Your grief ...

  19. Grief Counselling In African Indigenous Churches: A Case Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    collective participation, social isolation of the bereaved and then culminates in reincorporation of the bereaved into the community. The aim of this article is to explicate the meaning and value of grief counselling in AICs with special reference to the Zion Apostolic Church in Venda. Keywords: Grief counselling, african ...

  20. The impact of bereaved parents' perceived grief similarity on relationship satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buyukcan-Tetik, Asuman; Finkenauer, Catrin; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang


    The present research focused on bereaved parents' perceived grief similarity, and aimed to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal effects of the perceptions that the partner has less, equal, or more grief intensity than oneself on relationship satisfaction. Participants of our longitudinal

  1. The Impact of Bereaved Parents' Perceived Grief Similarity on Relationship Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buyukcan-Tetik, Asuman; Finkenauer, Catrin; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    The present research focused on bereaved parents' perceived grief similarity, and aimed to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal effects of the perceptions that the partner has less, equal, or more grief intensity than oneself on relationship satisfaction. Participants of our longitudinal

  2. Exploring oncology nurses' grief: A self-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C Barbour


    Full Text Available Oncology nursing, like many other nursing fields, often provides nurses with the opportunity to get to know their patients and their families well. This familiarity allows oncology nurses to show a level of compassion and empathy that is often helpful to the patient and their family during their struggle with cancer. However, this familiarity can also lead to a profound sense of grief if the patient loses that struggle. This self-study provided me the opportunity to systematically explore my own experience with grief as an oncology nurse, helping me to identify specific stressors and also sources of stress release.

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Grief Therapy: The ABC Model of Rational-Emotion Behavior Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Malkinson


    Full Text Available The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT model for grief are reviewed. The focus of intervention based on CBT-REBT is to facilitate a healthy adaptation to loss following death. A distinction is made between rational (adaptive and irrational (maladaptive grief processes. Case example illustrating the application of the model specifically a dialogue with repetitive thoughts, are presented.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 29, 2010 ... work approach to therapy) in an attempt to develop a model for complicated grief intervention ..... way feels right for them, thus making them equal partners with .... This question points out the benefits of success and affords the.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 29, 2010 ... 2006). Grief thus refers to the physical, emotional, cognitive, spiritual and social experiences of the loss. ... (CGIM) will add to a better understanding of the client and that it will also ... MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY. There are ...

  6. The ties that bind: a reflection on physician grief. (United States)

    Giddings, Gordon


    Physician grief remains a prevalent yet largely unacknowledged problem in the medical profession. Several techniques can be employed to improve coping in physicians that deal frequently with patients approaching the end of life that can be integrated into medical training programs and physician practices. The author recounts his own experience of physician grief having cared for a patient on his dying journey and using it as an opportunity for personal growth.

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Grief Therapy: The ABC Model of Rational-Emotion Behavior Therapy


    Malkinson, Ruth


    The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT) model for grief are reviewed. The foc...

  8. Resolving Child and Adolescent Traumatic Grief: Creative Techniques and Interventions (United States)

    Edgar-Bailey, Meredith; Kress, Victoria E.


    This article presents a review of creative interventions that can be helpful in facilitating the resolution of traumatic grief in children and adolescents. Traumatic grief is conceptualized as a condition in which a person loses a close loved one (e.g., a parent or a sibling) in a traumatic manner, and ensuing trauma-related symptoms disrupt the…

  9. Grief: Lessons from the Past, Visions for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Murray Parkes


    Full Text Available Over the last millennium patterns of mortality have changed and have determined who grieves and how. At all times grief has been recognised as a threat to physical and mental health. More recently the scientific study of bereavement has enabled us to quantify such effects and to develop theoretical explanations for them. This paper reviews our evolving understanding of grief, focusing especially on the developments in research, theory and practice that have taken place during the twentieth century. Wars and similar conflicts are associated with repression of grief but methods of helping by facilitating its expression, which were introduced during the two World Wars are less needed and effective at other times. In recent years more attention has been paid to the social context in which grief arises and, particularly, to the nature of the attachments which precede and influence the reaction to bereavement and to other traumatic life events. At the same time a range of caring resources have become available and acceptable to bereaved people and the results of scientific evaluation of these give promise that we are moving towards an era in which more sensitive and appropriate care will be provided to the bereaved by both voluntary and professional caregivers.

  10. Adult Children of Dysfunctional Families: Treatment from a Disenfranchised Grief Perspective. (United States)

    Zupanick, Corinne E.


    Generalizes concept of disenfranchised grief to understanding of recovery process for adult children of dysfunctional families. Describes recovery process of this population as parallel to grief process. Identifies two layers of unrecognized loss: loss of one's childhood and loss of one's fantasized and idealized parent. Suggests specific…

  11. Grief: The Unrecognized Parental Response to Mental Illness in a Child. (United States)

    MacGregor, Peggy


    Notes that parents whose son or daughter develops serious mental illness experience grief that is often neither recognized by society nor addressed by mental health professionals. Describes some common elements of parental bereavement, losses experienced with mental illness, consequences of ignoring grief, and appropriate interventions for mental…

  12. Predicting Grief Reactions One Year Following a Mass University Shooting: Evaluating Dose-Response and Contextual Predictors. (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J; Layne, Christopher M; Coyle, Patrick; Kaplow, Julie B; Brymer, Melissa J; Pynoos, Robert S; Jones, Russell T


    This study identifies risk factors for grief following a mass school shooting. Participants (N = 1,013) completed online questionnaires 3-4 months (Time 1) and 1 year (Time 2) post-shootings. We tested models predicting Time 2 grief reactions, exploring direct and indirect predictive effects of exposure variables (physical and social proximity) through hypothesized peritraumatic mediators (peritraumatic perceived threat to self or others) while controlling for Time 1 grief and posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions, pretrauma vulnerabilities. Findings demonstrate that closer social proximity predicted higher levels of Time 2 grief, directly and indirectly through increasing peritraumatic perceived threat to others' safety. Physical proximity and peritraumatic threat to self did not predict Time 2 grief reactions. Implications for grief screening instruments and theory building research through identifying risk factors and causal mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss. (United States)

    Smid, Geert E; Kleber, Rolf J; de la Rie, Simone M; Bos, Jannetta B A; Gersons, Berthold P R; Boelen, Paul A


    Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms of) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) following confrontation with a traumatic loss. Trauma survivors, who are frequently from different cultural backgrounds, have often experienced multiple losses and ambiguous loss (missing family members or friends). Current evidence-based treatments for PTSD do not focus on traumatic grief. To develop a treatment for traumatic grief combining treatment interventions for PTSD and PCBD that may accommodate cultural aspects of grief. To provide a rationale for treatment, we propose a cognitive stress model of traumatic grief. Based on this model and on existing evidence-based treatments for PTSD and complicated grief, we developed Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG) for the treatment of patients with traumatic grief. The treatment is presented along with a case vignette. Processes contributing to traumatic grief include inadequately integrating the memory of the traumatic loss, negative appraisal of the traumatic loss, sensitivity to matching triggers and new stressors, and attempting to avoid distress. BEP-TG targets these processes. The BEP-TG protocol consists of five parts with proven effectiveness in the treatment of PCBD, PTSD, and MDD: information and motivation, grief-focused exposure, memorabilia and writing assignments, finding meaning and activation, and a farewell ritual. Tailored to fit the needs of trauma survivors, BEP-TG can be used to address traumatic grief symptoms related to multiple losses and ambiguous loss, as well as cultural aspects of bereavement through its different components.

  14. Are shame and self-esteem risk factors in prolonged grief after death of a spouse? (United States)

    Dellmann, Thomas


    Although many single factors of prolonged grief have been identified in the literature, a comprehensive understanding of predictors is still lacking. This article argues that shame and low self-esteem, present risk factors in prolonged grief after spousal loss, based on a review of correlational studies. Using a practitioner-scientist approach, a developmental model of shame as a core factor in prolonged grief is proposed, outlining the progression from childhood relational trauma, to insecure attachment, shame, self-esteem contingent on spousal approval to eventual prolonged grief.

  15. Staff Grief Resolution and Care for the Elderly: Artificial Intelligence Analysis. (United States)

    Seibert, Phyllis M.; Pastorello, Thomas

    Literature on health professionals describes the problems associated with unresolved or poorly resolved grief. Previous research has indicated that the most important reason why health professionals stay in their jobs is their relationship to patients. This study examined how nursing home personnel resolve their grief following deaths of clients.…

  16. Back home: a qualitative study exploring re-entering cross-cultural missionary aid workers' loss and grief. (United States)

    Selby, Susan; Moulding, Nicole; Clark, Sheila; Jones, Alison; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Beilby, Justin


    Over 200 Australian, American, and British Non-Government Organizations send aid workers overseas including missionaries. On re-entry, they may suffer psychological distress; however, there is little research about their psychosocial issues and management in the family practice setting. Research suggests loss and grief as a suitable paradigm for family practitioners dealing with psychosocial issues. The aim of this study was to explore loss and grief issues for adult Australian missionary cross-cultural aid workers during their re-entry adjustment. Mixed methods were used and this study reports the qualitative method: semi-structured interviews conducted with 15 participants. Results were analyzed using framework analysis. Themes of re-entry loss and grief were identified with sub-themes of multiple varied losses, mechanisms of loss, loss of control, common grief phenomena, disenfranchised grief, and reactivation of past grief. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. Findings of this study suggest that loss and grief is an appropriate paradigm for the management of these workers in the family practice setting. Further research is needed to enable appropriate care.

  17. A Nationwide Random Sampling Survey of Potential Complicated Grief in Japan (United States)

    Mizuno, Yasunao; Kishimoto, Junji; Asukai, Nozomu


    To investigate the prevalence of significant loss, potential complicated grief (CG), and its contributing factors, we conducted a nationwide random sampling survey of Japanese adults aged 18 or older (N = 1,343) using a self-rating Japanese-language version of the Complicated Grief Brief Screen. Among them, 37.0% experienced their most significant…

  18. A systematic writing program as a tool in the grief process: part 1. (United States)

    Furnes, Bodil; Dysvik, Elin


    The basic aim of this paper is to suggest a flexible and individualized writing program as a tool for use during the grief process of bereaved adults. An open, qualitative approach following distinct steps was taken to gain a broad perspective on the grief and writing processes, as a platform for the writing program. Following several systematic methodological steps, we arrived at suggestions for the initiation of a writing program and its structure and substance, with appropriate guidelines. We believe that open and expressive writing, including free writing and focused writing, may have beneficial effects on a person experiencing grief. These writing forms may be undertaken and systematized through a writing program, with participation in a grief writing group and with diary writing, to achieve optimal results. A structured writing program might be helpful in promoting thought activities and as a tool to increase the coherence and understanding of individuals in the grief process. Our suggested program may also be a valuable guide to future program development and research.

  19. General Psychological Implications of the Human Capacity for Grief. (United States)

    Brinkmann, Svend


    Much theorizing in psychology and related disciplines begins with a given model of the mind that is then applied in research projects to study concrete phenomena. Sometimes psychological research can be theory-driven in quite an explicit way, approaching the logic of the hypothetico-deductive method. Others reject this and prefer to work inductively, and, in the extreme case of positivism, perhaps try to avoid theorizing altogether. In this article I shall suggest another way to think of the relationship between psychological theories and psychological phenomena. My suggestion is not simply to replace the hypothetico-deductive model with an inductive one, but to argue that the most direct route to theories of the human mind that grasp its complexity is to begin with the Kantian question of transcendental philosophy: X exists - how is X possible? In the context of this article, I apply this questioning to the phenomenon of grief: Grief exists - what general psychological theory of the mind do we need in order to account for its possibility? I attempt to extract three general psychological points from the existence of grief, viz. (1) the deep relationality of the self, (2) the limitations of evolutionary accounts, and (3) the normativity of psychological phenomena. I shall argue that these are general psychological lessons to be learned from grief, although they could also be arrived at by considering several other significant psychological phenomena.

  20. Coping with Grief: Life After Loss (United States)

    ... are called grief. It’s a natural response to loss. Grieving doesn’t mean that you have to feel certain emotions. People can grieve in very different ways. Cultural beliefs and traditions can influence how someone expresses ...

  1. After the death of a friend: young men's grief and masculine identities. (United States)

    Creighton, Genevieve; Oliffe, John L; Butterwick, Shauna; Saewyc, Elizabeth


    Young men can have an uncomfortable relationship with grief. Socially constructed masculine ideals dictate that men be stoic in the aftermath of loss, most often expressing their sadness and despair as anger. Perhaps because of alignment to such masculine ideals little research has been done to explore young men's grief--and chronicle the ways they think about loss, their responses and how they go about describing their identities after a tragic event. Using qualitative individual interviews and photo elicitation methods, we investigated the ways in which 25 men aged 19-25 grieved the accidental death of a male friend. The study was conducted from April 2010-December 2011. Causes of death were diverse, and included motor vehicle accidents, adventure sports, drug overdose and fights. The findings revealed men's predominant grief responses as emptiness, anger, stoicism and sentimentality. Participants' description of their grief responses illustrated the ways in which they struggled to reconcile feelings of vulnerability and manly ideals of strength and stoicism. We gained insight into men's grief practices by looking at the ways in which they aligned themselves with a post-loss masculine identity. These identities, which included the adventurer, father-figure and the lamplighter, revealed gender-specific processes through which men understood and actively dealt with their tragic loss. The results offer novel insights to men's grief and identity work that may serve to affirm other men's experiences as well as guide counselling services targeted to young men. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Grief Symptoms in Relatives who Experienced Organ Donation Request in the ICU. (United States)

    Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; Chevret, Sylvie; Cheisson, Gaëlle; Joseph, Liliane; Martin-Lefèvre, Laurent; Si Larbi, Anne Gaelle; Viquesnel, Gérald; Marqué, Sophie; Donati, Stéphane; Charpentier, Julien; Pichon, Nicolas; Zuber, Benjamin; Lesieur, Olivier; Ouendo, Martial; Renault, Anne; Le Maguet, Pascale; Kandelman, Stanislas; Thuong, Marie; Floccard, Bernard; Mezher, Chaouki; Galon, Marion; Duranteau, Jacques; Azoulay, Elie


    In the case of organ donation, the family is highly involved in the decision process. To assess experience of organ donation process and grief symptoms in relatives of brain dead patients who discussed organ donation in the ICU. Multicentre cross-sectional study in 28 ICUs in France. Participating subjects were relatives of brain dead patients who were approached to discuss organ donation. Relatives were followed-up by phone at 3 time points: at 1 month to complete a questionnaire describing their experience of organ donation process; At 3 months to complete the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised; At 9 months, to complete the IES-R and the Inventory of Complicated Grief. 202 relatives of 202 patients were included, of whom 158 consented and 44 refused organ donation. Interviews were conducted at 1, 3 and 9 months for 157, 137 and 117 relatives respectively. Experience was significantly more burdensome for relatives of non-donors. However there were no significant differences in grief symptoms measured at 3 and 9 months between the 2 groups. Understanding of brain death was associated with grief symptoms with higher prevalence of complicated grief symptoms in relatives who did not understand (75% vs 46.1%, p=0.026). Experience of the organ donation process varies between relatives of donor vs non-donor patients with relatives of non-donors experiencing lower quality communication, but the decision was not associated with subsequent grief symptoms. Importantly, understanding of brain death is a key element for relatives.

  3. Accommodating Grief on Twitter: An Analysis of Expressions of Grief Among Gang Involved Youth on Twitter Using Qualitative Analysis and Natural Language Processing (United States)

    Patton, Desmond Upton; MacBeth, Jamie; Schoenebeck, Sarita; Shear, Katherine; McKeown, Kathleen


    There is a dearth of research investigating youths’ experience of grief and mourning after the death of close friends or family. Even less research has explored the question of how youth use social media sites to engage in the grieving process. This study employs qualitative analysis and natural language processing to examine tweets that follow 2 deaths. First, we conducted a close textual read on a sample of tweets by Gakirah Barnes, a gang-involved teenaged girl in Chicago, and members of her Twitter network, over a 19-day period in 2014 during which 2 significant deaths occurred: that of Raason “Lil B” Shaw and Gakirah’s own death. We leverage the grief literature to understand the way Gakirah and her peers express thoughts, feelings, and behaviors at the time of these deaths. We also present and explain the rich and complex style of online communication among gang-involved youth, one that has been overlooked in prior research. Next, we overview the natural language processing output for expressions of loss and grief in our data set based on qualitative findings and present an error analysis on its output for grief. We conclude with a call for interdisciplinary research that analyzes online and offline behaviors to help understand physical and emotional violence and other problematic behaviors prevalent among marginalized communities. PMID:29636619

  4. Creating philanthropic foundations to deal with grief: case studies of bereaved parents. (United States)

    Rossetto, Kelly R


    The current study involves the analysis of six bereaved parents' stories and argues that the development of philanthropic foundations helped these parents make meaning of their children's deaths and find purpose in the midst of their grief. Furthermore, philanthropy, as a way of making meaning and finding purpose, is a mutually beneficial process because it helps both the bereaved founders and the communities the organizations reach. Connections between these narratives and the bereavement literature help us better understand the individual/family grief process and meaning making, as well as how internal grief states intersect with communities.

  5. Cultural manifestations of grief and bereavement: a clinical perspective. (United States)

    Hardy-Bougere, Marilyn


    The purpose of this article is to inform the reader that a commonality in grief and bereavement exists even though it is highly individualized. Health care providers and consumers of health care should realize and understand the potential for bias and miscommunication when there is delivery of care from non-similar cultures. Grief and bereavement are two of many issues existing in the health care delivery system which can result in substandard delivery of care as a result of cultural insensitivity and cultural incompetence.

  6. Dealing with grief related to loss by death and chronic pain: An integrated theoretical framework. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Furnes


    Full Text Available Bodil Furnes, Elin DysvikUniversity of Stavanger, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Health Studies, Stavanger, NorwayObjective: Based on the present authors’ research and several approaches to grief related to loss by death and nonmalignant chronic pain, the paper suggests a new integrated theoretical framework for intervention in clinical settings.Methods: An open qualitative review of the literature on grief theories was performed searching for a new integrated approach in the phenomenological tradition. We then investigated the relationship between grief, loss and chronic nonmalignant pain, looking for main themes and connections and how these could be best understood in a more holistic manner.Results: Two main themes were formulated, “relearning the world” and “adaptation”. Between these themes a continuous movement emerged involving experience such as: “despair and hope”, “lack of understanding and insight”, “meaning disruption and increased meaning”, and “bodily discomfort and reintegrated body”. These were identified as paired subthemes.Conclusions: Grief as a distinctive experience means that health care must be aimed at each individual experience and situation. Grief experience and working with grief are considered in terms of relearning the world while walking backwards and living forwards, as described in our integrated model. We consider that this theoretical framework regarding grief should offer an integrated foundation for health care workers who are working with people experiencing grief caused by death or chronic pain.Keywords: health care, loss, grief

  7. Graduate students' self assessment of competency in grief education and training in core accredited rehabilitation counseling programs (United States)

    Cicchetti, Richard Jude

    The study examined whether 93 master's level rehabilitation counselor trainees from select Midwestern CORE-accredited schools report having been adequately trained to identify and work with clients who are having grief-related issues from a loss or disability. Using the Grief Counseling Competency Scale (GCCS), participants showed a wide range of scores regarding personal competency related to grief; however, scores tended to be low when examining skills and knowledge relating to grief, with most respondents scoring between "this barely describes me" and "this somewhat describes me." Although presence or history of a disability was found to be related to personal competency, a number of variables were not related, including: gender, age, race/ethnicity, course work in grief theories and grief interventions, practica/internship setting, and attitudes toward people with disabilities. Implications for further research are discussed.

  8. Grief after patient death: direct care staff in nursing homes and homecare. (United States)

    Boerner, Kathrin; Burack, Orah R; Jopp, Daniela S; Mock, Steven E


    Patient death is common in long-term care (LTC). Yet, little attention has been paid to how direct care staff members, who provide the bulk of daily LTC, experience patient death and to what extent they are prepared for this experience. To 1) determine how grief symptoms typically reported by bereaved family caregivers are experienced among direct care staff, 2) explore how prepared the staff members were for the death of their patients, and 3) identify characteristics associated with their grief. This was a cross-sectional study of direct care staff experiencing recent patient death. Participants were 140 certified nursing assistants and 80 homecare workers. Standardized assessments and structured questions addressed staff (e.g., preparedness for death), institutional (e.g., support availability), and patient/relational factors (e.g., relationship quality). Data analyses included bivariate group comparisons and hierarchical regression. Grief reactions of staff reflected many of the core grief symptoms reported by bereaved family caregivers in a large-scale caregiving study. Feelings of being "not at all prepared" for the death and struggling with "acceptance of death" were prevalent among the staff. Grief was more intense when staff-patient relationships were closer, care was provided for longer, and staff felt emotionally unprepared for the death. Grief symptoms like those experienced by family caregivers are common among direct care workers after patient death. Increasing preparedness for this experience via better training and support is likely to improve the occupational experience of direct care workers and ultimately allow them to provide better palliative care in nursing homes and homecare. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dream Content in Complicated Grief: A Window into Loss-Related Cognitive Schemas Running Head: Dreams in Complicated Grief (United States)

    Germain, Anne; Shear, Katherine M.; Walsh, Colleen; Buysse, Daniel J.; Monk, Timothy H.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Frank, Ellen; Silowash, Russell


    Bereavement and its accompanying psychological response (grief) constitute potent experiences that necessitate the reorganization of cognitive-affective representations of lost significant attachment figures during both wakefulness and dreaming. The goals of this preliminary study were to explore whether the dream content of 77 adults with complicated grief (CG) differed from that of a normative sample, and to explore whether CG patients who dream of the deceased differ from CG patients who do not dream of the deceased on measures of daytime emotional distress. CG dreams were characterized by more family and familiar characters including the deceased (in women), and fewer social interactions and emotions compared to norms. Increased representations of familiar characters in CG dreams may reflect attempts to reorganize relational cognitive schemas to compensate for the loss. PMID:24524436

  10. The year of magical thinking: Joan Didion and the dialectic of grief. (United States)

    Brennan, F; Dash, M


    Joan Didion is a prominent American writer. In late 2003, while her only child lay critically ill, her husband, John, died suddenly. Theirs was a marriage of great intimacy and love. Grief enveloped her. Eventually she began to write an account of the first 12 months of her bereavement and the vigil for her child: The year of magical thinking. Raw, insightful and challenging, it is a rich, generous and graceful document. Didion draws on the literature of grief, personal and professional. Here, those readings are examined and reflections are made on the singular, unique grief of the author in the context of current theories on bereavement.

  11. Grief and Solidarity Reactions 1 Week After an On-Campus Shooting. (United States)

    Wayment, Heidi A; Silver, Roxane Cohen


    The impact of interpersonal violence extends beyond the victims and perpetrator(s). The purpose of this research was threefold: (a) to identify whether college students' very early reactions to an on-campus shooting were associated with well-known predictors of distress, (b) to examine whether grief and distress reactions were distinguishable in the early days following a shooting, and (c) to investigate whether a compassionate self-identity was uniquely associated with grief but not distress. Beginning just 3 days after an early morning shooting that killed one student and injured three others, university students ( N = 408) completed an online questionnaire. Grief, but not distress, was associated with a sense of solidarity with other students and a compassionate self-identity. General distress was associated with prior mental health difficulties and exposure to the shooting. Acute stress was positively associated with being female, having prior mental health difficulties, media exposure, perceived similarity to victims, less victim blame, social support, and social strain. Results suggest that grief reactions that arise in the early days following a collective loss may serve as important psychosocial resources in coping with interpersonal violence.

  12. [A Clinical Case of Grief Hallucination through the Mourning Work Normal Grief and Spiritual Care]. (United States)

    Kurotori, Isaku; Kato, Satoshi


    Auditory or visual hallucinations of a deceased person are well known in the normal course of the bereavement process. According to DSM-5, this symptom is included in the associated features supporting diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder. In Japan, however, little is known about these hallucinatory experiences during grieving, and few reports on their prevalence are available. Here, we have reported a clinical case of such experiences following the loss of a spouse. A 66-year-old patient presented to the outpatient department with insomnia after her husband's death. She was preoccupied with a sense of loss and absolute loneliness. One day, she confessed to regularly encountering her husband's ghost at night; the ghost was distinguishable from a dream and provided the bereaved wife with some degree of comfort. The appearances lasted for 15 months and occurred several times a week without disturbing her social functioning. She gradually became aware that her husband was returning from the spirit world to give her solace. Her treatment was focused on resolving her conflicting feelings concerning her grief at his death and her relief at his no longer suffering from disease. While accepting her experiences, she started to review the days they spent together and appreciated his attachment. Therefore she completed the work of mourning and the ghost no longer appeared. One year after the departure of the ghost, she still attends the hospital regularly and there has been no recurrence. A reconstruction of her internal world leads us to conclude that the support of normal grief with such hallucinations prevents the intense experience of loss from generating pathological grief. Furthermore, we suggest reconsidering the importance of the mourning work and the inclusion of both the bereaved and deceased person in the medical context.

  13. Dyadic coping mediates the relationship between parents' grief and dyadic adjustment following the loss of a child. (United States)

    Albuquerque, Sara; Narciso, Isabel; Pereira, Marco


    This study aimed to examine forms of dyadic coping (DC) as mediators of the association between parents' grief response and dyadic adjustment and to determine whether these indirect effects were moderated by the child's type of death, timing of death, and age. The study design was cross-sectional. The sample consisted of 197 bereaved parents. Participants completed the Prolonged Grief Disorder Scale, Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Dyadic Coping Inventory. Significant indirect effects of parents' grief response on dyadic adjustment were found through stress communication by oneself and by the partner, positive and negative DC by the partner, and joint DC. The timing of death moderated the association between grief response and dyadic adjustment and between joint DC and dyadic adjustment. Grief response was negatively associated with dyadic adjustment only when the death occurred after birth. Grief response was negatively associated with joint DC, which, in turn, was positively associated with dyadic adjustment, when the death occurred both before and after birth. However, the association was stronger in the latter. Specific forms of DC might be mechanisms through which grief response is associated with dyadic adjustment and should be promoted in clinical practice.

  14. After the death of a friend: Young Men’s grief and masculine identities (United States)

    Creighton, Genevieve; Oliffe, John L.; Butterwick, Shauna; Saewyc, Elizabeth


    Young men can have an uncomfortable relationship with grief. Socially constructed masculine ideals dictate that men be stoic in the aftermath of loss, most often expressing their sadness and despair as anger. Perhaps because of alignment to such masculine ideals little research has been done to explore young men’s grief – and chronicle the ways they think about loss, their responses and how they go about describing their identities after a tragic event. Using qualitative individual interviews and photo elicitation methods, we investigated the ways in which 25 men aged 19–25 grieved the accidental death of a male friend. The study was conducted from April 2010–December 2011. Causes of death were diverse, and included motor vehicle accidents, adventure sports, drug overdose and fights. The findings revealed men’s predominant grief responses as emptiness, anger, stoicism and sentimentality. Participants’ description of their grief responses illustrated the ways in which they struggled to reconcile feelings of vulnerability and manly ideals of strength and stoicism. We gained insight into men’s grief practices by looking at the ways in which they aligned themselves with a post-loss masculine identity. These identities, which included the adventurer, father-figure and the lamplighter, revealed gender-specific processes through which men understood and actively dealt with their tragic loss. The results offer novel insights to men’s grief and identity work that may serve to affirm other men’s experiences as well as guide counselling services targeted to young men. PMID:23517702

  15. Normal grief and its correlates in Lubumbashi, an urban city in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: grief is a universal experience faced at one time or another by most people during their lives. Response to grief and bereavement losses can lead to psychiatric disorders such as mood disorders, post traumatic responses, insomnia loss of appetite, anxiety, and depression. The aim of our study is to value in our ...

  16. Complicated grief and bereavement in young adults following close friend and sibling loss. (United States)

    Herberman Mash, Holly B; Fullerton, Carol S; Ursano, Robert J


    This study examined the association between types of loss (i.e., sibling or close friend) and relationship quality (i.e., depth and conflict) with complicated grief, depression, somatic symptoms, and world assumptions in bereaved young adults. Participants were 107 young adults aged 17-29 years who were either bereaved or had never experienced a loss. Among bereaved participants, 66 lost a close friend and seven lost a sibling within the past 3 years (M = 1.63 years). Nineteen percent of the young adults met criteria for complicated grief and 31% had mild to severe depression. Participants with a deceased sibling reported greater depth in the relationship as compared to those who lost a friend. They were also more likely to have complicated grief (57% versus 15%) and report significantly higher levels of grief, depression, and somatic symptoms. Those who lost a sibling reported a lower sense of meaningfulness and benevolence of the world and self-worth as compared with those who lost a close friend or had not experienced a loss. Complicated grief and depression are common among bereaved young adults. Sibling loss is particularly distressing to young adults, due in part to the high level of relationship depth, and is associated with increased psychological and physical symptoms postloss. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Providing grief resolution as an oncology nurse retention strategy: a literature review. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Lori


    Oncology nurses play a pivotal role in optimizing care provided to patients at the end of life (EOL). Although oncology nurses commonly provide EOL care and witness deaths of patients that they have maintained long-standing relationships with, they are frequently excluded from grief resolution endeavors. With a worldwide shortage of oncology nurses, retention is paramount to ensuring that the care patients with cancer receive is not jeopardized. Various strategies were identified to resolve grief and increase nurse retention, including creating supportive work environments, debriefing with colleagues, providing EOL and grief education, and altering patient care assignments. Future research on emerging technologies and their effects on oncology nurse coping and retention strategies also was suggested.

  18. Understanding Grief within a Cultural Context (United States)

    ... the loved ones who are preparing for their loss. Culture and the meaning of death Every culture has ... and mourning practices of a person from another culture. Related Resources Coping With Grief Coping With Change After a Loss f t k e P Coping With Cancer ...

  19. Traumatic grief in young people in Sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taggart H


    Full Text Available Holly Taggart,1 Sheila Greatrex-White,2 1Mental Health Commission, CentreForum, Westminster, UK; 2School of Health Sciences, Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Aim: To identify relevant and pertinent themes and interventions within the literature relating to childhood traumatic grief, in order to provide a sound background of evidence for further research and service development. Background: Childhood traumatic grief is caused when a significant person in a child's life dies under circumstances that they perceive to be traumatic. This can leave a child unable to return to the same level of physical and emotional functioning that he or she had prior to the death occurring. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is an increased risk for childhood traumatic grief due to a high prevalence of orphanhood, environmental stressors, stigma, and abuse. This can have detrimental effects upon mental health. Methods: The review followed the York methodology: identifying the purpose and agreeing on the strategy beforehand; identifying relevant sources/studies; selecting the studies; charting the data; and collating, summarizing, and reporting results. Results and discussion: Interventions identified to prevent and/or manage traumatic grief included narrative exposure therapy, psychotherapy, mentoring, peer-group support, psychosocial support, a grief and loss therapy session, and memory boxes. Mental health remains neglected within service and policy development as well as in global health spending. The average amount expended on mental health services per person per year in low-income countries is less than $0.25. Only 36% of people in low income countries are covered by a mental health policy, compared with 92% in high income countries. Limitations: The sixth stage of the York methodology was omitted. Only papers written in English were included in the review. Conclusion: Childhood traumatic grief in young people is an important issue

  20. Does knowing that a suicide was "rational" influence grief? (United States)

    Brazda, Geoffrey F; Range, Lillian M; Remley, Theodore P; White, Carolyn C


    Counseling professionals and graduate students (N = 117) recruited online read a randomly assigned one-paragraph vignette about either a non-rational or rational suicide involving an imaginary loved one. Then, they completed the Grief Experiences Questionnaire (GEQ) about how they would feel. The non-rational suicide group expected significantly more search for explanation than the rational suicide group, but were not significantly different on the other six GEQ subscales. All participants expected few distressing reactions to either vignette, suggesting a one-paragraph vignette may not be sufficient to induce the kind of grief many experience when a loved one dies by suicide.

  1. Prevalence and predictors of parental grief and depression after the death of a child from cancer. (United States)

    McCarthy, Maria C; Clarke, Naomi E; Ting, Cheng Lin; Conroy, Rowena; Anderson, Vicki A; Heath, John A


    To investigate patterns of grief and depression in a sample of parents whose child had died of cancer, and to examine factors related to burden of illness and end-of-life care as potential predictors of parental grief and depression outcomes. Fifty-eight parents completed standardized self-report questionnaires measuring prolonged grief disorder (Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised [ICG-R]) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition [BDI-II]) and participated in structured interviews designed to elicit their perceptions of their child's end-of-life care and burden of illness. The majority of participants were mothers (84%) and the mean length of time since child death was 4.5 (standard deviation [SD] = 2.4) years (range, 1.0-9.8 years). Rates of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) were similar to those reported in other bereaved populations (10.3%); however, 41% of parents met diagnostic criteria for grief-related separation distress. Twenty-two percent of parents reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Time since death and parental perception of the oncologist's care predicted parental grief symptoms but not depressive symptoms. Perceptions of the child's quality of life during the last month, preparedness for the child's death, and economic hardship also predicted grief and depression outcomes. A minority of parents met criteria for PGD and depression, however, almost half the sample was experiencing significant separation distress associated with persistent longing and yearning for their child. Time since death is a significant predictor of parental psychological distress. This study also highlights the importance of end-of-life factors in parents' long-term adjustment and the need for optimal palliative care to ensure the best possible outcomes for parents.

  2. Grief, Bereavement, and Coping with Loss (PDQ) (United States)

    ... mental distress than those in the counseling group. Depression related to grief is sometimes treated with drugs. ... Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us ...

  3. Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide (United States)

    Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos


    Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

  4. Korean Version of Inventory of Complicated Grief Scale: Psychometric Properties in Korean Adolescents. (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Jung Jae; Moon, Duk-Soo; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Min A; Min, Seonyeong; Yang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Eun Jeong; Yoo, Seo Koo; Chung, Un-Sun


    We aimed to validate the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG)-Korean version among 1,138 Korean adolescents, representing a response rate of 57% of 1,997 students. Participants completed a set of questionnaires including demographic variables (age, sex, years of education, experience of grief), the ICG, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events-Child (LITE-C). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine whether the ICG items indicated complicated grief in Korean adolescents. The internal consistency of the ICG-Korean version was Cronbach's α=0.87. The test-retest reliability for a randomly selected sample of 314 participants in 2 weeks was r=0.75 (PKaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy=0.911; Bartlett's Test of Sphericity, χ(2)=13,144.7, P<0.001). After omission of 3 items, the value of Cronbach's α increased from 0.87 for the 19-item ICG-Korean version to 0.93 for the 16-item ICG-Korean version. These results suggest that the ICG is a useful tool in assessing for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. However, the 16-item version of the ICG appeared to be more valid compared to the 19-item version of the ICG. We suggest that the 16-item version of the ICG be used to screen for complicated grief in Korean adolescents.

  5. Prolonged grief: where to after Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition? (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A


    Although there is much evidence for the construct of prolonged grief, there was much controversy over the proposal to introduce a prolonged grief diagnosis into Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), and it was finally rejected as a diagnosis in DSM-5. This review outlines the evidence for and against the diagnosis, and highlights the implications of the DSM-5 decision. Convergent evidence indicates that prolonged grief characterized by persistently severe yearning for the deceased is a distinct construct from bereavement-related depression and anxiety, is associated with marked functional impairment, is responsive to targeted treatments for prolonged grief, and has been validated across different cultures, age groups, and types of bereavement. Although DSM-5 has rejected the construct as a formal diagnosis, evidence continues to emerge on related mechanisms, including maladaptive appraisals, memory and attentional processes, immunological and arousal responses, and neural circuitry. It is most likely that the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) will introduce a diagnosis to recognize prolonged grief, even though DSM-5 has decided against this option. It is probable that the DSM-5 decision may result in more prolonged grief patients being incorrectly diagnosed with depression after bereavement and possibly incorrectly treated. The DSM-5 decision is unlikely to impact on future research agendas.

  6. Attachment styles, grief responses, and the moderating role of coping strategies in parents bereaved by the Sewol ferry accident


    Huh, Hyu Jung; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Chae, Jeong-Ho


    ABSTRACT Background: Previous studies on the influence of different types of attachment on grief responses have yielded contradictory outcomes. Little research has been conducted to identify the psychological processes that moderate the relationship between attachment representations and patterns of grief in disaster-related grief. Objective: The present study examines the effects of different attachment types on the grief responses of parents bereaved by loss of a child in a ferry accident, ...

  7. Distinguishing Symptoms of Grief and Depression in a Cohort of Advanced Cancer Patients (United States)

    Jacobsen, Juliet C.; Zhang, Baohui; Block, Susan D.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Prigerson, Holly G.


    Several studies have shown that the symptoms of grief are different from symptoms of depression among bereaved family members. This study is an attempt to replicate this finding among advanced cancer patients and examine clinical correlates of patient grief and depression. Analyses were conducted on data from interviews with 123 advanced cancer…

  8. Effects of Mental Health Support on the Grief of Bereaved People Caused by Sewol Ferry Accident


    Han, Hyesung; Noh, Jin-Won; Huh, Hyu jung; Huh, Seung; Joo, Ji-Young; Hong, Jin Hyuk; Chae, Jeong-Ho


    Few studies have assessed the overall effects of multi-centered, complicated mental health support on the grief process. This study investigated the broader influence of mental health support provided practically to the bereaved family on the severity of complicated grief. Ninety-three bereaved family members of the Sewol ferry accident were recruited. Severity of complicated grief, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive disorder was assessed through self-reporting questionnaire...

  9. Understanding bereavement, grief, and mourning: implications for donation and transplant professionals. (United States)

    Corr, Charles A; Coolican, Margaret B


    This article surveys recent literature on bereavement, grief, and mourning. It offers a review of the state of the art of current understandings of those topics to assist professionals who work in the field of organ and tissue donation and transplantation. The article's goal is to provide well-developed and up-to-date education and knowledge about bereavement, grief, and mourning to supplement the natural skills and experience of donation and transplant professionals in their work with bereaved persons.

  10. Medical comorbidity in complicated grief: Results from the HEAL collaborative trial. (United States)

    Robbins-Welty, Gregg; Stahl, Sarah; Zhang, Jun; Anderson, Stewart; Schenker, Yael; Shear, M Katherine; Simon, Naomi M; Zisook, Sidney; Skritskaya, Natalia; Mauro, Christina; Lebowitz, Barry D; Reynolds, Charles F


    To describe medical comorbidity in persons with Complicated Grief (CG) and to test whether medical comorbidity in individuals with CG is associated with the severity and duration of CG, after adjusting for age, sex, race, and current depressive symptoms. In exploratory analyses, we compared data from participants in an NIMH-sponsored multisite clinical trial of CG ("HEAL": "Healing Emotions After Loss") to archival data from participants matched on age, gender, and race/ethnicity, stratified by the presence or absence of current major depression. We used the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G) as a measure of medical polymorbidity. We investigated the association between CG and medical comorbidity via multiple linear regression, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables, including severity of depressive symptoms. Chronological age and severity of co-occurring symptoms of major depression correlated with cumulative medical polymorbidity in persons with Complicated Grief. The severity of CG and the time since loss did not correlate with global medical polymorbidity (CIRS-G score). Nor was there an interaction between severity of depressive symptoms and severity of CG symptoms in predicting global CIRS-G score. Cumulative medical comorbidity, as measured by CIRS-G scores, was greater in subjects with current major depression ("DEPRESSED") than in CG subjects, and both DEPRESSED and CG subjects had greater medical morbidity than CONTROLS. Medical comorbidity is prevalent in Complicated Grief, associated with increasing age and co-occurring depressive symptoms but apparently not with chronicity and severity of Complicated Grief per se. This observation suggests that treating depression in the context of CG may be important to managing medical conditions in individuals with Complicated Grief to attenuate or prevent the long-term medical sequelae of CG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Opportunities for mourning when grief is disenfranchised: descendants of Nazi perpetrators in dialogue with Holocaust survivors. (United States)

    Livingston, Kathy


    This article explores the concepts of unmourned and disenfranchised grief as a way to understand the experiences of adult children of Nazi perpetrators, who grew up with cultural norms of grieving alone or in silence. The scholarly literature on descendants of Nazis reflects a group unlikely to warrant empathy or support from others because of the stigma surrounding their family's possible involvement in the Holocaust atrocities. This article uses, as a case study approach, the testimony given by Monika Hertwig, the adult daughter of a high ranking Nazi, who appears in the documentary film, Inheritance. From the perspective of disenfranchised grief, defined as grief that is not socially recognized or supported, the article links Monika's testimony with existing research from in-depth interviews with other descendants of Nazis to suggest that, as a group, they lacked permission to grieve their deceased parents, acknowledgment of their grief, and opportunities to mourn. Based on the theory that the effects of grief can be transgenerational, the disenfranchisement experienced by the "children of the Third Reich" does not have to pass to subsequent generations if opportunities for mourning are made possible and some resolution of grief occurs. Studies have shown that ongoing dialogue groups between Holocaust survivors and descendants of Nazis provide opportunities for mourning to both groups.

