WorldWideScience

Sample records for gridded upper air

  1. A gridded air counter for measuring exoelectrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Chiba, Yoshiya; Kirihata, Humiaki.

    1980-01-01

    A gridded air counter with a quenching circuit is described, which serves to detect low-energy electrons such as thermionic electrons, photoelectrons and exoelectrons emitted into the atmospheric air. The air counter consists of a loop-shaped anode and two grids provided for quenching the gas discharge and for protecting the electron emitter from the positive ion bombardment. The quenching circuit with a high input sensitivity of 5 mV detects the initiation gas discharge caused by an incident electron and immediately supplies a rectangular wave pulse of 300 V in amplitude and of more than 3 msec in width to the quenching grid near the anode. Simultaneously, the voltage of the suppressor grid is brought down and kept at -30 V against the earthed sample for the same period of time. Performance of the gridded air counter was examined by use of photoelectrons emitted from an abraded aluminum plate. The quenching action was successfully accomplished in the anode voltage range from 3.65 to 3.95 kV. The photoelectrons emitted into the atmosphere could be counted stably by use of this counter. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the Monotonic Lagrangian Grid and Lat-Long Grid for Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Carolyn; Dahm, Johann; Oran, Elaine; Alexandrov, Natalia; Boris, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The Air Traffic Monotonic Lagrangian Grid (ATMLG) is used to simulate a 24 hour period of air traffic flow in the National Airspace System (NAS). During this time period, there are 41,594 flights over the United States, and the flight plan information (departure and arrival airports and times, and waypoints along the way) are obtained from an Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Enhanced Traffic Management System (ETMS) dataset. Two simulation procedures are tested and compared: one based on the Monotonic Lagrangian Grid (MLG), and the other based on the stationary Latitude-Longitude (Lat- Long) grid. Simulating one full day of air traffic over the United States required the following amounts of CPU time on a single processor of an SGI Altix: 88 s for the MLG method, and 163 s for the Lat-Long grid method. We present a discussion of the amount of CPU time required for each of the simulation processes (updating aircraft trajectories, sorting, conflict detection and resolution, etc.), and show that the main advantage of the MLG method is that it is a general sorting algorithm that can sort on multiple properties. We discuss how many MLG neighbors must be considered in the separation assurance procedure in order to ensure a five-mile separation buffer between aircraft, and we investigate the effect of removing waypoints from aircraft trajectories. When aircraft choose their own trajectory, there are more flights with shorter duration times and fewer CD&R maneuvers, resulting in significant fuel savings.

  3. The Monotonic Lagrangian Grid for Rapid Air-Traffic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Carolyn; Dahm, Johann; Oran, Elaine; Alexandrov, Natalia; Boris, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The Air Traffic Monotonic Lagrangian Grid (ATMLG) is presented as a tool to evaluate new air traffic system concepts. The model, based on an algorithm called the Monotonic Lagrangian Grid (MLG), can quickly sort, track, and update positions of many aircraft, both on the ground (at airports) and in the air. The underlying data structure is based on the MLG, which is used for sorting and ordering positions and other data needed to describe N moving bodies and their interactions. Aircraft that are close to each other in physical space are always near neighbors in the MLG data arrays, resulting in a fast nearest-neighbor interaction algorithm that scales as N. Recent upgrades to ATMLG include adding blank place-holders within the MLG data structure, which makes it possible to dynamically change the MLG size and also improves the quality of the MLG grid. Additional upgrades include adding FAA flight plan data, such as way-points and arrival and departure times from the Enhanced Traffic Management System (ETMS), and combining the MLG with the state-of-the-art strategic and tactical conflict detection and resolution algorithms from the NASA-developed Stratway software. In this paper, we present results from our early efforts to couple ATMLG with the Stratway software, and we demonstrate that it can be used to quickly simulate air traffic flow for a very large ETMS dataset.

  4. Upper limits for air humidity based on human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole; Jørgensen, Anette S.

    1998-01-01

    respiratory cooling. Human subjects perceived the condition of their skin to be less acceptable with increasing skin humidity. Inhaled air was rated warmer, more stuffy and less acceptable with increasing air humidity and temperature. Based on the subjects' comfort responses, new upper limits for air humidity......The purpose of this study was to verify the hypothesis that insufficient respiratory cooling and a high level of skin humidity are two reasons for thermal discomfort at high air humidities, and to prescribe upper limits for humidity based on discomfort due to elevated skin humidity and insufficient...

  5. The GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vömel, H.; Berger, F. H.; Immler, F. J.; Seidel, D.; Thorne, P.

    2009-04-01

    While the global upper-air observing network has provided useful observations for operational weather forecasting for decades, its measurements lack the accuracy and long-term continuity needed for understanding climate change. Consequently, the scientific community faces uncertainty on such key issues as the trends of temperature in the upper troposphere and stratosphere or the variability and trends of stratospheric water vapour. To address these shortcomings, and to ensure that future climate records will be more useful than the records to date, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) program initiated the GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN). GRUAN will be a network of about 30-40 observatories with a representative sampling of geographic regions and surface types. These stations will provide upper-air reference observations of the essential climate variables, i.e. temperature, geopotential, humidity, wind, radiation and cloud properties using specialized radiosondes and complementary remote sensing profiling instrumentation. Long-term stability, quality assurance / quality control, and a detailed assessment of measurement uncertainties will be the key aspects of GRUAN observations. The network will not be globally complete but will serve to constrain and adjust data from more spatially comprehensive global observing systems including satellites and the current radiosonde networks. This paper outlines the scientific rationale for GRUAN, its role in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems, network requirements and likely instrumentation, management structure, current status and future plans.

  6. Modeled Full-Flight Aircraft Emissions Impacts on Air Quality and Their Sensitivity to Grid Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennam, L. P.; Vizuete, W.; Talgo, K.; Omary, M.; Binkowski, F. S.; Xing, J.; Mathur, R.; Arunachalam, S.

    2018-01-01

    Aviation is a unique anthropogenic source with four-dimensional varying emissions, peaking at cruise altitudes (9–12 km). Aircraft emission budgets in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere region and their potential impacts on upper troposphere and surface air quality are not well understood. Our key objective is to use chemical transport models (with prescribed meteorology) to predict aircraft emissions impacts on the troposphere and surface air quality. We quantified the importance of including full-flight intercontinental emissions and increased horizontal grid resolution. The full-flight aviation emissions in the Northern Hemisphere contributed ~1.3% (mean, min–max: 0.46, 0.3–0.5 ppbv) and 0.2% (0.013, 0.004–0.02 μg/m3) of total O3 and PM2.5 concentrations at the surface, with Europe showing slightly higher impacts (1.9% (O3 0.69, 0.5–0.85 ppbv) and 0.5% (PM2.5 0.03, 0.01–0.05 μg/m3)) than North America (NA) and East Asia. We computed seasonal aviation-attributable mass flux vertical profiles and aviation perturbations along isentropic surfaces to quantify the transport of cruise altitude emissions at the hemispheric scale. The comparison of coarse (108 × 108 km2) and fine (36 × 36 km2) grid resolutions in NA showed ~70 times and ~13 times higher aviation impacts for O3 and PM2.5 in coarser domain. These differences are mainly due to the inability of the coarse resolution simulation to capture nonlinearities in chemical processes near airport locations and other urban areas. Future global studies quantifying aircraft contributions should consider model resolution and perhaps use finer scales near major aviation source regions. PMID:29707471

  7. Modeled Full-Flight Aircraft Emissions Impacts on Air Quality and Their Sensitivity to Grid Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennam, L. P.; Vizuete, W.; Talgo, K.; Omary, M.; Binkowski, F. S.; Xing, J.; Mathur, R.; Arunachalam, S.

    2017-12-01

    Aviation is a unique anthropogenic source with four-dimensional varying emissions, peaking at cruise altitudes (9-12 km). Aircraft emission budgets in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere region and their potential impacts on upper troposphere and surface air quality are not well understood. Our key objective is to use chemical transport models (with prescribed meteorology) to predict aircraft emissions impacts on the troposphere and surface air quality. We quantified the importance of including full-flight intercontinental emissions and increased horizontal grid resolution. The full-flight aviation emissions in the Northern Hemisphere contributed 1.3% (mean, min-max: 0.46, 0.3-0.5 ppbv) and 0.2% (0.013, 0.004-0.02 μg/m3) of total O3 and PM2.5 concentrations at the surface, with Europe showing slightly higher impacts (1.9% (O3 0.69, 0.5-0.85 ppbv) and 0.5% (PM2.5 0.03, 0.01-0.05 μg/m3)) than North America (NA) and East Asia. We computed seasonal aviation-attributable mass flux vertical profiles and aviation perturbations along isentropic surfaces to quantify the transport of cruise altitude emissions at the hemispheric scale. The comparison of coarse (108 × 108 km2) and fine (36 × 36 km2) grid resolutions in NA showed 70 times and 13 times higher aviation impacts for O3 and PM2.5 in coarser domain. These differences are mainly due to the inability of the coarse resolution simulation to capture nonlinearities in chemical processes near airport locations and other urban areas. Future global studies quantifying aircraft contributions should consider model resolution and perhaps use finer scales near major aviation source regions.

  8. Research on a Micro-Grid Frequency Modulation Strategy Based on Optimal Utilization of Air Conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhu Wan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the proportion of air conditioners increasing gradually, they can provide a certain amount of frequency-controlled reserves for a micro-grid. Optimizing utilization of air conditioners and considering load response characteristics and customer comfort, the frequency adjustment model is a quadratic function model between the trigger temperature of the air conditioner compressor, and frequency variation is provided, which can be used to regulate the trigger temperature of the air conditioner when the micro-grid frequency rises and falls. This frequency adjustment model combines a primary frequency modulation method and a secondary frequency modulation method of the energy storage system, in order to optimize the frequency of a micro-grid. The simulation results show that the frequency modulation strategy for air conditioners can effectively improve the frequency modulation ability of air conditioners and frequency modulation effects of a micro-grid in coordination with an energy storage system.

  9. Relative dose efficiencies of antiscatter grids and air gaps in pediatric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, D.L.; Cohen, G.; Wagner, L.K.; Robinson, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    The relative dose efficiencies (RDE) of various antiscatter grids and air gaps were determined for conditions simulating those found in pediatric radiography, using phantoms representing a newborn child, a 5-yr-old and a 10-yr-old child. Our data indicate than an air gap is best for the newborn, due to the low levels of scatter. The 8:1 fiber grid or 15.2-cm air gap without a grid can improve dose efficiency (DE) for the 5-yr-old child by 20%--25% relative to the 3.3-cm air gap and no-grid technique, while for the 10-yr-old child, DE can be improved by 40% with an 8:1 fiber grid

  10. The Monotonic Lagrangian Grid for Fast Air-Traffic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Kaplan, Carolyn; Oran, Elaine; Boris, Jay

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the continued development of a dynamic air-traffic model, ATMLG, intended for rapid evaluation of rules and methods to control and optimize transport systems. The underlying data structure is based on the Monotonic Lagrangian Grid (MLG), which is used for sorting and ordering positions and other data needed to describe N moving bodies, and their interactions. In ATMLG, the MLG is combined with algorithms for collision avoidance and updating aircraft trajectories. Aircraft that are close to each other in physical space are always near neighbors in the MLG data arrays, resulting in a fast nearest-neighbor interaction algorithm that scales as N. In this paper, we use ATMLG to examine how the ability to maintain a required separation between aircraft decreases as the number of aircraft in the volume increases. This requires keeping track of the primary and subsequent collision avoidance maneuvers necessary to maintain a five mile separation distance between all aircraft. Simulation results show that the number of collision avoidance moves increases exponentially with the number of aircraft in the volume.

  11. 40 CFR 81.55 - Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.55 Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control...

  12. Parallel processing and non-uniform grids in global air quality modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Bochev, Mikhail A.

    2002-01-01

    A large-scale global air quality model, running efficiently on a single vector processor, is enhanced to make more realistic and more long-term simulations feasible. Two strategies are combined: non-uniform grids and parallel processing. The communication through the hierarchy of non-uniform grids

  13. Air Pollution Monitoring and Mining Based on Sensor Grid in London

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yajie; Richards, Mark; Ghanem, Moustafa; Guo, Yike; Hassard, John

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed infrastructure based on wireless sensors network and Grid computing technology for air pollution monitoring and mining, which aims to develop low-cost and ubiquitous sensor networks to collect real-time, large scale and comprehensive environmental data from road traffic emissions for air pollution monitoring in urban environment. The main informatics challenges in respect to constructing the high-throughput sensor Grid are discussed in this paper. We pr...

  14. Removing seed coat fragments with a lint cleaner grid bar air knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat fragments (SCF) in ginned lint cause spinning problems at the textile mill and undesirable defects in finished goods. Work continued on developing an air knife that may help remove SCF from ginned lint. The air knife is mounted on the 1st lint cleaner grid bar of a saw-type lint cleaner,...

  15. Air-water flooding in multirod channels: effects of spacer grids and blockages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jong Hee; Jun, Hyung Gil

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results on flooding of countercurrent flow in vertical multirod channels, which consists of falling water film and upward air flow. In particular, the effects of spacer grids, with and without mixing vane, and of blockage in the multirod bundle on the behaviour of flooding were investigated. The 5 x 5 zircaloy tube bundle was used for the test section. The comparison of previous analytical models and empirical correlations with present data on flooding showed that the existing models and correlations predict much higher flooding curves. The spacer grid causes the lower flooding air flow rate to compare with the bare rod bundle. However, the mixing spacer grids need a higher flooding air flow rate for a constant liquid flow rate than the spacer grids without mixing vanes. The bundle containing blockages has the highest flooding air flow rate among the bundles with spacer grids and blokages. Empirical flooding correlations for the three types of test section have been made. (Author)

  16. Vandenberg Air Force Base Upper Level Wind Launch Weather Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman III ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The maximum wind speed and 1000-ft shear values for each sounding in each subseason were determined. To accurately calculate the PoV, the AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum shear datasets. Ultimately it was discovered that the maximum wind speeds follow a Gaussian distribution while the maximum shear values follow a lognormal distribution. These results were applied when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition to the requirements outlined in the original task plan, the AMU also included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on day of launch. The interactive graphical user interface (GUI) for this project was developed in

  17. Air Pollution Monitoring and Mining Based on Sensor Grid in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yajie; Richards, Mark; Ghanem, Moustafa; Guo, Yike; Hassard, John

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed infrastructure based on wireless sensors network and Grid computing technology for air pollution monitoring and mining, which aims to develop low-cost and ubiquitous sensor networks to collect real-time, large scale and comprehensive environmental data from road traffic emissions for air pollution monitoring in urban environment. The main informatics challenges in respect to constructing the high-throughput sensor Grid are discussed in this paper. We present a two-layer network framework, a P2P e-Science Grid architecture, and the distributed data mining algorithm as the solutions to address the challenges. We simulated the system in TinyOS to examine the operation of each sensor as well as the networking performance. We also present the distributed data mining result to examine the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:27879895

  18. Air Pollution Monitoring and Mining Based on Sensor Grid in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hassard

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a distributed infrastructure based on wireless sensors network and Grid computing technology for air pollution monitoring and mining, which aims to develop low-cost and ubiquitous sensor networks to collect real-time, large scale and comprehensive environmental data from road traffic emissions for air pollution monitoring in urban environment. The main informatics challenges in respect to constructing the high-throughput sensor Grid are discussed in this paper. We present a twolayer network framework, a P2P e-Science Grid architecture, and the distributed data mining algorithm as the solutions to address the challenges. We simulated the system in TinyOS to examine the operation of each sensor as well as the networking performance. We also present the distributed data mining result to examine the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  19. Air Pollution Monitoring and Mining Based on Sensor Grid in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yajie; Richards, Mark; Ghanem, Moustafa; Guo, Yike; Hassard, John

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed infrastructure based on wireless sensors network and Grid computing technology for air pollution monitoring and mining, which aims to develop low-cost and ubiquitous sensor networks to collect real-time, large scale and comprehensive environmental data from road traffic emissions for air pollution monitoring in urban environment. The main informatics challenges in respect to constructing the high-throughput sensor Grid are discussed in this paper. We present a twolayer network framework, a P2P e-Science Grid architecture, and the distributed data mining algorithm as the solutions to address the challenges. We simulated the system in TinyOS to examine the operation of each sensor as well as the networking performance. We also present the distributed data mining result to examine the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  20. Estimating surface solar radiation from upper-air humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kun Yang [Telecommunications Advancement Organization of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Koike, Toshio [University of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2002-07-01

    A numerical model is developed to estimate global solar irradiance from upper-air humidity. In this model, solar radiation under clear skies is calculated through a simple model with radiation-damping processes under consideration. A sky clearness indicator is parameterized from relative humidity profiles within three atmospheric sublayers, and the indicator is used to connect global solar radiation under clear skies and that under cloudy skies. Model inter-comparisons at 18 sites in Japan suggest (1) global solar radiation strongly depends on the sky clearness indicator, (2) the new model generally gives better estimation to hourly-mean solar irradiance than the other three methods used in numerical weather predictions, and (3) the new model may be applied to estimate long-term solar radiation. In addition, a study at one site in the Tibetan Plateau shows vigorous convective activities in the region may cause some uncertainties to radiation estimations due to the small-scale and short life of convective systems. (author)

  1. Effects of air pollution on general practitioner consultations for upper respiratory diseases in London

    OpenAIRE

    Hajat, S; Anderson, H; Atkinson, R; Haines, A; Seaton, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Few published studies have examined the effect of air pollution on upper respiratory conditions. Furthermore, most epidemiological studies on air pollution focus on mortality or hospital admissions as the main health outcomes, but very rarely consider the effect in primary care. If pollution effects do exist then the public health impact could be considerable because of the many patient contacts involved. We investigated the relation between air pollution and upper respiratory dis...

  2. Operation and extension of the Bavarian state air-hygienic monitoring system and the radioactive nuisance measuring grid in northern Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munzert, K.

    1994-01-01

    The measuring grid of the Bavarian state air-hygienic monitoring system with, currently, 71 measuring points (Upper and Lower Palatine, Upper, Middle and Lower Franconia) in 35 sites measures nuisances in northern Bavaria. 14 of the sites are also used for measuring radioactivity. The measuring stations are situated above all in areas with a high industrial or residential density (established areas of investigation); but also in areas near the border receiving heavy pollutant freights because of long-range pollutant transport (smog areas in the urban and rural district of Hof, rural district of Wundsiedel) and in areas far afield from industrial zones, measurements are carried out.- At each station, the air-analytical, meteorological and radiological readings are continuously processed by computer into half-hourly, hourly or three-hourly means. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Surface and upper air meteorological features during onset phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was a sharp fall in the temperature difference between 850 and 500 hPa, and the height of zero degree isotherm about 2–3 days before the monsoon onset. The flux of sensible heat was positive (sea to air) over south Arabian Sea during the onset phase. Over the Bay of Bengal higher negative (air to sea) values of ...

  4. Joint US Navy/US Air Force climatic study of the upper atmosphere. Volume 2: February

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changery, Michael J.; Williams, Claude N.; Dickenson, Michael L.; Wallace, Brian L.

    1989-09-01

    The upper atmosphere was studied based on 1980 to 1985 twice daily gridded analyses produced by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. This volume is for the month of February. Included are global analyses of: (1) Mean temperature standard deviation; (2) Mean geopotential height standard deviation; (3) Mean density standard deviation; (4) Height and vector standard deviation (all for 13 pressure levels - 1000, 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 70, 50, 30 mb); (5) Mean dew point standard deviation for the 13 levels; and (6) Jet stream for levels 500 through 30 mb. Also included are global 5 degree grid point wind roses for the 13 pressure levels.

  5. Joint US Navy/US Air Force climatic study of the upper atmosphere. Volume 1: January

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changery, Michael J.; Williams, Claude N.; Dickenson, Michael L.; Wallace, Brian L.

    1989-07-01

    The upper atmosphere was studied based on 1980 to 1985 twice daily gridded analyses produced by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. This volume is for the month of January. Included are global analyses of: (1) Mean temperature standard deviation; (2) Mean geopotential height standard deviation; (3) Mean density standard deviation; (4) Mean density standard deviation (all for 13 levels - 1000, 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 70, 50, 30 mb); (5) Mean dew point standard deviation for the 13 levels; and (6) Jet stream at levels 500 through 30 mb. Also included are global 5 degree grid point wind roses for the 13 pressure levels.

  6. Joint US Navy/US Air Force climatic study of the upper atmosphere. Volume 4: April

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changery, Michael J.; Williams, Claude N.; Dickenson, Michael L.; Wallace, Brian L.

    1989-07-01

    The upper atmosphere was studied based on 1980 to 1985 twice daily gridded analyses produced by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. This volume is for the month of April. Included are global analyses of: (1) Mean temperature standard deviation; (2) Mean geopotential height standard deviation; (3) Mean density standard deviation; (4) Height and vector standard deviation (all for 13 pressure levels - 1000, 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 70, 50, 30 mb); (5) Mean dew point standard deviation for the 13 levels; and (6) Jet stream for levels 500 through 30 mb. Also included are global 5 degree grid point wind roses for the 13 pressure levels.

  7. An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

    1991-10-01

    This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Final report on 3-D experiment project air-water upper plenum experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, J.K.; Mohr, C.M.

    1978-11-01

    The results are presented from upper plenum air-water reflood behavior testing performed as part of the program to investigate three-dimensional aspects of PWR LOCA research. Tests described were performed at near ambient temperature and pressure in a plexiglass vessel which included the important features of the upper core and upper plenum regions corresponding to a single fuel bundle in both Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Trojan) and Kraftwerk Union (KKU) PWR designs. The data included observed two-phase flow characteristics, particularly with regard to countercurrent flow, and cinematography of the characteristic upper plenum flow patterns

  9. Multi-scale modeling of urban air pollution: development of a Street-in-Grid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngseob; Wu, You; Seigneur, Christian; Roustan, Yelva

    2016-04-01

    the Leighton cycle chemistry. The street-network model is coupled to the CTM Polair3D of the Polyphemus air quality modeling platform to constitute a Street-in-Grid (SinG) model. The street-network model is used to simulate the concentrations of the chemical species in the lowest layer in the urban area and the simulation for the upper layers is then performed by Polair3D. Interactions between the street-network model and the host CTM occur at roof-top and depend on the vertical mass transfer described above. The SinG model is used to simulate the concentrations of gas-phase pollutants (O3 and NOx) in a Paris suburb. The emission data for each street that are needed for the street-network model were obtained from a dynamic traffic model. Topographic data, such as street length/width and building height, were obtained from a geographic database (BD TOPO). Simulated concentrations are compared to concentrations measured at two monitoring stations that were located on each side of a large avenue.

  10. Performance test of a grid-tied PV system to power a split air conditioner system in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, E.

    2017-11-01

    Air conditioner for cooling air is one of the major needs for those who live in hot climate area such as Indonesia. This work presents the performance test of a grid-tied PV system to power air conditioner under a hot tropical climate in Surabaya, Indonesia. A 800 WP grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) system was used, and its performance was tested to power a 0.5 pk of split air conditioner system. It was found that about 3.5 kWh daily energy was consumed by the tested air conditioner system, and about 80% it could be supplied from the PV system. While the other 20% was supplied by the grid during periods of low solar irradiation, 440 Wh of energy was fed into the grid during operation out of office hours. By using the grid-tied PV system, the energy production by PV system did not need to match the consumption of the air conditioner. However, a larger capacity of PV system would mean that a higher percentage of the load would be covered by PV system.

  11. Recent changes in terrestrial water storage in the Upper Nile Basin: an evaluation of commonly used gridded GRACE products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shamsudduha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite data monitor large-scale changes in total terrestrial water storage (ΔTWS, providing an invaluable tool where in situ observations are limited. Substantial uncertainty remains, however, in the amplitude of GRACE gravity signals and the disaggregation of TWS into individual terrestrial water stores (e.g. groundwater storage. Here, we test the phase and amplitude of three GRACE ΔTWS signals from five commonly used gridded products (i.e. NASA's GRCTellus: CSR, JPL, GFZ; JPL-Mascons; GRGS GRACE using in situ data and modelled soil moisture from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS in two sub-basins (LVB: Lake Victoria Basin; LKB: Lake Kyoga Basin of the Upper Nile Basin. The analysis extends from January 2003 to December 2012, but focuses on a large and accurately observed reduction in ΔTWS of 83 km3 from 2003 to 2006 in the Lake Victoria Basin. We reveal substantial variability in current GRACE products to quantify the reduction of ΔTWS in Lake Victoria that ranges from 80 km3 (JPL-Mascons to 69 and 31 km3 for GRGS and GRCTellus respectively. Representation of the phase in TWS in the Upper Nile Basin by GRACE products varies but is generally robust with GRGS, JPL-Mascons, and GRCTellus (ensemble mean of CSR, JPL, and GFZ time-series data, explaining 90, 84, and 75 % of the variance respectively in "in situ" or "bottom-up" ΔTWS in the LVB. Resolution of changes in groundwater storage (ΔGWS from GRACE ΔTWS is greatly constrained by both uncertainty in changes in soil-moisture storage (ΔSMS modelled by GLDAS LSMs (CLM, NOAH, VIC and the low annual amplitudes in ΔGWS (e.g. 1.8–4.9 cm observed in deeply weathered crystalline rocks underlying the Upper Nile Basin. Our study highlights the substantial uncertainty in the amplitude of ΔTWS that can result from different data-processing strategies in commonly used, gridded GRACE products; this uncertainty is

  12. Recent changes in terrestrial water storage in the Upper Nile Basin: an evaluation of commonly used gridded GRACE products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Taylor, Richard G.; Jones, Darren; Longuevergne, Laurent; Owor, Michael; Tindimugaya, Callist

    2017-09-01

    GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data monitor large-scale changes in total terrestrial water storage (ΔTWS), providing an invaluable tool where in situ observations are limited. Substantial uncertainty remains, however, in the amplitude of GRACE gravity signals and the disaggregation of TWS into individual terrestrial water stores (e.g. groundwater storage). Here, we test the phase and amplitude of three GRACE ΔTWS signals from five commonly used gridded products (i.e. NASA's GRCTellus: CSR, JPL, GFZ; JPL-Mascons; GRGS GRACE) using in situ data and modelled soil moisture from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) in two sub-basins (LVB: Lake Victoria Basin; LKB: Lake Kyoga Basin) of the Upper Nile Basin. The analysis extends from January 2003 to December 2012, but focuses on a large and accurately observed reduction in ΔTWS of 83 km3 from 2003 to 2006 in the Lake Victoria Basin. We reveal substantial variability in current GRACE products to quantify the reduction of ΔTWS in Lake Victoria that ranges from 80 km3 (JPL-Mascons) to 69 and 31 km3 for GRGS and GRCTellus respectively. Representation of the phase in TWS in the Upper Nile Basin by GRACE products varies but is generally robust with GRGS, JPL-Mascons, and GRCTellus (ensemble mean of CSR, JPL, and GFZ time-series data), explaining 90, 84, and 75 % of the variance respectively in "in situ" or "bottom-up" ΔTWS in the LVB. Resolution of changes in groundwater storage (ΔGWS) from GRACE ΔTWS is greatly constrained by both uncertainty in changes in soil-moisture storage (ΔSMS) modelled by GLDAS LSMs (CLM, NOAH, VIC) and the low annual amplitudes in ΔGWS (e.g. 1.8-4.9 cm) observed in deeply weathered crystalline rocks underlying the Upper Nile Basin. Our study highlights the substantial uncertainty in the amplitude of ΔTWS that can result from different data-processing strategies in commonly used, gridded GRACE products; this uncertainty is disregarded in analyses of

  13. Mass production of extensive air showers for the Pierre Auger Collaboration using Grid Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Bahilo, Julio; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    When ultra-high energy cosmic rays enter the atmosphere they interact producing extensive air showers (EAS) which are the objects studied by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The number of particles involved in an EAS at these energies is of the order of billions and the generation of a single simulated EAS requires many hours of computing time with current processors. In addition, the storage space consumed by the output of one simulated EAS is very high. Therefore we have to make use of Grid resources to be able to generate sufficient quantities of showers for our physics studies in reasonable time periods. We have developed a set of highly automated scripts written in common software scripting languages in order to deal with the high number of jobs which we have to submit regularly to the Grid. In spite of the low number of sites supporting our Virtual Organization (VO) we have reached the top spot on CPU consumption among non LHC (Large Hadron Collider) VOs within EGI (European Grid Infrastructure).

  14. Increasing influence of air temperature on upper Colorado River streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Morino, Kiyomi; McAfee, Stephanie A.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study examines the influence of precipitation, temperature, and antecedent soil moisture on upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) water year streamflow over the past century. While cool season precipitation explains most of the variability in annual flows, temperature appears to be highly influential under certain conditions, with the role of antecedent fall soil moisture less clear. In both wet and dry years, when flow is substantially different than expected given precipitation, these factors can modulate the dominant precipitation influence on streamflow. Different combinations of temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture can result in flow deficits of similar magnitude, but recent droughts have been amplified by warmer temperatures that exacerbate the effects of relatively modest precipitation deficits. Since 1988, a marked increase in the frequency of warm years with lower flows than expected, given precipitation, suggests continued warming temperatures will be an increasingly important influence in reducing future UCRB water supplies.

  15. A feasibility study of stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected photovoltaic systems in the Upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ryan Duwain

    Three primary objectives were defined for this work. The first objective was to determine, assess, and compare the performance, heat transfer characteristics, economics, and feasibility of real-world stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in the Upper Midwest. This objective was achieved by installing two grid-connected PV systems with different mounting schemes in central Iowa, implementing extensive data acquisition systems, monitoring operation of the PV systems for one full year, and performing detailed experimental performance and economic studies. The two PV systems that were installed, monitored, and analyzed included a 4.59 kWp roof-mounted stationary system oriented for maximum annual energy production, and a 1.02 kWp pole-mounted actively controlled dual-axis tracking system. The second objective was to demonstrate the actual use and performance of real-world stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected PV systems used for building energy generation applications. This objective was achieved by offering the installed PV systems to the public for demonstration purposes and through the development of three computer-based tools: a software interface that has the ability to display real-time and historical performance and meteorological data of both systems side-by-side, a software interface that shows real-time and historical video and photographs of each system, and a calculator that can predict performance and economics of stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected PV systems at various locations in the United States. The final objective was to disseminate this work to social, professional, scientific, and academic communities in a way that is applicable, objective, accurate, accessible, and comprehensible. This final objective will be addressed by publishing the results of this work and making the computer-based tools available on a public website (www.energy.iastate.edu/Renewable/solar). Detailed experimental

  16. Joint US Navy/US Air Force climatic study of the upper atmosphere. Volume 7: July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changery, Michael J.; Williams, Claude N.; Dickenson, Michael L.; Wallace, Brian L.

    1989-07-01

    The upper atmosphere was studied based on 1980 to 1985 twice daily gridded analysis produced by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. This volume is for the month of July. Included are global analyses of: (1) Mean temperature/standard deviation; (2) Mean geopotential height/standard deviation; (3) Mean density/standard deviation; (4) Height and vector standard deviation (all at 13 pressure levels - 1000, 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 70, 50, 30 mb); (5) Mean dew point standard deviation at levels 1000 through 30 mb; and (6) Jet stream at levels 500 through 30 mb. Also included are global 5 degree grid point wind roses for the 13 pressure levels.

  17. Joint US Navy/US Air Force climatic study of the upper atmosphere. Volume 3: March

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changery, Michael J.; Williams, Claude N.; Dickenson, Michael L.; Wallace, Brian L.

    1989-11-01

    The upper atmosphere was studied based on 1980 to 1985 twice daily gridded analysis produced by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. This volume is for the month of March. Included are global analyses of: (1) Mean Temperature Standard Deviation; (2) Mean Geopotential Height Standard Deviation; (3) Mean Density Standard Deviation; (4) Height and Vector Standard Deviation (all for 13 pressure levels - 1000, 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 70, 50, 30 mb); (5) Mean Dew Point Standard Deviation for levels 1000 through 30 mb; and (6) Jet stream for levels 500 through 30 mb. Also included are global 5 degree grid point wind roses for the 13 pressure levels.

  18. Joint US Navy/US Air Force climatic study of the upper atmosphere. Volume 10: October

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changery, Michael J.; Williams, Claude N.; Dickenson, Michael L.; Wallace, Brian L.

    1989-07-01

    The upper atmosphere was studied based on 1980 to 1985 twice daily gridded analysis produced by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. This volume is for the month of October. Included are global analyses of: (1) Mean temperature/standard deviation; (2) Mean geopotential height/standard deviation; (3) Mean density/standard deviation; (4) Height and vector standard deviation (all at 13 pressure levels - 1000, 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 70, 50, 30 mb); (5) Mean dew point/standard deviation at levels 1000 through 30 mb; and (6) Jet stream at levels 500 through 30 mb. Also included are global 5 degree grid point wind roses for the 13 pressure levels.

  19. Air quality impact of two power plants using a sub-grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, Jerome; Musson-Genon, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Modeling point source emissions of air pollutants with regional Eulerian models is likely to lead to errors because a 3D Eulerian model is not able to correctly reproduce the evolution of a plume near its source. To overcome these difficulties, we applied a Gaussian puff model - imbedded within a 3D Eulerian model - for an impact assessment of EDF fossil fuel-fired power plants of Porcheville and Vitry, Ile-de-France. We simulated an entire year of atmospheric processes for an area covering the Paris region with the Polyphemus platform with which we conducted various scenarios with or without a Gaussian puff model, referred as Plume-in-grid, to independently handle 'with major point source emissions in Ile-de-France. Our study focuses on four chemical compounds (NO, NO 2 , SO 2 and O 3 ). The use of a Gaussian model is important, particularly for primary compounds with low reactivity such as SO, especially as industrial stacks are the major source of its emissions. SO 2 concentrations simulated using Plume-in-grid tare closer to the concentrations measured by the stations of the air quality agencies (Associations Agreees de Surveillance de la Qualite de l'Air, AASQA), although they remain largely overestimated. The use of a Gaussian model increases the concentrations near the source and lowers background levels of various chemical species (except O 3 ). The simulated concentrations may vary by over 30 % depending on whether we consider the Gaussian model for primary compounds such as SO 2 and NO, and around 2 % for secondary compounds such as NO 2 and O 3 . Regarding the impact of fossil fuel-fired power plants, simulated concentrations are increased by about 1 μg/m 3 approximately for SO 2 annual averages close to the Porcheville stack and are lowered by about 0.5 μg/m 3 far from the sources, highlighting the less diffusive character of the Gaussian model by comparison with the Eulerian model. The integration of a sub-grid Gaussian model offers the advantage of

  20. Parameter investigation with line-implicit lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel on 3D stretched grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Evelyn; Eliasson, Peter

    2015-03-01

    An implicit lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LU-SGS) solver has been implemented as a multigrid smoother combined with a line-implicit method as an acceleration technique for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation on stretched meshes. The computational fluid dynamics code concerned is Edge, an edge-based finite volume Navier-Stokes flow solver for structured and unstructured grids. The paper focuses on the investigation of the parameters related to our novel line-implicit LU-SGS solver for convergence acceleration on 3D RANS meshes. The LU-SGS parameters are defined as the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy number, the left-hand side dissipation, and the convergence of iterative solution of the linear problem arising from the linearisation of the implicit scheme. The influence of these parameters on the overall convergence is presented and default values are defined for maximum convergence acceleration. The optimised settings are applied to 3D RANS computations for comparison with explicit and line-implicit Runge-Kutta smoothing. For most of the cases, a computing time acceleration of the order of 2 is found depending on the mesh type, namely the boundary layer and the magnitude of residual reduction.

  1. Effects of air temperature and discharge on Upper Mississippi River summer water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Brian R.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rogala, James T.

    2018-01-01

    Recent interest in the potential effects of climate change has prompted studies of air temperature and precipitation associations with water temperatures in rivers and streams. We examined associations between summer surface water temperatures and both air temperature and discharge for 5 reaches of the Upper Mississippi River during 1994–2011. Water–air temperature associations at a given reach approximated 1:1 when estimated under an assumption of reach independence but declined to approximately 1:2 when water temperatures were permitted to covary among reaches and were also adjusted for upstream air temperatures. Estimated water temperature–discharge associations were weak. An apparently novel feature of this study is that of addressing changes in associations between water and air temperatures when both are correlated among reaches.

  2. Retrospective Review of Air Transportation Use for Upper Extremity Amputations at a Level-1 Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, W Jeffrey; To, Philip; Watson, Jeffry T; Brywczynski, Jeremy; Lee, Donald H

    2016-08-01

    Air transportation to tertiary care centers of patients with upper extremity amputations has been utilized in hopes of reducing the time to potential replantation; however, this mode of transportation is expensive and not all patients will undergo replantation. The purpose of this study is to review the appropriateness and cost of air transportation in upper extremity amputations. Consecutive patients transported by aircraft with upper extremity amputations in a 7-year period at a level-1 trauma center were retrospectively reviewed. The distance traveled was recorded, along with the times of the injury, referral, transportation duration, arrival, and start of the operation. The results of the transfer were defined as replantation or revision amputation. Overall, 47 patients were identified with 43 patients going to the operating room, but only 14 patients (30%) undergoing replantation. Patients arrived at the tertiary hand surgery center with a mean time of 182.3 minutes following the injury, which includes 105.2 minutes of transportation time. The average distance traveled was 105.4 miles (range, 22-353 miles). The time before surgery of those who underwent replantation was 154.6 minutes. The average cost of transportation was $20,482. Air transportation for isolated upper extremity amputations is costly and is not usually the determining factor for replantation. The type of injury and patients' expectations often dictate the outcome, and these may be better determined at the time of referral with use of telecommunication photos, discussion with a hand surgeon, and patient counseling. III.

  3. Research on the optimization of air quality monitoring station layout based on spatial grid statistical analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Zhou, Xing Chen; Ikhumhen, Harrison Odion; Difei, An

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, with the significant increase in urban development, it has become necessary to optimize the current air monitoring stations to reflect the quality of air in the environment. Highlighting the spatial representation of some air monitoring stations using Beijing's regional air monitoring station data from 2012 to 2014, the monthly mean particulate matter concentration (PM10) in the region was calculated and through the IDW interpolation method and spatial grid statistical method using GIS, the spatial distribution of PM10 concentration in the whole region was deduced. The spatial distribution variation of districts in Beijing using the gridding model was performed, and through the 3-year spatial analysis, PM10 concentration data including the variation and spatial overlay (1.5 km × 1.5 km cell resolution grid), the spatial distribution result obtained showed that the total PM10 concentration frequency variation exceeded the standard. It is very important to optimize the layout of the existing air monitoring stations by combining the concentration distribution of air pollutants with the spatial region using GIS.

  4. AIRS Observations Based Evaluation of Relative Climate Feedback Strengths on a GCM Grid-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, G. I.; Susskind, J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate feedback strengths, especially those associated with moist processes, still have a rather wide range in GCMs, the primary tools to predict future climate changes associated with man's ever increasing influences on our planet. Here, we make use of the first 10 years of AIRS observations to evaluate interrelationships/correlations of atmospheric moist parameter anomalies computed from AIRS Version 5 Level-3 products, and demonstrate their usefulness to assess relative feedback strengths. Although one may argue about the possible usability of shorter-term, observed climate parameter anomalies for estimating the strength of various (mostly moist processes related) feedbacks, recent works, in particular analyses by Dessler [2008, 2010], have demonstrated their usefulness in assessing global water vapor and cloud feedbacks. First, we create AIRS-observed monthly anomaly time-series (ATs) of outgoing longwave radiation, water vapor, clouds and temperature profile over a 10-year long (Sept. 2002 through Aug. 2012) period using 1x1 degree resolution (a common GCM grid-scale). Next, we evaluate the interrelationships of ATs of the above parameters with the corresponding 1x1 degree, as well as global surface temperature ATs. The latter provides insight comparable with more traditional climate feedback definitions (e. g., Zelinka and Hartmann, 2012) whilst the former is related to a new definition of "local (in surface temperature too) feedback strengths" on a GCM grid-scale. Comparing the correlation maps generated provides valuable new information on the spatial distribution of relative climate feedback strengths. We argue that for GCMs to be trusted for predicting longer-term climate variability, they should be able to reproduce these observed relationships/metrics as closely as possible. For this time period the main climate "forcing" was associated with the El Niño/La Niña variability (e. g., Dessler, 2010), so these assessments may not be descriptive of longer

  5. Influence of the sunspot cycle on the Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation from long upper-air data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Brugnara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a study of the 11 yr sunspot cycle's imprint on the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, using three recently developed gridded upper-air data sets that extend back to the early twentieth century. We find a robust response of the tropospheric late-wintertime circulation to the sunspot cycle, independent from the data set. This response is particularly significant over Europe, although results show that it is not directly related to a North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO modulation; instead, it reveals a significant connection to the more meridional Eurasian pattern (EU. The magnitude of mean seasonal temperature changes over the European land areas locally exceeds 1 K in the lower troposphere over a sunspot cycle. We also analyse surface data to address the question whether the solar signal over Europe is temporally stable for a longer 250 yr period. The results increase our confidence in the existence of an influence of the 11 yr cycle on the European climate, but the signal is much weaker in the first half of the period compared to the second half. The last solar minimum (2005 to 2010, which was not included in our analysis, shows anomalies that are consistent with our statistical results for earlier solar minima.