  12. Hospice Counsellor Facing the Grief of the Terminally Ill Child and Its Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Godawa


    Full Text Available The child’s illness, suffering and death provoke many emotions in the family. The ill child and its family both experience grief which is an emotional reaction to the danger of losing health or life. Support offered by home hospices for children aims at overcoming the destructive influence of illness. A hospice counsellor’s task is to improve the ill child and its family’s quality of life. He is helping the family overcome grief and prepare for the child’s death. The hospice team supports the family members who experience anticipatory and later, actual mourning. Preventing pathological effects of grief is a basic challenge for people who offer help.

  13. Parents' experiences of pediatric palliative care and the impact on long-term parental grief. (United States)

    van der Geest, Ivana M M; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E; Streng, Isabelle C; Michiels, Erna M C; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M


    Approximately 25% of children diagnosed with cancer eventually die. Losing a child puts parents at increased risk for developing psychological problems. To explore parents' perceptions of the interaction with health care professionals (communication, continuity of care, and parental involvement) and symptom management during the pediatric palliative phase, and to investigate the influence on long-term grief in parents who lost a child to cancer. A total of 89 parents of 57 children who died of cancer between 2000 and 2004 participated in this retrospective cross-sectional study by completing a set of questionnaires measuring grief (Inventory of Traumatic Grief), parents' perceptions of the interaction with health care professionals (communication, continuity of care, and parental involvement), and symptom management during the palliative phase. Care was assessed on a five point Likert scale (1=disagree and 5=agree). Parents highly rated communication (4.6±0.6), continuity of care (4.3±0.6), and parental involvement (4.6±0.7) during the palliative phase. Parents' most often reported physical and psychological symptoms of their child during the palliative phase were fatigue (75%), pain (74%), anxiety to be alone (52%), and anger (48%). Higher ratings of parents on communication (β=-9.08, P=0.03) and continuity of care (β=-11.74, P=0.01) were associated with lower levels of long-term parental grief. The severity of the child's dyspnea (β=2.96, P=0.05), anxiety to be alone (β=4.52, Pparental grief. Multivariate models combining the interaction with health care professionals and symptom management showed a significant influence of both aspects on long-term parental grief. Both interaction with health care professionals, especially communication and continuity of care, and symptom management in children dying of cancer are associated with long-term parental grief levels. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Meta-analysis to obtain a scale of psychological reaction after perinatal loss: focus on miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annsofie Adolfsson


    Full Text Available Annsofie Adolfsson1,21School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenAbstract: Pregnancy has different meanings to different women depending upon their circumstances. A number of qualitative studies have described the experience of miscarriage by women who had desired to carry their pregnancy to full term. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify a scale of psychological reaction to miscarriage. Meta-analysis is a quantitative approach for reviewing articles from scientific journals through statistical analysis of findings from individual studies. In this review, a meta-analytic method was used to identify and analyze psychological reactions in women who have suffered a miscarriage. Different reactions to stress associated with the period following miscarriage were identified. The depression reaction had the highest average, weighted, unbiased estimate of effect (d+ = 0.99 and was frequently associated with the experience of perinatal loss. Psychiatric morbidity was found after miscarriage in 27% of cases by a diagnostic interview ten days after miscarriage. The grief reaction had a medium d+ of 0.56 in the studies included. However, grief after miscarriage differed from other types of grief after perinatal loss because the parents had no focus for their grief. The guilt is greater after miscarriage than after other types of perinatal loss. Measurement of the stress reaction and anxiety reaction seems to be difficult in the included studies, as evidenced by a low d+ (0.17 and 0.16, respectively. It has been recommended that grief after perinatal loss be measured by an adapted instrument called the Perinatal Grief Scale Short Version.Keywords: psychological, perinatal loss, pregnancy, depression 

  15. Grief symptoms and difficult patient loss for oncologists in response to patient death. (United States)

    Granek, Leeat; Ben-David, Merav; Shapira, Shahar; Bar-Sela, Gil; Ariad, Samuel


    The study aimed to explore oncologist's grief symptoms over patient death and to identify why and which losses are particularly challenging when patients die. The grounded theory method was used to collect and analyze the data. Twenty-two oncologists were interviewed between March 2013 and June 2014 from three adult oncology centers in the north, center, and south of Israel. Oncologists were at different stages of their careers and varied in their sub-specialties, gender, and personal and professional backgrounds. Grief begun when the patient died, in anticipation of the patient's death, many days after the death, or when the patient received a poor prognosis. The phenomenological experience of grief for oncologists included behavioral, cognitive, physical, and emotional symptoms in response to patient death. Behavioral symptoms included crying and difficulties sleeping. Cognitive symptoms included self-doubt and rumination about the patient and the care the patient had received before death. Physical symptoms included chest pain, fatigue, and general physical discomfort. Emotional symptoms included sadness, anxiety, helplessness, guilt, relief, irritability, and loss. Difficult patient loss was caused by patient-related factors, family-related factors, and disease-related factors. Patient deaths result in behavioral, cognitive, physical, and emotional symptoms of grief in oncologists. These symptoms become particularly intense in the context of patient, family, and disease-related factors. Educational and supportive interventions for managing grief related to patient death are needed in order to support oncologists in their emotionally and mentally taxing work. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together (United States)

    Symington, Ashley


    The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

  17. Before Kubler-Ross: lessons about grief from the book of Job. (United States)

    Lyon, D S


    Medicine is as old as the human species, and medical literature is among the earliest writing. Current research is of great help in identifying new interventions, but a great deal of the art of medicine is showcased in ancient works. The 20th century saw a plethora of books, articles, and monographs on the subjects of grief, death and dying, and suffering, but none of these has provided greater insight than the biblical book of Job. Excerpts from Job illustrate both the nature of grief and appropriate intervention when it is confronted.

  18. Grief as a Social Emotion: Theoretical Perspectives (United States)

    Jakoby, Nina R.


    The article explores a sociological perspective on grief as a social emotion. Focusing on the social bond with the deceased, the self-concept of the survivor or the power of feeling rules, general sociological theories of emotions (symbolic interactionism, structural theory, behavioral theory) have the potential to deepen the understanding of…

  19. Grief and culture: a checklist


    Walter, Tony


    All groups have a culture. This article is intended to help the bereavement practitioner better understand the support needs of clients from other cultures. It sets out and explains a simple checklist of questions designed to explore cultural practices and attitudes to grief and bereavement. The questions cover the obligations mourners feel towards the dead and towards society; who should be mourned; what should be done with the dead; what should be done with emotions; the inclusion or exclus...

  20. Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder and Culture: Early and Prolonged Grief in Nepali Widows. (United States)

    Kim, Jane; Tol, Wietse A; Shrestha, Abina; Kafle, Hari Maya; Rayamajhi, Rajin; Luitel, Nagendra P; Thapa, Lily; Surkan, Pamela J


    Persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), has not been well studied in socioculturally diverse populations. Thus, this qualitative study examined (a) how widows in Nepal understand grief, (b) whether a local construct of PCBD exists, and (c) its comparability with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), terminology. Using an adapted Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) framework, semistructured interviews with 25 widows and 12 key informants, as well as three focus-group discussions (n = 20), were conducted between October 2014 and April 2015. Through an inductive grounded theory-based approach, we used the constant comparative method, iteratively coding transcripts to identify themes and patterns in the data. Also, we created two lists of grief responses, one of early reactions and another all reactions to grief, based on the frequency of mention. No single term for grief was reported. Widows reported a local construct of PCBD, which was broadly compatible with DSM-5 terminology but with important variation reflecting societal influence. Surviving torture during conflict, economic and family stressors, and discrimination were mentioned as important determinants that prolong and complicate grief. Suicidal ideation was common, with about 31% and 62% of widows reporting past-year and lifetime suicidality, respectively. Findings may not be generalizable to all Nepali widows; participants were recruited from a non-governmental organization, from Kathmandu and its neighboring districts, and were primarily of reproductive age. While PCBD symptoms proposed in DSM-5 were mentioned as relevant by study participants, some components may need adaptation for use in non-Western settings, such as Nepal.

  1. Effects of Mental Health Support on the Grief of Bereaved People Caused by Sewol Ferry Accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Hyesung; Noh, Jin-Won; Huh, Hyu Jung; Huh, Seung; Joo, Ji-Young; Hong, Jin Hyuk; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    Few studies have assessed the overall effects of multi-centered, complicated mental health support on the grief process. This study investigated the broader influence of mental health support provided practically to the bereaved family on the severity of complicated grief. Ninety-three bereaved

  2. Death by request in Switzerland: posttraumatic stress disorder and complicated grief after witnessing assisted suicide. (United States)

    Wagner, B; Müller, J; Maercker, A


    Despite continuing political, legal and moral debate on the subject, assisted suicide is permitted in only a few countries worldwide. However, few studies have examined the impact that witnessing assisted suicide has on the mental health of family members or close friends. A cross-sectional survey of 85 family members or close friends who were present at an assisted suicide was conducted in December 2007. Full or partial Post-Traumatic Distress Disorder (PTSD; Impact of Event Scale-Revised), depression and anxiety symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory) and complicated grief (Inventory of Complicated Grief) were assessed at 14 to 24 months post-loss. Of the 85 participants, 13% met the criteria for full PTSD (cut-off≥35), 6.5% met the criteria for subthreshold PTSD (cut-off≥25), and 4.9% met the criteria for complicated grief. The prevalence of depression was 16%; the prevalence of anxiety was 6%. A higher prevalence of PTSD and depression was found in the present sample than has been reported for the Swiss population in general. However, the prevalence of complicated grief in the sample was comparable to that reported for the general Swiss population. Therefore, although there seemed to be no complications in the grief process, about 20% of respondents experienced full or subthreshold PTSD related to the loss of a close person through assisted suicide. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Attachment styles, grief responses, and the moderating role of coping strategies in parents bereaved by the Sewol ferry accident. (United States)

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Chae, Jeong-Ho


    Background : Previous studies on the influence of different types of attachment on grief responses have yielded contradictory outcomes. Little research has been conducted to identify the psychological processes that moderate the relationship between attachment representations and patterns of grief in disaster-related grief. Objective : The present study examines the effects of different attachment types on the grief responses of parents bereaved by loss of a child in a ferry accident, along with the moderating role of coping strategies. Methods : Bereaved parents ( n  = 81) completed self-report questionnaires evaluating attachment, coping strategies, complicated grief, and shame/guilt. We performed correlational analyses to examine the associations among variables. We also conducted hierarchical regression analyses and simple slope analyses to examine the moderation effects of coping strategies. Results : Anxious attachment was associated with severe shame/guilt, and avoidant attachment correlated with complicated grief. Anxious attachment was positively associated with all types of coping strategies, and avoidant attachment was negatively related to problem- and emotion-focused coping. The use of problem-focused coping strategies was a significant moderator of the relationship between the avoidant attachment dimension and shame/guilt. Avoidant attachment had a significant effect on shame/guilt in groups with a high level of problem-focused coping. In contrast, none of the coping strategies significantly moderated the relationship between anxious attachment and grief response. Conclusions : The results suggest that people with highly avoidant attachment might be overwhelmed by shame and guilt when they try to use problem-focused coping strategies. This finding suggests that grief interventions should be organized with consideration of individual differences in attachment representations.

  4. Grief Interrupted: The Experience of Loss Among Incarcerated Women (United States)

    Harner, Holly M.; Hentz, Patricia M.; Evangelista, Maria Carmela


    Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: frozen in time; spatiality: no place, no space to grieve; corporeality: buried emotions; and relationality: never alone, yet feeling so lonely. The findings generated from this study can help mental health providers as well as correctional professionals develop policies and programs that facilitate the grief process of incarcerated women within the confines of imprisonment. PMID:20581074

  5. Supporting in grief and burnout of the nursing team from pediatric units in Chilean hospitals. (United States)

    Vega, Paula Vega; Rodriguez, Rina González; Galdamez, Natalie Santibáñez; Molina, Camila Ferrada; Orellana, Javiera Spicto; Villanueva, Antonia Sateler; Melo, Jose Bustos


    Objective To know the levels of Burnout Syndrome and perception of grief support in nursing teams of oncology and pediatric intensive care in public hospitals in Chile. Method A study of descriptive cross-sectional design. The Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Grief Support Health Care Scale were applied to university-level and technical nursing professionals between March and November 2015. An analysis to compare the means was performed with use of the Student's t-test, and the level of significance was set at 5%. Results The study included 153 professionals. Results show 4% of professionals have Burnout Syndrome (BS) and 89% are at risk of having it. Oncology professionals are at higher risk as they present higher levels of emotional exhaustion and lower levels of personal fulfillment. Half of professionals have a high level of perception of grief support, which is greater in the oncology team. Conclusion Professionals working in pediatric oncology units are at increased risk of Burnout Syndrome and grief support may be a mediating factor in this process.

  6. Rates and risks for prolonged grief disorder in a sample of orphaned and widowed genocide survivors. (United States)

    Schaal, Susanne; Jacob, Nadja; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Elbert, Thomas


    The concept of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) has been defined in recent years by Prigerson and co-workers, who have developed and empirically tested consensus and diagnostic criteria for PGD. Using these most recent criteria defining PGD, the aim of this study was to determine rates of and risks for PGD in survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide who had lost a parent and/or the husband before, during or after the 1994 events. The PG-13 was administered to 206 orphans or half orphans and to 194 widows. A regression analysis was carried out to examine risk factors of PGD. 8.0% (n = 32) of the sample met criteria for PGD with an average of 12 years post-loss. All but one person had faced multiple losses and the majority indicated that their grief-related loss was due to violent death (70%). Grief was predicted mainly by time since the loss, by the violent nature of the loss, the severity of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the importance given to religious/spiritual beliefs. By contrast, gender, age at the time of bereavement, bereavement status (widow versus orphan), the number of different types of losses reported and participation in the funeral ceremony did not impact the severity of prolonged grief reactions. A significant portion of the interviewed sample continues to experience grief over interpersonal losses and unresolved grief may endure over time if not addressed by clinical intervention. Severity of grief reactions may be associated with a set of distinct risk factors. Subjects who lose someone through violent death seem to be at special risk as they have to deal with the loss experience as such and the traumatic aspects of the loss. Symptoms of PTSD may hinder the completion of the mourning process. Religious beliefs may facilitate the mourning process and help to find meaning in the loss. These aspects need to be considered in the treatment of PGD.

  7. Representations of African Americans in the Grief and Mourning Literature from 1998 to 2014: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Granek, Leeat; Peleg-Sagy, Tal


    The authors examined representations of African Americans in the grief literature to assess (a) frequencies; (b) content; and (c) use of universalist or a contextualized framework. They conducted searches in 3 databases that target the grief literature published in the last 15 years. Fifty-nine articles met the criteria. There are a small number of studies published on African Americans and these tend to focus on homicide. Many studies had incomplete methods. Comparison studies were common and pathological grief outcomes that were validated on White populations were used as outcome variables with African American participants.

  8. Parental Grief Following the Brain Death of a Child: Does Consent or Refusal to Organ Donation Affect Their Grief? (United States)

    Bellali, Thalia; Papadatou, Danai


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the grieving process of parents who were faced with the dilemma of donating organs and tissues of their underage brain dead child, and to explore the impact of their decision on their grief process. A grounded theory methodology was adopted and a semi-structured interview was conducted with 11 bereaved…

  9. Using Narrative Approach for Anticipatory Grief Among Family Caregivers at Home (United States)

    Toyama, Hiroko; Honda, Akiko


    Family caregivers of patients with terminal-stage cancer have numerous roles as caregivers, which can influence their anticipatory grief. The purpose of this study was to clarify how talking to family caregivers of patients with terminal illness using the narrative approach can influence such caregivers’ process of anticipatory grief. We conducted the narrative approach as an intervention with two family caregivers several times and qualitatively analyzed their narratives. The results indicated that these family caregivers had two primary roles—family member and caregiver—and that family caregivers felt trapped in their caregiver role. The narrative approach helped them transition into the role needed for coping with the loss. PMID:28462354

  10. The American Indian Holocaust: Healing Historical Unresolved Grief. (United States)

    Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse; DeBruyn, Lemyra M.


    Argues for the existence of historical unresolved grief among American Indians. Outlines the historical legacy of war, genocide, and boarding schools resulting in intergenerational trauma and a host of associated social problems. Suggests healing strategies that integrate modern and traditional approaches to healing at the individual, family, and…

  11. Using Multidimensional Grief Theory to Explore Effects of Deployment, Reintegration, and Death on Military Youth and Families (United States)

    Kaplow, Julie B.; Layne, Christopher M.; Saltzman, William R.; Cozza, Stephen J.; Pynoos, Robert S.


    To date, the U.S. military has made major strides in acknowledging and therapeutically addressing trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in service members and their families. However, given the nature of warfare and high rates of losses sustained by both military members (e.g., deaths of fellow unit members) and military families (e.g., loss of a young parent who served in the military), as well as the ongoing threat of loss that military families face during deployment, we propose that a similar focus on grief is also needed to properly understand and address many of the challenges encountered by bereaved service members, spouses, and children. In this article, we describe a newly developed theory of grief (Multidimensional Grief Theory) and apply it to the task of exploring major features of military-related experiences during the phases of deployment, reintegration, and the aftermath of combat death—especially as they impact children. We also describe implications for designing preventive interventions during each phase and conclude with recommended avenues for future research. Primary aims are to illustrate: (1) the indispensable role of theory in guiding efforts to describe, explain, predict, prevent, and treat maladaptive grief in military service members, children, and families; (2) the relevance of multidimensional grief theory for addressing both losses due to physical death as well as losses brought about by extended physical separations to which military children and families are exposed during and after deployment; and (3) a focus on military-related grief as a much-needed complement to an already-established focus on military-related PTSD. PMID:23760905

  12. Excluding parental grief: A critical discourse analysis of bereavement accommodation in Canadian labour standards. (United States)

    Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Kennedy, Kimberly; Moll, Sandra; Pineda, Carolina; Mitchell, Lisa M; Stephenson, Peter H; Cadell, Susan


    Grief following child loss is profoundly destabilizing with serious long-term repercussions for bereaved parents. Employed parents may need time away from work to deal with this loss. The purpose of this study was to reflect upon the ways labour policies and practices respond to parental bereavement. Critical discourse analysis was used to examine labour policies and practices related to employment leave for bereaved parents in Canada. Results were compared to international labour standards. Universally, employment policies provide only for the practical issues of bereavement. Commonly, leave is three days, unpaid, and meant to enable ceremonial obligations. Policies do not acknowledge the long-term suffering caused by grief or the variable intensity of different kinds of loss. Managerial, moral, normative and neoliberal values embedded in these policies efface the intensely personal experience of grief, thereby leaving employees at risk for serious health and workplace safety issues. Bereavement leave currently understands grief as a generic, time-limited state with instrumental tasks and ceremonial obligations. In contrast, research characterizes responses to child loss as intense, highly personal experiences for which healing and recovery can take years. This disconnect is especially problematic when viewed through the lens of employee wellbeing, reintegration and workplace productivity.

  13. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E.; Kleber, Rolf J.; de la Rie, Simone M.; Bos, Jannetta B. A.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Boelen, Paul A.


    Background: Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms

  14. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG) : toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E; Kleber, Rolf J; de la Rie, Simone M; Bos, Jannetta B A; Gersons, Berthold P R; Boelen, Paul A


    BACKGROUND: Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms

  15. The Role of Defense Mechanisms, Personality and Demographical Factors on Complicated Grief following Death of a loved one by Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rahimian-Boogar


    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of the risk factors and psychological correlates of prolonged grief disorder is vital for health promotions in relatives of persons who died of cancer. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of defense mechanisms, character dimension of personality and demographic factors on complicated grief following a loss of a family member to cancer .Method: A number of 226 persons who had lost a family member to cancer in a cancer institute at Tehran University of Medical Science were selected through compliance sampling and completed the Inventory of complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R, the Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ, the Character dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, and the Demographical questionnaire. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis, using the PASW version 18 .Results: Findings revealed that neurotic defense style had a significant positive predictive role in the complicated grief; and cooperativeness, age of the deceased person, self-transcendence and mature defense style had a significant negative predictive role in complicated grief (p<0.001. R2 was 0.73 for the final model (p<.001.Conclusion: The results revealed that two character dimensions (low cooperativeness and self-transcendence, high neurotic defense style and young age of the deceased person were involved in the psychopathological course of the complicated and prolonged grief. It was concluded that personality characteristics of the grieving persons and demographics of the deceased person should be addressed in designing tailored interventions for complicated grief.

  16. Attachment style dimensions can affect prolonged grief risk in caregivers of terminally ill patients with cancer. (United States)

    Lai, Carlo; Luciani, Massimiliano; Galli, Federico; Morelli, Emanuela; Cappelluti, Roberta; Penco, Italo; Aceto, Paola; Lombardo, Luigi


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive role of attachment dimensions on the risk of prolonged grief. Sixty caregivers of 51 terminally ill patients with cancer who had been admitted in a hospice were selected. Caregivers were interviewed using Attachment Scale Questionnaire, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and Prolonged Grief Disorder 12 (PG-12). The consort caregivers showed higher PG-12 level compared to the sibling caregivers. Anxiety, depression, need for approval, and preoccupation with relationships levels were significantly correlated with PG-12 scores. Female gender, high levels of depression, and preoccupation with relationships significantly predicted higher levels of prolonged grief risk. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Parental Reactions to the Special Education Individual Education Program Process: Looking through the Lens of Grief (United States)

    Haley, Melinda; Hammond, Helen; Ingalls, Lawrence; Marín, Merranda Romaro


    Parental grief reactions have typically been examined in situations where parents have a child diagnosed with a major medical or mental health condition. This study used the grief and loss model as conceptualized by Kubler-Ross (1969), Lamb (1988), and Kubler-Ross and Kessler (2005) as a foundation in examining parental reactions when a child has…

  18. "Every time that month comes, I remember": using cognitive interviews to adapt grief measures for use with bereaved adolescents in South Africa. (United States)

    Taylor, Tory M; Thurman, Tonya R; Nogela, Lineo


    To assess standard grief measures through cognitive interviews with bereaved adolescents in Free State, South Africa, and make recommendations designed to improve the measurement of grief in this and similar populations. Twenty-one parentally bereaved adolescents participated in semi-structured cognitive interviews about the Core Bereavement Items (CBI) questionnaire, Grief Cognitions Questionnaire for Children (GCQ-C), or Intrusive Griefs Thoughts Scale (IGTS). Interviewees offered valuable insights for improving grief measurement with this population (e.g., consensus that not thinking frequently about a deceased loved one was shameful, aversion to terms including "died"). Participants were better able to apply response options denoting specific frequencies (e.g., "once or twice a week") versus general ones (e.g., "a little bit of the time"). Questions intended to gauge grief commonly elicited responses reflecting the impact of loss on adolescents' basic survival instead of psychological wellbeing. The need for psychological support is high among orphans and vulnerable children. Tools for measuring psychological outcomes can provide evidence of programme effects and guide decision making about investment. Grief measures used with adolescents in South Africa should account for the issues raised by cognitive interviewees in the study, including question and response option complexity, linguistic preferences, and cultural norms.

  19. End of Life: Dealing with Grief and Confronting Painful Emotions (United States)

    ... who aren't prepared for the avalanche of emotions that sweep over them when the final moment ... know how challenging and devastating the raw, intense emotions of grief can be, because it's happened to ...

  20. Do anticipatory grief and preparedness affect distress in bereaved caregivers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Kjærgaard

    Objective Family caregivers of terminally ill patients are in a vulnerable position, and previous studies show that bereaved caregivers are at risk of psychological distress. Pre-loss grief symptoms seem to predict post-loss psychological distress, while preparedness for a looming loss tends...... to decrease distress. The aim of this nation-wide study was to investigate the association of both anticipatory grief symptoms and preparedness with psychological distress in bereaved family caregivers. Methods A list of all adult patients in Denmark receiving drug reimbursement for terminal illness...... was retrieved from the Danish Health and Medicines Authority on a weekly basis during 2012. All newly registered patients were requested by letter to pass on an enclosed baseline questionnaire to their closest relative. Responding caregivers bereaved within six months received a follow-up questionnaire six...

  1. How do adults with mild learning disabilities experience bereavement and grief? A qualitative exploration.


    McRitchie, Robyn


    Background: The vast majority of research into the experiences of people with learning disabilities (LD) in regard to bereavement and grief involves the collection of data from second-hand sources, or via quantitative measures. This qualitative study aimed to explore the lived experiences of bereavement and grief in a group of adults with mild LD. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 13 adults (aged 20-72 years) with mild LD who had experienced bereaveme...

  2. Using multidimensional grief theory to explore the effects of deployment, reintegration, and death on military youth and families. (United States)

    Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Saltzman, William R; Cozza, Stephen J; Pynoos, Robert S


    To date, the US military has made major strides in acknowledging and therapeutically addressing trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in service members and their families. However, given the nature of warfare and high rates of losses sustained by both military members (e.g., deaths of fellow unit members) and military families (e.g., loss of a young parent who served in the military), as well as the ongoing threat of loss that military families face during deployment, we propose that a similar focus on grief is also needed to properly understand and address many of the challenges encountered by bereaved service members, spouses, and children. In this article, we describe a newly developed theory of grief (multidimensional grief theory) and apply it to the task of exploring major features of military-related experiences during the phases of deployment, reintegration, and the aftermath of combat death--especially as they impact children. We also describe implications for designing preventive interventions during each phase and conclude with recommended avenues for future research. Primary aims are to illustrate: (1) the indispensable role of theory in guiding efforts to describe, explain, predict, prevent, and treat maladaptive grief in military service members, children, and families; (2) the relevance of multidimensional grief theory for addressing both losses due to physical death as well as losses brought about by extended physical separations to which military children and families are exposed during and after deployment; and (3) a focus on military-related grief as a much-needed complement to an already-established focus on military-related PTSD.

  3. When hope and grief intersect: rates and risks of prolonged grief disorder among bereaved individuals and relatives of disappeared persons in Colombia. (United States)

    Heeke, Carina; Stammel, Nadine; Knaevelsrud, Christine


    Forced disappearance is a frequent phenomenon in violent conflicts and regimes, yet little is known about unresolved grief processes as a possible outcome of the disappearance of a loved one. This study investigates prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and its risk factors in a sample of persons who lost a significant other to disappearance as compared with a sample of bereaved individuals, both groups having experienced displacement due to the armed conflict in Colombia. In a cross-sectional study conducted in four Colombian provinces, 73 persons who lost a significant other to disappearance and 222 bereaved individuals completed measures of PGD (PG-13), depression (HSCL-25), and PTSD (PCL-C) via face-to-face interviews. Trauma- and loss-related variables, including the extent to which significant others of disappeared persons hoped that their loved one was still alive, were assessed. Results indicated that 23% of participants who lost a significant other to disappearance met criteria for PGD as compared to 31.5% in bereaved participants. No differences were found between the two groups in terms of symptom severity of PGD, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, or traumatic exposure. Regression analysis indicated that, among relatives and friends of disappeared persons, the extent of hope predicted PGD above and beyond depression severity whereas among bereaved persons, PGD was predicted by time since the loss, the number of traumatic events and symptom severity of PTSD and depression. The instruments were not validated for use in Colombia; generalizability of findings is limited. Forced disappearance is related to prolonged grief reactions, particularly when those left behind maintain hope that the disappeared person is still alive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Grief in Two Guises: "Mourning and Melancholia" Revisited (United States)

    Green, Viviane


    This paper is a re-reading of Freud's classic paper. The themes of mourning and melancholia are viewed in relation to children and adolescents with illustrations from case histories. Mourning is interpreted in a broader sense: not only as grief (both expectable and traumatic) but as a response to the developmental process itself as phases of…

  5. Hacia una visión constructivista del Duelo Going to a constructivist model of grief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Rodríguez Alvaro


    Full Text Available Recientemente NANDA ha revisado su diagnóstico 00136 Duelo (antes Duelo anticipado. La nueva definición de este diagnóstico aprobado en 1980, incluye sutiles cambios que identifican al fenómeno como un proceso normal que incluye respuestas emocionales, físicas, espirituales, intelectuales y sociales. Esto supone un paso hacia la adopción desde la disciplina enfermera de una visión constructivista del duelo, desbancando las corrientes tradicionales que impregnan nuestro trabajo diario. En este artículo, pretendemos acercar al lector a una concepción de la muerte y el duelo desde una postura constructivista, estableciendo comparaciones entre esta tendencia y teorías tradicionales.Recently NANDA has modified his diagnosis 00136 Grief (previously titled "Aticipatory Grieving". The new definition of this diagnosis - dates back of 1980 - includes aspects like emotional, physical, spiritual, intellectual and social answers to the grief; that identifies the grief as a normal response to loss. This supposes that nursing is going to a constructivist model (contemporary theory, not adopting traditional perspectives. In this article, we try to bring the reader over to a conception of the death, the grief and loss from a cognitive-constructivist model, doing a comparisons with traditional theories.

  6. Identifying a combined construct of grief and explosive anger as a response to injustice amongst survivors of mass conflict: A latent class analysis of data from Timor-Leste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Rees

    Full Text Available Previous studies have identified high rates of explosive anger amongst post-conflict populations including Timor-Leste. We sought to test whether explosive anger was integrally associated with symptoms of grief amongst the Timorese, a society that has experienced extensive conflict-related losses. In 2010 and 2011 we recruited adults (n = 2964, 18-years and older, living in an urban and a rural village in Timor-Leste. We applied latent class analysis to identify subpopulations based on symptoms of explosive anger and grief. The best fitting model comprised three classes: grief (24%, grief-anger (25%, and a low symptom group (51%. There were more women and urban dwellers in the grief and grief-anger classes compared to the reference class. Persons in the grief and grief-anger classes experienced higher rates of witnessing murder and atrocities and traumatic losses, ongoing poverty, and preoccupations with injustice for the two historical periods of conflict (the Indonesian occupation and the later internal conflict. Compared to the reference class, only the grief-anger class reported greater exposure to extreme deprivations during the conflict, ongoing family conflict, and preoccupations with injustice for contemporary times; and compared to the grief class, greater exposure to traumatic losses, poverty, family conflict and preoccupations with injustice for both the internal conflict and contemporary times. A substantial number of adults in this post-conflict country experienced a combined constellation of grief and explosive anger associated with extensive traumatic losses, deprivations, and preoccupations with injustice. Importantly, grief-anger may be linked to family conflict in this post-conflict environment.

  7. The role of grief symptoms and a sense of injustice in the pathways to post-traumatic stress symptoms in post-conflict Timor-Leste. (United States)

    Tay, A K; Rees, S; Steel, Z; Liddell, B; Nickerson, A; Tam, N; Silove, D


    Grief symptoms and a sense of injustice may be interrelated responses amongst persons exposed to mass conflict and both reactions may contribute to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. As yet, however, there is a dearth of data examining these relationships. Our study examined the contributions of grief and a sense of injustice to a model of PTSD symptoms that included the established determinants of trauma events, ongoing adversity and severe psychological distress. The study involved a large population sample (n = 2964, response rate: 82.4%) surveyed in post-conflict Timor-Leste. The survey sites included an urban administrative area (suco) in Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste and a rural village located an hour's drive away. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess conflict related traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversity, persisting preoccupations with injustice, symptoms of grief, psychological distress (including depressive symptoms) and PTSD symptoms. We tested a series of structural equation models, the final comprehensive model, which included indices of grief symptoms and injustice, producing a good fit. Locating grief symptoms as the endpoint of the model produced a non-converging model. In the final model, strong associations were evident between grief and injustice (β = 0.34, s.e. = 0.02, p < 0.01) and grief and PTSD symptoms (β = 0.14, s.e. = 0.02, p < 0.01). The sense of injustice exerted a considerable effect on PTSD symptoms (β = 0.13, s.e. = 0.03, p < 0.01). In addition, multiple indirect paths were evident, most involving grief and a sense of injustice, attesting to the complex inter-relationship of these factors in contributing to PTSD symptoms. Our findings support an expanded model of PTSD symptoms relevant to post-conflict populations, in which grief symptoms and a sense of injustice play pivotal roles. The model supports the importance of a focus on loss, grief and a sense of injustice in conducting trauma

  8. Optimism in prolonged grief and depression following loss: A three-wave longitudinal study. (United States)

    Boelen, Paul A


    There is considerable evidence that optimism, the predisposition to have generalized favorable expectancies for the future, is associated with numerous desirable outcomes. Few studies have examined the association of optimism with emotional distress following the death of a loved one. Doing so is important, because optimism may be an important target for interventions for post-loss psychopathology. In the current study, we examined the degree to which optimism, assessed in the first year post-loss (Time 1, T1), was associated with symptom levels of prolonged grief and depression six months (Time 2, T2) and fifteen months (Time 3, T3) later, controlling for baseline symptoms and also taking into account positive automatic cognitions at T1. Findings showed that higher optimism at T1 was associated with lower concurrent prolonged grief and depression severity. Higher optimism at T1 was also inversely related with depression symptom severity at T2 and T3, but not prolonged grief severity at T2 and T3. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Traditional and Contemporary Lakota Death, Dying, Grief, and Bereavement Beliefs and Practices: A Qualitative Study


    Stone, Joseph B.


    Bereavement beliefs and practices in the modern, American culture have been well documented. However, virtually no research has been conducted on traditional and contemporary death, dying, grief, and bereavement beliefs and practices among native tribes, such as the Lakota. The present study was conducted with the Lakota, and fulfilled two goals. iii First, the contemporary and traditional death, dying, grief, and bereavement beliefs and practices of the Lakota were documented and summariz...

  10. The Effectiveness of Family-Based Cognitive-Behavior Grief Therapy to Prevent Complicated Grief in Relatives of Suicide Victims : The Mediating Role of Suicide Ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.; Neeleman, J.; van der Meer, K.; Burger, H.


    Grief interventions are more effective for high risk individuals. The presence of suicide ideation following suicide bereavement was examined to determine whether it indicates a high risk status. Using data from a randomized controlled trial (n =122) on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior

  11. Family Anticipatory Grief: An Integrative Literature Review. (United States)

    Coelho, Alexandra; Barbosa, António


    Despite all the investment in research, uncertainty persists in anticipatory grief (AG) literature, concerning its nuclear characteristics and definition. This review aimed to synthesize recent research in order to develop further knowledge about the family experience of AG during a patient's end of life. An integrative review was performed using standard methods of analysis and synthesis. The electronic databases Medline, Web of Knowledge, and EBSCO and relevant journals were systematically searched since 1990 to October 2015. Twenty-nine articles were selected, the majority with samples composed of caregivers of terminally ill patients with cancer. From systematic comparison of data referring to family end-of-life experience emerged 10 themes, which correspond to AG nuclear characteristics: anticipation of death, emotional distress, intrapsychic and interpersonal protection, exclusive focus on the patient care, hope, ambivalence, personal losses, relational losses, end-of-life relational tasks, and transition. For the majority of family caregivers in occidental society, AG is a highly stressful and ambivalent experience due to anticipation of death and relational losses, while the patient is physically present and needed of care, so family must be functional and inhibit grief expressions. The present study contributes to a deeper conceptualization of this term and to a more sensitive clinical practice.

  12. How adults with an intellectual disability experience bereavement and grief: a qualitative exploration. (United States)

    McRitchie, Robyn; McKenzie, Karen; Quayle, Ethel; Harlin, Margaret; Neumann, Katja


    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of bereavement of 13 adults with an intellectual disability and found that their experiences could be situated within the concept of disenfranchised grief. The latter mediated participants' meaning making of the grieving process illustrated in the themes of intra- and interpersonal bereavement experiences, core beliefs about life and death, level of inclusion, and maintaining a continuing relationship with the deceased. The results suggest that participants experience bereavement and grief in a manner similar to that of the general population and suggest the need for open communication, facilitation of informed choice, and a culture of inclusion.

  13. Factorial structure of complicated grief: associations with loss-related traumatic events and psychosocial impacts of mass conflict amongst West Papuan refugees. (United States)

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick


    Definitions of complicated grief vary across diagnostic systems, being represented as persistent complex bereavement (PCB) in DSM-5 and prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the proposed revision of the ICD system. A past study in a high-income country has identified a six-factor structure for complicated grief, but there are no data testing this or any other model across cultures. The present study reports findings from a survey amongst West Papuan refugees (n = 230, response rate = 92 %) residing in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. We applied culturally adapted measures of conflict-related traumatic event (TEs) (drawing specifically on domains of conflict and loss), symptoms of complicated grief adapted and modified to the culture, and a multidimensional psychosocial index of the broader effects of conflict and displacement. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a single higher order construct of complicated grief comprising six factors of yearning/preoccupation; shock/disbelief; anger/negative appraisal; behavioural change; estrangement from others/impairment; and a novel dimension of confusion/diminished identity. In contrast, our analysis failed to support DSM or ICD models of PCB or PGD. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model revealed that traumatic loss and the sense of injustice each were associated with the unitary construct of complicated grief and its subdomains of yearning/preoccupation; shock/disbelief; anger/negative appraisal (exclusive to injustice); and estrangement from others/social impairment (exclusive to TE domain of conflict and loss). Conflict and loss associated with feelings of injustice may be especially pathogenic in generating the anger/negative appraisal component of complicated grief amongst refugees.

  14. Parental grief and relationships after the loss of a stillborn baby. (United States)

    Avelin, Pernilla; Rådestad, Ingela; Säflund, Karin; Wredling, Regina; Erlandsson, Kerstin


    to describe the grief of mothers and fathers and its influence on their relationships after the loss of a stillborn baby. a postal questionnaire at three months, one year and two years after stillbirth. a study of mothers and fathers of babies stillborn during a one-year period in the Stockholm region of Sweden. 55 parents, 33 mothers and 22 fathers. mothers and fathers stated that they became closer after the loss, and that the feeling deepened over the course of the following year. The parents said that they began grieving immediately as a gradual process, both as individuals, and together as a couple. During this grieving process their expectations, expressions and personal and joint needs might have threatened their relationship as a couple, in that they individually felt alone at this time of withdrawal. While some mothers and fathers had similar grieving styles, the intensity and expression of grief varied, and the effects were profound and unique for each individual. experiences following a loss are complex, with each partner attempting to come to terms with the loss and the resultant effect on the relationship with their partner. anticipating and being able to acknowledge the different aspects of grief will enable professionals to implement more effective intervention in helping couples grieve both individually and together. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Men’s Grief, Meaning and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Byrialsen, Mia Nørremark; Langdridge, Darren


    There is a scarcity of research on men's experience of bereavement (Reiniche, 2006), particularly in relation to qualitative research that focuses on the meaning of such an experience. This paper seeks to address this scarcity by presenting the findings from a phenomenological study of the life-w...... phenomenological method of Van Manen (1990) was used to uncover three key themes, labelled grief and self-reflection, meaning of life and loss, and re-figuring the life-world. These themes are discussed in the light of broader existential concerns and the extant literature....