  6. The Relationship Between Air Particulate Levels and Upper Respiratory Disease in Soldiers Deployed to Bosnia (1997-1998)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hastings, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    This study had three objectives: to determine if there is a relationship between air particulate levels and upper respiratory disease in soldiers deployed to Bosnia between 1997-98, to establish a method for linking environmental...

  7. Rainfall Downscaling Conditional on Upper-air Variables: Assessing Rainfall Statistics in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langousis, Andreas; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino; Kaleris, Vassilios

    2014-05-01

    Due to its intermittent and highly variable character, and the modeling parameterizations used, precipitation is one of the least well reproduced hydrologic variables by both Global Climate Models (GCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs). This is especially the case at a regional level (where hydrologic risks are assessed) and at small temporal scales (e.g. daily) used to run hydrologic models. In an effort to remedy those shortcomings and assess the effect of climate change on rainfall statistics at hydrologically relevant scales, Langousis and Kaleris (2013) developed a statistical framework for simulation of daily rainfall intensities conditional on upper air variables. The developed downscaling scheme was tested using atmospheric data from the ERA-Interim archive (http://www.ecmwf.int/research/era/do/get/index), and daily rainfall measurements from western Greece, and was proved capable of reproducing several statistical properties of actual rainfall records, at both annual and seasonal levels. This was done solely by conditioning rainfall simulation on a vector of atmospheric predictors, properly selected to reflect the relative influence of upper-air variables on ground-level rainfall statistics. In this study, we apply the developed framework for conditional rainfall simulation using atmospheric data from different GCM/RCM combinations. This is done using atmospheric data from the ENSEMBLES project (http://ensembleseu.metoffice.com), and daily rainfall measurements for an intermediate-sized catchment in Italy; i.e. the Flumendosa catchment. Since GCM/RCM products are suited to reproduce the local climatology in a statistical sense (i.e. in terms of relative frequencies), rather than ensuring a one-to-one temporal correspondence between observed and simulated fields (i.e. as is the case for ERA-interim reanalysis data), we proceed in three steps: a) we use statistical tools to establish a linkage between ERA-Interim upper-air atmospheric forecasts and

  8. Upper-room ultraviolet light and negative air ionization to prevent tuberculosis transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roderick Escombe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Institutional tuberculosis (TB transmission is an important public health problem highlighted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant TB. Effective TB infection control measures are urgently needed. We evaluated the efficacy of upper-room ultraviolet (UV lights and negative air ionization for preventing airborne TB transmission using a guinea pig air-sampling model to measure the TB infectiousness of ward air.For 535 consecutive days, exhaust air from an HIV-TB ward in Lima, Perú, was passed through three guinea pig air-sampling enclosures each housing approximately 150 guinea pigs, using a 2-d cycle. On UV-off days, ward air passed in parallel through a control animal enclosure and a similar enclosure containing negative ionizers. On UV-on days, UV lights and mixing fans were turned on in the ward, and a third animal enclosure alone received ward air. TB infection in guinea pigs was defined by monthly tuberculin skin tests. All guinea pigs underwent autopsy to test for TB disease, defined by characteristic autopsy changes or by the culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from organs. 35% (106/304 of guinea pigs in the control group developed TB infection, and this was reduced to 14% (43/303 by ionizers, and to 9.5% (29/307 by UV lights (both p < 0.0001 compared with the control group. TB disease was confirmed in 8.6% (26/304 of control group animals, and this was reduced to 4.3% (13/303 by ionizers, and to 3.6% (11/307 by UV lights (both p < 0.03 compared with the control group. Time-to-event analysis demonstrated that TB infection was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 27; p < 0.0001 and by UV lights (log-rank 46; p < 0.0001. Time-to-event analysis also demonstrated that TB disease was prevented by ionizers (log-rank 3.7; p = 0.055 and by UV lights (log-rank 5.4; p = 0.02. An alternative analysis using an airborne infection model demonstrated that ionizers prevented 60% of TB infection and 51% of TB

  9. Air pollution and incidence of cancers of the stomach and the upper aerodigestive tract in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Gabriele; Stafoggia, Massimo; Pedersen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana J; Galassi, Claudia; Munkenast, Jule; Jaensch, Andrea; Sommar, Johan; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun H; Aamodt, Geir; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Sørensen, Mette; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Eeftens, Marloes; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J; Concin, Hans; Lang, Alois; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Weinmayr, Gudrun

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. However, to date little is known about the relevance for cancers of the stomach and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). We investigated the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with incidence of gastric and UADT cancer

  10. Poleward upgliding Siberian atmospheric rivers over sea ice heat up Arctic upper air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kensuke K; Alexeev, Vladimir A; Repina, Irina A; Tachibana, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-13

    We carried out upper air measurements with radiosondes during the summer over the Arctic Ocean from an icebreaker moving poleward from an ice-free region, through the ice edge, and into a region of thick ice. Rapid warming of the Arctic is a significant environmental issue that occurs not only at the surface but also throughout the troposphere. In addition to the widely accepted mechanisms responsible for the increase of tropospheric warming during the summer over the Arctic, we showed a new potential contributing process to the increase, based on our direct observations and supporting numerical simulations and statistical analyses using a long-term reanalysis dataset. We refer to this new process as "Siberian Atmospheric Rivers (SARs)". Poleward upglides of SARs over cold air domes overlying sea ice provide the upper atmosphere with extra heat via condensation of water vapour. This heating drives increased buoyancy and further strengthens the ascent and heating of the mid-troposphere. This process requires the combination of SARs and sea ice as a land-ocean-atmosphere system, the implication being that large-scale heat and moisture transport from the lower latitudes can remotely amplify the warming of the Arctic troposphere in the summer.

  11. BOREAS AFM-08 ECMWF Hourly Surface and Upper Air Data for the SSA and NSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterbo, Pedro; Betts, Alan; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-8 team focused on modeling efforts to improve the understanding of the diurnal evolution of the convective boundary layer over the boreal forest. This data set contains hourly data from the European Center for for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational model from below the surface to the top of the atmosphere, including the model fluxes at the surface. Spatially, the data cover a pair of the points that enclose the rawinsonde sites at Candle Lake, Saskatchewan, in the Southern Study Area (SSA) and Thompson, Manitoba, in the Northern Study Area (NSA). Temporally, the data include the two time periods of 13 May 1994 to 30 Sept 1994 and 01 Mar 1996 to 31 Mar 1997. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The number of records in the upper air data files may exceed 20,000, causing a problem for some software packages. The ECMWF hourly surface and upper air data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  12. Detailed pressure drop measurements in single-and two-phase adiabatic air-water turbulent flows in realistic BWR fuel assembly geometry with spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraghiaur, Diana; Frid, Wiktor; Tillmark, Nils

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, advance numerical simulation tools based on CFD methods have been increasingly used in various multi-phase flow applications. One of these is two-phase flow in fuel assemblies of Boiling Water Reactors. The important and often missing aspect of this development is validation of CFD codes against proper experimental data. The purpose of the current paper is to present detailed pressure measurements over a spacer grid in low pressure adiabatic single- and bubbly two-phase flow, which will be used to further develop a CFD code for BWR fuel bundle analysis. The experiments have been carried out in a n asymmetric 24-rod sub-bundle, representing one quarter of a Westinghouse SVEA-96 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Single-phase flow measurements have been performed at superficial velocities between 0.90-4.50 m/s and in the two-phase flow, which was simulated by air-water mixture, measurements have been performed at void fractions ranging from 4 to 12% and liquid superficial velocity of 4.50 m/s. In order to increase the number of measuring points, five pressure taps were drilled in one of the rods, which was easily moved vertically by a traversing system, covering most of the points in axial direction. Any of the rods in the bundle could be substitute by the pressure sensing rod and the measurements were made for five pressure taps facing-angles. A detailed pressure distribution comparison between single- and two-phase flows for different sub-channel positions and different flow conditions was performed over one of the spacers. In addition, single-phase pressure drop measurements in the upper part of the test section comprising two spacer grids have been carried out. (author)

  13. THE ELABORATION OF THE OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS ALGORITHM FOR COMPLEX PROCESSING INFORMATION OF THE SPATIAL POSITION OF THE UPPER-AIR RADIOSONDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the elaboration of the problem of optimal algorithm synthesis of complex signal processing of satel- lite GLONASS/GPS systems navigation relayed from the Board of the upper-air radiosonde and the output data upper-air radar to determine the spatial coordinates of upper-air radiosonde. The upper-air sounding is performed with the help of technical means of radio sounding system of atmosphere, including the upper-air radiosonde, manufactured in free flight, and ground supporting equipment, which includes devices for signal processing of upper-air radiosonde and preparation of the operational upper-air mes- sages. The peculiarity of atmosphere radio sounding of domestic system is the measurement with method of radar slant range to upper-air radiosonde, the viewing angles of the antenna upper-air radar to determine azimuth and elevation of upper-air radiosonde. The disadvantage of the radar method of radiosonde support is the relatively low accuracy of determining the coordinates of the radiosonde and the possible disruption of automatic tracking in angular coordinates. Satellite navigation system based on the mi- crowave sensors has clear advantages in terms of efficiency, size, mobility, and use on mobile objects, however, with significant drawbacks associated primarily with the geometric factor and the error propagation of the navigation signal. The article presents a mathematical model useful incoherent GLONASS/GPS signals, relayed by the upper-air radiosonde, and interference on the input receiver ground point for complex information processing, and mathematical models of output data in upper-air radars.

  14. Distinction between upper and lower gastrointestinal perforation: Usefulness of the periportal free air sign on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Seong Eon; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hyewon; Lee, Young-Hwan; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of the periportal free air (PPFA) sign on computed tomography (CT) to distinguish upper from lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract perforation. Materials and methods: During a 30-month period, we retrospectively analyzed abdominal CT images of 53 consecutive patients with surgically proven GI tract perforation. We divided the patients into two groups, i.e. upper and lower GI tract perforation groups. According to the distribution of free air, we divided the peritoneal cavity into supramesocolic compartment and inframesocolic compartment. We observed the presence or absence of free air in each compartment in each group. When there was free air in the periportal area, it was defined as periportal free air (PPFA) and the sign was positive. To evaluate the usefulness of the PPFA sign, we compared the PPFA sign with the falciform ligament sign and the ligamentum teres sign, both of which are well-known CT signs of pneumoperitoneum. Statistical analyses were performed with univariate and multivariate analyses using SPSS version 11.5 for significant findings among the CT signs. Results: Free air was seen in supramesocolic compartment in 29 of 30 (97%) patients in the upper GI perforation group and in 17 of 23 (74%) in the lower GI perforation group. Free air in inframesocolic compartment did not show significant difference in either group (p = .16). The PPFA sign was seen in 28 of 30 (93%) patients with upper GI tract perforation, but in only 8 of 23 (35%) patients with lower GI tract perforation (p < .0001). The falciform ligament sign was seen in 24 of 30 (80%) patients with upper GI tract perforation and in 10 of 23 (43%) patients with lower GI tract perforation (p = .020). The ligamentum teres sign was seen in 16 of 30 (53%) patients with upper GI tract perforation and in 2 of 23 (8%) patients with lower GI tract perforation (p = .008). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the PPFA sign was the only variable, which

  15. Distinction between upper and lower gastrointestinal perforation: Usefulness of the periportal free air sign on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Seong Eon; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hyewon; Lee, Young-Hwan [Department of Radiology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, 344-2 Sinyong-dong, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon-Ha [Department of Radiology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, 344-2 Sinyong-dong, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-711 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: khy1646@wonkwang.ac.kr

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of the periportal free air (PPFA) sign on computed tomography (CT) to distinguish upper from lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract perforation. Materials and methods: During a 30-month period, we retrospectively analyzed abdominal CT images of 53 consecutive patients with surgically proven GI tract perforation. We divided the patients into two groups, i.e. upper and lower GI tract perforation groups. According to the distribution of free air, we divided the peritoneal cavity into supramesocolic compartment and inframesocolic compartment. We observed the presence or absence of free air in each compartment in each group. When there was free air in the periportal area, it was defined as periportal free air (PPFA) and the sign was positive. To evaluate the usefulness of the PPFA sign, we compared the PPFA sign with the falciform ligament sign and the ligamentum teres sign, both of which are well-known CT signs of pneumoperitoneum. Statistical analyses were performed with univariate and multivariate analyses using SPSS version 11.5 for significant findings among the CT signs. Results: Free air was seen in supramesocolic compartment in 29 of 30 (97%) patients in the upper GI perforation group and in 17 of 23 (74%) in the lower GI perforation group. Free air in inframesocolic compartment did not show significant difference in either group (p = .16). The PPFA sign was seen in 28 of 30 (93%) patients with upper GI tract perforation, but in only 8 of 23 (35%) patients with lower GI tract perforation (p < .0001). The falciform ligament sign was seen in 24 of 30 (80%) patients with upper GI tract perforation and in 10 of 23 (43%) patients with lower GI tract perforation (p = .020). The ligamentum teres sign was seen in 16 of 30 (53%) patients with upper GI tract perforation and in 2 of 23 (8%) patients with lower GI tract perforation (p = .008). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the PPFA sign was the only variable, which

  16. [Women boxing athletes' EMG of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the training of air striking of straight punch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ri-Hui; Kang, Zhi-Xin

    2011-05-01

    To study training effect of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the proceed of air striking of straight punch by analyzing boxing athletes' changes of electromyogram (EMG). We measured EMG of ten women boxing athletes' upper arm biceps (contractor muscle), upper arm triceps (antagonistic muscle), forearm flexor muscle (contractor muscle), forearm extensor muscle (antagonistic muscle), and lumbar muscles by ME6000 (Mega Electronics Ltd.). The stipulated exercise was to do air striking of straight punch with loads of 2.5 kg of dumbbell in the hand until exhausted. In the proceed of exercise-induce exhausted, the descend magnitude and speed of median frequency (MF) in upper limb antagonistic muscle exceeded to contracting muscle, moreover, the work percentage showed that contractor have done a larger percentage of work than antagonistic muscle. Compared with world champion's EMG, the majority of ordinary athletes' lumbar muscles MF revealed non-drop tendency, and the work percentage showed that lumbar muscles had a very little percentage of work. After comparing the EMG test index in upper limb and lumbar muscle of average boxing athletes with that of the world champion, we find the testees lack of the training of upper limb antagonistic muscle and lumbar muscle, and more trainings aimed at these muscles need to be taken.

  17. The air quality and human health effects of integrating utility-scale batteries into the New York State electricity grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A.; Apt, Jay; Walawalkar, Rahul; Adams, Peter J.; Lave, Lester B.

    In a restructured electricity market, utility-scale energy storage technologies such as advanced batteries can generate revenue by charging at low electricity prices and discharging at high prices. This strategy changes the magnitude and distribution of air quality emissions and the total carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. We evaluate the social costs associated with these changes using a case study of 500 MW sodium-sulfur battery installations with 80% round-trip efficiency. The batteries displace peaking generators in New York City and charge using off-peak generation in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) electricity grid during the summer. We identify and map charging and displaced plant types to generators in the NYISO. We then convert the emissions into ambient concentrations with a chemical transport model, the Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (PMCAM x). Finally, we transform the concentrations into their equivalent human health effects and social benefits and costs. Reductions in premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) result in a benefit of 4.5 ¢ kWh -1 and 17 ¢ kWh -1 from displacing a natural gas and distillate fuel oil fueled peaking plant, respectively, in New York City. Ozone (O 3) concentrations increase due to decreases in nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions, although the magnitude of the social cost is less certain. Adding the costs from charging, displacing a distillate fuel oil plant yields a net social benefit, while displacing the natural gas plant has a net social cost. With the existing base-load capacity, the upstate population experiences an increase in adverse health effects. If wind generation is charging the battery, both the upstate charging location and New York City benefit. At 20 per tonne of CO 2, the costs from CO 2 are small compared to those from air quality. We conclude that storage could be added to existing electricity grids as part of an integrated strategy from a

  18. First upper limits on the radar cross section of cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Besson, D.; Blake, S. A.; Byrne, M.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Gillman, W. H.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J. C.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kunwar, S.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Prohira, S.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rezazadeh-Reyhani, A.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Schurig, D.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takai, H.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Venkatesh, S.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2017-01-01

    TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment colocated with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, Utah, U.S.A. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW, 54.1 MHz VHF transmitter and high-gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and within the FD field of view, towards a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. TARA has been collecting data since 2013 with the primary goal of observing the radar signatures of extensive air showers (EAS). Simulations indicate that echoes are expected to be short in duration (∼ 10 μs) and exhibit rapidly changing frequency, with rates on the order 1 MHz/μs. The EAS radar cross-section (RCS) is currently unknown although it is the subject of over 70 years of speculation. A novel signal search technique is described in which the expected radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to waveforms obtained by triggering the radar DAQ using the Telescope Array fluorescence detector. No evidence for the scattering of radio frequency radiation by EAS is obtained to date. We report the first quantitative RCS upper limits using EAS that triggered the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector. The transmitter is under the direct control of experimenters, and in a radio-quiet area isolated from other radio frequency (RF) sources. The power and radiation pattern are known at all times. Forward power up to 40 kW and gain exceeding 20 dB maximize energy density in the radar field. Continuous wave (CW) transmission gives 100% duty cycle, as opposed to pulsed radar. TARA utilizes a high sample rate DAQ (250 MS/s). TARA is colocated with a large state-of-the-art conventional CR observatory, allowing the radar data stream to be sampled at the arrival times of known cosmic ray events. Each of these attributes of the TARA detector has been discussed in detail in the literature [8]. A map

  19. Assessment of NOAA NUCAPS upper air temperature profiles using COSMIC GPS radio occultation and ARM radiosondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, M. L.; Borg, L.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D.; Revercomb, H.; Gambacorta, A.

    2017-09-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) recently began operational processing to derive vertical temperature profiles from two new sensors, Cross-Track Infrared Sounder and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder, which were developed for the next generation of U.S. weather satellites. The NOAA-Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) has been developed by NOAA to routinely process data from future Joint Polar Satellite System operational satellites and the preparatory Suomi-NPP satellite. This paper assesses the NUCAPS vertical temperature profile product from the upper troposphere into the middle stratosphere using radiosonde and GPS radio occultation (RO) data. Radiosonde data from the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program are=] compared to both the NUCAPS and GPS RO temperature products to evaluate bias and RMS errors. At all three fixed ARM sites for time periods investigated the NUCAPS temperature in the 100-40 hPa range is found to have an average bias to the radiosondes of less than 0.45 K and an RMS error of less than 1 K when temperature averaging kernels are applied. At a 95% confidence level, the radiosondes and RO were found to agree within 0.4 K at the North Slope of Alaska site and within 0.83 K at Southern Great Plains and Tropical Western Pacific. The GPS RO-derived dry temperatures, obtained from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) mission, are used as a common reference for the intercomparison of NUCAPS temperature products to similar products produced by NASA from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and by European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites from MetOp-B Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). For seasonal and zonal scales, the NUCAPS agreement with AIRS and IASI is less than 0.5 K after application of averaging kernels.

  20. Parallel runs of a large air pollution model on a grid of Sun computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandrov, V.N.; Owczarz, W.; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2004-01-01

    Large -scale air pollution models can successfully be used in different environmental studies. These models are described mathematically by systems of partial differential equations. Splitting procedures followed by discretization of the spatial derivatives leads to several large systems...

  1. Quantifying the value of redundant measurements at GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Madonna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential for measurement redundancy to reduce uncertainty in atmospheric variables has not been investigated comprehensively for climate observations. We evaluated the usefulness of entropy and mutual correlation concepts, as defined in information theory, for quantifying random uncertainty and redundancy in time series of the integrated water vapour (IWV and water vapour mixing ratio profiles provided by five highly instrumented GRUAN (GCOS, Global Climate Observing System, Reference Upper-Air Network stations in 2010–2012. Results show that the random uncertainties on the IWV measured with radiosondes, global positioning system, microwave and infrared radiometers, and Raman lidar measurements differed by less than 8%. Comparisons of time series of IWV content from ground-based remote sensing instruments with in situ soundings showed that microwave radiometers have the highest redundancy with the IWV time series measured by radiosondes and therefore the highest potential to reduce the random uncertainty of the radiosondes time series. Moreover, the random uncertainty of a time series from one instrument can be reduced by ~ 60% by constraining the measurements with those from another instrument. The best reduction of random uncertainty is achieved by conditioning Raman lidar measurements with microwave radiometer measurements. Specific instruments are recommended for atmospheric water vapour measurements at GRUAN sites. This approach can be applied to the study of redundant measurements for other climate variables.

  2. A calibration facility to provide traceable calibration to upper air humidity measuring sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, Rugiada; Rosso, Lucia; Smorgon, Denis; Beltramino, Giulio; Fernicola, Vito

    2017-04-01

    Accurate knowledge and high quality measurement of the upper air humidity and of its profile in atmosphere is essential in many areas of the atmospheric research, for example in weather forecasting, environmental pollution studies and research in meteorology and climatology. Moving from the troposphere to the stratosphere, the water vapour amount varies between some percent to few part per million. For this reason, through the years, several methods and instruments have been developed for the measurement of the humidity in atmosphere. Among the instruments used for atmospheric sounding, radiosondes, airborne and balloon-borne chilled mirror hygrometer (CMH) and tunable diode laser absorption spectrometers (TDLAS) play a key role. To avoid the presence of unknown biases and systematic errors and to obtain accurate and reliable humidity measurements, these instruments need a SI-traceable calibration, preferably carried out in conditions similar to those expected in the field. To satisfy such a need, a new calibration facility has been developed at INRIM. The facility is based on a thermodynamic-based frost-point generator designed to achieve a complete saturation of the carrier gas with a single passage through an isothermal saturator. The humidity generator covers the frost point temperature range between -98 °C and -20 °C and is able to work at any controlled pressure between 200 hPa and 1000 hPa (corresponding to a barometric altitude between ground level and approximately 12000 m). The paper reports the work carried out to test the generator performances, discusses the results and presents the evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. The present work was carried out within the European Joint Research Project "MeteoMet 2 - Metrology for Essential Climate Variables" co-funded by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union.

  3. Oriented crystalline monolayers and bilayers of 2 x 2 silver(1) grid architectures at the air-solution interface: Their assembly and crystal structure elucidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weissbuch, J.; Baxter, P.N.W.; Kuzmenko, I.

    2000-01-01

    Oriented crystalline monolayers, similar to 14 Angstrom thick, of a 2 x 2 Ag+ grid complex, self-assembled at the air-solution interface starting from an water-insoluble ligand 3,6-bis[2-(6-phenylpyridine)]pyridazine spread on silver-ion-containing solutions,were examined by grazing-incidence X...

  4. Large area gridded ionisation chamber and electrostatic precipitator. Application to low-level alphaspectrometry of environmental air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1978-01-01

    A high-resolution, parallel plate Frisch grid ionisation chamber with an efficient area of 300 cm 2 and a large area electrostatic precipitator were developed and applied to direct alpha-particle spectrometry of air dust. The aerosols were deposited on circular tin-plate dishes of 300 cm 2 by the electrostatic precipitator, which was constructed for continuous operation at an air flow rate of 2 m 3 /h. Collection efficiency is found to be 0.78 for the natural Rn- and Tn-daughter products. Using an argon-methane mixture (P-10 gas) at atmospheric pressure, the resolution of the detector system is 22 keV fwhm at 5.15 MeV. The integral background is typically 15.7 counts/h between 4 and 6 MeV. After sampling for one week and decay of short-lived natural activity, the sensitivity of the procedure for long-lived alpha-emitters is about 0.1 fCi/m 3 based on 3s of background as detection limit and 1000 min counting time. (Auth.)

  5. The air quality and human health effects of integrating utility-scale batteries into the New York State electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A.; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B.; Walawalkar, Rahul; Adams, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    In a restructured electricity market, utility-scale energy storage technologies such as advanced batteries can generate revenue by charging at low electricity prices and discharging at high prices. This strategy changes the magnitude and distribution of air quality emissions and the total carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. We evaluate the social costs associated with these changes using a case study of 500 MW sodium-sulfur battery installations with 80% round-trip efficiency. The batteries displace peaking generators in New York City and charge using off-peak generation in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) electricity grid during the summer. We identify and map charging and displaced plant types to generators in the NYISO. We then convert the emissions into ambient concentrations with a chemical transport model, the Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (PMCAM x ). Finally, we transform the concentrations into their equivalent human health effects and social benefits and costs. Reductions in premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) result in a benefit of 4.5 cents kWh -1 and 17 cents kWh -1 from displacing a natural gas and distillate fuel oil fueled peaking plant, respectively, in New York City. Ozone (O 3 ) concentrations increase due to decreases in nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emissions, although the magnitude of the social cost is less certain. Adding the costs from charging, displacing a distillate fuel oil plant yields a net social benefit, while displacing the natural gas plant has a net social cost. With the existing base-load capacity, the upstate population experiences an increase in adverse health effects. If wind generation is charging the battery, both the upstate charging location and New York City benefit. At $20 per tonne of CO 2 , the costs from CO 2 are small compared to those from air quality. We conclude that storage could be added to existing electricity grids as part of an integrated

  6. Association between air pollution and general outpatient clinic consultations for upper respiratory tract infections in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Wilson W S; Wong, Tze Wai; Ng, Lorna; Wong, Samuel Y S; Kung, Kenny K L; Wong, Andromeda H S

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown the adverse effects of air pollution on respiratory health, but few have examined the effects of air pollution on service utilisation in the primary care setting. The aim of this study was to examine the association between air pollution and the daily number of consultations due to upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in general outpatient clinics (GOPCs) in Hong Kong. Daily data on the numbers of consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs, the concentrations of major air pollutants, and the mean values of metrological variables were retrospectively collected over a 3-year period (2008-2010, inclusive). Generalised additive models were constructed to examine the association between air pollution and the daily number of consultations, and to derive the relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of GOPC consultations for a unit increase in the concentrations of air pollutants. The mean daily consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs ranged from 68.4 to 253.0 over the study period. The summary relative risks (and 95% CI) of daily consultations in all GOPCs for the air pollutants PM10, NO2, O3, and SO2 were 1.005 (1.002, 1.009), 1.010 (1.006, 1.013), 1.009 (1.006, 1.012), and 1.004 (1.000, 1.008) respectively, per 10 µg/m(3) increase in the concentration of each pollutant. Significant associations were found between the daily number of consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs and the concentrations of air pollutants, implying that air pollution incurs a substantial morbidity and increases the burden of primary health care services.

  7. The application of liquid air energy storage for large scale long duration solutions to grid balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) provides large scale, long duration energy storage at the point of demand in the 5 MW/20 MWh to 100 MW/1,000 MWh range. LAES combines mature components from the industrial gas and electricity industries assembled in a novel process and is one of the few storage technologies that can be delivered at large scale, with no geographical constraints. The system uses no exotic materials or scarce resources and all major components have a proven lifetime of 25+ years. The system can also integrate low grade waste heat to increase power output. Founded in 2005, Highview Power Storage, is a UK based developer of LAES. The company has taken the concept from academic analysis, through laboratory testing, and in 2011 commissioned the world's first fully integrated system at pilot plant scale (300 kW/2.5 MWh) hosted at SSE's (Scottish & Southern Energy) 80 MW Biomass Plant in Greater London which was partly funded by a Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) grant. Highview is now working with commercial customers to deploy multi MW commercial reference plants in the UK and abroad.

  8. Impacts of using reformulated and oxygenated fuel blends on the regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Vinuesa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of using three alternative gasoline fuel blends on regional air quality of the upper Rhine valley have been investigated. The first of the tested fuels is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE, the second is based on a reformulation of its composition and the third on is both oxygenated and reformulated. The upper Rhine valley is a very sensitive region for pollution episodes and several meteorological and air quality studies have already been performed. High temporal and spatial emission inventories are available allowing relevant and realistic modifications of the emission inventories. The calculation period, i.e., 11 May 1998, corresponds to a regional photochemical ozone pollution episode during which ozone concentrations exceeded several times the information threshold of the ozone directive of the European Union (180 μg m-3 as 1 hourly average. New emission inventories are set up using specific emission factors related to the alternative fuels by varying the fraction of gasoline passenger cars (from 50% to 100% using the three fuel blends. Then air quality modeling simulations are performed using these emission inventories over the upper Rhine valley. The impact of alternative fuels on regional air quality is evaluated by comparing these simulations with the one using a reference emission inventory, e.g., where no modifications of the fuel composition are included. The results are analyzed by focusing on peak levels and daily averaged concentrations. The use of the alternative fuels leads to general reductions of ozone and volatile organic compounds (VOC and increases of NOx levels. We found different behaviors related to the type of the area of concern i.e. rural or urban. The impacts on ozone are enhanced in urban areas where 15% reduction of the ozone peak and daily averaged concentrations can be reached. This behavior is similar for the NOx for which, in addition, an increase of the levels can be noted

  9. Hydromorphological pattern in middle upper segment of the Arroyo Ventana (Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén García Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluvial pattern of the Ventana creek is determined, through hydrological and geomorphologic features in the middle upper segment of the watercourse. A Digital Terrain Model of the middle and upper basin of the course was generated based on the contours of the 1:50,000 Tornquist topographic map. The geomorphological mapping of the course was made from photogrammetric flight (1981 at 1:20,000. Three cross sections of the channel were surveyed. Two different river patterns were identified: a braided type, in the upper segment of the course, and another meandering type in the middle segment of the course. Current river dynamics shows a tendency of incision in the course.

  10. A plume-in-grid approach to characterize air quality impacts of aircraft emissions at the Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rissman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impacts of aircraft emissions during the landing and takeoff cycle on PM2.5 concentrations during the months of June and July 2002 at the Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Primary and secondary pollutants were modeled using the Advanced Modeling System for Transport, Emissions, Reactions, and Deposition of Atmospheric Matter (AMSTERDAM. AMSTERDAM is a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model that incorporates a plume-in-grid process to simulate emissions sources of interest at a finer scale than can be achieved using CMAQ's model grid. Three fundamental issues were investigated: the effects of aircraft on PM2.5 concentrations throughout northern Georgia, the differences resulting from use of AMSTERDAM's plume-in-grid process rather than a traditional CMAQ simulation, and the concentrations observed in aircraft plumes at subgrid scales. Comparison of model results with an air quality monitor located in the vicinity of the airport found that normalized mean bias ranges from −77.5% to 6.2% and normalized mean error ranges from 40.4% to 77.5%, varying by species. Aircraft influence average PM2.5 concentrations by up to 0.232 μg m−3 near the airport and by 0.001–0.007 μg m−3 throughout the Atlanta metro area. The plume-in-grid process increases concentrations of secondary PM pollutants by 0.005–0.020 μg m−3 (compared to the traditional grid-based treatment but reduces the concentration of non-reactive primary PM pollutants by up to 0.010 μg m−3, with changes concentrated near the airport. Examination of subgrid-scale results indicates that median aircraft contribution to grid cells is higher than median puff concentration in the airport's grid cell and outside of a 20 km × 20 km square area centered on the airport, while in a 12 km × 12 km square ring centered on the airport, puffs have median concentrations over an order of magnitude higher than aircraft

  11. Observed OH and HO2 concentrations in the upper troposphere inside and outside of Asian monsoon influenced air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marno, D. R.; Künstler, C.; Hens, K.; Tatum Ernest, C.; Broch, S.; Fuchs, H.; Martinez, M.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Williams, J.; Holland, F.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Tomsche, L.; Fischer, H.; Klausner, T.; Schlager, H.; Eirenschmalz, L.; Stratmann, G.; Stock, P.; Ziereis, H.; Roiger, A.; Bohn, B.; Zahn, A.; Wahner, A.; Lelieveld, J.; Harder, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Asian monsoon convectively transports pollutants like volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NOx, and SO2 from the boundary layer over South Asia into the upper troposphere where they can potentially enter the stratosphere, or be dispersed globally. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the oxidizing capacity of this system regarding the rate of aerosol formation, and conversion of pollutants into compounds that have much shorter atmospheric lifetimes. OH plays a central role in this oxidation process. During the OMO-ASIA campaign in the summer of 2015, OH and HO2 were measured onboard the High Altitude Long-Range (HALO) Research Aircraft. Two laser-induced fluorescence instruments based on the fluorescence assay by gas expansion technique (LIF-FAGE) had been deployed, the AIR-LIF instrument from Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH and the HORUS instrument from the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz. To measure the chemical background of OH potentially produced inside the HORUS instrument from highly oxidized VOCs, atmospheric OH is scavenged by an Inlet Pre-injector (IPI) system. This was the first time an IPI system was implemented within an airborne LIF-FAGE instrument measuring OH and HO2. Throughout this campaign OH and HO2 were measured at 12 to 15km within the Asian monsoon anticyclone. These measurements have been contrasted by probing air outside the anticyclone in air masses influenced by North American emissions, and in very clean air masses originated from the southern hemisphere.

  12. Modelin the Transport and Chemical Evolution of Onshore and Offshore Emissions and Their Impact on Local and Regional Air Quality Using a Variable-Grid-Resolution Air Quality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel Hanna

    2008-10-16

    The overall objective of this research project was to develop an innovative modeling technique to adequately model the offshore/onshore transport of pollutants. The variable-grid modeling approach that was developed alleviates many of the shortcomings of the traditionally used nested regular-grid modeling approach, in particular related to biases near boundaries and the excessive computational requirements when using nested grids. The Gulf of Mexico region contiguous to the Houston-Galveston area and southern Louisiana was chosen as a test bed for the variable-grid modeling approach. In addition to the onshore high pollution emissions from various sources in those areas, emissions from on-shore and off-shore oil and gas exploration and production are additional sources of air pollution. We identified case studies for which to perform meteorological and air quality model simulations. Our approach included developing and evaluating the meteorological, emissions, and chemistry-transport modeling components for the variable-grid applications, with special focus on the geographic areas where the finest grid resolution was used. We evaluated the performance of two atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) schemes, and identified the best-performing scheme for simulating mesoscale circulations for different grid resolutions. Use of a newly developed surface data assimilation scheme resulted in improved meteorological model simulations. We also successfully ingested satellite-derived sea surface temperatures (SSTs) into the meteorological model simulations, leading to further improvements in simulated wind, temperature, and moisture fields. These improved meteorological fields were important for variable-grid simulations, especially related to capturing the land-sea breeze circulations that are critical for modeling offshore/onshore transport of pollutants in the Gulf region. We developed SMOKE-VGR, the variable-grid version of the SMOKE emissions processing model, and tested and

  13. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent mixing in grid-generated turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Kouji; Suzuki, Hiroki; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Kubo, Takashi; Hayase, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    Turbulent mixing of passive scalar (heat) in grid-generated turbulence (GGT) is simulated by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS). A turbulence-generating grid, on which the velocity components are set to zero, is located downstream of the channel entrance, and it is numerically constructed on the staggered mesh arrangement using the immersed boundary method. The grid types constructed are: (a) square-mesh biplane grid, (b) square-mesh single-plane grid, (c) composite grid consisting of parallel square-bars and (d) fractal grid. Two fluids with different temperatures are provided separately in the upper and lower streams upstream of the turbulence-generating grids, generating the thermal mixing layer behind the grids. For the grid (a), simulations for two different Prandtl numbers of 0.71 and 7.1, corresponding to air and water flows, are conducted to investigate the effect of the Prandtl number. The results show that the typical grid turbulence and shearless mixing layer are generated downstream of the grids. The results of the scalar field show that a typical thermal mixing layer is generated as well, and the effects of the Prandtl numbers on turbulent heat transfer are observed.

  14. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent mixing in grid-generated turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Kouji; Suzuki, Hiroki; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Kubo, Takashi [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hayase, Toshiyuki [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: nagata@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: hsuzuki@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: ysakai@mech.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: t-kubo@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: hayase@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp

    2008-12-15

    Turbulent mixing of passive scalar (heat) in grid-generated turbulence (GGT) is simulated by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS). A turbulence-generating grid, on which the velocity components are set to zero, is located downstream of the channel entrance, and it is numerically constructed on the staggered mesh arrangement using the immersed boundary method. The grid types constructed are: (a) square-mesh biplane grid, (b) square-mesh single-plane grid, (c) composite grid consisting of parallel square-bars and (d) fractal grid. Two fluids with different temperatures are provided separately in the upper and lower streams upstream of the turbulence-generating grids, generating the thermal mixing layer behind the grids. For the grid (a), simulations for two different Prandtl numbers of 0.71 and 7.1, corresponding to air and water flows, are conducted to investigate the effect of the Prandtl number. The results show that the typical grid turbulence and shearless mixing layer are generated downstream of the grids. The results of the scalar field show that a typical thermal mixing layer is generated as well, and the effects of the Prandtl numbers on turbulent heat transfer are observed.

  15. Air pollution and incidence of cancers of the stomach and the upper aerodigestive tract in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Gabriele; Stafoggia, Massimo; Pedersen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana J; Galassi, Claudia; Munkenast, Jule; Jaensch, Andrea; Sommar, Johan; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun H; Aamodt, Geir; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Sørensen, Mette; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Eeftens, Marloes; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J; Concin, Hans; Lang, Alois; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Weinmayr, Gudrun

    2018-04-26

    Air pollution has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. However, to date little is known about the relevance for cancers of the stomach and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). We investigated the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with incidence of gastric and UADT cancer in 11 European cohorts. Air pollution exposure was assigned by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) below 10 µm (PM 10 ), below 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), between 2.5 and 10 µm (PM coarse ), PM 2.5 absorbance and nitrogen oxides (NO 2 and NO X ) as well as approximated by traffic indicators. Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined with random effects meta-analyses. During average follow-up of 14.1 years of 305 551 individuals, 744 incident cases of gastric cancer and 933 of UADT cancer occurred. The hazard ratio for an increase of 5 µg/m 3 of PM 2.5 was 1.38 (95%-CI 0.99;1.92) for gastric and 1.05 (95%-CI 0.62;1.77) for UADT cancers. No associations were found for any of the other exposures considered. Adjustment for additional confounders and restriction to study participants with stable addresses did not influence markedly the effect estimate for PM 2.5 and gastric cancer. Higher estimated risks of gastric cancer associated with PM 2.5 was found in men (HR 1.98 (1.30;3.01)) as compared to women (HR 0.85 (0.5;1.45)). This large multicentre cohort study shows an association between long-term exposure to PM 2.5 and gastric cancer, but not UADT cancers, suggesting that air pollution may contribute to gastric cancer risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  16. A Climate Benchmark of Upper Air Temperature Observations from GNSS Radio Occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, C. O.; Mannucci, A. J.; Leroy, S. S.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.

    2017-12-01

    GPS (Global Positioning System), or more generally Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), radio occultation (RO) is a remote sensing technique that produces highly accurate temperature in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere across the globe with fine vertical resolution. Its fundamental measurement is the time delay of the microwave signal as it travels from a GNSS satellite to the receiver in low Earth orbit. With a relatively simple physical retrieval, the uncertainty in the derived temperature can be traced rigorously through the retrieval chain back to the raw measurements. The high absolute accuracy of RO allows these observations to be assimilated without bias correction in numerical weather prediction models and provides an anchor for assimilating other types of observations. The high accuracy, coupled with long-term stability, makes RO valuable in detecting decadal temperature trends. In this presentation, we will summarize the current state of RO observations and show temperature trends derived from 15 years of RO data in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. We will discuss our recent efforts in developing retrieval algorithms that are more tailored towards climate applications. Despite the relatively robust "self-calibrating" nature of RO observations, disparity in receiver hardware and software may introduce subtle differences that need to be carefully addressed. While the historic RO data record came from relatively homogeneous hardware based largely on NASA/JPL design (e.g., CHAMP and COSMIC), the future data will likely be comprised of a diverse set of observations from Europe, China, and various commercial data providers. In addition, the use of non-GPS navigation systems will become more prevalent. We will discuss the challenges involved in establishing a long-term RO climate data record from a suite of research and operational weather satellites with changes in instrumentation and coverage.

  17. Brief Communication: Upper Air Relaxation in RACMO2 Significantly Improves Modelled Interannual Surface Mass Balance Variability in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Berg, W. J.; Medley, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2) has been a powerful tool for improving surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from GCMs or reanalyses. However, new yearly SMB observations for West Antarctica show that the modelled interannual variability in SMB is poorly simulated by RACMO2, in contrast to ERA-Interim, which resolves this variability well. In an attempt to remedy RACMO2 performance, we included additional upper-air relaxation (UAR) in RACMO2. With UAR, the correlation to observations is similar for RACMO2 and ERA-Interim. The spatial SMB patterns and ice-sheet-integrated SMB modelled using UAR remain very similar to the estimates of RACMO2 without UAR. We only observe an upstream smoothing of precipitation in regions with very steep topography like the Antarctic Peninsula. We conclude that UAR is a useful improvement for regional climate model simulations, although results in regions with steep topography should be treated with care.