  16. Persistent grief in the aftermath of mass violence: the predictive roles of posttraumatic stress symptoms, self-efficacy, and disrupted worldview. (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J; Abeyta, Andrew A; Hughes, Michael; Jones, Russell T


    This study tested a conceptual model merging anxiety buffer disruption and social-cognitive theories to predict persistent grief severity among students who lost a close friend, significant other, and/or professor/teacher in tragic university campus shootings. A regression-based path model tested posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptom severity 3 to 4 months postshooting (Time 1) as a predictor of grief severity 1 year postshootings (Time 2), both directly and indirectly through cognitive processes (self-efficacy and disrupted worldview). Results revealed a model that predicted 61% of the variance in Time 2 grief severity. Hypotheses were supported, demonstrating that Time 1 PTS severity indirectly, positively predicted Time 2 grief severity through undermining self-efficacy and more severely disrupting worldview. Findings and theoretical interpretation yield important insights for future research and clinical application. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Effects of Mental Health Support on the Grief of Bereaved People Caused by Sewol Ferry Accident. (United States)

    Han, Hyesung; Noh, Jin Won; Huh, Hyu Jung; Huh, Seung; Joo, Ji Young; Hong, Jin Hyuk; Chae, Jeong Ho


    Few studies have assessed the overall effects of multi-centered, complicated mental health support on the grief process. This study investigated the broader influence of mental health support provided practically to the bereaved family on the severity of complicated grief. Ninety-three bereaved family members of the Sewol ferry accident were recruited. Severity of complicated grief, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive disorder was assessed through self-reporting questionnaire, inventory of complicated grief (ICG), PTSD Check List-5 (PCL-5) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). We also included demographic, socioeconomic, health-related variables, and Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), which affect the ICG score. Participants were divided into 4 groups based on the experience of psychotherapy or psychiatry clinic service before the accident and mental health support after the disaster. In univariate analysis, these 4 groups showed a significant difference in the mean ICG score (P = 0.020). Participants who received mental health support only after the Sewol ferry accident (group 2) showed a lower mean ICG score than those who received neither psychotherapy or psychiatry clinic service before the disaster nor mental health support after the accident (group 4). There was no significant correlation between the ICG score and other variables except for subjective health status measured 1 month after the disaster (P = 0.005). There was no significant difference in PCL-5 (P = 0.140) and PHQ-9 scores (P = 0.603) among groups, respectively. In conclusion, mental health support significantly reduced the severity of grief only in those participants who had not received any psychotherapy or psychiatry clinic service before the accident. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  18. Music Therapy with Bereaved Youth: Expressing Grief and Feeling Better (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina


    Music therapy is a promising intervention with bereaved youth. In comparison to other programs, it appears particularly effective for promoting the resolution of grief-related feelings; providing opportunities to express and release feelings through musical participation. Descriptions from music therapy participants are supported by research…

  19. The Emotional Experience of School Change: Resistance, Loss, and Grief. (United States)

    Marshak, David


    Ignoring the emotional experience of school change may unintentionally sabotage rational planning. Reinventing schools means attending to educators' emotional experience, particularly their expectations, sense of loss, and resulting grief. School norms must be transformed so that teachers and administrators can have meaningful conversations about…

  20. The Effectiveness of Family-Based Cognitive-Behavior Grief Therapy to Prevent Complicated Grief in Relatives of Suicide Victims: The Mediating Role of Suicide Ideation (United States)

    de Groot, Marieke; Neeleman, Jan; van der Meer, Klaas; Burger, Huibert


    Grief interventions are more effective for high risk individuals. The presence of suicide ideation following suicide bereavement was examined to determine whether it indicates a high risk status. Using data from a randomized controlled trial (n = 122) on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy, the effect of suicide ideation on the…

  1. Bereaved parents' online grief communities: de-tabooing practices or grief-ghettos?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Hård af Segerstad, Ylva

    , children are not supposed to die before their parents, old people are supposed to die. Losing a child cuts to the core of human existence. A 100 years ago, the most common death was a child. Today, it is an old person. So the percentage of parents who have suffered the death of a child is comparably small...... compared with people who have lost an old relative. Moreover, the traditional view for socially accepted grief and mourning (at least in protestant Nordic countries) is often that you should not to grieve for too long, not too intensely or not to publicly. A taboo can be said to be a rule against something......-tabooing practices going on. In everyday interaction in the physical world there is a taboo against performing parenthood once your child is dead. It is normal for a parent to talk about their children extensively, as long as it lives. What is to be considered normal, or accepted, is a matter of perspective...

  2. Dyadic coping mediates the relationship between parents’ grief and dyadic adjustment following the loss of a child


    Albuquerque, Sara; Narciso, Isabel; Pereira, Marco


    Background and Objectives: This study aimed to examine forms of dyadic coping (DC) as mediators of the association between parents’ grief response and dyadic adjustment and to determine whether these indirect effects were moderated by the child’s type of death, timing of death, and age. Design: The study design was cross-sectional. Method: The sample consisted of 197 bereaved parents. Participants completed the Prolonged Grief Disorder Scale, Revised Dyadic Adjustment ...

  3. Inviting Grief into Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrer, Sabine; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik


    facilitation process with Jocoi. It will trace key moments in moving from kick-off workshop to the final game. Finally, the ensuing discussion will highlight learnings for a broader understanding of introducing diversity into games. The question of appropriateness seems to be of particular importance for game......This paper investigates how designers might initiate a dialogue with underrepresented groups, infusing design with individuals’ personal stories and imaginations. It does so alongside the example of Jocoi, a game aiming at mediating the experience of loss and grief over a dead baby. Apart from...... being a taboo subject in general, there is no explanation for the absence of this fairly common experience in games. Drawing on the emotional worlds and tastes of individuals identifying as bereft parents, Jocoi involved a collaboration with an Austrian self-help group for affected parents. The stories...

  4. Predictors of Complicated Grief after a Natural Disaster: A Population Study Two Years after the 2004 South-East Asian Tsunami (United States)

    Kristensen, Pal; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond


    The authors examined predictors of complicated grief (CG) in Norwegians 2 years after bereavement in the 2004 South-East Asian tsunami. A cross-sectional postal survey retrospectively covering disaster experiences and assessing CG according to the Inventory of Complicated Grief yielded 130 respondents (35 directly disaster-exposed and 95 not…

  5. Strengthening Grief Support for Adolescents Coping with a Peer's Death (United States)

    Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.


    This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…

  6. Acknowledging sexual bereavement: a path out of disenfranchised grief. (United States)

    Radosh, Alice; Simkin, Linda


    Despite increasing awareness of the importance of sexuality for older adults, research and popular literature rarely acknowledge what we term "sexual bereavement" - mourning the loss of sexual intimacy when predeceased. The reluctance to acknowledge sexual bereavement may create "disenfranchised grief" leaving the bereaved unsupported in coping with this aspect of mourning. This preliminary study focuses on women in the United States and sought to determine whether they anticipate missing sex if predeceased, whether they would want to talk about this loss, and identified factors associated with communicating about sexual bereavement. Findings from our survey of 104 women, 55 years and older, most of whom were heterosexual, revealed that a large majority (72%) anticipates missing sex with their partner and 67% would want to initiate a discussion about this. An even higher percentage would want friends to initiate the topic. Yet, 57% of participants report it would not occur to them to initiate a discussion with a widowed friend about the friend's loss. Disenfranchised grief can have negative emotional and physical consequences. This paper suggests a role for friends and professionals in addressing this neglected issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prolonged grief disorder: Psychometric validation of criteria proposed for DSM-V and ICD-11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly G Prigerson


    Full Text Available Bereavement is a universal experience, and its association with excess morbidity and mortality is well established. Nevertheless, grief becomes a serious health concern for a relative few. For such individuals, intense grief persists, is distressing and disabling, and may meet criteria as a distinct mental disorder. At present, grief is not recognized as a mental disorder in the DSM-IV or ICD-10. The goal of this study was to determine the psychometric validity of criteria for prolonged grief disorder (PGD to enhance the detection and potential treatment of bereaved individuals at heightened risk of persistent distress and dysfunction.A total of 291 bereaved respondents were interviewed three times, grouped as 0-6, 6-12, and 12-24 mo post-loss. Item response theory (IRT analyses derived the most informative, unbiased PGD symptoms. Combinatoric analyses identified the most sensitive and specific PGD algorithm that was then tested to evaluate its psychometric validity. Criteria require reactions to a significant loss that involve the experience of yearning (e.g., physical or emotional suffering as a result of the desired, but unfulfilled, reunion with the deceased and at least five of the following nine symptoms experienced at least daily or to a disabling degree: feeling emotionally numb, stunned, or that life is meaningless; experiencing mistrust; bitterness over the loss; difficulty accepting the loss; identity confusion; avoidance of the reality of the loss; or difficulty moving on with life. Symptoms must be present at sufficiently high levels at least six mo from the death and be associated with functional impairment.The criteria set for PGD appear able to identify bereaved persons at heightened risk for enduring distress and dysfunction. The results support the psychometric validity of the criteria for PGD that we propose for inclusion in DSM-V and ICD-11. Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary.

  8. Complicated grief and manic comorbidity in the aftermath of the loss of a son. (United States)

    Carmassi, Claudia; Shear, M Katherine; Socci, Chiara; Corsi, Martina; Dell'osso, Liliana; First, Michael B


    Based on the recommendations of the sub-workgroup on trauma and dissociative disorders, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed the "bereavement exclusion" from the criteria for major depression in DSM-5. In addition, proposed DSM-5 research criteria for persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) were included in the new manual in a section for conditions and criteria needing further research. We describe a case that warranted such a diagnosis. The patient was a 52- year-old woman who was admitted to the inpatient unit of our clinic on the birthday of her son who had died 18 months earlier. She was diagnosed with a manic episode with psychotic symptoms according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and was treated accordingly. Three months after discharge, she made a suicide attempt and was admitted and re-assessed. During this admission, she completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Mood-Spectrum Rating Scale (MOODS-SR), and the Trauma and Loss Spectrum questionnaire (TALS-SR). She endorsed symptoms of intense yearning for her son, feelings of shock and disbelief, anger and bitterness related to his death, estrangement from others, auditory, tactile and visual hallucinations of the deceased, and intense emotional reactivity to memories of her son. These symptoms were sufficiently prolonged and severe to meet criteria for complicated grief. While complicated grief appeared to be the primary diagnosis for this patient, when she was diagnosed using only DSMIV-TR criteria, her treatment failed to address herprimary problem. This case draws attention to the occurrence of manic-like symptoms as well as depression-like manifestations following bereavement and highlights the importance of including the syndrome of complicated grief in the diagnostic nomenclature.

  9. "Prolonged grief disorder" and "persistent complex bereavement disorder", but not "complicated grief", are one and the same diagnostic entity : an analysis of data from the Yale Bereavement Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciejewski, Paul K; Maercker, Andreas; Boelen, Paul A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/174011954; Prigerson, Holly G


    There exists a general consensus that prolonged grief disorder (PGD), or some variant of PGD, represents a distinct mental disorder worthy of diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, confusion remains over whether different names and proposed symptom criteria for this disorder identify the same or

  10. Helping parents live with the hole in their heart: The role of health care providers and institutions in the bereaved parents' grief journeys. (United States)

    Snaman, Jennifer M; Kaye, Erica C; Torres, Carlos; Gibson, Deborah V; Baker, Justin N


    Bereaved parents experience significant psychosocial and health sequelae, suggesting that this population may benefit from the ongoing extension of support and resources throughout the grief journey. The interaction of hospital staff with patients and families at the end of a child's life and after death profoundly affects parental grief, offering a unique opportunity for the medical community to positively impact the bereavement experience. The current study was conducted to explore the role of the health care team and medical institutions in the grief journeys of parents whose child died a cancer-related death. Eleven bereaved parents participated in 2 focus groups. Responses to each of the 3 main prompts were coded and analyzed independently using semantic content analysis techniques. Four main concepts were identified within the parental narratives, including the importance of strong and ongoing relationships between providers and bereaved families, the importance of high-quality communication, the effect of negative experiences between providers and families on parental grief, and the importance of the institution's role in the grief journeys of bereaved parents. Bereaved parents consistently identified the critical role played by medical staff and medical institutions throughout the grief journey. Key components of bereavement support identified by parents should serve to guide the actions of providers as well as provide a template for the development of a comprehensive bereavement program within an institution. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2757-2765. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  11. Depression or Grief? The Experience of Caregivers of People with Dementia. (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca J.; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.


    Study of caregivers of people with dementia suggests that the depression so frequently described in the literature may not be as severe or clinically significant as previously thought and may be described as anticipatory grief. Results may assist practitioners in planning and evaluating the effectiveness of clinical interventions. (RJM)

  12. Immigrants Coping with Transnational Deaths and Bereavement: The Influence of Migratory Loss and Anticipatory Grief. (United States)

    Nesteruk, Olena


    This study examines immigrants' experiences of bereavement and coping with the deaths of family members in a transnational context. Data were collected through in-depth personal interviews with middle-aged and older immigrants from different countries of origin, who have been living in the United States for a majority of their adult lives. Thematic analysis of participants' narratives showed that immigrants' geographic distance from family complicated caregiving circumstances and rituals surrounding burial, and impacted the grieving process. At the same time, this distance also served as an emotional barrier and provided protection from prolonged grief. Immigrants' U.S.-based family and work responsibilities served as buffers from prolonged grief. Over time, immigrants became Americanized in their attitudes toward coping with death and favored a fast return to productive activities. Finally, immigrants' experience of migratory loss and anticipatory grief early in immigration, along with their personal growth and resilience developed over time, impacted their bereavement experiences later in life. Considering the limitations and the exploratory nature of the present study, further research is needed to investigate the specifics of coping with loss and bereavement among immigrants. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  13. Online Structured Writing Therapy for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Complicated Grief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruwaard, J.; Lange, A.; Lindefors, N.; Andersson, G.


    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complicated grief are related disorders for which well-described and effective cognitive-behavioural therapeutic procedures exist that are firmly rooted in theoretical work. As a result, several research groups have been able to successfully translate these

  14. Somatic expressions of grief and psychosomatic illness in the works of William Shakespeare and his coevals. (United States)

    Heaton, Kenneth W


    To find out if Shakespeare, famed for his insights into human nature, is exceptional in how much his characters express grief through somatic symptoms and signs, and by physical illness. The texts of all large-scale works currently attributed to Shakespeare (39 plays, 3 long narrative poems) were systematically searched for bodily changes and for evidence of grief as dominating the character's emotional state at the time. The findings were compared with those from a search of 46 works, similar in genre, by 15 prominent playwrights active at the same time as Shakespeare. In Shakespeare 31 different grief-associated symptoms or signs were found, in 140 instances. They are present in all but two of his plays and long poems and involve most systems of the body. With non-Shakespearean writers there were 26 kinds, 132 instances. Twenty-two changes are common to both groups, including fainting, death (sudden or after a decline), and wrinkled face, and symptoms such as malaise, fatigue, awareness of the heart-beat, and anorexia. Ten somatic expressions of grief were found only in Shakespeare, including hyperventilation, hair turning white and premature childbirth. Four were found only in his contemporaries but were trivial or unconvincing. Deaths and non-fatal illnesses are prevalent in Shakespeare. Grieving Shakespearean characters exhibit many somatic symptoms and signs and a wide range of psychosomatic illnesses. This panoply of psychosomatic phenomena may be an artistic artefact but it also confirms that Shakespeare's empathy with grieving humanity was unrivalled. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The existential realities of grief and bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Allan; Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte

    Our poster outlines the basic analytical and methodological strategy of a pending 3-year investigation into the existential dimensions of grief. The project is divided into two main foci: 1) a retrospective investigation into how bereavement of a parent in childhood/adolescence shapes the various....... Methodologically our design stands out by including a strong focus on the embodied and prereflective dimension of personal existences and connecting this with narrative accounts. The theoretical basis for this approach has been presented in recent publications by the authors (Køster & Winther-Lindqvist 2017...... and Køster 2016, 2017) and will be explicated in the poster session....

  16. Dream Content in Complicated Grief: A Window into Loss-Related Cognitive Schemas (United States)

    Germain, Anne; Shear, Katherine M.; Walsh, Colleen; Buysse, Daniel J.; Monk, Timothy H.; Reynolds, Charles F., III; Frank, Ellen; Silowash, Russell


    Bereavement and its accompanying psychological response (grief) constitute potent experiences that necessitate the reorganization of cognitive-affective representations of lost significant attachment figures during both wakefulness and dreaming. The goals of this preliminary study were to explore whether the dream content of 77 adults with…

  17. Let me hear of your mercy in the mourning: forgiveness, grief, and continuing bonds. (United States)

    Gassin, Elizabeth A; Lengel, Gregory J


    Clarity about the utility of continuing bonds (CB) continues to be evasive in the research. In 2 different correlational studies, the authors explored the relationship between CB and 2 other variables: 1 representing mental health (forgiveness of the deceased) and the other representing psychological distress (prolonged grief). Although researchers have addressed the latter relationship in the literature, assessing the relationship between CB and forgiveness has not been undertaken. Results suggest that forgiveness in general, and affective aspects of forgiveness in particular, predict psychological forms of CB. Results related to grief depended on how CB was assessed. These findings provide evidence of the relative health of certain types of relationship with deceased persons and also suggest that forgiveness interventions may be a way of promoting such healthy bonds.

  18. Grief Interrupted: The Experience of Loss Among Incarcerated Women


    Harner, Holly M.; Hentz, Patricia M.; Evangelista, Maria Carmela


    Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: f...

  19. Family focused grief therapy: The therapy of choice in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klikovac Tamara


    Full Text Available Palliative care refers to offering physical, psychosocial and spiritual care to patients who are suffering from life threatening diseases. It also includes providing psychological support for family members and other close relations during the period of illness (anticipatory grief and in the period of bereavement and mourning after the patient's death. The choice of therapy during the process of bereavement and mourning is Family Focused Grief Therapy (FFGT. FFGT is a brief, focused and time-limited psychotherapeutic model of intervention belonging to family psychotherapy which is specified for the families that face a life threatening disease of a family member. FFGT, with some modifications, can be applied in work with the families who are facing a terminal illness of younger family members - a child or an adolescent. FFGT typically comprises of 7 to 9 sessions lasting for 90 minutes, which are arranged flexibly across 9 to 18 months, depending on the needs of each family individually. It is important to emphasize that the frequency and number of sessions in each phase depend on the specific features and needs of each particular family. The intervention aim of FFGT is to prevent the complications of bereavement by enhancing the functioning of the family, through exploration of its cohesion, communications (of thoughts and feelings, and handling of conflict. The story of illness and the related grief is shared in the process. The creator of this model is Dr David Kissane, a psychiatrist and a family psychotherapist from Melbourne, Australia, who also worked at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre in New York. The main aims of this article are, on the one hand, to introduce this very useful model of the family therapy to the professional community in Serbia and, on the other, to introduce a conceptual and practical frame of palliative care.

  20. Old Pain or New Pain: A Social Psychological Approach to Recurrent Grief. (United States)

    Brabant, Sarah


    Draws on work of George Herbert Mead to question premise that acute grief that continues or reoccurs two or more years following loss of loved one is pathological. Suggests that onset of intense pain years after loss may be response to "new" death or loss. (Author/NB)

  1. Size acceptance as a grief process: observations from psychotherapy with lesbian feminists. (United States)

    Courtney, Jeanne


    Based on observations from my psychotherapy practice, I apply Kubler-Ross' five stages of grief (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) to the process a woman goes through when she learns about size acceptance and lets go of the unrealistic wish to make her body size conform to fat-phobic societal ideals of female beauty. Clients' presentations, therapeutic interventions, and countertransference are discussed for each stage. Lesbian feminists are likely to embrace size acceptance politics but may retain negative feelings about their own body size. In the bargaining stage, they may confound health concerns with body image issues, and it is important in their therapy to provide a holding environment that can tolerate ambivalence. My own depression stage was marked by countertransference that caused me to avoid the topic of body image with my clients. Therapists can help women in the size acceptance grief process by exploring their own evolving feelings about body image, bringing up the topic, and providing a non-judgmental holding environment.

  2. College Students' Grief and Coping Strategies in Bereavement and Separation


    Nakajima, Naomi; Kodama, Kenichi


    The purposes of this study are to clarify the characteristics of college students' bereavement and separation and the relationship between coping strategies and grief reactions in bereavement and separation. 212 college students completed questionnaires. The results indicated that the majority of the respondents have experienced some bereavement or separation, in particular, separation from the lover. Multiple regression analyses showed that coping strategies such as "avoidance", "abandonment...

  3. Prolonged grief and depression after unnatural loss : Latent class analyses and cognitive correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; J Djelantik, A A A Manik; Smid, Geert E


    This study sought to identify (a) subgroups among people confronted with unnatural/violent loss characterized by different symptoms profiles of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and depression, and (b) socio-demographic, loss-related, and cognitive variables associated with subgroup membership. We used

  4. Maladaptive coping in adults who have experienced early parental loss and grief counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Beverley Lim; Appel, Charlotte W.; von Heymann-Horan, Annika B.


    bereaved adults who received grief counseling (N = 822 women, N = 190 men) with bereaved controls who had not (N = 233 women, N = 66 men). Bereaved adults reported significantly more substance use, behavioral disengagement, and emotional eating than non-bereaved adults. Counseling participants reported...

  5. Long-term effects of the Family Bereavement Program on spousally bereaved parents: Grief, mental health problems, alcohol problems, and coping efficacy. (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Cham, Heining; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim


    This study reports on the findings from a 6-year follow-up of a randomized trial of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on the outcomes for spousally bereaved parents. Spousally bereaved parents (N = 131) participated in the trial in which they were randomly assigned to receive the FBP (N = 72) or literature control (N = 59). Parents were assessed at four time points: pretest, posttest, and 11-month and 6-year follow-up. They reported on mental health problems, grief, and parenting at all four time periods. At the 6-year follow-up, parents reported on additional measures of persistent complex bereavement disorder, alcohol abuse problems, and coping efficacy. Bereaved parents in the FBP as compared to those in the literature control had lower levels of symptoms of depression, general psychiatric distress, prolonged grief, and alcohol problems, and higher coping efficacy (for mothers) at the 6-year follow-up. Multiple characteristics of the parent (e.g., gender, age, and baseline mental health problems) and of the spousal death (e.g., cause of death) were tested as moderators of program effects on each outcome, but only 3 of 45 tests of moderation were significant. Latent growth modeling found that the effects of the FBP on depression, psychiatric distress, and grief occurred immediately following program participation and were maintained over 6 years. Mediation analysis found that improvement in positive parenting partially mediated program effects to reduce depression and psychiatric distress, but had an indirect effect to higher levels of grief at the 6-year follow-up. Mediation analysis also found that improved parenting at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated by program effects to reduce depression and that program effects to increase coping efficacy at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated through reduced depression and grief and improved parenting. FBP reduced mental health problems, prolonged grief, and alcohol abuse, and increased coping

  6. Rural health professionals' perspectives on providing grief and loss support in cancer care. (United States)

    Breen, L J; O'Connor, M


    Research demonstrates considerable inequalities in service delivery and health outcomes for people with cancer living outside large metropolitan cities. Semi-structured interviews with 11 professionals providing grief and loss support for people with cancer and their families in rural, regional, and remote areas Western Australia revealed the challenges they faced in delivering such support. The data are presented in four themes - Inequity of regional versus metropolitan services, Strain of the 'Jack of all trades' role, Constraints to accessing professional development, and Challenges in delivering post-bereavement services. These challenges are likely to be of growing concern given that populations are declining in rural areas as Australia becomes increasingly urban. The findings have implications in enhancing the loss and grief support services available in rural, regional, and remote Western Australia, including those grieving the death of a loved one through cancer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Art Therapy Applications of Dolls in Grief Recovery, Identity, and Community Service (United States)

    Feen-Calligan, Holly; McIntyre, Barbara; Sands-Goldstein, Margaret


    This article reviews the history of dollmaking that is relevant to art therapy, and the application of dolls as therapeutic media in clinical and educational settings. The authors describe their experiences using dollmaking in the resolution of grief, in professional identity construction, and in community service. The article addresses the…

  8. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice (United States)

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat


    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  9. Complicated grief in Aboriginal populations. (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Sareen, Jitender; Elias, Brenda; Martens, Patricia; Munro, Garry; Bolton, James


    To date there have been no studies examining complicated grief (CG) in Aboriginal populations. Although this research gap exists, it can be hypothesized that Aboriginal populations may be at increased risk for CG, given a variety of factors, including increased rates of all-cause mortality and death by suicide. Aboriginal people also have a past history of multiple stressors resulting from the effects of colonization and forced assimilation, a significant example being residential school placement. This loss of culture and high rates of traumatic events may place Aboriginal individuals at increased risk for suicide, as well as CG resulting from traumatic loss and suicide bereavement. Studies are needed to examine CG in Aboriginal populations. These studies must include cooperation with Aboriginal communities to help identify risk factors for CG, understand the role of culture among these communities, and identify interventions to reduce poor health outcomes such as suicidal behavior.

  10. Mourning Child Grief Support Group Curriculum: Early Childhood Edition, Kindergarten-Grade 2. (United States)

    Lehmann, Linda; Jimerson, Shane R.; Gaasch, Ann

    The Mourning Child Early Childhood grief support curriculum is intended for use with early elementary-aged children, specifically children in kindergarten through grade two, who have experienced the death of someone special to them. It is designed for use by professionals who work in schools, hospitals, hospices, mental health agencies, or any…

  11. Factors Associated with Complicated Grief in Students Who Survived the Sewol Ferry Disaster in South Korea. (United States)

    Lee, So Hee; Nam, Hee Sun; Kim, Hak Beom; Kim, Eun Ji; Noh, Jin-Won; Chae, Jeong-Ho


    The Sewol ferry disaster caused shock and grief in South Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with symptoms of complicated grief (CG) among the surviving students 20 months after that disaster. This study was conducted using a cross-sectional design and a sample of 57 students who survived the Sewol ferry disaster. Data were collected using the following instruments: Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events-Child, the Child Report of Post-Traumatic Symptoms (CROPS), KIDSCREEN-27, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales-III, the Peri-traumatic Dissociation-Post-traumatic Negative Beliefs-Post-traumatic Social Support scale, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. A generalized linear model using a log link and Poisson distribution was performed to identify factors associated with symptoms of CG. The mean score on the ICG was 15.57 (standard deviation: 12.72). Being born in 1999, a higher score on the CROPS and a lower score in autonomy and relationship with parents on the KIDSCREEN-27 were related to higher levels of CG. Twenty months after the Sewol ferry disaster, 24.5% of surviving students were suffering from CG. This study uncovered a vulnerable population of bereaved children at high risk for CG.

  12. Mourning Child Grief Support Group Curriculum: Middle Childhood Edition, Grades 3-6. (United States)

    Lehmann, Linda; Jimerson, Shane R.; Gaasch, Ann

    The Mourning Child Early Childhood grief support curriculum is intended for use with late elementary and middle school-aged children, specifically children in grades three through six, who have experienced the death of someone special to them. It is designed for use by professionals who work in schools, hospitals, hospices, mental health agencies,…

  13. The utilisation of storytelling as a therapeutic intervention by educational psychologists to address behavioural challenges relating to grief of adolescent clients



    M.Ed. (Educational Psychology) Storytelling as a therapeutic intervention entails the narrating of events by externalising emotions, thoughts and responses to life-changing events such as loss and grief. This creates the opportunity for clients to engage with psychologists by projecting various beliefs and challenges, such as grief, through a range of therapeutic modalities. This study conducts an inquiry into the ways in which storytelling can be utilised by educational psychologists with...

  14. Cautioning Health-Care Professionals : Bereaved Persons Are Misguided Through the Stages of Grief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Margaret; Schut, Henk; Boerner, Kathrin


    Science and practice seem deeply stuck in the so-called stage theory of grief. Health-care professionals continue to "prescribe" stages. Basically, this perspective endorses the idea that bereaved people go through a set pattern of specific reactions over time following the death of a loved one. It

  15. A pilgrimage into the liminal: an experiential enquiry into the psychological and embodied space of grief and its representation in film


    Lovey, Christina


    The lived experience of grief is a universal phenomenon that is both a psychological and embodied experience; it finds expression in varying art forms and is considered in multiple discourses, including psychoanalysis. This project identifies a range of responses to loss and grief and critically reflects on their value and efficacy. Through the use of a phenomenological research process, that results in the production of filmworks, the value of using film as a way of managing and processing...

  16. Growing up with grief: revisiting the death of a parent over the life course. (United States)

    Blank, Nancee M; Werner-Lin, Allison


    In the era of managed care, evidence-based practice, and short term, solution focused interventions, clinicians in agency based settings generally do not have the luxury of long-term contact with bereaved children. Although a substantial, yet controversial, literature argues that children cannot fully resolve early loss until adulthood, limited attention is given to how children's understandings of early loss shift as their cognitive capacities mature. This article argues the emotional experience of grief shifts: 1) as children grapple with both normative life changes and the tasks of mourning, and 2) as their cognitive and emotional development allow them to understand and question aspects of their deceased parent's life and death in new ways. This article will present an overview of longitudinal and cross-sectional research on the long-term impact of childhood grief. We then suggest the ways bereaved children and adolescents revisit and reintegrate the loss of a parent as their emotional, moral, and cognitive capacities mature and as normative ego-centrism and magical thinking decline. To demonstrate these ideas, we draw on the case of a parentally bereaved boy and his family presenting across agency-based and private-practice work over the course of 14 years. This case suggests the need for coordinated care for children who are moving beyond the initial trauma of parental loss into various stages of grief and reintegration. While the loss of a parent is permanent and unchanging, the process is not: it is part of the child's ongoing experience. (Worden, 1996, p. 16).

  17. Self-compassion, grief rumination, and psychopathology among relatives of missing persons : A mediation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Lonneke I.M.; Eisma, Maarten C.; de Keijser, Jos; Boelen, Paul A.


    Abstract Introduction Experiencing the disappearance of a loved one is a unique type of loss that may heighten the risk of developing prolonged grief (PG), depression, and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Little is known about protective and risk factors for psychopathology among relatives of

  18. The bereavement process of tissue donors' family members: responses of grief, posttraumatic stress, personal growth, and ongoing attachment. (United States)

    Hogan, Nancy; Schmidt, Lee; Coolican, Maggie


    Donated tissues can save lives of critically burned patients and those needing a heart valve replacement. Tissues enhance the lives of a million recipients annually through transplants of corneas, bones, tendons, and vein grafts. Unfortunately, the need for some tissues exceeds their availability. The goal of the quantitative component of this mixed methods study was to identify the grief, posttraumatic stress, personal growth, and ongoing attachment response of tissue donors' family members during a 2-year period. Simultaneous mixed methods design. The sample for this study consisted of 52 tissue donors' family members, mostly widows (83%). Data were collected for 2 years to test changes in grief, posttraumatic stress, panic behavior, personal growth, and ongoing attachment. The bereaved participants experienced significantly fewer grief reactions, less posttraumatic stress, and greater personal growth. There was no significant difference in the ongoing attachment to their deceased loved ones. The results of this study may reinforce the positive meaning that tissue donors' family members can find in tissue donation. Findings also demonstrate that the bereavement process corroborates contemporary bereavement and attachment theories. Health professionals are encouraged to seek donations with less worry that tissue donors' family members will experience adverse outcomes during bereavement.

  19. Suicide Survivors' Mental Health and Grief Reactions: A Systematic Review of Controlled Studies (United States)

    Sveen, Carl-Aksel; Walby, Fredrik A.


    There has been a debate over several decades whether suicide survivors experience more severe mental health consequences and grief reactions than those who have been bereaved through other causes of death. This is the first systematic review of suicide survivors' reactions compared with survivors after other modes of death. Studies were identified…

  20. The relative importance of avoidance and restoration-oriented stressors for grief and depression in bereaved parents. (United States)

    Harper, Mairi; O'Connor, Rory C; O'Carroll, Ronan E


    Previous research has identified a number of individual risk factors for parental bereavement including the sex of the parent, the sex of the child, avoidance-focussed coping style and time since death. These factors emerged from research where variables were tested univariately and their relative importance is currently unknown. The current research, therefore, aims to investigate which risk factors are important, multivariately, for the outcomes of grief and depression in parents following the death of their child. Psychosocial measures were completed by 106 bereaved parents four years post-loss, recruited from death records in Scotland. The cause of the child's death included long-term illness and stillbirths as well as sudden and violent deaths. In multivariate regression analyses, depression was predicted by higher avoidance-focussed coping and higher number of restoration-oriented stressors such as relationship difficulties, problems at work and financial issues. Grief was predicted by higher avoidance, restoration stressors and level of continuing bonds. The present study adds to the knowledge about the phenomenon of parental bereavement with participants recruited directly from death records rather than through support, clinical or obituary sources. Factors previously found to be associated with outcomes when tested univariately such as sudden, violent death or sex of the parent were not significant when tested multivariately. This study highlights that different vulnerability factors exist for grief and depression in bereaved parents.

  1. Advanced Cancer Patients' Perceptions of Dignity: The Impact of Psychologically Distressing Symptoms and Preparatory Grief. (United States)

    Kostopoulou, Sotiria; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Katsaragakis, Stylianos; Papazoglou, Irene; Zygogianni, Anna; Galanos, Antonis; Mystakidou, Kyriaki


    The present study assesses the relationship between patient dignity in advanced cancer and the following variables: psychological distress, preparatory grief, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The sample consisted of 120 patients with advanced cancer. The self-administered questionnaires were as follows: the Preparatory Grief in Advanced Cancer Patients (PGAC), the Patient Dignity Inventory-Greek (PDI-Gr), the Greek Schedule for Attitudes toward Hastened Death (G-SAHD), and the Greek version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (G-HADS). Moderate to strong statistically significant correlations were found between the 4 subscales of PDI-Gr (psychological distress, body image and role identity, self-esteem, and social support) with G-HADS, G-SAHD, and PGAC ( P dignity among patients with advanced cancer. Clinicians should assess and attend to dignity-distressing factors in the care of patients with advanced cancer.

  2. Emotional response patterns of depression, grief, sadness and stress to differing life events: a quantitative analysis. (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Paterson, Amelia; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan


    In clarifying the clinical definition of an episode of major depression, DSM-5 equates bereavement with a number of other loss-related stressors (e.g. financial ruin, serious medical problems) and infers differences between such loss-related and non-loss-related responses. We undertook a study with the aim of examining the likelihood of varying life stressors leading to depression or to other emotional responses, and so allowing consideration as to whether bereavement might be equivalent to other loss-related stressful triggers. We studied a sample comprising sub-sets of those likely to have either experienced or never experienced a clinical depressive episode and report data for both the whole sample and the separate sub-sets. Participants were asked to report their exposure to 16 differing stressors and, given definitions of depression, grief, sadness and stress, to rate (in order of importance) their primary and secondary reactions if so experienced. Only one event (i.e. the individual being left by their partner) generated depression as the most likely response within the sample. A grief reaction was nominated as the most likely primary response to the death of a first-degree relative (52%) and was also a relatively common primary response to the death of a more distant relative or close family friend (36%). While one-fourth (24%) nominated grief as the primary response to being left by one's partner, it was rarely nominated as a primary response to all other events, including the DSM-5 'loss-related' exemplars of a financial crisis and of a medical illness (rates of 3% and 2%, respectively). As participants were given a definition of the emotional responses and candidate contexts, their responses may have been a reflection of the definitions provided. Additionally, a retrospective, self-report design was used which may have impacted on the veracity of responses. Findings position a grief response as showing relative specificity to bereavement events and that

  3. The mourning before: can anticipatory grief theory inform family care in adult intensive care? (United States)

    Coombs, Maureen A


    Although anticipatory grief is a much-debated and critiqued bereavement concept, it does offer a way of understanding and exploring expected loss that may be helpful in certain situations. In end-of-life care in adult intensive care units, families often act as proxy decision makers for patients in the transition from curative treatment efforts to planned treatment withdrawal. Despite there being a developed evidence base to inform care of families at this time, few of the clinical studies that provided this evidence were underpinned by bereavement theory. Focusing on end-of-life intensive care practices, this paper integrates work on anticipatory grief and family interventions to present a family-centred framework of care. Through this it is argued that the complex needs of families must be more comprehensively understood by doctors and nurses and that interventions must be more systematically planned to improve quality end-of-life care for families in this setting.

  4. The grief experience of same-sex couples within an Irish context: tacit acknowledgement. (United States)

    Glackin, Michelle; Higgins, Agnes


    This study sought to explore the grief experience of same sex couples. To date, the majority of research in this area has focused on the bereavement experience of individuals whose partner has died from an AIDS/HIV-related illness. The research design used was descriptive exploratory. A multi-pronged sampling strategy was employed to generate participants. Seven people underwent in-depth interviews once the study had received ethical approval. Data were analysed by coding, comparing, and merging codes into higher order themes. Five themes subsequently emerged that captured the essence of the bereavement experience, namely:'tacit acknowledgement'; 'sculpting the distress'; 'multiple losses'; 'seeking support'; and 'journeying anew.' While not all bereaved gay or lesbian partners experience 'disenfranchized grief', particularly if their relationship with the deceased was not hidden, it is clear from the findings of this study that many of the participants did (Doka, 1989;Wallbank, 1998). Health care professionals need to consider their approach to people who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, if they are to provide support structures (formal and informal) to meet their unique needs.

  5. The MM-CGI Cerebral Palsy: modification and pretesting of an instrument to measure anticipatory grief in parents whose child has cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Al-Gamal, Ekhlas; Long, Tony


    To establish the potential of a modified version of the MM-CGI Childhood Cancer to assess anticipatory grief in parents of children with cerebral palsy, to amend the existing scale for use with the specific patient group, to test the psychometric properties of the modified version (MM-CGI Cerebral Palsy) and to review the clinical potential of the new scale. Parents of children with cerebral palsy may experience reactions similar to parents of children with other enduring or life-limiting conditions, and anticipatory grief may be one such psychological reaction. While the burden of caring is sometimes balanced by positive perceptions of the child, which enhance coping ability, for many parents the outcome is damage to their physical and mental health and impaired family functioning. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational design. The MM-CGI Cerebral Palsy was administered in structured interviews with 204 parents. Standardised measures of caregivers' depression, stress and perceived social support were also administered. Mothers and fathers were recruited from healthcare centres and schools for special education. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency, and Pearson's product-moment correlation was used to assess construct validity. The subscales were each found to measure a single dimension of anticipatory grief, and significant correlations were established with existing instruments. The instrument demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability and good construct validity. The MM-CGI Cerebral Palsy could be useful for diagnosing anticipatory grief among parents of children with cerebral palsy. This preliminary work moves the programme on to testing in intervention studies. In the absence of an existing measure for the assessment of anticipatory grief, specifically in parents of children with cerebral palsy, the MM-CGI Cerebral Palsy could prove to be an effective assessment tool for clinicians and researchers. © 2013 John Wiley

  6. Evaluating Referral, Screening, and Assessment Procedures for Middle School Trauma/Grief-Focused Treatment Groups (United States)

    Grassetti, Stevie N.; Williamson, Ariel A.; Herres, Joanna; Kobak, Roger; Layne, Christopher M.; Kaplow, Julie B.; Pynoos, Robert S.


    There is a need to delineate best practices for referring, assessing, and retaining students suspected of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and maladaptive grief (MG) in school-based treatment. Evidence-based risk-screening procedures should accurately include students who are appropriate for group treatment and exclude students who do not require…

  7. Developing a Blended Course on Dying, Loss, and Grief (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Karen; Andreoni, V. Ann; Wilkie, Diana J.; Burgener, Sandra; Buschmann, MaryBeth Tank; Henderson, Gloria; Hsiung, Yi-Fang Yvonne; Zhao, Zhongsheng


    An important component of end-of-life education is to provide health professionals with content related to dying, loss, and grief. The authors describe the strategies used to develop and offer a blended course (integration of classroom face-to-face learning with online learning) that addressed the sensitive and often emotional content associated with grieving and bereavement. Using Kolb’s experiential learning theory, a set of 4 online learning modules, with engaging, interactive elements, was created. Course evaluations demonstrated the success of the blended course in comparison to the traditional, exclusive face-to-face approach. PMID:19412055

  8. Do Incarcerated Offenders Experience the Five Stages of Grief as Do Terminally Ill Patients? (United States)

    Pledger, Carolyn Brastow


    Examines Kubler-Ross' five stages of grief (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance) as they are experienced not by terminally ill persons, but by 20 criminal offenders and their families during incarceration. Concludes that shock of arrest and incarceration stimulates reactions similar to those of persons coping with terminal diagnosis.…

  9. Grief, Anger, Social Action: Experiences of the Windsor Chapter, Mothers against Drunk Driving (MADD). (United States)

    Kroeker, B. J.; And Others


    The experiences of the Windsor, Ontario, Canada, chapter of Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), in its development and progress through the grief-anger-social action continuum, are described. This article also portrays a model for problem resolution which emphasizes incorporating the respective strengths and efficiencies of self-help groups and…

  10. Grief rumination mediates the association between self-compassion and psychopathology in relatives of missing persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Lonneke; Eisma, Maarten; de Keijser, Jos; Boelen, P.A.


    Background The disappearance of a loved one is a unique type of loss, also termed “ambiguous loss”, which may heighten the risk for developing prolonged grief (PG), depression, and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Little is known about protective and risk factors for psychopathology among

  11. Feelings of loss and grief in parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (United States)

    Fernańdez-Alcántara, Manuel; García-Caro, M Paz; Pérez-Marfil, M Nieves; Hueso-Montoro, Cesar; Laynez-Rubio, Carolina; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco


    Various authors have reported feelings of loss and grief in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. However, no previous studies have investigated the structure of these feelings. To analyze in depth the feelings of loss in parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. A qualitative study was conducted based on grounded theory. Twenty parents participated through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, asking about different emotional aspects of the upbringing of a child with autism spectrum disorder. Atlas.ti 6.2 program was used for open, axial, and selective coding. The core category that explained the feelings of these parents was unexpected child loss, associated with shock, negation, fear, guilt, anger, and/or sadness. Two processes were identified, one associated with the resolution of grief and the other with obstacles to overcoming it. Feelings of loss play an important role in explaining the complex emotions experienced by these parents. Different intervention strategies are proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A longitudinal study of the grief of mothers and fathers of children with intellectual disability. (United States)

    Bruce, E J; Schultz, C L; Smyrnios, K X


    As a follow-up to a single-point-in-time study which suggested support for the proposition that grieving is an ongoing feature of parenting children with intellectual disability, the present investigation reports findings based on annual interviews conducted over a three-year period. Longitudinal outcomes on measures used to define grief largely confirmed the original findings. Of particular interest were (a) indications of the presence of grief over time (b) the finding that the 49 mothers and 49 fathers report similar intensity of continued wishing for what might have been, and (c) the conclusion that the responses of the mothers on the Impact of Event Scale and to current levels of distress when thinking about time of diagnoses are significantly more intense than those of the fathers. Attention is drawn to patterns emerging from gender-related differences. Resulted are discussed within the framework of four mandates for research and practice, with particular reference to psycho-educational support through groupwork.

  13. A Cognitive Attachment Model of prolonged grief: integrating attachments, memory, and identity. (United States)

    Maccallum, Fiona; Bryant, Richard A


    Prolonged grief (PG), otherwise known as complicated grief, has attracted much attention in recent years as a potentially debilitating condition that affects approximately 10% of bereaved people. We propose a model of PG that integrates processes of attachment, self-identity, and autobiographical memory. The paper commences with a discussion of the PG construct and reviews current evidence regarding the distinctiveness of PG from other bereavement related-outcomes. We then review the evidence regarding the dysfunctional attachments, appraisals, and coping styles that people with PG display. Recent evidence pertaining to the patterns of autobiographical memory in PG is described in the context of the self-memory system. This system provides a unifying framework to understand the roles of personal memories, identity, attachments, and coping responses in PG. The proposed model places emphasis on how one's sense of identity influences yearning, memories of the deceased, appraisals, and coping strategies, to maintain a focus on the loss. The model is discussed in relation to existing models of PG. The potential for shaping treatment strategies to shift perceptions of the self is then outlined. Finally, we outline future directions to test propositions stemming from the model and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying PG. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. "So truly afflicting and distressing to me his sorrowing mother": expressions of maternal grief in eighteenth-century Philadelphia. (United States)

    McMahon, Lucia


    In 1781, Lowry Wister produced an eight-page account of her three-year son’s death from small pox. Lowry Wister’s narrative offers important insights into the emotional landscape of mothering, mourning, and religion in late eighteenth-century America. Religious and cultural prescriptions stressed restraint throughout the mourning process, and in particular admonished women to avoid excessive displays of grief. Lowry Wister’s emotional struggles as a “sorrowing mother” enable us to examine the relationship between individual experiences and prescribed expressions of grief and mourning. While eighteenth-century conventions stressed quiet resignation to God’s will, emerging cultural changes increasingly enabled – indeed, encouraged – women to give public voice to their private emotions. By the nineteenth century, sentimental views of childhood, along with a culture of mourning, inspired parents – especially mothers – to give full expression to intense feelings of loss and sorrow. Lowry Wister’s narrative reveals how women responded to and negotiated various religious, cultural and literary conventions that shaped their understandings of motherhood and mourning. Her narrative illustrates the various ways in which individual women challenged cultural norms and helped usher in new forms of emotional and literary expression. Comparisons of Wister’s narrative to other eighteenth-century women’s writings on grief and mourning further illuminate the interplay between cultural convention and individual expression.

  15. Associations between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors (United States)

    Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas


    A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed…

  16. Grief and mourning in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Wittmann, Daniela; Keshavan, Matcheri


    Depression and suicidality after first episode of psychosis are well-documented responses in patients with schizophrenia (Addington, Williams, Young, & Addington, 2004). The understanding of depression and suicidality has been increasingly refined through careful study. Researchers have identified a number of factors that may cause depression such as insight into the illness, feelings of loss and inferiority about the illness as a damaging life event, hopelessness about having a viable future with the illness and mourning for losses engendered by the illness. The authors argue that grief and mourning are not just an occasional reaction to the diagnosis of schizophrenia, but are a necessary part of coming to terms with having the illness. They offer three case examples, each of which illuminates a distinct way in which psychosis and mourning may be related--psychosis as a loss of former identity, psychosis as offering meaning and transformation, and psychosis as a way of coping with the inability to mourn. In their view, recovery depends on mourning illness-related losses, developing personal meaning for the illness, and moving forward with "usable insight" and new identity (Lewis, 2004) that reflects a new understanding of one's strengths and limitations with the illness.

  17. How Adults With an Intellectual Disability Experience Bereavement and Grief: A Qualitative Exploration


    McRitchie, Robyn; McKenzie, Karen; Quayle, Ethel; Harlin, Margaret; Neumann, Katja


    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of bereavement of 13 adults with an intellectual disability and found that their experiences could be situated within the concept of disenfranchised grief. The latter mediated participants' meaning making of the grieving process illustrated in the themes of intra- and interpersonal bereavement experiences, core beliefs about life and death, level of inclusion, and maintaining a continuing relationship with the deceased. The results suggest...


    Rachamim, Lilach


    This article highlights the feasibility of a dyadic prolonged exposure (DPE) intervention (L. Rachamim, I. Mirochnik, L. Helpman, N. Nacasch, & E. Yadin, ) in a 3-year-old preschooler and in a 6-year-old kindergartener immediately following the traumatic death of their younger sibling. It presents a detailed case description of the DPE treatment addressing traumatic grief and includes transcribed treatment dialogue. At the time of treatment termination, both children and caregivers resumed normal functioning. The results suggest that DPE intervention may ameliorate posttraumatic grief symptoms in young children. Controlled studies of preventive interventions for this population are clearly warranted. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. A Greek perspective on concepts of death and expression of grief, with implications for practice. (United States)

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Tsilika, Eleni; Parpa, Efi; Katsouda, Emmanuela; Vlahos, Lambros


    Death has been conceptualised in different ways by different cultures and civilizations. It is increasingly entering into the public consciousness and society is now more ready to discuss and lessen the fear of dying and grief than it has been in the past few decades. In Greece, by Classical times there was an increase in burial rituals and commemorative practices compared to earlier periods. When Christianity was introduced into Greece it attempted to change the way the dead were mourned, preaching immortality of the soul and resurrection of the dead. Nevertheless, the way people grieve and bury their dead in Greece has not changed greatly since before the introduction of Christianity, except for the difficulty experienced in witnessing burial procedures observed in the large cities. Burial and bereavement traditions were introduced to help Greeks cope with death and bereavement. In Greece today beliefs about grief and death are based both on the ancient and the Christian Orthodox traditions. Healthcare professionals need to develop cultural competence to improve nursing and future health care. If care is culturally informed and tailored its quality is improved.

  20. A Qualitative Study on the Grief of People Who Lose Their Only Child: From the Perspective of Familism Culture

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    Yudi Zhang


    Full Text Available Shidu is the Chinese transliteration for ‘losing an only child,’ which indicates the death of the only child in the family. Shidu is a unique social phenomenon resulting from the One-Child Policy implemented in China for several decades. Shiduers are parents who have lost their only child. The grief research scholar Neimeyer (2012 argued that grief research should consider the role of different cultures in the grieving process. Familism culture is a collectivist culture that has a profound effect on Chinese society and is likely to produce a significant effect on the grieving process of shiduers; however, this effect has not yet received systematic attention in research. To explore the effect of familism culture on the grief of shiduers, we conducted semi-structured personal interviews in Beijing, China, with seven shiduers. The study results show that the effect of familism culture on the grief of shiduers includes three levels: cognition, emotion, and behavior. These levels are reflected in a variety of relationships, including relationships with ancestors, the deceased child, the spouse, relatives, Tong Ming Ren (the Chinese transliteration of ‘people who share the same fate’, and the country. The first four types of relationships are reflections of ‘direct familism culture,’ and the latter two types of relationships are reflections of ‘extended familism culture’. The relationships with the deceased child, relatives, and Tong Ming Ren are mainly supportive; the relationship with ancestors is mainly stressful; the relationship with the spouse has a dual nature; and the relationship with the country is contradictory. Over time, shiduers have abandoned the concept of familism culture and have moved toward reducing stress and increasing supportiveness. Psychological professionals, social workers, and government staff may refer to the results of this study to help shiduers obtain support and reduce stress from the described

  1. Grief elaboration in families with handicapped member. (United States)

    Calandra, C; Finocchiaro, G; Raciti, L; Alberti, A


    Families with handicapped member seem to follow the same five stages (rejection and isolation, anger, dealing with the problem, depression, acceptance) of Kubler-Ross grief elaboration theory while dealing with the narcissistic wound of a handicapped child. Some of these families show a block in one of the stages. The effort of psychotherapy is to remove the block and let them reach the last stage. In this paper families under systemic psychotherapeutic treatment are analyzed, who had in common the birth of a child with low or modest invalidating signs and psychotic or autistic features. The families structure did not show the characteristics of a psychotic family. Nevertheless either one or both parents ignored the evidence of their child disease and they built a "disease-incongrous" wait around the child, trying to push away the painful reality. The authors explain the importance of this approach for the improvement of the autistic traits.

  2. Avoidance of Bereavement-Related Stimuli in Chinese Individuals Experiencing Prolonged Grief: Evidence from a Dot-Probe Task

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    Meng Yu


    Full Text Available Background: Attentional bias refers to a preference for (e.g., vigilance or a shifting away (e.g., avoidance of one’s focus with respect to specific stimuli. Accumulating evidence suggests that an attentional bias toward death/threat-related stimuli exists in bereaved individuals experiencing prolonged grief (PG. Measuring for different processing may reflect different cognitive characteristics. Therefore, this study sought to compare information-processing biases in Chinese individuals with high versus low levels of PG symptomatology at supraliminal and subliminal levels, respectively.Method: A 2 (grief level × 2 (consciousness level × 2 (word type three-factor mixed design with supraliminal and subliminal tasks was utilized in the current study. Based on their Prolonged Grief Questionnaire-13 (PG-13 scores, 38 participants were included in the low-PG group, and 34 individuals were included in the high-PG group. All the participants completed a dot-probe task in which they were primed with death-related and life-related words paired with neutral stimuli.Results: High-PG individuals were slower in reacting to the death-related information in both supraliminal and subliminal tasks. After controlling for other symptoms in the backward deletion regression, PG-13 scores significantly predicted the avoidance tendency to death-related words in the supraliminal task, while anxiety was the best predictor of turning one’s vision away from death-related stimuli in the subliminal trials.Conclusion: The results suggested that high PG is associated with a tendency to avoid death-related words. Future research is needed to explore interventions that address the avoidance of death-related stimuli among individuals with elevated, or diagnosable, levels of PG.

  3. Duelo, amor y subjetividad en adolescentes. Grief, love and subjectivity in teenagers.


    Gallo Acosta, Jairo; Muhete, Magnolia


     Grief, love and subjectivity in teenagers.ResumenEl articulo presenta resultados de un proyecto hace parte de la línea de investigación Psicoanálisis y Campo social. Es una propuesta desde la teoría psicoanalítica, en donde se aborda el tema del duelo amoroso en adolescentes, tema relevante para identificar las representaciones de los adolescentes en este proceso, y donde la elaboración de un duelo puede ser un aspecto importante para sus vidas, por eso la importancia de analizar el duelo y ...

  4. Grief Tourism on Destination Image Formation: Afyonkarahisar and Başkomutan National Historical Park

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    Burhan KILIÇ


    Full Text Available The diversification of supply sources owned causes differences between destinations and special interest which is shaped for demand leads to become tourism widespread. In Turkey, there are many destinations where different features exist together. By means of alternative tourism types, various destinations and tourism types emerge. When all the events happened during the Independence War are considered in terms of national heritage, Afyonkarahisar is an important centre among grief tourism destinations. In research related to image components of Afyonkarahisar, confectionery, food products, and thermal tourism are the values of this destination that come to mind first. When the city is considered in terms of tourism, by highlighting the thermal tourism, the slogan “The Capital of Thermal Tourism” has been used. However it is hard to say that thermal tourism has a success taking the research into consideration. Therefore either other tourism values will be used to support the slogan available or with the work of a new image, a new image destination image will be created. The aim of this study is to eliminate the current negativity of Afyonkarahisar province’s destination image, strengthen the image and examine the availability of grief tourism which is one of the heritage tourism types so as to increase its market share

  5. Use of Facebook in the maternal grief process: An exploratory qualitative study. (United States)

    Perluxo, Diana; Francisco, Rita


    This study seeks to explore the potential implications of Facebook use in the process of maternal grief. The participants were 11 women who had lost their children due to accidents or prolonged illness. Semistructured interviews were conducted and subjected to thematic analysis. The participants stated that they used Facebook to receive support, to identify with other mothers, to remember the child who died, to access the child's information, to honor him/her, and to express their feelings. The use of Facebook can play a very important role in the initial phase of grieving due to the functions of this social network.

  6. Clinical correlates of complicated grief among individuals with acute coronary syndromes

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    Pini S


    Full Text Available Stefano Pini,1 Camilla Gesi,1 Marianna Abelli,1 Alessandra Cardini,1 Lisa Lari,1 Francesca Felice,2 Rossella Di Stefano,2 Gianfranco Mazzotta,3 Francesco Bovenzi,4 Daniele Bertoli,5 Lucia Borelli,4 Paola Michi,1 Claudia Oligeri,3 Alberto Balbarini,2 Vijaya Manicavasagar6 1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry Sector, University of Pisa, Pisa, 2Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, University of Pisa, Pisa, 3Unit of Cardiology, Ospedale Sant’Andrea, La Spezia, 4Cardio-Respiratory Department, Ospedale Campo di Marte, Lucca, 5Unit of Cardiology, Ospedale San Bartolomeo, Sarzana (SP, Italy; 6Black Dog Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Objective: The study aimed at exploring bereavement and complicated grief (CG symptoms among subjects without a history of coronary heart disease (CHD at the time of a first acute coronary syndrome (ACS and to evaluate the relationship of CG symptoms and ACS. Method: Overall, 149 subjects with ACS (namely, acute myocardial infarct with or without ST-segment elevation or unstable angina, with no previous history of CHD, admitted to three cardiac intensive care units were included and evaluated by the Structured Clinical Interview for Complicated Grief (SCI-CG, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (MOS-SF-36. Results: Of the total sample of 149 subjects with ACS, 118 (79.2% met criteria for DSM-5 persistent complex bereavement disorder. Among these, subjects who lost a partner, child, or sibling were older (P=0.008, less likely to be working (P=0.032, and more likely to be suffering from hypertension (P=0.021, returned higher scores on the SCI-CG (P=0.001 and developed the index ACS more frequently between 12 and 48 months after the death than those who lost a parent or another relative (P≤0.0001. The occurrence of ACS 12–48 months (P=0.019 after the loss was

  7. Assessing the Role of Attachment to God, Meaning, and Religious Coping as Mediators in the Grief Experience (United States)

    Kelley, Melissa M.; Chan, Keith T.


    Research has examined the relationship of styles of attachment to others and meaning with grief and the stress-related growth process. Less has been written on styles of attachment to God and patterns of religious coping and how these constructs may impact adjustment in persons dealing with loss. This study examines the roles of attachment to God,…

  8. Making Stories and Taking Stories: Methodological Reflections on Researching Grief and Marital Tension following the Death of a Child. (United States)

    Riches, Gordon; Dawson, Pam


    Explores some of the methodological issues which arose during an investigation into experiences of bereaved parents. Notes the values of ethnographic approaches in researching intimate and painful experiences and argues that parents' stories about their children's lives are central to processes of identity reconstruction during grief. (RJM)

  9. Alignment of the Kübler-Ross grief cycle phases with the process of adaptation to type 1 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Isla Pera, Pilar; Moncho Vasallo, Joaquín; Guasch Andreu, Oscar; Torras Rabasa, Alberto


    To understand the process of adaptation to type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and analyze its alignment with the grief cycle phases described by Kübler-Ross. We performed an ethnographic study through in-depth interviews with 20 patients, 10 relatives and 12 health professionals (6 physicians and 6 nurses). For the analysis, the Miles and Huberman qualitative data analysis model was used. Patients diagnosed with DM1 and their families face a loss of lifestyle and of the objects, real or imaginary, of their previous life. Patients and relatives experience emotional reactions that in some cases can be similar to the grief cycle phases described by Kübler-Ross for terminal diseases (denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance). However, there are some differences depending on personal and psycho-social factors. Health professionals tend to relate low adherence to denial of the disease, but some patients feel threatened by the demands of treatment and control and their effects on their quality of life, and consciously choose not to follow recommendations. It is more realistic to talk about disease adaptation than acceptance, since the loss processes are ongoing and patients must reconstruct their identity according to their situation. The grief cycle also affects the family and may differ from that of the patient in its duration, intensity and assessment of problems. Adaptation is a complex process in which many variables intervene. There are observable differences among the mechanisms used by each specific individual. Healthcare professionals, and specifically nurses, should consider the multiple psycho-social dimensions of chronic disease. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Dreams of the Dead among Cambodian Refugees: Frequency, Phenomenology, and Relationship to Complicated Grief and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E.; Field, Nigel P.; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A.; Simon, Naomi


    The authors investigated the importance of dreams of the deceased in the experiencing of prolonged grief (PG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Cambodian refugees who survived the Pol Pot genocide (1975-1979). Such dreams were frequent in the last month (52% of those surveyed), and most often involved a relative who died in the Pol…

  11. Mourning and Grief on Facebook: An Examination of Motivations for Interacting With the Deceased. (United States)

    Willis, Erin; Ferrucci, Patrick


    Facebook not only changed the way we communicate but also the way we mourn and express grief. The social networking site allows users to interact with deceased users' walls after death. This study utilized textual analysis to categorize Facebook posts ( N = 122) on 30 deceased users' walls according to uses and gratifications theory. Most posts were found to be motivated by entertainment, followed by integration and social interaction. Facebook users posted memories, condolences, and interacted with friends and family members in the deceased user's network. Implications and potential future research are discussed.

  12. Helping nurses cope with grief and compassion fatigue: an educational intervention. (United States)

    Houck, Dereen


    Oncology nurses may experience intense physical and emotional exhaustion, identified in the literature as symptoms of cumulative grief and compassion fatigue, with significant consequences for both nurses and organizations. The first step in preventing these consequences is recognition. Organizations should provide nurses with resources including education, counseling, and opportunities to grieve. Nurses need to learn the importance of work-life balance, self-care strategies, and communication skills. Using recommendations from the literature, an educational intervention was designed with the purpose of providing nurses with knowledge, skills, and resources to practice effective self-care and recognize when assistance is needed. The program's objective was to help nurses develop the coping skills and inner resources necessary to maintain their emotional and physical health.

  13. FCJ-160 Politics is Serious Business: Jacques Rancière, Griefing, and the Re-Partitioning of the (NonSensical

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    Steve Holmes


    Full Text Available This article contextualises certain elements of ‘griefing’ as a form of political action in virtual world by drawing on the political philosophy of Jacques Rancière. A small but growing number of scholars are starting to view griefing as an avant-garde, anarchist, or hacktivist political activity. I suggest that Rancière offers a more specific articulation of what constitutes political action and activism for griefing collectives because his understanding of politics is entirely grounded in relationship to the types of communities and individual political equality. The article focuses specifically on the Patriotic Nigras activities in the Great Habbo Raid of 2006 in an attempt to understand how a Rancièreian framework can provide some analytical tools for articulating politics in virtual worlds. I conclude that the PN do not ultimately realise a Rancièreian framework. They challenge not partitions of the sensible, but partitions of the nonsensical specific to the different operation of politics and community formation in virtual worlds.

  14. Coping with losses, grief, and mourning in prostate cancer. (United States)

    Wittmann, Daniela


    Prostate cancer is a highly prevalent disease with a high likelihood of survival. If treated, survivors live with significant and lasting treatment-related side effects. Surgical treatment is associated with urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, and radiation leads to urinary and bowel irritability as well as erectile dysfunction. Patients who undergo hormonal treatment cope with sexual dysfunction, bone density loss, hot flashes, mood symptoms, and cardiac and metabolic disorders. Functional losses have a significant impact on patients and their partners' quality of life and are associated with distress and psychosocial morbidity. Psychosocial treatment is largely unavailable in usual care, but has been shown to reduce distress, to increase positive reappraisal of the illness, and to contribute to the recovery of sexual intimacy. Treatment for grief and mourning, typical reactions to loss, has not been introduced into psychosocial interventions but is increasingly recognized as a path toward a 'new normal' after prostate cancer treatment. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. "Dulling the Edges": Young Men's Use of Alcohol to Deal With Grief Following the Death of a Male Friend (United States)

    Creighton, Genevieve; Oliffe, John; Matthews, Jennifer; Saewyc, Elizabeth


    Background: The death of a male friend can be challenging for men because expressions of grief can be governed and restrained by dominant ideals of masculinity. It is common for young men to engage in health risk practices, such as alcohol overuse, to deal with feelings of sadness. Objective: This qualitative study investigated the ways that young…

  16. Teaching in Grief: Critical Reflections, Redefining Justice, and a Reorientation to Teaching

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    Heather Cherie Moore


    Full Text Available Since the creation of the #BlackLivesMatter movement, many scholars from historically underrepresented communities have revisited discourse on social movements. Many supporters of the #BlackLivesMatter movement are outsiders participating in solidarity with organizers across the globe.  But what happens when questions of police brutality and injustice adversely impact your family and your career? Using the self-narrative method and grief framework, the author describes her teaching transformation in a pilot Multicultural Education course immediately following the death of her cousin in police custody. The author describes how the terms injustice, action, and pedagogy changed over time and took on new meanings during an extended grieving period.

  17. Evolutionizing Grief: Viewing Photographs of the Deceased Predicts the Misattribution of Ambiguous Stimuli by the Bereaved

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    Claire White


    Full Text Available We propose a cognitive-evolutionary model of grief where the function of grief is to reunite a person with an absent partner where this is possible, and where it is not, to disengage and reorientate the individual from the lost agent. The present study investigates the potential factors that affect reunion-promoting symptoms by focusing on the misattribution of external stimuli to the deceased by the bereaved - which we term ‘false recognitions’. We propose three factors that relate to false recognitions: First, we propose that strong attachment to the deceased predisposes one to false recognitions; second, we predict that viewing photographs of the deceased (that were taken when the individual was alive perpetuates false recognitions; and third, we propose that time elapsing since the death diminishes the frequency of false recognitions. In a survey of 164 recently bereaved (<25 months pet owners in the U.S. and U.K., predictions concerning the association of the predictor and outcome variables were confirmed. The strongest predictor was the frequency of viewing photographic images of the deceased, a pattern consonant with our premise that, being evolutionarily novel, realistic photographs are treated as reliable cues that the agent remains a viable relationship partner. This research demonstrates the potential of evolutionary theory to inform mainstream bereavement research.

  18. OA57 The digitalisation of dying, loss and grief on social media channels. (United States)

    Taubert, Mark; Norris, James


    The internet and birth of social media channels have changed the way in which we deal with death, loss and grief forever. Our photo albums are now saved digitally and shared on Facebook. Our private thoughts are now relayed on Twitter. Each year we spend more of our lives online, this workshop will address what happens as we approach death and when we switch off. After building a relationship digitally they recently presented together at the Macmillan Primary Care Conference on the subject 'Can we Palliate Social media'. The outcome of the workshop can be viewed below: 'Can we Palliate Social Media' workshop (about) - BMJ review/results of workshop - We will highlight how the digital landscape has changed to help evoke thought and discussion around the subject of digitising death. They will explore the ethical and moral questions regarding end of life within the digital context. The role of the HCP will be examined in relation to social media and patient practice. All attendees will be provided with a number of simple tasks to carryout online. This will again provide a better understanding around the conversations that are occurring online and the digitisation of death. An interactive 40 min workshop will be directed by us. This will conclude with a 20-minute discussion. Leaflets containing relevant tasks for HCPs to carryout online can be carried out after the workshop. Understanding of the main social and digital channels that we (in the UK) use today. Understanding of how online channels have changed how we communicate and behave. The different ways grieving, remembering and mourning occurs online How death, grief and loss is different online Examination of how social media is breaking down the notion of death Reflect on how could/should HCPs and EOL professionals

  19. Del dolor al duelo: límites al anhelo frente a la desaparición forzada. // From the bereavement to the grief: limits to the yearning faced with the frorced dissapearance.

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    Victoria Eugenia Diaz.


    Full Text Available This article develops the research question about the logic of the grief process when a subject lost is caused by forced disappearance of a loved one. Even though the study of the sources allows to state that the common response to this event is a suspended bereavement, research results allow to propose that there are collective -justice and ritual and individual –grief act- mechanisms which can contribute for a subject to overcome the obstacles and to begin grief resolution. In order to come to this conclusion, the concepts of grief work, reality test, bereavement, and act are discussed to be able to state that the grief for the disappearance does not depend on the reunion with the lost object, nor on the find of a corpse, but on a change of the subject/object relationship where this latter is psychically assumed as radically lost. // El artículo desarrolla la pregunta de investigación en torno a la lógica del proceso de duelo cuando la pérdida de un sujeto es causada por la desaparición forzada de un ser amado. Si bien el estudio de las fuentes permite afirmar que la respuesta común a este evento es la de un dolor suspendido, los resultados de la investigación permiten proponer que existen mecanismo colectivos —la justicia y el ritual— y particulares —el acto de duelo— que pueden contribuir a que un sujeto movilice los obstáculos e inicie la elaboración de su duelo. Se discuten, para llegar a esta conclusión, las nociones de trabajo de duelo, de prueba de realidad, de dolor y de acto, para llegar a afirmar que el duelo por la desaparición no depende del reencuentro con el objeto perdido, ni siquiera bajo la forma de hallazgo del cadáver, sino de un cambio en la relación del sujeto con el objeto donde se instaure psíquicamente este último como radicalmente perdido.

  20. Keeping the Music Alive: Using the "Grief and Hope Box" with Adult Offenders with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Issues (United States)

    Gee, Robert; Springer, Paul; Bitar, George; Drew, Faith; Graff, Chad


    Individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorder (COD) present unique challenges for counselors. When individuals are incarcerated, they suffer unique forms of losses, including the loss and grief of their family members. In addition, they often struggle with stigma and cultural stereotypes that are oppressive and…

  1. ICU versus Non-ICU Hospital Death: Family Member Complicated Grief, Posttraumatic Stress, and Depressive Symptoms. (United States)

    Probst, Danielle R; Gustin, Jillian L; Goodman, Lauren F; Lorenz, Amanda; Wells-Di Gregorio, Sharla M


    Family members of patients who die in an ICU are at increased risk of psychological sequelae compared to those who experience a death in hospice. This study explored differences in rates and levels of complicated grief (CG), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression between family members of patients who died in an ICU versus a non-ICU hospital setting. Differences in family members' most distressing experiences at the patient's end of life were also explored. The study was an observational cohort. Subjects were next of kin of 121 patients who died at a large, Midwestern academic hospital; 77 died in the ICU. Family members completed measures of CG, PTSD, depression, and end-of-life experiences. Participants were primarily Caucasian (93%, N = 111), female (81%, N = 98), spouses (60%, N = 73) of the decedent, and were an average of nine months post-bereavement. Forty percent of family members met the Inventory of Complicated Grief CG cut-off, 31% met the Impact of Events Scale-Revised PTSD cut-off, and 51% met the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale depression cut-off. There were no significant differences in rates or levels of CG, PTSD, or depressive symptoms reported by family members between hospital settings. Several distressing experiences were ranked highly by both groups, but each setting presented unique distressing experiences for family members. Psychological distress of family members did not differ by hospital setting, but the most distressing experiences encountered at end of life in each setting highlight potentially unique interventions to reduce distress post-bereavement for family members.

  2. A biopsychosocial approach to sexual recovery after prostate cancer surgery: the role of grief and mourning. (United States)

    Wittmann, Daniela; Foley, Sallie; Balon, Richard


    Erectile dysfunction is a common side-effect of prostate cancer surgery that causes men suffering and hinders their sexual recovery. There are studies that describe men's and partners' distress and couples' difficulties engaging in sexual recovery. A few studies show a short-term benefit of brief psycho-social interventions such as psychoeducation and counseling. However, there is no conceptual framework to guide psychosocial treatments. We propose a model of intervention in sexual recovery that incorporates grief and mourning as a gateway to new and satisfying sexuality after prostate cancer treatment.

  3. [The influence of unreconciled grief in the family on the functioning and development of a child]. (United States)

    Janusz, Bernadetta; Drozdzowicz, Lucyna


    The aim of the work is to present the influence of unreconciled grief in a family for functioning and growth of a child. The paper is based on some examples of clinical work from the field of family therapy, where developmental problems of children followed their carer's inability to cope with death and bereavement. Presented cases from family therapy serve as examples of possible therapeutic interventions in such situations. They show examples of developmental disturbances and psychopathology of the child who stays in relationship with deeply bereaved intimates.

  4. Meaningful Communication Before Death, but Not Present at the Time of Death Itself, Is Associated With Better Outcomes on Measures of Depression and Complicated Grief Among Bereaved Family Members of Cancer Patients. (United States)

    Otani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Saran; Morita, Tatsuya; Aoyama, Maho; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Shima, Yasuo; Tsuneto, Satoru; Miyashita, Mitsunori


    Few studies have explored the clinical significance of the family's presence or absence at the moment of a patient's death and meaningful communication (saying "goodbye") in terms of post-bereavement outcomes. To explore the potential association between the family's depression/complicated grief and their presence at the moment of a patient's death and the patient's communication with the family. A nationwide questionnaire survey was conducted on 965 family members of cancer patients who had died at palliative care units. More than 90% of family members wished to have been present at the moment of death (agree: 40%, n = 217; strongly agree: 51%, n = 280); 79% (n = 393) thereof were present. Families' presence at death was not significantly associated with the occurrence of depression and complicated grief, but the dying patient's ability to say "goodbye" to the family beforehand was (depression: adjusted odds rate, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.26-0.69 adjusted P = 0.001; complicated grief: adjusted odds rate, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.29-0.94 adjusted P = 0.009). Many families wished to be present at the moment of the patient's death; however, meaningful communication (saying "goodbye") between the patient and family members, and not their presence or absence itself, was associated with better outcomes on measures of depression or complicated grief. Health care professionals could consider promoting both mutual communication (relating to preparation for death) between family members and patients before imminent death, as well as the family's presence at the moment of death. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mortalidad perinatal y duelo materno

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    Eduardo Laverde Rubio


    Full Text Available Two groups of women whose children died during the perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 28 days after birth were studied from the medical-psychological point of view. The first group was formed by 20 patients who reacted to the loss of the child with a prolonged process of grief. The second group was formed by 20 patients (comparison group who elaborated the loss by means of an uncomplicated grief process. The general hypothesis that guided this investigation is the following: the link established between the mother and her real Child, in case the latter should die, makes elaboration of grief easier: on the other hand the insufficient link or lack of it with the real child increases the relation of the mother and her imaginary child, increases the relation with her imaginary child so that if that child dies the narcissistic-type internal, mother-baby relationship tends to complicate the mourning by distorting it and making it last longer. "Real child" refers to the child as an external object and "imaginary child" is the experienced representation of the child or internal object. This general hypothesis was sub-divided into five simple hypothesis, for operative aims. These variables are: visual contact, tactile contact between mother and child. Information about the baby's condition, mother's active participation in searching for a name for the child and her attendance to funerary rites. Results confirmed the basic hypothesis, on establishing that the indicating or facilitating variables of the link showed a significant difference from the statistical point of view between the two groups. Some practical suggestions are made for the personnel of maternity and perinatology services so as to propitiate and facilitate contact between the mother and her child, which at its turn activates the establishment of an emotional link and the elaboration of mourning of the loss of the baby in case he/she should perish.

  6. Death on the digital landscape: a preliminary investigation into the grief process and motivations behind participation in the online memoriam. (United States)

    Egnoto, Michael J; Sirianni, Joseph M; Ortega, Christopher R; Stefanone, Michael


    Increasingly, individuals are bonding and maintaining relationships online. These digital representations of ourselves allow us to connect with others in ways previously not possible. One behavior that is growing in online presentations of self is grieving after the death of an individual in our social network. This work investigates the outcomes of online grieving from a transcorporeal communication model perspective, and draws conclusions on the outcomes of online grief behaviors.

  7. A trial essay about studies of Grief Toward to recovery support for mothers who abuse their children


    遠藤, 野ゆり


    This paper is a short essay about studies of Grief which are written by Sigmund Freud, Melanie Klein, John Bowlby, and Keigo Okonogi. The final aim is to describe parents’, mainly mother’s mechanism of recovery process from their abusing of children. This paper is one piece of this aim. The lag of support for abusing mother seems to be caused by the complexity and difficulty of their mechanism. They often have been abused in their childhood and can’t remember it. The process of recovery is pa...

  8. Loss and grief process and Occupational Therapy assistance in scalping situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Mourão Lopes


    Full Text Available In this research, we aimed to understand the loss and grief process and the occupational therapy assistance to a hospitalized child undergoing a scalping situation. It is a case study of qualitative approach. This survey was carried out with the participation of an 8-year-old female scalping victim. Results revealed that the scalping caused many changes such as loss of hair and parts of the facial skin. The child was hospitalized, staying away from occupational activities such as studying, playing, among others. We observed the expression of feelings such as fear, shame, anxiety and sadness generated by hair loss. Thus, we believe that this research is of high relevance because it allowed contact with a theme so characteristic of northern Brazil, as well as with the perception and clarification about the importance of occupational therapy assistance in providing space for expression and reframing of the doings, giving the opportunity to this child to resume her significant occupational activities.

  9. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, severe psychological distress, explosive anger and grief amongst partners of survivors of high levels of trauma in post-conflict Timor-Leste. (United States)

    Silove, D M; Tay, A K; Steel, Z; Tam, N; Soares, Z; Soares, C; Dos Reis, N; Alves, A; Rees, S


    Little is known about the mental health of partners of survivors of high levels of trauma in post-conflict countries. We studied 677 spouse dyads (n = 1354) drawn from a community survey (response 82.4%) in post-conflict Timor-Leste. We used culturally adapted measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, explosive anger and grief. Latent class analysis identified three classes of couples: class 1, comprising women with higher trauma events (TEs), men with intermediate TEs (19%); class 2, including men with higher TEs, women with lower TEs (23%); and class 3, comprising couples in which men and women had lower TE exposure (58%) (the reference group). Men and women partners of survivors of higher TE exposure (classes 1 and 2) had increased symptoms of explosive anger and grief compared with the reference class (class 3). Women partners of survivors of higher TE exposure (class 2) had a 20-fold increased rate of PTSD symptoms compared with the reference class, a pattern that was not evident for men living with women exposed to higher levels of trauma (class 1). Men and women living with survivors of higher levels of trauma showed an increase in symptoms of grief and explosive anger. The manifold higher rate of PTSD symptoms amongst women living with men exposed to high levels of trauma requires replication. It is important to assess the mental health of partners when treating survivors of high levels of trauma in post-conflict settings.

  10. [Compassionate care for terminally ill term and preterm infants]. (United States)

    Schulze, A; Wermuth, I


    Involvement of the family in decisions to withhold or withdraw intensive care and parental involvement in care planning for terminally ill infants does not aggravate or prolong parents' grief responses, their feelings of guilt, or the incidence of pathological grief responses. Effective physical pain and symptom management is critically important. Compassionate care plans, however, need to implement a number of other and equally important components. Parents are not uniform in their perceived needs to make various kinds of contacts with their dying infant. They should be allowed to make their individual choices regarding contact with their baby during that time. The perinatal loss of a twin infant appears to evoke no less serious stress and risks to parents' compared to the loss of a singleton. The disruption of family life during a perinatal loss affects siblings of the baby, and their specific needs should be acknowledged. Post-death or post-autopsy meetings with the family should routinely be scheduled a few weeks after death, and bereavement support should actively be offered. Parents need to be informed about differences to be expected between maternal and paternal grief responses. The risk of pathological grief variants and chronic grief should be mentioned to parents because professional help is required in such occurrence.