  18. Calculation of upper confidence bounds on not-sampled vegetation types using a systematic grid sample: An application to map unit definition for existing vegetation maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul L. Patterson; Mark Finco

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the information FIA data can produce regarding forest types that were not sampled and develops the equations necessary to define the upper confidence bounds on not-sampled forest types. The problem is reduced to a Bernoulli variable. This simplification allows the upper confidence bounds to be calculated based on Cochran (1977). Examples are...

  19. MODELING THE TRANSPORT AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE EMISSIONS AND THEIR IMPACT ON LOCAL AND REGIONAL AIR QUALITY USING A VARIABLE-GRID-RESOLUTION AIR QUALITY MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Alapaty

    2003-12-01

    This document, the project's first semiannual report, summarizes the research performed from 04/17/2003 through 10/16/2003. Portions of the research in several of the project's eight tasks were completed, and results obtained are briefly presented. We have tested the applicability of two different atmospheric boundary layer schemes for use in air quality model simulations. Preliminary analysis indicates that a scheme that uses sophisticated atmospheric boundary physics resulted in better simulation of atmospheric circulations. We have further developed and tested a new surface data assimilation technique to improve meteorological simulations, which will also result in improved air quality model simulations. Preliminary analysis of results indicates that using the new data assimilation technique results in reduced modeling errors in temperature and moisture. Ingestion of satellite-derived sea surface temperatures into the mesoscale meteorological model led to significant improvements in simulated clouds and precipitation compared to that obtained using traditional analyzed sea surface temperatures. To enhance the capabilities of an emissions processing system so that it can be used with our variable-grid-resolution air quality model, we have identified potential areas for improvements. Also for use in the variable-grid-resolution air quality model, we have tested a cloud module offline for its functionality, and have implemented and tested an efficient horizontal diffusion algorithm within the model.

  20. A Web Service Tool (SOAR) for the Dynamic Generation of L1 Grids of Coincident AIRS, AMSU and MODIS Satellite Sounding Radiance Data for Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Yesha, Y.; Tilmes, C.; Chapman, D.; Goldberg, M.; Zhou, L.

    2007-05-01

    Three decades of Earth remote sensing from NASA, NOAA and DOD operational and research satellites carrying successive generations of improved atmospheric sounder instruments have resulted in petabytes of radiance data with varying spatial and spectral resolutions being stored at different data archives in various data formats by the respective agencies. This evolution of sounders and the diversities of these archived data sets have led to data processing obstacles limiting the science community from readily accessing and analyzing such long-term climate data records. We address this problem by the development of a web based Service Oriented Atmospheric Radiance (SOAR) system built on the SOA paradigm that makes it practical for the science community to dynamically access, manipulate and generate long term records of L1 pre-gridded sounding radiances of coincident multi-sensor data for regions specified according to user chosen criteria. SOAR employs a modification of the standard Client Server interactions that allows users to represent themselves directly to the Process Server through their own web browsers. The browser uses AJAX to request Javascript libraries and DHTML interfaces that define the possible client interactions and communicates the SOAP messages to the Process server allowing for dynamic web dialogs with the user to take place on the fly. The Process Server is also connected to an underlying high performance compute cluster and storage system which provides much of the data processing capabilities required to service the client requests. The compute cluster employs optical communications to NOAA and NASA for accessing the data and under the governance of the Process Server invokes algorithms for on-demand spatial, temporal, and spectral gridding. Scientists can choose from a variety of statistical averaging techniques for compositing satellite observed sounder radiances from the AIRS, AMSU or MODIS instruments to form spatial-temporal grids for

  1. Smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Bae

    2001-11-01

    This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.

  2. Efficiency and limitations of the upper airway mucosa as an air conditioner evaluated from the mechanisms of bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, A; Terada, N; Okamoto, Y; Togawa, K

    1985-01-01

    To elucidate a limit to the efficiency of the upper airway mucosa as an air conditioner, the temperatures of the inspiratory air and mucosa were measured in the cervical trachea. Both of them were affected only minimally by change of atmospheric air temperature during resting nose breathing, but were affected greatly by change of mode of breathing. During hyperventilation through the mouth, when the atmospheric air temperature was 1 degree C, a temperature difference of 9 degrees C was noted between inspiratory air in the cervical trachea and body temperature, together with a mucosal temperature fall by 1.86 +/- 0.61 degree C. Wearing of a mask caused a rise of 3 degrees C in the inspiratory air temperature in the cervical trachea.

  3. New airborne pathogen transport model for upper-room UVGI spaces conditioned by chilled ceiling and mixed displacement ventilation: Enhancing air quality and energy performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaan, Mohamad; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ghali, Kamel; Araj, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of bacteria transport is developed in CC/DV conditioned spaces with UVGI. • The model identifies buoyant, partially mixed, and fully mixed transport zones. • The predicted bacteria concentration agreed well with CFD results. • The higher the supply flow rate, the more restrictive is return air mixing ratio. • Upper-room UVGI results in higher return mixing and 33% in energy savings. - Abstract: The maximum allowable return air ratio in chilled ceiling (CC) and mixed displacement ventilation (DV) system for good air quality is regulated by acceptable levels of CO 2 concentration not to exceed 700 ppm and airborne bacterial count to satisfy World Health Organization (WHO) requirement for bacterial count not to exceed 500 CFU/m 3 . Since the CC/DV system relies on buoyancy effects for driving the contaminated air upwards, infectious particles will recirculate in the upper zone allowing effective utilization of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) to clean return air. The aim of this work is to develop a new airborne bacteria transport plume-multi-layer zonal model at low computational cost to predict bacteria concentration distribution in mixed CC/DV conditioned room without and with upper-room UVGI installed. The results of the simplified model were compared with layer-averaged concentration predictions of a detailed and experimentally-validated 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The comparison showed good agreement between bacteria transport model results and CFD predictions of room air bacteria concentration with maximum error of ±10.4 CFU/m 3 in exhaust air. The simplified model captured the vertical bacteria concentration distribution in room air as well as the locking effect of highest concentration happening at the stratification level. The developed bacteria transport model was used in a case study to determine the return air mixing ratio that minimizes energy consumption and maintains acceptable IAQ

  4. Air pollution and hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections among children in Ningbo, China: A time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Pei-Wen; Wang, Jian-Bing; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Shen, Peng; Chai, Peng-Fei; Li, Die; Jin, Ming-Juan; Tang, Meng-Ling; Lu, Huai-Chu; Lin, Hong-Bo; Chen, Kun

    2017-08-01

    Acute upper and lower respiratory infections are main causes of mortality and morbidity in children. Air pollution has been recognized as an important contributor to development and exacerbation of respiratory infections. However, few studies are available in China. In this study, we investigated the short-term effect of air pollution on hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections among children under 15 years in Ningbo, China. Poisson generalized models were used to estimate the associations between air pollution and hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections adjusted for temporal, seasonal, and meteorological effects. We found that four pollutants (PM 2.5 , PM 10 , NO 2 , and SO 2 ) were significantly associated with hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections. The effect estimates for acute upper respiratory infections tended to be higher (PM 2.5 ER = 3.46, 95% CI 2.18, 4.76; PM 10 ER = 2.81, 95% CI 1.93, 3.69; NO 2 ER = 11.27, 95% CI 8.70, 13.89; SO 2 ER = 15.17, 95% CI 11.29, 19.19). Significant associations for gaseous pollutants (NO 2 and SO 2 ) were observed after adjustment for particular matter. Stronger associations were observed among older children and in the cold period. Our study suggested that short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution was associated with hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections in Ningbo.

  5. Tracheobronchial air-liquid interface cell culture: a model for innate mucosal defense of the upper airways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Kirkham, Sara; Pickles, Raymond J.; Henderson, Ashley G.; Alexis, Neil E.; DeMaria, Genevieve; Knight, David; Thornton, David J.; Sheehan, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Human tracheobronchial epithelial cells grown in air-liquid interface culture have emerged as a powerful tool for the study of airway biology. In this study, we have investigated whether this culture system produces “mucus” with a protein composition similar to that of in vivo, induced airway secretions. Previous compositional studies of mucous secretions have greatly underrepresented the contribution of mucins, which are major structural components of normal mucus. To overcome this limitation, we have used a mass spectrometry-based approach centered on prior separation of the mucins from the majority of the other proteins. Using this approach, we have compared the protein composition of apical secretions (AS) from well-differentiated primary human tracheobronchial cells grown at air-liquid interface and human tracheobronchial normal induced sputum (IS). A total of 186 proteins were identified, 134 from AS and 136 from IS; 84 proteins were common to both secretions, with host defense proteins being predominant. The epithelial mucins MUC1, MUC4, and MUC16 and the gel-forming mucins MUC5B and MUC5AC were identified in both secretions. Refractometry showed that the gel-forming mucins were the major contributors by mass to both secretions. When the composition of the IS was corrected for proteins that were most likely derived from saliva, serum, and migratory cells, there was considerable similarity between the two secretions, in particular, in the category of host defense proteins, which includes the mucins. This shows that the primary cell culture system is an important model for study of aspects of innate defense of the upper airways related specifically to mucus consisting solely of airway cell products. PMID:18931053

  6. Distributions of air pollutants associated with oil and natural gas development measured in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Field

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diffusive sampler monitoring techniques were employed during wintertime studies from 2009 to 2012 to assess the spatial distribution of air pollutants associated with the Pinedale Anticline and Jonah Field oil and natural gas (O&NG developments in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming. Diffusive sampling identified both the extent of wintertime ozone (O3 episodes and the distributions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx, and a suite of 13 C5+ volatile organic compounds (VOC, including BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, allowing the influence of different O&NG emission sources to be determined. Concentration isopleth mapping of both diffusive sampler and continuous O3 measurements show the importance of localized production and advective transport. As for O3, BTEX and NOx mixing ratios within O&NG development areas were elevated compared to background levels, with localized hotspots also evident. One BTEX hotspot was related to an area with intensive production activities, while a second was located in an area influenced by emissions from a water treatment and recycling facility. Contrastingly, NOx hotspots were at major road intersections with relatively high traffic flows, indicating influence from vehicular emissions. Comparisons of observed selected VOC species ratios at a roadside site in the town of Pinedale with those measured in O&NG development areas show that traffic emissions contribute minimally to VOCs in these latter areas. The spatial distributions of pollutant concentrations identified by diffusive sampling techniques have potential utility for validation of emission inventories that are combined with air quality modeling.

  7. Application of New MODIS-Based Aerosol Index for Air Pollution Severity Assessment and Mapping in Upper Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chat Phayungwiwatthanakoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports capability of a newly-proposed index called the aerosol prediction index (API in the determination and mapping of near-ground PM10 concentrations (at spatial resolution of 500 x 500 m during the 2009 and 2010 burning seasons in upper northern Thailand. API is a normalized index defined based on the difference in the observed reflectance data at two spectral bands of the MODIS instrument aboard NASA�s Terra satellite; Band 3 (blue and Band 7 (mid-infrared. Initial analysis suggested that API had strong correlation with the corresponding MODIS-AOD and AERONET-AOD with coefficient of determination (R2 about 0.62 in both cases, and also with the reference PM10 data with R2 of 0.66. In terms of predictive performance, it exhibited low bias at low PM10 condition and achieved impressive prediction accuracy with relative error of 10.78 %. The near-ground PM10 concentration map yielded from the proposed index was proved very useful in the comprehensive assessment of aerosol pollution situation over entire area at fine spatial detail. This task could not be fulfilled from sole use of the ground-based measured data or standard MODIS-AOD product. These findings indicate that API should be a promising tool for the regular monitoring of air pollution severity over the concerned area.

  8. Experimental system description for air-water CCFL tests of the 161-rod FLECHT-SEASET test vessel upper plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogdall, S.P.; Anderson, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    A series of countercurrent flow limiting (CCFL) experiments has been performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. in the Steam-Air-Water (SAW) test facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on behalf of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Tests were performed in a mockup of the vessel for the 161-Rod Systems Effects Test (SET) facility of the FLECHT-SEASET program, conducted by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Westinghouse and the NRC will use the test results to provide a CCFL correlation to predict the flooding behavior in the upper plenum of the SET vessel. This paper presents a description of the experimental system and the test conduct, including data validation and uncertainty analysis. The test objectives centered on experimentally obtaining coefficients in the Wallis correlation for flooding with the specific vessel geometry. The test conditions and vessel configuration are described and the design of the test loop, instrumentation, and data acquisition are discussed. The establishment of a test point and the resultant data are described

  9. Observed Seasonal Variations of the Upper Ocean Structure and Air-Sea Interactions in the Andaman Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanliang; Li, Kuiping; Ning, Chunlin; Yang, Yang; Wang, Haiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Skhokiattiwong, Somkiat; Yu, Weidong

    2018-02-01

    The Andaman Sea (AS) is a poorly observed basin, where even the fundamental physical characteristics have not been fully documented. Here the seasonal variations of the upper ocean structure and the air-sea interactions in the central AS were studied using a moored surface buoy. The seasonal double-peak pattern of the sea surface temperature (SST) was identified with the corresponding mixed layer variations. Compared with the buoys in the Bay of Bengal (BOB), the thermal stratification in the central AS was much stronger in the winter to spring, when a shallower isothermal layer and a thinner barrier layer were sustained. The temperature inversion was strongest from June to July because of substantial surface heat loss and subsurface prewarming. The heat budget analysis of the mixed layer showed that the net surface heat fluxes dominated the seasonal SST cycle. Vertical entrainment was significant from April to July. It had a strong cooling effect from April to May and a striking warming effect from June to July. A sensitivity experiment highlighted the importance of salinity. The AS warmer surface water in the winter was associated with weak heat loss caused by weaker longwave radiation and latent heat losses. However, the AS latent heat loss was larger than the BOB in summer due to its lower relative humidity.

  10. Large area gridded ionisation chamber and electrostatic precipitator and their application to low-level alpha-spectrometry of environmental air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution, parallel plate Frisch grid ionization chamber with an efficient area of 3000 cm 2 , and a large area electrostatic precipitator were developed and applied to direct alpha spectrometry of air dust. Using an argon-methane mixture (P-10 gas) at atmospheric pressure the resolution of the detector system is 22 keV FWHM at 5 MeV. After sampling for one week and decay of short-lived natural activity, the sensitivity of the procedure for long-lived alpha emitters is about 0.1 fCi/m 3 taking 3 Σσ of background as the detection limit with 1000 min counting time. (author)

  11. Modeling the Transport and Chemical Evolution of Onshore and Offshore Emissions and their Impact on Local and Regional Air Quality Using a Variable-Grid-Resolution Air Quality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Alapaty

    2006-04-16

    This Annual report summarizes the research performed from 17 April 2005 through 16 April 2006. Major portions of the research in several of the project's current eight tasks have been completed. We have successfully developed the meteorological inputs using the best possible modeling configurations, resulting in improved representation of atmospheric processes. The development of the variable-grid-resolution emissions model, SMOKE-VGR, is also completed. The development of the MAQSIP-VGR has been completed and a test run was performed to ensure the functionality of this air quality model. We have incorporated new emission data base to update the offshore emissions. However, we have faced some bottleneck problems in the testing the integrity of the new database. For this reason, we have asked for a no cost extension of this project to tackle these scientific problems. Thus, the project is on a one-year delay schedule. During the reporting period, we solved all problems related to the new emission database. We are ready to move to developing the final product, implementation and testing of the variable grid technology into the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to develop the CMAQ-VGR. During the upcoming months we will perform the first CMAQ-VGR simulations over the Houston-Galveston region to study the roles of the meteorology, offshore emissions, and chemistry-transport interactions that determine the temporal and spatial evolution of ozone and its precursors.

  12. Relationship between geohydrology and Upper Pleistocene-Holocene evolution of the eastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capítulo, Leandro Rodrigues; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-07-01

    The Upper Pleistocene-Holocene geological evolution, which is characterized by its landscape-forming energy and is related to geological and geomorphological complexity, has an impact on the groundwater dynamics of coastal aquifers. The geological configuration of a sector of the east coast of the Province of Buenos Aires was analyzed, as well as its connection with the geological and geomorphological history of the region during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, and its influence on the regional and local geohydrological behaviour. This analysis was based on the application of the concept of hydrofacies. Boreholes were drilled and sampled (with depths of up to 40 m), and vertical electrical sounding, electrical tomography and pumping tests were undertaken. The description of the cutting samples by means of a stereo microscope, the interpretation of satellite images, and the construction of lithological and hydrogeological profiles and flow charts were carried out in the laboratory, and then integrated in a GIS. The identification of the lithological units and their distribution in the area allowed the construction of an evolutionary geological model for the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Three aquifer units can be recognized: one of Late Pleistocene age (hydrofacies E) and the other two of Holocene age (hydrofacies A and C); their hydraulic connection depends on the occurrence and thickness variation of the aquitard units (hydrofacies B and D). The approach adopted allows the examination of the possibilities for groundwater exploitation and constitutes an applied conceptual framework to be taken into consideration when developing conceptual and numerical models at the local and regional scales.

  13. Determining the Probability of Violating Upper-Level Wind Constraints for the Launch of Minuteman Ill Ballistic Missiles At Vandenberg Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Brock, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman Ill ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) analyze VAFB sounding data to determine the probability of violating (PoV) upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a graphical user interface (GUI) that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. The AMU suggested also including forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh (RAP) model. This would provide further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours, and help to improve the overall upper winds forecast on launch day.

  14. The Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, Wolf-Dieter

    2005-01-01

    Grid technology is widely emerging. Grid computing, most simply stated, is distributed computing taken to the next evolutionary level. The goal is to create the illusion of a simple, robust yet large and powerful self managing virtual computer out of a large collection of connected heterogeneous systems sharing various combinations of resources. This talk will give a short history how, out of lessons learned from the Internet, the vision of Grids was born. Then the extensible anatomy of a Grid architecture will be discussed. The talk will end by presenting a selection of major Grid projects in Europe and US and if time permits a short on-line demonstration.

  15. Numerical analysis for two-dimensional compressible and two-phase flow fields of air-water in Eulerian grid framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Wook; Lee, Sung Su

    2008-01-01

    Two-phase compressible flow fields of air-water are investigated numerically in the fixed Eulerian grid framework. The phase interface is captured via volume fractions of ech phase. A way to model two phase compressible flows as a single phase one is found based on an equivalent equation of states of Tait's type for a multiphase cell. The equivalent single phase field is discretized using the Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Two approaches are tried to suppress the pressure oscillation phenomena at the phase interface, a passive advection of volume fraction and a direct pressure relaxation with the compressible form of volume fraction equation. The direct pressure equalizing method suppresses pressure oscillation successfully and generates sharp discontinuities, transmitting and reflecting acoustic waves naturally at the phase interface. In discretizing the compressible form of volume fraction equation, phase interfaces are geometrically reconstructed to minimize the numerical diffusion of volume fraction and relevant variables. The motion of a projectile in a water-filled tube which is fired by the release of highly pressurized air is simulated presuming the flow field as a two dimensional one, and several design factors affecting the projectile movement are investigated

  16. Modeling of episodic particulate matter events using a 3-D air quality model with fine grid: Applications to a pair of cities in the US/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Hyde, Peter; Fernando, H. J. S.

    High (episodic) particulate matter (PM) events over the sister cities of Douglas (AZ) and Agua Prieta (Sonora), located in the US-Mexico border, were simulated using the 3D Eulerian air quality model, MODELS-3/CMAQ. The best available input information was used for the simulations, with pollution inventory specified on a fine grid. In spite of inherent uncertainties associated with the emission inventory as well as the chemistry and meteorology of the air quality simulation tool, model evaluations showed acceptable PM predictions, while demonstrating the need for including the interaction between meteorology and emissions in an interactive mode in the model, a capability currently unavailable in MODELS-3/CMAQ when dealing with PM. Sensitivity studies on boundary influence indicate an insignificant regional (advection) contribution of PM to the study area. The contribution of secondary particles to the occurrence of high PM events was trivial. High PM episodes in the study area, therefore, are purely local events that largely depend on local meteorological conditions. The major PM emission sources were identified as vehicular activities on unpaved/paved roads and wind-blown dust. The results will be of immediate utility in devising PM mitigation strategies for the study area, which is one of the US EPA-designated non-attainment areas with respect to PM.

  17. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...

  18. An economic analysis comparison of stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected photovoltaic systems in the US Upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wongyu; Pate, Michael B.; Warren, Ryan D.; Nelson, Ron M.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis of stationary and dual-axis tracking photovoltaic (PV) systems installed in the US Upper Midwest in terms of life-cycle costs, payback period, internal rate of return, and the incremental cost of solar energy. The first-year performance and energy savings were experimentally found along with documented initial cost. Future PV performance, savings, and operating and maintenance costs were estimated over 25-year assumed life. Under the given assumptions and discount rates, the life-cycle savings were found to be negative. Neither system was found to have payback periods less than the assumed system life. The lifetime average incremental costs of energy generated by the stationary and dual-axis tracking systems were estimated to be 0.31 and 0.37 per kWh generated, respectively. Economic analyses of different scenarios, each having a unique set of assumptions for costs and metering, showed a potential for economic feasibility under certain conditions when compared to alternative investments with assumed yields.

  19. MODELING THE TRANSPORT AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE EMISSIONS AND THEIR IMPACT ON LOCAL AND REGIONAL AIR QUALITY USING A VARIABLE-GRID-RESOLUTION AIR QUALITY MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Alapaty

    2005-05-13

    This second annual report summarizes the research performed from 17 April 2004 through 16 April 2005. Major portions of the research in several of the project's current eight tasks have been completed. We have successfully developed the meteorological inputs using the best possible modeling configurations, resulting in improved representation of atmospheric processes. The development of the variable-grid-resolution emissions model, SMOKE-VGR, is also completed. The development of the MAQSIP-VGR has been completed and a test run was performed to ensure the functionality of this air quality model. Thus, the project is on schedule as planned. During the upcoming reporting period, we expect to perform the first MAQSIP-VGR simulations over the Houston-Galveston region to study the roles of the meteorology, offshore emissions, and chemistry-transport interactions that determine the temporal and spatial evolution of ozone and its precursors.

  20. Upper cervical spine movement during intubation: fluoroscopic comparison of the AirWay Scope, McCoy laryngoscope, and Macintosh laryngoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, K; Yamada, T; Kawakami, R; Kamata, T; Yokochi, M; Hara, K

    2008-01-01

    The AirWay Scope (AWS) is a new fibreoptic intubation device, which allows visualization of the glottic structures without alignment of the oral, pharyngeal, and tracheal axes, and thus may be useful in patients with limited cervical spine (C-spine) movement. We fluoroscopically evaluated upper C-spine movement during intubation with the AWS or Macintosh or McCoy laryngoscope. Forty-five patients, with normal C-spine, scheduled for elective surgery were randomly assigned to one of the three intubation devices. Movement of the upper C-spine was examined by measuring angles formed by adjacent vertebrae during intubation. Time to intubation was also recorded. Median cumulative upper C-spine movement was 22.3 degrees, 32.3 degrees, and 36.5 degrees with the AWS, Macintosh laryngoscope, and McCoy laryngoscope, respectively (Pmovement of the C-spine at C1/C2 in comparison with the Macintosh or McCoy laryngoscope (P=0.012), and at C3/C4 in comparison with the McCoy laryngoscope (P=0.019). Intubation time was significantly longer in the AWS group than in the Macintosh group (P=0.03). Compared with the Macintosh or McCoy laryngoscope, the AWS produced less movement of upper C-spine for intubation in patients with a normal C-spine.

  1. Rainfall Downscaling Conditional on Upper-air Atmospheric Predictors: Improved Assessment of Rainfall Statistics in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langousis, Andreas; Mamalakis, Antonis; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino

    2015-04-01

    To improve the level skill of Global Climate Models (GCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs) in reproducing the statistics of rainfall at a basin level and at hydrologically relevant temporal scales (e.g. daily), two types of statistical approaches have been suggested. One is the statistical correction of climate model rainfall outputs using historical series of precipitation. The other is the use of stochastic models of rainfall to conditionally simulate precipitation series, based on large-scale atmospheric predictors produced by climate models (e.g. geopotential height, relative vorticity, divergence, mean sea level pressure). The latter approach, usually referred to as statistical rainfall downscaling, aims at reproducing the statistical character of rainfall, while accounting for the effects of large-scale atmospheric circulation (and, therefore, climate forcing) on rainfall statistics. While promising, statistical rainfall downscaling has not attracted much attention in recent years, since the suggested approaches involved complex (i.e. subjective or computationally intense) identification procedures of the local weather, in addition to demonstrating limited success in reproducing several statistical features of rainfall, such as seasonal variations, the distributions of dry and wet spell lengths, the distribution of the mean rainfall intensity inside wet periods, and the distribution of rainfall extremes. In an effort to remedy those shortcomings, Langousis and Kaleris (2014) developed a statistical framework for simulation of daily rainfall intensities conditional on upper air variables, which accurately reproduces the statistical character of rainfall at multiple time-scales. Here, we study the relative performance of: a) quantile-quantile (Q-Q) correction of climate model rainfall products, and b) the statistical downscaling scheme of Langousis and Kaleris (2014), in reproducing the statistical structure of rainfall, as well as rainfall extremes, at a

  2. Grid Security

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The aim of Grid computing is to enable the easy and open sharing of resources between large and highly distributed communities of scientists and institutes across many independent administrative domains. Convincing site security officers and computer centre managers to allow this to happen in view of today's ever-increasing Internet security problems is a major challenge. Convincing users and application developers to take security seriously is equally difficult. This paper will describe the main Grid security issues, both in terms of technology and policy, that have been tackled over recent years in LCG and related Grid projects. Achievements to date will be described and opportunities for future improvements will be addressed.

  3. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A computing grid interconnects resources such as high performancecomputers, scientific databases, and computercontrolledscientific instruments of cooperating organizationseach of which is autonomous. It precedes and is quitedifferent from cloud computing, which provides computingresources by vendors to customers ...

  4. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    emergence of supercomputers led to the use of computer simula- tion as an .... Scientific and engineering applications (e.g., Tera grid secure gate way). Collaborative ... Encryption, privacy, protection from malicious software. Physical Layer.

  5. The Origins of Air Parcels Uplifted in a Two Dimensional Gravity Wave in the Tropical Upper Troposphere During the NASA Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Pfister, Leonhard; Chan, K. Roland; Kritz, Mark; Kelly, Ken

    1989-01-01

    During January and February 1987, as part of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project, the NASA ER-2 made 11 flights from Darwin, Australia to investigate dehydration mechanisms in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause. After the monsoon onset in the second week of January, steady easterly flow of 15-25 ms (exp -1) was established in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over northern Australia and adjacent seas. Penetrating into this regime were elements of the monsoon convection such as overshooting convective turrets and extensive anvils including cyclone cloud shields. In cases of the latter, the resulting flow obstructions tended to produce mesoscale gravity waves. In several instances the ER- 2 meteorological and trace constituent measurements provide a detailed description of the structure of these gravity waves. Among these was STEP Flight 6, 22-23 January. It is of particular interest to STEP because of the close proximity of ice-laden and dehydrated air on the same isentropic surfaces. Convective events inject large amounts of ice into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere which may not be completely removed by local precipitation processes. In the present instance, a gravity wave for removed from the source region appears to induce relativity rapid upward motion in the ice-laden air and subsequent dessication. Potential mechanisms for such a localized removal process are under investigation.

  6. Indoor Air Quality in Urban and Rural Preschools in Upper Silesia, Poland: Particulate Matter and Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainka, Anna; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira

    2015-07-08

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in preschools is an important public health challenge. Particular attention should be paid to younger children, because they are more vulnerable to air pollution than higher grade children and because they spend more time indoors. Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is of the greatest interest mainly due to its acute and chronic effects on children's health. In addition, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels indicate ventilation conditions. In this paper, we present the concentrations of PM (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and total-TSP) and CO2 monitored in four naturally ventilated nursery schools located in the area of Gliwice, Poland. The nursery schools were selected to characterize areas with different degrees of urbanization and traffic densities during the winter season. The results indicate the problem of elevated concentrations of PM inside the examined classrooms, as well as that of high levels of CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm in relation to outdoor air. The characteristics of IAQ were significantly different, both in terms of classroom occupation (younger or older children) and of localization (urban or rural). To evaluate the children's exposure to poor IAQ, indicators based on air quality guidelines were proposed to rank classrooms according to their hazard on the health of children.

  7. Indoor Air Quality in Urban and Rural Preschools in Upper Silesia, Poland: Particulate Matter and Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mainka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ in preschools is an important public health challenge. Particular attention should be paid to younger children, because they are more vulnerable to air pollution than higher grade children and because they spend more time indoors. Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM is of the greatest interest mainly due to its acute and chronic effects on children’s health. In addition, carbon dioxide (CO2 levels indicate ventilation conditions. In this paper, we present the concentrations of PM (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and total—TSP and CO2 monitored in four naturally ventilated nursery schools located in the area of Gliwice, Poland. The nursery schools were selected to characterize areas with different degrees of urbanization and traffic densities during the winter season. The results indicate the problem of elevated concentrations of PM inside the examined classrooms, as well as that of high levels of CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm in relation to outdoor air. The characteristics of IAQ were significantly different, both in terms of classroom occupation (younger or older children and of localization (urban or rural. To evaluate the children’s exposure to poor IAQ, indicators based on air quality guidelines were proposed to rank classrooms according to their hazard on the health of children.

  8. Upper air thermal inversion and their impact on the summer monsoon rainfall over Goa - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, M. S.; Muraleedharan, P. M.; Ramaswamy, V.; Rameshkumar, M. R.; Aswini, Anirudhan

    2018-04-01

    Profiles of periodic GPS Radiosonde ascends collected from a station at the west coast of India (Goa) during summer monsoon months (June to September) of 2009 and 2013 have been used to analyze the thermal inversion statistics at various heights and their repercussions on the regional weather is studied. The interaction of contrasting air masses over the northern Arabian Sea often produces a two layer structure in the lower 5000 m close to the coastal station with warm and dusty air (Summer Shamal) occupying the space above the cool and moist Low Level Jet (LLJ) by virtue of their density differences. The warm air intrusion creates low lapse rate pockets above LLJ and modifies the gravitational stability strong enough to inhibit convection. It is observed that the inversion occurring in the lower 3000 m layer with an optimum layer thickness of 100-200 m has profound influence on the weather beneath it. We demonstrated the validity of the proposed hypothesis by analyzing the collocated data from radiosonde, lidar and the rain gauge during 16th July 2013 as a case study. The lidar depolarization ratio provides evidence to support the two layer structure in the lidar backscatter image. The presence of dust noticed in the two layer interface hints the intrusion of warm air that makes the atmosphere stable enough to suppress convection. The daily rainfall record of 2013 surprisingly coincides with the patterns of a regional break like situation centered at 16th July 2013 in Goa.

  9. Modeling the Transport and Chemical Evolution of Onshore and Offshore Emissions and their Impact on Local and Regional Air Quality Using a Variable-Grid-Resolution Air Quality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Alapaty

    2004-10-16

    This semiannual report summarizes the research performed from 17 April through 16 October 2004. Major portions of the research in several of the project's current eight tasks have been completed, and the results obtained are briefly presented. We have successfully developed the meteorological inputs using the best possible modeling configurations, resulting in improved representation of atmospheric processes. Ingestion of satellite-derived sea surface temperatures in conjunction with the use of our new surface data assimilation technique have resulted in largely improved meteorological inputs to drive the MAQSIP-VGR. The development of the variable-grid-resolution emissions model, SMOKE-VGR, is also largely complete. We expect to develop the final configuration of the SMOKE-VGR during the upcoming reporting period. We are in the process of acquiring the newly released emissions database and offshore emissions data sets to update our archives. The development of the MAQSIP-VGR has been completed and a test run was performed to ensure the functionality of this air quality model. During the upcoming reporting period, we expect to perform the first MAQSIP-VGR simulations over the Houston-Galveston region to study the roles of the meteorology, offshore emissions, and chemistry-transport interactions that determine the temporal and spatial evolution of ozone and its precursors.

  10. Power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viterbo, J.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of renewable energies represents new challenges for electrical systems. The objective: making power grids smarter so they can handle intermittent production. The advent of smart grids will allow flexible operations like distributing energy in a multidirectional manner instead of just one way and it will make electrical systems capable of integrating actions by different users, consumers and producers in order to maintain efficient, sustainable, economical and secure power supplies. Practically speaking, they associate sensors, instrumentation and controls with information processing and communication systems in order to create massively automated networks. Smart grids require huge investments: for example more than 7 billion dollars have been invested in China and in the Usa in 2010 and France is ranked 9. worldwide with 265 million dollars invested. It is expected that smart grids will promote the development of new business models and a change in the value chain for energy. Decentralized production combined with the probable introduction of more or less flexible rates for sales or purchases and of new supplier-customer relationships will open the way to the creation of new businesses. (A.C.)

  11. Seasonal changes of peroxidase and catalase activities in leaves of several arborescent species subject to different industrial air pollutions in Upper Silesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raczek, E.; Stolarek, J.

    1979-01-01

    Year-round investigations of seasonal patterns of peroxidase and catalase activities in leaves of several deciduous and coniferous arborescent species in forests of Upper Silesia subjected to various amounts of industrial gases and dusts were carried out. The samples of leaves of Betula verrucosa EHRH, Quercus robur L., Q. rubra L., Pinus nigra ARNOLD, and P. silvestris L. were collected at different distances from an iron smelting plant. It was found that raising level of the pollution enhances peroxidase activity in leaves and needles. The induction of peroxidase activity by pollutants exhibited seasonal changes specific for the species and was subjected to the effect of temperature of the environment and was also related to the natural resistivity of a given species. In contrast to peroxidase, the patterns of catalase activity changes did not appear to be specifically influenced by industrial air pollutants. 22 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  12. 光伏并网式家用空调系统性能的实验研究%Experimental Investigation on the Performance of Household Air Conditioning System with Grid-connected Photovoltaic Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金听祥; 徐笑锋

    2015-01-01

    With the base of traditional air conditioning system, the grid-connected photovoltaic household air conditioning sys-tem based on the solar photovoltaic power generation technology is designed in this paper. The power with the solar photovoltaic power generation technology is transformed into the household power of 220 V and 50 Hz by inverter. The household air condi-tioning system is then driven by the transformed power and national grid. The performance of the photovoltaic grid-connected household air conditioning system was tested by Enthalpy Difference Lab under the different power ( 100 W, 135 W and 185 W) of solar panels. The experimental results show that under normal cooling conditions, the average power consumption of the air conditioning system with the different power (100 W, 135 W and 185 W) of solar panels are 52 W, 78 W and 104 W lower than that of the traditional air conditioning system respectively. Similarly, energy efficiency ratios of the air conditioning system with the different power (100 W, 135 W and 185 W) of solar panels are 4. 2%, 5. 5% and 10. 2% lower than that of the tra-ditional air conditioning system respectively. Under heating mode, the average power consumption of the air conditioning system with the different power (100 W, 135 W and 185 W) of solar panels are 68 W, 84 W and 116 W lower than that of the tradi-tional air conditioning system, and the coefficients of performances are 6. 4%, 8% and 11% lower than that of the traditional air conditioning system. It can be concluded that the photovoltaic grid-connected household air conditioning system is feasible.%针对目前的家用空调系统,本文设计了一种以太阳能光伏发电技术为基础,与国家电网并网,共同驱动空调工作的系统,称为光伏并网式家用空调系统。利用光伏发电技术,通过逆变器将太阳能提供的电力转变为220 V、50 Hz家用电源,实现与市电电网的并网,来共同驱动空调运行。利用焓差实验室,

  13. The Use of a Magnetic Port Finder in the Retrieval of Air Rifle BBs to the Upper Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwanuka, Elizabeth; Hsieh, Sun; Roussel, Lauren Ouellet; Jehle, Charles Christopher; Mehrzad, Raman; Schmidt, Scott

    2018-04-03

    Air-powered rifles shoot ball bearings with enough kinetic energy to penetrate skin and fracture underlying bones. In addition, there are reports of these ball bearings embolizing within the vascular network, causing serious injuries such as ischemic stroke with resultant blindness. The severity of these complications warrants occasional removal of these foreign bodies; however, they can be difficult to localize. In this case report, we describe the use of a magnetic port finder, a sterilizable tool used in breast reconstruction, to localize the foreign body in situ. We believe that this tool is effective at locating ferrous foreign bodies precisely, allowing for surgical retrieval while minimizing damage to surrounding tissue. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fine-Tuned Intrinsically Ultramicroporous Polymers Redefine the Permeability/Selectivity Upper Bounds of Membrane-Based Air and Hydrogen Separations

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2015-08-20

    Intrinsically ultramicroporous (<7 Å) polymers represent a new paradigm in materials development for membrane-based gas separation. In particular, they demonstrate that uniting intrachain “rigidity”, the traditional design metric of highly permeable polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs), with gas-sieving ultramicroporosity yields high-performance gas separation membranes. Highly ultramicroporous PIMs have redefined the state-of-the-art in large-scale air (e.g., O2/N2) and hydrogen recovery (e.g., H2/N2, H2/CH4) applications with unprecedented molecular sieving gas transport properties. Accordingly, presented herein are new 2015 permeability/selectivity “upper bounds” for large-scale commercial membrane-based air and hydrogen applications that accommodate the substantial performance enhancements of recent PIMs over preceding polymers. A subtle balance between intrachain rigidity and interchain spacing has been achieved in the amorphous microstructures of PIMs, fine-tuned using unique bridged-bicyclic building blocks (i.e., triptycene, ethanoanthracene and Tröger’s base) in both ladder and semiladder (e.g., polyimide) structures.

  15. Determining the Probability of Violating Upper-Level Wind Constraints for the Launch of Minuteman III Ballistic Missiles at Vandenberg Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Brock, Tyler M.

    2012-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman Ill ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum wind shear datasets and applied this information when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition, the AMU included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on the day of launch. The AMU developed an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) in Microsoft Excel using Visual Basic for Applications. The GUI displays the critical sounding data easily and quickly for LWOs on day of launch. This tool will replace the existing one used by the 30 OSSWF, assist the LWOs in determining the probability of exceeding specific wind threshold values, and help to improve the overall upper winds forecast for

  16. Multigrid on unstructured grids using an auxiliary set of structured grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, C.C.; Malhotra, S.; Schultz, M.H. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Unstructured grids do not have a convenient and natural multigrid framework for actually computing and maintaining a high floating point rate on standard computers. In fact, just the coarsening process is expensive for many applications. Since unstructured grids play a vital role in many scientific computing applications, many modifications have been proposed to solve this problem. One suggested solution is to map the original unstructured grid onto a structured grid. This can be used as a fine grid in a standard multigrid algorithm to precondition the original problem on the unstructured grid. We show that unless extreme care is taken, this mapping can lead to a system with a high condition number which eliminates the usefulness of the multigrid method. Theorems with lower and upper bounds are provided. Simple examples show that the upper bounds are sharp.

  17. Grid pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweijer, P.P.M.; Es, J.T. van.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a fast pulse generator. This generator delivers a high-voltage pulse of at most 6000 V with a rise time being smaller than 50 nS. this results in a slew rate of more than 120.000 volts per μS. The pulse generator is used to control the grid of the injector of the electron accelerator MEA. The capacity of this grid is about 60 pF. In order to charge this capacity up to 6000 volts in 50 nS a current of 8 ampere is needed. The maximal pulse length is 50 μS with a repeat frequency of 500 Hz. During this 50 μS the stability of the pulse amplitude is better than 0.1%. (author). 20 figs

  18. Tissue sensitivity of the rat upper and lower extrapulmonary airways to the inhaled electrophilic air pollutants diacetyl and acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Joseph A; Smith, Gregory J; Morris, John B

    2014-11-01

    The target site for inhaled vapor-induced injury often differs in mouth-breathing humans compared with nose-breathing rats, thus complicating the use of rat inhalation toxicity data for assessment of human risk. We sought to examine sensitivity of respiratory/transitional nasal (RTM) and tracheobronchial (TBM) mucosa to two electrophilic irritant vapors: diacetyl and acrolein. Computational fluid dynamic physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling was coupled with biomarker assessment to establish delivered dose-response relationships in RTM and TBM in male F344 rats following 6 h exposure to diacetyl or acrolein. Biomarkers included glutathione status, proinflammatory and antioxidant gene mRNA levels, and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Modeling revealed that 0.0094-0.1653 μg acrolein/min-cm(2) and 3.9-21.6 μg diacetyl/min-cm(2) were deposited into RTM/TBM. Results indicate RTM and TBM were generally of similar sensitivity to diacetyl and acrolein. For instance, both tissues displayed induction of antioxidant and proinflammatory genes, and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 after electrophile exposure. Hierarchical cellular response patterns were similar in RTM and TBM but differed between vapors. Specifically, diacetyl exposure induced proinflammatory and antioxidant genes concomitantly at low exposure levels, whereas acrolein induced antioxidant genes at much lower exposure levels than that required to induce proinflammatory genes. Generally, diacetyl was less potent than acrolein, as measured by maximal induction of transcripts. In conclusion, the upper and lower extrapulmonary airways are of similar sensitivity to inhaled electrophilic vapors. Dosimetrically based extrapolation of nasal responses in nose-breathing rodents may provide an approach to predict risk to the lower airways of humans during mouth-breathing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All

  19. The grid

    OpenAIRE

    Morrad, Annie; McArthur, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Project Anywhere Project title: The Grid   Artists: Annie Morrad: Artist/Senior Lecturer, University of Lincoln, School of Film and Media, Lincoln, UK   Dr Ian McArthur: Hybrid Practitioner/Senior Lecturer, UNSW Art & Design, UNSW Australia, Sydney, Australia   Annie Morrad is a London-based artist and musician and senior lecturer at the University of Lincoln, UK. Dr Ian McArthur is a Sydney-based hybrid practitione...