  11. Grief and Bereavement Issues and the Loss of a Companion Animal: People Living with a Companion Animal, Owners of Livestock, and Animal Support Workers (United States)

    Chur-Hansen, Anna


    Companion animals play various roles in people's lives and these roles can impact on loss, grief, bereavement and mourning when the animal has been lost, whether that is through death, when missing, or when relinquished. This paper considers not only companion animal owners, but also those who own farm animals and those who work in animal service…

  12. Infertility and Perinatal Loss: When the Bough Breaks (United States)

    Byatt, Nancy


    Infertility and perinatal loss are common, and associated with lower quality of life, marital discord, complicated grief, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Young women, who lack social supports, have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss or a history of trauma and / or preexisting psychiatric illness are at a higher risk of experiencing psychiatric illnesses or symptoms after a perinatal loss or during infertility. It is especially important to detect, assess, and treat depression, anxiety, or other psychiatric symptoms because infertility or perinatal loss may be caused or perpetuated by such symptoms. Screening, psychoeducation, provision of resources and referrals, and an opportunity to discuss their loss and plan for future pregnancies can facilitate addressing mental health concerns that arise. Women at risk of or who are currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms should receive a comprehensive treatment plan that includes the following: (1) proactive clinical monitoring, (2) evidence-based approaches to psychotherapy, and (3) discussion of risks, benefits, and alternatives of medication treatment during preconception and pregnancy. PMID:26847216

  13. Normal grief and complicated bereavement among traumatized Cambodian refugees: cultural context and the central role of dreams of the dead. (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Peou, Sonith; Joshi, Siddharth; Nickerson, Angela; Simon, Naomi M


    This article profiles bereavement among traumatized Cambodian refugees and explores the validity of a model of how grief and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) interact in this group to form a unique bereavement ontology, a model in which dreams of the dead play a crucial role. Several studies were conducted at a psychiatric clinic treating Cambodian refugees who survived the Pol Pot genocide. Key findings included that Pol Pot deaths were made even more deeply disturbing owing to cultural ideas about "bad death" and the consequences of not performing mortuary rites; that pained recall of the dead in the last month was common (76 % of patients) and usually caused great emotional and somatic distress; that severity of pained recall of the dead was strongly associated with PTSD severity (r = .62); that pained recall was very often triggered by dreaming about the dead, usually of someone who died in the Pol Pot period; and that Cambodians have a complex system of interpretation of dreams of the deceased that frequently causes those dreams to give rise to great distress. Cases are provided that further illustrate the centrality of dreams of the dead in the Cambodian experiencing of grief and PTSD. The article shows that not assessing dreams and concerns about the spiritual status of the deceased in the evaluation of bereavement results in "category truncation," i.e., a lack of content validity, a form of category fallacy.

  14. Experiences with perinatal loss from the health professionals’ perspective La vivencia de la pérdida perinatal desde la perspectiva de los profesionales de la salud A experiência da perda perinatal a partir da perspectiva dos profissionais de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia María Pastor Montero


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to know the experience of health professionals in situations of perinatal death and grief and to describe their action strategies in the management of perinatal loss. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach was carried out through interviews conducted with 19 professionals. Three thematic categories were identified: Healthcare practice, feelings aroused by perinatal loss and meaning and beliefs about perinatal loss and grief. The results revealed that the lack of knowledge and skills to deal with perinatal loss are identified as the main reason behind unsuitable attitudes that are usually adopted in these situations. This generates anxiety, helplessness and frustration that compromise professional competency. The conclusion reached is that the promotion of training programs to acquire knowledge, skills and abilities in management of perinatal bereavement and the development of a clinical practice guideline for perinatal loss are necessary.El objetivo de este artículo es conocer la experiencia vivida por los profesionales de la salud en situaciones de muerte y duelo perinatal y describir las estrategias de actuación ante la pérdida perinatal. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo con un enfoque fenomenológico realizado a 19 profesionales a través de entrevistas. Se identificaron 3 categorías temáticas: la práctica asistencial, los sentimientos que despierta la pérdida perinatal y significado y creencias sobre la pérdida y el duelo perinatal. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que la falta de conocimientos y de recursos para enfrentar la pérdida perinatal hace que se adopten actitudes poco adecuadas en estas situaciones, generando una sensación de ansiedad, impotencia y frustración que compromete la competencia profesional. Se concluye que es fundamental promover programas de formación para adquirir conocimientos y destrezas sobre el duelo perinatal y elaborar una guía de práctica cl

  15. Ecrire et souffrir : L’inspiration partagée de Constance Fenimore Woolson et de Henry James Literature and Grief: Constance Fenimore Woolson and Henry James, A Common Inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Hayat


    Full Text Available Miss Grief is a story by Constance Fenimore Woolson, an American novelist who often wrote about the difficulty a woman had in becoming an artist — a writer or a painter — in the nineteenth century. This tale is a very strange text, a kind of anticipation of a meeting to come, in Italy, in 1880, between Woolson and Henry James, and a friendship which lasted until the former’s death in 1894. For thirteen years, both writers would share a common inspiration. Death itself could not break the links between the two authors, who were connected even when settled in different European countries. William James, who was a member of the American Society for Psychical Research, probably helped his brother Henry to communicate — or so it appears — in some way with Woolson, even after her fatal accident, or possible suicide, in Venice. Henry James probably had in mind Miss Grief, a story by his dead friend, before writing some of his books. Indeed, Woolson had been the first to develop the image of “the figure in the carpet,” which was later transformed by Henry James. Woolson was also the first to devise a plot which Henry James would later use as a canvas for his novel The Wings of the Dove. What is an author and what is authorship? It seems impossible to separate what is Woolson’s and what is Henry James’s in four works of fiction that are in fact to be read together : Miss Grief, The Figure in the Carpet, The Beast in the Jungle, The Wings of the Dove.

  16. Pregnancy continuation and organizational religious activity following prenatal diagnosis of a lethal fetal defect are associated with improved psychological outcome. (United States)

    Cope, Heidi; Garrett, Melanie E; Gregory, Simon; Ashley-Koch, Allison


    The aim of the article is to examine the psychological impact, specifically symptoms of grief, post-traumatic stress and depression, in women and men who either terminated or continued a pregnancy following prenatal diagnosis of a lethal fetal defect. This project investigated a diagnostically homogeneous group composed of 158 women and 109 men who lost a pregnancy to anencephaly, a lethal neural tube defect. Participants completed the Perinatal Grief Scale, Impact of Event Scale - Revised and Beck Depression Inventory-II, which measure symptoms of grief, post-traumatic stress and depression, respectively. Demographics, religiosity and pregnancy choices were also collected. Gender-specific analysis of variance was performed for instrument total scores and subscales. Women who terminated reported significantly more despair (p = 0.02), avoidance (p = 0.008) and depression (p = 0.04) than women who continued the pregnancy. Organizational religious activity was associated with a reduction in grief (Perinatal Grief Scale subscales) in both women (p = 0.02, p = 0.04 and p = 0.03) and men (p = 0.047). There appears to be a psychological benefit to women to continue the pregnancy following a lethal fetal diagnosis. Following a lethal fetal diagnosis, the risks and benefits, including psychological effects, of termination and continuation of pregnancy should be discussed in detail with an effort to be as nondirective as possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. OA12 When grief and work collide. (United States)

    Rosenberg, Kathryn


    There is a significant price to pay for organisations that fail to take seriously the challenges involved in supporting grieving employees in the workplace, including loss of productivity, sickness absence, and low morale. The purpose of this study was to look at how social service organisations implement their bereavement policies and support bereaved staff. The study aimed to raise awareness of current issues and practices in the implementation of bereavement policies and the management and support of grieving employees on their return to work. A generic qualitative method was used and recruitment of six participants from social service organisations within New Zealand was undertaken. Non-probability purposive sampling was used. Data collection was via email interviews. While New Zealand employees are legally entitled to three days paid bereavement leave, how flexible and supportive employers were willing to be beyond that varied. Participants felt out of their depth in dealing with grieving employees and lack of training around grief and loss meant a heavy reliance on external sources of support. The study also exposed a possible lack of understanding in relation to cultural mourning rituals. This study uncovered several areas of concern relating to organisational attitudes towards grieving employees and their ability to adequately support bereaved staff on their return to work. It poses the question for future research as to whether organisations can afford not to care and serves as a springboard for examining the detrimental consequences of neglecting the realities of loss. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  18. Coping Flexibility and Complicated Grief: A Comparison of American and Chinese Samples (United States)

    Burton, Charles L.; Yan, Oscar H.; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Chan, Ide S. F.; Ho, Samuel; Bonanno, George A.


    Background The ability to process a death, and the ability to remain optimistic and look beyond the loss, are both thought to be effective means of coping with loss and other aversive events. Recently, these seemingly contrary dimensions have been integrated into the idea of coping flexibility. Method In this study we assessed the ability of married and bereaved individuals in the US and Hong Kong to use both coping approaches as operationalized by the trauma-focused and forward-focused coping scales of a previously validated questionnaire. We also calculated a single flexibility score. Results Bereaved participants reported greater trauma-focused coping ability than did married participants. However, bereaved participants meeting criteria for complicated grief (CG) reported less forward-focused coping than both asymptomatic bereaved and married participants. The CG group also showed less overall coping flexibility than the asymptomatic bereaved and married groups. Country was not a factor. Conclusions Findings suggest that deficits in coping flexibility are indicative of pathology in bereaved individuals, and that this relationship extends across cultures. Limitations of the study and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21898713

  19. Grieving after early pregnancy loss--a common reality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Purandare, N


    A miscarriage can be very traumatic for a couple and their immediate family. The aim of this study was to assess, using the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS), whether the type of early pregnancy loss influences the severity of grief and whether the presence of living children influences the severity of grief. Over a period of 6 months in 2008, seventy five patients were recruited for the study, of which 7 (9.3%) had molar pregnancies, 20 (26.7%) had ectopic pregnancies, 43 (573%) had a miscarriage and 5 (6.7%) had recurrent miscarriages. In this study there was no significant difference in severity of grief, between women that had a miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy (p = 0.14) or, between women that had a miscarriage and a molar pregnancy (p = 0.85). Women who had experienced a ectopic pregnancy did not have a higher grief intensity than the women that had a molar pregnancy (p = 0.75). However, for women with a child, the grief intensity significantly increases with the number of miscarriages (p = 0.015). Women with no children with an ectopic pregnancy grieve significantly more than those with a child (p = 0.019). An appointment for the \\'Miscarriage Clinic\\' should be offered to all of these women but special attention should be paid to those in the categories most at risk

  20. Effect of counseling quality on anxiety, grief, and coping after second-trimester abortion for pregnancy complications. (United States)

    Kerns, Jennifer L; Mengesha, Biftu; McNamara, Blair C; Cassidy, Arianna; Pearlson, Geffan; Kuppermann, Miriam


    We sought to explore the relationship between counseling quality, measured by shared decision making and decision satisfaction, and psychological outcomes (anxiety, grief, and posttraumatic stress) after second-trimester abortion for pregnancy complications. We conducted a cross-sectional study of women who underwent second-trimester abortion for complications. We recruited participants from Facebook and online support groups and surveyed them about counseling experiences and psychosocial issues. We used multivariate linear regression to evaluate relationships between counseling quality and psychological outcomes. We analyzed data from 145 respondents. Shared decision making and decision satisfaction scores were positively and strongly correlated in bivariate analysis (r=0.7, pCounseling quality may be especially important in this setting given the sensitive nature of decisions regarding pregnancy termination for complications. These results highlight the importance of patient-centered counseling for women seeking pregnancy termination. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. On Mourning and Recovery: Integrating Stages of Grief and Change Toward a Neuroscience-Based Model of Attachment Adaptation in Addiction Treatment. (United States)

    Chambers, R Andrew; Wallingford, Sue C


    Interpersonal attachment and drug addiction share many attributes across their behavioral and neurobiological domains. Understanding the overlapping brain circuitry of attachment formation and addiction illuminates a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of trauma-related mental illnesses and comorbid substance use disorders, and the extent to which ending an addiction is complicated by being a sort of mourning process. Attention to the process of addiction recovery-as a form of grieving-in which Kubler-Ross's stages of grief and Prochaska's stages of change are ultimately describing complementary viewpoints on a general process of neural network and attachment remodeling, could lead to more effective and integrative psychotherapy and medication strategies.

  2. Afrontar el proceso de duelo To deal with grief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Trinidad Pérez Vallejo


    Full Text Available Ana, con su testimonio y con su vida nos enseña como afrontar los procesos de duelo. La muerte de su esposo se produce en febrero de 2005, este suceso fue probablemente la experiencia más difícil e importante que ha pasado durante sus 74 años de vida. Ana cuidó a su esposo durante la enfermedad con celo, dedicación y sobre todo con mucho amor. Ahora nos cuenta su experiencia para que pueda servir a aliviar a todas aquellas personas que se hallan en una situación semejante, a la vez, que rinde homenaje a su esposo que con su vida llena de salud y vitalidad le enseñó a morir. Ana tiene una vida plena dedicada a ayudar a los más necesitados, y canaliza esa ayuda con la gente de su barrio visitando a los enfermos, a los que se encuentran solos y los que tienen condiciones económicas más adversas.Anne, in her testimony and life, teaches us how to deal with grief. The death of her husband, on February, 2005, was probably the most difficult and important occurance in the 74 years of her life. Anne had cared for her husband with zeal, dedication and most importantly, love. Anne shares her experience with us so that it may help to alleviate those of us who find ourselves in a similar situation, and at the same time, pays homage to her husband who, when he was filled whit health and vitality, taught to die. Now Anne has a full life dedicated to helping the most needy as she channels this help through the people of her neighbourhood, visiting the ill, the lonely and those in the most adverse economic circumstances.

  3. A pilot study on the effectiveness of anticipatory grief therapy for elderly facing the end of life. (United States)

    Cheng, Joanna Oi-Yue; Lo, Raymond; Chan, Faye; Woo, Jean


    This pilot study evaluates the benefits of anticipatory grief therapy (AGT) for day hospice patients and long-term care (LTC) residents with cancer and non-malignant chronic diseases. Twenty-six elderly people (69.2 percent female; average age 81.8 years) participated in experiential, expressive activities and discussions during AGT. The McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire-Hong Kong version and the 15-item Geriatrics Depression Scale (Chinese version) were administered immediately before and after AGT, and at a four-week follow-up. Focus groups were held to collect qualitative feedback. Significant post-AGT improvements were found in physical (Z = -2.12, p art, perceived benefits of AGT, and comments and suggestions for improving AGT in the future. We conclude that AGT delivered in both day hospice and LTC settings could be acceptable, feasible, and useful for elderly people facing the end of life.

  4. Ubiquitous media in everyday practices of grief and commemoration on children’s graves and online memorial sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    is not allocated to a specific period of time (a time of mourning) but that grieving and the social technologies like media, materiality and ritualization related to it are embedded in everyday life practices and have to be conceived of as processes rather than events that (suddenly) occur and then are over......’s graves in urban cemeteries. It is, however, also similarly apparent in the formation of network and peer-to-peer associations and, not the least, in the establishment of online networks and sites of grief and commemoration on social media. Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are media alive with discussions...... as such (Featherstone 1992, Elias 1998) and in relation to death practices (Gibson 2008). In recent years, media research has contributed to the field of death studies. Mediatization studies have focused on how various societal practices are influenced by media logics (Livingstone 2009, Lundby 2009) including religious...

  5. The temporal relationship between change in symptoms of prolonged grief and posttraumatic stress following old age spousal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O Connor, Maja; Nickerson, Angela; Aderka, Idan M.


    Background: High levels of both prolonged grief symptoms (PGS) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are relatively common following bereavement, and the two types of bereavement complications share some of the same features. Little research has studied which of the two precedes the other...... following the death of a loved one. The purpose of this study was to examine the temporal relationship between change in high levels of PGS and PTSS during the first four years following old age spousal loss. Methods: Participants were 237 Danes (40% male; mean age = 73 years, SD = 4.4; range 65-81) who....... Results: Lower-level mediation analyses wereas performed. Results indicated that PGS mediated 83% of the relationship between time and PTSS, while PTSS only mediated 17% of the relationship between time and PGS. These results suggest that changes in PGS mediated changes in PTSS following spousal...

  6. Google (encore) encore soupçonné d'abus de position dominante : Observations sur la Communication des griefs de la Commission Européenne du 20 avril 2016


    Mouron , Philippe


    National audience; La Commission, dans cette communication du 20 avril 2016, énonce plusieurs griefs à l'encontre de Google, ceux-ci pouvant faire état d’un abus de position dominante :- les contrats passés avec les fabricants d’appareils mobiles subordonneraient l’octroi de licences pour des applications propriétaires (telles que Playstore) à la préinstallation d’autres applications, dont les plus essentielles pour l’utilisation des smartphones et tablettes (Google Search ou Chrome) ;- ces m...

  7. Narrative reconstruction therapy for prolonged grief disorder—rationale and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuvia Peri


    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged grief disorder (PGD is a potentially disabling condition affecting approximately 10% of bereaved people. It has been suggested that the impaired integration of the loss memory, as expressed in recurrent memories of the loss and disorganization of memory, is involved in the development of PGD. Narrative reconstruction (NR, originally designed for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in an integrative therapy module, and consisting of exposure to the loss memory, detailed written reconstruction of the loss memory narrative and an elaboration of the personal significance of that memory for the bereaved, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of intrusion symptoms. Objective: In light of findings that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT, including cognitive restructuring and exposure, is effective in the treatment of PGD, we suggest the implementation of a somewhat novel therapy module, NR, for the treatment of intrusive phenomena in bereaved patients. Method: The rationale for the implementation of NR for PGD and a case study of the treatment of a woman suffering from PGD after the death of her father are presented. Therapy took place in a university outpatient training clinic. Results: Evaluations conducted before and after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up demonstrated the effectiveness of NR in reducing symptoms of PGD and depression. The analysis of spontaneous narratives recorded before and after treatment showed an increased organization of the narratives. Conclusions: This case report demonstrates an adaptation of NR for the treatment of PGD. The results provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of NR for PGD. The significance of the study and its limitations are discussed.

  8. Psychosocial impact of perinatal loss among Muslim women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutan Rosnah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women of reproductive age are vulnerable to psychosocial problems, but these have remained largely unexplored in Muslim women in developing countries. The aim of this study was to explore and describe psychosocial impact and social support following perinatal loss among Muslim women. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in a specialist centre among Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss. Purposive sampling to achieve maximum variation among Muslims in relation to age, parity and previous perinatal death was used. Data was collected by focus group discussion and in-depth unstructured interview until the saturation point met. Sixteen mothers who had recent perinatal loss of wanted pregnancy, had received antenatal follow up from public or private health clinics, and had delivery in our centre participated for the study. All of them had experienced psychological difficulties including feelings of confusion, emptiness and anxiety over facing another pregnancy. Results Two out of sixteen showed anger and one felt guilt. They reported experiencing a lack of communication and privacy in the hospital during the period of grief. Family members and friends play an important role in providing support. The majority agreed that the decision makers were husbands and families instead of themselves. The respondents felt that repetitive reminder of whatever happened was a test from God improved their sense of self-worth. They appreciated this reminder especially when it came from husband, family or friends closed to them. Conclusion Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss showed some level of adverse psychosocial impact which affected their feelings. Husbands and family members were the main decision makers for Muslim women. Health care providers should provide psychosocial support during antenatal, delivery and postnatal care. On-going support involving husband should be available where needed.

  9. From grief, guilt pain and stigma to hope and pride - a systematic review and meta-analysis of mixed-method research of the psychosocial impact of stillbirth. (United States)

    Burden, Christy; Bradley, Stephanie; Storey, Claire; Ellis, Alison; Heazell, Alexander E P; Downe, Soo; Cacciatore, Joanne; Siassakos, Dimitrios


    Despite improvements in maternity healthcare services over the last few decades, more than 2.7 million babies worldwide are stillborn each year. The global health agenda is silent about stillbirth, perhaps, in part, because its wider impact has not been systematically analysed or understood before now across the world. Our study aimed to systematically review, evaluate and summarise the current evidence regarding the psychosocial impact of stillbirth to parents and their families, with the aim of improving guidance in bereavement care worldwide. Systematic review and meta-summary (quantitative aggregation of qualitative findings) of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods studies. All languages and countries were included. Two thousand, six hundred and nineteen abstracts were identified; 144 studies were included. Frequency effect sizes (FES %) were calculated for each theme, as a measure of their prevalence in the literature. Themes ranged from negative psychological symptoms post bereavement (77 · 1) and in subsequent pregnancies (27 · 1), to disenfranchised grief (31 · 2), and incongruent grief (28 · 5), There was also impact on siblings (23 · 6) and on the wider family (2 · 8). They included mixed-feelings about decisions made when the baby died (12 · 5), avoidance of memories (13 · 2), anxiety over other children (7 · 6), chronic pain and fatigue (6 · 9), and a different approach to the use of healthcare services (6 · 9). Some themes were particularly prominent in studies of fathers; grief suppression (avoidance)(18 · 1), employment difficulties, financial debt (5 · 6), and increased substance use (4 · 2). Others found in studies specific to mothers included altered body image (3 · 5) and impact on quality of life (2 · 1). Counter-intuitively, Some themes had mixed connotations. These included parental pride in the baby (5 · 6), motivation for engagement in healthcare

  10. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 1, 2017 ... ToP, child death or where a child has been given up for adoption at ... A mother may decide to avoid a birth through abortion, she may give a child up for ... families. That is, perinatal loss related grief responses of parents may ...

  11. Cumulative trauma, adversity and grief symptoms associated with fronto-temporal regions in life-course persistent delinquent boys. (United States)

    Lansing, Amy E; Virk, Agam; Notestine, Randy; Plante, Wendy Y; Fennema-Notestine, Christine


    Delinquent youth have substantial trauma exposure, with life-course persistent delinquents [LCPD] demonstrating notably elevated cross-diagnostic psychopathology and cognitive deficits. Because adolescents remain in the midst of brain and neurocognitive development, tailored interventions are key to improving functional outcomes. This structural magnetic resonance imaging study compared neuroanatomical profiles of 23 LCPD and 20 matched control adolescent boys. LCPD youth had smaller overall gray matter, and left hippocampal, volumes alongside less cortical surface area and folding within the left pars opercularis and supramarginal cortex. LCPD youth had more adversity-related exposures, and their higher Cumulative Trauma, Adversity and Grief [C-TAG] symptoms were associated with less surface area and folding in the pars opercularis and lingual gyrus. Neuroanatomical differences between LCPD and control youth overlap with data from both maltreatment and antisocial literatures. The affected left frontal regions also share connections to language- and executive-related functions, aligning well with LCPD youths' cognitive and behavioral difficulties. These data also dovetail with research suggesting the possibility of neurodevelopmental delays or disruptions related to cumulative adversity burden. Thus, concurrent treatment of LCPD youths' C-TAG symptoms and, cognitive deficits with overlapping neuroanatomical bases, may be most effective in improving outcomes and optimizing neurodevelopmental trajectories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 展望 悲嘆の心理過程と心理学的援助


    富田, 拓郎; 太田, ゆず; 小川, 恭子; 杉山, 晴子; 鏡, 直子; 上里, 一郎


    Grief for bereavement influence the psychosomatic status of the bereaved negatively. This paper aimed at reviewing studies on the psychological process of grief, psychological interventions and help for the bereaved. First, we reconsidered and evaluated two basic theories: psychoanalytical grief theory (attachment theory) and stress theory. The grief theory, Freud's traditional theory, induced a number of studies on grief. ln this theory, the bereaved must experience grief work,the task of mo...

  13. Don't rest in peace: cross media uses in everyday practices of grief and commemoration on children’s graves and online memorial sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    This paper demonstrates how everyday practices among those who suffer the loss of a child include the use of both analogue and digital means and media to create meaningful relations to the dead child, the bereaved as well as to the surrounding world. A dead child – be it a stillborn or dead....... In this situation, the process of grief becomes a way of reinstalling meaning by establishing an ongoing relationship to the dead child by which the child – who in life was barely there – gains existence and through which the identity as parents (however to a dead child) is established, communicated and socially...... acknowledged. Based on observation studies and qualitative content analyses of both children’s graves and online memory profiles (Christensen & Sandvik 2013, 2014) combined with interviews with bereaved parents, we present some reflections on how these practices of commemoration, meaning...

  14. Pastoraat in rousmart as bewuste kommunikasie van die emosies van rousmart1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Smith


    Full Text Available New meaning of life within grief. From the perspecive of pastoral care and counselling, one often finds that people experience a lack of meaning in their lives when confronted with grief. Thesalvation through Jesus Christ, and the way it is incorporated in one's life, doesn't bring existential hope and meaning any more. This article attempts to give new meaning to an old discussion of "grief" the conscious and unconscious mind, aswell as the emotions of grief, in such a way that new meaning of life within grief becomes a spiritual way of living, a life coram Deo.

  15. Of Pain and Childbirth. (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin


    Childbirth is often understood as a paradigmatically "happy" event where good outcomes are expected and the process anticipated as a reason for celebration. Yet the narratives in this volume reflect sadness and grief, even when a healthy child is born. In this essay, I interrogate the genesis of and our relationship to grief in birth. To the extent such grief is a product of the chasm between the imagined ideal and what women experience, we may redress such grief by orienting around a more robust and woman-centered notion of the "good birth". Yet there is a way in which grief is also intrinsic to birth, and turning away from the loss that birth by its nature entails may compound the suffering of childbearing women. Beginning with the observation that the one narrative in which grief is accepted and attended to-a full term stillbirth-also stands out for the exemplary care provided, I consider the possibility that making space for grief in births, including those with good outcomes, will lead us to better ways of thinking about birth and providing care for childbearing women.

  16. The affective depth of bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Allan

    In his mourning diaries, Roland Barthes circles around a distinction between the ‘emotivity’ of grief and what he terms ‘suffering’ in grief. The emotivity of grief, we are told, passes with time. Suffering, however, does not. While emotivity manifests in waves, like brushes of emotional states...

  17. Parental grief and memento mori photography: narrative, meaning, culture, and context. (United States)

    Blood, Cybele; Cacciatore, Joanne


    Postmortem photography is a widespread practice in perinatal bereavement care, yet few studies have explored how it affects bereaved parents, or how it might be received by parents of older children. This study is an examination of the meaning, utility, and social context of postmortem photography in a sample of 181 bereaved parents. Data were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Photographs were positively regarded by most parents after perinatal death and several parents of older children. Other parents rejected postmortem photography for aesthetic, personal, or cultural reasons. Brief recommendations are offered for healthcare providers.

  18. Effects of euthanasia on the bereaved family and friends: a cross sectional study. (United States)

    Swarte, Nikkie B; van der Lee, Marije L; van der Bom, Johanna G; van den Bout, Jan; Heintz, A Peter M


    To assess how euthanasia in terminally ill cancer patients affects the grief response of bereaved family and friends. Cross sectional study. Tertiary referral centre for oncology patients in Utrecht, the Netherlands. 189 bereaved family members and close friends of terminally ill cancer patients who died by euthanasia and 316 bereaved family members and close friends of comparable cancer patients who died a natural death between 1992 and 1999. Symptoms of traumatic grief assessed by the inventory of traumatic grief, current feelings of grief assessed by the Texas revised inventory of grief, and post-traumatic stress reactions assessed by the impact of event scale. The bereaved family and friends of cancer patients who died by euthanasia had less traumatic grief symptoms (adjusted difference -5.29 (95% confidence interval -8.44 to -2.15)), less current feeling of grief (adjusted difference 2.93 (0.85 to 5.01)); and less post-traumatic stress reactions (adjusted difference -2.79 (-5.33 to -0.25)) than the family and friends of patients who died of natural causes. These differences were independent of other risk factors. The bereaved family and friends of cancer patients who died by euthanasia coped better with respect to grief symptoms and post-traumatic stress reactions than the bereaved of comparable cancer patients who died a natural death. These results should not be interpreted as a plea for euthanasia, but as a plea for the same level of care and openness in all patients who are terminally ill.

  19. 275---11 Dec 2009 [Final version].indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    11 Des 2009 ... Narrative therapy is suggested as a means of grief counselling, as it makes use of the story analogy, which supports the notion of an open end to the ... narrative approach to grief will generate the consolation needed by the grief-stricken on their ...... International Journal of Practical Theology 8(2), 1–14.

  20. Perceived Family Functioning Predicts Baseline Psychosocial Characteristics in U.S. Participants of a Family Focused Grief Therapy Trial. (United States)

    Schuler, Tammy A; Zaider, Talia I; Li, Yuelin; Masterson, Melissa; McDonnell, Glynnis A; Hichenberg, Shira; Loeb, Rebecca; Kissane, David W


    Screening and baseline data on 170 American families (620 individuals), selected by screening from a palliative care population for inclusion in a randomized controlled trial of family-focused grief therapy, were examined to determine whether family dysfunction conferred higher levels of psychosocial morbidity. We hypothesized that greater family dysfunction would, indeed, be associated with poorer psychosocial outcomes among palliative care patients and their family members. Screened families were classified according to their functioning on the Family Relationships Index (FRI) and consented families completed baseline assessments. Mixed-effects modeling with post hoc tests compared individuals' baseline psychosocial outcomes (psychological distress, social functioning, and family functioning on a different measure) according to the classification of their family on the FRI. Covariates were included in all models as appropriate. For those who completed baseline measures, 191 (30.0%) individuals were in low-communicating families, 313 (50.5%) in uninvolved families, and 116 (18.7%) in conflictual families. Family class was significantly associated (at ps ≤ 0.05) with increased psychological distress (Beck Depression Inventory and Brief Symptom Inventory) and poorer social adjustment (Social Adjustment Scale) for individual family members. The family assessment device supported the concurrent accuracy of the FRI. As predicted, significantly greater levels of individual psychosocial morbidity were present in American families whose functioning as a group was poorer. Support was generated for a clinical approach that screens families to identify those at high risk. Overall, these baseline data point to the importance of a family-centered model of care. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. "We Take Care of People; What Happens to Us Afterwards?": Home Health Aides and Bereavement Care in Hospice. (United States)

    Ghesquiere, Angela; Bagaajav, Ariunsanaa


    After a hospice patient dies, hospice providers can experience a variety of emotional responses. While work has been done on social workers' and nurses' reactions to patient death, home health aides (HHAs) have been overlooked. To address this gap, we conducted focus groups and individual qualitative interviews with 14 hospice HHAs. Questions covered HHAs' grief responses and how they coped with grief. We found a high burden of grief reactions; many HHAs often developed very close patient relationships. HHAs also noted that they often started working with new patients almost immediately after a death, leaving little time to process the loss. However, HHAs found support from other HHAs, their supervisors, as well as family, friends, and spiritual practices to be helpful in coping with their grief. Future work should enhance support to HHAs around patient loss; for example, grief support may be embedded into hospice team activities.

  2. Facial expressions of emotion and the course of conjugal bereavement. (United States)

    Bonanno, G A; Keltner, D


    The common assumption that emotional expression mediates the course of bereavement is tested. Competing hypotheses about the direction of mediation were formulated from the grief work and social-functional accounts of emotional expression. Facial expressions of emotion in conjugally bereaved adults were coded at 6 months post-loss as they described their relationship with the deceased; grief and perceived health were measured at 6, 14, and 25 months. Facial expressions of negative emotion, in particular anger, predicted increased grief at 14 months and poorer perceived health through 25 months. Facial expressions of positive emotion predicted decreased grief through 25 months and a positive but nonsignificant relation to perceived health. Predictive relations between negative and positive emotional expression persisted when initial levels of self-reported emotion, grief, and health were statistically controlled, demonstrating the mediating role of facial expressions of emotion in adjustment to conjugal loss. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The conflict of which is setting Colombia, has brought with himself the utilization of anti-perssonel mines which the groups use to protect their territories of influence and in the moments in which they are pursued for the public force. This paper shows the results obtained from the investigation realised by the authors with a group of the military who key in minefields thus took place amputations, the central objectives were to describe the grief process that these people by the lost one of members of their body confront and to explore on the elements that affect the facing of the traumatic event. A qualitative methodology was used, interviewing to 8 members of Colombian army affected by mines person. The results allow to observe two classes of psychological mechanisms of facing: the mechanisms of defense before the originating anguish of the hostility of external means, (negation, minimisation regression, rationalization, repression and isolation which make its appearance at the first the psychological moments of the explosive impact and mechanisms that help the amputee to adapt to their new condition, (comparison, atemporality, importance and spirituality which they appear at a second moment when the amputation is realised under surgical conditions and therefore already is perceived like a measurement for the preservation of the life.

  4. Burnout After Patient Death: Challenges for Direct Care Workers. (United States)

    Boerner, Kathrin; Gleason, Hayley; Jopp, Daniela S


    Direct care workers in long-term care can develop close relationships with their patients and subsequently experience significant grief after patient death. Consequences of this experience for employment outcomes have received little attention. To investigate staff, institutional, patient, and grief factors as predictors of burnout dimensions among direct care workers who had experienced recent patient death; determine which specific aspects of these factors are of particular importance; and establish grief as an independent predictor of burnout dimensions. Participants were 140 certified nursing assistants and 80 homecare workers who recently experienced patient death. Data collection involved comprehensive semistructured in-person interviews. Standardized assessments and structured questions addressed staff, patient, and institutional characteristics, grief symptoms and grief avoidance, as well as burnout dimensions (depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment). Hierarchical regressions revealed that grief factors accounted for unique variance in depersonalization, over and above staff, patient, and institutional factors. Supervisor support and caregiving benefits were consistently associated with higher levels on burnout dimensions. In contrast, coworker support was associated with a higher likelihood of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion. Findings suggest that grief over patient death plays an overlooked role in direct care worker burnout. High supervisor support and caregiving benefits may have protective effects with respect to burnout, whereas high coworker support may constitute a reflection of burnout. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. When avoiding unpleasant emotions might not be such a bad thing: verbal-autonomic response dissociation and midlife conjugal bereavement. (United States)

    Bonanno, G A; Keltner, D; Holen, A; Horowitz, M J


    It has been widely assumed that emotional avoidance during bereavement leads to either prolonged grief, delayed grief, or delayed somatic symptoms. To test this view, as well as a contrasting adaptive hypothesis, emotional avoidance was measured 6 months after a conjugal loss as negative verbal-autonomic response dissociation (low self-rated negative emotion coupled with heightened cardiovascular activity) and compared with grief measured at 6 and 14 months. The negative dissociation score evidenced reliability and validity but did not evidence the assumed link to severe grief. Rather, consistent with the adaptive hypothesis, negative dissociation at 6 months was associated with minimal grief symptoms across 14 months. Negative dissociation scores were also linked to initially high levels of somatic symptoms, which dropped to a low level by 14 months. Possible explanations for the initial cost and long-term adaptive quality of emotional avoidance during bereavement, as well as implications and limitations of the findings, are discussed.

  6. O luto no processo de aborto provocado El duelo en el proceso del aborto provocado Loss and grief of women who had an abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria dos Anjos Gesteira


    sirvan como instrumentos de reflexión sobre el desempeño profesional y contribuya, consecuentemente, en la mejoría de la calidad de la asistencia prestada por la enfermería.To describe the feeling of loss and grief of women who had an abortion. This conceptual served for this qualitative study. Discussion technique was the main approach to explore and comprehend women's experiences with the loss and the abortion process. Because abortion has been regarded for many years as taboo, this prejudice causes nursing care to be focused on the technical aspect of care only. Although nurses might be prepared to assist women who had an abortion, little opportunity is given to those women to express their loss and grief. Focusing attention on this problem may stimulate nurses to reflect upon the need of women who had experienced loss and abortion, which in turn may lead to better nursing quality care.

  7. A community for grieving: affordances of social media for support of bereaved parents (United States)

    Segerstad, Ylva Hård Af; Kasperowski, Dick


    The purpose of this paper was to study bereaved parents' use of a closed peer grief support community on Facebook and the features of the community that are important to them. The death of a child is an uncomfortable subject in most contemporary societies. This limits the exploration of experiences and possibilities for coping with grief. However, with the introduction of social media, this has changed. Theoretical perspectives on parental grief recognizing the importance of continued relational bonds with the lost child are used, together with the ontological assumption that social media enhance the dissolving of private/public and time/space. This study is based on questionnaire, interviews, and content from the closed peer grief support community, to which the research team has insider access. The community encompasses a diverse range of experiences and stages of grief, independent of the time elapsed since the loss of a child. Bereavement of children of all ages and from all conceivable causes of death is distributed among the members. The results show how the affordances of social media become vital resources for coping with grief in ways not available previously, comprising aspects of the closed nature of the group, shared experiences, time, and accessibility.

  8. Losing Thomas & Ella: A Father's Story (A Research Comic). (United States)

    Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B


    "Losing Thomas & Ella" presents a research comic about one father's perinatal loss of twins. The comic recounts Paul's experience of the hospital and the babies' deaths, and it details the complex grieving process afterward, including themes of anger, distance, relationship stress, self-blame, religious challenges, and resignation. A methodological appendix explains the process of constructing the comic and provides a rationale for the use of comics-based research for illness, death, and grief among practitioners, policy makers, and the bereaved.

  9. Emotional Sequelae of Elective Abortion: The Role of Guilt and Shame. (United States)

    Whitney, Donna Krupkin


    Although estimates vary, many women experience long-term emotional, spiritual, psychological and interpersonal difficulties following abortion, including complicated grief, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and relationship disturbances. Developmental, drive, object-relations and narcissism models for perinatal loss also illuminate the dynamics of post-abortion syndromes. Guilt and shame play important roles in generating and concealing post-abortion sequelae. Pastoral care and healthcare providers can increase their awareness of post-abortion sequelae and provide effective care for women experiencing these syndromes.

  10. Pedagogical guidelines for educational accompaniment for grieving to adults with intellectual disabilities




    It is needed a foundation and some orientations to act in loss and grief situations with adults with intellectual disabilities. In this article, through a relevant literature review, we based the educational accompaniment as a pedagogic methodology of support with three principal elements: a) The conception of grief from its formative potential, b) The prevention of disorders associated to grief complications, c) The pedagogic intervention preferably from the tutorship or from the actuation o...

  11. Parental mental health after the accidental death of a son during military service: 23-year follow-up study. (United States)

    Kristensen, Pål; Heir, Trond; Herlofsen, Pål H; Langsrud, Øyvind; Weisæth, Lars


    We prospectively studied parental mental health after suddenly losing a son in a military training accident. Parents (N = 32) were interviewed at 1, 2 and 23 years after the death of their son. The General Health Questionnaire and Expanded Texas Inventory of Grief were self-reported at 1, 2, 5, and 23 years; the Inventory of Complicated Grief was self-reported at 23 years. We observed a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders at 1- and 2-year follow-ups (57% and 45%, respectively), particularly major depression (43% and 31%, respectively). Only one mental disorder was diagnosed at the 23-year follow-up. Grief and psychological distress were highest at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Spouses exhibited a high concordance of psychological distress. Mothers reported more intense grief reactions than did fathers. The loss of a son during military service may have a substantial impact on parental mental health particularly during the first 2 years after death. Spouses' grief can be interrelated and may contribute to their psychological distress.

  12. Bereaved Employee: Returning to Work (United States)

    ... Work Working Through Grief About Us The Bereaved Employee: Returning to Work By Helen Fitzgerald, CT After ... One employer called a grief therapist to help employees after a co-worker reported the death of ...

  13. Last Days of Life (PDQ) (United States)

    ... near death. Patients and their families may have cultural or religious beliefs and customs that are important ... counselors while palliative sedation is used. Grief and Loss Grief is a normal reaction to the loss ...

  14. Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members (United States)

    ... Grief at Work Working Through Grief About Us Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members By ... fatal heart attacks occur in the workplace. Other deaths — from accidents, for example — can also happen during ...

  15. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your ...

  16. Cesarean Section: Recovering After Surgery

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    Full Text Available ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your ...

  17. Cesarean Section: The Operation

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    Full Text Available ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your ...

  18. Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia

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    Full Text Available ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your ...

  19. At Least 39 Weeks

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    Full Text Available ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your ...

  20. Exercise during Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your ...

  1. Socially shared mourning: construction and consumption of collective memory (United States)

    Harju, Anu


    Social media, such as YouTube, is increasingly a site of collective remembering where personal tributes to celebrity figures become sites of public mourning. YouTube, especially, is rife with celebrity commemorations. Examining fans' online mourning practices on YouTube, this paper examines video tributes dedicated to the late Steve Jobs, with a focus on collective remembering and collective construction of memory. Combining netnography with critical discourse analysis, the analysis focuses on the user comments where the past unfolds in interaction and meanings are negotiated and contested. The paper argues that celebrity death may, for avid fans, be a source of disenfranchised grief, a type of grief characterised by inadequate social support, usually arising from lack of empathy for the loss. The paper sheds light on the functions digital memorials have for mourning fans (and fandom) and argues that social media sites have come to function as spaces of negotiation, legitimisation and alleviation of disenfranchised grief. It is also suggested that when it comes to disenfranchised grief, and grief work generally, the concept of community be widened to include communities of weak ties, a typical form of communal belonging on social media.

  2. Pedagogical guidelines for educational accompaniment for grieving to adults with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available It is needed a foundation and some orientations to act in loss and grief situations with adults with intellectual disabilities. In this article, through a relevant literature review, we based the educational accompaniment as a pedagogic methodology of support with three principal elements: a The conception of grief from its formative potential, b The prevention of disorders associated to grief complications, c The pedagogic intervention preferably from the tutorship or from the actuation of educators or professionals near to intellectual disabilities people. The educational accompaniment model is a proposal that can be placed on humanist models of grief since it considers both the characteristics of the grieving process and the formative possibilities of its elaboration. The article’s conclusions present some of the benefits of the educational accompaniment for adults with intellectual disabilities.

  3. Exploring the role of experiential avoidance from the perspective of attachment theory and the dual process model. (United States)

    Shear, M Katherine


    Avoidance can be adaptive and facilitate the healing process of acute grief or it can be maladaptive and hinder this same process. Maladaptive cognitive or behavioral avoidance comprises the central feature of the condition of complicated grief. This article explores the concept of experiential avoidance as it applies to bereavement, including when it is adaptive when it is problematic. Adaptive avoidance is framed using an attachment theory perspective and incorporates insights from the dual process model (DPM). An approach to clinical management of experiential avoidance in the syndrome of complicated grief is included.

  4. Women’s well-being improves after missed miscarriage with more active support and application of Swanson’s Caring Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annsofie Adolfsson


    Full Text Available Annsofie Adolfsson1,21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skaraborgs Sjukhus, Skövde, Sweden; 2School of Life Sciences, The University of Skövde, SwedenPurpose: The purpose of this study was to provide better organization and more efficient use of resources within the health care system in order to identify women with nonviable pregnancy earlier in their gestation terms and also to identify those women who experience severe grief reaction after the miscarriage. The proposed solution is to offer an appointment with a gynecologist during regular office hours after consultation with the patient’s midwife to women experiencing symptoms and who are concerned with the viability of their pregnancy. Unnecessary contact with the emergency room by the patients would be reduced as a result of this improvement in organization. The aim of the study was to give the women experiencing missed miscarriage an increased sense of well-being by applying Swanson’s Caring Theory to their recovery, in addition to the better organization and more efficient use of resources.Method: Both the original study from 2002 to 2003 and the later study from 2004 to 2005 applied Swanson’s Caring Theory in the follow-up care management of the women, but only the later study was influenced by the changes made in the health care system. In the past, diagnosis of missed miscarriage was delayed because women experiencing minor symptoms were not highly prioritized in the health care system. More active support was introduced in order to get the proper information to the patient throughout the health care system. The size of the original study database was n = 43, compared with the later study database, which was n = 56. All of the women answered the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS questions twice, 1 month and 4 months after their diagnosis. Some additional questions about their circumstances unrelated to the PGS were also mailed to the women 4 months after their diagnosis

  5. The Therapeutic Bookshelf. (United States)

    Doka, Kenneth J.


    Reminds readers that grief books intended for nonprofessional audiences may be an important theoretical tool in helping bereaved resolve grief. Briefly reviews some base self-help literature and notes the strengths and limitations of the varied genre of self-help literature. (Author)

  6. Parents' Faith and Hope during the Pediatric Palliative Phase and the Association with Long-Term Parental Adjustment. (United States)

    van der Geest, Ivana M M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Falkenburg, Nette; Michiels, Erna M C; van Vliet, Liesbeth; Pieters, Rob; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E


    The loss of a child is associated with an increased risk for developing psychological problems. However, studies investigating the impact of parents' faith and hope for a cure during the palliative phase on long-term parental psychological functioning are limited. The study's objective was to explore the role of faith and hope as a source of coping and indicator of long-term parental adjustment. Eighty-nine parents of 57 children who died of cancer completed questionnaires retrospectively, exploring faith, hope, and sources of coping, and measuring parents' current level of grief and depression. For 19 parents (21%) faith was very important during the palliative phase. The majority of parents remained hopeful for a meaningful time with their child (n=68, 76%); a pain-free death (n=58, 65%); and a cure (n=30, 34%). Their child (n=70, 79%) was parents' main source of coping. Twelve parents (14%) suffered from traumatic grief, and 22 parents (25%) showed symptoms of depression. Parents' faith was not associated with less long-term traumatic grief (OR=0.86, p=0.51) or symptoms of depression (OR=0.95, p=0.74), and parents' hope for a cure was not related to more long-term traumatic grief (OR=1.07, p=0.71) or symptoms of depression (OR=1.12, p=0.47). Faith was important for a minority of parents and was not associated with less long-term traumatic grief or symptoms of depression. The majority of parents remained hopeful. Hope for a cure was not associated with more long-term traumatic grief or symptoms of depression.

  7. Psychosocial effects of war experiences among displaced children in southern Darfur. (United States)

    Morgos, Dorothy; Worden, J William; Gupta, Leila

    This study focused on assessing the psychosocial effects of the long standing, high intensity, and guerrilla-style of warfare among displaced children in Southern Darfur. The goal was to better understand the etiology, prognosis, and treatment implications for traumatic reactions, depression, and grief symptoms in this population. Three hundred thirty-one children aged 6-17 from three IDP Camps were selected using a quota sampling approach and were administered a Demographic Questionnaire, Child Post Traumatic Stress Reaction Index, Child Depression Inventory, and the Expanded Grief Inventory. Forty-three percent were girls and 57% were boys. The mean age of the children was 12 years. Results found that children were exposed to a very large number of war experiences with no significant differences between genders for types of exposure, including rape, but with older children (13-17 years) facing a larger number of exposures than younger children (6-12 years). Out of the 16 possible war experiences, the mean number was 8.94 (SD = 3.27). Seventy-five percent of the children met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD, and 38% exhibited clinical symptoms of depression. The percentage of children endorsing significant levels of grief symptoms was 20%. Increased exposure to war experiences led to higher levels of: (1) traumatic reactions; (2) depression; and (3) grief symptoms. Of the 16 war experiences, abduction, hiding to protect oneself, being raped, and being forced to kill or hurt family members were most predictive of traumatic reactions. Being raped, seeing others raped, the death of a parent/s, being forced to fight, and having to hide to protect oneself were the strongest predictors of depressive symptoms. War experiences such as abduction, death of one's parent/s, being forced to fight, and having to hide to protect oneself were the most associated with the child's experience of grief. In addition to Total Grief, Traumatic Grief, Existential Grief, and Continuing Bonds

  8. What Residence Hall Staff Need to Know about Dealing with Death. (United States)

    Jacobs, Bonita; Towns, James E.


    Emphasizes the responsibility for residence hall staff to understand the grief process. An adaptation of Kubler-Ross's stages of death has produced helpful techniques for successfully accepting the death. Through understanding these principles, staff can become aware of the grief process and can assist residents. (JAC)

  9. Miscarriage with a History of Elective Abortion: A Comparison Study of the Miscarriage Experience - Women with a History of Elective Abortion Versus Women Without a History of Elective Abortion (United States)


    1974). Loss and Change. Pantheon Books, Random House: New York. McDonnell, K. (1986). Not an easy choice, a feminist reexamines abortion. Whole Earth...Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Worden, J. W. (1982). Grief Counseling and Grief Therapy . New York: Springer Publishing Company. APPENDIX A--Meaning of

  10. Living Disconnected: Building a Grounded Theory View of Bereavement for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities. (United States)

    Clute, Mary Ann


    This grounded theory study gathered descriptions the bereavement experience for adults with intellectual disabilities (IDD) through the eyes and voices of a small sample of grief counselors. The counselors described bereaved adults with IDD as individuals who faced potentially heightened effects of the broken attachment bonds, increased risk of coping obstacles, long histories of unrecognized losses, and disenfranchised grief. The participants described bereaved adults with IDD (who sought treatment) as getting pushed to the sidelines to deal with their losses in isolation and confusion. It became evident that though there are many similarities between how all people cope with loss and how people with IDD cope with loss, differences exist. Subtle variations in the experience of loss and grief appear to be driven by culture and beliefs about disability and protection for those with IDD. The participants in this dissertation study contributed foundation data for a theoretical explanation of grief for adults with IDD grounded in data from bereavement counselors.

  11. “Death Is Part of the Job” in Long-Term Care Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Marcella


    Full Text Available For long-term care (LTC home staff who work directly with residents, death, dying, and grief are day-to-day experiences in their working life. However, staff are often overlooked for grief and bereavement support. This exploratory research used a qualitative approach to understand LTC staff’s grief and bereavement experience and to identify the perceived support needs of nurses and personal support workers who work in two faith-based non-profit care homes in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. Findings indicated that participants’ experiences are complex, shaped by the emotional impact of each loss, the cumulative burden of ongoing grief, an organizational culture in LTC where death is hidden, and the lack of organizational attention to staffs’ support and education needs. Eight recommendations were developed from the findings. It is hoped that this research will assist in the development of organizational policy and procedures, addressing the health and well-being of direct care workers in LTC homes.

  12. Factors related to alcohol and drug consumption in Swedish widows. (United States)

    Grimby, Agneta; Johansson, Asa K


    The use of alcohol and medications among Swedish widows was analyzed in relation to various background variables. In Total, 1053 widows (640 widows younger than 65 years and 413 widows older than 65 years) answered the questionnaire. Many reported increased fatigue and sleeping problems. Around one-third of the widows reported drinking alcohol for relief of grief and inadequate support. Association existed between grief and increased intake of sedatives and sleeping pills, and between grief and drinking for relief of grief, as well as increase in intake of sedatives. In widows older than 65 years, perception of bad health, negative outlook for the future, and insufficient support seemed to increase the risk of more sedatives and sleeping pills. Negative outlook for the future also tended to lead to a heightened risk for increased intake of alcohol. There seems to be remaining health problems a long time after bereavement, and counseling may be needed especially when drugs and alcohol are extensively used.

  13. Dedovshchina and the Committee of Soldiers’ Mothers under Gorbachev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Elkner


    Full Text Available This article provides an historical account of the Committee of Soldiers’ Mothers’ role in breaking the taboo on dedovshchina in the Soviet military in the late 1980s. I argue that soldiers’ mothers’ activism on this issue played a crucial role in opening up the military to public scrutiny and in influencing public perceptions of military service. The article also traces the military’s unsuccessful attempts to counteract the soldiers’ mothers’ exposure of barracks violence and to reinstate the old boundaries of acceptable public debates on military issues. It also examines the ways in which protesting soldiers’ mothers made use of public representations of maternal grief over peacetime deaths. This outpouring of grief is contrasted with the repression of maternal grief during the early years of the war in Afghanistan. I argue that the military’s failure to formulate an appropriate response to soldiers’ mothers’ grief was particularly damaging for the military’s public image under Gorbachev.

  14. The lost children. (United States)

    Smith, S


    Women who have lost children to perinatal complications, are subjected to pain and grief continuously; however their agony increases on remembrance days such as birthdate, or on Mother's Day. Fathers, siblings and grandparents suffer too. Common disorders of pregnancy, such as pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), or the more serious pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, or eclampsia, can lead to devastating effects such as miscarriage, stillbirth, or neonatal death; or at the very least, a sick infant. With many of these consequences, the loss of the dreams, hopes and plans that parents have made is imminent. The investigation of the psychosocial aspects of 'high-risk' pregnancy has never been fully addressed. However, the threat of loss, or the actual experience, may provoke the onset of a potential psychological crisis during the perinatal period. Therefore, it is important that these issues be addressed by the nurse in order to aid the development of coping mechanisms to enable women and their families to deal with what may happen. This may be done by predicting the stages of the bereavement process experienced by these women and their family members, as outlined in the Kubler-Ross model of bereavement (1969), which is indicative of many types of grief reactions. Other issues including the restriction in activity, uncertainty of pregnancy outcomes, disruption in work or career activities, financial strains, and reduced labour and birthing options, become concerns for high-risk pregnant women. The way women deal with these issues and the pathways nurses can take to help these women develop effective coping strategies, will be addressed also.

  15. Notes to Parents - When Your Child Has Undergone Amputation. (United States)

    Pierson, Margaret Hauser

    Designed to provide parents with basic information about the physical and emotional aspects of amputation, the booklet gives information about the grief response, body image, phantom limb sensation, stump care, and the prosthesis. The section on the grief process describes normal reactions to loss: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and…

  16. Infusing Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Support Groups for Grieving College Students (United States)

    Newton, Therese L.; Ohrt, Jonathan H.


    Approximately 39-49% of college students have experienced grief due to death in the past 24 months. Students' grief is often complicated due to the nature of their developmental characteristics (e.g., searching for autonomy, identity development, career direction, academic pressure, and formation of intimate relationships). Group mindfulness-based…

  17. Complicated Grief (United States)

    ... one Death of a child Close or dependent relationship to the deceased person Social isolation or loss of a support system or friendships Past history of depression, separation anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Traumatic childhood experiences, such as abuse ...

  18. Main approaches to the study of loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burina E. A.


    Full Text Available this article presents the main approaches to the concepts of grief and loss study. The article describes the contribution of E. Lindemann, Z. Freud, J. Bowlby, F.E. Vasiluk, and E. Kubler-Ross. The research also contains the main forms of grief and some stadial models within the scope of problematics.

  19. Personal Reflections of Funeral Rituals and Spirituality in a Kentucky African American Family (United States)

    Collins, Wanda Lott; Doolittle, Amy


    This article introduces the authors' experiences and observations as grief/bereavement counselors participating in urban and rural funerals. A vignette illustrates the use of rituals and spirituality of one African American family, living in a rural area of Kentucky, and their efforts to cope with their own grief and loss of a loved one. The…

  20. "Not just a dog": an attachment perspective on relationships with assistance dogs. (United States)

    Kwong, Marilyn J; Bartholomew, Kim


    We explored individuals' relationships with an assistance dog from an attachment-theory perspective. We used both inductive and deductive thematic methods to analyze semi-structured interviews with 25 participants who had lost an assistance dog to retirement or death. Analyses revealed attachment processes of safe haven, secure base, and separation anxiety. Although attachment dynamics were an important feature of these relationships, caregiving was equally important. When confronted with the loss of their dog, almost all participants experienced intense grief. Most grief responses were consistent with the loss of a caregiving relationship. Findings suggest that grief is a natural response to the loss of a beloved companion who fulfilled fundamental needs for attachment and caregiving.

  1. Mothers Coping With Bereavement in the 2008 China Earthquake: A Dual Process Model Analysis. (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Fu, Fang; Sha, Wei; Chan, Cecilia L W; Chow, Amy Y M


    The purpose of this study is to explore the grief experiences of mothers after they lost their children in the 2008 China earthquake. Informed by the Dual Process Model, this study conducted in-depth interviews to explore how six bereaved mothers coped with such grief over a 2-year period. Right after the earthquake, these mothers suffered from intensive grief. They primarily coped with loss-oriented stressors. As time passed, these mothers began to focus on restoration-oriented stressors to face changes in life. This coping trajectory was a dynamic and integral process, which bereaved mothers oscillated between loss- and restoration-oriented stressors. This study offers insight in extending the existing empirical evidence of the Dual Process Model.

  2. The Acceptance of Exceptionality: A Three Dimensional Model. (United States)

    Martin, Larry L.; Nivens, Maryruth K.

    A model extrapolates from E. Kubler-Ross' conception of the stages of grief to apply to parent and family reactions when an exceptionality is identified. A chart lists possible parent feelings and reactions, possible school reactions to the parent in grief, and the child's reactions during each of five stages: denial, rage and anger, bargaining,…

  3. Investigating Adaptive Grieving Styles: A Delphi Study (United States)

    Doughty, Elizabeth A.


    There has been an evolution in the understanding of the nature of grief since S. Freud's initial work, Mourning and Melancholia (1917/1953). Mental health practitioners and researchers have established new models to aid in the conceptualization and treatment of grief issues. The purpose of this study was to examine the opinions of experts in the…

  4. Interpersonal ambivalence, perceived relationship adjustment, and conjugal loss. (United States)

    Bonanno, G A; Notarius, C I; Gunzerath, L; Keltner, D; Horowitz, M J


    Ambivalence is widely assumed to prolong grief. To examine this hypothesis, the authors developed a measure of ambivalence based on an algorithmic combination of separate positive and negative evaluations of one's spouse. Preliminary construct validity was evidenced in relation to emotional difficulties and to facial expressions of emotion. Bereaved participants, relative to a nonbereaved comparison sample, recollected their relationships as better adjusted but were more ambivalent. Ambivalence about spouses was generally associated with increased distress and poorer perceived health but did not predict long-term grief outcome once initial outcome was controlled. In contrast, initial grief and distress predicted increased ambivalence and decreased Dyadic Adjustment Scale scores at 14 months postloss, regardless of initial scores on these measures. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed.

  5. Differential Family Experience of Palliative Sedation Therapy in Specialized Palliative or Critical Care Units. (United States)

    Shen, Hui-Shan; Chen, Szu-Yin; Cheung, Denise Shuk Ting; Wang, Shu-Yi; Lee, Jung Jae; Lin, Chia-Chin


    No study has examined the varying family experience of palliative sedation therapy (PST) for terminally ill patients in different settings. To examine and compare family concerns about PST use and its effect on the grief suffered by terminally ill patients' families in palliative care units (PCUs) or intensive care units (ICUs). A total of 154 family members of such patients were recruited in Taiwan, of whom 143 completed the study, with 81 from the PCU and 62 from the ICU. Data were collected on their concerns regarding PST during recruitment. Grief levels were assessed at three days and one month after the patient's death with the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief. Families' major concern about sedated patients in the PCU was that "there might be other ways to relieve symptoms" (90.2%), whereas families of ICU sedated patients gave the highest ratings to "feeling they still had something more to do" (93.55%), and "the patient's sleeping condition was not dignified" (93.55%). Family members recruited from the ICU tended to experience more grief than those from the PCU (P = 0.005 at Day 3 and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. “Una vitalidad desesperada”. The writing of the duel in Disruptions of Silvia Molloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Simón


    Full Text Available When re-reading Hamlet, Derrida offers a number of interpretations of “out of joint” from the Shakespearean phrase “the time is out of joint”: a disjointed, upset, dislocated time. We extrapolate such a strong idea to think Desarticulaciones (2010 by Silvia Molloy. We believe this impossible story can only be narrated as flashes grouped into a sort of journal of grief. A grief experienced in advance for whom has already lost her memory, a grief “out of joint”. But we also think this “out of joint” as the unsettling of the narrator. In fact, in Desarticulaciones, the narrative voice chooses to speak not from the memory of arrogant necrological data, but from a loving voice born to keep the beloved alive.

  7. Soul mate: exploring the concept of soul. (United States)

    Fenske, Joan M


    This article describes an "advanced practice" registered nurse's skill in using multiple theoretical frameworks to make meaning of her severely developmentally disabled son's untimely death. Aspects of religion, spirituality, and philosophy are presented plus how related practices, such as used within Alcoholics Anonymous, are incorporated into everyday life are referenced. Creating unique rituals and ceremonies demonstrates the power of the mind as a partner in the healing process when grief seems insurmountable. This article, titled "Soul Mate" discusses how individuals create their own healing narratives when confronted with grief and tragedy. Nursing interventions, sensitive to this process, support and promote the grief process. Eliciting, recognizing, and accepting a patient's unique self-made rituals and ceremonies as they cope with a beloved's death and dying enhances their nursing interventions. © 2011 The Author(s)

  8. DSM-5: proposed changes to depressive disorders. (United States)

    Wakefield, Jerome C


    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is currently undergoing a revision that will lead to a fifth edition in 2013. Proposed changes for DSM-5 include the creation of several new categories of depressive disorder. Some nosologists have expressed concern that the proposed changes could yield many 'false-positive diagnoses' in which normal distress is mislabeled as a mental disorder. Such confusion of normal distress and mental disorder undermines the interpretability of clinical trials and etiological research, causes inefficient allocation of resources, and incurs risks of unnecessary treatment. To evaluate these concerns, I critically examine five proposed DSM-5 expansions in the scope of depressive and grief disorders: (1) a new mixed anxiety/depression category; (2) a new premenstrual dysphoric disorder category; (3) elimination of the major depression bereavement exclusion; (4) elimination of the adjustment disorder bereavement exclusion, thus allowing the diagnosis of subsyndromal depressive symptoms during bereavement as adjustment disorders; and (5) a new category of adjustment disorder related to bereavement for diagnosing pathological non-depressive grief. I examine each proposal's face validity and conceptual coherence as well as empirical support where relevant, with special attention to potential implications for false-positive diagnoses. I conclude that mixed anxiety/depression and premenstrual dysphoric disorder are needed categories, but are too broadly drawn and will yield substantial false positives; that the elimination of the bereavement exclusion is not supported by the evidence; and that the proposed elimination of the adjustment-disorder bereavement exclusion, as well as the new category of grief-related adjustment disorder, are inconsistent with recent grief research, which suggests that these proposals would massively pathologize normal grief responses.

  9. Bereaved children.


    Schultz, K.


    OBJECTIVE: To describe the unique aspects of childhood grief. To provide a framework for family physicians to use in assisting children to grieve. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from 1966 to 1999 using the key words children, childhood, grief, mourning, and bereavement revealed mainly expert opinion articles, some non-randomized observational studies, and retrospective case-control studies. MAIN MESSAGE: Although children are influenced by similar factors and need to work through the s...

  10. Children and grief (United States)

    ... lie about what is going on. Children are smart. They pick up on dishonesty and will wonder why you are lying. NOT force children who are afraid to go to funerals. Find other ways for your children to remember and honor the deceased. For example, you can light a candle, pray, float a balloon to the ...

  11. Childhood Traumatic Grief (United States)

    ... and Practices Treatments That Work Screening and Assessment Psychological First Aid and SPR Core Curriculum on Childhood Trauma Trauma- ... Measure Reviews All Measure Reviews Usage and Glossary Psychological First Aid and SPR About PFA About SPR NCTSN Resources ...

  12. Children and Grief (United States)

    ... drop in school performance or refusal to attend school If these signs persist, professional help may be needed. A child and adolescent psychiatrist or other qualified mental health professional can help the child accept the death ...

  13. "We Hardly Ever Talk about It": Emotional Responsive Attunement in Couples after a Child's Death. (United States)

    Hooghe, An; Rosenblatt, Paul C; Rober, Peter


    Within Western cultural traditions, the idea that parents should talk about the death of their child with each other is deeply rooted. However, across bereaved parent couples there are wide variations in communication about their grief with each other. In this study, we explored the experiences of bereaved couples related to the process of talking and not talking. We used a thematic coding approach to analyze 20 interviews with 26 bereaved parents (11 interviewed as couples, four as individuals). Four main meanings emerged out of our analysis: not talking because of the inadequacy and pointlessness of words in grief, not talking as a way to regulate emotions in daily life, not talking as an expression of a personal, intimate process, and not talking because the partner has the same loss but a different grief process. In addition, we found that the process of talking and not talking can partly be understood as an emotional responsive process on an intrapersonal and interpersonal level. In this process partners search for a bearable distance from their own grief and their partner's, and attune with their relational context. A better understanding of this process is sought in a dialectical approach, emphasizing the value of both talking and not talking in a tense relationship with each other. Implications for clinical work are described. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  14. Atmintis ir sielvartas John Banville romane „Jūra“


    Vaičiulaitytė, Giedrė


    Memory and Grief in John Banville’s Novel “The Sea” John Banville‘s novel The Sea (2005) details the journey of a retired art historian Max while he navigates through his memories and places from his childhood after the untimely death of his wife. Therefore, the focus of this BA paper is revealing the grief within the narrative and unveiling the relationship between memory, place and identity. The meticulous style of narration, attention to smallest details and the narrator‘s emotional detach...

  15. Living, loving and losing: implications for health and well-being. (United States)

    Downey, A M


    Living, loving and losing - we live, we love and we lose - this is an integral part of life's unending circle. Throughout the lifecycle, we are confronted continually with experiences of loss and separation. The loss of a loved one through separation, divorce, or death is one of the most difficult experiences to be dealt with in a lifetime. How do we cope with the "crisis of loss" in our lives? If education is supposed to prepare one for life, then Death Education is crucial in assisting individuals to cope with "myriad loss issues." This paper will explore the implications of loss for health and well-being, and briefly review some of the research findings regarding the negative impact of grief and bereavement upon health. The stages of the grief process will be cited, mentioning some of the barriers to grief resolution. Most importantly, the positive aspects of loss upon life and health will be elaborated.

  16. Mental health risks in the local workforce engaged in disaster relief and reconstruction. (United States)

    Wang, Xiao L; Chan, Cecilia L W; Shi, Zhan B; Wang, Bin


    To build a sustainable workforce for long-term disaster relief and reconstruction, more effort must be made to promote local relief workers' mental health. We conducted 25 semistructured interviews with local relief officials 10 months after the 2008 earthquake in China to investigate the stress and coping experiences in their personal lives as survivors. We conducted thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Traumatic bereavement and grief, housing and financial difficulties, and work-family conflict were the three main sources of stress in the respondents' personal lives. The coping themes were finding meaning and purpose in life through relief work, colleagues' support and understanding, suppression or avoidance of grief, appreciation for life, hardiness, optimism, letting nature take its course, and making up for loss. We suggest that relief work has a double-edged-sword effect on workers' coping abilities. We discuss the implications of this effect for work-life balance measures and trauma and grief counseling services.

  17. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Spiritual Well-Being and Emotional Intelligence of the Elderly Mourners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Solaimani Khashab


    Full Text Available Objective: Grief is one of the most painful experiences of the humans after linking emotions. In the literature of trauma, grief and mourning can be seen on many topics. Intervention and treatment of grief seems necessary as the period of mourning is prolonged. Thus, this study aimed at understanding the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on spiritual well-being and emotional intelligence in the elderly bereavement.Method: This was an experimental study with pre-and posttest design, and control group. The population of this study was the elderly mourners in city of Ardabil in 15-2014. After conducting clinical interviews and diagnostic tests using the sampling method, 30 elderly mourners selected. Spiritual Well-Being questionnaire and Emotional Intelligence questionnaire were used for data collection. The questionnaire and pretest-posttest were used in this study. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance.Results: The results of the data analysis revealed that cognitive behavioral therapy increased spiritual well-being and emotional intelligence of the mourners was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P<0.01. However, the means of Spiritual Well-Being and Emotional Intelligence at pretest was not significant in the intervention group compared with the control group (P>0.05.Conclusion: Method of cognitive behavioral therapy helps confront the emotional drain and grief acceptance, increasing the spiritual well-being and emotional intelligence of the elderly bereavement.‏

  18. The Stigma of Suicide Survivorship and Related Consequences—A Systematic Review (United States)

    Hanschmidt, Franz; Lehnig, Franziska; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Kersting, Anette


    Background considerable proportion of the population experiences major life disruptions after losing a loved one to suicide. Social stigma attached to suicide survivors adds to complications occurring in the course of suicide bereavement. Despite its known risks, stigma related to suicide survivors has been sparsely investigated. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycInfo and PsyArticles, of studies indexed up through August 2015. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they addressed experiences of stigma in suicide survivors, compared them to other bereavement populations, or investigated stigmatizing attitudes within the public. The search was restricted to English-language studies. Results 25 records matched inclusion criteria. Study designs were heterogeneous, making comparisons difficult. Results demonstrated that suicide survivors experience stigma in the form of shame, blame, and avoidance. Suicide survivors showed higher levels of stigma than natural death survivors. Stigma was linked to concealment of the death, social withdrawal, reduced psychological and somatic functioning, and grief difficulties. Only one study investigated stigmatizing attitudes towards suicide survivors among the general population. Limitations Internal and external validity of the studies was restricted by a lack of valid measures and selection bias. Conclusions More methodologically sound research is needed to understand the impact of stigma on suicide survivors’ grief trajectories and to separate it from other grief aspects. Clinicians and grief-counselors as well as the public should be educated about the persistent stigma experienced by suicide survivors. PMID:27657887

  19. Embitterment and bereavement: The Sewol ferry accident example. (United States)

    Chae, Jeong-Ho; Huh, Hyu Jung; Choi, Won Joon


    On Wednesday, April 16, 2014, 261 high school students on a field trip died in the sinking of the Sewol ferry. The bereaved family of the Sewol ferry accident experienced one of the most painful traumatic losses such as the sudden death of one's child through an accident. This article reviewed and discussed embitterment related to traumatic loss through the example of the Sewol ferry accident. Embitterment-related issues and problems in coping with the accident that is caused by societal factors were described. In addition, embitterment-related findings of several previous studies based on bereaved families' mental health cohort study were reviewed. Traumatic loss of the human-made ferry accident was accompanied with feelings of being cheated, injustice, incompetence, wrongdoing by a perpetrator, and the destruction of one's belief and value system, causing severe embitterment. Embitterment was related to other mental health problems including depression, anxiety, and complicated grief. Social support and positive individual resource including optimism and wisdom can be helpful for recovery from posttraumatic embitterment. The goal of grief is to remember the decedent, understand the changes created by the loss, and determine how to reinvest in life. Embitterment may disturb the process of grief. Without the management of the embitterment, true grief may not be possible. The breakdown of value systems and severe embitterment should get more attention in future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Family, friends, and faith: how organ donor families heal. (United States)

    Stouder, Donald B; Schmid, Adam; Ross, Sharon S; Ross, Larry G; Stocks, Lisa


    Understanding how organ donors' families recover from their grief can help organ procurement organizations improve consent rates and increase the number of deceased donor organs available for transplant. To determine what helps the loved ones of deceased organ donors heal from their grief and loss, and to better understand families' needs during the consent process as a way of improving overall consent rates for organ donation. Written survey of all organ and tissue donors' families in the San Diego and Imperial County (California) service area during 2006 and 2007. Responses to the 20-question survey addressing factors that help healing from grief, as well as contextual information about the families' experience at the hospital and the consent process. Most respondents (84%) indicated that family support was the most helpful thing in dealing with their grief, followed by the support of friends (74%) and religious and cultural beliefs (37%). Most (75%) indicated that they agreed to donation so that something positive could result from their loss. Most respondents (93%) felt that they were given enough information to make an informed decision about donation, and 6% indicated that the donation process interfered with funeral or memorial arrangements. More than 95% understood that their loved one had died before they were approached for consent. Consistent with previous studies, 12% said they still had unanswered questions about aspects of donation, and 15% of respondents indicated that the discussion about organ donation added more emotional stress to their overall experience.

  1. Post-traumatic growth? Tavshed og tale i omgang med afmagt, angst og sorg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia


    What does it mean to speak of post-traumatic growth? The present article investigates the role of speech and silence in coping with anxiety, grief, and powerlessness. This issue will be discussed by analyzing David Grossman’s book Falling Out of Time, by bringing together different psychotherapeu......What does it mean to speak of post-traumatic growth? The present article investigates the role of speech and silence in coping with anxiety, grief, and powerlessness. This issue will be discussed by analyzing David Grossman’s book Falling Out of Time, by bringing together different...

  2. The Bereaved Parent Needs Assessment: a new instrument to assess the needs of parents whose children died in the pediatric intensive care unit*. (United States)

    Meert, Kathleen L; Templin, Thomas N; Michelson, Kelly N; Morrison, Wynne E; Hackbarth, Richard; Custer, Joseph R; Schim, Stephanie M; Briller, Sherylyn H; Thurston, Celia S


    To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Bereaved Parent Needs Assessment, a new instrument to measure parents' needs and need fulfillment around the time of their child's death in the pediatric intensive care unit. We hypothesized that need fulfillment would be negatively related to complicated grief and positively related to quality of life during bereavement. Cross-sectional survey. Five U.S. children's hospital pediatric intensive care units. Parents (n = 121) bereaved in a pediatric intensive care unit 6 months earlier. Surveys included the 68-item Bereaved Parent Needs Assessment, the Inventory of Complicated Grief, and the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire. Each Bereaved Parent Needs Assessment item described a potential need and was rated on two scales: 1) a 5-point rating of importance (1 = not at all important, 5 = very important) and 2) a 5-point rating of fulfillment (1 = not at all met, 5 = completely met). Three composite scales were computed: 1) total importance (percentage of all needs rated ≥4 for importance), 2) total fulfillment (percentage of all needs rated ≥4 for fulfillment), and 3) percent fulfillment (percentage of important needs that were fulfilled). Internal consistency reliability was assessed by Cronbach's α and Spearman-Brown-corrected split-half reliability. Generalized estimating equations were used to test predictions between composite scales and the Inventory of Complicated Grief and World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire. Two items had mean importance ratings 4. Reliability of composite scores ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. Total fulfillment was negatively correlated with Inventory of Complicated Grief (r = -.29; p Quality of Life questionnaire (r = .21; p education, and loss of an only child, percent fulfillment remained significantly correlated with Inventory of Complicated Grief but not with World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire. The

  3. Effectiveness of a nursing psychoeducative intervention as a helping tool in children´s mourning work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Pérez González


    Full Text Available The children grief has many special characteristics determinated by the childhood features. Several studies consider that children may have anxiety reactions, fears, depression and disadaptated behaviour when a relative is fort.The objective of this study is to know the effectiveness of a psychoeducative intervention of a Primary Care nurse in preventing misadaptative behaviours related to grief in children.To achieve this objective, a randomized controlled trial with an experimental group and a control group has been designed. 198 children and teenagers will be included in it (there will be randomized assigned 98 on each group from 5 to16 years old, having been affected of a relating grief, belonging to the Primary Care Centers of the 9, 10 and 11 areas in Madrid Community. Children and teenagers included in the experimental group will take a psychoeducative intervention based on 7 individualized weekly sessions. Measures of the punctuations obtained on the Children Behaviour Test will be made when children will be included in the study and after 3, 6 and 12 months.

  4. Economic Components of Grief (United States)

    Corden, Anne; Hirst, Michael


    This article investigates the nature, context, and impact of economic stressors associated with loss, drawing on a mixed-methods study of changes in financial circumstances and economic roles following death of a life partner. Findings show how economic changes, and the practicalities of dealing with such transitions, shaped individual responses…

  5. Grief to everyday life:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil


    This chapter demonstrates how everyday practices among parents who suffer the loss of a child include the use of both analogue and digital means, both established media and materialities occasionally functioning as media in order to create meaning-making relations to the dead child, the bereaved...... as well as to the surrounding world. Based on an in-depth interview with a mother to a dead child combined with 8 years of observation studies and qualitative content analyses of both children’s graves and online memory profiles, this chapter explains how these are articulated through everyday media use....... The chapter focuses on the cross media connection between offline and online activities and demonstrates how the loss of a child initiates processes which are not about letting go and moving on but rather keeping hold while moving on articulated through communicational practices of keeping a sense of presence...

  6. Adolescents' experiences of having a stillborn half-sibling. (United States)

    Avelin, Pernilla; Gyllenswärd, Göran; Erlandsson, Kerstin; Rådestad, Ingela


    Although there is an increasing interest in siblings' experiences of loss and grief there is limited knowledge of adolescent's own perspectives, especially in a unique situation as after stillbirth in a reconstituted family. The authors interviewed 13 bereaved adolescents. They were sad that their family was not the same and expressed feelings of being inside family grief, yet outside, because they did not have full access in their reconstituted family. An implication of present findings is that it is important to include all the members of the family in the grieving process, even half-siblings of the deceased child.

  7. Holding on to hope: A review of the literature exploring missing persons, hope and ambiguous loss. (United States)

    Wayland, Sarah; Maple, Myfanwy; McKay, Kathy; Glassock, Geoffrey


    When a person goes missing, those left behind mourn an ambiguous loss where grief can be disenfranchised. Different to bereavement following death, hope figures into this experience as a missing person has the potential to return. This review explores hope for families of missing people. Lived experience of ambiguous loss was deconstructed to reveal responses punctuated by hope, which had practical and psychological implications for those learning to live with an unresolved absence. Future lines of enquiry must address the dearth of research exploring the role of hope, unresolved grief, and its clinical implications when a person is missing.