  20. Safe Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  1. Grid interoperability: joining grid information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechl, M; Field, L

    2008-01-01

    A grid is defined as being 'coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations'. Over recent years a number of grid projects, many of which have a strong regional presence, have emerged to help coordinate institutions and enable grids. Today, we face a situation where a number of grid projects exist, most of which are using slightly different middleware. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable Virtual Organizations to access resources at the institutions independent of their grid project affiliation. Grid interoperation is usually a bilateral activity between two grid infrastructures. Recently within the Open Grid Forum, the Grid Interoperability Now (GIN) Community Group is trying to build upon these bilateral activities. The GIN group is a focal point where all the infrastructures can come together to share ideas and experiences on grid interoperation. It is hoped that each bilateral activity will bring us one step closer to the overall goal of a uniform grid landscape. A fundamental aspect of a grid is the information system, which is used to find available grid services. As different grids use different information systems, interoperation between these systems is crucial for grid interoperability. This paper describes the work carried out to overcome these differences between a number of grid projects and the experiences gained. It focuses on the different techniques used and highlights the important areas for future standardization

  2. Assessing the Impact of Surface and Upper-Air Observations on the Forecast Skill of the ACCESS Numerical Weather Prediction Model over Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Soldatenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology’s in situ observations (land and sea surface observations, upper air observations by radiosondes, pilot balloons, wind profilers, and aircraft observations on the short-term forecast skill provided by the ACCESS (Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator global numerical weather prediction (NWP system is evaluated using an adjoint-based method. This technique makes use of the adjoint perturbation forecast model utilized within the 4D-Var assimilation system, and is able to calculate the individual impact of each assimilated observation in a cycling NWP system. The results obtained show that synoptic observations account for about 60% of the 24-h forecast error reduction, with the remainder accounted for by aircraft (12.8%, radiosondes (10.5%, wind profilers (3.9%, pilot balloons (2.8%, buoys (1.7% and ships (1.2%. In contrast, the largest impact per observation is from buoys and aircraft. Overall, all observation types have a positive impact on the 24-h forecast skill. Such results help to support the decision-making process regarding the evolution of the observing network, particularly at the national level. Consequently, this 4D-Var-based approach has great potential as a tool to assist the design and running of an efficient and effective observing network.

  3. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  4. The MammoGrid Project Grids Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    McClatchey, Richard; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri; Buncic, Predrag; Clatchey, Richard Mc; Buncic, Predrag; Manset, David; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the recently EU-funded MammoGrid project is, in the light of emerging Grid technology, to develop a European-wide database of mammograms that will be used to develop a set of important healthcare applications and investigate the potential of this Grid to support effective co-working between healthcare professionals throughout the EU. The MammoGrid consortium intends to use a Grid model to enable distributed computing that spans national borders. This Grid infrastructure will be used for deploying novel algorithms as software directly developed or enhanced within the project. Using the MammoGrid clinicians will be able to harness the use of massive amounts of medical image data to perform epidemiological studies, advanced image processing, radiographic education and ultimately, tele-diagnosis over communities of medical "virtual organisations". This is achieved through the use of Grid-compliant services [1] for managing (versions of) massively distributed files of mammograms, for handling the distri...

  5. Grid Integration Research | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Research Grid Integration Research Researchers study grid integration of wind three wind turbines with transmission lines in the background. Capabilities NREL's grid integration electric power system operators to more efficiently manage wind grid system integration. A photo of

  6. Characterization of Slosh Damping for Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid Internal Tank Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.; Sansone, Marco D.; Eberhart, Chad J.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Grid stiffened tank structures such as Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid are widely used in cryogenic tanks for providing stiffening to the tank while reducing mass, compared to tank walls of constant cross-section. If the structure is internal to the tank, it will positively affect the fluid dynamic behavior of the liquid propellant, in regard to fluid slosh damping. As NASA and commercial companies endeavor to explore the solar system, vehicles will by necessity become more mass efficient, and design margin will be reduced where possible. Therefore, if the damping characteristics of the Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid structure is understood, their positive damping effect can be taken into account in the systems design process. Historically, damping by internal structures has been characterized by rules of thumb and for Ortho-Grid, empirical design tools intended for slosh baffles of much larger cross-section have been used. There is little or no information available to characterize the slosh behavior of Iso-Grid internal structure. Therefore, to take advantage of these structures for their positive damping effects, there is much need for obtaining additional data and tools to characterize them. Recently, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted both sub-scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of slosh damping for Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid tanks for cylindrical tanks containing water. Enhanced grid meshing techniques were applied to the geometrically detailed and complex Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid structures. The Loci-STREAM CFD program with the Volume of Fluid Method module for tracking and locating the water-air fluid interface was used to conduct the simulations. The CFD simulations were validated with the test data and new empirical models for predicting damping and frequency of Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid structures were generated.

  7. Parallel grid population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  8. Smart grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Sanjay; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Kloza, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This book on smart grid security is meant for a broad audience from managers to technical experts. It highlights security challenges that are faced in the smart grid as we widely deploy it across the landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the smart grid and then discusses some of the reported attacks on the grid. It covers network threats, cyber physical threats, smart metering threats, as well as privacy issues in the smart grid. Along with the threats the book discusses the means to improve smart grid security and the standards that are emerging in the field. The second part of the b

  9. Compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  10. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2010-01-01

    This book is an introduction to structured and unstructured grid methods in scientific computing, addressing graduate students, scientists as well as practitioners. Basic local and integral grid quality measures are formulated and new approaches to mesh generation are reviewed. In addition to the content of the successful first edition, a more detailed and practice oriented description of monitor metrics in Beltrami and diffusion equations is given for generating adaptive numerical grids. Also, new techniques developed by the author are presented, in particular a technique based on the inverted form of Beltrami’s partial differential equations with respect to control metrics. This technique allows the generation of adaptive grids for a wide variety of computational physics problems, including grid clustering to given function values and gradients, grid alignment with given vector fields, and combinations thereof. Applications of geometric methods to the analysis of numerical grid behavior as well as grid ge...

  11. Cairo city air quality research initiative part-i: A meteorological modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-AAl, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The modified meteorological model Hotmac (Higher order turbulence model for atmospheric circulation) is a three-dimensional and finite grid model developed primarily for simospheric motions and based on solving the conservation equations of mass momentum, energy and turbulent kinetic energy. The model is used for studying air quality of cairo cty and its surrounding to treat a domain that includes an urbanized area for understanding problems of air pollution. The acquired terrain (elevation) data for Egypt was obtained. The local and upper level geostrophic data were provided by rawinsonde of wind speed and direction, temperature,relative humidity, water vapour, and pressure The potential temperature was obtained by a computer program. The meteorological data was obtained for helwan site, about 20 kilometer south of cairo city. Three mested grids were used, with grids resolutions of 2 6 and 18 kilometers to cover a domain of approximately 360 km that extended from the red Sea to the mediterranean Sea

  12. Chimera Grid Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.

  13. Bayesian grid matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-01-01

    A method for locating distorted grid structures in images is presented. The method is based on the theories of template matching and Bayesian image restoration. The grid is modeled as a deformable template. Prior knowledge of the grid is described through a Markov random field (MRF) model which r...

  14. Smart grid in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...

  15. Effects of fractal grid on emissions in burner combustion by using fuel-water-air premix injector derived from biodiesel crude palm oil (CPO base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Mirnah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative fuel is attracted good attention from worldwide especially for renewable and prevention energy such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is one of the hydrocarbon fuels and it has potential for external combustion. As one of the different solutions to these problems, rapid mixing of biodiesel-water-air technique is one of the most significant approaches to improve the combustion and reduce the emissions. The gas emission can be reduced by two methods. First is by improving an injector with fractal and the other is by using a biodiesel-water mixture as an alternative fuel. Mixing of water with fuel in the combustion process is a low cost and effective way. This research used biodiesel Crude Palm Oil (CPO as fuels in which blended with diesel. This study investigated the effects of water content and equivalence ratio on emissions with the rapid mixing injector. Fuels used are diesel, CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 and the exhausts gaseous tested are CO, CO2, HC and NOX. The gas emissions processes are tested by using the gas analyzer. In this research, water premix of percentage up to 15vol% and blending biodiesel ratio was varied from 5vom% - 15vol%. The result shows that increasing of water content will effected decrement of CO, CO2 and HC emissions but increasing the NOX emissions.

  16. Multi-scale modeling of urban air pollution: development and application of a Street-in-Grid model (v1.0) by coupling MUNICH (v1.0) and Polair3D (v1.8.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngseob; Wu, You; Seigneur, Christian; Roustan, Yelva

    2018-02-01

    A new multi-scale model of urban air pollution is presented. This model combines a chemistry-transport model (CTM) that includes a comprehensive treatment of atmospheric chemistry and transport on spatial scales down to 1 km and a street-network model that describes the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants in an urban street network. The street-network model is the Model of Urban Network of Intersecting Canyons and Highways (MUNICH), which consists of two main components: a street-canyon component and a street-intersection component. MUNICH is coupled to the Polair3D CTM of the Polyphemus air quality modeling platform to constitute the Street-in-Grid (SinG) model. MUNICH is used to simulate the concentrations of the chemical species in the urban canopy, which is located in the lowest layer of Polair3D, and the simulation of pollutant concentrations above rooftops is performed with Polair3D. Interactions between MUNICH and Polair3D occur at roof level and depend on a vertical mass transfer coefficient that is a function of atmospheric turbulence. SinG is used to simulate the concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3) in a Paris suburb. Simulated concentrations are compared to NOx concentrations measured at two monitoring stations within a street canyon. SinG shows better performance than MUNICH for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. However, both SinG and MUNICH underestimate NOx. For the case study considered, the model performance for NOx concentrations is not sensitive to using a complex chemistry model in MUNICH and the Leighton NO-NO2-O3 set of reactions is sufficient.

  17. Multi-scale modeling of urban air pollution: development and application of a Street-in-Grid model (v1.0 by coupling MUNICH (v1.0 and Polair3D (v1.8.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A new multi-scale model of urban air pollution is presented. This model combines a chemistry–transport model (CTM that includes a comprehensive treatment of atmospheric chemistry and transport on spatial scales down to 1 km and a street-network model that describes the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants in an urban street network. The street-network model is the Model of Urban Network of Intersecting Canyons and Highways (MUNICH, which consists of two main components: a street-canyon component and a street-intersection component. MUNICH is coupled to the Polair3D CTM of the Polyphemus air quality modeling platform to constitute the Street-in-Grid (SinG model. MUNICH is used to simulate the concentrations of the chemical species in the urban canopy, which is located in the lowest layer of Polair3D, and the simulation of pollutant concentrations above rooftops is performed with Polair3D. Interactions between MUNICH and Polair3D occur at roof level and depend on a vertical mass transfer coefficient that is a function of atmospheric turbulence. SinG is used to simulate the concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx and ozone (O3 in a Paris suburb. Simulated concentrations are compared to NOx concentrations measured at two monitoring stations within a street canyon. SinG shows better performance than MUNICH for nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations. However, both SinG and MUNICH underestimate NOx. For the case study considered, the model performance for NOx concentrations is not sensitive to using a complex chemistry model in MUNICH and the Leighton NO–NO2–O3 set of reactions is sufficient.

  18. Fungi occurring on forests injured by air pollutants in the Upper Silesia and Cracow industrial regions. Pt. 10. Mycoflora of dying young trees of Alnus incana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanski, S.; Kowalski, T.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a 10-year study on the mortality of Alnus incana in the Upper Silesia industrial region (Poland) are presented in this paper. Fungi which infected the trees at different stages of the disease were identified. The most common were: Cryptosphora suffusa, Hypoxylon fuscum, Peniophora cinerea, P. erikssonii, Pezicula cinnamomea, Tymipanis alnea, and Valsa diatrypa.

  19. Grid Architecture 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  20. Smart grid technologies in local electric grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhniuk, Petro D.; Pijarski, Paweł; Buslavets, Olga A.

    2017-08-01

    The research is devoted to the creation of favorable conditions for the integration of renewable sources of energy into electric grids, which were designed to be supplied from centralized generation at large electric power stations. Development of distributed generation in electric grids influences the conditions of their operation - conflict of interests arises. The possibility of optimal functioning of electric grids and renewable sources of energy, when complex criterion of the optimality is balance reliability of electric energy in local electric system and minimum losses of electric energy in it. Multilevel automated system for power flows control in electric grids by means of change of distributed generation of power is developed. Optimization of power flows is performed by local systems of automatic control of small hydropower stations and, if possible, solar power plants.

  1. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Hansen, A.D.; Sørensen, P.

    loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads......The present report is a part of the research project "Grid fault and design basis for wind turbine" supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...

  2. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads......The present report is a part of the research project ''Grid fault and designbasis for wind turbine'' supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...

  3. Smart grid security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuellar, Jorge (ed.) [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology

    2013-11-01

    The engineering, deployment and security of the future smart grid will be an enormous project requiring the consensus of many stakeholders with different views on the security and privacy requirements, not to mention methods and solutions. The fragmentation of research agendas and proposed approaches or solutions for securing the future smart grid becomes apparent observing the results from different projects, standards, committees, etc, in different countries. The different approaches and views of the papers in this collection also witness this fragmentation. This book contains the following papers: 1. IT Security Architecture Approaches for Smart Metering and Smart Grid. 2. Smart Grid Information Exchange - Securing the Smart Grid from the Ground. 3. A Tool Set for the Evaluation of Security and Reliability in Smart Grids. 4. A Holistic View of Security and Privacy Issues in Smart Grids. 5. Hardware Security for Device Authentication in the Smart Grid. 6. Maintaining Privacy in Data Rich Demand Response Applications. 7. Data Protection in a Cloud-Enabled Smart Grid. 8. Formal Analysis of a Privacy-Preserving Billing Protocol. 9. Privacy in Smart Metering Ecosystems. 10. Energy rate at home Leveraging ZigBee to Enable Smart Grid in Residential Environment.

  4. LHC computing grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaes, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Full text: We give an overview of the grid computing initiatives in the Americas. High-Energy Physics has played a very important role in the development of grid computing in the world and in Latin America it has not been different. Lately, the grid concept has expanded its reach across all branches of e-Science, and we have witnessed the birth of the first nationwide infrastructures and its use in the private sector. (author)

  5. Urban micro-grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Maeva; Salmon, Martin; El Fadili, Safae; Payen, Luc; Kerlero, Guillaume; Banner, Arnaud; Ehinger, Andreas; Illouz, Sebastien; Picot, Roland; Jolivet, Veronique; Michon Savarit, Jeanne; Strang, Karl Axel

    2017-02-01

    ENEA Consulting published the results of a study on urban micro-grids conducted in partnership with the Group ADP, the Group Caisse des Depots, ENEDIS, Omexom, Total and the Tuck Foundation. This study offers a vision of the definition of an urban micro-grid, the value brought by a micro-grid in different contexts based on real case studies, and the upcoming challenges that micro-grid stakeholders will face (regulation, business models, technology). The electric production and distribution system, as the backbone of an increasingly urbanized and energy dependent society, is urged to shift towards a more resilient, efficient and environment-friendly infrastructure. Decentralisation of electricity production into densely populated areas is a promising opportunity to achieve this transition. A micro-grid enhances local production through clustering electricity producers and consumers within a delimited electricity network; it has the ability to disconnect from the main grid for a limited period of time, offering an energy security service to its customers during grid outages for example. However: The islanding capability is an inherent feature of the micro-grid concept that leads to a significant premium on electricity cost, especially in a system highly reliant on intermittent electricity production. In this case, a smart grid, with local energy production and no islanding capability, can be customized to meet relevant sustainability and cost savings goals at lower costs For industrials, urban micro-grids can be economically profitable in presence of high share of reliable energy production and thermal energy demand micro-grids face strong regulatory challenges that should be overcome for further development Whether islanding is or is not implemented into the system, end-user demand for a greener, more local, cheaper and more reliable energy, as well as additional services to the grid, are strong drivers for local production and consumption. In some specific cases

  6. High density grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Aina E.; Baxter, Elizabeth L.

    2018-01-16

    An X-ray data collection grid device is provided that includes a magnetic base that is compatible with robotic sample mounting systems used at synchrotron beamlines, a grid element fixedly attached to the magnetic base, where the grid element includes at least one sealable sample window disposed through a planar synchrotron-compatible material, where the planar synchrotron-compatible material includes at least one automated X-ray positioning and fluid handling robot fiducial mark.

  7. Micro grids toward the smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, J.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide electrical grids are expecting to become smarter in the near future, with interest in Microgrids likely to grow. A microgrid can be defined as a part of the grid with elements of prime energy movers, power electronics converters, distributed energy storage systems and local loads, that can operate autonomously but also interacting with main grid. Thus, the ability of intelligent Microgrids to operate in island mode or connected to the grid will be a keypoint to cope with new functionalities and the integration of renewable energy resources. The functionalities expected for these small grids are: black start operation, frequency and voltage stability, active and reactive power flow control, active power filter capabilities, and storage energy management. In this presentation, a review of the main concepts related to flexible Microgrids will be introduced, with examples of real Microgrids. AC and DC Microgrids to integrate renewable and distributed energy resources will also be presented, as well as distributed energy storage systems, and standardization issues of these Microgrids. Finally, Microgrid hierarchical control will be analyzed looking at three different levels: i) a primary control based on the droop method, including an output impedance virtual loop; ii) a secondary control, which enables restoring any deviations produced by the primary control; and iii) a tertiary control to manage the power flow between the microgrid and the external electrical distribution system.

  8. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  9. Nuclear reactor seismic fuel assembly grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The strength of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly is enhanced by increasing the crush strength of the zircaloy spacer grids which locate and support the fuel elements in the fuel assembly. Increased resistance to deformation as a result of laterally directed forces is achieved by increasing the section modulus of the perimeter strip through bending the upper and lower edges thereof inwardly. The perimeter strip is further rigidized by forming, in the central portion thereof, dimples which extend inwardly with respect to the fuel assembly. The integrity of the spacer grid may also be enhanced by providing back-up arches for some or all of the integral fuel element locating springs and the strength of the fuel assembly may be further enhanced by providing, intermediate its ends, a steel seismic grid. 13 claims, 6 figures

  10. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  11. Security for grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  12. The LHCb Grid Simulation

    CERN Multimedia

    Baranov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb Grid access if based on the LHCbDirac system. It provides access to data and computational resources to researchers with different geographical locations. The Grid has a hierarchical topology with multiple sites distributed over the world. The sites differ from each other by their number of CPUs, amount of disk storage and connection bandwidth. These parameters are essential for the Grid work. Moreover, job scheduling and data distribution strategy have a great impact on the grid performance. However, it is hard to choose an appropriate algorithm and strategies as they need a lot of time to be tested on the real grid. In this study, we describe the LHCb Grid simulator. The simulator reproduces the LHCb Grid structure with its sites and their number of CPUs, amount of disk storage and bandwidth connection. We demonstrate how well the simulator reproduces the grid work, show its advantages and limitations. We show how well the simulator reproduces job scheduling and network anomalies, consider methods ...

  13. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs. intro...

  14. Planning in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The electricity supply chain is changing, due to increasing awareness for sustainability and an improved energy efficiency. The traditional infrastructure where demand is supplied by centralized generation is subject to a transition towards a Smart Grid. In this Smart Grid, sustainable generation

  15. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Global Amphibians Presence Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Amphibians Presence Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 is a reclassified version of the original grids of amphibian species distribution...

  16. Compressed Air Energy Storage in Offshore Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Crotogino, Fritz; Donadei, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    management framework is used as the basis for identifying key challenges and opportunities to enhance the integration of climate change adaptation in energy planning and decision-making. Given its importance for raising awareness and for stimulating action by planners and decision-makers, emphasis is placed......Energy systems are significantly vulnerable to current climate variability and extreme events. As climate change becomes more pronounced, the risks and vulnerabilities will be exacerbated. To date, energy sector adaptation issues have received very limited attention. In this paper, a climate risk...... barriers to integration of climate risks and adaptive responses in energy planning and decision making. Both detailed assessments of the costs and benefits of integrating adaptation measures and rougher ‘order of magnitude’ estimates would enhance awareness raising and momentum for action....

  17. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2017-01-01

    This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.

  18. The GRID seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    The Grid infrastructure is a key part of the computing environment for the simulation, processing and analysis of the data of the LHC experiments. These experiments depend on the availability of a worldwide Grid infrastructure in several aspects of their computing model. The Grid middleware will hide much of the complexity of this environment to the user, organizing all the resources in a coherent virtual computer center. The general description of the elements of the Grid, their interconnections and their use by the experiments will be exposed in this talk. The computational and storage capability of the Grid is attracting other research communities beyond the high energy physics. Examples of these applications will be also exposed during the presentation.

  19. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  20. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals. (paper)

  1. The open science grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, R.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. LHC Tier-1 and Tier-2 laboratories and universities are developing production Grids to support LHC applications running across a worldwide Grid computing system. Together with partners in computer science, physics grid projects and active experiments, we will build a common national production grid infrastructure which is open in its architecture, implementation and use. The Open Science Grid (OSG) model builds upon the successful approach of last year's joint Grid2003 project. The Grid3 shared infrastructure has for over eight months provided significant computational resources and throughput to a range of applications, including ATLAS and CMS data challenges, SDSS, LIGO, and biology analyses, and computer science demonstrators and experiments. To move towards LHC-scale data management, access and analysis capabilities, we must increase the scale, services, and sustainability of the current infrastructure by an order of magnitude or more. Thus, we must achieve a significant upgrade in its functionalities and technologies. The initial OSG partners will build upon a fully usable, sustainable and robust grid. Initial partners include the US LHC collaborations, DOE and NSF Laboratories and Universities and Trillium Grid projects. The approach is to federate with other application communities in the U.S. to build a shared infrastructure open to other sciences and capable of being modified and improved to respond to needs of other applications, including CDF, D0, BaBar, and RHIC experiments. We describe the application-driven, engineered services of the OSG, short term plans and status, and the roadmap for a consortium, its partnerships and national focus

  2. Desktop grid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Desktop Grid Computing presents common techniques used in numerous models, algorithms, and tools developed during the last decade to implement desktop grid computing. These techniques enable the solution of many important sub-problems for middleware design, including scheduling, data management, security, load balancing, result certification, and fault tolerance. The book's first part covers the initial ideas and basic concepts of desktop grid computing. The second part explores challenging current and future problems. Each chapter presents the sub-problems, discusses theoretical and practical

  3. Transmission grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Haarla, Liisa; Hirvonen, Ritva; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of power system security and reliability, ""Transmission Grid Security"" proposes a systematic and probabilistic approach for transmission grid security analysis. The analysis presented uses probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and takes into account the power system dynamics after severe faults. In the method shown in this book the power system states (stable, not stable, system breakdown, etc.) are connected with the substation reliability model. In this way it is possible to: estimate the system-wide consequences of grid faults; identify a chain of eve

  4. Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konagaya Akihiko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Results This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Conclusion Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community.

  5. Lincoln Laboratory Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...

  6. CMS computing on grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Wen; Sun Gongxing

    2007-01-01

    CMS has adopted a distributed system of services which implement CMS application view on top of Grid services. An overview of CMS services will be covered. Emphasis is on CMS data management and workload Management. (authors)

  7. Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The development of Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids -- which the IEA defines as an electricity network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end users -- is essential if the global community is to achieve shared goals for energy security, economic development and climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, existing misunderstandings of exactly what smart grids are and the physical and institutional complexity of electricity systems make it difficult to implement smart grids on the scale that is needed. This roadmap sets out specific steps needed over the coming years to achieve milestones that will allow smart grids to deliver a clean energy future.

  8. Meet the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Yurkewicz, Katie

    2005-01-01

    Today's cutting-edge scientific projects are larger, more complex, and more expensive than ever. Grid computing provides the resources that allow researchers to share knowledge, data, and computer processing power across boundaries

  9. World Wide Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Grätzel von Grätz, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    Whether for genetic risk analysis or 3D-rekonstruktion of the cerebral vessels: the modern medicine requires more computing power. With a grid infrastructure, this one can be if necessary called by the network. (4 pages)

  10. Spacer grid corner gusset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    There is provided a spacer grid for a bundle of longitudinally extending rods in spaced generally parallel relationship comprising spacing means for holding the rods in spaced generally parallel relationship; the spacing means includes at least one exterior grid strip circumscribing the bundle of rods along the periphery thereof; with at least one exterior grid strip having a first edge defining the boundary of the strip in one longitudinal direction and a second edge defining the boundary of the strip in the other longitudinal direction; with at least one exterior grid strip having at least one band formed therein parallel to the longitudinal direction; a plurality of corner gussets truncating each of a plurality of corners formed by at least one band and the first edge and the second edge

  11. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in

  12. US National Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  13. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption

  14. Grid Computing Education Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Crumb

    2008-01-15

    The GGF Student Scholar program enabled GGF the opportunity to bring over sixty qualified graduate and under-graduate students with interests in grid technologies to its three annual events over the three-year program.

  15. Reporting emissions on EMEP grid. Methods and principles; Rapportering af luftemissioner paa grid. Metoder og principper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranekjaer Jensen, M.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Winther, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Viuf OErby, P.; Boll Illerup, J.

    2008-03-15

    This report explains methods for reporting emissions on EMEP grid with a resolution of 50km x 50km for the reporting years 1990, 1995, 2000 an 2005. The applied and geographical distributed emission data on grid represents the latest delivery (per March 2007) to UNECE LRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution). Thus data represents the latest recalculation of historical values. The reporting of emissions on EMEP grid with a resolution of 50km x 50km is a part of the Danish submission under the above mentioned convention (UNECE LRTAP). Emission inventories on grid are reported every fifth year and involves all sectors under UNECE LRTAP. The reporting of emissions on grid includes 14 mandatory emission components, which are: SO{sub 2}, NOx NH{sub 3}, NMVOC, CO, TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5}, Pb, Cd, Hg, Dioxin, PAH and HCB. It is furthermore possible to make additional reporting for a range of components. The report summarizes the most crucial principles and considerations according to work with distributing air emissions on grid within predefined categories for gridding defined by the United Nations (UN 2003). For each of the reported categories, the report gives a detailed explanation of the specific level for distributing emissions spatially. For most reporting categories the process of distributing emissions has been carried out at the highly detailed SNAP level, whereas for others it has been a necessity to make aggregates of several SNAP categories for spatial distribution. The report present final maps for selected air pollutants (SOx, NOx and NH{sub 3}) and discuss shortly possible reasons for variations within time and space. Based on current experience, the report finally gives some recommendations for improving future reporting of gridded emission data. The recommendations pin point, that the EMEP program should provide harmonized and well-documented basic spatial data sets for gridding, to encourage each

  16. Beyond grid security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeft, B; Epting, U; Koenig, T

    2008-01-01

    While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls

  17. Near-Body Grid Adaption for Overset Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    A solution adaption capability for curvilinear near-body grids has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid computational fluid dynamics code. The approach follows closely that used for the Cartesian off-body grids, but inserts refined grids in the computational space of original near-body grids. Refined curvilinear grids are generated using parametric cubic interpolation, with one-sided biasing based on curvature and stretching ratio of the original grid. Sensor functions, grid marking, and solution interpolation tasks are implemented in the same fashion as for off-body grids. A goal-oriented procedure, based on largest error first, is included for controlling growth rate and maximum size of the adapted grid system. The adaption process is almost entirely parallelized using MPI, resulting in a capability suitable for viscous, moving body simulations. Two- and three-dimensional examples are presented.

  18. Wind energy in offshore grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, S.T.

    2013-01-15

    renewable electricity generation targets. In the near future, tendering of joint projects is a feasible solution. Case studies on the Kriegers Flak offshore hub in the Baltic Sea and on the question of offshore storage, applying the WILMAR Joint Market Model, complement these analyses. The study on Kriegers Flak shows that embedded wind generation approximately halves congestion rents. While building and operating an adiabatic cavern air energy storage appears technically feasible, several reasons are explained why this is inferior to an onshore solution from an electricity markets perspective. The measures addressed until now, transmission and storage, are complemented by an analysis of an alternative: curtailment of renewable generation. The acceptance of this measure will play an increasing role for a cost-efficient integration of renewables. An intuitive example is that it is not efficient to dimension offshore connections at the nameplate capacity of the wind park, but that accepting curtailment should be part of the optimisation. Combining results from the different papers leads to the conclusion that an integrated operation of meshed offshore grids and generation seems best. Strategic behaviour between actors is thus avoided, while stable investment conditions can be supported. A feed-in tariff or a combination of tendering and feed-in tariffs could be a suitable support mechanism, allowing a co-operation of generation and transmission. The regulatory and policy framework should be adapted to meet the characteristics of offshore grids. Doing so can foster the cost-efficient deployment of both transmission and generation. (Author)

  19. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  20. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxell, Wade [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3

  1. Surface Wave Detection and Measurement Using a One Degree Global Dispersion Grid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Jeffry L

    2006-01-01

    .... The models consist of approximately 550 distinct crust and upper mantle structures, with surface layering and/or ocean depths that vary on a one-degree grid to create a total of 64,800 earth models...

  2. Importance of Grid Center Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaogullari, O.; Usul, N.

    2012-12-01

    In Digital Elevation Modeling, grid size is accepted to be the most important parameter. Despite the point density and/or scale of the source data, it is freely decided by the user. Most of the time, arrangement of the grid centers are ignored, even most GIS packages omit the choice of grid center coordinate selection. In our study; importance of the arrangement of grid centers is investigated. Using the analogy between "Raster Grid DEM" and "Bitmap Image", importance of placement of grid centers in DEMs are measured. The study has been conducted on four different grid DEMs obtained from a half ellipsoid. These grid DEMs are obtained in such a way that they are half grid size apart from each other. Resulting grid DEMs are investigated through similarity measures. Image processing scientists use different measures to investigate the dis/similarity between the images and the amount of different information they carry. Grid DEMs are projected to a finer grid in order to co-center. Similarity measures are then applied to each grid DEM pairs. These similarity measures are adapted to DEM with band reduction and real number operation. One of the measures gives function graph and the others give measure matrices. Application of similarity measures to six grid DEM pairs shows interesting results. These four different grid DEMs are created with the same method for the same area, surprisingly; thirteen out of 14 measures state that, the half grid size apart grid DEMs are different from each other. The results indicated that although grid DEMs carry mutual information, they have also additional individual information. In other words, half grid size apart constructed grid DEMs have non-redundant information.; Joint Probability Distributions Function Graphs

  3. GridCom, Grid Commander: graphical interface for Grid jobs and data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaktionov, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    GridCom - the software package for maintenance of automation of access to means of distributed system Grid (jobs and data). The client part, executed in the form of Java-applets, realises the Web-interface access to Grid through standard browsers. The executive part Lexor (LCG Executor) is started by the user in UI (User Interface) machine providing performance of Grid operations

  4. Grid and Entrepreneurship Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CERN openlab is organising a special workshop about Grid opportunities for entrepreneurship. This one-day event will provide an overview of what is involved in spin-off technology, with a special reference to the context of computing and data Grids. Lectures by experienced entrepreneurs will introduce the key concepts of entrepreneurship and review, in particular, the industrial potential of EGEE (the EU co-funded Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project, led by CERN). Case studies will be given by CEOs of European start-ups already active in the Grid and computing cluster area, and regional experts will provide an overview of efforts in several European regions to stimulate entrepreneurship. This workshop is designed to encourage students and researchers involved or interested in Grid technology to consider the entrepreneurial opportunities that this technology may create in the coming years. This workshop is organized as part of the CERN openlab student programme, which is co-sponsored by CERN, HP, ...

  5. For smart electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Leger, Sebastien; Bressand, Florian; Perez, Yannick; Bacha, Seddik; Laurent, Daniel; Perrin, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The authors identify and discuss the main challenges faced by the French electric grid: the management of electricity demand and the needed improvement of energy efficiency, the evolution of consumer's state of mind, and the integration of new production capacities. They notably outline that France have been living until recently with an electricity abundance, but now faces the highest consumption peaks in Europe, and is therefore facing higher risks of power cuts. They also notice that the French energy mix is slowly evolving, and outline the problems raised by the fact that renewable energies which are to be developed, are decentralised and intermittent. They propose an overview of present developments of smart grids, and outline their innovative characteristics, challenges raised by their development and compare international examples. They show that smart grids enable a better adapted supply and decentralisation. A set of proposals is formulated about how to finance and to organise the reconfiguration of electric grids, how to increase consumer's responsibility for peak management and demand management, how to create the conditions of emergence of a European market of smart grids, and how to support self-consumption and the building-up of an energy storage sector

  6. Future electrical distribution grids: Smart Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The new energy paradigm faced by distribution network represents a real scientific challenge. Thus, national and EU objectives in terms of environment and energy efficiency with resulted regulatory incentives for renewable energies, the deployment of smart meters and the need to respond to changing needs including new uses related to electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles introduce more complexity and favour the evolution towards a smarter grid. The economic interest group in Grenoble IDEA in connection with the power laboratory G2ELab at Grenoble Institute of technology, EDF and Schneider Electric are conducting research on the electrical distribution of the future in presence of distributed generation for ten years.Thus, several innovations emerged in terms of flexibility and intelligence of the distribution network. One can notice the intelligence solutions for voltage control, the tools of network optimization, the self-healing techniques, the innovative strategies for connecting distributed and intermittent generation or load control possibilities for the distributor. All these innovations are firmly in the context of intelligent networks of tomorrow 'Smart Grids'. (authors)

  7. Grid sleeve bulge tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.D.; Vaill, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved grid sleeve bulge tool is designed for securing control rod guide tubes to sleeves brazed in a fuel assembly grid. The tool includes a cylinder having an outer diameter less than the internal diameter of the control rod guide tubes. The walls of the cylinder are cut in an axial direction along its length to provide several flexible tines or ligaments. These tines are similar to a fork except they are spaced in a circumferential direction. The end of each alternate tine is equipped with a semispherical projection which extends radially outwardly from the tine surface. A ram or plunger of generally cylindrical configuration and about the same length as the cylinder is designed to fit in and move axially of the cylinder and thereby force the tined projections outwardly when the ram is pulled into the cylinder. The ram surface includes axially extending grooves and plane surfaces which are complimentary to the inner surfaces formed on the tines on the cylinder. As the cylinder is inserted into a control rod guide tube, and the projections on the cylinder placed in a position just below or above a grid strap, the ram is pulled into the cylinder, thus moving the tines and the projections thereon outwardly into contact with the sleeve, to plastically deform both the sleeve and the control rod guide tube, and thereby form four bulges which extend outwardly from the sleeve surface and beyond the outer periphery of the grid peripheral strap. This process is then repeated at the points above the grid to also provide for outwardly projecting surfaces, the result being that the grid is accurately positioned on and mechanically secured to the control rod guide tubes which extend the length of a fuel assembly

  8. Grids, Clouds and Virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Research into grid computing has been driven by the need to solve large-scale, increasingly complex problems for scientific applications. Yet the applications of grid computing for business and casual users did not begin to emerge until the development of the concept of cloud computing, fueled by advances in virtualization techniques, coupled with the increased availability of ever-greater Internet bandwidth. The appeal of this new paradigm is mainly based on its simplicity, and the affordable price for seamless access to both computational and storage resources. This timely text/reference int

  9. Smart Grid Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondossola, Giovanna; Terruggia, Roberta; Bessler, Sandford

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to address the evolution of distribution grid architectures following the widespread introduction of renewable energy sources. The increasing connection of distributed resources has a strong impact on the topology and the control functionality of the current distribution...... grids requiring the development of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions with various degrees of adaptation of the monitoring, communication and control technologies. The costs of ICT based solutions need however to be taken into account, hence it is desirable to work...

  10. Instant jqGrid

    CERN Document Server

    Manricks, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A step-by-step, practical Starter book, Instant jqGrid embraces you while you take your first steps, and introduces you to the content in an easy-to-follow order.This book is aimed at people who have some knowledge of HTML and JavaScript. Knowledge of PHP and SQL would also prove to be beneficial. No prior knowledge of jqGrid is expected.

  11. Smart Grid, Smart Europe

    OpenAIRE

    VITIELLO SILVIA; FULLI Gianluca; MENGOLINI Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Le smart grid, o reti elettriche intelligenti, aprono la strada a nuove applicazioni con conseguenze di vasta portata per l’intero sistema elettrico, tra le quali la principale è la capacità di integrare nella rete esistente più fonti di energia rinnovabili (FER), veicoli elettrici e fonti di generazione distribuita. Le smart grid inoltre garantiscono una più efficiente ed affidabile risposta alla domanda di energia, sia da un punto di vista tecnico, permettendo un monitoraggio e un controll...

  12. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  13. Preface: Workshop on Off-Grid Technology Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    Off-grid houses are dwellings that do not rely on water supply, sewer, or electrical power grid, and are able to operate independently of all public utility services. These houses are ideal for remote communities or population suffering natural or human-made disasters. Our aim is to develop compact and affordable off-grid technologies by integrating high-end nano-engineering with systems that imitates natural biological processes. The key areas of focus in the workshop were: solar energy harvesting using nanotechnology, wind energy harvesting from vertical-axis wind turbines, supercapacitors energy storage systems, treatment of greywater, and green roofs to achieve air comfort.

  14. Grid computing the European Data Grid Project

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, B; Gagliardi, F; Carminati, F

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project is the development of a novel environment to support globally distributed scientific exploration involving multi- PetaByte datasets. The project will devise and develop middleware solutions and testbeds capable of scaling to handle many PetaBytes of distributed data, tens of thousands of resources (processors, disks, etc.), and thousands of simultaneous users. The scale of the problem and the distribution of the resources and user community preclude straightforward replication of the data at different sites, while the aim of providing a general purpose application environment precludes distributing the data using static policies. We will construct this environment by combining and extending newly emerging "Grid" technologies to manage large distributed datasets in addition to computational elements. A consequence of this project will be the emergence of fundamental new modes of scientific exploration, as access to fundamental scientific data is no longer constrained to the producer of...

  15. Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Bockelman, Brian; Swanson, David

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  16. Enabling campus grids with open science grid technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Derek [Nebraska U.; Bockelman, Brian [Nebraska U.; Swanson, David [Nebraska U.; Fraser, Dan [Argonne; Pordes, Ruth [Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  17. Assessment of grid optimisation measures for the German transmission grid using open source grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böing, F.; Murmann, A.; Pellinger, C.; Bruckmeier, A.; Kern, T.; Mongin, T.

    2018-02-01

    The expansion of capacities in the German transmission grid is a necessity for further integration of renewable energy sources into the electricity sector. In this paper, the grid optimisation measures ‘Overhead Line Monitoring’, ‘Power-to-Heat’ and ‘Demand Response in the Industry’ are evaluated and compared against conventional grid expansion for the year 2030. Initially, the methodical approach of the simulation model is presented and detailed descriptions of the grid model and the used grid data, which partly originates from open-source platforms, are provided. Further, this paper explains how ‘Curtailment’ and ‘Redispatch’ can be reduced by implementing grid optimisation measures and how the depreciation of economic costs can be determined considering construction costs. The developed simulations show that the conventional grid expansion is more efficient and implies more grid relieving effects than the evaluated grid optimisation measures.

  18. Utah Bouguer Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Utah. Number of columns is 196 and number of rows is 245. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  19. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  20. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  1. Multi-Grid Lanczos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. A.; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    We present a Lanczos algorithm utilizing multiple grids that reduces the memory requirements both on disk and in working memory by one order of magnitude for RBC/UKQCD's 48I and 64I ensembles at the physical pion mass. The precision of the resulting eigenvectors is on par with exact deflation.