  8. Recognition and the Fleeting Glimpse of Intimacy: Tracing the Chaplain's Response to Ungrieved Death. (United States)

    Coble, Richard


    The article traces the response of the hospital chaplain witnessing ungrieved death. Linking grief with cultural recognition, the article analyzes the absence of grief on the occasion of death within outcast social spheres. It then outlines the ways chaplains both participate in the cultural norms that render lives ungrievable and, conversely, in the solidarity of God, who cares for every life and death. The article closes by situating the chaplain as a liminal figure and proposing liminality itself as an opportunity for solidarity. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and

  9. Rouw mag er zijn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlieke Moors


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGrieving is allowedGrief is a human experience. Every form of loss shapes you into the human being you are today. Contrary to what earlier, unproven grief models postulate, grief does not have an end point. That is, bereavement does not have to be completely processed, but it should be integrated into someone’s life. The outdated grief models were often interpreted and used in a normative way, which led to a normative standard model. This portraits the belief that every mourner would experience similar symptoms and would go through a fixed pattern of phases. However, the updated vision emphasizes the individual and unique process of coping with loss: norms concerning grief should be banned. By means of literature research, interviews with professionals and personal experiences, it became clear that finding an equilibrium between restoration-orientated and loss-orientated coping styles is most beneficial. An important aspect in finding this balance is meaningfulness. Furthermore, the ability to bear a loss and to adapt accordingly are important components. Lastly, attaching significance to a loss is a constructive way of integrating the loss into one’s life. The death of a loved one should therefore not be forgotten or tucked away. After all, grief is the price we pay for love. SAMENVATTINGRouw mag er zijnRouw is een menselijke ervaring en elk verlies vormt je als mens. Rouw heeft, in tegenstelling tot wat de verouderde, niet bewezen rouwmodellen beweren, geen eindpunt. Verlies hoeft namelijk niet verwerkt te worden, maar moet juist geïntegreerd worden in iemands leven. De verouderde rouwmodellen zijn vaak normatief opgevat en toegepast, waaruit een normatief standaardmodel is ontstaan. Daarbij werd gedacht dat elke rouwende dezelfde symptomen zou vertonen en het rouwproces volgens vaste fasen zou verlopen. Binnen de vernieuwde visie wordt er juist van uitgegaan dat elk individu een unieke manier van reageren op rouw heeft. Er zou

  10. An internet-based self-help intervention for older adults after marital bereavement, separation or divorce: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Berger, Thomas; Znoj, Hans Joerg


    Marital bereavement and separation or divorce are among the most stressful critical life events in later life. These events require a dissolution of social and emotional ties, adjustments in daily routine and changes in identity and perspectives for the future. After a normative grief or distress reaction, most individuals cope well with the loss. However, some develop a prolonged grief reaction. Internet-based self-help interventions have proved beneficial for a broad range of disorders, including complicated grief. Based on the task model and the dual-process model of coping with bereavement, we developed a guided internet-based self-help intervention for individuals who experienced marital bereavement, separation or divorce at least 6 months prior to enrolment. The intervention consists of 10 text-based self-help sessions and one supportive email a week. The primary purpose of this study is the evaluation of the feasibility and efficacy of the intervention compared with a waiting control group. The secondary purpose is to compare the effects in bereaved and separated participants. Furthermore, we aim to analyze other predictors, moderators and mediators of the outcome, such as age, psychological distress and intensity of use of the intervention. The design is a randomized controlled trial with a waiting control condition of 12 weeks and a 24-weeks follow-up. At least 72 widowed or separated participants will be recruited via our study website and internet forums. Primary outcomes are reductions in grief symptoms, depression and psychological distress. Secondary outcome measures are related to loneliness, satisfaction with life, embitterment and the sessions. The trial will provide insights into the acceptance and efficacy of internet-based interventions among adults experiencing grief symptoms, psychological distress and adaptation problems in daily life after spousal bereavement, separation or divorce. Findings will add to existing knowledge by (1) evaluating

  11. Using Second Life to Facilitate Peer Storytelling for Grieving Oncology Nurses (United States)

    Rice, Karen L.; Bennett, Marsha J.; Billingsley, Luanne


    Background Oncology nurses often experience intense emotional reactions to patient deaths but may be forced to ignore or hide their feelings because of work-related responsibilities. The complexity of nurses' work and personal lives creates obstacles for participating in traditional support groups where grieving nurses can bond and share. We hypothesized that using a web-based, three-dimensional (3-D) virtual world technology (Second Life) may provide a venue to facilitate peer storytelling to support nurses dealing with grief. Methods We used a mixed-methods approach involving focus groups and surveys to explore the use of peer storytelling for grieving oncology nurses. Nine acute and ambulatory oncology nurses in groups of 3 participated using avatars in 5 group moderator-guided sessions lasting 1 hour each in a private 3-D outdoor virtual meeting space within Second Life. Baseline information was collected using a 12-item demographic and professional loss survey. At the end of the study, a 20-item survey was administered to measure professional losses during the study, exchange of support during sessions, and meaning-making and to evaluate peer storytelling using Second Life. Results Overall, nurses reported peer storytelling sessions in Second Life were helpful in making sense of and in identifying a benefit of their grief experience. They felt supported by both the group moderator and group members and were able to personally support group members during storytelling. Although nurses reported Second Life was helpful in facilitating storytelling sessions and expressed overall satisfaction with using Second Life, open-ended comments registered difficulties encountered, mostly with technology. Three central themes emerged in sessions, representing a dynamic relationship between mental, spiritual, and emotional-behavioral responses to grief: cognitive readiness to learn about death, death really takes death experience, and emotional resilience. Conclusion This

  12. Using second life to facilitate peer storytelling for grieving oncology nurses. (United States)

    Rice, Karen L; Bennett, Marsha J; Billingsley, Luanne


    Oncology nurses often experience intense emotional reactions to patient deaths but may be forced to ignore or hide their feelings because of work-related responsibilities. The complexity of nurses' work and personal lives creates obstacles for participating in traditional support groups where grieving nurses can bond and share. We hypothesized that using a web-based, three-dimensional (3-D) virtual world technology (Second Life) may provide a venue to facilitate peer storytelling to support nurses dealing with grief. We used a mixed-methods approach involving focus groups and surveys to explore the use of peer storytelling for grieving oncology nurses. Nine acute and ambulatory oncology nurses in groups of 3 participated using avatars in 5 group moderator-guided sessions lasting 1 hour each in a private 3-D outdoor virtual meeting space within Second Life. Baseline information was collected using a 12-item demographic and professional loss survey. At the end of the study, a 20-item survey was administered to measure professional losses during the study, exchange of support during sessions, and meaning-making and to evaluate peer storytelling using Second Life. Overall, nurses reported peer storytelling sessions in Second Life were helpful in making sense of and in identifying a benefit of their grief experience. They felt supported by both the group moderator and group members and were able to personally support group members during storytelling. Although nurses reported Second Life was helpful in facilitating storytelling sessions and expressed overall satisfaction with using Second Life, open-ended comments registered difficulties encountered, mostly with technology. Three central themes emerged in sessions, representing a dynamic relationship between mental, spiritual, and emotional-behavioral responses to grief: cognitive readiness to learn about death, death really takes death experience, and emotional resilience. This study suggests a potential benefit in

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial of Family Therapy in Advanced Cancer Continued Into Bereavement. (United States)

    Kissane, David W; Zaider, Talia I; Li, Yuelin; Hichenberg, Shira; Schuler, Tammy; Lederberg, Marguerite; Lavelle, Lisa; Loeb, Rebecca; Del Gaudio, Francesca


    Systematic family-centered cancer care is needed. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of family therapy, delivered to families identified by screening to be at risk from dysfunctional relationships when one of their relatives has advanced cancer. Eligible patients with advanced cancer and their family members screened above the cut-off on the Family Relationships Index. After screening 1,488 patients or relatives at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center or three related community hospice programs, 620 patients (42%) were recruited, which represented 170 families. Families were stratified by three levels of family dysfunction (low communicating, low involvement, and high conflict) and randomly assigned to one of three arms: standard care or 6 or 10 sessions of a manualized family intervention. Primary outcomes were the Complicated Grief Inventory-Abbreviated (CGI) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Generalized estimating equations allowed for clustered data in an intention-to-treat analysis. On the CGI, a significant treatment effect (Wald χ(2) = 6.88; df = 2; P = .032) and treatment by family-type interaction was found (Wald χ(2) = 20.64; df = 4; P families. Low-communicating families improved by 6 months of bereavement. In the standard care arm, 15.5% of the bereaved developed a prolonged grief disorder at 13 months of bereavement compared with 3.3% of those who received 10 sessions of intervention (Wald χ(2) = 8.31; df = 2; P =.048). No significant treatment effects were found on the BDI-II. Family-focused therapy delivered to high-risk families during palliative care and continued into bereavement reduced the severity of complicated grief and the development of prolonged grief disorder. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  14. Bereavement care interventions and outcome criteria planned by community nurses in the Canary Islands. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Álvaro, Martín; García-Hernández, Alfonso Miguel; Brito-Brito, Pedro Ruymán; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Domingo Ángel


    Nursing care in bereavement is complex. Primary health care is the ideal setting to support the bereaved, but we do not know much about the care plans designed by primary health care nurses in the treatment of grief. To identify the outcomes criteria and interventions planned by nurses for mourners with and without complications in the Canary Islands. Retrospective longitudinal study, using the electronic health records of the Canary Islands health service of people with a diagnosis of grieving, risk of complicated grieving and complicated grieving, in the period 2009-2014. NOC outcomes criteria were recorded in 67% of the mourners, and up to 24 different outcomes were identified. The main outcomes measures were Grief resolution; Psychosocial adjustment, Life change; Coping; Family coping; Family social climate and Caregiver emotional health. The remaining outcomes were present in less than 1% of the mourners. Although the outcomes criteria proposed by nurses in the mourners with and without complications were quite homogeneous, differences in interventions were found. In 67% of the cases, NIC interventions were reported. Ninety-nine different interventions were identified in the mourners; the most frequent were Emotional support; Grief work facilitation; Active listening; Coping enhancement and counselling. The remaining identified interventions were present in less than 5% of patients. The main interventions in the mourners with complications were Grief work facilitation; Coping enhancement; Active listening; Counselling and Family integrity promotion. Nurses state that there are more interventions and outcomes in mourners with complications. Given the few methodologically reliable studies that prove their effectiveness, continued research in this area is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. The social relations of bereavement in the Caribbean. (United States)

    Marshall, Ronald; Sutherland, Patsy


    The objectives of this article are to discuss the various types of behaviors associated with grief and bereavement, and to examine the relationships, consequences, and outcomes of bereavement practices among the various religious and ethnic groups in the English-speaking Caribbean Islands of Jamaica, Trinidad, Grenada, and Barbados. The rituals associated with death and grief differs across cultures and is greatly influenced by religious beliefs and traditions. How these rituals are played out depend on the culture of origin and level of acculturation of the various groups into mainstream society. In the Caribbean region, expressions of grief represent religious and cultural traditions that may have a significant impact on social relations, particularly in multi-ethnic and multicultural societies. In the English-speaking Caribbean Islands of Jamaica, Trinidad, Grenada, and Barbados, mourning follows the patterns of traditional religious practices which have remained consistent over time. While families and friends may offer social support before and after burial or cremation, the social aspects of bereavement may also have implications for inter-group relations. Insights into bereavement practices and what it holds for ethnic and religious groups in contemporary Caribbean are presented.

  16. Death and bereavement in the First World War: the Australian experience. (United States)

    Jalland, Pat


    The First World War was a turning point in the cultural history of death and bereavement in Australia. The mass deaths of some 60,000 soldiers overseas led to communal rituals of mourning for the war dead and minimal public expressions of private grief. The mass slaughter of so many young men and the interminable grief of so many families devalued the deaths of civilians at home and helped to create a new cultural model of suppressed and privatised grieving which deeply constrained the next two generations. Emotional and expressive grieving became less common, mourning ritual was minimised and sorrow became a private matter. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Content Analysis of Select YouTube Postings: Comparisons of Reactions to the Sandy Hook and Aurora Shootings and Hurricane Sandy. (United States)

    Miller, Eric D


    This study details an innovative and methodical content analysis of 2,207 YouTube comments from four different YouTube videos (e.g., breaking news or memorials) related to the 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School and Aurora theater mass shootings and the catastrophic Hurricane Sandy. As expected, YouTube comments associated with the Sandy Hook shootings (particularly those from a memorial video) were especially likely to feature compassion and grief with lessened hostility. This study highlights differing online contexts by which individuals show grief and related emotions following man-made and natural calamities and how-even in an online environment-powerful situational contexts greatly guide behavior.

  18. Music therapy with bereaved teenagers: a mixed methods perspective. (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina; Roberts, Melina; O'Grady, Lucy


    Qualitative investigations have indicated that music therapy groups may be beneficial for bereaved teenagers. The existing relationship between young people and music serves as a platform for connectedness and emotional expression that is utilised within a therapeutic, support group format. This investigation confirms this suggestion through grounded theory analysis of focus group interviews. Changes in self-perception were not found as a result of participation, however practically significant results were found on adolescent coping. These cannot be generalized because of the small sample size. Grief specific tools are recommended for use in future investigations in order to capture the emotional impact of music therapy grief work with adolescents.

  19. General Practitioners’ experiences of bereavement care and their educational support needs: a qualitative study (United States)


    Background General Practitioners (GPs) are well-positioned to provide grief support to patients. Most GPs view the provision of bereavement care as an important aspect of their role and the GP is the health professional that many people turn to when they need support. We aimed to explore GPs’ understandings of bereavement care and their education and professional development needs in relation to bereavement care. Methods An in-depth qualitative design was adopted using a social constructionist approach as our aims were exploratory and applied. Nineteen GPs (12 women and 7 men) living in Western Australia were interviewed; 14 were based in metropolitan Perth and 5 in rural areas. GPs were invited, via a letter, to participate in a semi-structured interview. The interviews occurred within each GP’s workplace or, for the rural GPs, via telephone, and all interviews were digitally audio-recorded and transcribed. Results Analysis was based upon constant comparison and began as soon as possible after each interview. The data revealed four tensions or opposing views concerning bereavement and bereavement care. These were (1) whether grief is a standardised versus an individual process, (2) the role of the GP in intervening versus promoting resilience, (3) the GP as a broker of services versus a service provider, and (4) the need for formal education and professional development versus ‘on-the-job’ experiential learning. Conclusions GPs have a critical role in exploring distress, including grief. However, changes need to be made to ensure GPs have up-to-date knowledge of contemporary theories and approaches. GPs urgently need education both at the undergraduate and postgraduate degree levels, and in continuing professional development. Otherwise GPs will rely on out-dated theories and constructions of grief, which may be detrimental to patient care. PMID:24670040

  20. The impact of personal loss on the experience of health professions: graduate students in end-of-life and bereavement care. (United States)

    Supiano, Katherine P; Vaughn-Cole, Beth


    This study explored the impact of prior personal experience with grief on self-reported personal and professional development of graduate students in nursing, social work, counseling, pastoral care, and genetic counseling involved as cofacilitators in bereavement support groups, and of medical students observing interdisciplinary inpatient palliative care. Personal experience with death of a family member or close friend was reported in 80% of the 35 participating students. Findings suggest that grief and the students' construction of the meaning of their loss can mediate the students' developing sense of self as a professional helper. Active engagement with suffering persons, the opportunity for self-disclosure and reflection, and teacher-facilitator provision of emotional guidance and modeling contributed positively to learning.

  1. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral internet-based therapy in parents after the loss of a child during pregnancy: pilot data from a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Kersting, Anette; Kroker, Kristin; Schlicht, Sarah; Baust, Katja; Wagner, Birgit


    The loss of a child during pregnancy can be a traumatic event associated with long-lasting grief and psychological distress. This study examined the efficacy of an internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy program for mothers after pregnancy loss. In a randomized controlled trial with a waiting list control group, 83 participants who had lost a child during pregnancy were randomly allocated either to 5 weeks of internet therapy or to a 5-week waiting condition. Within a manualized cognitive behavioral treatment program, participants wrote ten essays on loss-specific topics. Posttraumatic stress, grief, and general psychopathology, especially depression, were assessed pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat analyses and completer analyses were performed. Relative to controls, participants in the treatment group showed significant improvements in posttraumatic stress, grief, depression, and overall mental health, but not in anxiety or somatization. Medium to large effect sizes were observed, and the improvement was maintained at 3-month follow-up. This internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy program represents an effective treatment approach with stable effects for women after pregnancy loss. Implementation of the program can thus help to improve the health care provision for mothers in this traumatic loss situation.

  2. Living with diabetes on Buffalo, New York’s culturally diverse West Side (United States)

    Kahn, Linda S; Vest, Bonnie M; Karl, Renée; Tumiel-Berhalter, Laurene; Taylor, Robert; Schuster, Roseanne C; Glaser, Kathryn; Danakas, Alexandra; Fox, Chester H


    Objectives This study explores the perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs that inform how people live with diabetes in a high poverty, ethnically diverse neighborhood with a growing population of refugees. The specific research objective was to examine participants’ explanations of how their diabetes began, understandings about the illness, description of symptoms, as well as physical and emotional reactions to the diagnosis. Methods Qualitative design using semi-structured interviews. The transcripts were analyzed using an immersion–crystallization approach. Results Thirty four individuals diagnosed with diabetes for at least 1 year participated. The sample included 14 refugees (from Somalia, Sudan, Burma, or Cuba), eight Puerto Ricans, six non-Hispanic Caucasians, six African-Americans, and two Native Americans. Three broad themes were identified across ethnic groups: (a) the diagnosis of diabetes was unexpected; (b) emotional responses to diabetes were similar to Kubler-Ross’s stages of grief; (c) patients’ understanding of diabetes focused on symptoms and diet. Conclusions Patients were frequently stunned by the diagnosis of diabetes, and expressed emotions associated with the stages of grief including denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. Our findings suggest that clinicians might consider addressing the patients’ emotions or grief reaction as an early priority to promote acceptance as a first step to self-management. PMID:22679244

  3. A Retrospective and Prospective Follow-up Study of Psychological Distress in the Danwon High School Survivors of the Sewol Ferry Disaster. (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Nam, Hee Sun; Kim, Hak Beom; Chung, Unsun; Lee, So Hee; Chae, Jeong-Ho


    We monitored a group of students from Danwon High School who survived the Sewol ferry disaster for 27 months to examine the course of their psychological symptoms. We performed a chart review at the Danwon High School Mental Health Center at the following time points (T): 9 months (T1), 12 months (T2), and 15 months (T3) after the disaster. Additionally, we performed a follow-up review at 27 months (T4). Subjects completed the 'State' section of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression assessment, the Child Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms, and the Inventory of Complicated Grief. Data from the 32 subjects who completed all four assessments were used in the statistical analyses. Scores of psychological variables tended to increase until T2 and then slowly decreased until T4. The severity of anxiety and complicated grief symptoms changed significantly over time, but the severity of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms did not. We found that the symptoms of anxiety and complicated grief reported by Sewol ferry survivors from Danwon High School were exacerbated at the first anniversary of the disaster, but these symptoms subsided after the students graduated from high school.

  4. Vaginismus (United States)

    Cowley D, Lentz GM. Emotional aspects of gynecology: depression, anxiety, PTSD, eating disorders, substance abuse, "difficult" patients, sexual function, rape, intimate partner violence, and grief. In: Lentz GM, ...

  5. 22 CFR 96.54 - Placement standards in outgoing cases. (United States)


    ... child's likely feelings of separation, grief, and loss and difficulties in making any cultural..., and cultural background. (f) When particular prospective adoptive parent(s) in a Convention country...

  6. Yaygın Gelişimsel Bozukluk Tanılı Çocukların Anne-Babalarının Yas Tepkilerinin, Evlilik Uyumlarının ve Sosyal Destek Algılarının Đncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Karpat


    Full Text Available Bu çalışma, yaygın gelişimsel bozukluk tanılı çocukların anne babalarının bu tanı nedeniyle yaşadıkları yas sürecini, evlilik uyumlarını ve algıladıkları sosyal desteği etkileyen faktörleri incelemek amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Veriler, 3-18 yaş aralığında yaygın gelişimsel bozukluk (YGB tanılı çocuğu olan gönüllü 103 anne-babaya uygulanan Hogan Yas Tepkileri Tarama Listesi, Çiftler Uyum Ölçeği, Çok Boyutlu Algılanan Sosyal Destek Ölçeği ve Kişisel Bilgi Formu kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Yaş, evlilik uyumu ve algılanan sosyal desteğin çeşitli demografik değişkenler açısından farklılaştığı bulunmuştur. YGB tanılı çocukların anne-babalarında yasın olumsuz yanını yordayan değişkenlerin annebabaların cinsiyet ve eğitim düzeyi, evlilik süresi, özel insan kategorisinden algılanan sosyal destek, arkadaş kategorisinden algılanan sosyal destek ve çift bağlılığı olduğu görülmüştür. Yasın olumlu yanını yordayan değişkenlerin ise anne-babanın cinsiyeti ve eğitim düzeyi, tanıdan sonra geçen süre ve çift uyumu olduğu belirlenmiştir. Sonuçlar ilgili alanyazın verileri ışığında tartışılmıştır. The aim of this study is to examine the factors effecting grief, marital adjustment and social support and relationship between grief, marital adjustment and social support of the parents of children with pervasive development disorder. Hogan Grief Reaction Checklist, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Dyadic Adjustment Scale and Personal Information Form which was developed by the researcher were used for this purpose. The sample of the study consists of 103 parents of the children between 3 and 18 years old with PDD. The results showed that the grief, marital adjustment and social support differentiated among the demographic variables. The variables that predict the grief of the parents of the children with PDD in a negative

  7. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps. (United States)

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  8. Mary Dorcey: The Poet’s Gaze and Scalpel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Micaela Coppola


    Full Text Available Precision, vividness and colour characterise Mary Dorcey’s representations of individual and yet universal human experiences, such as love, loss, or grief. These are used like a surgeon’s scalpel: to frame, look inside, and closely observe sections of the individual’s body, and life. As we can see from the selection of poetic and prose texts presented here (alongside their translations into Italian, Dorcey cuts the skin of common definitions of private places and feelings (home, love, and grief. She looks at them from uncommon perspectives, bears witness to them, and gains insight from them. These and other issues are discussed in the interview, which is a revised version of a conversation that took place in Bologna (Italy in November 2014.

  9. Going to a Psychologist, Psychiatrist, or Therapist (United States)

    ... times like: family problems school problems bullying health problems They help kids with feelings like: sadness anger stress and worry low self-esteem grief They help kids with conditions like: ADHD ...

  10. Think adult-think child! Why should staff caring for dying adults ask what the death means for children in the family? (United States)

    Aynsley-Green, Sir Al


    Bereaved children and young people in the UK are 'hidden mourners'. Review of primary and secondary evidence on childhood bereavement. Children experience grief that varies according to the circumstance of death and their cognitive ability. Voluntary organizations can be supportive, but provision is patchy and vulnerable to austerity. Adult-centric denial of the importance and long-term consequences of childhood grief; uncertainty in how best to relate to bereaved children in faiths and in schools. Increased awareness of the immediate and long-term consequences of childhood bereavement; even young children can experience loss through death. Better knowledge of the numbers of affected children; longitudinal data to track experiences and outcomes; measuring effectiveness of different approaches; identifying risk factors for early intervention in complicated or prolonged grief; the importance of faith and rituals around death; mapping the provision of services to monitor the impact of austerity. 'Think adult-think child' means that all staff caring for dying adults should take responsibility for asking what the death means for the children in the family, with schools, primary care and faith organizations having protocols and expertise available to support grieving children; recent catastrophes expose need for agencies to have management plans that focus on vulnerable children and young people. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  11. 31 CFR 323.2 - Rules governing availability of information. (United States)


    .... Privacy interests, in the sense of the right to control, use, or disclose information about oneself, cease... survive death where disclosure would cause embarrassment, pain, grief, or disrupt the peace of mind, of...

  12. Dialogical Exposure with Traumatically Bereaved Bosnian Women: Findings from a Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Hagl, Maria; Powell, Steve; Rosner, Rita; Butollo, Willi


    In this trial, we compared the relative efficacy of dialogical exposure group treatment using Gestalt empty-chair method with a supportive group in the treatment of symptoms stemming from traumatic loss in a post-war society. One-hundred and nineteen women whose husbands were either killed or registered as missing during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina were quasi-randomized to seven sessions of group treatment with dialogical exposure or to an active control condition. Both interventions resulted in significant improvement from baseline to post-treatment for both kinds of loss, in terms of post-traumatic symptoms, general mental health and grief reactions, with the exception of depression and traumatic grief in the control condition. Regarding mean effect sizes (Cohen's d), pre-treatment to post-treatment improvements were moderate (d = 0.56) for the dialogical exposure group and small (d = 0.34) for the supportive group. Treatment gains were maintained at least until the 1-year follow-up. In controlled comparisons, dialogical exposure was superior concerning traumatic grief (Cohen's d = 0.37) and post-traumatic avoidance (d = 0.73) at post-treatment. Results show that short-term dialogical exposure group treatment was moderately effective in treating traumatically bereaved women. Research attests to high levels of symptoms among post-war civil populations, in particular, when a loved one was killed, which can lead not only to trauma reactions but also to severe separation distress. Grieving the loss of a loved one is hampered if the death remains unconfirmed. Unconfirmed loss could be conceptualized as unfinished business in terms of Gestalt therapy, which offers empty-chair dialogue for resolving unfinished business and grief. Dialogical exposure therapy (DET) supports the client in gaining awareness of and expressing his or her inner dialogues concerning the traumatic event, using Gestalt empty-chair method. Short-term DET was effective in

  13. Helping a Grieving Parent (United States)

    ... to stick with a TV show. Reading a newspaper may take longer than before, and retaining information ... Foundation: A Timeline Watch Our Video: Grief in Schools Copyright Information The materials on this website are ...

  14. Adaptive change in self-concept and well-being during conjugal loss in later life. (United States)

    Montpetit, Mignon A; Bergeman, C S; Bisconti, Toni L; Rausch, Joseph R


    The present study examines the association between the self-concept and adaptation to conjugal loss; the primary aim was to explore whether those individuals high in self-esteem, environmental mastery, and optimism have more adaptive resources with which to ameliorate the detrimental sequelae of bereavement. Analyses were conducted on data collected from 58 widows every four months over a two-year period. One goal of the research was to explore the adequacy of the theoretically chosen operational definition of the self-concept; another goal was to analyze how changes in the level of self-concept components correlated with changes in levels of depression, health, and grief resolution as individuals adjusted to their losses. Analyses revealed that trajectories of depression and grief resolution were more highly related than health to changes in self-concept.

  15. Was Queen Victoria depressed? 1. Natural history and differential diagnosis of presenting problem. (United States)

    Powles, W E; Alexander, M G


    For some years we have speculated as to whether Queen Victoria suffered a definable psychiatric illness in her notorious and prolonged seclusion after the Prince Consort's death. We here summarize criteria for grief and depression from three authorities. Against these, we examine the natural history of the Queen's bereavement and restitution. We find that her suffering and her portrayal of the role of widow were related to her personal style and were culturally accepted. Her self-esteem, ego functions, and object relatedness were preserved. While some clinicians might favour a diagnosis of Dysthymic Disorder, we find the evidence strongly in favour of an intense, prolonged, normal human grief (Uncomplicated Bereavement of DSM III) coloured by a romantic and histrionic personal style. Intensity and duration do not, in this case, establish a diagnosis of depression.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Finlay


    Full Text Available Some abortions can result in prolonged, complex grief reactions where the effects endure in problematic ways. Research findings suggest that such women suffer a turbulent spiral of often contradictory emotions and, if insufficiently acknowledged at the time of the abortion by self or other, this emotional turmoil can become pushed down and disenfranchised. This paper discusses the nature of this entrapped grief by reviewing the literature and reporting on some phenomenological case study research. A final section discusses integrative psychotherapy approaches to working in this area. Better understanding of the experience of traumatic abortion may enable therapists to be more present to this phenomenon, in particular the voicelessness some clients may experience, rendering them unable to process their feelings about the event and associated loss.

  17. Self-worth mediates the effects of violent loss on PTSD symptoms. (United States)

    Mancini, Anthony D; Prati, Gabriele; Black, Sarah


    Although research has confirmed that violent losses can exacerbate grief reactions, few investigations have explored underlying mechanisms. In this study, the authors used a dataset on bereaved spouses and bereaved parents at 4- and 18-months postloss to examine the mediating effects of self-worth and worldviews (benevolence and meaningfulness beliefs). Persons bereaved by violent causes had significantly more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), grief, and depression symptoms at 4- and 18-months postloss than persons bereaved by natural causes. Moreover, self-worth but not worldviews mediated the effects of violent loss on PTSD and depression symptoms cross sectionally and PTSD symptoms longitudinally. Findings underscore that self-views are a critical component of problematic reactions to violent loss, but fail to support the role of "shattered" worldviews. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  18. HIV/AIDS and older adults in Cameroon: Emerging issues and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perpetua Lum Tanyi


    Feb 6, 2018 ... ... social policy are discussed. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, older adults, African family, caregiving, Cameroon ...... and treatment that may be spread out over the full period of illness. ..... anxiety, relationships, grief, loss and addictions.

  19. Neonatal Death (United States)

    ... Home > Complications & Loss > Loss & grief > Neonatal death Neonatal death E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... cope with your baby’s death. What is neonatal death? Neonatal death is when a baby dies in ...

  20. Culture and Loss: A Project of Self-Reflection. (United States)

    Lewis, Marsha L.


    Describes a learning activity that stimulates recollection of nursing students' experiences of loss and grief, helping them examine personal responses, recognize cultural differences in responses, and develop skills for caring for those who are grieving. (SK)

  1. Exercise during Pregnancy (United States)

    ... premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog Stories & Media ...

  2. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues - Vol 18 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of factors contributing to flood disaster in Ibadan Metropolis: Implication ... The struggle for language: Diagnosis, relief from grief of urban parents with ... on community-driven projects in private and public housing estates in Lagos ...

  3. How the families of the victims of suicide through self-incineration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incineration was markedly reduced after the events. It is recommended that attention be given especially to the perception of witchcraft being responsible for suicide, and that grief support groups be established in the community to assist affected ...

  4. Evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral program for chronically psychotic forensic inpatients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.


    The present study evaluated the progress of four groups of chronically psychotic patients in treatment at De Kijvelanden Forensic Psychiatric Hospital. The psychotic patients were offered a cognitive-behavioral program, including psycho education, grief processing, stress management, functional

  5. Sentimentos de Apego e Perda em Processos de Mudanças OrganizacionaisFeelings of Attachment and Grief in Organizational Change ProcessesSentimientos de Apego y Pérdida en Procesos de Cambios Organizacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CESAR, Ana Maria Roux Valentini Coelho


    existence of bereavement amongst 400 employees of a public bank after a big reengineering process. The study was carried out three years after the changes occurred, since after this period of time the feeling of bereavement and grief should have given place to the recovering process, with a predominance of states of positive spirit. The data suggests the existence of a pathological state of bereavement, with strong attachment to previous situations to change. It points out that it is not enough to prepare people to organizational changes that are coming and are inevitable. It is necessary to give them conditions so they can elaborate the feeling of grief in situations that already happened and were part of their lives. It is necessary to give them the opportunity to ‘say goodbye’ to past things, so that they can embrace the new ones.RESUMENGlobalización, tecnología y cambios sociales han contribuido al surgimiento de nuevos mercados y competidores, creando mayor competitividad. En contrapartida, se requiere de las personas flexibilidad para adaptarse a los constantes cambios y minimización del apego a situaciones pasadas. Sin embargo las rupturas que se exigen en los cambios pueden percibirse como muertes simbólicas, frente a su condición de irreversibilidad a los estados anteriores; esto genera estados de luto entre los involucrados. Partiendo del planteamiento etológico con relación al luto, este estudio analiza la existencia de estado de luto en 400 empleados de un banco estatal después de un importante proceso de reestructuración. El estudio se realizó tres años después de los cambios, momento en que después de este tiempo el sentimiento de luto por las pérdidas ya debería haber dado lugar a procesos de recuperación, con predominancia de estados de ánimo positivos. Los datos indican la existencia de estado de luto patológico, con fuerte apego a las situaciones anteriores al cambio. Esto señala que no basta preparar a las personas para los cambios

  6. Cathy’s mourning in Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Albert Myburgh


    Full Text Available In Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights, illness and death cause characters to foresee, fear and react to other characters’ deaths. In this article, I explore the significance of Cathy’s anticipatory mourning of, and response to, the eventual actual deaths of her ailing father, Edgar, and her sickly cousin, Linton. Core 19th-century perspectives and fears relating to illness and death are both evident and contested in the representation of Cathy’s anxiety and suffering. I also investigate how Cathy’s grief is exacerbated by and affects the behaviour of other characters, notably Nelly, Linton, Heathcliff, Zillah and Hareton. The depiction of these characters’ responses to Cathy’s misery enriches their portrayal, implying that Cathy’s fear and grief are integral to both the novel’s plot and its character development.

  7. Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia

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  8. At Least 39 Weeks

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  9. Feeding Your Baby

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  10. Cesarean Section: Recovering After Surgery

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  11. Exercise during Pregnancy

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  12. Cesarean Section: The Operation

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  13. Mood Disorders (United States)

    ... of aging, and when older adults do have depression, it is often missed or untreated. Less obvious symptoms, reluctance to admit feelings of sadness or grief, limited resources, poor physical health, and medication side effects are some factors that ...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief ... health of all moms and babies. We're advocating for policies to protect them. We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. ...

  15. Cesarean Section: The Operation

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  16. Cesarean Section: Recovering After Surgery

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  17. At Least 39 Weeks

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions ...

  19. Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions ...

  20. Exercise during Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions ...

  1. Your Feelings (United States)

    ... might have a mental health problem Symptoms of depression Dealing with loss and grief Why some teens cut themselves How to handle body image issues Healthy ways to handle stress Teens and suicide Dealing with anxiety Do you wish you could ...

  2. When the toys take over. (United States)


    When a 60-year-old man with mild learning difficulties began obsessively collecting soft toys after his mother died, David O'Driscoll used the work of psychoanalyst Donald Winnicott to help the client manage his feelings of grief and loss.

  3. Cognitive therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for reducing psychopathology among disaster-bereaved individuals : Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Lonneke; Piersma, Eline; de Keijser, Jos; Smid, Geert E.; Boelen, P.A.


    Background: Confrontation with a traumatic (e.g. disaster-related) loss is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, including symptoms of prolonged grief (PG), posttraumatic stress (PTS), and depression. Although interventions have been developed for reducing post-loss psychopathology,

  4. Course of bereavement over 8-10 years in first degree relatives and spouses of people who committed suicide : longitudinal community based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Marieke; Kollen, Boudewijn J.


    Objective To identify factors predicting the long term course of complicated grief, depression, and suicide ideation in a community based sample of relatives bereaved through suicide. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Included in the multilevel regression models were sociodemographic and personality

  5. Course of bereavement over 8-10 years in first degree relatives and spouses of people who committed suicide: longitudinal community based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.; Kollen, B.J.


    Objective To identify factors predicting the long term course of complicated grief, depression, and suicide ideation in a community based sample of relatives bereaved through suicide. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Included in the multilevel regression models were sociodemographic and personality

  6. Grief and Loss as Alzheimer's Progresses (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  7. Coping with Loss: Bereavement and Grief (United States)

    ... Mental Illness and Work Support an Employee Workplace Bullying & Violence Signs of a Healthy Workplace Clifford Beers Society Social Self-Directed Care Program Take a Screen Mental Health Screening Tools Mental Health Spanish Screening Tools Find ...

  8. Sexual Intimacy and Replacement Children after the Death of a Child. (United States)

    Johnson, Sherry


    Interviewed 14 couples who had a child die. All parents, particularly mothers, expressed guilt. For most couples, guilt and grief interfered with intimacy, although being held was a comforting device. Producing a replacement child was common among couples of child bearing age. (JAC)

  9. Which Screening Tools Can Predict Injury to the Lower Extremities in Team Sports? A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.


    Background: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is

  10. The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Bereaved People with Loss-Related Distress: a Controlled Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O Connor, Maja; Piet, Jacob; Hougaard, Esben


    We examined the effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on symptom severity of depression, complicated grief, posttraumatic stress, and working memory in elderly bereaved people with long-term bereavement-related distress. A non-randomized, controlled pilot design was used in a sample...

  11. Dealing with emotions : medical undergraduates' preferences in sharing their experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries-Erich, Joy M.; Dornan, Tim; Boerboom, Tobias B. B.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Helmich, Esther

    ContextPatient care evokes emotional responses such as uncertainty, grief and pride in medical students. There is a need for opportunities to share and express such emotions because they influence students' professional development and well-being. There is a trend towards introducing mentor

  12. Quality insights of university teachers on dying, death, and death education. (United States)

    Mak, Mui-Hing June

    One of the main responsibilities of teachers is to help individual students cope with life difficulties such as grief following a death. However, very little research explores teachers' views on death, dying, and how they handle grief and loss in schools. This study aims to explore university teachers' knowledge and attitudes on dying, death, and death education. Fifteen university teachers were recruited using a qualitative method. This study reveals that most teachers' views on death and related issues are largely affected by their death experiences, religious beliefs, professional background, and the mass media. Although they have a general negative response toward death and dying, some teachers begin to affirm their meanings of life and death. Most teachers agree that they do not feel adequate about managing and teaching on life and death issues, so they strongly support including death education in the formal programs in Hong Kong.

  13. The role of forensic death investigators interacting with the survivors of death by homicide and suicide. (United States)

    Baumann, Robin; Stark, Sharon


    When sudden unexpected death occurs, an investigation ensues in an attempt to discover the cause and manner of death. Autopsies are performed when reasons for death are not obvious. They are used to provide information, confirm the cause of death, and/or reveal conditions not recognized before death (Hendricks, 2011). One important reason for performing an autopsy is to help families to understand what happened to their loved one so that they can begin the process of grieving. The way that the initial notification and investigation is handled can have a bearing on how a family's grief progresses. Forensic nurses are in a unique position to bring a holistic approach to death investigation with a focus of care that includes not only the decedent but the surviving loved ones as well (Koehler, 2008). Forensic nurse death investigators can assist families through initial stages of grief in the investigation of death.

  14. [New perspectives of mourning]. (United States)

    Csikós, Ágnes; Menyhért, Mónika; Radványi, Ildikó; Busa, Csilla


    Grief is a natural part of life and it is always individual. Researchers have tried and still try to develop different theories to interpret, explain, and approach this particular phenomenon. The aim of the authors was to review the theoretical literature of mourning and to present new bereavement theories for domestic professionals. From the first half of the 20th century until presently mourning theories have undergone significant changes. Today the determinant models includes the flexible, coping-oriented dual process model, meaning reconstruction model which focuses on the meaning making, and the model which focuses on the development after the loss. The authors conclude that experts, who work in the clinical area should know the prevailing theories of grief, because they encounter often with loss at work. The presented models may contribute to more efficient work, to better understanding of the mourning process and to a better support of families.

  15. The Perceived Experience of Children Bereaved by Parental Suicide. (United States)

    Schreiber, Jennifer K; Sands, Diana C; Jordan, John R


    Children whose parent died by suicide are a vulnerable and underserved population. This phenomenon will be described, as well as implications for practice and research. "Double Whammy," a conceptualization of the overall experience of this marginalized group, emerged through two in-depth interviews from a phenomenological qualitative study with professionals who facilitate support groups for children bereaved by parental suicide. It was corroborated with current literature and practice experiences of the authors and their colleagues. Stigma was the largest contributor to the "Double Whammy," and the following themes emerged as well: feeling isolated, feeling abandoned, and feeling responsible. The self-volition of suicide challenges how bereaved children make meaning and internalize feelings about the deceased parent, one's self, and others. Developmentally appropriate education about suicide grief, depression, and normalizing the grief process is pivotal in helping children to effectively cope and manage their feelings.

  16. Losing a child: finding meaning in bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bogensperger


    Full Text Available Background: Confronting the loss of a loved one leads us to the core questions of human existence. Bereaved parents have to deal with the rupture of a widely shared concept of what is perceived to be the natural course of life and are forced into meaning reconstruction. Objective: This study aims to expand upon existing work concerning specific themes of meaning reconstruction in a sample of bereaved parents. More specifically, the relationship between meaning reconstruction, complicated grief, and posttraumatic growth was analyzed, with special attention focused on traumatic and unexpected losses. Method: In a mixed methods approach, themes of meaning reconstruction (sense-making and benefit-finding were assessed in in-depth interviews with a total of 30 bereaved parents. Posttraumatic growth and complicated grief were assessed using standardized questionnaires, and qualitative and quantitative results were then merged using data transformation methods. Results: In total 42 themes of meaning reconstruction were abstracted from oral material. It was shown that sense-making themes ranged from causal explanations to complex philosophical beliefs about life and death. Benefit-finding themes contained thoughts about personal improvement as well as descriptions about social actions. Significant correlations were found between the extent of sense-making and posttraumatic growth scores (rs=0.54, rs=0.49; p<0.01, especially when the death was traumatic or unexpected (rs=0.67, rs=0.63; p<0.01. However, analysis revealed no significant correlation with complicated grief. Overall results corroborate meaning reconstruction themes and the importance of meaning reconstruction for posttraumatic growth.

  17. Unfinished Business in Families of Terminally Ill With Cancer Patients. (United States)

    Yamashita, Ryoko; Arao, Harue; Takao, Ayumi; Masutani, Eiko; Morita, Tatsuya; Shima, Yasuo; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Aoyama, Maho; Miyashita, Mitsunori


    Unfinished business often causes psychological issues after bereavement. Providing care for families of terminally ill patients with cancer to prevent unfinished business is important. To clarify the prevalence and types of unfinished business in families of end-of-life patients with cancer admitted to palliative care units (PCUs), explore depression and grief associated with unfinished business, and explore the factors affecting unfinished business. We conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous, self-report questionnaire survey with 967 bereaved families of patients with cancer admitted to PCUs. The questionnaire assessed the presence or the absence of unfinished business, content of unfinished business, depression, grief, process of preparedness, condition of the family and patient, and the degree of involvement of health care professionals. Questionnaires were sent to 967 families, and 73.0% responded. In total, 26.0% of families had some unfinished business, with improvement of the patient-family relationship being a common type of unfinished business. Families with unfinished business had significantly higher depression and grief scores after bereavement compared with those without. Factors that influenced the presence or the absence of unfinished business were preparedness for the patient's death (P = 0.001), discussion between the patient and family about the disease trajectory and way to spend daily life (P business. Health care professionals should coordinate the appropriate timing for what the family wishes to do, with consideration of family dynamics, including the family's preparedness, communication pattern, and relationships. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Semi-supervised probabilistics approach for normalising informal short text messages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modupe, A


    Full Text Available The growing use of informal social text messages on Twitter is one of the known sources of big data. These type of messages are noisy and frequently rife with acronyms, slangs, grammatical errors and non-standard words causing grief for natural...