  2. Multi-Grid Lanczos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a Lanczos algorithm utilizing multiple grids that reduces the memory requirements both on disk and in working memory by one order of magnitude for RBC/UKQCD’s 48I and 64I ensembles at the physical pion mass. The precision of the resulting eigenvectors is on par with exact deflation.

  3. Nevada Isostatic Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Isostatic anomaly grid for the state of Nevada. Number of columns is 269 and number of rows is 394. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  4. Steering the Smart Grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    Increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect lead to more awareness of energy efficiency of electricity supply. During the last years, a lot of technologies and optimization methodologies were developed to increase the efficiency, maintain the grid stability and support large scale

  5. Cutback for grid operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meulmeester, P.; De Laat, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa), in which the Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) is included plan to decrease the capital cost compensation (or weighted average cost of capital or WACC) for grid operators. In this article it is explained how the compensation is calculated, why this measure will be taken and what the effects of this cutback are [nl

  6. Autonomous Energy Grids: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    With much higher levels of distributed energy resources - variable generation, energy storage, and controllable loads just to mention a few - being deployed into power systems, the data deluge from pervasive metering of energy grids, and the shaping of multi-level ancillary-service markets, current frameworks to monitoring, controlling, and optimizing large-scale energy systems are becoming increasingly inadequate. This position paper outlines the concept of 'Autonomous Energy Grids' (AEGs) - systems that are supported by a scalable, reconfigurable, and self-organizing information and control infrastructure, can be extremely secure and resilient (self-healing), and self-optimize themselves in real-time for economic and reliable performance while systematically integrating energy in all forms. AEGs rely on scalable, self-configuring cellular building blocks that ensure that each 'cell' can self-optimize when isolated from a larger grid as well as partaking in the optimal operation of a larger grid when interconnected. To realize this vision, this paper describes the concepts and key research directions in the broad domains of optimization theory, control theory, big-data analytics, and complex system modeling that will be necessary to realize the AEG vision.

  7. Bolivian Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the country of Bolivia.Number of columns is 550 and number of rows is 900. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  8. Smart grid voor comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Vissers, D.R.; Maaijen, H.N.; Kling, W.L.; Velden, van der J.A.J.; Larsen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Er vindt onderzoek plaats naar een nieuwe regelstrategie gebaseerd op de toepassing van een draadloos sensor netwerk dat is gekoppeld aan het smart grid. Doel van deze regelstrategie is om op gebruikersniveau energie te kunnen besparen met behoud of zelfs verbetering van het individueel comfort. Er

  9. Kids Enjoy Grids

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    I want to come back and work here when I'm older,' was the spontaneous reaction of one of the children invited to CERN by the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project for a 'Grids for Kids' day at the end of January. The EGEE project is led by CERN, and the EGEE gender action team organized the day to introduce children to grid technology at an early age. The school group included both boys and girls, aged 9 to 11. All of the presenters were women. 'In general, before this visit, the children thought that scientists always wore white coats and were usually male, with wild Einstein-like hair,' said Jackie Beaver, the class's teacher at the Institut International de Lancy, a school near Geneva. 'They were surprised and pleased to see that women became scientists, and that scientists were quite 'normal'.' The half-day event included presentations about why Grids are needed, a visit of the computer centre, some online games, and plenty of time for questions. In the end, everyone agreed that it was a big success a...

  10. Reconsidering solar grid parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Grid parity-reducing the cost of solar energy to be competitive with conventional grid-supplied electricity-has long been hailed as the tipping point for solar dominance in the energy mix. Such expectations are likely to be overly optimistic. A realistic examination of grid parity suggests that the cost-effectiveness of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems may be further away than many are hoping for. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness may not guarantee commercial competitiveness. Solar hot water technology is currently far more cost-effective than photovoltaic technology and has already reached grid parity in many places. Nevertheless, the market penetration of solar water heaters remains limited for reasons including unfamiliarity with the technologies and high upfront costs. These same barriers will likely hinder the adoption of distributed solar photovoltaic systems as well. The rapid growth in PV deployment in recent years is largely policy-driven and such rapid growth would not be sustainable unless governments continue to expand financial incentives and policy mandates, as well as address regulatory and market barriers.

  11. Maine Bouguer Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Maine. Number of columns is 197 and number of rows is 292. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  12. Minnesota Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Minnesota. Number of columns is 404 and number of rows is 463. The order of the data is from the lower left to...

  13. Molecular Grid Membranes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michl, Josef; Magnera, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    ...) porphyrin triply linked in the meso-meso, and both beta-beta positions four times by carbon-carbon bonds to each of its neighbors to form porphite sheets a grid-type material that would be an analog of graphene...

  14. The Grid challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    Lundquest, E

    2003-01-01

    At a customer panel discussion during OracleWorld in San Franciso, grid computing was being pushed as the next big thing - even if panellists couldsn't quite agree on what it is, what it will cost or when it will appear (1 page).

  15. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  16. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    OpenAIRE

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption data. Forecast errors are shown to affect worst case behavior in particular, the severity of which depends on the chosen adaptivity strategy and error model.

  17. The surveillance error grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  18. Stress Analysis of Single Spacer Grid Support considering Fuel Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. G.; Jung, D. H.; Kim, J. H. [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, J. K.; Jeon, K. L. [Korea Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear fuel assembly is mainly composed of a top-end piece, a bottom-end piece, lots of fuel rods, and several spacer grids. Among them, the main function of spacer grid is protecting fuel rods from Fluid Induced Vibration (FIV). The cross section of spacer grid assembled by laser welding in upper and lower point. When the fuel rod inserted in spacer gird, spring and dimple and around of welded area got a stresses. The main hypothesis of this analysis is the boundary area of HAZ and base metal can get a lot of damage than other area by FIV. So, design factors of spacer grid mainly considered to preventing the fatigue failure in HAZ and spring and dimple of spacer grid. From previous researching, the environment in reactor verified. Pressure and temperature of light water observed 15MPa and 320 .deg. C, and vibration of the fuel rod observed within 0 {approx} 50Hz. In this study, mechanical properties of zirconium alloy that extracted from the test and the spacer grid model which used in the PWR were applied in stress analyzing. General-purpose finite element analysis program was used ANSYS Workbench 12.0.1 version. 3-D CAD program CATIA was used to create spacer grid model

  19. Flames in fractal grid generated turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, K H H; Hampp, F; Lindstedt, R P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Geipel, P, E-mail: p.lindstedt@imperial.ac.uk [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, SE-612 83 Finspong (Sweden)

    2013-12-15

    Twin premixed turbulent opposed jet flames were stabilized for lean mixtures of air with methane and propane in fractal grid generated turbulence. A density segregation method was applied alongside particle image velocimetry to obtain velocity and scalar statistics. It is shown that the current fractal grids increase the turbulence levels by around a factor of 2. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to show that the fractal grids produce slightly larger turbulent structures that decay at a slower rate as compared to conventional perforated plates. Conditional POD (CPOD) was also implemented using the density segregation technique and the results show that CPOD is essential to segregate the relative structures and turbulent kinetic energy distributions in each stream. The Kolmogorov length scales were also estimated providing values {approx}0.1 and {approx}0.5 mm in the reactants and products, respectively. Resolved profiles of flame surface density indicate that a thin flame assumption leading to bimodal statistics is not perfectly valid under the current conditions and it is expected that the data obtained will be of significant value to the development of computational methods that can provide information on the conditional structure of turbulence. It is concluded that the increase in the turbulent Reynolds number is without any negative impact on other parameters and that fractal grids provide a route towards removing the classical problem of a relatively low ratio of turbulent to bulk strain associated with the opposed jet configuration. (paper)

  20. Grid interoperability: the interoperations cookbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, L; Schulz, M [CERN (Switzerland)], E-mail: Laurence.Field@cern.ch, E-mail: Markus.Schulz@cern.ch

    2008-07-01

    Over recent years a number of grid projects have emerged which have built grid infrastructures that are now the computing backbones for various user communities. A significant number of these communities are limited to one grid infrastructure due to the different middleware and procedures used in each grid. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable virtual organizations to access resources independent of the grid project affiliation. This paper gives an overview of grid interoperation and describes the current methods used to bridge the differences between grids. Actual use cases encountered during the last three years are discussed and the most important interfaces required for interoperability are highlighted. A summary of the standardisation efforts in these areas is given and we argue for moving more aggressively towards standards.

  1. Grid interoperability: the interoperations cookbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, L; Schulz, M

    2008-01-01

    Over recent years a number of grid projects have emerged which have built grid infrastructures that are now the computing backbones for various user communities. A significant number of these communities are limited to one grid infrastructure due to the different middleware and procedures used in each grid. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable virtual organizations to access resources independent of the grid project affiliation. This paper gives an overview of grid interoperation and describes the current methods used to bridge the differences between grids. Actual use cases encountered during the last three years are discussed and the most important interfaces required for interoperability are highlighted. A summary of the standardisation efforts in these areas is given and we argue for moving more aggressively towards standards

  2. Allegheny County Map Index Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Map Index Sheets from Block and Lot Grid of Property Assessment and based on aerial photography, showing 1983 datum with solid line and NAD 27 with 5 second grid...

  3. GridCom, Grid Commander: graphical interface for Grid jobs and data management; GridCom, Grid Commander: graficheskij interfejs dlya raboty s zadachami i dannymi v gride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galaktionov, V V

    2011-07-01

    GridCom - the software package for maintenance of automation of access to means of distributed system Grid (jobs and data). The client part, executed in the form of Java-applets, realises the Web-interface access to Grid through standard browsers. The executive part Lexor (LCG Executor) is started by the user in UI (User Interface) machine providing performance of Grid operations

  4. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, O.

    2012-12-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  5. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, O

    2012-01-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  6. Communication technologies in smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of communication technologies in Smart Grid lies in integration of large number of devices into one telecommunication system. This paper provides an overview of the technologies currently in use in electric power grid, that are not necessarily in compliance with the Smart Grid concept. Considering that the Smart Grid is open to the flow of information in all directions, it is necessary to provide reliability, protection and security of information.

  7. Ten Year Analysis of Tropopause-Overshooting Convection Using GridRad Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, John W.; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Homeyer, Cameron R.; Fenske, Tyler M.

    2018-01-01

    Convection that penetrates the tropopause (overshooting convection) rapidly transports air from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere, potentially mixing air between the two layers. This exchange of air can have a substantial impact on the composition, radiation, and chemistry of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). In order to improve our understanding of the role convection plays in the transport of trace gases across the tropopause, this study presents a 10 year analysis of overshooting convection for the eastern two thirds of the contiguous United States for March through August of 2004 to 2013 based on radar observations. Echo top altitudes are estimated at hourly intervals using high-resolution, three-dimensional, gridded, radar reflectivity fields created by merging observations from available radars in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) network. Overshooting convection is identified by comparing echo top altitudes with tropopause altitudes derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. It is found that overshooting convection is most common in the central United States, with a weak secondary maximum along the southeast coast. The maximum number of overshooting events occur consistently between 2200 and 0200 UTC. Most overshooting events occur in May, June, and July when convection is deepest and the tropopause altitude is relatively low. Approximately 45% of the analyzed overshooting events (those with echo tops at least 1 km above the tropopause) have echo tops extending above the 380 K level into the stratospheric overworld.

  8. Grid3: An Application Grid Laboratory for Science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    level services required by the participating experiments. The deployed infrastructure has been operating since November 2003 with 27 sites, a peak of 2800 processors, work loads from 10 different applications exceeding 1300 simultaneous jobs, and data transfers among sites of greater than 2 TB/day. The Grid3 infrastructure was deployed from grid level services provided by groups and applications within the collaboration. The services were organized into four distinct "grid level services" including: Grid3 Packaging, Monitoring and Information systems, User Authentication and the iGOC Grid Operatio...

  9. Grid Integration | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Grid Integration For marine and hydrokinetic technologies to play a larger role in supplying the nation's energy needs, integration into the U.S. power grid is an important challenge to address. Efficient integration of variable power resources like water power is a critical part of the

  10. What is a smart grid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Indian Smart Grid Forum defines a smart grid as "a power system capable of two-way communication between all the entities of the network-generation, transmission, distribution and the consumers". Like most work on smart grids, this view is also mainly technical. This paper aims to progress the

  11. Pyramid solar micro-grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Hsu, Po-Chien; Wang, Yi-Hung; Tang, Tzu-Chiao; Wang, Jia-Wei; Dong, Xin-Hong; Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Li, Kang; Lee, Kung-Yen

    2018-03-01

    A novel pyramid solar micro-grid is proposed in the present study. All the members within the micro-grid can mutually share excess solar PV power each other through a binary-connection hierarchy. The test results of a 2+2 pyramid solar micro-grid consisting of 4 individual solar PV systems for self-consumption are reported.

  12. Scenarios for global emissions from air traffic. The development of regional and gridded (5 degrees x 5 degrees) emissions scenarios for aircraft and for surface sources, based on CPB scenarios and existing emission inventories for aircraft and surface sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier JGJ; LAE

    1995-01-01

    An estimate was made of present global emissions from air traffic using statistical information on fuel consumption, aircraft types and applying emission factors for various compounds. To generate scenarios for future emissions from air traffic, assumptions were used regarding the development of the

  13. Progress Towards AIRS Science Team Version-7 at SRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena; Kouvaris, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing level-3 Climate Data Records (CDRs) from AIRS that have been proven useful to scientists in understanding climate processes. CDRs are gridded level-3 products which include all cases passing AIRS Climate QC. SRT has made significant further improvements to AIRS Version-6. At the last Science Team Meeting, we described results using SRT AIRS Version-6.22. SRT Version-6.22 is now an official build at JPL called 6.2.4. Version-6.22 results are significantly improved compared to Version-6, especially with regard to water vapor and ozone profiles. We have adapted AIRS Version-6.22 to run with CrIS/ATMS, at the Sounder SIPS which processed CrIS/ATMS data for August 2014. JPL AIRS Version-6.22 uses the Version-6 AIRS tuning coefficients. AIRS Version-6.22 has at least two limitations which must be improved before finalization of Version-7: Version-6.22 total O3 has spurious high values in the presence of Saharan dust over the ocean; and Version-6.22 retrieved upper stratospheric temperatures are very poor in polar winter. SRT Version-6.28 addresses the first concern. John Blaisdell ran the analog of AIRS Version-6.28 in his own sandbox at JPL for the 14th and 15th of every month in 2014 and all of July and October for 2014. AIRS Version-6.28a is hot off the presses and addresses the second concern.

  14. MICROARRAY IMAGE GRIDDING USING GRID LINE REFINEMENT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Biju

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An important stage in microarray image analysis is gridding. Microarray image gridding is done to locate sub arrays in a microarray image and find co-ordinates of spots within each sub array. For accurate identification of spots, most of the proposed gridding methods require human intervention. In this paper a fully automatic gridding method which enhances spot intensity in the preprocessing step as per a histogram based threshold method is used. The gridding step finds co-ordinates of spots from horizontal and vertical profile of the image. To correct errors due to the grid line placement, a grid line refinement technique is proposed. The algorithm is applied on different image databases and results are compared based on spot detection accuracy and time. An average spot detection accuracy of 95.06% depicts the proposed method’s flexibility and accuracy in finding the spot co-ordinates for different database images.

  15. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  16. Gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  17. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manero Amoros, F.

    1962-01-01

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  18. The Grid PC farm

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Housed in the CERN Computer Centre, these banks of computers process and store data produced on the CERN systems. When the LHC starts operation in 2008, it will produce enough data every year to fill a stack of CDs 20 km tall. To handle this huge amount of data, CERN has also developed the Grid, allowing processing power to be shared between computer centres around the world.

  19. Simulating the Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Pöchacker, Manfred; Sobe, Anita; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Major challenges for the transition of power systems do not only tackle power electronics but also communication technology, power market economy and user acceptance studies. Simulation is an important research method therein, as it helps to avoid costly failures. A common smart grid simulation platform is still missing. We introduce a conceptual model of agents in multiple flow networks. Flow networks extend the depth of established power flow analysis through use of networks of information ...

  20. Smart Grid Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cosma Sorinel

    2010-01-01

    The largest interconnected machine on Earth, the century-old power grid is so massively complex and inextricably linked to human involvement and endeavor that it has been called an ecosystem. To meet sustainability requirements, the electric industry is poised to make the transformation from a centralized, producer-controlled network to one that is less centralized and more consumerinteractive. This move promises to change the industry’s entire business model and its relationship with all sta...

  1. Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Massimo; Aloisio, Giovanni

    This chapter introduces and puts in context Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization. Grids promised to deliver computing power on demand. However, despite a decade of active research, no viable commercial grid computing provider has emerged. On the other hand, it is widely believed - especially in the Business World - that HPC will eventually become a commodity. Just as some commercial consumers of electricity have mission requirements that necessitate they generate their own power, some consumers of computational resources will continue to need to provision their own supercomputers. Clouds are a recent business-oriented development with the potential to render this eventually as rare as organizations that generate their own electricity today, even among institutions who currently consider themselves the unassailable elite of the HPC business. Finally, Virtualization is one of the key technologies enabling many different Clouds. We begin with a brief history in order to put them in context, and recall the basic principles and concepts underlying and clearly differentiating them. A thorough overview and survey of existing technologies provides the basis to delve into details as the reader progresses through the book.

  2. Resilient Grid Operational Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.

  3. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  4. Progress in Grid Generation: From Chimera to DRAGON Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kao, Kai-Hsiung

    1994-01-01

    Hybrid grids, composed of structured and unstructured grids, combines the best features of both. The chimera method is a major stepstone toward a hybrid grid from which the present approach is evolved. The chimera grid composes a set of overlapped structured grids which are independently generated and body-fitted, yielding a high quality grid readily accessible for efficient solution schemes. The chimera method has been shown to be efficient to generate a grid about complex geometries and has been demonstrated to deliver accurate aerodynamic prediction of complex flows. While its geometrical flexibility is attractive, interpolation of data in the overlapped regions - which in today's practice in 3D is done in a nonconservative fashion, is not. In the present paper we propose a hybrid grid scheme that maximizes the advantages of the chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured grid while at the same time keeps its weaknesses minimal. Like the chimera method, we first divide up the physical domain by a set of structured body-fitted grids which are separately generated and overlaid throughout a complex configuration. To eliminate any pure data manipulation which does not necessarily follow governing equations, we use non-structured grids only to directly replace the region of the arbitrarily overlapped grids. This new adaptation to the chimera thinking is coined the DRAGON grid. The nonstructured grid region sandwiched between the structured grids is limited in size, resulting in only a small increase in memory and computational effort. The DRAGON method has three important advantages: (1) preserving strengths of the chimera grid; (2) eliminating difficulties sometimes encountered in the chimera scheme, such as the orphan points and bad quality of interpolation stencils; and (3) making grid communication in a fully conservative and consistent manner insofar as the governing equations are concerned. To demonstrate its use, the governing equations are

  5. Lower end fitting debris collector and end cap spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor having fuel assemblies including an upper end fitting and spaced nuclear fuel rod spacer grids for supporting and spacing a plurality of elongated nuclear fuel rods. Each includes a hollow active portion of nuclear fuel filled cladding intermediate the rod ends and tapering end cap of solid material with a circumferential groove on the rod end which first encounters reactor coolant flow, a lower end filtering debris collector and end cap spacer grid for capturing and retaining deleterious debris carried by reactor coolant before it enters the active region of a fuel assembly and creates fuel rod cladding damage

  6. Smart Grid Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad Lopez, Carlos Adrian

    Current electricity infrastructure is being stressed from several directions -- high demand, unreliable supply, extreme weather conditions, accidents, among others. Infrastructure planners have, traditionally, focused on only the cost of the system; today, resilience and sustainability are increasingly becoming more important. In this dissertation, we develop computational tools for efficiently managing electricity resources to help create a more reliable and sustainable electrical grid. The tools we present in this work will help electric utilities coordinate demand to allow the smooth and large scale integration of renewable sources of energy into traditional grids, as well as provide infrastructure planners and operators in developing countries a framework for making informed planning and control decisions in the presence of uncertainty. Demand-side management is considered as the most viable solution for maintaining grid stability as generation from intermittent renewable sources increases. Demand-side management, particularly demand response (DR) programs that attempt to alter the energy consumption of customers either by using price-based incentives or up-front power interruption contracts, is more cost-effective and sustainable in addressing short-term supply-demand imbalances when compared with the alternative that involves increasing fossil fuel-based fast spinning reserves. An essential step in compensating participating customers and benchmarking the effectiveness of DR programs is to be able to independently detect the load reduction from observed meter data. Electric utilities implementing automated DR programs through direct load control switches are also interested in detecting the reduction in demand to efficiently pinpoint non-functioning devices to reduce maintenance costs. We develop sparse optimization methods for detecting a small change in the demand for electricity of a customer in response to a price change or signal from the utility

  7. Power Grid Construction Project Portfolio Optimization Based on Bi-level programming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Erdong; Li, Shangqi

    2017-08-01

    As the main body of power grid operation, county-level power supply enterprises undertake an important emission to guarantee the security of power grid operation and safeguard social power using order. The optimization of grid construction projects has been a key issue of power supply capacity and service level of grid enterprises. According to the actual situation of power grid construction project optimization of county-level power enterprises, on the basis of qualitative analysis of the projects, this paper builds a Bi-level programming model based on quantitative analysis. The upper layer of the model is the target restriction of the optimal portfolio; the lower layer of the model is enterprises’ financial restrictions on the size of the enterprise project portfolio. Finally, using a real example to illustrate operation proceeding and the optimization result of the model. Through qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis, the bi-level programming model improves the accuracy and normative standardization of power grid enterprises projects.

  8. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somervgille, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance.

  9. Advanced HVAC System for Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalen, Scott A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-06

    Rocky Research (Boulder City, NV) has developed an advanced roof top air conditioning unit (RTU) with the potential for providing smart grid functions such as regulation services and PV integration. The RTU contains advanced technologies that have been demonstrated to enable 1) improved coefficient of performance (COP) during start-up transients, 2) improved steady-state efficiency, and 3) blending of DC and AC power with high conversion efficiency. Technologies incorporated by Rocky Research include a pulsing thermal expansion valve (PTXV) to dynamically optimize refrigerant flow, a variable frequency drive (VFD) for the compressor, and on-board integrated power conversion electronics for inverting and blending DC and AC power.

  10. Modeling Aircraft Emissions for Regional-scale Air Quality: Adapting a New Global Aircraft Emissions Database for the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, S.; Baek, B. H.; Vennam, P. L.; Woody, M. C.; Omary, M.; Binkowski, F.; Fleming, G.

    2012-12-01

    Commercial aircraft emit substantial amounts of pollutants during their complete activity cycle that ranges from landing-and-takeoff (LTO) at airports to cruising in upper elevations of the atmosphere, and affect both air quality and climate. Since these emissions are not uniformly emitted over the earth, and have substantial temporal and spatial variability, it is vital to accurately evaluate and quantify the relative impacts of aviation emissions on ambient air quality. Regional-scale air quality modeling applications do not routinely include these aircraft emissions from all cycles. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), a software system that dynamically models aircraft performance in space and time to calculate fuel burn and emissions from gate-to-gate for all commercial aviation activity from all airports globally. To process in-flight aircraft emissions and to provide a realistic representation of these for treatment in grid-based air quality models, we have developed an interface processor called AEDTproc that accurately distributes full-flight chorded emissions in time and space to create gridded, hourly model-ready emissions input data. Unlike the traditional emissions modeling approach of treating aviation emissions as ground-level sources or processing emissions only from the LTO cycles in regional-scale air quality studies, AEDTproc distributes chorded inventories of aircraft emissions during LTO cycles and cruise activities into a time-variant 3-D gridded structure. We will present results of processed 2006 global emissions from AEDT over a continental U.S. modeling domain to support a national-scale air quality assessment of the incremental impacts of aircraft emissions on surface air quality. This includes about 13.6 million flights within the U.S. out of 31.2 million flights globally. We will focus on assessing spatio-temporal variability of these commercial aircraft emissions, and

  11. Mixing vane grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Galbraith, K.P.

    1978-01-01

    An improved mixing vane grid spacer having enhanced flow mixing capability by virtue of mixing vanes being positioned at welded intersecting joints of the spacer wherein each mixing vane has an opening or window formed therein substantially directly over the welded joint to provide improved flow mixing capability is described. Some of the vanes are slotted, depending on their particular location in the spacers. The intersecting joints are welded by initially providing consumable tabs at and within each window, which are consumed during the welding of the spacer joints

  12. Smart power grids 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Keyhani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Electric power systems are experiencing significant changes at the worldwide scale in order to become cleaner, smarter, and more reliable. This edited book examines a wide range of topics related to these changes, which are primarily caused by the introduction of information technologies, renewable energy penetration, digitalized equipment, new operational strategies, and so forth. The emphasis will be put on the modeling and control of smart grid systems. This book addresses research topics such as high efficiency transforrmers, wind turbines and generators, fuel cells, or high speed turbines

  13. The Knowledge Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuge, Hai

    2004-01-01

    The Knowledge Grid is an intelligent and sustainable interconnection environment that enables people and machines to effectively capture, publish, share and manage knowledge resources. It also provides appropriate on-demand services to support scientific research, technological innovation, cooperative teamwork, problem solving, and decision making. It incorporates epistemology and ontology to reflect human cognitive characteristics; exploits social, ecological and economic principles; and adopts techniques and standards developed during work toward the future web. This book presents its methodology, theory, models and applications systematically for the first time.

  14. Air cathode structure manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momyer, William R.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  15. The GridSite Web/Grid security system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, Andrew; Li Yibiao

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the current status of the GridSite toolkit, describing the security model for interactive and programmatic uses introduced in the last year. We discuss our experiences of implementing these internal changes and how they and previous rounds of improvements have been prompted by requirements from users and wider security trends in Grids (such as CSRF). Finally, we explain how these have improved the user experience of GridSite-based websites, and wider implications for portals and similar web/grid sites.

  16. Smart Grid: Network simulator for smart grid test-bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, L C; Ong, H S; Che, Y X; Do, N Q; Ong, X J

    2013-01-01

    Smart Grid become more popular, a smaller scale of smart grid test-bed is set up at UNITEN to investigate the performance and to find out future enhancement of smart grid in Malaysia. The fundamental requirement in this project is design a network with low delay, no packet drop and with high data rate. Different type of traffic has its own characteristic and is suitable for different type of network and requirement. However no one understands the natural of traffic in smart grid. This paper presents the comparison between different types of traffic to find out the most suitable traffic for the optimal network performance.

  17. CRED 10 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  18. CRED 60 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  19. Recent trends in grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    Grid computing is a technology which allows uniform and transparent access to geographically dispersed computational resources, such as computers, databases, experimental and observational equipment etc. via high-speed, high-bandwidth networking. The commonly used analogy is that of electrical power grid, whereby the household electricity is made available from outlets on the wall, and little thought need to be given to where the electricity is generated and how it is transmitted. The usage of grid also includes distributed parallel computing, high through-put computing, data intensive computing (data grid) and collaborative computing. This paper reviews the historical background, software structure, current status and on-going grid projects, including applications of grid technology to nuclear fusion research. (author)

  20. Workshop on Future Generation Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Laforenza, Domenico; Reinefeld, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The Internet and the Web continue to have a major impact on society. By allowing us to discover and access information on a global scale, they have created entirely new businesses and brought new meaning to the term surf. In addition, however, we want processing, and increasingly, we want collaborative processing within distributed teams. This need has led to the creation of the Grid - an infrastructure that enables us to share capabilities, and integrate services and resources within and across enterprises. "Future Generation Grids" is the second in the "CoreGRID" series. This edited volume brings together contributed articles by scientists and researchers in the Grid community in an attempt to draw a clearer picture of the future generation Grids. This book also identifies some of the most challenging problems on the way to achieving the invisible Grid ideas

  1. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  2. Grid-Enabled Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  3. Evaluating Lightning-generated NOx (LNOx) Parameterization based on Cloud Top Height at Resolutions with Partially-resolved Convection for Upper Tropospheric Chemistry Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J.; Barth, M. C.; Noone, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Lightning-generated nitrogen oxides (LNOx) is an important precursor to tropospheric ozone production. With a meteorological time-scale variability similar to that of the ozone chemical lifetime, it can nonlinearly perturb tropospheric ozone concentration. Coupled with upper-air circulation patterns, LNOx can accumulate in significant amount in the upper troposphere with other precursors, thus enhancing ozone production (see attached figure). While LNOx emission has been included and tuned extensively in global climate models, its inclusions in regional chemistry models are seldom tested. Here we present a study that evaluates the frequently used Price and Rind parameterization based on cloud-top height at resolutions that partially resolve deep convection using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) over the contiguous United States. With minor modifications, the parameterization is shown to generate integrated flash counts close to those observed. However, the modeled frequency distribution of cloud-to-ground flashes do not represent well for storms with high flash rates, bringing into question the applicability of the intra-cloud/ground partitioning (IC:CG) formulation of Price and Rind in some studies. Resolution dependency also requires attention when sub-grid cloud-tops are used instead of the originally intended grid-averaged cloud-top. LNOx passive tracers being gathered by monsoonal upper tropospheric anticyclone.

  4. Grid cut-off-effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Vosshenrich, R.; Grabbe, E.

    1992-01-01

    Tilting of a grid during portable radiography leads to uneven exposures, and errors greater than 3 0 can lead to errors in interpretation. Differentiation from abnormal findings can be made by recognising exposure difference of extrathoracic comparable areas. The difficulties caused by tilting of the grid can be reduced by increasing the film focus distance and by using suitable grids. A new cassette holder with an integrated balance makes it possible to correct tilting of the grid rapidly and effectively. This results in improved image quality which can be applied not only to conventional exposure systems but is also of advantage when using digital methods. (orig.) [de

  5. Smart Grids and Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin BICĂ

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main characteristics of Smart Grids and distributed generation. Smart Grids can be defined as a modernization of the power system so it monitors, protects and automatically optimizes the operation of its interconnected elements (power plants, transmission and distribution system, industrial and residential loads. Distributed generation (DG refers to the production of electricity near the consumption place using renewable energy sources. A load flow analysis is performed for the IEEE14 system in which a DG source (a 5MW wind turbine is added that is on-grid or off-grid. The power losses are determined for these two cases.

  6. OGC and Grid Interoperability in enviroGRIDS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgan, Dorian; Rodila, Denisa; Bacu, Victor; Giuliani, Gregory; Ray, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    EnviroGRIDS (Black Sea Catchment Observation and Assessment System supporting Sustainable Development) [1] is a 4-years FP7 Project aiming to address the subjects of ecologically unsustainable development and inadequate resource management. The project develops a Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Black Sea Catchment region. The geospatial technologies offer very specialized functionality for Earth Science oriented applications as well as the Grid oriented technology that is able to support distributed and parallel processing. One challenge of the enviroGRIDS project is the interoperability between geospatial and Grid infrastructures by providing the basic and the extended features of the both technologies. The geospatial interoperability technology has been promoted as a way of dealing with large volumes of geospatial data in distributed environments through the development of interoperable Web service specifications proposed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), with applications spread across multiple fields but especially in Earth observation research. Due to the huge volumes of data available in the geospatial domain and the additional introduced issues (data management, secure data transfer, data distribution and data computation), the need for an infrastructure capable to manage all those problems becomes an important aspect. The Grid promotes and facilitates the secure interoperations of geospatial heterogeneous distributed data within a distributed environment, the creation and management of large distributed computational jobs and assures a security level for communication and transfer of messages based on certificates. This presentation analysis and discusses the most significant use cases for enabling the OGC Web services interoperability with the Grid environment and focuses on the description and implementation of the most promising one. In these use cases we give a special attention to issues such as: the relations between computational grid and

  7. Grid Generation Techniques Utilizing the Volume Grid Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents grid generation techniques available in the Volume Grid Manipulation (VGM) code. The VGM code is designed to manipulate existing line, surface and volume grids to improve the quality of the data. It embodies an easy to read rich language of commands that enables such alterations as topology changes, grid adaption and smoothing. Additionally, the VGM code can be used to construct simplified straight lines, splines, and conic sections which are common curves used in the generation and manipulation of points, lines, surfaces and volumes (i.e., grid data). These simple geometric curves are essential in the construction of domain discretizations for computational fluid dynamic simulations. By comparison to previously established methods of generating these curves interactively, the VGM code provides control of slope continuity and grid point-to-point stretchings as well as quick changes in the controlling parameters. The VGM code offers the capability to couple the generation of these geometries with an extensive manipulation methodology in a scripting language. The scripting language allows parametric studies of a vehicle geometry to be efficiently performed to evaluate favorable trends in the design process. As examples of the powerful capabilities of the VGM code, a wake flow field domain will be appended to an existing X33 Venturestar volume grid; negative volumes resulting from grid expansions to enable flow field capture on a simple geometry, will be corrected; and geometrical changes to a vehicle component of the X33 Venturestar will be shown.

  8. From the grid to the smart grid, topologically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2016-05-01

    In its more visionary acceptation, the smart grid is a model of energy management in which the users are engaged in producing energy as well as consuming it, while having information systems fully aware of the energy demand-response of the network and of dynamically varying prices. A natural question is then: to make the smart grid a reality will the distribution grid have to be upgraded? We assume a positive answer to the question and we consider the lower layers of medium and low voltage to be the most affected by the change. In our previous work, we analyzed samples of the Dutch distribution grid (Pagani and Aiello, 2011) and we considered possible evolutions of these using synthetic topologies modeled after studies of complex systems in other technological domains (Pagani and Aiello, 2014). In this paper, we take an extra important step by defining a methodology for evolving any existing physical power grid to a good smart grid model, thus laying the foundations for a decision support system for utilities and governmental organizations. In doing so, we consider several possible evolution strategies and apply them to the Dutch distribution grid. We show how increasing connectivity is beneficial in realizing more efficient and reliable networks. Our proposal is topological in nature, enhanced with economic considerations of the costs of such evolutions in terms of cabling expenses and economic benefits of evolving the grid.

  9. Power grid complex network evolutions for the smart grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The shift towards an energy grid dominated by prosumers (consumers and producers of energy) will inevitably have repercussions on the electricity distribution infrastructure. Today the grid is a hierarchical one delivering energy from large scale facilities to end-users. Tomorrow it will be a

  10. Grid-connected to/from off-grid transference for micro-grid inverters

    OpenAIRE

    Heredero Peris, Daniel; Chillón Antón, Cristian; Pages Gimenez, Marc; Gross, Gabriel Igor; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares two methods for controlling the on-line transference from connected to stand-alone mode and vice versa in converters for micro-grids. The first proposes a method where the converter changes from CSI (Current Source Inverter) in grid-connected mode to VSI (Voltage Source Inverter) in off-grid. In the second method, the inverter always works as a non-ideal voltage source, acting as VSI, using AC droop control strategy.

  11. Grid scale energy storage in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, Fritz; Donadei, Sabine [KBB Underground Technologies GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Fossil energy sources require some 20% of the annual consumption to be stored to secure emergency cover, peak shaving, seasonal balancing, etc. Today the electric power industry benefits from the extreme high energy density of fossil fuels. This is one important reason why the German utilities are able to provide highly reliable grid operation at a electric power storage capacity at their pumped hydro power stations of less then 1 hour (40 GWh) related to the total load in the grid - i.e. only 0,06% related to natural gas. Along with the changeover to renewable wind based electricity production this ''outsourcing'' of storage services to fossil fuels will decline. One important way out will be grid scale energy storage. The present discussion for balancing short term wind and solar power fluctuations focuses primarily on the installation of Compressed Air Energy Storages (CAES) in addition to existing pumped hydro plants. Because of their small energy density, these storage options are, however, generally not suitable for balancing for longer term fluctuations in case of larger amounts of excess wind power or even seasonal fluctuations. Underground hydrogen storages, however, provide a much higher energy density because of chemical energy bond - standard practice since many years. The first part of the article describes the present status and performance of grid scale energy storages in geological formations, mainly salt caverns. It is followed by a compilation of generally suitable locations in Europe and particularly Germany. The second part deals with first results of preliminary investigations in possibilities and limits of offshore CAES power stations. (orig.)

  12. The Grid2003 Production Grid Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, I; Gose, S; Maltsev, N; May, E; Rodríguez, A; Sulakhe, D; Vaniachine, A; Shank, J; Youssef, S; Adams, D; Baker, R; Deng, W; Smith, J; Yu, D; Legrand, I; Singh, S; Steenberg, C; Xia, Y; Afaq, A; Berman, E; Annis, J; Bauerdick, L A T; Ernst, M; Fisk, I; Giacchetti, L; Graham, G; Heavey, A; Kaiser, J; Kuropatkin, N; Pordes, R; Sekhri, V; Weigand, J; Wu, Y; Baker, K; Sorrillo, L; Huth, J; Allen, M; Grundhoefer, L; Hicks, J; Luehring, F C; Peck, S; Quick, R; Simms, S; Fekete, G; Van den Berg, J; Cho, K; Kwon, K; Son, D; Park, H; Canon, S; Jackson, K; Konerding, D E; Lee, J; Olson, D; Sakrejda, I; Tierney, B; Green, M; Miller, R; Letts, J; Martin, T; Bury, D; Dumitrescu, C; Engh, D; Gardner, R; Mambelli, M; Smirnov, Y; Voeckler, J; Wilde, M; Zhao, Y; Zhao, X; Avery, P; Cavanaugh, R J; Kim, B; Prescott, C; Rodríguez, J; Zahn, A; McKee, S; Jordan, C; Prewett, J; Thomas, T; Severini, H; Clifford, B; Deelman, E; Flon, L; Kesselman, C; Mehta, G; Olomu, N; Vahi, K; De, K; McGuigan, P; Sosebee, M; Bradley, D; Couvares, P; De Smet, A; Kireyev, C; Paulson, E; Roy, A; Koranda, S; Moe, B; Brown, B; Sheldon, P

    2004-01-01

    The Grid2003 Project has deployed a multi-virtual organization, application-driven grid laboratory ("GridS") that has sustained for several months the production-level services required by physics experiments of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN (ATLAS and CMS), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey project, the gravitational wave search experiment LIGO, the BTeV experiment at Fermilab, as well as applications in molecular structure analysis and genome analysis, and computer science research projects in such areas as job and data scheduling. The deployed infrastructure has been operating since November 2003 with 27 sites, a peak of 2800 processors, work loads from 10 different applications exceeding 1300 simultaneous jobs, and data transfers among sites of greater than 2 TB/day. We describe the principles that have guided the development of this unique infrastructure and the practical experiences that have resulted from its creation and use. We discuss application requirements for grid services deployment and configur...

  13. The Open Science Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; / /LBL, Berkeley; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Avery, Paul; /Florida U.; Blackburn, Kent; /Caltech; Wenaus, Torre; /Brookhaven; Wurthwein, Frank; /UC, San Diego; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; /Chicago U. /Indiana U.

    2007-06-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support its use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  14. Power grid complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Shengwei; Zhang, Xuemin [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Cao, Ming [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences

    2011-07-01

    ''Power Grid Complexity'' introduces the complex system theory known as self-organized criticality (SOC) theory and complex network theory, and their applications to power systems. It studies the network characteristics of power systems, such as their small-world properties, structural vulnerability, decomposition and coordination strategies, and simplification and equivalence methods. The book also establishes four blackout models based on SOC theory through which the SOC of power systems is studied at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Additionally, applications of complex system theory in power system planning and emergency management platforms are also discussed in depth. This book can serve as a useful reference for engineers and researchers working with power systems. (orig.)

  15. Benchmarking Swiss electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N.O.; Weber, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This extensive article describes a pilot benchmarking project initiated by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises that assessed 37 Swiss utilities. The data collected from these utilities on a voluntary basis included data on technical infrastructure, investments and operating costs. These various factors are listed and discussed in detail. The assessment methods and rating mechanisms that provided the benchmarks are discussed and the results of the pilot study are presented that are to form the basis of benchmarking procedures for the grid regulation authorities under the planned Switzerland's electricity market law. Examples of the practical use of the benchmarking methods are given and cost-efficiency questions still open in the area of investment and operating costs are listed. Prefaces by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy complete the article

  16. TIGER: Turbomachinery interactive grid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Janus, J. Mark

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional, interactive grid generation code, TIGER, is being developed for analysis of flows around ducted or unducted propellers. TIGER is a customized grid generator that combines new technology with methods from general grid generation codes. The code generates multiple block, structured grids around multiple blade rows with a hub and shroud for either C grid or H grid topologies. The code is intended for use with a Euler/Navier-Stokes solver also being developed, but is general enough for use with other flow solvers. TIGER features a silicon graphics interactive graphics environment that displays a pop-up window, graphics window, and text window. The geometry is read as a discrete set of points with options for several industrial standard formats and NASA standard formats. Various splines are available for defining the surface geometries. Grid generation is done either interactively or through a batch mode operation using history files from a previously generated grid. The batch mode operation can be done either with a graphical display of the interactive session or with no graphics so that the code can be run on another computer system. Run time can be significantly reduced by running on a Cray-YMP.

  17. Resource allocation in grid computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, Ger; Righter, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    Grid computing, in which a network of computers is integrated to create a very fast virtual computer, is becoming ever more prevalent. Examples include the TeraGrid and Planet-lab.org, as well as applications on the existing Internet that take advantage of unused computing and storage capacity of

  18. The smart grid research network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troi, Anders; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Larsen, Emil Mahler

    2013-01-01

    Grid Network’s recommendations’, which relate to strengthening and marketing the research infrastructure that will position Denmark as the global hub for Smart Grid development; strengthening basic research into the complex relationships in electric systems with large quantities of independent parties...

  19. Multi-scale modeling of urban air pollution: development and application of a Street-in-Grid model (v1.0) by coupling MUNICH (v1.0) and Polair3D (v1.8.1)

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Kim; Y. Wu; C. Seigneur; Y. Roustan

    2018-01-01

    A new multi-scale model of urban air pollution is presented. This model combines a chemistry–transport model (CTM) that includes a comprehensive treatment of atmospheric chemistry and transport on spatial scales down to 1 km and a street-network model that describes the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants in an urban street network. The street-network model is the Model of Urban Network of Intersecting Canyons and Highways (MUNICH), which consists of two main components...

  20. Optimal Coordinated EV Charging with Reactive Power Support in Constrained Distribution Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudyal, Sumit; Ceylan, Oğuzhan; Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Myers, Kurt S.

    2017-07-01

    Electric vehicle (EV) charging/discharging can take place in any P-Q quadrants, which means EVs could support reactive power to the grid while charging the battery. In controlled charging schemes, distribution system operator (DSO) coordinates with the charging of EV fleets to ensure grid’s operating constraints are not violated. In fact, this refers to DSO setting upper bounds on power limits for EV charging. In this work, we demonstrate that if EVs inject reactive power into the grid while charging, DSO could issue higher upper bounds on the active power limits for the EVs for the same set of grid constraints. We demonstrate the concept in an 33-node test feeder with 1,500 EVs. Case studies show that in constrained distribution grids in coordinated charging, average costs of EV charging could be reduced if the charging takes place in the fourth P-Q quadrant compared to charging with unity power factor.

  1. Emerging economic viability of grid defection in a northern climate using solar hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantamneni, Abhilash; Winkler, Richelle; Gauchia, Lucia; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    High demand for photovoltaic (PV), battery, and small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) technologies are driving a virtuous cycle of technological improvements and cost reductions in off-grid electric systems that increasingly compete with the grid market. Using a case study in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, this paper quantifies the economic viability of off-grid PV+battery+CHP adoption and evaluates potential implications for grid-based utility models. The analysis shows that already some households could save money by switching to a solar hybrid off-grid system in comparison to the effective electric rates they are currently paying. Across the region by 2020, 92% of seasonal households and ~75% of year-round households are projected to meet electricity demands with lower costs. Furthermore, ~65% of all Upper Peninsula single-family owner-occupied households will both meet grid parity and be able to afford the systems by 2020. The results imply that economic circumstances could spur a positive feedback loop whereby grid electricity prices continue to rise and increasing numbers of customers choose alternatives (sometimes referred to as a “utility death spiral”), particularly in areas with relatively high electric utility rates. Utility companies and policy makers must take the potential for grid defection seriously when evaluating energy supply strategies. - Highlights: •Quantifies the economic viability of off-grid hybrid photovoltaic (PV) systems. •PV is backed up with batteries and combined heat and power (CHP). •Case study in Michigan by household size (energy demand) and income. •By 2020, majority of single-family owner-occupied households can defect. •To prevent mass-scale grid defection policies needed for grid-tied PV systems.

  2. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the AIRS mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval, from the AIRS and AMSU instruments on board of Aqua satellite. It is a...

  3. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the AIRS mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval, from the AIRS instrument on board of Aqua satellite. It is a monthly...

  4. The DataGrid Project

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggieri, F

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the objectives and status of the DataGrid Project is presented, together with a brief introduction to the Grid metaphor and some references to the Grid activities and initiatives related to DataGrid. High energy physics experiments have always requested state of the art computing facilities to efficiently perform several computing activities related with the handling of large amounts of data and fairly large computing resources. Some of the ideas born inside the community to enhance the user friendliness of all the steps in the computing chain have been, sometimes, successfully applied also in other contexts: one bright example is the World Wide Web. The LHC computing challenge has triggered inside the high energy physics community, the start of the DataGrid Project. The objective of the project is to enable next generation scientific exploration requiring intensive computation and analysis of shared large-scale databases. (12 refs).

  5. gCube Grid services

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    gCube is a service-based framework for eScience applications requiring collaboratory, on-demand, and intensive information processing. It provides to these communities Virtual Research Environments (VREs) to support their activities. gCube is build on top of standard technologies for computational Grids, namely the gLite middleware. The software was produced by the DILIGENT project and will continue to be supported and further developed by the D4Science project. gCube reflects within its name a three-sided interpretation of the Grid vision of resource sharing: sharing of computational resources, sharing of structured data, and sharing of application services. As such, gCube embodies the defining characteristics of computational Grids, data Grids, and virtual data Grids. Precisely, it builds on gLite middleware for managing distributed computations and unstructured data, includes dedicated services for managing data and metadata, provides services for distributed information retrieval, allows the orchestration...

  6. Wind energy in offshore grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    special characteristics of offshore grids. With an operational real options approach, it is furthermore illustrated how different support schemes and connections to additional countries affect the investment case of an offshore wind farm and the income of the transmission system operator. The investment...... and investment implications under different regulatory frameworks are a hitherto underrepresented research field. They are addressed by this thesis. Offshore grids between several countries combine the absorption of wind energy with international power trading. However, the inclusion into an offshore grid......This cumulative PhD thesis deals with wind integration in offshore grids from an economic point of view. It is composed of a generic part and eight papers. As the topic has mostly been analysed with a focus on topology and technical issues until now, market-operational questions in offshore grids...

  7. Smart grid: hope or hype?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Morten; Røpke, Inge; Heiskanen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    how their (intentional or unintentional) choices serve to create or maintain certain boundaries in smart grid development: for example, an exclusive focus on electricity within the broader context of a sustainable energy system. As serious investment starts being made in the smart grid, concepts like......The smart grid is an important but ambiguous element in the future transition of the European energy system. The current paper unpacks one influential national vision of the smart grid to identify what kinds of expectations guide the work of smart grid innovators and how the boundaries of the smart...... research and development and to attract new players into the field. A scenario process such as that demonstrated in this article can serve to articulate some of these implicit assumptions and help actors to navigate the ongoing transition. On the basis of our analysis, European policy makers might consider...

  8. Grid deformation strategies for CFD analysis of screw compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Rane, S.; Kovacevic, A.; Stosic, N.; Kethidi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Customized grid generation of twin screw machines for CFD analysis is widely used by the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry today, but is currently not suitable for topologies such as those of single screw, variable pitch or tri screw rotors. This paper investigates a technique called key-frame re-meshing that supplies pre-generated unstructured grids to the CFD solver at different time steps. To evaluate its accuracy, the results of an isentropic compression-expansion process in a r...

  9. Smart grid security innovative solutions for a modernized grid

    CERN Document Server

    Skopik, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The Smart Grid security ecosystem is complex and multi-disciplinary, and relatively under-researched compared to the traditional information and network security disciplines. While the Smart Grid has provided increased efficiencies in monitoring power usage, directing power supplies to serve peak power needs and improving efficiency of power delivery, the Smart Grid has also opened the way for information security breaches and other types of security breaches. Potential threats range from meter manipulation to directed, high-impact attacks on critical infrastructure that could bring down regi

  10. Global Population Density Grid Time Series Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Population Density Grid Time Series Estimates provide a back-cast time series of population density grids based on the year 2000 population grid from SEDAC's...

  11. Optimizing solar-cell grid geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, A. P.

    1969-01-01

    Trade-off analysis and mathematical expressions calculate optimum grid geometry in terms of various cell parameters. Determination of the grid geometry provides proper balance between grid resistance and cell output to optimize the energy conversion process.

  12. Sensing and Measurement Architecture for Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); De Martini, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This paper addresses architecture for grid sensor networks, with primary emphasis on distribution grids. It describes a forward-looking view of sensor network architecture for advanced distribution grids, and discusses key regulatory, financial, and planning issues.

  13. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Modeling for Combined Meteorology and Air Quality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric Eulerian grid models for mesoscale and larger applications require sub-grid models for turbulent vertical exchange processes, particularly within the Planetary Boundary Layer (PSL). In combined meteorology and air quality modeling systems consistent PSL modeling of wi...

  14. National Smart Water Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water

  15. The Internet of things and Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Lv, Sen; Pan, Qing

    2018-02-01

    The Internet of things and smart grid are the frontier of information and Industry. The combination of Internet of things and smart grid will greatly enhance the ability of smart grid information and communication support. The key technologies of the Internet of things will be applied to the smart grid, and the grid operation and management information perception service centre will be built to support the commanding heights of the world’s smart grid.

  16. Observability of Low Voltage grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Loeches, Ruben Sánchez; Iov, Florin; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu

    2017-01-01

    Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid ...... an updated state of the art on DSSE-AMI based, adaptive data collection techniques and database management system types. Moreover, the ongoing Danish RemoteGRID project is presented as a realistic case study.......Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid....... It becomes unrealistic to provide near real time full observability of the LV grid by applying Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) utilizing the classical data collection and storage/preprocessing techniques. This paper investigates up-todate the observability problem in LV grids by providing...

  17. Data for Figures and Tables in Journal Article Assessment of the Effects of Horizontal Grid Resolution on Long-Term Air Quality Trends using Coupled WRF-CMAQ Simulations, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.02.036

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dataset represents the data depicted in the Figures and Tables of a Journal Manuscript with the following abstract: The objective of this study is to determine the adequacy of using a relatively coarse horizontal resolution (i.e. 36 km) to simulate long-term trends of pollutant concentrations and radiation variables with the coupled WRF-CMAQ model. WRF-CMAQ simulations over the continental United State are performed over the 2001 to 2010 time period at two different horizontal resolutions of 12 and 36 km. Both simulations used the same emission inventory and model configurations. Model results are compared both in space and time to assess the potential weaknesses and strengths of using coarse resolution in long-term air quality applications. The results show that the 36 km and 12 km simulations are comparable in terms of trends analysis for both pollutant concentrations and radiation variables. The advantage of using the coarser 36 km resolution is a significant reduction of computational cost, time and storage requirement which are key considerations when performing multiple years of simulations for trend analysis. However, if such simulations are to be used for local air quality analysis, finer horizontal resolution may be beneficial since it can provide information on local gradients. In particular, divergences between the two simulations are noticeable in urban, complex terrain and coastal regions.This dataset is associated with the following publication

  18. National transmission grid study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Spencer [USDOE Office of the Secretary of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  19. Grid simulator for power quality assessment of micro-grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Joaquin Eloy Garcia; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    voltages, low-order harmonics and flicker. The aim of this equipment is to test the performance of a given system under such distorted voltages. A prototype of the simulator, consisting of two inverters connected back-to-back to a 380 V three-phase grid and feeding a micro-grid composed of two......-inverter interfaced distributed generators and a critical load was built and tested. A set of experimental results for linear purely resistive loads, non-linear loads and current-controlled inverters is presented to prove the capabilities of the simulator. Finally, a case study is presented by testing a micro-grid.......In this study, a grid simulator based on a back-to-back inverter topology with resonant controllers is presented. The simulator is able to generate three-phase voltages for a range of amplitudes and frequencies with different types of perturbations, such as voltage sags, steady-state unbalanced...

  20. Profitability of smart grid solutions applied in power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Nenad A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a Smart Grid solution has been developing for years, as complete solution for a power utility, consisting of different advanced technologies aimed at improving of the efficiency of operation. The trend of implementing various smart systems continues, e.g. Energy Management Systems, Grid Automation Systems, Advanced Metering Infrastructure, Smart power equipment, Distributed Energy Resources, Demand Response systems, etc. Futhermore, emerging technologies, such as energy storages, electrical vehicles or distributed generators, become integrated in distribution networks and systems. Nowadays, the idea of a Smart Grid solution becomes more realistic by full integration of all advanced operation technologies (OT within IT environment, providing the complete digitalization of an Utility (IT/OT integration. The overview of smart grid solutions, estimation of investments, operation costs and possible benefits are presented in this article, with discusison about profitability of such systems.

  1. Grid Transmission Expansion Planning Model Based on Grid Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Quan; Wang, Xi; Li, Ting; Zhang, Quanming; Zhang, Hongli; Li, Huaqiang

    2018-03-01

    Based on grid vulnerability and uniformity theory, proposed global network structure and state vulnerability factor model used to measure different grid models. established a multi-objective power grid planning model which considering the global power network vulnerability, economy and grid security constraint. Using improved chaos crossover and mutation genetic algorithm to optimize the optimal plan. For the problem of multi-objective optimization, dimension is not uniform, the weight is not easy given. Using principal component analysis (PCA) method to comprehensive assessment of the population every generation, make the results more objective and credible assessment. the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model are validated by simulation results of Garver-6 bus system and Garver-18 bus.

  2. Power grid control in retreat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Stein

    2000-01-01

    Bilateral grid control that obstructs free trade of electricity is in retreat. Negotiations on opening the Skagerrak cables are in progress. The EU, national authorities, network companies with system responsibility, market actors, electricity exchanges all push for quick opening of the grid. At present, free trade of electricity is hindered not so much by physical bottlenecks in the grid as by market actors possessing control and bilateral agreements. The article discusses current bilateral agreements and how they might affect the possibility of a free trade of electricity in Europe

  3. Smart Grid Security. White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    One of the biggest concerns for smart grid developers is cyber security due to the reliance on IT communication networks. While the current grid is not immune to energy theft, fraud and malicious cyber-attacks, the smart grid poses new security issues. It is more likely now that theft, malicious attack and fraud will be committed by people working remotely from a laptop several miles away, even in a different country, than someone physically manipulating meters. This makes it difficult to predict where attacks will come from.

  4. Secondary emission monitor (SEM) grids.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    A great variety of Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM) are used all over the PS Complex. At other accelerators they are also called wire-grids, harps, etc. They are used to measure beam density profiles (from which beam size and emittance can be derived) in single-pass locations (not on circulating beams). Top left: two individual wire-planes. Top right: a combination of a horizontal and a vertical wire plane. Bottom left: a ribbon grid in its frame, with connecting wires. Bottom right: a SEM-grid with its insertion/retraction mechanism.

  5. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes[Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iov, F. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology (Denmark); Hansen, Anca D.; Soerensen, Poul; Cutululis, N.A. [Risoe National Lab. - DTU, Wind Enegy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need for such investigations. The grid connection requirements for wind turbines have increased significantly during the last 5-10 years. Especially the requirements for wind turbines to stay connected to the grid during and after voltage sags, imply potential challenges in the design of wind turbines. These requirements pose challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads' impact on the wind turbines' lifetime are defined. The goal of this report is to present a mapping of different grid fault types and their frequency in different countries. The report provides also a detailed overview of the Low Voltage Ride-Through Capabilities for wind turbines in different relevant countries. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads' impact on the wind turbines' lifetime are defined. (au)

  6. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  7. The Cardiovascular Research Grid (CVRG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CardioVascular Research Grid (CVRG) project is creating an infrastructure for sharing cardiovascular data and data analysis tools. CVRG tools are developed using...

  8. Governments plan data grid projects

    CERN Multimedia

    Thibodeau, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    "Some governments and not-for-profit organizations such as hospitals are beginning to look at data grid technology as a means to improve servies, lower operating costs and spur economic development." (1 page)

  9. Distribution Integration | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distribution Integration Distribution Integration The goal of NREL's distribution integration research is to tackle the challenges facing the widespread integration of distributed energy resources NREL engineers mapping out a grid model on a whiteboard. NREL's research on the integration of

  10. Transmission Integration | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmission Integration Transmission Integration The goal of NREL's transmission integration integration issues and provide data, analysis, and models to enable the electric power system to more and finding solutions to address them to enable transmission grid integration. Capabilities Power

  11. 84-KILOMETER RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING GRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. Roe

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the development of a radial grid that is suitable for evaluating the pathways and potential impacts of a release of radioactive materials to the environment within a distance of 84 kilometers (km). The center of the grid represents an approximate location from which a potential release of radioactive materials could originate. The center is located on Nevada State Plane coordinates Northing 765621.5, and Easting 570433.6, which is on the eastern side of Exile Hill at the Yucca Mountain site. The North Portal Pad is located over this point. The grid resulting from this calculation is intended for use primarily in the Radiological Monitoring Program (RadMP). This grid also is suitable for use in Biosphere Modeling and other Yucca Mountain Site Characteristic Project (YMP) activities that require the evaluation of data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates

  12. U.S. Topographic Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — isotop.bin - topographic data for conterminous U.S. projected on an 8 km grid. Projection is Albers, central meridian = 96 degrees West, base latitude = 0 degrees...

  13. VT US National Grid Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) USNGVT is a U.S. National Grid Index (1000m x 1000m) covering Vermont. It is a polygon feature class originally constructed by the Center for...

  14. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang; Golzarian, Jafar

    2007-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  15. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Golzarian, Jafar [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  16. Grid Voltage Modulated Control of Grid-Connected Voltage Source Inverters under Unbalanced Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Mingshen; Gui, Yonghao; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an improved grid voltage modulated control (GVM) with power compensation is proposed for grid-connected voltage inverters when the grid voltage is unbalanced. The objective of the proposed control is to remove the power ripple and to improve current quality. Three power compensation...... objectives are selected to eliminate the negative sequence components of currents. The modified GVM method is designed to obtain two separate second-order systems for not only the fast convergence rate of the instantaneous active and reactive powers but also the robust performance. In addition, this method...

  17. Grid for a fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention has one or more corrugations formed in the surface of a fuel element grid for a nuclear reactor. Not only does the corrugation enhance the strength of the grid plate in which it is formed, but it also provides a simple and convenient means for regulating the reactor coolant pressure drop through an appropriate choice of the corrugation depth

  18. Smart grid applications and developments

    CERN Document Server

    Mah, Daphne; Li, Victor OK; Balme, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Meeting today's energy and climate challenges require not only technological advancement but also a good understanding of stakeholders' perceptions, political sensitivity, well-informed policy analyses and innovative interdisciplinary solutions. This book will fill this gap. This is an interdisciplinary informative book to provide a holistic and integrated understanding of the technology-stakeholder-policy interactions of smart grid technologies. The unique features of the book include the following: (a) interdisciplinary approach - by bringing in the policy dimensions to smart grid technologi

  19. Micro Grid: A Smart Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Naveenkumar, M; Ratnakar, N

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Generation (DG) is an approach that employs small-scale technologies to produce electricity close to the end users of power. Todays DG technologies often consist of renewable generators, and offer a number of potential benefits. This paper presents a design of micro grid as part of Smart grid technologies with renewable energy resources like solar, wind and Diesel generator. The design of the microgrid with integration of Renewable energy sources are done in PSCAD/EMTDC.This paper...

  20. Influence of Sub-grid-Scale Isentropic Transports on McRAS Evaluations using ARM-CART SCM Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Tao, W. K.

    2004-01-01

    In GCM-physics evaluations with the currently available ARM-CART SCM datasets, McRAS produced very similar character of near surface errors of simulated temperature and humidity containing typically warm and moist biases near the surface and cold and dry biases aloft. We argued it must have a common cause presumably rooted in the model physics. Lack of vertical adjustment of horizontal transport was thought to be a plausible source. Clearly, debarring such a freedom would force the incoming air to diffuse into the grid-cell which would naturally bias the surface air to become warm and moist while the upper air becomes cold and dry, a characteristic feature of McRAS biases. Since, the errors were significantly larger in the two winter cases that contain potentially more intense episodes of cold and warm advective transports, it further reaffirmed our argument and provided additional motivation to introduce the corrections. When the horizontal advective transports were suitably modified to allow rising and/or sinking following isentropic pathways of subgrid scale motions, the outcome was to cool and dry (or warm and moisten) the lower (or upper) levels. Ever, crude approximations invoking such a correction reduced the temperature and humidity biases considerably. The tests were performed on all the available ARM-CART SCM cases with consistent outcome. With the isentropic corrections implemented through two different numerical approximations, virtually similar benefits were derived further confirming the robustness of our inferences. These results suggest the need for insentropic advective transport adjustment in a GCM due to subgrid scale motions.

  1. Grid scale energy storage in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, F.; Donadei, S.

    2011-05-15

    Fossil energy sources require some 20% of the annual consumption to be stored to secure emergency cover, cold winter supply, peak shaving, seasonal swing, load management and energy trading. Today the electric power industry benefits from the extreme high energy density of fossil and nuclear fuels. This is one important reason why e.g. the German utilities are able to provide highly reliable grid operation at a electric power storage capacity at their pumped hydro power stations of less then 1 hour (40 GWh) related to the total load in the grid - i.e. only 0,06% compared to 20% for natural gas. Along with the changeover to renewable wind-and to a lesser extent PV-based electricity production this 'outsourcing' of storage services to fossil and nuclear fuels will decline. One important way out will be grid scale energy storage in geological formations. The present discussion, research projects and plans for balancing short term wind and solar power fluctuations focus primarily on the installation of Compressed Air Energy Storages (CAES) if the capacity of existing pumped hydro plants cannot be expanded, e.g. because of environmental issues or lack of suitable topography. Because of their small energy density, these storage options are, however, generally less suitable for balancing for longer term fluctuations in case of larger amounts of excess wind power, wind flaws or even seasonal fluctuations. One important way out are large underground hydrogen storages which provide a much higher energy density because of chemical energy bond. Underground hydrogen storage is state of the art since many years in Great Britain and in the USA for the (petro-) chemical industry. (Author)

  2. Air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clench-Aas, Jocelyn; Guerreiro, Cristina; Bartonova, Alena

    1999-06-01

    This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO 2 , however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km 2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid

  3. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance. Evaluation of strategies is structured around the critical control functions of water, airflow, vapor flow, and thermal control. The aim of the research project is to develop guidance that could serve as a foundation for wider adoption of high performance, 'deep' retrofit work. The project will identify risk factors endemic to advanced retrofit in the context of the general building type, configuration and vintage encountered in the National Grid DER Pilot. Results for the test homes are based on observation and performance testing of recently completed projects. Additional observation would be needed to fully gauge long-term energy performance, durability, and occupant comfort.

  4. Influence of combustion air guidance on solid matter burnout and on pollutant emissions in grid incinerators; Einfluss der Verbrennungsluftfuehrung auf den Feststoffabbrand und auf das Schadstoffverhalten bei der Hausmuellverbrennung auf dem Rost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsinger, H.; Seifert, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie

    2003-07-01

    The contribution investigates the influence of combustion air guidance strategies on process optimisation. In particular, it is investigated if efficient burnout correlates with low pollutant emissions and if the effects are similar or contrary for the different process goals. (orig.) [German] Der Einfluss von Brennstoffqualitaeten, der Ofengeometrie sowie von Feuerungsbetriebsparametern auf die Bildungsraten von Schadstoffen wie PCDD/F und NO{sub x} und auf die Transferraten von Schwermetallen, Chlor- und Schwefelverbindungen aus dem Brennstoffbett ins Rauchgas ist zur Zeit nur ungenuegend bekannt. Besonders die Frage, wie die primaere Forderung nach moeglichst vollstaendigem Ausbrand von Rauchgas und Rostasche mit weiteren Zielen wie niedrige Bildungsraten von Schadstoffen und Inertisierung der Rostasche korreliert, zeigt den Bedarf umfassender systematischer Untersuchungen auf. Im Rahmen dieses Beitrags soll als Beispiel fuer Modifikationen des Verbrennungsprozesses der Einfluss unterschiedlicher Verbrennungsluftfuehrungen auf die aufgefuehrten Optimierungsziele vorgestellt werden. Insbesondere soll der Frage nachgegangen werden, ob ein effizienter Ausbrand mit niedrigen Schadstoffbildungsraten korreliert und ob zwischen den Zielgroessen gleiche oder kontraere Wirkungen auftreten. (orig.)

  5. GENIUS: a web portal for the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronico, A.; Barbera, R.; Falzone, A.; Lo Re, G.; Pulvirenti, A.; Rodolico, A.

    2003-01-01

    The architecture and the current implementation of the grid portal GENIUS (Grid Enabled web environment for site Independent User job Submission), jointly developed by INFN and NICE within the context of the INFN Grid and DataGrid Project, is presented and discussed

  6. Grid-Optimization Program for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R. E.; Lee, T. S.

    1986-01-01

    CELLOPT program developed to assist in designing grid pattern of current-conducting material on photovoltaic cell. Analyzes parasitic resistance losses and shadow loss associated with metallized grid pattern on both round and rectangular solar cells. Though performs sensitivity studies, used primarily to optimize grid design in terms of bus bar and grid lines by minimizing power loss. CELLOPT written in APL.

  7. A performance study of grid workflow engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratan, C.; Iosup, A.; Epema, D.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    To benefit from grids, scientists require grid workflow engines that automatically manage the execution of inter-related jobs on the grid infrastructure. So far, the workflows community has focused on scheduling algorithms and on interface tools. Thus, while several grid workflow engines have been

  8. Icing modelling in NSMB with chimera overset grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, D. [Ècole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada); ICUBE, Strasbourg University (France); Deloze, T.; Laurendeau, E. [Ècole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada); Hoarau, Y. [ICUBE, Strasbourg University (France)

    2015-03-10

    In aerospace Engineering, the accurate simulation of ice accretion is a key element to increase flight safety and avoid accidents related to icing effects. The icing code developed in the NSMB solver is based on an Eulerian formulation for droplets tracking, an iterative Messinger model using a modified water runback scheme for ice thickness calculation and mesh deformation to track the ice/air interface through time. The whole process is parallelized with MPI and applied with chimera grids.

  9. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The geophysical parameters have been averaged and binned into 1 x 1 deg grid cells,...

  10. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Daily standard physical retrieval (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours...

  11. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly standard physical retrieval (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month....

  12. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Daily standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours for...

  13. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Daily Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours for...

  14. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month. The...

  15. Aqua AIRS Level 3 8-day Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  16. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Monthly Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month....

  17. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 8-day standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  18. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 8-day standard physical retrieval (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  19. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Monthly Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month. The...

  20. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Daily Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours...

  1. Aqua AIRS Level 3 8-day Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  2. Greening the Grid - Advancing Solar, Wind, and Smart Grid Technologies (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of 'Greening the Grid - Advancing Solar, Wind, and Smart Grid Technologies'. Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid.

  3. Scaling Up Renewable Energy Generation: Aligning Targets and Incentives with Grid Integration Considerations, Greening The Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-05-27

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, provides power system planners with tips to help secure and sustain investment in new renewable energy generation by aligning renewable energy policy targets and incentives with grid integration considerations.

  4. Ecosystem Based Business Model of Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgaard, Morten Raahauge; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to investigate the ecosystem based business model in a smart grid infrastructure and the potential of value capture in the highly complex macro infrastructure such as smart grid. This paper proposes an alternative perspective to study the smart grid business ecosystem to support the infrastructural challenges, such as the interoperability of business components for smart grid. So far little research has explored the business ecosystem in the smart grid concept. The study on t...

  5. Securing the smart grid information exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Steffen; Falk, Rainer [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The smart grid is based on information exchange between various stakeholders using open communication technologies, to control the physical electric grid through the information grid. Protection against cyber attacks is essential to ensure a reliable operation of the smart grid. This challenge is addressed by various regulatory, standardization, and research activities. After giving an overview of the security demand of a smart grid, existing and appearing standardization activities are described. (orig.)

  6. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  7. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  8. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Marcie; Haut, Elliott R

    2014-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding remains a commonly encountered diagnosis for acute care surgeons. Initial stabilization and resuscitation of patients is imperative. Stable patients can have initiation of medical therapy and localization of the bleeding, whereas persistently unstable patients require emergent endoscopic or operative intervention. Minimally invasive techniques have surpassed surgery as the treatment of choice for most upper GI bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Since the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 was enacted, there has been a large number of websites that discusses smart grid and relevant information, including those from government, academia, industry, private sector and regulatory. These websites collect information independently. Therefore, smart grid information was quite scattered and dispersed. The objective of this work was to develop, populate, manage and maintain the public Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC) web portal. The information in the SGIC website is comprehensive that includes smart grid information, research & development, demonstration projects, technical standards, costs & benefit analyses, business cases, legislation, policy & regulation, and other information on lesson learned and best practices. The content in the SGIC website is logically grouped to allow easily browse, search and sort. In addition to providing the browse and search feature, the SGIC web portal also allow users to share their smart grid information with others though our online content submission platform. The Clearinghouse web portal, therefore, serves as the first stop shop for smart grid information that collects smart grid information in a non-bias, non-promotional manner and can provide a missing link from information sources to end users and better serve users’ needs. The web portal is available at www.sgiclearinghouse.org. This report summarizes the work performed during the course of the project (September 2009 – August 2014). Section 2.0 lists SGIC Advisory Committee and User Group members. Section 3.0 discusses SGIC information architecture and web-based database application functionalities. Section 4.0 summarizes SGIC features and functionalities, including its search, browse and sort capabilities, web portal social networking, online content submission platform and security measures implemented. Section 5.0 discusses SGIC web portal contents, including smart grid 101, smart grid projects

  10. The CrossGrid project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, M.

    2003-01-01

    There are many large-scale problems that require new approaches to computing, such as earth observation, environmental management, biomedicine, industrial and scientific modeling. The CrossGrid project addresses realistic problems in medicine, environmental protection, flood prediction, and physics analysis and is oriented towards specific end-users: Medical doctors, who could obtain new tools to help them to obtain correct diagnoses and to guide them during operations; industries, that could be advised on the best timing for some critical operations involving risk of pollution; flood crisis teams, that could predict the risk of a flood on the basis of historical records and actual hydrological and meteorological data; physicists, who could optimize the analysis of massive volumes of data distributed across countries and continents. Corresponding applications will be based on Grid technology and could be complex and difficult to use: the CrossGrid project aims at developing several tools that will make the Grid more friendly for average users. Portals for specific applications will be designed, that should allow for easy connection to the Grid, create a customized work environment, and provide users with all necessary information to get their job done

  11. Power grid reliability and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Anjan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Venkatasubramanian, Vaithianathan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Hauser, Carl [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Bakken, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Anderson, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhao, Chuanlin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Liu, Dong [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Yang, Tao [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Meng, Ming [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhang, Lin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Ning, Jiawei [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Tashman, Zaid [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This project has led to the development of a real-time simulation platform for electric power grids called Grid Simulator or GridSim for simulating the dynamic and information network interactions of large- scale power systems. The platform consists of physical models of power system components including synchronous generators, loads and control, which are simulated using a modified commercial power simulator namely Transient Stability Analysis Tool (TSAT) [1] together with data cleanup components, as well as an emulated substation level and wide-area power analysis components. The platform also includes realistic representations of communication network middleware that can emulate the real-time information flow back and forth between substations and control centers in wide-area power systems. The platform has been validated on a realistic 6000-bus model of the western American power system. The simulator GridSim developed in this project is the first of its kind in its ability to simulate real-time response of large-scale power grids, and serves as a cost effective real-time stability and control simulation platform for power industry.

  12. Heat transfer coefficient testing in nuclear fuel rod bundles with mixing vane grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, Michael E.; Smith, L. David III; Holloway, Mary V.; Beasley, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    An air heat transfer test facility was developed to test the heat transfer downstream of support grids in simulated PWR nuclear fuel rod bundles. The goal of this testing is to study the single-phase heat transfer coefficients downstream of grids with mixing vanes in a square-pitch rod bundle. The technique developed utilizes fully-heated grid spans and a specially designed thermocouple holder that can be moved axially down the rod bundle and aximuthally within a test rod. From this testing, the axial and aximuthally varying heat transfer coefficient can be determined. Different grid designs are tested and compared to determine the heat transfer enhancement associated with key grid features such as mixing vanes. (author)

  13. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit blood ...

  14. ATLAS Grid Workflow Performance Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The CERN ATLAS experiment grid workflow system manages routinely 250 to 500 thousand concurrently running production and analysis jobs to process simulation and detector data. In total more than 300 PB of data is distributed over more than 150 sites in the WLCG. At this scale small improvements in the software and computing performance and workflows can lead to significant resource usage gains. ATLAS is reviewing together with CERN IT experts several typical simulation and data processing workloads for potential performance improvements in terms of memory and CPU usage, disk and network I/O. All ATLAS production and analysis grid jobs are instrumented to collect many performance metrics for detailed statistical studies using modern data analytics tools like ElasticSearch and Kibana. This presentation will review and explain the performance gains of several ATLAS simulation and data processing workflows and present analytics studies of the ATLAS grid workflows.

  15. Grid Technology and Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippa, A.; Manieri, A.; Begin, M.E.; Di Meglio, A.

    2007-01-01

    Grid is one of the potential architectures of the coming years to support both the research and the commercial environment. Quality assurance techniques need both to adapt to these new architectures and exploit them to improve its effectiveness. Software quality is a key issue in the Digital Era: Industries as well as Public Administrations devote time to check and verify the quality of ICT products and services supplied. The definition of automatic measurement of quality metrics is a key point for implementing effective QA methods. In this paper we propose a quality certification model, named Grid-based Quality Certification Model (GQCM), that uses automatically calculable metrics to asses the quality of software applications; this model has been developed within the ETICS SSA4 activities and exploit grid technology for full automation of metrics calculation. It is however designed to be generic enough such that it can be implemented using any automatic build and test tool. (Author)

  16. Hierarchical Control for Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    of autonomous consumers. The control system is tasked with balancing electric power production and consumption within the smart grid, and makes active use of the flexibility of a large number of power producing and/or power consuming units. The objective is to accommodate the load variation on the grid, arising......This paper deals with hierarchical model predictive control (MPC) of smart grid systems. The design consists of a high level MPC controller, a second level of so-called aggregators, which reduces the computational and communication-related load on the high-level control, and a lower level...... on one hand from varying consumption, and on the other hand by natural variations in power production e.g. from wind turbines. The high-level MPC problem is solved using quadratic optimisation, while the aggregator level can either involve quadratic optimisation or simple sorting-based min-max solutions...

  17. Implementation of grid-connected to/from off-grid transference for micro-grid inverters

    OpenAIRE

    Heredero Peris, Daniel; Chillón Antón, Cristian; Pages Gimenez, Marc; Gross, Gabriel Igor; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the transfer of a microgrid converter from/to on-grid to/from off-grid when the converter is working in two different modes. In the first transfer presented method, the converter operates as a Current Source Inverter (CSI) when on-grid and as a Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) when off-grid. In the second transfer method, the converter is operated as a VSI both, when operated on-grid and off-grid. The two methods are implemented successfully in a real pla...

  18. Grid Integration of Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giæver Tande, John Olav

    2003-07-01

    This article gives an overview of grid integration of wind farms with respect to impact on voltage quality and power system stability. The recommended procedure for assessing the impact of wind turbines on voltage quality in distribution grids is presented. The procedure uses the power quality characteristic data of wind turbines to determine the impact on slow voltage variations, flicker, voltage dips and harmonics. The detailed assessment allows for substantially more wind power in distribution grids compared with previously used rule-of-thumb guidelines. Power system stability is a concern in conjunction with large wind farms or very weak grids. Assessment requires the use of power system simulation tools, and wind farm models for inclusion in such tools are presently being developed. A fixed-speed wind turbine model is described. The model may be considered a good starting point for development of more advanced models, hereunder the concept of variable-speed wind turbines with a doubly fed induction generator is briefly explained. The use of dynamic wind farm models as part of power system simulation tools allows for detailed studies and development of innovative grid integration techniques. It is demonstrated that the use of reactive compensation may relax the short-term voltage stability limit and allow integration of significantly more wind power, and that application of automatic generation control technology may be an efficient means to circumvent thermal transmission capacity constraints. The continuous development of analysis tools and technology for cost-effective and secure grid integration is an important aid to ensure the increasing use of wind energy. A key factor for success, however, is the communication of results and gained experience, and in this regard it is hoped that this article may contribute.

  19. Grid for Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, Monique; Schwichtenberg, Horst

    2013-04-01

    The civil society at large has addressed to the Earth Science community many strong requirements related in particular to natural and industrial risks, climate changes, new energies. The main critical point is that on one hand the civil society and all public ask for certainties i.e. precise values with small error range as it concerns prediction at short, medium and long term in all domains; on the other hand Science can mainly answer only in terms of probability of occurrence. To improve the answer or/and decrease the uncertainties, (1) new observational networks have been deployed in order to have a better geographical coverage and more accurate measurements have been carried out in key locations and aboard satellites. Following the OECD recommendations on the openness of research and public sector data, more and more data are available for Academic organisation and SMEs; (2) New algorithms and methodologies have been developed to face the huge data processing and assimilation into simulations using new technologies and compute resources. Finally, our total knowledge about the complex Earth system is contained in models and measurements, how we put them together has to be managed cleverly. The technical challenge is to put together databases and computing resources to answer the ES challenges. However all the applications are very intensive computing. Different compute solutions are available and depend on the characteristics of the applications. One of them is Grid especially efficient for independent or embarrassingly parallel jobs related to statistical and parametric studies. Numerous applications in atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, seismology, hydrology, pollution, climate and biodiversity have been deployed successfully on Grid. In order to fulfill requirements of risk management, several prototype applications have been deployed using OGC (Open geospatial Consortium) components with Grid middleware. The Grid has permitted via a huge number of runs to

  20. Grids for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, G.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to grids for nuclear fuel assemblies with the object of providing an improved grid, tending to have greater strength and tending to offer better location of the fuel pins. It comprises sets of generally parallel strips arranged to intersect to define a structure of cellular form, at least some of the intersections including a strip which is keyed to another strip at more than one point. One type of strip may be dimpled along its length and another type of strip may have slots for keying with the dimples. (Auth.)

  1. Spacer grid for fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensolt, T.; Huenner, M.; Rau, P.; Veca, A.

    1978-01-01

    The spacer grid for fuel elements of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (but also for PWRs and BWRs) consists of a lattice field with dodecagonal meshes. These meshes are formed by three each adjacent hexagons grouped arround a central axis. The pairs of legs extending into the dodecagon and being staggered by 120 0 are designed as knubs with inclined abutting surfaces for the fuel rods. By this means there is formed a three-point bearing for centering the fuel rods. The spacer grid mentioned above is rough-worked from a single disc- resp. plate-shaped body (unfinished piece). (DG) [de

  2. Spacer grid for fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensolt, T.; Huenner, M.; Rau, P.; Veca, A.

    1980-01-01

    The spacer grid for fuel elements of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (but also for PWRs and BWRs) consists of a lattice field with dodecagonal meshes. These meshes are formed by three each adjacent hexagons grouped arround a central axis. The pairs of legs extending into the dodecagon and being staggered by 120 are designed as knubs with inclined abutting surfaces for the fuel rods. By this means there is formed a three-point bearing for centering the fuel rods. The spacer grid mentioned above is rough-worked from a single disc- resp. plate-shaped body (unfinished piece). (orig.)

  3. Smart Grids. Innovators talking; Smart Grids. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on Smart Grids [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar Smart Grids.

  4. Smart Grids. Innovators talking; Smart Grids. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on Smart Grids [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar Smart Grids.

  5. A New Method to Energy Saving in a Micro Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vallati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of energy production systems is a relevant issue that must be considered in order to follow the fossil fuels consumption reduction policies and CO2 emission regulation. Increasing electricity production from renewable resources (e.g., photovoltaic systems and wind farms is desirable but its unpredictability is a cause of problems for the main grid stability. A system with multiple energy sources represents an efficient solution, by realizing an interface among renewable energy sources, energy storage systems, and conventional power generators. Direct consequences of multi-energy systems are a wider energy flexibility and benefits for the electric grid, the purpose of this paper is to propose the best technology combination for electricity generation from a mix of renewable energy resources to satisfy the electrical needs. The paper identifies the optimal off-grid option and compares this with conventional grid extension, through the use of HOMER software. The solution obtained shows that a hybrid combination of renewable energy generators at an off-grid location can be a cost-effective alternative to grid extension and it is sustainable, techno-economically viable, and environmentally sound. The results show how this innovative energetic approach can provide a cost reduction in power supply and energy fees of 40% and 25%, respectively, and CO2 emission decrease attained around 18%. Furthermore, the multi-energy system taken as the case study has been optimized through the utilization of three different type of energy storage (Pb-Ac batteries, flywheels, and micro—Compressed Air Energy Storage (C.A.E.S..