  19. Dealing with emotions: medical undergraduates' preferences in sharing their experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries-Erich, Joy M.; Dornan, Tim; Boerboom, Tobias B. B.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Helmich, Esther


    Patient care evokes emotional responses such as uncertainty, grief and pride in medical students. There is a need for opportunities to share and express such emotions because they influence students' professional development and well-being. There is a trend towards introducing mentor programmes into

  20. Spiritual needs of mothers with sick new born or premature infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büssing, Arndt; Waßermann, Undine; Christian Hvidt, Niels


    Peace Needs correlated with their stress perception (r=.34), impairments of life concerns (r=.25) and grief (r=.23). DISCUSSION: Mothers of sick born/premature children felt supported by the hospital team and their partner, but nevertheless experienced stress and daily life impairments, and particularly...

  1. Effectiveness of bereavement counselling through a community-based organization : A naturalistic, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newsom, Catherine; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Margaret S.; Wilson, Stewart; Birrell, John; Moerbeek, Mirjam; Eisma, Maarten C.


    This controlled, longitudinal investigation tested the effectiveness of a bereavement counselling model for adults on reducing complicated grief (CG) symptoms. Participants (N = 344; 79% female; mean age: 49.3 years) were adult residents of Scotland who were bereaved of a close relation or partner,

  2. Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ... Dimes fights for the health of all moms and babies. We're advocating for policies to protect them. We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. ...

  3. Exercise during Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ... Dimes fights for the health of all moms and babies. We're advocating for policies to protect them. We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. ...

  4. Cesarean Section: Recovering After Surgery

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    Full Text Available ... intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ... Dimes fights for the health of all moms and babies. We're advocating for policies to protect them. We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. ...

  5. At Least 39 Weeks

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    Full Text Available ... intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ... Dimes fights for the health of all moms and babies. We're advocating for policies to protect them. We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. ...

  6. Cesarean Section: The Operation

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    Full Text Available ... intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ... Dimes fights for the health of all moms and babies. We're advocating for policies to protect them. We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. ...

  7. The Dilemmas of Childhood HIV Infection. (United States)

    Rudigier, Anne F.; And Others


    Increase in number of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and consequential developmental disabilities of these children are discussed. Families caring for HIV-infected children express four recurrent themes: psychological stress, grief and mourning, guilt and self-blame, and isolation and fear of discrimination. Flexible…

  8. Trauma, suffering and resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Casas Soberón, Elena; Berliner, Peter


    The article discusses the challenge of using a conceptual framework to understand traumatic stress and still be open to listening to the stories of suffering, of lamentation, grief, hope, and values of people being oppressed by organised violence. The complexity of responses to the losses caused ...

  9. What Do the Bereaved by Suicide Communicate in Online Support Groups? A Content Analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus-Dijkstra, M.; Havinga, P.; van Ballegooijen, W.; Delfosse, L.; Mokkenstorm, J.; Boon, B.


    Background: Every year, more than six million people lose a loved one through suicide. These bereaved by suicide are at relatively high risk for mental illnesses including suicide. The social stigma attached to suicide often makes it difficult to talk about grief. Participating in online forums may

  10. Books on Adoption for Young Children: Looking at Language. (United States)

    Schimmel, Nancy; Love, Susan


    Books can inform, reassure, and give young children the vocabulary to talk about adoption. This article presents and examines the language used to talk about adoption in eleven current children's books. Discusses surrogacy, adoption, "natural" parents, grief, "chosen-baby" stories, age at adoption, international adoption,…

  11. Transportation Practices in Community College Athletics (United States)

    LaVetter, David; Kim, Hyun Duck


    Over 45,000 U.S. community college athletes were transported to events during 2005-2006. Transporting college athletes has been an overlooked risk management issue facing administrators. Team travel accidents have caused death, injury, liability claims, property loss, and grief. National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) member…

  12. Healing Magazine, Volume 8, 2003. (United States)


    This volume of "Healing Magazine" features practical, clinical information aimed at sharing current work in children's mental health. The first issue contains articles on intervention for self-injurious behavior, providing school-based grief groups, effectively using time-out as a parenting tool, and KidsPeace's suicide prevention…

  13. Models of Coping with Bereavement : An Updated Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, M.S.; Stroebe, W.; Schut, H.A.W.; Boerner, Kathrin


    Bereavement research is reaching the hundred-year landmark of the publication of Freud’s classic 1917 ‘Mourning and Melancholia’, an essay of great significance for subsequent theoretical developments, particularly — in the current context — with regard to the centrality placed on ‘grief work’ in

  14. Revisiting the Continuing Bonds Theory: The Cultural Uniqueness of the Bei Dao Phenomenon in Taiwanese Widows/Widowers. (United States)

    Lee, Wan-Lin; Hou, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yaw-Sheng


    In the present study, we used the phenomenological approach to rediscover the ontological meaning of relationships with the deceased in Taiwanese widows/widowers. We first revised the original Western definitions of grief, bereavement, and mourning to fit Taiwanese culture. We used the word bei dao to indicate the mixed nature of grief and mourning in the Taiwanese bereavement process. Then we reanalyzed data from a previous study, which was conducted in 2006. In the previous qualitative research, each subject was interviewed 3 to 4 times in the mourning state over an 18-month interval that began at the point of the spouse's death. Results showed that two main themes emerged in the present analysis: (a) a blurred boundary of life and death and (b) a transformation of ethical bonds. The present study reveals the culturally unique aspects of the Taiwanese bei dao process. Limitations of the present study and future directions are discussed and reflected.

  15. New mourners, old mourners: online memorial culture as a chapter in the history of mourning (United States)

    Walter, Tony


    How does online mourning differ from offline mourning? Throughout history, demographic, social and technological changes have altered mourners' social relationships with both the living and the dead, and hence their experiences of grief. Online technologies comprise the latest chapter in this story; earlier chapters include family/community mourning (pre-industrial), private mourning (twentieth century) and public mourning (turn of the millennium). Pervasive social media in which users generate their own content have significantly shifted mourners' social interactions and the norms that govern them, partly in new directions (such as enfranchising previously stigmatised griefs; more potential for conflict between mourners and others) but partly returning to something more like the relationships of the pre-industrial village (such as everyday awareness of mortality, greater use of religious imagery, more potential for conflict among mourners). Online, mourners can experience both greater freedom to be themselves and increased social pressure to conform to group norms as to who should be mourned and how.

  16. The Self Lost, the Self Adjusted: Forming a New Identity in Bereavement Memoirs by American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecka Katarzyna


    Full Text Available Most Western cultures place a great value on autonomy. American society in particular has always stressed the need to succeed via self-reliance, a characteristic which, in recent decades, has additionally manifested itself in an increasing inclination for self-examination reflected in the deluge of autobiographical writing, especially memoirs. This analysis focuses on memoirs of spousal loss, a specific subgenre of life writing in which, due to the loss of a loved one, the narrating self realizes how unstable a sense of autonomy is. In their bereavement narratives, Joan Didion, Anne Roiphe, and Joyce Carol Oates admit that after losing a life partner their world crumbled and so did their sense of self. The article examines the following aspects of the grieving self: 1. how grief tests one’s self-sufficiency; 2. how various grief reactions contribute to self-disintegration; 3. the widow as a new and undesirable identity; and 4. writing as a way of regaining one’s sense of self.

  17. Safety at work in handling and processing radioactive residues industrial safety at the Central Decontamination Plants Department (HDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzkopf, W.


    There is an old German saying which implies that he who courts risk eventually comes to grief. Nobody likes to come to grief, and we all know that our health and that of our families and our colleagues is most important. On the other hand, we must master a variety of dangerous situations every day, at home, on the road and, especially, at work. Unfortunately, it is wrong working techniques and incorrect working habits which again and again entail considerable accident risks. Although we have learned from experience over many years, and also from training and instruction on the job, how to recognize dangers early enough to counteract them effectively, negligence may develop over time and lead to wrong assessments. Accidents don't happen by chance. And it is better to be safe than sorry. This short video is to upgrade your knowledge, bring your experience up to date, and alert you to hazardous situations. (orig.)

  18. Navigating Change: Employee Communication in Times of Instability (United States)

    DuFrene, Debbie D.; Lehman, Carol M.


    Employees often perceive periods of change--no matter how warranted or beneficial--as crises, exhibiting both cognitive and emotional reactions including feelings of insecurity and uncertainty, even fear, chaos, stress, betrayal, grief, and anger. Management must have a clear strategy for communicating with employees through change, as employee…

  19. Bereaved Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Combined Randomized Controlled Trial and Qualitative Study of Two Community-Based Interventions (United States)

    Dowling, S.; Hubert, J.; White, S.; Hollins, S.


    Background: Bereaved adults with intellectual disabilities are known to experience prolonged and atypical grief which is often unrecognized. The aim of this project was to find an effective way to improve mental health and behavioural outcomes. Methods: Subjects were randomized to two different therapeutic interventions: traditional counselling by…

  20. The Grieving Process in Children: Strategies for Understanding, Educating, and Reconciling Children's Perceptions of Death. (United States)

    Willis, Clarissa A.


    Provides an overview of how young children understand death, and offers concrete strategies for talking to children about death and suggestions for teachers about how to help children of various ages through grief and mourning. Highlights developmental differences in four components of children's understanding of death: irreversibility, finality,…

  1. And Then the Dog Died (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenneth R.; Kaufman, Nathaniel D.


    Childhood grief and mourning of family and friends may have immediate and long-lasting consequences including depression, anxiety, social withdrawal, behavioral disturbances, and school underachievement. Childhood pet bereavement is no less important, because the pet is often considered a member of the family by the child. However, society does…

  2. Confronting the Inevitable: A Conceptual Model of Miscarriage for Use in Clinical Practice and Research (United States)

    Wojnar, Danuta M.; Swanson, Kristen M.; Adolfsson, Ann-Sofie


    In spite of scientific evidence that miscarriage has negative psychological consequences for many individuals and couples, silence and dismissal continue to surround this invisible loss in North American culture and beyond. The grief and sorrow of miscarriage has important implications for clinical practice. It indicates a need for therapeutic…

  3. Bereavement and Loss: Developing a Memory Box to Support a Young Woman with Profound Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Young, Hannah; Garrard, Brenda


    Supporting bereaved people with profound learning disabilities still remains an under-researched area. Moreover, the barriers of communication and disenfranchised grief mean that they often do not receive the support they require, leading to emotional and behavioural difficulties. This article describes research using a case study design, which…

  4. Emotional reactions of medical doctors and students following the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 3, 2009 ... throughout the interviews and that all information would be treated with confidentiality. ... change.7 Saunders and Valente found that when doctors had not been able, ... earlier loss, and perhaps adopting a coping strategy of avoiding all grief ..... Perceptions of clients by professional helpers. Psychological ...

  5. The games institutions play B or the impact of university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data indicate that the lecturers experienced emotional phases similar to those described in Kübler-Ross' 'stages of grief' model. The need for a more humane approach to incorporation processes has implications for the successful transformation of higher education institutions. SAJHE Vol.18(1) 2004: 153-164 ...

  6. Feminist Pedagogy Meets Feminist Therapy: Teaching Feminist Therapy in Women's Studies (United States)

    Magnet, Shoshana; Diamond, Shaindl


    The affective realm--including sorrow, pain, ecstasy, vulnerability, joy, and rage--is a central component of feminist teaching and learning. Feminist classrooms are spaces where strong feelings are raised, paradigms shift, and ruptures are created. Coming to feminist consciousness may involve grief, anger, and sadness for students. Speaking about…

  7. Implications of Parental Suicide and Violent Death for Promotion of Resilience of Parentally-Bereaved Children (United States)

    Brown, Ana C.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Liu, Xianchen; Haine, Rachel A.


    This article considers the implications of suicide and violent deaths (including suicide, homicide, and accidents) for the development of interventions for parentally bereaved children. Analyses of data from the Family Bereavement Program find minimal differences in children's mental health problems, grief or risk and protective factors based on…

  8. Mathematics Curriculum, the Philosophy of Mathematics and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is my observation that the current school mathematics curriculum in Ethiopia is not producing competent mathematics students. Many mathematicians in Ethiopia and other part of the world have often expressed grief that the majority of students do not understand mathematical concepts, or do not see why mathematical ...

  9. 76 FR 60355 - Gold Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2011 (United States)


    ... Gold Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... grief their families carry we can never fully know. Gold Star mothers and families know the immeasurable... inspired by their strength and determination. Through heartbreaking loss, our Gold Star families continue...

  10. Respite Utilization and Responses to Loss among Family Caregivers: Relationship Matters (United States)

    DeCaporale, Lauren; Mensie, Lauren; Steffen, Ann


    Family caregivers of physically and cognitively impaired older adults face multiple challenges when providing care, including responses to tangible and anticipated losses. However, little is known about the grief experiences of family caregivers and how these might differentially influence the care-related behaviors of spouses and adult children.…

  11. Living with coeliac disease: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Rose, C; Howard, R


    Coeliac disease can be controlled only through adherence to a gluten-free diet. This diet is highly restrictive and can be challenging to maintain. It has been linked with elevated levels of psychological distress, including depression, anxiety and social phobia. Narratives on living with coeliac disease were written by 130 adult members of Coeliac UK (mean age 52.7 years; mean time since diagnosis 10.2 years; 67% sample female; 28% male). Qualitative analysis using grounded theory methods identified five key categories: living with widespread ignorance; social invisibility; creating a coeliac community; a changed identity; grief - and accepting the trade-off. A psychosocial model of living with coeliac disease was constructed from the findings, the central category of which was the changed identity of those diagnosed with the condition. Grief was experienced in relation to a loss of the former diet, changed personal and social identities, loss of social confidence and loss of social activities. Grief was generally mitigated over time as adjustments were made to changes in identity and lifestyle. Creating (or becoming part of) a coeliac community was a strategy enabling those with coeliac disease to re-establish their identities and increase social recognition and acceptance of the condition. Gluten-free living entails a substantial restriction of food choice. The losses and changes entailed impact on the personal and social identities of those living with coeliac disease, and on the behaviour of others towards them. Psychosocial interventions focussed on facilitating coping and adjustment may benefit those experiencing difficulties. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Bereaved families are still embittered after the Sewol ferry accident in Korea: A follow-up study 18 and 30months after the disaster. (United States)

    Yun, Ji-Ae; Huh, Hyu-Jung; Han, Hye-Sung; Huh, Seung; Chae, Jeong-Ho


    The Sewol ferry accident that occurred in April 2014 was one of the most tragic human-made disasters in Korean history. Due to the deaths of hundreds of children, bereaved families likely feel embittered; however, there is little extant research documenting embitterment among those who experienced the disaster. Consequently, we investigated bereaved family members' embitterment and other psychiatric symptoms 18months and 30months after the disaster. Data from a cross-sectional survey were obtained 18months (Time 1) and 30months (Time 2) after the disaster. We ascertained socio-demographic variables and variables obtained from a self-reporting questionnaire (i.e., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, complicated grief, and embitterment) among 56 bereaved family members. Bereaved families showed substantial embitterment at Time 1 (64.3%), which increased at Time 2 (76.8%, t=1.761, p=0.084). The participants who displayed increased embitterment at Time 2 also increased in anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and complicated grief (but not depression). Furthermore, participants who displayed decreased embitterment at Time 2 also decreased in all other psychiatric symptoms. (time×group interaction in depression (F 0.644, p=0.426), anxiety (F 4.970, p=0.030), PTSD (F 10.699, p=0.002), and complicated grief (F 8.389, p=0.005)). Embitterment of bereaved families had not ceased after 18months and even increased 1year later. Additionally, as embitterment increased, many other psychiatric symptoms also increased, and vice versa. Our results suggest that embitterment is associated or can even influence other psychiatric symptoms; therefore, embitterment should be examined after disasters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parenting Children with Disabilities: Navigating through the Storms (United States)

    Costantino, Margaret


    Parenting children with disabilities means coming to terms with feelings of loss and grief and balancing these with hope and resilience. Drawing from personal experiences as a parent with two disabled children, the author refers to elements of Schlossberg's model of transition, Herman's writings about trauma and recovery, and elements of…

  14. Adolescents\\' experience of a parental traumatic brain injury | Harris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenomenon of parental traumatic brain injury was characterised by denial, anger, grief, guilt, anxiety, over-protectiveness, social isolation, and change in many areas of the participants' lives. The adolescents coped using both approaches and avoidance styles of coping. Religion was a theme in the lives of all four ...

  15. Effects of Parental Suicide on the Adolescent Survivors' Lives When They Are Adults (United States)

    Saatci, Yesim


    This qualitative inquiry, phenomenology, purported to provide insight into the role of parental suicide on the adolescent survivors' adult lives between 18 and 40. This study described the survivors' coping strategies, self-esteem, and effects of their grief and bereavement as a result of parental suicide on their emotional wellness or…

  16. Activating Hope in the Midst of Crisis: Emotions, Transformative Learning, and "The Work That Reconnects" (United States)

    Hathaway, Mark D.


    Joanna Macy's "Work that Reconnects" (WTR) is a transformative learning process that endeavors to help participants acknowledge, experience, and understand the emotions that may either empower or inhibit action to address the ecological crisis. The WTR seeks to work through grief, fear, and despair to animate a sense of active,…

  17. Counselling Intervention and Support Programmes for Families of Children with Special Educational Needs (United States)

    Fareo, Dorcas Oluremi


    All couples look forward to having normal healthy babies. The issues of disabilities in their children shake the families and serve as sources of severe psychological disruption to family adjustment. The parents of such children live with many difficult issues and frequently experience trauma, grief and stress. Intervention programmes are…

  18. Intrapersonal Resources and the Effectiveness of Self-Help Groups for Bereaved Older Adults. (United States)

    Caserta, Michael S.; Lund, Dale A.


    Examined relative impact of 3 intrapersonal resources (self-esteem, competencies, and life satisfaction) and duration of self-help group intervention on levels of depression and grief over time among 295 recently widowed adults. Found that, in general, resources examined had greater direct influence on outcomes than did intervention. (Author/NB)

  19. Ghosts, Meaning, and Faith: After-Death Communications in Bereavement Narratives (United States)

    Kwilecki, Susan


    After-death communications (ADCs) are reported encounters with a deceased loved one, a contemporary type of ghost experience heralded as therapeutic in coping with bereavement. Pertinent literature generally illustrates the healing power of ADCs with brief, self-contained episodes. The functions of ADCs over the course of grief need exploration.…

  20. Death Competence: An Ethical Imperative (United States)

    Gamino, Louis A.; Ritter, R. Hal, Jr.


    The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death…

  1. Memory and Mourning: An Exhibit History (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.


    Mounted by the Strong Museum in Rochester, New York, in 1993, and traveling nationally thereafter, the exhibit Memory and Mourning provided historical and contemporary perspectives to help museum guests explore their own reactions to loss and grief. In the process the exhibit's development team encountered a range of philosophical, historical,…

  2. The Lived Experience of Losing a Sibling through Murder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    siblings. Homicide survivor bereavement, as a grief experience relative to other ... who have lost a child through murder, and, to a lesser ... siblings taking on the role of protector of their parents ...... fearful and angry feelings that contribute to their ... the adolescent to young adult transition: A developmental resilience model.

  3. A Delphi Study on Staff Bereavement Training in the Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Field (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer A.; Truesdale, Jesslyn


    The Delphi technique was used to obtain expert panel consensus to prioritize content areas and delivery methods for developing staff grief and bereavement curriculum training in the intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) field. The Delphi technique was conducted with a panel of 18 experts from formal and informal disability caregiving,…

  4. Factors Determining the Incidence of Suicide within Families (United States)

    Farber, Maurice L.


    This paper addresses itself to the reasons why suicide tends to repeat in some families. Factors include entire family exposure to stresses, grief, and guilt induced by suicide, the provision of a model by the original suicide, suicidogenic interpersonal styles in families, suicidogenic child-rearing practice, and innate predispositions to…

  5. "Once There Was El'zunia": Approaching Affect in Holocaust Literature (United States)

    Berlin, Gail Ivy


    The encounter with literature of the Holocaust, saturated as it is with unfathomable grief, loss, terror, and death, presents its readers with difficulties rare in literatures not dealing with the extreme. Specifically, usual academic discourse lacks a register for addressing the intense emotions that Holocaust narratives or poetry may generate.…

  6. The Decision-Filled Years of Adolescence. (United States)

    Baugher, Shirley L.; Martin, Betty B.


    After a discussion of the causes and results of adolescent stress, the authors suggest possible topics which home economics teachers could address in their curricula. These include developmental and transitional life stages, stress reactions, recovery from loss and grief, death, divorce, teen pregnancy and abortion, child abuse, rape, and others.…

  7. Perinatal Health Statistics as the Basis for Perinatal Quality Assessment in Croatia (United States)

    Rodin, Urelija; Filipović-Grčić, Boris; Đelmiš, Josip; Glivetić, Tatjana; Juras, Josip; Mustapić, Željka; Grizelj, Ruža


    Context. Perinatal mortality indicators are considered the most important measures of perinatal outcome. The indicators reliability depends on births and deaths reporting and recording. Many publications focus on perinatal deaths underreporting and misclassification, disabling proper international comparisons. Objective. Description of perinatal health care quality assessment key indicators in Croatia. Methods. Retrospective review of reports from all maternities from 2001 to 2014. Results. According to reporting criteria for birth weight ≥500 g, perinatal mortality (PNM) was reduced by 31%, fetal mortality (FM) by 32%, and early neonatal mortality (ENM) by 29%. According to reporting criteria for ≥1000 g, PNM was reduced by 43%, FM by 36%, and ENM by 54%. PNM in ≥22 weeks' (wks) gestational age (GA) was reduced by 28%, FM by 30%, and ENM by 26%. The proportion of FM at 32–36 wks GA and at term was the highest between all GA subgroups, as opposed to ENM with the highest proportion in 22–27 wks GA. Through the period, the maternal mortality ratio varied from 2.4 to 14.3/100,000 live births. The process indicators have been increased in number by more than half since 2001, the caesarean deliveries from 11.9% in 2001 to 19.6% in 2014. Conclusions. The comprehensive perinatal health monitoring represents the basis for the perinatal quality assessment. PMID:26693484

  8. Perinatal Health Statistics as the Basis for Perinatal Quality Assessment in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urelija Rodin


    Full Text Available Context. Perinatal mortality indicators are considered the most important measures of perinatal outcome. The indicators reliability depends on births and deaths reporting and recording. Many publications focus on perinatal deaths underreporting and misclassification, disabling proper international comparisons. Objective. Description of perinatal health care quality assessment key indicators in Croatia. Methods. Retrospective review of reports from all maternities from 2001 to 2014. Results. According to reporting criteria for birth weight ≥500 g, perinatal mortality (PNM was reduced by 31%, fetal mortality (FM by 32%, and early neonatal mortality (ENM by 29%. According to reporting criteria for ≥1000 g, PNM was reduced by 43%, FM by 36%, and ENM by 54%. PNM in ≥22 weeks’ (wks gestational age (GA was reduced by 28%, FM by 30%, and ENM by 26%. The proportion of FM at 32–36 wks GA and at term was the highest between all GA subgroups, as opposed to ENM with the highest proportion in 22–27 wks GA. Through the period, the maternal mortality ratio varied from 2.4 to 14.3/100,000 live births. The process indicators have been increased in number by more than half since 2001, the caesarean deliveries from 11.9% in 2001 to 19.6% in 2014. Conclusions. The comprehensive perinatal health monitoring represents the basis for the perinatal quality assessment.

  9. Maori Men and the Grief of SIDS (United States)

    Edwards, Shane; McCreanor, Tim; Ormsby, Manga; Tuwhangai, Nick; Tipene-Leach, David


    The loss of a baby is always hard to cope with and the grieving process is likely to be difficult. Interventions to work with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) families have improved grieving outcomes for many but the needs of Maori fathers are not well understood or catered to by existing services. This article presents narrative data from…

  10. Half Sinful Words: Disguised Grief in "Ulysses." (United States)

    Hobbs, Michael

    As a shrewd technician of the language, A. L. Tennyson rightly understood that words are not controllable; they do not always obey rules. As Tennyson said, words "half reveal and half conceal the soul within." In "Ulysses," the title character's speech to his fellow mariners--where he attempts to explain why he has decided to…

  11. Abortion: a technique for working through grief. (United States)

    Buckles, N B


    Studies have shown that very few women experience significant depression in the weeks following abortion and most have strong feelings of relief and happiness; what mild feelings of guilt, regret, or remorse do exist immediately following abortion tend to diminish quickly. Traditionally attitudes were that abortion could even precipitate psychosis and cause infertility, depression, and sexual dysfunction. The findings of a 1963-65 study of 116 women who underwent abortions indicate that few women had regrets immediately. Studies done after the 1973 Supreme Court decision conclude that even psychiatrically disturbed women who undergo abortion remain stabilized or improved afterwards. Women who do have postabortion problems are usually those who were late aborters, who feel that the decision was not freely made, or that the pregnancy fulfilled certain needs. When working with these women clinicians use a variety of techniques, encouraging the women to express their feelings of loss and anger and supporting the choice that was made, while providing contraceptive and decision making education. The strategy in 3 cases described here involved the woman first saying goodbye to the fetus and her former relationship with it in a gestalt dialogue. The next part of the strategy is establishing positive remembrance of the significant meaning of the fetus to the woman. There are usually 5 sessions at the end of which the woman feels optimistic; the 6th session is a followup 6 months to 1 year later at which most women report no further symptoms.

  12. Helping children express grief through symbolic communication. (United States)

    Segal, R M


    Communication barriers erected by grieving children delay problem resolution. Use of the expressive arts--music, art, and body movement--in symbolic communication helps them to express overwhelming feelings and cope with trauma and stress.

  13. Being the Change: An Inner City School Builds Peace (United States)

    Curry, Marnie W.


    This article describes an urban high school's response to gun violence, chronicling how the school's mission, full-service community orientation, and commitment to authentic cariño (caring) allowed students to respond to grief and tragedy and develop an ongoing peace building movement that seeks to transform students' lives and the communities…

  14. Counselling Intervention for Family Security (United States)

    Fareo, Dorcas Oluremi


    All couples look forward to having normal healthy babies. The issues of disabilities in their children shake the families and serve as sources of severe psychological disruption to family adjustment. The parents of such children live with many difficult issues and frequently experience trauma, grief and stress. This article deals with counselling…

  15. Conversations with God: Prayer and Bargaining in Adjustment to Disability (United States)

    Rodriguez, Valerie J.; Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Blanco, E. Lisette


    The role of religiosity and spirituality in the process of adjustment to disability is of increasing interest to rehabilitation professionals. Beginning with the Kubler-Ross models of grief and adjustment to disability and terminal illness, a number of stage models have included spiritual and religious interactions as a part of the adjustment…

  16. Grieving for the Family Farm. (United States)

    Zeller, Simon H.


    Reviews impact of recent agricultural trends in South Dakota. Outlines Kubler-Ross' stages of grief/adaptation that farm families must negotiate as they cope with the trauma of the loss of their farms. Indicates service providers must overcome farmers' mistrust for human welfare services and reach out to this vulnerable population. (NEC)

  17. Emphasis: Five Ways to Cure Boring Student Writing. (United States)

    Foster, Mary Ellen

    A careful use of emphasis by students in their writing can be promoted by some exercises assigned by composition teachers. A drawing exercise can help students learn that changing the length of sentences makes paragraphs more interesting. Using Elizabeth Kubler-Ross's five categories of grief to consider times of depression in students' lives…

  18. Bereavement among South African adolescents following a sibling's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV/AIDS stigma as well as the family's daily struggle to survive caused these adolescents to keep their feelings and their grief to themselves. Despite the trauma of losing a beloved sibling and the hardships of their environment, they demonstrated remarkable fortitude as well as concern for others. More research is needed ...

  19. The Ebola fog is lifting - Next epidemic: global mismanagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten


    We produce and consume disasters whether we intend to or not. But it’s generally not the same groups of people that causing disasters and those sacrificing. Disasters, in all their grief, have a capacity to reveal inequalities and injustices of the world (e.g. Katrina did in the US and the earthq...

  20. Commitment to Excellence: A History of the Sacramento District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1929-1973 (United States)


    of decades were being fulfilled. For others who had spent their lifetimes on the property of their parents and grandparents, it was grief and...Truckee River in Reno. A year and a half later, about the time Reno pre-schoolers were dreaming of the Great Pumpkin and pestering their folks for a

  1. Healing Trauma, Building Resilience: SITCAP in Action (United States)

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan


    Childhood trauma is marked by an overwhelming sense of terror and powerlessness. Loss of loving relationships is yet another type of trauma that produces the pain of sadness and grief. The resulting symptoms only reflect the neurological, biological, and emotional coping systems mobilized in the struggle to survive. These young people need new…

  2. Sharing Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Refslund Christensen, Dorthe

    This paper examines the demarcation of space and time and the materiality of as a designated place with its own (social) rules; a place for performing grief and segregating it from other aspects of social life. By logging in, the individuals step into the sacred space where they can spe...

  3. Death Education and Attitudes of Counselors-in-Training toward Death: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Harrawood, Laura K.; Doughty, Elizabeth A.; Wilde, Brandon


    This study reviewed how attitudes of counselors-in-training toward death develop after completing a course on death education. Participants included 11 graduate counseling students enrolled in a 2-credit-hour course addressing death and dying, and grief and loss. Qualitative results from a content analysis of free-response narratives suggest the…

  4. Heartsongs across the World: Using Literacy and Emotional Pedagogy to Empower Communities of Compassionate Learners (United States)

    Densmore-James, Susan; Yocum, Russell G.


    Whether stemming from dysfunctional families, abuse, emotional responses to societal violence, the threat of terrorism, school shootings, or escaping the day-to-day tedium that life places before us, today's learners are vulnerable to loss and the grief, sorrow, depression, and anger that accompany such loss. This essay, written from the lead…

  5. The Role of Social Support, Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Self-Concept on Adolescent Depression, Achievement, and Social Satisfaction among Children Who Experience the Death of a Family Member (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong T.


    Experiencing the death of a family member at a young age is a confusing time for many children. Some clinicians have reported that parental death is the most stressful life event for children, and some studies have traced adults' mental health difficulties to unresolved childhood grief (Balk, 1983; Krahnstoever, 2006). Despite the hardships…

  6. Ethical, psychosocial and anthropological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “If our dearly beloved is dead, we will not bury him, but will eat him, for it will ... body of my son, for I am feeling truly grief-stricken and would like to keep it. ..... by decay of a chief's corpse resulted in the appearance of a large sea- serpent.[22].

  7. Parents' management of the development of their children with disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup


     Being the parent of a disabled child is not easy, it is experienced as a situation marked by stress, crises and grief. As Vygotsky described eighty years ago, the development of children with disabilities and the culture do not fit as they do for non-disabled children. The development of a child...

  8. Commentary on the Inclusion of Persistent Complex Bereavement-Related Disorder in DSM-5 (United States)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Prigerson, Holly G.


    The DSM-5 Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, Posttraumatic, and Dissociative Disorders Work Group has proposed criteria for Persistent Complex Bereavement-Related Disorder (PCBRD) for inclusion in the appendix of DSM-5. The authors feel that it is important that dysfunctional grief will become a formal condition in DSM-5 because that would…

  9. Facts for Families from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry [1991]. (United States)

    American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington, DC.

    Nine fact sheets relevant to children's emotional well-being are presented in this document. The first fact sheet, "Teenagers with Eating Disorders" focuses on anorexia nervosa and bulimia. The second fact sheet, "Children and Grief" describes age-related responses to death, and ways of coping with a death in a family that…

  10. The Oprahfication of 9/11: September 11, the war in Iraq, and The Oprah Winfrey show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.; Cotten, T.T.; Springer, K.


    This chapter discusses how The Oprah Winfrey Show presented the aftermath of 9/11 and the pending war in Iraq in its episodes. It shows that in "The Oprahfication of 9/11," the show’s discourse on terrorism and war "transform[ed] possible feelings of fear, anger, anxiety, and grief into acts of

  11. Where is God when dementia sneaks into our house? Practical theology and the partners of dementia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bons-Storm


    Full Text Available How can hope, love and faith stay alive when dementia enters a home? In this article I shall look especially at the spouse or partner who shares an abode with a person with dementia. Most of the authors in this field, also John Swinton who is perhaps the best known author whose books are written from a (practical theological perspective, focus on care in institutions, that means care by professionals. A partner living with a dementia patient has two main roles: as partner and caregiver. Night and day a partner is witness to the ongoing deterioration of her or his beloved partner, without being a professional. This article is founded not only on literature about dementia patients, but also on the experiences of several partners, as well as my own experiences as a partner. The question we all ask is: ‘From where does our strength come?’ I argue that what is said in the literature on the subject of (the pastoral care for dementia patients does not help the partners, because it lays a heavy burden on them, who are already suffering from feelings of grief and guilt. I do not agree with John Swinton’s idea that God created dementia. Looking for different ways of thinking about God and faith to survive with hope and love, I turn to the exegesis of the creation stories by Ellen van Wolde. These give the opportunity to take the evil of the situation of the deterioration of the personality of a patient with dementia seriously, and at the same time grant the possibility to turn the grief and guilt feelings into strength to fight evil, together with a God whose empathy and love stays with a partner in her or his loneliness and grief. Keywords: dementia; partner care; guilt feelings; evil; God as ally

  12. Is rumination after bereavement linked with loss avoidance? Evidence from eye-tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten C Eisma

    Full Text Available Rumination is a risk factor in adjustment to bereavement. It is associated with and predicts psychopathology after loss. Yet, the function of rumination in bereavement remains unclear. In the past, researchers often assumed rumination to be a maladaptive confrontation process. However, based on cognitive avoidance theories of worry in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD and rumination after post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, others have suggested that rumination may serve to avoid painful aspects of the loss, thereby contributing to complicated grief. To examine if rumination is linked with loss avoidance, an eye-tracking study was conducted with 54 bereaved individuals (27 high and 27 low ruminators. On 24 trials, participants looked for 10 seconds at a picture of the deceased and a picture of a stranger, randomly combined with negative, neutral or loss-related words. High ruminators were expected to show initial vigilance followed by subsequent disengagement for loss stimuli (i.e., picture deceased with a loss word in the first 1500 ms. Additionally, we expected high ruminators to avoid these loss stimuli and to show attentional preference for non-loss-related negative stimuli (i.e., picture stranger with a negative word on longer exposure durations (1500-10000 ms. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence for an effect of rumination on vigilance and disengagement of loss stimuli in the first 1500 ms. However, in the 1500-10000 ms interval, high ruminators showed shorter gaze times for loss stimuli and longer gaze times for negative (and neutral non-loss-related stimuli, even when controlling for depression and complicated grief symptom levels. Effects of rumination on average fixation times mirrored these findings. This suggests that rumination and loss avoidance are closely associated. A potential clinical implication is that rumination and grief complications after bereavement may be reduced through the use of exposure and acceptance

  13. Spiritual Distress in Bereavement: Evolution of a Research Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A. Burke


    Full Text Available Many mourners turn to their spiritual beliefs and traditions when confronted by the death of a loved one. However, prior studies have either focused primarily on the benefits of faith following loss or studied spiritual struggle outside the context of bereavement. Moreover, scales to measure bereavement-related crises of faith and interventions specifically designed for spiritually inclined, distressed grievers are virtually non-existent. Our program of research, which to date has consisted of working with Christian grievers and is outlined below, elucidates complicated spiritual grief (CSG—a spiritual crisis following the loss of a loved one. For example, our longitudinal examination of 46 African American homicide survivors established the relation between positive religious coping, CSG, and complicated grief (CG, to clarify whether religious coping more strongly predicted bereavement distress or vice versa, with a follow-up study that determined the relation between religious coping and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression. We replicated and expanded these findings with a diverse sample of 150 grievers to explore the complex relation between CSG, CG, and meaning making in a comparison study of mourners who had experienced traumatic-versus natural death losses. In a companion study, we qualitatively analyzed 84 grievers’ narratives and interviewed a 5-member focus group to capture and learn from their firsthand experiences of spiritual distress. To close the gap in terms of CSG assessment, we also developed and validated the Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief (ICSG. Currently, our ongoing CSG investigation extends in several directions: first, to a sample of family members anticipating the loss of their hospice-eligible loved one in palliative care; and, second, to the development and testing of a writing-intensive intervention for newly bereaved, spiritually inclined grievers.

  14. Holding the Despair of Medical Trauma: The Power of Dyadic Regulation (United States)

    Lakatos, Patricia P.


    When parents make an unintentional mistake that harms their child, the associated guilt and grief can be overwhelming and difficult to treat. The parents described in this article unknowingly created a medical emergency when they added water to their child's formula, thinking it would help her constipation. The baby survived the trauma--but with…

  15. Oil in the Water, Fire in the Sky: Responding to Technological/Environmental Disasters (United States)

    Lazarus, Philip J.; Sulkowski, Michael L.


    On April 20, 2010, a massive explosion killed 11 workers on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. Survivors of this explosion recounted terrifying near-death experiences and mourned the loss of coworkers and friends who had perished. Shock and grief spread through small coastal communities composed mostly of fishers and oil workers. However, this was…

  16. Visiting the Site of Death: Experiences of the Bereaved after the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami (United States)

    Kristensen, Pal; Tonnessen, Arnfinn; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond


    The authors examined how many bereaved relatives of Norwegian tourists who perished in the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami had visited the site of death and the most important outcome from the visit. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 110) and used self-report questionnaires (Impact of Event Scale--Revised, Inventory of Complicated Grief, and…

  17. The Meaning Structures of Muslim Bereavements in Israel: Religious Traditions, Mourning Practices, and Human Experience (United States)

    Yasien-Esmael, Hend; Rubin, Simon Shimshon


    The grief and mourning of Muslim citizens in Israel are considered. First, a series of mourning customs spanning the period from notification of death until post-mourning are presented from 3 perspectives: (a) the requirements of the Islamic Sunni tradition; (b) the manner in which Islamic mourning rituals are practiced; and (c) the authors'…

  18. :;ILl c. ~. ~EVER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 6, 1973 ... Israeli counterattack, using massed armour, had come to grief in a withering hail of anti-tank rockets and anti-tank guided missiles. The Israelis, however, controlled the Giddi, Mitla and Khatmia passes, gateways to Sinai - but with skeleton forces. It is unresolved why the Egyptians did not attempt to seize ...

  19. Grieving the Loss of a Child (United States)

    ... be strong, and take charge of the family. Women may be expected to cry openly and want to talk about their grief. If you are a working parent, you may become more involved in your job to escape the sadness and daily reminders at home. A stay-at-home parent may be surrounded by constant ...

  20. Beelden van de dood in de muziek : Zes casestudies naar veranderende tradities in het Duitse taalgebied gedurende drie eeuwen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersema, E.M.


    This study on death themes in music aimed to gain more insight in the various ways in which composers have been dealing with (fear of) death, loss and grief through the ages. The research area of this PhD dissertation is restricted to compositions from the German-speaking area in the period from the