  6. MrGrid: a portable grid based molecular replacement pipeline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Schmidberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The crystallographic determination of protein structures can be computationally demanding and for difficult cases can benefit from user-friendly interfaces to high-performance computing resources. Molecular replacement (MR is a popular protein crystallographic technique that exploits the structural similarity between proteins that share some sequence similarity. But the need to trial permutations of search models, space group symmetries and other parameters makes MR time- and labour-intensive. However, MR calculations are embarrassingly parallel and thus ideally suited to distributed computing. In order to address this problem we have developed MrGrid, web-based software that allows multiple MR calculations to be executed across a grid of networked computers, allowing high-throughput MR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MrGrid is a portable web based application written in Java/JSP and Ruby, and taking advantage of Apple Xgrid technology. Designed to interface with a user defined Xgrid resource the package manages the distribution of multiple MR runs to the available nodes on the Xgrid. We evaluated MrGrid using 10 different protein test cases on a network of 13 computers, and achieved an average speed up factor of 5.69. CONCLUSIONS: MrGrid enables the user to retrieve and manage the results of tens to hundreds of MR calculations quickly and via a single web interface, as well as broadening the range of strategies that can be attempted. This high-throughput approach allows parameter sweeps to be performed in parallel, improving the chances of MR success.

  7. caGrid 1.0: a Grid enterprise architecture for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Scott; Langella, Stephen; Hastings, Shannon; Ervin, David; Madduri, Ravi; Kurc, Tahsin; Siebenlist, Frank; Covitz, Peter; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Foster, Ian; Saltz, Joel

    2007-10-11

    caGrid is the core Grid architecture of the NCI-sponsored cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) program. The current release, caGrid version 1.0, is developed as the production Grid software infrastructure of caBIG. Based on feedback from adopters of the previous version (caGrid 0.5), it has been significantly enhanced with new features and improvements to existing components. This paper presents an overview of caGrid 1.0, its main components, and enhancements over caGrid 0.5.

  8. Grid technologies and applications: architecture and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ian Foster

    2001-01-01

    The 18 months since CHEP'2000 have seen significant advances in Grid computing, both within and outside high energy physics. While in early 2000, Grid computing was a novel concept that most CHEP attendees were being exposed to for the first time, now considerable consensus is seen on Grid architecture, a solid and widely adopted technology base, major funding initiatives, a wide variety of projects developing applications and technologies, and major deployment projects aimed at creating robust Grid infrastructures. The author provides a summary of major developments and trends, focusing on the Globus open source Grid software project and the GriPhyN data grid project

  9. Communication and Networking in Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate for researchers, practitioners, and students alike, Communication and Networking in Smart Grids presents state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for communication networks in smart grids. It explains how contemporary grid networks are developed and deployed and presents a collection of cutting-edge advances to help improve current practice. Prominent researchers working on smart grids and in related fields around the world explain the fundamental aspects and applications of smart grids. Describing the role that communication and networking will play in future smart grids

  10. Smart grids are advancing, light and supple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    While indicating some innovations produced by the Greenlys laboratory (SmartScan to localize losses by means of smart counters, a system for grid self-healing, Sequoia to manage a low voltage network, a tool for the prediction of photovoltaic production in real time), and also the main smart grid projects in France (Nice Grid, Solenn, SoGrid, Smart Electric Lyon, Poste intelligent, Greenlys, Smart Grids Vendee, BienVEnu), this article comments the emergence of several experiments on smart grids in France, the first drawn conclusions and recommendations. Some issues for this new architecture are discussed: the active demand management, cut-offs and flexibility, and the search for profitability

  11. Smart grid standards specifications, requirements, and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Takuro; Duan, Bin; Macuha, Martin; Zhou, Zhenyu; Wu, Jun; Tariq, Muhammad; Asfaw, Solomon A

    2015-01-01

    With numerous existing Smart Grid standards, it is clear that governments and industrial organizations world-wide have understood and acknowledged the critical role they play. This timely book is a useful guide for Smart Grid professionals in easily classifying fundamental Smart Grid standards, and to quickly find the building blocks they need to analyse and implement a Smart Grid system. The standards are organized in a systematic manner that aids identification, according to grid requirements. It also covers broader Smart Grid areas including, but not limited to, the following: A fully c

  12. Distribution Grid Integration of Photovoltaic Systems in Germany – Implications on Grid Planning and Grid Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic is the most dispersed renewable energy source in Germany, typically interconnected to low and medium voltage systems. In recent years, cost-intensive grid reinforcements had to be undertaken all across Germany’s distribution grids in order to increase their hosting capacity for these photovoltaic installations. This paper presents an overview on research results which show that photovoltaic itself can provide ancillary services to reduce its cost of interconnection. Especially the provision of reactive power turned out to be a technically effective and economically efficient method to increase a grid’s hosting capacity for photovoltaic capacity. Different reactive power control methods were investigated, revealing significant differences with regards to their grid operation implications. Business cases for residential-scale photovoltaic applications have shifted from feed-in-tariff based active power feed-in to self-consumption. However, increasing the photovoltaic self-consumption by additional battery-storage systems is still not economically reliable in Germany. (author)

  13. Increase in VVER type reactor critical heat fluxes due to placing the mixing grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukov, Y.; Lisenkov, E.; Vasilchenko, I.

    2011-01-01

    The report deals with the results of studies of critical heat fluxes (CHF) on the models of VVER type reactor fuel assembly models equipped with the 'Vihr' intensifiers-grids. The models are the seven-rod bundles with the uniform and non-uniform axial power that correspond to two periods of FA operation i.e. beginning of cycle and end of cycle. The experiments performed showed that the mixing grids of this type are capable of increasing the FA burnout power. The power ascension rate depends on both coolant pressure and steam quality value in the CHF point. Placing the mixing grids in the bundle upper spans results in shifting the point of DNB occurrence downward along the FA height. The experimental data obtained will be used to develop the correlations for determining the CHF in the FA equipped with the mixing grids. (authors)

  14. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  15. Right upper quadrant pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, P.W.; Colletti, P.M.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, assessment of acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain has been a considerable clinical challenge. While clinical findings and laboratory data frequently narrow the differential diagnosis, symptom overlap generally precludes definitive diagnosis among the various diseases causing acute right upper quadrant pain. Fortunately, the advent of newer diagnostic imaging modalities has greatly improved the rapidity and reliability of diagnosis in these patients. An additional challenge to the physician, with increased awareness of the importance of cost effectiveness in medicine, is to select appropriate diagnostic schema that rapidly establish accurate diagnoses in the most economical fashion possible. The dual goals of this discussion are to assess not only the accuracy of techniques used to evaluate patients with acute right upper quadrant pain, but also to seek out cost-effective, coordinated imaging techniques to achieve this goal

  16. Virtual MHD Jets on Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lery, Thibaut; Combet, Céline; Murphy, G C

    2005-01-01

    As network performance has outpaced computational power and storage capacity, a new paradigm has evolved to enable the sharing of geographically distributed resources. This paradigm is known as Grid computing and aims to offer access to distributed resource irrespective of their physical location...... the first jet simulations and their corresponding models that could help to understand results from laboratory experiments....

  17. Cern-Grid besteht Belastungsprobe

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In the European Center for Nuclear Research, CERN, in Geneva the Grid Computing infrastructure's building took a further hurdle: between CERN and seven Research Centers around the World, during 10 days, a continuous flow of about 600 MByte was achieved (¼ page)

  18. Incremental Trust in Grid Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkløv, Michael Hvalsøe; Sharp, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative simulation study of some incremental trust and reputation algorithms for handling behavioural trust in large distributed systems. Two types of reputation algorithm (based on discrete and Bayesian evaluation of ratings) and two ways of combining direct trust and ...... of Grid computing systems....

  19. Demand Response in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, moves toward higher integration of Renewable Energy Resources have called for fundamental changes in both the planning and operation of the overall power grid. One such change is the incorporation of Demand Response (DR), the process by which consumers can adjust their demand...

  20. Grid lattice with sliding strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1977-01-01

    The invention provides means for inserting tubular members into a grid structure without mutual contact between the tubular members. After the tubular members are inserted, a movable strap is slid into position, thereby engaging, locating, and supporting the tubular member in a fixed location. (Auth.)

  1. Smart Grid Control and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Pedersen, Rasmus; Kristensen, Thomas le Fevre

    2015-01-01

    to the reliability due to the stochastic behavior found in such networks. Therefore, key concepts are presented in this paper targeting the support of proper smart grid control in these network environments and its Real-Time Hardware-In-the Loop (HIL) verification. An overview on the required Information...

  2. Speeding the traffic on grids

    CERN Multimedia

    Port, O

    2002-01-01

    CERN is one of a number of organizations looking at ways to to accelerate grid computing. CERN researcher Wolfgang Hoschek said new software will soon scan all the available computers on the Web and find the most efficient combination to solve a particular problem (1/3 page).

  3. Electromagnetic Interference in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Keyer, Cees

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. If equipped with a communication link they are called smart meter. Because the smart meter is a key device in smart grids, any deviation has huge impact on

  4. Grid-free compressive beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter

    2015-01-01

    sparsity on a continuous optimization variable. The DOA estimation problem with infinitely many unknowns, i.e., source locations and amplitudes, is solved over a few optimization variables with semidefinite programming. The grid-free CS reconstruction provides high-resolution imaging even with non...

  5. Grid Synchronization for Distributed Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyghami, Saeed; Mokhtari, Hossein; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Distributed generators (DGs) like photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines, and fuel cell modules, as well as distributed storage (DS) units introduce some advantages to the power systems and make it more reliable, flexible, and controllable in comparison with the conventional power systems. Grid inter...

  6. Redes GRID: compartir para investigar

    CERN Multimedia

    Campos Plasencia, I

    2006-01-01

    "Share to investigae": this sentence summarizes the philosophy of the GRID Network. Before the flux of data and the huge calculation operations for actual physics and astronomy, the scientists share the work thanks to a computers network all over the world (2 pages)

  7. Shining examples of grid applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Hammerle, Hannelore

    2006-01-01

    Users in more than 150 virtual organisations from fields as diverse as biomedicine, earth Sciences and high-energy physics are now using the distributed computing infrastructure of the enabling grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) project, which shows the wide adoption and versatiblity of this new technology (1 page)

  8. Interoperability and HealthGRID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bescos, C; Schmitt, D; Kass, J; García-Barbero, M; Kantchev, P

    2005-01-01

    GRID technology, with initiatives like the GGF, will have the potential to allow both competition and interoperability not only among applications and toolkits, but also among implementations of key services. The pyramid of eHealth interoperability should be achieved from standards in communication and data security, storage and processing, to the policy initiatives, including organizational protocols, financing procedures, and legal framework. The open challenges for GRID use in clinical fields illustrate the potential of the combination of grid technologies with medical routine into a wider interoperable framework. The Telemedicine Alliance is a consortium (ESA, WHO and ITU), initiated in 2002, in building a vision for the provision of eHealth to European citizens by 2010. After a survey with more that 50 interviews of experts, interoperability was identified as the main showstopper to eHealth implementation. There are already several groups and organizations contributing to standardization. TM-Alliance is supporting the "e-Health Standardization Coordination Group" (eHSCG). It is now, in the design and development phase of GRID technology in Health, the right moment to act with the aim of achieving an interoperable and open framework. The Health area should benefit from the initiatives started at the GGF in terms of global architecture and services definitions, as well as from the security and other web services applications developed under the Internet umbrella. There is a risk that existing important results of the standardization efforts in this area are not taken up simply because they are not always known.

  9. Gearing up for the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Griffiths, Martin

    2006-01-01

    "Storing and analysing the data from the Large Hadron Collider will be impossible without a wolrdwide "Grid" of interlinked computers. But as the launch date neras, there is still a lot of work to be done, as Martin Griffiths discovers." (2 pages)

  10. The StaggerGrid project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collet, Remo; Magic, Zazralt; Asplund, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, we present the STAGGERGRID, a collaborative project for the construction of a comprehensive grid of time-dependent, three-dimensional (3-D), hydrodynamic model atmospheres of solar- and late-type stars with different effective temperatures, surface gravities, and chemical...

  11. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  12. FermiGrid - experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K.; Berman, E.; Canal, P.; Hesselroth, T.; Garzoglio, G.; Levshina, T.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Timm, S.; Yocum, D.

    2007-01-01

    Fermilab supports a scientific program that includes experiments and scientists located across the globe. In order to better serve this community, Fermilab has placed its production computer resources in a Campus Grid infrastructure called 'FermiGrid'. The FermiGrid infrastructure allows the large experiments at Fermilab to have priority access to their own resources, enables sharing of these resources in an opportunistic fashion, and movement of work (jobs, data) between the Campus Grid and National Grids such as Open Science Grid and the WLCG. FermiGrid resources support multiple Virtual Organizations (VOs), including VOs from the Open Science Grid (OSG), EGEE and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid Collaboration (WLCG). Fermilab also makes leading contributions to the Open Science Grid in the areas of accounting, batch computing, grid security, job management, resource selection, site infrastructure, storage management, and VO services. Through the FermiGrid interfaces, authenticated and authorized VOs and individuals may access our core grid services, the 10,000+ Fermilab resident CPUs, near-petabyte (including CMS) online disk pools and the multi-petabyte Fermilab Mass Storage System. These core grid services include a site wide Globus gatekeeper, VO management services for several VOs, Fermilab site authorization services, grid user mapping services, as well as job accounting and monitoring, resource selection and data movement services. Access to these services is via standard and well-supported grid interfaces. We will report on the user experience of using the FermiGrid campus infrastructure interfaced to a national cyberinfrastructure--the successes and the problems

  13. Influence of grid resolution in fluid-model simulation of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Weizhuo; Fukagata, Koji

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulation of a surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuator, driven by a nanosecond voltage pulse, is conducted. A special focus is laid upon the influence of grid resolution on the computational result. It is found that the computational result is not very sensitive to the streamwise grid spacing, whereas the wall-normal grid spacing has a critical influence. In particular, the computed propagation velocity changes discontinuously around the wall-normal grid spacing about 2 μm due to a qualitative change of discharge structure. The present result suggests that a computational grid finer than that was used in most of previous studies is required to correctly capture the structure and dynamics of streamer: when a positive nanosecond voltage pulse is applied to the upper electrode, a streamer forms in the vicinity of upper electrode and propagates along the dielectric surface with a maximum propagation velocity of 2 × 108 cm/s, and a gap with low electron and ion density (i.e., plasma sheath) exists between the streamer and dielectric surface. Difference between the results obtained using the finer and the coarser grid is discussed in detail in terms of the electron transport at a position near the surface. When the finer grid is used, the low electron density near the surface is caused by the absence of ionization avalanche: in that region, the electrons generated by ionization is compensated by drift-diffusion flux. In contrast, when the coarser grid is used, underestimated drift-diffusion flux cannot compensate the electrons generated by ionization, and it leads to an incorrect increase of electron density.

  14. Global gridded anthropogenic emissions inventory of carbonyl sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumkehr, Andrew; Hilton, Tim W.; Whelan, Mary; Smith, Steve; Kuai, Le; Worden, John; Campbell, J. Elliott

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS or OCS) is the most abundant sulfur containing gas in the troposphere and is an atmospheric tracer for the carbon cycle. Gridded inventories of global anthropogenic COS are used for interpreting global COS measurements. However, previous gridded anthropogenic data are a climatological estimate based on input data that is over three decades old and are not representative of current conditions. Here we develop a new gridded data set of global anthropogenic COS sources that includes more source sectors than previously available and uses the most current emissions factors and industry activity data as input. Additionally, the inventory is provided as annually varying estimates from years 1980-2012 and employs a source specific spatial scaling procedure. We estimate a global source in year 2012 of 406 Gg S y-1 (range of 223-586 Gg S y-1), which is highly concentrated in China and is twice as large as the previous gridded inventory. Our large upward revision in the bottom-up estimate of the source is consistent with a recent top-down estimate based on air-monitoring and Antarctic firn data. Furthermore, our inventory time trends, including a decline in the 1990's and growth after the year 2000, are qualitatively consistent with trends in atmospheric data. Finally, similarities between the spatial distribution in this inventory and remote sensing data suggest that the anthropogenic source could potentially play a role in explaining a missing source in the global COS budget.

  15. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  16. A Theorem on Grid Access Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU ZhiWei(徐志伟); BU GuanYing(卜冠英)

    2003-01-01

    The current grid security research is mainly focused on the authentication of grid systems. A problem to be solved by grid systems is to ensure consistent access control. This problem is complicated because the hosts in a grid computing environment usually span multiple autonomous administrative domains. This paper presents a grid access control model, based on asynchronous automata theory and the classic Bell-LaPadula model. This model is useful to formally study the confidentiality and integrity problems in a grid computing environment. A theorem is proved, which gives the necessary and sufficient conditions to a grid to maintain confidentiality.These conditions are the formalized descriptions of local (node) relations or relationship between grid subjects and node subjects.

  17. Interactive volume visualization of general polyhedral grids

    KAUST Repository

    Muigg, Philipp; Hadwiger, Markus; Doleisch, Helmut; Grö ller, Eduard M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel framework for visualizing volumetric data specified on complex polyhedral grids, without the need to perform any kind of a priori tetrahedralization. These grids are composed of polyhedra that often are non

  18. NEW RSW & Wall Coarse Tet Only Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the RSW Coarse Tet Only grid with the root viscous tunnel wall. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 0 Tria Surface Faces=...

  19. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring ... The converter is grid connected and controlled to operate at unity power factor. Additional ... Sadhana. Current Issue : Vol. 43, Issue 6.

  20. U.S. Isostatic Residual Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — isores.bin - standard grid containing isostatic residual gravity map for U.S. Grid interval = 4 km. Projection is Albers (central meridian = 96 degrees West; base...

  1. NEW RSW & Wall Coarse Mixed Element Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Coarse Mixed Element Grid for the RSW with a viscous wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 9728 Tria...

  2. Smart grids opportunities, developments, and trends

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A B M Shawkat

    2013-01-01

    This book provides up to date knowledge, research results, and innovations in smart grids spanning design, implementation, analysis and evaluation of smart grid solutions to the challenging problems in all areas of the power industry.

  3. Ecosystem Based Business Model of Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Morten Raahauge; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to investigate the ecosystem based business model in a smart grid infrastructure and the potential of value capture in the highly complex macro infrastructure such as smart grid. This paper proposes an alternative perspective to study the smart grid business ecosystem to support...... the infrastructural challenges, such as the interoperability of business components for smart grid. So far little research has explored the business ecosystem in the smart grid concept. The study on the smart grid with the theory of business ecosystem may open opportunities to understand market catalysts. This study...... contributes an understanding of business ecosystem applicable for smart grid. Smart grid infrastructure is an intricate business ecosystem, which have several intentions to deliver the value proposition and what it should be. The findings help to identify and capture value from markets....

  4. Optimizing Grid Patterns on Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    CELCAL computer program helps in optimizing grid patterns for different photovoltaic cell geometries and metalization processes. Five different powerloss phenomena associated with front-surface metal grid pattern on photovoltaic cells.

  5. 2 minute Southcentral Alaska Elevation Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2-minute Southcentral Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 2-minute resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  6. Additional Security Considerations for Grid Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidson, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    The use of Grid computing environments is growing in popularity. A Grid computing environment is primarily a wide area network that encompasses multiple local area networks, where some of the local area networks are managed by different organizations. A Grid computing environment also includes common interfaces for distributed computing software so that the heterogeneous set of machines that make up the Grid can be used more easily. The other key feature of a Grid is that the distributed computing software includes appropriate security technology. The focus of most Grid software is on the security involved with application execution, file transfers, and other remote computing procedures. However, there are other important security issues related to the management of a Grid and the users who use that Grid. This note discusses these additional security issues and makes several suggestions as how they can be managed.

  7. US National Grid - Minnesota 1000 meter Tile

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The United States National Grid (USNG) is a nonproprietary alphanumeric referencing system derived from the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) that is being...

  8. How well does wind speed predict air-sea gas transfer in the sea ice zone? A synthesis of radon deficit profiles in the upper water column of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, B.; Kelly, R. P.; Bigdeli, A.; Williams, W.; Krishfield, R.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; Moran, S. B.

    2017-05-01

    We present 34 profiles of radon-deficit from the ice-ocean boundary layer of the Beaufort Sea. Including these 34, there are presently 58 published radon-deficit estimates of air-sea gas transfer velocity (k) in the Arctic Ocean; 52 of these estimates were derived from water covered by 10% sea ice or more. The average value of k collected since 2011 is 4.0 ± 1.2 m d-1. This exceeds the quadratic wind speed prediction of weighted kws = 2.85 m d-1 with mean-weighted wind speed of 6.4 m s-1. We show how ice cover changes the mixed-layer radon budget, and yields an "effective gas transfer velocity." We use these 58 estimates to statistically evaluate the suitability of a wind speed parameterization for k, when the ocean surface is ice covered. Whereas the six profiles taken from the open ocean indicate a statistically good fit to wind speed parameterizations, the same parameterizations could not reproduce k from the sea ice zone. We conclude that techniques for estimating k in the open ocean cannot be similarly applied to determine k in the presence of sea ice. The magnitude of k through gaps in the ice may reach high values as ice cover increases, possibly as a result of focused turbulence dissipation at openings in the free surface. These 58 profiles are presently the most complete set of estimates of k across seasons and variable ice cover; as dissolved tracer budgets they reflect air-sea gas exchange with no impact from air-ice gas exchange.

  9. Upper airway evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.A.; Gefter, W.B.; Schnall, M.; Nordberg, J.; Listerud, J.; Lenkinski, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are evaluating upper-airway sleep disorders with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and x-ray cine computed tomography (CT). Fixed structural anatomy is visualized with multisection spin-echo MR imaging, the dynamic component with cine CT. Unique aspects of the study are described in this paper

  10. Smart Grid Security: Threats, Challenges, and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjab, Anibal; Saad, Walid; Guvenc, Ismail; Sarwat, Arif; Biswas, Saroj

    2016-01-01

    The cyber-physical nature of the smart grid has rendered it vulnerable to a multitude of attacks that can occur at its communication, networking, and physical entry points. Such cyber-physical attacks can have detrimental effects on the operation of the grid as exemplified by the recent attack which caused a blackout of the Ukranian power grid. Thus, to properly secure the smart grid, it is of utmost importance to: a) understand its underlying vulnerabilities and associated threats, b) quanti...

  11. Probabilistic Learning by Rodent Grid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Allen

    2016-10-01

    Mounting evidence shows mammalian brains are probabilistic computers, but the specific cells involved remain elusive. Parallel research suggests that grid cells of the mammalian hippocampal formation are fundamental to spatial cognition but their diverse response properties still defy explanation. No plausible model exists which explains stable grids in darkness for twenty minutes or longer, despite being one of the first results ever published on grid cells. Similarly, no current explanation can tie together grid fragmentation and grid rescaling, which show very different forms of flexibility in grid responses when the environment is varied. Other properties such as attractor dynamics and grid anisotropy seem to be at odds with one another unless additional properties are assumed such as a varying velocity gain. Modelling efforts have largely ignored the breadth of response patterns, while also failing to account for the disastrous effects of sensory noise during spatial learning and recall, especially in darkness. Here, published electrophysiological evidence from a range of experiments are reinterpreted using a novel probabilistic learning model, which shows that grid cell responses are accurately predicted by a probabilistic learning process. Diverse response properties of probabilistic grid cells are statistically indistinguishable from rat grid cells across key manipulations. A simple coherent set of probabilistic computations explains stable grid fields in darkness, partial grid rescaling in resized arenas, low-dimensional attractor grid cell dynamics, and grid fragmentation in hairpin mazes. The same computations also reconcile oscillatory dynamics at the single cell level with attractor dynamics at the cell ensemble level. Additionally, a clear functional role for boundary cells is proposed for spatial learning. These findings provide a parsimonious and unified explanation of grid cell function, and implicate grid cells as an accessible neuronal population

  12. Data privacy for the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Herold, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Smart Grid and PrivacyWhat Is the Smart Grid? Changes from Traditional Energy Delivery Smart Grid Possibilities Business Model Transformations Emerging Privacy Risks The Need for Privacy PoliciesPrivacy Laws, Regulations, and Standards Privacy-Enhancing Technologies New Privacy Challenges IOT Big Data What Is the Smart Grid?Market and Regulatory OverviewTraditional Electricity Business SectorThe Electricity Open Market Classifications of Utilities Rate-Making ProcessesElectricity Consumer

  13. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Changchun; Cao Xiangqin

    2013-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are per...

  14. Reliability evaluation of smart distribution grids

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Shahram

    2011-01-01

    The term "Smart Grid" generally refers to a power grid equipped with the advanced technologies dedicated for purposes such as reliability improvement, ease of control and management, integrating of distributed energy resources and electricity market operations. Improving the reliability of electric power delivered to the end users is one of the main targets of employing smart grid technologies. The smart grid investments targeted for reliability improvement can be directed toward the generati...

  15. Integrating PEVs with Renewables and the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, Andrew; Markel, Tony; Jun, Myungsoo; Zhang, Jiucai

    2016-06-29

    This presentation is an overview of NREL's Electric Vehicle Grid Integration (EVGI) efforts toward integrating Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) with renewable energy and the grid. Efforts include managed charging, local power quality, emergency backup power, and bi-directional power flow. Discussion of future vehicle-related activities under the Grid Modernization Initiative by the Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Working Group.

  16. FermiGrid-experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K; Berman, E; Canal, P; Hesselroth, T; Garzoglio, G; Levshina, T; Sergeev, V; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, N; Timm, S; Yocum, D R

    2008-01-01

    Fermilab supports a scientific program that includes experiments and scientists located across the globe. In order to better serve this community, Fermilab has placed its production computer resources in a Campus Grid infrastructure called 'FermiGrid'. The FermiGrid infrastructure allows the large experiments at Fermilab to have priority access to their own resources, enables sharing of these resources in an opportunistic fashion, and movement of work (jobs, data) between the Campus Grid and National Grids such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid Collaboration (WLCG). FermiGrid resources support multiple Virtual Organizations (VOs), including VOs from the OSG, EGEE, and the WLCG. Fermilab also makes leading contributions to the Open Science Grid in the areas of accounting, batch computing, grid security, job management, resource selection, site infrastructure, storage management, and VO services. Through the FermiGrid interfaces, authenticated and authorized VOs and individuals may access our core grid services, the 10,000+ Fermilab resident CPUs, near-petabyte (including CMS) online disk pools and the multi-petabyte Fermilab Mass Storage System. These core grid services include a site wide Globus gatekeeper, VO management services for several VOs, Fermilab site authorization services, grid user mapping services, as well as job accounting and monitoring, resource selection and data movement services. Access to these services is via standard and well-supported grid interfaces. We will report on the user experience of using the FermiGrid campus infrastructure interfaced to a national cyberinfrastructure - the successes and the problems

  17. The use and abuse of radiographic grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    It is generally accepted that scattered radiation degrades the quality of the radiographic image. When this problem occurs, a radiographic grid may be applied which necessitates an increase in exposure. Investigations are reported in the following areas: reasons for the introduction of a radiographic grid; the ratio between kilovoltage and grid ratio; techniques resulting in higher contrast and resolution at low patient dose and the abuse of grids

  18. Development of a Smart Grid Simulation Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Delamare, J; Bitachon, B.; Peng, Z.; Wang, Y.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    With the increased integration of renewable energy sources the interaction between energy producers and consumers has become a bi-directional exchange. Therefore, the electrical grid must be adapted into a smart grid which effectively regulates this two-way interaction. With the aid of simulation, stakeholders can obtain information on how to properly develop and control the smart grid. In this paper, we present the development of an integrated smart grid simulation model, using the Anylogic ...

  19. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. It measures 21 metrics to provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This report looks across a spectrum of smart grid concerns to measure the status of smart grid deployment and impacts.

  20. Collaborative Science Using Web Services and the SciFlo Grid Dataflow Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Yunck, T.

    2006-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo leverages remote Web Services, called via Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or REST (one-line) URLs, and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* &Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client &server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. In particular, SciFlo exploits the wealth of datasets accessible by OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Servers & Web Coverage Servers (WMS/WCS), and by Open Data

  1. Clinical reasoning in neurology: use of the repertory grid technique to investigate the reasoning of an experienced occupational therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Kathy; Grice, James W

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the use of a structured interview methodology, the repertory grid technique, for investigating the clinical reasoning of an experienced occupational therapist in the domain of upper limb hypertonia as a result of brain injury. Repertory grid interviews were completed before and after exposure to a protocol designed to guide clinical reasoning and decision-making in relation to upper limb neurological rehabilitation. Data were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Qualitative analysis focussed on clinical reasoning content. Common themes across the pre- and post-exposure interviews were the use of theoretical frameworks and practice models, the significance of clinical expertise, and discrimination of 'broad' and 'specific' aspects, as well as differentiation between 'therapist and client-related' aspects of the clinical situation. Quantitative analysis indicated that for both pre- and post-exposure repertory grids, clinical reasoning was structured in terms of two main concepts. In the pre-exposure grid, these were related to the therapist's role, and to the 'scope' of practice tasks (either broad or specific). In the post-exposure grid the two main concepts were upper limb performance, and client-centred aspects of the therapy process. The repertory grid technique is proposed as an effective tool for exploring occupational therapy clinical reasoning, based on its capacity for accessing personal frames of reference, and elucidating both the meaning and the structure supporting clinical reasoning.

  2. 77 FR 3984 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... ) (e.g., sulfates, nitrates, organic carbon, elemental carbon, and soil dust) and their precursors (e.g... photochemical grid models. Air Quality Model: The EPA's Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) version...

  3. 77 FR 11879 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Mississippi; Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... broad geographic area and emit fine particles (PM 2.5 ) (e.g., sulfates, nitrates, organic carbon... photochemical grid models. Air Quality Model: The EPA's Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ...

  4. ONIX results: Comparison of grid geometry (BATMAN - ELISE - flat grid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Adrien; Mochalskyy, Serhiy; Wünderlich, Dirk; Fantz, Ursel; Minea, Tiberiu

    2017-08-01

    The 3D PIC-MCC code ONIX is dedicated to the modelling of negative hydrogen or deuterium ion extraction and the co-extracted electrons from the plasma in radio-frequency driven sources. The extraction process highly depends on the plasma characteristics close to the plasma grid where it is difficult to obtain experimental data. ONIX brings valuable insights on the plasma behavior in this area. In the code, the numerical treatment of the boundaries have been improved in order to describe with more accuracy the potential and the electric field in this vicinity. The computation time has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the parallelization efficiency has been highly improved. The influence of the magnetic field in BATMAN on the plasma behaviour has been investigated by comparing two different configurations of the magnet bars producing the filter field (internal magnets: x = 3 cm; external magnets: x = 9 cm). A flat grid geometry for the PG instead of the usual conical grid geometry has been studied to evaluate its impact on the extracted current, especially for the negative ions emitted from the surface of the PG. Finally, the ONIX code has been used for the first 3D PIC calculations ever performed for the ELISE experiment.

  5. Smart grid for comfort; Smart grid voor comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W.; Van der Velden, J.A.J. [Kropman, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Vissers, D.R.; Maaijen, H.N. [Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kling, W.L. [Faculteit Electrical Engineering, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Larsen, J.P. [Sense Observation Systems, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    A new control strategy was developed based on the application of wireless sensor network with the connection to a smart grid to investigate if it is possible to save energy on the level of the user under the condition of maintaining the same or even improved level of individual comfort. By using different scenarios, for individual comfort and energy consumption, agents provide the steering of the process control This forms the basis of a new approach to optimize the energy consumption, after which the effect of it can be used on the level of residential building to optimize the interaction with the electrical infrastructure, the smart grid. [Dutch] Er vindt onderzoek plaats naar een nieuwe regelstrategie gebaseerd op de toepassing van een draadloos sensor netwerk dat is gekoppeld aan het smart grid. Doel van deze regelstrategie is om op gebruikersniveau energie te kunnen besparen met behoud of zelfs verbetering van het individueel comfort. Er zijn verschillende scenario's voor individueel comfort en energiegebruik van apparatuur met behulp van agents die voor de aansturing kunnen zorgen. Zo wordt de kern van de energievraag geoptimaliseerd. De doorwerking hiervan tot op het niveau van woninggebouw en de koppeling met het externe elektriciteitsnet kan vervolgens worden geoptimaliseerd.

  6. AGIS: The ATLAS Grid Information System

    CERN Document Server

    Anisenkov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Senchenko, A

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Computing model embraces the Grid paradigm and a high degree of decentralization and computing resources able to meet ATLAS requirements of petabytes scale data operations. In this paper we present ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS) designed to integrate configuration and status information about resources, services and topology of whole ATLAS Grid needed by ATLAS Distributed Computing applications and services.

  7. Planning and designing smart grids: philosophical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, P.F.; Polinder, H.; Verkerk, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The electric power grid is a crucial part of societal infrastructure and needs constant attention to maintain its performance and reliability. European grid project investments are currently valued at over 5 billion Euros and are estimated to reach 56 billion by 2020 [2]. Successful smart grid

  8. Improved visibility computation on massive grid terrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fishman, J.; Haverkort, H.J.; Toma, L.; Wolfson, O.; Agrawal, D.; Lu, C.-T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and engineering of algorithms for computing visibility maps on massive grid terrains. Given a terrain T, specified by the elevations of points in a regular grid, and given a viewpoint v, the visibility map or viewshed of v is the set of grid points of T that are

  9. Scalable Open Source Smart Grid Simulator (SGSim)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Stefanni, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    . This paper presents an open source smart grid simulator (SGSim). The simulator is based on open source SystemC Network Simulation Library (SCNSL) and aims to model scalable smart grid applications. SGSim has been tested under different smart grid scenarios that contain hundreds of thousands of households...

  10. Electric Vehicle Grid Integration | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Illustration of a house with a in the garage, is connected via a power cord to a household outlet. A sustainable transportation sustainable transportation technologies to increase the capacity, efficiency, and stability of the grid

  11. Grid-code of Croatian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toljan, I.; Mesic, M.; Kalea, M.; Koscak, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Grid Rules by the Croatian Electricity Utility deal with the control and usage of the Croatian power system's transmission and distribution grid. Furthermore, these rules include obligations and permissions of power grid users and owners, with the aim of a reliable electricity supply.(author)

  12. Southampton uni's computer whizzes develop "mini" grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Sherriff, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    "In a bid to help its students explore the potential of grid computing, the University of Southampton's Computer Science department has developed what it calls a "lightweight grid". The system has been designed to allow students to experiment with grid technology without the complexity of inherent security concerns of the real thing. (1 page)

  13. Monitoring the EGEE/WLCG grid services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, A; Nyczyk, P; Retico, A; Vicinanza, D

    2008-01-01

    Grids have the potential to revolutionise computing by providing ubiquitous, on demand access to computational services and resources. They promise to allow for on demand access and composition of computational services provided by multiple independent sources. Grids can also provide unprecedented levels of parallelism for high-performance applications. On the other hand, grid characteristics, such as high heterogeneity, complexity and distribution create many new technical challenges. Among these technical challenges, failure management is a key area that demands much progress. A recent survey revealed that fault diagnosis is still a major problem for grid users. When a failure appears at the user screen, it becomes very difficult for the user to identify whether the problem is in the application, somewhere in the grid middleware, or even lower in the fabric that comprises the grid. In this paper we present a tool able to check if a given grid service works as expected for a given set of users (Virtual Organisation) on the different resources available on a grid. Our solution deals with grid services as single components that should produce an expected output to a pre-defined input, what is quite similar to unit testing. The tool, called Service Availability Monitoring or SAM, is being currently used by several different Virtual Organizations to monitor more than 300 grid sites belonging to the largest grids available today. We also discuss how this tool is being used by some of those VOs and how it is helping in the operation of the EGEE/WLCG grid

  14. A Stationary Reference Frame Grid Synchronization System for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Power Converters Under Adverse Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, P.; Luna, A.; Muñoz-Aguilar, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    synchronization method for three-phase three-wire networks, namely dual second-order generalized integrator (SOGI) frequency-locked loop. The method is based on two adaptive filters, implemented by using a SOGI on the stationary αβ reference frame, and it is able to perform an excellent estimation......Grid synchronization algorithms are of great importance in the control of grid-connected power converters, as fast and accurate detection of the grid voltage parameters is crucial in order to implement stable control strategies under generic grid conditions. This paper presents a new grid...

  15. Measurement and model development of the droplet diameter in rod bundles with spacer grids in the reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Hee Cheon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoo, Seung Hun; Jin, Hyung Gon; Kim, In Hun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    To understand and to predict the heat transfer between superheated steam and droplets properly during reflood phase of LBLOCA of APR1400, it is very important to measure broken droplet sizes by spacer grids. A study, therefore, has been performed to investigate droplet size in rod bundles with spacer grids and to develop a spacer grid droplet size model for safety analysis codes. Experiments were conducted with liquid droplets (SMD of 300{approx}700 {mu}m) impacting on various spacer grids at air superficial velocity of 10 and 20 m/s based on FLECHT SEASET. The test channel and the grids were heated to 150 .deg. C to prevent the formation of liquid film during tests. The spacer grids were designed refer to the Korean fuel rod bundles (Korean Standard Fuel, Plus 7) of APR1400 with various blockage area ratio and grid geometries (strap thickness, mixing vane) and about 15,000 droplets were measured at upstream and downstream of the grids in 16 tests. As a result, the measurement of broken droplet size by spacer grids with photography method is presented and the droplet size model related to spacer grids as a function of blockage area ratio is suggested in this report

  16. Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.

    2012-11-15

    Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

  17. Kibana dashboards for Grid services

    CERN Document Server

    Di Marino, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The Platform Service (PS) section of the CERN runs a number of grid services used by thousands of users worldwide. So as to manage these services even more successfully, plan their future, be able to rapidly address problems and easily provide information to the users, it would be useful to have dashboards reporting technical status data. The team of the PS section has put together a monitoring infrastructure based on Kibana/ElasticSearch and found that it can be possible to design dashboards and write collectors rather easily. The main goal of this summer student project is to create more of such dashboards to help PS section to monitor CERN’s grid services.

  18. Vehicle to Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett Kempton; Meryl Gardner; Michael Hidrue; Fouad Kamilev; Sachin Kamboj; Jon Lilley; Rodney McGee; George Parsons; Nat Pearre; Keith Trnka

    2010-12-31

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of a two-year DOE-funded project on Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIV) with vehicle to grid power (V2G). The project included several research and development components: an analysis of US driving patterns; an analysis of the market for EVs and V2G-capable EVs; development and testing of GIV components (in-car and in-EVSE); interconnect law and policy; and development and filing of patents. In addition, development activities included GIV manufacturing and licensing of technologies developed under this grant. Also, five vehicles were built and deployed, four for the fleet of the State of Delaware, plus one for the University of Delaware fleet.

  19. Quattor: managing (complex) grid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouvin, M

    2008-01-01

    Quattor is a tool developed to efficiently manage fabrics with hundreds or thousands of Linux machines, while still being able to manage smaller clusters easily. It was originally developed inside the European Data Grid (EDG) project and is now in use at more than 50 grid sites running gLite middleware, ranging from small LCG T3s to very large sites like CERN. Quattor's ability to factorize and to reuse common parts of service configurations permitted the development of the QWG templates: a complete set of standard templates to configure the OS and gLite middleware. Any site can just import and customize the configuration without editing the bulk of the templates. Collaboration around these templates results in a very efficient sharing of installation and configuration information between those sites using them

  20. Grid for Meso american Archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucet, G.

    2007-01-01

    Meso american archaeology works with large amounts of disperse and diverse information, thus the importance of including new methods that optimise the acquisition, conservation, retrieval, and analysis of data to generate knowledge more efficiently and create a better understanding of history. Further, this information --which includes texts, coordinates, raster graphs, and vector graphs-- comes from a considerable geographical area --parts of Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica as well as Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize-- is constantly expanding. This information includes elements like shards, buildings, mural paintings, high and low reliefs, topography, maps, and information about the fauna and soil. Grid computing offers a solution to handle all this information: it respects researchers' need for independence while supplying a platform to share, process and compare the data obtained. Additionally, the Grid can enhance space-time analyses with remote visualisation techniques that can, in turn, incorporate geographical information systems and virtual reality. (Author)

  1. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    changing the operation of the wind turbine to a more efficient working point.; When the rotational speed of the rotor reaches a minimum value, the wind turbine enters a recovery period to re-accelerate the rotor to the nominal rotational speed while further contributing to the stability of the electrical......A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...... is arranged to control the wind turbine as follows: after an indicating event has been detected, the wind turbine enters an overproduction period in which the electrical output power is increased, wherein the additional electrical output power is taken from kinetic energy stored in the rotor and without...

  2. Application of Chimera Composite Grid Scheme to Ship Appendages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Cheng-Wen

    1995-01-01

    .... The chimera scheme of grid generation uses a system of relatively simple grids. The grids each define a particular component of the overall geometry, making the initial grid generation much simpler...

  3. Smart Pricing for Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Flat-rate electricity tariffs in Great Britain, which have no price variation throughout a day or a year, have been ongoing for decades to recover the cost of energy production and delivery. However, this type of electricity tariff has little incentives to encourage customers to modify their demands to suit the condition of the power supply system. Hence, it is challenged in the new smart grid environment, where demand side responses have important roles to play to encourage conventional ener...

  4. Application of synchronous grid-connected controller in the wind-solar-storage micro grid

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hua; Ren, Yongfeng; Li, Le; Luo, Zhenpeng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in using distributed generators (DG) not only to inject power into the grid, but also to enhance the power quality. In this study, a space voltage pulse width modulation (SVPWM) control method is proposed for a synchronous grid-connected controller in a wind-solar-storage micro grid. This method is based on the appropriate topology of the synchronous controller. The wind-solar-storage micro grid is controlled to reconnect to the grid synchronous...

  5. The CMS integration grid testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Gregory E.

    2004-08-26

    The CMS Integration Grid Testbed (IGT) comprises USCMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 hardware at the following sites: the California Institute of Technology, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of California at San Diego, and the University of Florida at Gainesville. The IGT runs jobs using the Globus Toolkit with a DAGMan and Condor-G front end. The virtual organization (VO) is managed using VO management scripts from the European Data Grid (EDG). Gridwide monitoring is accomplished using local tools such as Ganglia interfaced into the Globus Metadata Directory Service (MDS) and the agent based Mona Lisa. Domain specific software is packaged and installed using the Distribution After Release (DAR) tool of CMS, while middleware under the auspices of the Virtual Data Toolkit (VDT) is distributed using Pacman. During a continuous two month span in Fall of 2002, over 1 million official CMS GEANT based Monte Carlo events were generated and returned to CERN for analysis while being demonstrated at SC2002. In this paper, we describe the process that led to one of the world's first continuously available, functioning grids.

  6. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, J.L.; Kmonk, S.; Racki, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    A grid for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly which includes intersecting straps arranged to form a structure of egg crate configuration. The cells defined by the intersecting straps are adapted to contain axially extending fuel rods, each of which occupy one cell, while each control rod guide tube or thimble occupies the space of four cells. To effect attachment of each guide thimble to the grid, a short intermediate sleeve is brazed to the strap walls and the guide thimble is then inserted therein and mechanically secured to the sleeve walls. Each sleeve preferably, although not necessarily, is equipped with circumferentially spaced openings useful in adjusting dimples and springs in adjacent cells. To accurately orient each sleeve in position in the grid, the ends of straps extending in one direction project through transversely extending straps and terminate in the wall of the guide sleeve. Other straps positioned at right angles thereto terminate in that portion of the wall of a strap which lies next to a wall of the sleeve

  7. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  8. North RTL ''grid scan'' studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.

    1990-01-01

    This study was made in response to screen measurements which indicated an emittance growth of nearly a factor of two within the North RTL or linac girder-1. Betatron oscillations are induced at the beginning of the North RTL to search for gross geometric aberrations arising within the RTL or sector-2 of the linac. The oscillations are induced horizontally and vertically with two X or two Y dipole correctors stepped in a nested loop fashion. In both cases the full set of RTL and first girder sector-2 linac beam position monitors (BPMs) are sampled in X and Y for each corrector setting. Horizontal (or vertical) data from pairs of BPMs are then transformed to phase space coordinates by the linear transformation constructed assuming the transport optics between the BPMs is known. A second transformation is then made to normalized phase space coordinates by using Twiss parameters consistent with the assumed transport optics. By careful choice of initial Twiss parameters the initial grid can be made square for convenience in graphical interpretation. A linear ''grid'' is then fitted to the transformed data points for each pair of BPMs. The area of each grid is calculated and linearity qualitatively evaluated. Furthermore, although not the focus of this study, the beta match at each BPM can be quantified. 6 figs

  9. GRID and FMPhI-UNIBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babik, M.; Daranyi, T.; Fekete, V.; Stavina, P.; Zagiba, M.; Zenis, T.

    2008-01-01

    The word GRID has several meanings, so it is not an abbreviation. All of them have in common description of GRID as a form of hardware and software and software solution for distributive computing. Additionally, word GRID is also used for distributive computing of many computers and not one super computer with several processors. It, of course, does not mean that such a supercomputer cannot be a part of the GRID. Typical task for GRID is computer programs execution and to data storage. (Authors)

  10. A 3-D chimera grid embedding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benek, J. A.; Buning, P. G.; Steger, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) chimera grid-embedding technique is described. The technique simplifies the construction of computational grids about complex geometries. The method subdivides the physical domain into regions which can accommodate easily generated grids. Communication among the grids is accomplished by interpolation of the dependent variables at grid boundaries. The procedures for constructing the composite mesh and the associated data structures are described. The method is demonstrated by solution of the Euler equations for the transonic flow about a wing/body, wing/body/tail, and a configuration of three ellipsoidal bodies.

  11. Security and privacy in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Presenting the work of prominent researchers working on smart grids and related fields around the world, Security and Privacy in Smart Grids identifies state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for smart grid communication and security. It investigates the fundamental aspects and applications of smart grid security and privacy and reports on the latest advances in the range of related areas-making it an ideal reference for students, researchers, and engineers in these fields. The book explains grid security development and deployment and introduces novel approaches for securing today'

  12. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  13. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  14. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a control scheme for single phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system operating under both grid connected and isolated grid mode. The control techniques include voltage and current control of grid-tie PV inverter. During grid connected mode, grid controls the amplitude and frequency of the PV ...

  15. AstroGrid: AstroGrid: Powering the virtual universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, N. A.

    2002-02-01

    Nic Walton describes a programme to break down wavelength barriers and empower astronomers, as well as making full use of astronomical archives. The full potential of the data from the major new observational facilities (e.g. VISTA) available to the community will only be realized if inclusive, rich, data access and manipulation mechanisms are provided. Astronomical endeavour will be further leveraged if these mechanisms enable ``science-driven'' research programmes benefiting from access to multiple data sources. I describe here the reasons and resources behind AstroGrid.

  16. Grid: From EGEE to EGI and from INFN-Grid to IGI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giselli, A.; Mazzuccato, M.

    2009-01-01

    In the last fifteen years the approach of the computational Grid has changed the way to use computing resources. Grid computing has raised interest worldwide in academia, industry, and government with fast development cycles. Great efforts, huge funding and resources have been made available through national, regional and international initiatives aiming at providing Grid infrastructures, Grid core technologies, Grid middle ware and Grid applications. The Grid software layers reflect the architecture of the services developed so far by the most important European and international projects. In this paper Grid e-Infrastructure story is given, detailing European, Italian and international projects such as EGEE, INFN-Grid and NAREGI. In addition the sustainability issue in the long-term perspective is described providing plans by European and Italian communities with EGI and IGI.

  17. EASE-Grid 2.0: Incremental but Significant Improvements for Earth-Gridded Data Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. Savoie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Defined in the early 1990s for use with gridded satellite passive microwave data, the Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid was quickly adopted and used for distribution of a variety of satellite and in situ data sets. Conceptually easy to understand, EASE-Grid suffers from limitations that make it impossible to format in the widely popular GeoTIFF convention without reprojection. Importing EASE-Grid data into standard mapping software packages is nontrivial and error-prone. This article defines a standard for an improved EASE-Grid 2.0 definition, addressing how the changes rectify issues with the original grid definition. Data distributed using the EASE-Grid 2.0 standard will be easier for users to import into standard software packages and will minimize common reprojection errors that users had encountered with the original EASE-Grid definition.

  18. Calculation approaches for grid usage fees to influence the load curve in the distribution grid level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illing, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    Dominated by the energy policy the decentralized German energy market is changing. One mature target of the government is to increase the contribution of renewable generation to the gross electricity consumption. In order to achieve this target disadvantages like an increased need for capacity management occurs. Load reduction and variable grid fees offer the grid operator solutions to realize capacity management by influencing the load profile. The evolution of the current grid fees towards more causality is required to adapt these approaches. Two calculation approaches are developed in this assignment. On the one hand multivariable grid fees keeping the current components demand and energy charge. Additional to the grid costs grid load dependent parameters like the amount of decentralized feed-ins, time and local circumstances as well as grid capacities are considered. On the other hand the grid fee flat-rate which represents a demand based model on a monthly level. Both approaches are designed to meet the criteria for future grid fees. By means of a case study the effects of the grid fees on the load profile at the low voltage grid is simulated. Thereby the consumption is represented by different behaviour models and the results are scaled at the benchmark grid area. The resulting load curve is analyzed concerning the effects of peak load reduction as well as the integration of renewable energy sources. Additionally the combined effect of grid fees and electricity tariffs is evaluated. Finally the work discusses the launching of grid fees in the tense atmosphere of politics, legislation and grid operation. Results of this work are two calculation approaches designed for grid operators to define the grid fees. Multivariable grid fees are based on the current calculation scheme. Hereby demand and energy charges are weighted by time, locational and load related dependencies. The grid fee flat-rate defines a limitation in demand extraction. Different demand levels

  19. New finds of Upper Palaeolithic decorative objects from Přemostí, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farbstein, R.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 314 (2007), s. 856-864 ISSN 0003-598X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Upper Paleolithic * Gravettian * Czech Republic * mammoth * reindeer * decorative art * art * grid pattern Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.682, year: 2007

  20. Conference on grid integration of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Pierre; Goeke, Berthold; Mignon, Herve; Brakelmann, Heinrich; Huebner, Gundula; Tanja Schmedes; Remy Garaude Verdier; Pierre-Guy Therond; Werner Diwald

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on grid integration of renewable energies. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about a hundred of participants exchanged views on the similarities and differences between the French and German approaches of renewable energies integration to grids. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Power grid development - Policy and challenges (Pierre Fontaine); 2 - Grid Development: German Strategy (Berthold Goeke); 3 - Power grids development: situational analysis (Herve Mignon); 4 - Traditional Power Lines, Partial Underground Cabling and HVDC lines: Costs, Benefits and Acceptance (Heinrich Brakelmann); 5 - Transmission Lines - Local Acceptance (Gundula Huebner); 6 - eTelligence- energy meets Intelligence: experience feedback from the grid operator EWe on smart grids and the integration of renewable energies (Tanja Schmedes); 7 - Nice Grid, The French Smart Grid Project within Grid4eU (Remy Garaude Verdier); 8 - Economical Analysis Of energy Storage For Renewable energy Farms - experience of EDF en on the basis of 3 call for tender issued by the French Government in 01/2010, 11/2010, and 09/2011: what conditions for a real deployment (Pierre-Guy Therond); 9 - Hydrogen as a renewable energies storage mean (Werner Diwald)

  1. Conference on wind energy and grid integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffaille, Didier; Boemer, Jens; Fraisse, Jean-Luc; Mignon, Herve; Gonot, Jean-Pierre; Rohrig, Kurt; Lange, Matthias; Bagusche, Daniel; Wagner, Stefan; Schiel, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the grid integration of wind farms. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 80 participants exchanged views on the evolutions of tariffs and licensing procedures, and on grid capacity improvements and production forecasts. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The necessary evolution of billing and procedures for wind turbines connection to the grid in France (Didier Laffaille); 2 - Improvement of wind turbines integration to the grid in the framework of the EEG 2009 law (Jens Boemer); 3 - Decentralized power generation on the French power grids - 15, 20 kV and low voltage (Jean-Luc Fraisse); 4 - GOTTESWIND? Solution for the future: towards a grid evolution (Herve Mignon); 5 - Production forecasts in Germany - State-of-the-art and challenges for the grid exploitation (Kurt Rohrig); 6 - High-voltage lines capacity evaluation in meteorological situations with high wind energy production (Matthias Lange); 7 - The IPES project for the integration of wind energy production in the exploitation of the French power system (Jean-Pierre Gonot); 8 - Experience feedback from a wind turbine manufacturer in France and in Germany (Daniel Bagusche); 9 - Solutions for grid security improvement and capacity enhancement: cooperation between grid and power plant operators (Stefan Wagner); 10 - Open questions on wind energy integration to French and German grids (Johannes Schiel)

  2. DIGRD: an interactive grid generating program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, H.P.; Rice, W.A.; Kincaid, C.T.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed the development and documentation of an interactive grid generating program (DIGRD, digitize grid). This program is designed to rapidly generate or modify grids necessary for the unsaturated flow code TRUST. In addition to the code, a user's manual was prepared. Unfortunately, the computer hardware that comprises the PNL interactive graphics capability is unique. Direct technology transfer is not possible, therefore, this report is intended to convey the utility of interactive graphics in supplying a grid generating capability. DIGRD has already been effectively used in the preparation of grids for the analysis of leachate movement from uranium mill tailings. The principal conclusion is that the interactive graphics employed in DIGRD are useful and economical in the development of complex grids. Grid generation activities that previously took between a half- and a full-man month can now be completed in less than a week. DIGRD users have recommended development of an uniform grid of either rectangles or equilateral triangles, which could be superimposed on any domain and then adjusted through the DIGRD program to match the boundaries of a tailings disposal facility. This improvement to the DIGRD package could further reduce the effort in grid generation while providing more optimal grids

  3. in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Uzman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There is increasing interest in sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE. Prospective randomized studies comparing sedation properties and complications of propofol and midazolam/meperidine in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE are few. Aim: To compare propofol and midazolam/meperidine sedation for UGE in terms of cardiopulmonary side effects, patient and endoscopist satisfaction and procedure-related times. Material and methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study of propofol versus midazolam and meperidine in 100 patients scheduled for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patients were divided into propofol and midazolam/meperidine groups. Randomization was generated by a computer. Cardiopulmonary side effects (hypotension, bradycardia, hypoxemia, procedure-related times (endoscopy time, awake time, time to hospital discharge, and patient and endoscopist satisfaction were compared between groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the cost, endoscopy time, or demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. Awake time and time to hospital discharge were significantly shorter in the propofol group (6.58 ±4.72 vs. 9.32 ±4.26 min, p = 0.030 and 27.60 ±7.88 vs. 32.00 ±10.54 min, p = 0.019. Hypotension incidence was significantly higher in the propofol group (12% vs. 0%, p = 0.027. The patient and endoscopist satisfaction was better with propofol. Conclusions : Propofol may be preferred to midazolam/meperidine sedation, with a shorter awake and hospital discharge time and better patient and endoscopist satisfaction. However, hypotension risk should be considered with propofol, and careful evaluation is needed, particularly in cardiopulmonary disorders.

  4. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  5. Multi-centennial upper-ocean heat content reconstruction using online data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, W. A.; Hakim, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Last Millennium Reanalysis (LMR) provides an advanced paleoclimate ensemble data assimilation framework for multi-variate climate field reconstructions over the Common Era. Although reconstructions in this framework with full Earth system models remain prohibitively expensive, recent work has shown improved ensemble reconstruction validation using computationally inexpensive linear inverse models (LIMs). Here we leverage these techniques in pursuit of a new multi-centennial field reconstruction of upper-ocean heat content (OHC), synthesizing model dynamics with observational constraints from proxy records. OHC is an important indicator of internal climate variability and responds to planetary energy imbalances. Therefore, a consistent extension of the OHC record in time will help inform aspects of low-frequency climate variability. We use the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) and Max Planck Institute (MPI) last millennium simulations to derive the LIMs, and the PAGES2K v.2.0 proxy database to perform annually resolved reconstructions of upper-OHC, surface air temperature, and wind stress over the last 500 years. Annual OHC reconstructions and uncertainties for both the global mean and regional basins are compared against observational and reanalysis data. We then investigate differences in dynamical behavior at decadal and longer time scales between the reconstruction and simulations in the last-millennium Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5 (CMIP5). Preliminary investigation of 1-year forecast skill for an OHC-only LIM shows largely positive spatial grid point local anomaly correlations (LAC) with a global average LAC of 0.37. Compared to 1-year OHC persistence forecast LAC (global average LAC of 0.30), the LIM outperforms the persistence forecasts in the tropical Indo-Pacific region, the equatorial Atlantic, and in certain regions near the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. In other regions, the forecast correlations are less than the

  6. Insightful Workflow For Grid Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Charles Earl

    2008-10-09

    We developed a workflow adaptation and scheduling system for Grid workflow. The system currently interfaces with and uses the Karajan workflow system. We developed machine learning agents that provide the planner/scheduler with information needed to make decisions about when and how to replan. The Kubrick restructures workflow at runtime, making it unique among workflow scheduling systems. The existing Kubrick system provides a platform on which to integrate additional quality of service constraints and in which to explore the use of an ensemble of scheduling and planning algorithms. This will be the principle thrust of our Phase II work.

  7. Nuclear fuel grid outer strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.; Craver, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor fuel assembly grid. It comprises a first outer grip strap segment end. The first end having a first tab arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the first end; a second outer grip strap end. The second end having a second slot arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the second end, with the tab being substantially disposed in the slot, defining a socket therebetween; and a fort tine interposed substantially perpendicularly in the socket

  8. Smart Grid enabled heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Detlefsen, Nina; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2014-01-01

    The transition towards a 100 % fossil-free energy system, while achieving extreme penetration levels of intermittent wind and solar power in electricity generation, requires demand-side technologies that are smart (intermittency-friendly) and efficient. The integration of Smart Grid enabling...... with an empirical study in order to achieve a number of recommendations with respect to technology concepts and control strategies that would allow residential vapor-compression heat pumps to support large-scale integration of intermittent renewables. The analysis is based on data gathered over a period of up to 3...

  9. Northern micro-grid project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, David; Singh, Bob

    2010-09-15

    The electrical distribution system for the Kasabonika Lake First Nation in northern Ontario (Canada) consumed 1.2 million liters of diesel fuel in 2008, amounting to 3,434 tones of CO2 emissions. The Northern Micro-Grid Project, supported by seven partners, involves integrating renewable generation & storage into the Kasabonika Lake distribution system. Through R&D and demonstration, the objectives are to reduce the amount of diesel consumed, support the distribution system exclusively on renewable resources during light loads, engage and impart knowledge/training to better position the community for future opportunities. The paper will discuss challenges, opportunities and future plans associated with the project.

  10. Synchronization in single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems under grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The highly increasing penetration of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems pushes the grid requirements related to the integration of PV power systems to be updated. These upcoming regulations are expected to direct the grid-connected renewable generators to support the grid operation and stabil......The highly increasing penetration of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems pushes the grid requirements related to the integration of PV power systems to be updated. These upcoming regulations are expected to direct the grid-connected renewable generators to support the grid operation...

  11. Grid-Voltage-Feedforward Active Damping for Grid-Connected Inverter with LCL Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Minghui; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    For the grid-connected voltage source inverters, the feedforward scheme of grid voltage is commonly adopted to mitigate the current distortion caused by grid background voltages harmonics. This paper investigates the grid-voltage-feedforward active damping for grid connected inverter with LCL...... filter. It reveals that proportional feedforward control can not only fulfill the mitigation of grid disturbance, but also offer damping effects on the LCL filter resonance. Digital delays are intrinsic to digital controlled inverters; with these delays, the feedforward control can be equivalent...

  12. Adding Four- Dimensional Data Assimilation (a.k.a. grid nudging) to MPAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adding four-dimensional data assimilation (a.k.a. grid nudging) to MPAS.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is investigating the use of MPAS as the meteorological driver for its next-generation air quality model. To function as such, MPAS needs to operate in a diagnostic mod...

  13. Air condensation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelp, F.; Pohl, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    In this plant the steam is distributed by a ventilator from the bottom to symmetrically fixed, inclined cooling elements with tubes. The upper part of the current side of the cooling elements as well as the bottom part of the outflow side can be covered by cover plates via a control circuit. This way, part of the air amount is deviated and in case of unfavourable atmospheric conditions (cold) the air is heated. This heating is enough to prevent freezing of the condensate on the cooling tubes. (DG) [de

  14. Vote for the GridCafé!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN's GridCafé website (http://www.gridcafe.org) has been nominated for the 8th Annual Webby Awards, together with four other finalists in the Technical Achievement category. The Webby Awards have been hailed as the "online Oscars" by Time Magazine, and are the leading international honours for websites, so this nomination represents a significant achievement. The winner in this category last year was Google. The GridCafé website, which was launched at Telecom '03 and forms part of the Microcosm exhibit on computing, introduces Grid technology to the general public, and provides information on all major Grid projects around the world, focusing in particular on the pioneering Grid developments being carried out by CERN and its many international partners for the Large Hadron Collider project. Being nominated for a Webby Award represents a great opportunity to draw positive media attention to Grid technology, to CERN and to science in general. Last year's nominees were covered...

  15. Toward a Grid Work flow Formal Composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaoui, Y. B.; BenAyed, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper exposes a new approach for the composition of grid work flow models. This approach proposes an abstract syntax for the UML Activity Diagrams (UML-AD) and a formal foundation for grid work flow composition in form of a work flow algebra based on UML-AD. This composition fulfils the need for collaborative model development particularly the specification and the reduction of the complexity of grid work flow model verification. This complexity has arisen with the increase in scale of grid work flow applications such as science and e-business applications since large amounts of computational resources are required and multiple parties could be involved in the development process and in the use of grid work flows. Furthermore, the proposed algebra allows the definition of work flow views which are useful to limit the access to predefined users in order to ensure the security of grid work flow applications. (Author)

  16. First Thuesday - CERN, The Grid gets real

    CERN Multimedia

    Robertson, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    A few years ago, "the Grid" was just a vision dreamt up by some computer scientists who wanted to share processor power and data storage capacity between computers around the world - in much the same way as today's Web shares information seamlessly between millions of computers. Today, Grid technology is a huge enterprise, involving hundreds of software engineers, and generating exciting opportunities for industry. "Computing on demand", "utility computing", "web services", and "virtualisation" are just a few of the buzzwords in the IT industry today that are intimately connected to the development of Grid technology. For this third First Tuesday @CERN, the panel will survey some of the latest major breakthroughs in building international computer Grids for science. It will also provide a snapshot of Grid-related industrial activities, with contributions from both major players in the IT sector as well as emerging Grid technology start-ups.

  17. Triple-layer smart grid business model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lundgaard, Morten; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2016-01-01

    Viewing the smart grid with the theory of business models may open opportunities in understanding and capturing values in new markets. This study tries to discover and map the smart grid ecosystem-based business model framework with two different environments (sub-Saharan Africa and Denmark......), and identifies the parameters for the smart grid solutions to the emerging markets. This study develops a triple-layer business model including the organizational (Niche), environmental (Intermediate), and global (Dominators) factors. The result uncovers an interface of market factors and stakeholders...... in a generic smart grid constellation. The findings contribute the transferability potential of the smart grid solutions between countries, and indicate the potential to export and import smart grid solutions based on the business modeling....

  18. Switching overvoltages in offshore wind power grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Ivan

    and cables are presented. In Chapter 4 results from time domain measurements and simulations of switching operations in offshore wind power grids are described. Specifically, switching operations on a single wind turbine, the collection grid, the export system and the external grid measured in several real...... offshore wind farms are shown together with simulation results. Switching operations in offshore wind power grids can be simulated with different electromagnetic transient programs. Different programs were used in the project and compared results are included in Chapter 4. Also in Chapter 4 different......Switching transients in wind turbines, the collection grid, the export system and the external grid in offshore wind farms, during normal or abnormal operation, are the most important phenomena when conducting insulation coordination studies. However, the recommended models and methods from...

  19. How should grid operators govern smart grid innovation projects? An embedded case study approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuver, Mark de; Lei, Telli van der; Lukszo, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Grid operators increasingly have to collaborate with other actors in order to realize smart grid innovations. For routine maintenance, grid operators typically acquire technologies in one-off transactions, but the innovative nature of smart grid projects may require more collaborate relationships. This paper studies how a transactional versus relational approach to governing smart grid innovation projects affects incentives for other actors to collaborate. We analyse 34 cases of smart grid innovation projects based on extensive archival data as well as interviews. We find that projects relying on relational governance are more likely to provide incentives for collaboration. Especially non-financial incentives such as reputational benefits and shared intellectual property rights are more likely to be found in projects relying on relational governance. Policy makers that wish to stimulate smart grid innovation projects should consider stimulating long-term relationships between grid operators and third parties, because such relationships are more likely to produce incentives for collaboration. - Highlights: • Smart grids require collaboration between grid operators and other actors. • We contrast transactional and relational governance of smart grid projects. • Long-term relations produce more incentives for smart grid collaboration. • Non-financial incentives are more important in long-term relations. • Policy makers should stimulate long-term relations to stimulate smart grids.

  20. Expanding the grid in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M. [AltaLink Management Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the changes and strategies that are currently being adopted by AltaLink to expand Alberta's electricity grid in relation to wind power development. The company is Alberta's largest transmission facility operator. Wind power currently accounts for approximately 5 percent of the province's generation mix. Applications for new wind farms will increase Alberta's 629 MW of wind power generation capacity to 5530 MW. Alberta's transmission regulation requires that 100 percent of in-merit generation can occur when transmission facilities are in service, and that 95 percent of in-merit generation can occur under abnormal operating conditions. A new transmission line is being constructed in the Pincher Creek and Lethbridge region as part of a southern Alberta transmission reinforcement project. The Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) and Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) are working together to ensure that adequate resources are available while system reliability is maintained. The Ardenville wind farm is the first wind power project to be energized under the new connection model launched by the AESO. The connection model was developed to identify, connect, and construct new energy projects. The project will also identify connection routes with the lowest overall impact on the province. Alberta will also continue to implement technologies that ensure the development of a smart grid. tabs., figs.

  1. Monitoring in a grid cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, David; Mitchell, Mark; Roy, Gareth; Skipsey, Samuel Cadellin; Britton, David; Purdie, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of a grid cluster (or of any piece of reasonably scaled IT infrastructure) is a key element in the robust and consistent running of that site. There are several factors which are important to the selection of a useful monitoring framework, which include ease of use, reliability, data input and output. It is critical that data can be drawn from different instrumentation packages and collected in the framework to allow for a uniform view of the running of a site. It is also very useful to allow different views and transformations of this data to allow its manipulation for different purposes, perhaps unknown at the initial time of installation. In this context, we present the findings of an investigation of the Graphite monitoring framework and its use at the ScotGrid Glasgow site. In particular, we examine the messaging system used by the framework and means to extract data from different tools, including the existing framework Ganglia which is in use at many sites, in addition to adapting and parsing data streams from external monitoring frameworks and websites.

  2. The CMS Integration Grid Testbed

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, G E; Aziz, Shafqat; Bauerdick, L.A.T.; Ernst, Michael; Kaiser, Joseph; Ratnikova, Natalia; Wenzel, Hans; Wu, Yu-jun; Aslakson, Erik; Bunn, Julian; Iqbal, Saima; Legrand, Iosif; Newman, Harvey; Singh, Suresh; Steenberg, Conrad; Branson, James; Fisk, Ian; Letts, James; Arbree, Adam; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Cavanaugh, Richard; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Kategari, Suchindra; Couvares, Peter; DeSmet, Alan; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; Tannenbaum, Todd; Graham, Gregory E.; Aziz, Shafqat; Ernst, Michael; Kaiser, Joseph; Ratnikova, Natalia; Wenzel, Hans; Wu, Yujun; Aslakson, Erik; Bunn, Julian; Iqbal, Saima; Legrand, Iosif; Newman, Harvey; Singh, Suresh; Steenberg, Conrad; Branson, James; Fisk, Ian; Letts, James; Arbree, Adam; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Cavanaugh, Richard; Rodriguez, Jorge; Kategari, Suchindra; Couvares, Peter; Smet, Alan De; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; Tannenbaum, Todd

    2003-01-01

    The CMS Integration Grid Testbed (IGT) comprises USCMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 hardware at the following sites: the California Institute of Technology, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of California at San Diego, and the University of Florida at Gainesville. The IGT runs jobs using the Globus Toolkit with a DAGMan and Condor-G front end. The virtual organization (VO) is managed using VO management scripts from the European Data Grid (EDG). Gridwide monitoring is accomplished using local tools such as Ganglia interfaced into the Globus Metadata Directory Service (MDS) and the agent based Mona Lisa. Domain specific software is packaged and installed using the Distrib ution After Release (DAR) tool of CMS, while middleware under the auspices of the Virtual Data Toolkit (VDT) is distributed using Pacman. During a continuo us two month span in Fall of 2002, over 1 million official CMS GEANT based Monte Carlo events were generated and returned to CERN for analysis while being demonstrated at SC2002. ...

  3. Vertical grid of retrieved atmospheric profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccherini, Simone; Carli, Bruno; Raspollini, Piera

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the vertical grid of atmospheric profiles retrieved from remote sensing observations is discussed considering the two cases of profiles used to represent the results of individual measurements and of profiles used for subsequent data fusion applications. An ozone measurement of the MIPAS instrument is used to assess, for different vertical grids, the quality of the retrieved profiles in terms of profile values, retrieval errors, vertical resolutions and number of degrees of freedom. In the case of individual retrievals no evident advantage is obtained with the use of a grid finer than the one with a reduced number of grid points, which are optimized according to the information content of the observations. Nevertheless, this instrument dependent vertical grid, which seems to extract all the available information, provides very poor results when used for data fusion applications. A loss of about a quarter of the degrees of freedom is observed when the data fusion is made using the instrument dependent vertical grid relative to the data fusion made using a vertical grid optimized for the data fusion product. This result is explained by the analysis of the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix and leads to the conclusion that different vertical grids must be adopted when data fusion is the expected application. - Highlights: • Data fusion application is taken into account for the choice of the vertical grid. • The study is performed using ozone profiles retrieved from MIPAS measurements. • A very fine vertical grid is not needed for the analysis of a single instrument. • The instrument dependent vertical grid is not the best choice for data fusion. • A data fusion dependent vertical grid must be used for profiles that will be fused.

  4. Wavefront-ray grid FDTD algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    ÇİYDEM, MEHMET

    2016-01-01

    A finite difference time domain algorithm on a wavefront-ray grid (WRG-FDTD) is proposed in this study to reduce numerical dispersion of conventional FDTD methods. A FDTD algorithm conforming to a wavefront-ray grid can be useful to take into account anisotropy effects of numerical grids since it features directional energy flow along the rays. An explicit and second-order accurate WRG-FDTD algorithm is provided in generalized curvilinear coordinates for an inhomogeneous isotropic medium. Num...

  5. Flow Battery Solution for Smart Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-30

    To address future grid requirements, a U.S. Department of Energy ARRA Storage Demonstration program was launched in 2009 to commercialize promising technologies needed for stronger and more renewables-intensive grids. Raytheon Ktech and EnerVault received a cost-share grant award from the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a grid-scale storage system based on EnerVault’s iron-chromium redox flow battery technology.

  6. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Buss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  7. In-situ combustion simulation with dynamic grid; Simulacao de combustao in-situ com grades dinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, C.H.A.; Almeida, M.P.; Vasconcelos, H.H.M.; Oliveira, C.L.N. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2008-07-01

    In this work, we study the effects of the introduction of 3D dynamics grids on in-situ combustion simulation results as means of describing the most realistically possible the dynamics of these processes, in particular of the combustion front. The dynamic refinement of grid blocks is important because in thesis it enhances the precision in the calculations once that more grid blocks are considered in the grid, especially within the narrow region of high temperature of the combustion front. We have performed dry combustion simulation (only water injection) and wet combustion simulation (air + water injection) for forward combustion in a variety of well configurations. Our initial results have shown changes in oil, water and gas productions when we use dynamics grids in the simulations, making clear the relevance of its usage in the understanding of the dynamics of these processes. (author)

  8. Millimeterwave Space Power Grid architecture development 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komerath, Narayanan; Dessanti, Brendan; Shah, Shaan

    This is an update of the Space Power Grid architecture for space-based solar power with an improved design of the collector/converter link, the primary heater and the radiator of the active thermal control system. The Space Power Grid offers an evolutionary approach towards TeraWatt-level Space-based solar power. The use of millimeter wave frequencies (around 220GHz) and Low-Mid Earth Orbits shrinks the size of the space and ground infrastructure to manageable levels. In prior work we showed that using Brayton cycle conversion of solar power allows large economies of scale compared to the linear mass-power relationship of photovoltaic conversion. With high-temperature materials permitting 3600 K temperature in the primary heater, over 80 percent cycle efficiency was shown with a closed helium cycle for the 1GW converter satellite which formed the core element of the architecture. Work done since the last IEEE conference has shown that the use of waveguides incorporated into lighter-than-air antenna platforms, can overcome the difficulties in transmitting millimeter wave power through the moist, dense lower atmosphere. A graphene-based radiator design conservatively meets the mass budget for the waste heat rejection system needed for the compressor inlet temperature. Placing the ultralight Mirasol collectors in lower orbits overcomes the solar beam spot size problem of high-orbit collection. The architecture begins by establishing a power exchange with terrestrial renewable energy plants, creating an early revenue generation approach with low investment. The approach allows for technology development and demonstration of high power millimeter wave technology. A multinational experiment using the International Space Station and another power exchange satellite is proposed to gather required data and experience, thus reducing the technical and policy risks. The full-scale architecture deploys pairs of Mirasol sunlight collectors and Girasol 1 GW converter satellites t

  9. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 290

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  10. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 293

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George; Archiable, Robert; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  11. Development of a smart DC grid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalimunthe, Amty Ma’rufah Ardhiyah; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made, E-mail: imadejoni@phys.unpad.ac.id [Lab. of Instrumentation System and Functional Material Processing, Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM21, Jatinangor 45363, Jawa Barat (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Smart grid and distributed generation should be the solution of the global climate change and the crisis energy of the main source of electrical power generation which is fossil fuel. In order to meet the rising electrical power demand and increasing service quality demands, as well as reduce pollution, the existing power grid infrastructure should be developed into a smart grid and distributed power generation which provide a great opportunity to address issues related to energy efficiency, energy security, power quality and aging infrastructure systems. The conventional of the existing distributed generation system is an AC grid while for a renewable resources requires a DC grid system. This paper explores the model of smart DC grid by introducing a model of smart DC grid with the stable power generation give a minimal and compressed circuitry that can be implemented very cost-effectively with simple components. The PC based application software for controlling was developed to show the condition of the grid and to control the grid become ‘smart’. The model is then subjected to a severe system perturbation, such as incremental change in loads to test the performance of the system again stability. It is concluded that the system able to detect and controlled the voltage stability which indicating the ability of power system to maintain steady voltage within permissible rangers in normal condition.

  12. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rumpf, Arthur N.

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  13. Grid computing in large pharmaceutical molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Brian L; Johnson, Stephen R

    2008-07-01

    Most major pharmaceutical companies have employed grid computing to expand their compute resources with the intention of minimizing additional financial expenditure. Historically, one of the issues restricting widespread utilization of the grid resources in molecular modeling is the limited set of suitable applications amenable to coarse-grained parallelization. Recent advances in grid infrastructure technology coupled with advances in application research and redesign will enable fine-grained parallel problems, such as quantum mechanics and molecular dynamics, which were previously inaccessible to the grid environment. This will enable new science as well as increase resource flexibility to load balance and schedule existing workloads.

  14. Mechanical test for fuel assembly spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Heung Seok; Jeong, Yeon Ho; Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Bang, Je Keun.

    1997-06-01

    In order to propose some tests for a new spacer grid, the grid mechanical tests performed by ABB-CE, KWU and Westinghouse have been investigated. It is known that a static compression test, a dynamic impact test, and a grid spring characteristic test were commonly carried out by the vendors when a prototype spacer grid was developed. The static compression test is to measure the stresses on the strips as well as to obtain the grid stiffness. The dynamic impact test is to get some basic data for accident analysis such as impact stiffness, impact strength, and coefficient of restitution. Since each fuel vendor has his theory on an accident analysis, every vendor employs his particular method for the dynamic impact test. The dynamic impact test can be divided into two in accordance with the number of impact face, and the duration of impact pulse. One is an one-sided impact test and the other is an through-gird impact test. The duration of the impact pulse for the former is considerably shorter than the latter. Therefore, the grid can endure much higher load under the one-sided impact condition than under the through-grid impact condition. The grid spring characteristic test is to obtain a force versus deflection curve. This curve is very important in designing the spacer grid to provide fuel rods with a sound supports in core. (author). 18 tabs., 26 figs

  15. A multi VO Grid infrastructure at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    As a centre for research with particle accelerators and synchrotron light, DESY operates a Grid infrastructure in the context of the EU-project EGEE and the national Grid initiative D-GRID. All computing and storage resources are located in one Grid infrastructure which supports a number of Virtual Organizations of different disciplines, including non-HEP groups such as the Photon Science community. Resource distribution is based on fair share methods without dedicating hardware to user groups. Production quality of the infrastructure is guaranteed by embedding it into the DESY computer centre.

  16. Development of a smart DC grid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalimunthe, Amty Ma’rufah Ardhiyah; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2016-01-01

    Smart grid and distributed generation should be the solution of the global climate change and the crisis energy of the main source of electrical power generation which is fossil fuel. In order to meet the rising electrical power demand and increasing service quality demands, as well as reduce pollution, the existing power grid infrastructure should be developed into a smart grid and distributed power generation which provide a great opportunity to address issues related to energy efficiency, energy security, power quality and aging infrastructure systems. The conventional of the existing distributed generation system is an AC grid while for a renewable resources requires a DC grid system. This paper explores the model of smart DC grid by introducing a model of smart DC grid with the stable power generation give a minimal and compressed circuitry that can be implemented very cost-effectively with simple components. The PC based application software for controlling was developed to show the condition of the grid and to control the grid become ‘smart’. The model is then subjected to a severe system perturbation, such as incremental change in loads to test the performance of the system again stability. It is concluded that the system able to detect and controlled the voltage stability which indicating the ability of power system to maintain steady voltage within permissible rangers in normal condition.

  17. Development of a High Performance Spacer Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kee Nam; Song, K. N.; Yoon, K. H. (and others)

    2007-03-15

    A spacer grid in a LWR fuel assembly is a key structural component to support fuel rods and to enhance the heat transfer from the fuel rod to the coolant. In this research, the main research items are the development of inherent and high performance spacer grid shapes, the establishment of mechanical/structural analysis and test technology, and the set-up of basic test facilities for the spacer grid. The main research areas and results are as follows. 1. 18 different spacer grid candidates have been invented and applied for domestic and US patents. Among the candidates 16 are chosen from the patent. 2. Two kinds of spacer grids are finally selected for the advanced LWR fuel after detailed performance tests on the candidates and commercial spacer grids from a mechanical/structural point of view. According to the test results the features of the selected spacer grids are better than those of the commercial spacer grids. 3. Four kinds of basic test facilities are set up and the relevant test technologies are established. 4. Mechanical/structural analysis models and technology for spacer grid performance are developed and the analysis results are compared with the test results to enhance the reliability of the models.

  18. Overview of Grid Codes for Photovoltaic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qianwei; Li, Jiaming; Ai, Xiaomeng

    2017-01-01

    The increasing grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power stations might threaten the safety and stability of power system. Therefore, the grid code is developed for PV power stations to ensure the security of PV integrated power systems. In this paper, requirements for PV power integration in differ...... in different grid codes are first investigated. On this basis, the future advocacy is concluded. Finally, several evaluation indices are proposed to quantify the grid code compliance so that the system operators can validate all these requirements by simulation....

  19. Distributed Grid Experiences in CMS DC04

    CERN Document Server

    Fanfani, A; Grandi, C; Legrand, I; Suresh, S; Campana, S; Donno, F; Jank, W; Sinanis, N; Sciabà, A; García-Abia, P; Hernández, J; Ernst, M; Anzar, A; Fisk, I; Giacchetti, L; Graham, G; Heavey, A; Kaiser, J; Kuropatine, N; Perelmutov, T; Pordes, R; Ratnikova, N; Weigand, J; Wu, Y; Colling, D J; MacEvoy, B; Tallini, H; Wakefield, L; De Filippis, N; Donvito, G; Maggi, G; Bonacorsi, D; Dell'Agnello, L; Martelli, B; Biasotto, M; Fantinel, S; Corvo, M; Fanzago, F; Mazzucato, M; Tuura, L; Martin, T; Letts, J; Bockjoo, K; Prescott, C; Rodríguez, J; Zahn, A; Bradley, D

    2005-01-01

    In March-April 2004 the CMS experiment undertook a Data Challenge (DC04). During the previous 8 months CMS undertook a large simulated event production. The goal of the challenge was to run CMS reconstruction for sustained period at 25Hz in put rate, distribute the data to the CMS Tier-1 centers and analyze them at remote sites. Grid environments developed in Europe by the LHC Computing Grid (LCG) and in the US with Grid2003 were utilized to complete the aspects of the challenge. A description of the experiences, successes and lessons learned from both experiences with grid infrastructure is presented.

  20. Overview of Grid Codes for Photovoltaic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qianwei; Li, Jiaming; Ai, Xiaomeng

    2017-01-01

    The increasing grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power stations might threaten the safety and stability of power system. Therefore, the grid code is developed for PV power stations to ensure the security of PV integrated power systems. In this paper, requirements for PV power integration in differ......The increasing grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power stations might threaten the safety and stability of power system. Therefore, the grid code is developed for PV power stations to ensure the security of PV integrated power systems. In this paper, requirements for PV power integration...